Science.gov

Sample records for supply ventilation system

  1. Central Fan Integrated Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-12

    This information sheet describes one example of a ventilation system design, a central fan integrated supply (CFIS) system, a mechanical ventilation and pollutant source control to ensure that there is reasonable indoor air quality inside the house.

  2. How to Plan Ventilation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, John H.

    1963-01-01

    Ventilation systems for factory safety demand careful planning. The increased heat loads and new processes of industry have introduced complex ventilation problems in--(1) ventilation supply, (2) duct work design, (3) space requirements, (4) hood face velocities, (5) discharge stacks, and (6) building eddies. This article describes and diagrams…

  3. Effect of car speed on amount of air supplied by ventilation system to the space of car cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišer, Jan; Pokorný, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The amount of air supplied by ventilation system (HVAC system) of a car into a cabin is one of the main parameters for the correct simulation and prediction of a car cabin heat load. This amount is not based only on the current setting of the HVAC system, but also on the actual operating conditions and speed of the car. The authors therefore carried out experiments in the cabin of a passenger car in real traffic, while observing the amount of air on the speed of the car and setting of flap in mixing chamber. In a subsequent analysis the authors defined dependence of the airflow rate supplied by HVAC system on the speed of the car. Obtained empirical formulas were then used as a part of the code which calculates the data for the HVAC boundary conditions in the simulation of the car cabin environment.

  4. VENTILATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a project to develop a systems analysis of ventilation technology and provide a state-of-the-art assessment of ventilation and indoor air quality (IAQ) research needs. (NOTE: Ventilation technology is defined as the hardware necessary to bring outdoor ...

  5. Protective garment ventilation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ventilating a protective garment, space suit system, and/or pressure suits to maintain a comfortable and nontoxic atmosphere within is described. The direction of flow of a ventilating and purging gas in portions of the garment may be reversed in order to compensate for changes in environment and activity of the wearer. The entire flow of the ventilating gas can also be directed first to the helmet associated with the garment.

  6. Definition and means of maintaining the supply ventilation system seismic shutdown portion of the PFP safety envelope. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, R.D.

    1995-06-27

    This report describes the modifications to the ventilation system for the Plutonium Finishing Plant. Topics discussed in this report include; system functional requirements, evaluations of equipment, a list of drawings showing the safety envelope boundaries; list of safety envelope equipment, functional requirements for individual safety envelope equipment, and a list of the operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment.

  7. Oven ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, D.E.

    1987-02-17

    A ventilation system is described for venting an oven with external surfaces, the oven being located within an enclosed space, the system comprising: intake means for collecting air from the external environment of the enclosed space; means for forming a sheet of the air and passing the sheet across the external surfaces of the oven; and exhaust means for exhausting the sheet of the air to the external environment of the enclosed space after the air has been passed across the external surfaces.

  8. Ventilation efficiencies of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, David; Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Lee, Seung Min

    2002-03-01

    In chamber experiments, we investigated the effectiveness of a task ventilation system with an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of a desk and directing air toward a heated mannequin seated at the desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air, while another ventilation system provided additional space cooling but no outside air. Test variables included the vertical angle of air supply (-15{sup o} to 45{sup o} from horizontal), and the supply flow rate of (3.5 to 6.5 L s{sup -1}). Using the tracer gas step-up and step-down procedures, the measured air change effectiveness (i.e., exhaust air age divided by age of air at the mannequin's face) ranged from 1.4 to 2.7, which is higher than typically reported for commercially available task ventilation or displacement ventilation systems.

  9. Evaluation of building ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.T.; O'Brien, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    Over the past several years, NIOSH has responded to health hazard evaluation requests from workers in dozens of office environments. Typically, the employees have complained of headache, eye and upper respiratory tract irritation, dizziness, lethargy and the inability to concentrate. Most often inadequate ventilation has been blamed for these complaints. Of paramount importance in the evaluation and correction of these problems is an effective evaluation of the building's ventilation system. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning conditions that can cause worker stresses include: migration of odors or chemical hazards between building areas; reentrainment of exhaust from building fume hoods or through heat wheels; buildup of microorganisms in the HVAC system components; and poor odor or environmental control due to insufficient fresh outdoor air or system heating or cooling malfunction. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of building ventilation systems, the ventilation problems associated with poorly designed or operating systems, and the methodology for effectively evaluating system performance.

  10. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-25

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  11. Subsurface Ventilation System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Subsurface Ventilation System supports the construction and operation of the subsurface repository by providing air for personnel and equipment and temperature control for the underground areas. Although the system is located underground, some equipment and features may be housed or located above ground. The system ventilates the underground by providing ambient air from the surface throughout the subsurface development and emplacement areas. The system provides fresh air for a safe work environment and supports potential retrieval operations by ventilating and cooling emplacement drifts. The system maintains compliance within the limits established for approved air quality standards. The system maintains separate ventilation between the development and waste emplacement areas. The system shall remove a portion of the heat generated by the waste packages during preclosure to support thermal goals. The system provides temperature control by reducing drift temperature to support potential retrieval operations. The ventilation system has the capability to ventilate selected drifts during emplacement and retrieval operations. The Subsurface Facility System is the main interface with the Subsurface Ventilation System. The location of the ducting, seals, filters, fans, emplacement doors, regulators, and electronic controls are within the envelope created by the Ground Control System in the Subsurface Facility System. The Subsurface Ventilation System also interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical System for power, the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System to ensure proper and safe operation, the Safeguards and Security System for access to the emplacement drifts, the Subsurface Fire Protection System for fire safety, the Emplacement Drift System for repository performance, and the Backfill Emplacement and Subsurface Excavation Systems to support ventilation needs.

  12. Meeting Residential Ventilation Standards Through Dynamic Control of Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-04-01

    Existing ventilation standards, including American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specify continuous operation of a defined mechanical ventilation system to provide minimum ventilation, with time-based intermittent operation as an option. This requirement ignores several factors and concerns including: other equipment such as household exhaust fans that might incidentally provide ventilation, negative impacts of ventilation when outdoor pollutant levels are high, the importance of minimizing energy use particularly during times of peak electricity demand, and how the energy used to condition air as part of ventilation system operation changes with outdoor conditions. Dynamic control of ventilation systems can provide ventilation equivalent to or better than what is required by standards while minimizing energy costs and can also add value by shifting load during peak times and reducing intake of outdoor air contaminants. This article describes the logic that enables dynamic control of whole-house ventilation systems to meet the intent of ventilation standards and demonstrates the dynamic ventilation system control concept through simulations and field tests of the Residential Integrated Ventilation-Energy Controller (RIVEC).

  13. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system must have: (a) A control to stop the ventilation that is: (1) Outside the space ventilated; and (2)...

  14. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system must have: (a) A control to stop the ventilation that is: (1) Outside the space ventilated; and (2)...

  15. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system must have: (a) A control to stop the ventilation that is: (1) Outside the space ventilated; and (2)...

  16. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    P.A. Kumar

    2000-06-21

    reasonably achievable) principles to maintain personnel radiation doses to all occupational workers below regulatory limits and as low as is reasonably achievable. The Waste Handling Building Ventilation System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System by being located within the WHB and by maintaining specific pressures, temperatures, and humidity within the building. The system also depends on the WHB for water supply. The system interfaces with the Site Radiological Monitoring System for continuous monitoring of the exhaust air; the Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System for detection of fire and smoke; the Waste Handling Building Electrical System for normal, emergency, and standby power; and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for monitoring and control of the system.

  17. Preoperational test report, vent building ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Vent Building Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) for the W-030 Ventilation Building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  18. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system...

  19. Ventilation efficiencies and thermal comfort results of a desk-edge-mounted task ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Sullivan, D.P.; Lee, S.M.

    2003-09-01

    In chamber experiments, we investigated the ventilation effectiveness and thermal comfort of a task ventilation system with an air supply nozzle located underneath the front edge of a desk and directing air toward a heated mannequin or a human volunteer seated at the desk. The task ventilation system provided outside air, while another ventilation system provided additional space cooling but no outside air. Test variables included the vertical angle of air supply (-15{sup o} to 45{sup o} from horizontal), and the supply flow rate of (3.5 to 6.5 L s{sup -1}). Using the tracer gas step-up and step-down procedures, the measured air change effectiveness (i.e., exhaust air age divided by age of air in the breathing zone) in experiments with the mannequin ranged from 1.4 to 2.7 (median, 1.8), whereas with human subjects the air change effectiveness ranged from 1.3 to 2.3 (median, 1.6). The majority of the air change effectiveness values with the human subjects were less than values with the mannequin at comparable tests. Similarly, the tests run with supply air temperature equal to the room air temperature had lower air change effectiveness values than comparable tests with the supply air temperature lower ({approx}5 C) than the room air temperature. The air change effectiveness values are higher than typically reported for commercially available task ventilation or displacement ventilation systems. Based on surveys completed by the subjects, operation of the task ventilation system did not cause thermal discomfort.

  20. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications, including the treatment of medical conditions. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system that will provide controlled pressurization of the system, and provide adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the

  1. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, HBOT is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. HBOT is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The HHC technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system to provide controlled pressurization and adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the patient and operating personnel, and physiological considerations. The simple schematic, comprised of easily acquired commercial hardware

  2. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9... REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking whenever the ventilation system is not fully functioning. Fully functioning for this purpose means operating...

  3. 46 CFR 153.312 - Ventilation system standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Handling Space Ventilation § 153.312 Ventilation system standards. A cargo handling space ventilation... ventilation system must not recycle vapors from ventilation discharges. (c) Except for the space served by the ventilation duct, a ventilation duct must not pass through a machinery room, an accommodation space,...

  4. 46 CFR 153.312 - Ventilation system standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Handling Space Ventilation § 153.312 Ventilation system standards. A cargo handling space ventilation... ventilation system must not recycle vapors from ventilation discharges. (c) Except for the space served by the ventilation duct, a ventilation duct must not pass through a machinery room, an accommodation space,...

  5. 46 CFR 153.312 - Ventilation system standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Handling Space Ventilation § 153.312 Ventilation system standards. A cargo handling space ventilation... ventilation system must not recycle vapors from ventilation discharges. (c) Except for the space served by the ventilation duct, a ventilation duct must not pass through a machinery room, an accommodation space,...

  6. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

    2014-02-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  7. Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin; Bergey, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    In this project, Building America research team Building Science Corporation tested the effectiveness of ventilation systems at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. This was because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four system factor categories: balance, distribution, outside air source, and recirculation filtration. Recommended system factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

  8. Nozzle for discharging ventilation air from a ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Elfverson, S.E.

    1986-09-30

    This patent describes a nozzle for discharging ventilation air from a ventilation system, preferably arranged in a vehicle, including at least one outlet housing with a through-flow duct for ventilation air, a fixed plate transverse to the flow duct and rigidly attached to the outlet housing, and a plurality of plates parallel to the fixed plate. These plates are mutually displaceable in a direction transverse to the flow duct under the action of a control lever passing through the plates, the plates being formed with perforation patterns, which in coaction form ventilation ducts through which the ventilation air can flow and in response to the setting of the control lever cause deviation of the flow direction of the ventilation air. Each displaceable plate is formed with a grid cross comprising at least two intersecting bars, of which one bar has a substantially circular cross section, while the other bar has a substantially elliptical cross section and wherein the control lever is adapted to grip round a grid cross, the control lever having two pairs of longitudinal slots. One pair of the slots is adapted to grip without play one of the intersecting bars in each respective grid cross. The other pair of slots comprises a first slot adapted to grip without play the other of the intersecting bars, and a second slot formed with a width disabling engagement with the other of the intersecting bars.

  9. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-1 Power ventilation systems except...

  10. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-04

    This represents a preoperational test report for Primary Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space filtered venting of tanks AY101, AY102, AZ101, AZ102. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  11. Guidelines for choosing face ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Divers, E.F.; Volkwein, J.C.

    1987-10-01

    The authors discuss two machine-mounted face ventilation systems, a fan-powered dust scrubber and a sprayfan, for controlling dust and methane and increasing production by extending the cutting time of continuous miners. The systems are compared for a variety of considerations: installation and maintenance costs, ventilation, seam conditions, and dust control. Guidelines are given for the best use of each system.

  12. 46 CFR 153.312 - Ventilation system standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation system standards. 153.312 Section 153.312... Handling Space Ventilation § 153.312 Ventilation system standards. A cargo handling space ventilation system must meet the following: (a) A ventilation system exhaust duct must discharge no less than 10...

  13. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking...

  14. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking...

  15. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking...

  16. 14 CFR 252.9 - Ventilation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ventilation systems. 252.9 Section 252.9 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.9 Ventilation systems. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking...

  17. Commissioning Ventilated Containment Systems in the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-08-01

    This Best Practices Guide focuses on the specialized approaches required for ventilated containment systems, understood to be all components that drive and control ventilated enclosures and local exhaust systems within the laboratory. Geared toward architects, engineers, and facility managers, this guide provides information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  18. Technology Solutions Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the normal leakage paths through the building envelope disappear. Researchers from the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. In this project, the CARB team evaluated the four different strategies for providing make-up air to multifamily residential buildings and developed guidelines to help contractors and building owners choose the best ventilation systems.

  19. Evaluating Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, Robb; Arena, Lois

    2013-02-01

    In an effort to improve housing options near Las Vegas, Nevada, the Clark County Community Resources Division (CCCRD) performs substantial renovations to foreclosed homes. After dramatic energy, aesthetic, and health and safety improvements are made, homes are rented or sold to qualified residents. This report describes the evaluation and selection of ventilation systems for these homes, including key considerations when selecting an ideal system. The report then describes CCCRD’s decision process with respect to ventilation.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    A. Rudd and D. Bergey

    2015-08-01

    Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs.

  1. 46 CFR 154.1200 - Mechanical ventilation system: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: General. 154.1200 Section... Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1200 Mechanical ventilation system: General. (a... cargo handling equipment must have a fixed, exhaust-type mechanical ventilation system. (b)...

  2. Innovative ventilation system for animal anatomy laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, D.R.; Smith, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    A unique ventilation system was designed and built to reduce formaldehyde fumes in the large animal anatomy lab at the Vet Medical Center at Cornell University. The laboratory includes four rooms totaling 5,500 ft{sup 2}. The main room has 2,300 ft{sup 2} and houses the laboratory where up to 60 students dissect as many as 12 horses at a time. Other rooms are a cold storage locker, an animal preparation room and a smaller lab for specialized instruction. The large animal anatomy laboratory has a history of air quality complaints despite a fairly high ventilation rate of over 10 air changes/hour. The horses are embalmed, creating a voluminous source of formaldehyde and phenol vapors. Budget constraints and increasingly stringent exposure limits for formaldehyde presented a great challenge to design a ventilation system that yields acceptable air quality. The design solution included two innovative elements: air-to-air heat recovery, and focused ventilation.

  3. 46 CFR 153.310 - Ventilation system type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation system type. 153.310 Section 153.310... Handling Space Ventilation § 153.310 Ventilation system type. A cargo handling space must have a permanent forced ventilation system of the exhaust type....

  4. 33 CFR 183.620 - Natural ventilation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Natural ventilation system. 183... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Ventilation § 183.620 Natural ventilation system. (a) Except for compartments open to the atmosphere, a natural ventilation system that meets...

  5. 33 CFR 183.620 - Natural ventilation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Natural ventilation system. 183... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Ventilation § 183.620 Natural ventilation system. (a) Except for compartments open to the atmosphere, a natural ventilation system that meets...

  6. Preoperational test report, recirculation ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-11-11

    This represents a preoperational test report for Recirculation Ventilation Systems, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system provides vapor space cooling of tanks AY1O1, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102 and supports the ability to exhaust air from each tank. Each system consists of a valved piping loop, a fan, condenser, and moisture separator; equipment is located inside each respective tank farm in its own hardened building. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  7. Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent). The original ventilation design for the project was provided by a local engineer and consisted of a single large heat recovery ventilator (HRV) located in a mechanical room in the basement with a centralized duct system providing supply air to the main living space and exhausting stale air from the single bathroom in each apartment. This design was deemed to be far too costly to install and operate for several reasons: the large central HRV was oversized and the specified flows to each apartment were much higher than the ASHRAE 62.2 rate; an extensive system of ductwork, smoke and fire dampers, and duct chases were specified; ductwork required a significant area of dropped ceilings; and the system lacked individual ventilation control in the apartments

  8. Building America Case Study: Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts, Tyler, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    ?Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy.

  9. Project Design Concept Primary Ventilation System

    SciTech Connect

    MCGREW, D.L.

    2000-10-02

    Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operation (TFRSO), Project W-3 14 was established to provide upgrades that would improve the reliability and extend the system life of portions of the waste transfer, electrical, ventilation, instrumentation and control systems for the Hanford Site Tank Farms. An assessment of the tank farm system was conducted and the results are documented in system assessment reports. Based on the deficiencies identified in the tank farm system assessment reports, and additional requirements analysis performed in support of the River Protection Project (RPP), an approved scope for the TFRSO effort was developed and documented in the Upgrade Scope Summary Report (USSR), WHC-SD-W314-RPT-003, Rev. 4. The USSR establishes the need for the upgrades and identifies the specific equipment to be addressed by this project. This Project Design Concept (PDC) is in support of the Phase 2 upgrades and provides an overall description of the operations concept for the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems. Actual specifications, test requirements, and procedures are not included in this PDC. The PDC is a ''living'' document, which will be updated throughout the design development process to provide a progressively more detailed description of the W-314 Primary Ventilation Systems design. The Phase 2 upgrades to the Primary Ventilation Systems shall ensure that the applicable current requirements are met for: Regulatory Compliance; Safety; Mission Requirements; Reliability; and Operational Requirements.

  10. MODELING VENTILATION SYSTEM RESPONSE TO FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17

    Fires in facilities containing nuclear material have the potential to transport radioactive contamination throughout buildings and may lead to widespread downwind dispersal threatening both worker and public safety. Development and implementation of control strategies capable of providing adequate protection from fire requires realistic characterization of ventilation system response which, in turn, depends on an understanding of fire development timing and suppression system response. This paper discusses work in which published HEPA filter data was combined with CFAST fire modeling predictions to evaluate protective control strategies for a hypothetical DOE non-reactor nuclear facility. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate when safety significant active ventilation coupled with safety class passive ventilation might be a viable control strategy.

  11. Local ventilation for powder handling--combination of local supply and exhaust air.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, K; Kulmala, I; Säämänen, A

    1996-04-01

    The performance of a modified local ventilation unit equipped with local supply and exhaust ventilation was evaluated during the manual handling of flour additive powder. The investigation tested five different configurations to study the effects of the exhaust opening location and local supply air on worker exposure. The measurements were done under controlled conditions in a test room. The breathing zone (BZ) dust concentration was measured by gravimetric sampling and real time monitoring. The different local ventilation configurations were also modeled numerically using computational fluid dynamics. Without local ventilation the average BZ dust concentration was 42 mg/m3. With local exhaust only the exposure was reduced below 1 mg/m3. The addition of local supply air further reduced the exposure to below 0.5 mg/m3. The lowest results were achieved by locating two exhaust openings on either side of the contaminant source combined with local supply air. With this configuration the average BZ exposure was only 0.08 mg/m3, a reduction of 99.8%. Numerical simulations also gave useful information about the airflow fields in stationary conditions. However, the worker's exposure was greatly affected by body movements, and this was not possible to simulate numerically. The results of this investigation can be useful when controlling dust exposure in manual powder handling operations. PMID:8901237

  12. Tunnel ventilation system design and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Properly designed and functioning tunnel ventilation systems in broiler houses are essential for maintaining productivity of broilers in warm weather. Convective heat loss from high air velocity provides cooling which improves performance; however, high air velocities require larger fans and increa...

  13. Cage RACK ventilation options for laboratory animal facilities.

    PubMed

    Stakutis, Richard E

    2003-09-01

    Individually ventilated cage systems have become the method of choice for housing rodents. The author describes the various options for cage ventilation, from using supply and exhaust fans to directly connecting the racks to the building ventilation system. PMID:12966448

  14. Feedstock Supply System Logistics

    SciTech Connect

    2006-06-01

    Feedstock supply is a significant cost component in the production of biobased fuels, products, and power. The uncertainty of the biomass feedstock supply chain and associated risks are major barriers to procuring capital funding for start-up biorefineries.

  15. Optics Supply Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, J

    2009-04-30

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  16. Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

  17. 33 CFR 183.610 - Powered ventilation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powered ventilation system. 183.610 Section 183.610 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Ventilation § 183.610 Powered ventilation...

  18. Economizer system cost effectiveness: Accounting for the influence of ventilation rate on sick leave

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Seppanen, Olli; Faulkner, David; Huang, Joe

    2003-06-01

    This study estimated the health, energy, and economic benefits of an economizer ventilation control system that increases outside air supply during mild weather to save energy. A model of the influence of ventilation rate on airborne transmission of respiratory illnesses was used to extend the limited data relating ventilation rate with illness and sick leave. An energy simulation model calculated ventilation rates and energy use versus time for an office building in Washington, DC with fixed minimum outdoor air supply rates, with and without an economizer. Sick leave rates were estimated with the disease transmission model. In the modeled 72-person office building, our analyses indicate that the economizer reduces energy costs by approximately $2000 and, in addition, reduces sick leave. The financial benefit of the decrease in sick leave is estimated to be between $6,000 and $16,000. This modelling suggests that economizers are much more cost effective than currently recognized.

  19. Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, G.K.

    1995-01-04

    The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

  20. Software Verification & Validation Report for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization Ventilation System

    SciTech Connect

    YEH, T.

    2002-11-20

    This document reports on the analysis, testing and conclusions of the software verification and validation for the 244-AR Vault Interim Stabilization ventilation system. Automation control system will use the Allen-Bradley software tools for programming and programmable logic controller (PLC) configuration. The 244-AR Interim Stabilization Ventilation System will be used to control the release of radioactive particles to the environment in the containment tent, located inside the canyon of the 244-AR facility, and to assist the waste stabilization efforts. The HVAC equipment, ducts, instruments, PLC hardware, the ladder logic executable software (documented code), and message display terminal are considered part of the temporary ventilation system. The system consists of a supply air skid, temporary ductwork (to distribute airflow), and two skid-mounted, 500-cfm exhausters connected to the east filter building and the vessel vent system. The Interim Stabilization Ventilation System is a temporary, portable ventilation system consisting of supply side and exhaust side. Air is supplied to the containment tent from an air supply skid. This skid contains a constant speed fan, a pre-filter, an electric heating coil, a cooling coil, and a constant flow device (CFD). The CFD uses a passive component that allows a constant flow of air to pass through the device. Air is drawn out of the containment tent, cells, and tanks by two 500-cfm exhauster skids running in parallel. These skids are equipped with fans, filters, stack, stack monitoring instrumentation, and a PLC for control. The 500CFM exhaust skids were fabricated and tested previously for saltwell pumping activities. The objective of the temporary ventilation system is to maintain a higher pressure to the containment tent, relative to the canyon and cell areas, to prevent contaminants from reaching the containment tent.

  1. Advanced Controls for Residential Whole-House Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max

    2014-08-01

    Whole-house ventilation systems are becoming commonplace in new construction, remodeling/renovation, and weatherization projects, driven by combinations of specific requirements for indoor air quality (IAQ), health and compliance with standards, such as ASHRAE 62.2. Ventilation systems incur an energy penalty on the home via fan power used to drive the airflow, and the additional space-conditioning load associated with heating or cooling the ventilation air. Finding a balance between IAQ and energy use is important if homes are to be adequately ventilated while not increasing the energy burden. This study used computer simulations to examine RIVEC the Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller - a prototype ventilation controller that aims to deliver whole-house ventilation rates that comply with ventilation standards, for the minimum use of energy. Four different whole-house ventilation systems were simulated, both with and without RIVEC, so that the energy and IAQ results could be compared. Simulations were conducted for 13 US climate zones, three house designs, and three envelope leakage values. The results showed that the RIVEC controller could typically return ventilation energy savings greater than 40percent without compromising long-term chronic or short-term acute exposures to relevant indoor contaminants. Critical and average peak power loads were also reduced as a consequence of using RIVEC.

  2. Ventilation Systems Operating Experience Review for Fusion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    1999-12-01

    This report is a collection and review of system operation and failure experiences for air ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These experiences are applicable for magnetic and inertial fusion facilities since air ventilation systems are support systems that can be considered generic to nuclear facilities. The report contains descriptions of ventilation system components, operating experiences with these systems, component failure rates, and component repair times. Since ventilation systems have a role in mitigating accident releases in nuclear facilities, these data are useful in safety analysis and risk assessment of public safety. An effort has also been given to identifying any safety issues with personnel operating or maintaining ventilation systems. Finally, the recommended failure data were compared to an independent data set to determine the accuracy of individual values. This comparison is useful for the International Energy Agency task on fusion component failure rate data collection.

  3. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.

    2014-02-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  4. Ventilation technology systems analysis. Final report, March-November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, J.B.; McLaughlin, J.; Christianson, L.; Zhivov, A.; McCulley, M.

    1995-05-01

    The report gives results of a project to develop a systems analysis of ventilation technology and provide a state-of-the-art assessment of ventilation and indoor air quality (IAQ) research needs. Goals of the analysis were to: (1) define the state-of-the-art in building design and operation; (2) identify emerging technologies and trends that will influence IAQ, building design and operation; and (3) define and prioritize ventilation research needs that will improve IAQ.

  5. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  6. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  7. The Anaesthesia Gas Supply System

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sabyasachi; Chattopadhyay, Subhrajyoti; Bose, Payel

    2013-01-01

    The anaesthesia gas supply system is designed to provide a safe, cost-effective and convenient system for the delivery of medical gases at the point of-use. The doctrine of the anaesthesia gas supply system is based on four essential principles: Identity, continuity, adequacy and quality. Knowledge about gas supply system is an integral component of safe anaesthetic practice. Mishaps involving the malfunction or misuse of medical gas supply to operating theatres have cost many lives. The medical gases used in anaesthesia and intensive care are oxygen, nitrous oxide, medical air, entonox, carbon dioxide and heliox. Oxygen is one of the most widely used gases for life-support and respiratory therapy besides anaesthetic procedures. In this article, an effort is made to describe the production, storage and delivery of anaesthetic gases. The design of anaesthesia equipment must take into account the local conditions such as climate, demand and power supply. The operational policy of the gas supply system should have a backup plan to cater to the emergency need of the hospital, in the event of the loss of the primary source of supply. PMID:24249882

  8. Field evaluation of ventilation system performance in enclosed parking garages

    SciTech Connect

    Ayari, A.M.; Grot, D.A.; Krarti, M.

    2000-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a field study to determine the ventilation requirements and the contaminant levels in existing enclosed parking garages. The testing was conducted in seven parking garages with different sizes, traffic flow patterns, vehicle types, and locations. In particular, the study compares the actual ventilation rates measured using the tracer gas technique with the ventilation requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 62-1989. In addition, the field test evaluated the effectiveness of the existing ventilation systems in maintaining acceptable contaminant levels within enclosed parking garages.

  9. Electronic Document Supply Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

  10. 46 CFR 153.310 - Ventilation system type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation system type. 153.310 Section 153.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation § 153.310...

  11. 46 CFR 153.312 - Ventilation system standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation system standards. 153.312 Section 153.312 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation §...

  12. B-Plant Canyon Ventilation Control System Description

    SciTech Connect

    MCDANIEL, K.S.

    1999-08-31

    Project W-059 installed a new B Plant Canyon Ventilation System. Monitoring and control of the system is implemented by the Canyon Ventilation Control System (CVCS). This document describes the CVCS system components which include a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) coupled with an Operator Interface Unit (OIU) and application software. This document also includes an Alarm Index specifying the setpoints and technical basis for system analog and digital alarms.

  13. Systemic inflammation associated with mechanical ventilation among extremely preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Carl L.; Laughon, Matthew M.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Van Marter, Linda J.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Leviton, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Little evidence is available to document that mechanical ventilation is an antecedent of systemic inflammation in preterm humans. We obtained blood on postnatal day 14 from 726 infants born before the 28th week of gestation and measured the concentrations of 25 inflammation-related proteins. We created multivariable models to assess the relationship between duration of ventilation and protein concentrations in the top quartile. Compared to newborns ventilated for fewer than 7 days (N=247), those ventilated for 14 days (N=330) were more likely to have elevated blood concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α), chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1), an adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), and a matrix metalloprotease (MMP-9), and less likely to have elevated blood concentrations of two chemokines (RANTES, MIP-1β), a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1), and a growth factor (VEGF). Newborns ventilated for 7-13 days (N=149) had systemic inflammation that approximated the pattern of newborns ventilated for 14 days. These relationships were not confounded by chorioamnionitis or antenatal corticosteroid exposure, and were not altered appreciably among infants with and without bacteremia. These findings suggest that two weeks of ventilation are more likely than shorter durations of ventilation to be accompanied by high blood concentrations of pro-inflammatory proteins indicative of systemic inflammation, and by low concentrations of proteins that might protect from inflammation-mediated organ injury. PMID:23148992

  14. Auxiliary supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mylar, J.L.; O'toole, J.P.

    1982-10-19

    An internal combustion engine has a carburetor, with a throttle valve and a choke valve, that delivers a fuel-air mixture to the intake manifold. An auxiliary system uses a blending chamber which feeds the manifold exclusive of the engine carburetor and through a metering valve that responds to engine vacuum level for controlling the amount of blend drawn through the blending chamber. At the inlet of the blending chamber is an atomizing throat fed with fuel and air. The drawing of the blend from the outlet of the chamber draws air through the throat and into comminglement with liquid fuel which is atomized by action of the throat. Under normal operating conditions and adjustment, the auxiliary system improves engine performance by increasing fuel economy and reducing engine exhaust pollution.

  15. Measure Guideline: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.

    2014-02-01

    This report, developed by Building America research team CARB, addresses adding or improving mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The goal of this report is to assist decision makers and contractors in making informed decisions when selecting ventilation systems for homes. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including examination of relevant codes and standards. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors.

  16. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the findings of a Demonstration Test of Brown & Root Environmental's Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. nder the SITE program, the technology was evaluated to determine its effectiveness in reducing volatile organic contaminati...

  17. SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS): INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the findings of a Demonstration Test of Brown & Root Environmental's Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. nder the SITE program, the technology was evaluated to determine its effectiveness in reducing volatile organic contaminati...

  18. SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE: SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System is an integrated technology used for attacking all phases of volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination in soil and groundwater. The SVVS technology promotes insitu remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated with or-ga...

  19. SUBSURFACE VOLATIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM (SVVS) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the findings associated with a Demonstration Test of Environmental Improvement Technologies’ (EIT) Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. The technology was evaluated under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) ...

  20. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, D.M.; Sullivan, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    A study is made of several outstanding issues concerning the commercial development of environmental control systems for electric vehicles (EVs). Engineering design constraints such as federal regulations and consumer requirements are first identified. Next, heating and cooling loads in a sample automobile are calculated using a computer model available from the literature. The heating and cooling loads are then used as a basis for estimating the electrical consumption that is to be expected for heat pumps installed in EVs. The heat pump performance is evaluated using an automobile heat pump computer model which has been developed recently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The heat pump design used as input to the model consists of typical finned-tube heat exchangers and a hermetic compressor driven by a variable-speed brushless dc motor. The simulations suggest that to attain reasonable system efficiencies, the interior heat exchangers that are currently installed as automobile air conditioning will need to be enlarged. Regarding the thermal envelope of the automobile itself, calculations are made which show that considerable energy savings will result if steps are taken to reduce {open_quote}hot soak{close_quote} temperatures and if the outdoor air ventilation rate is well controlled. When these changes are made, heating and cooling should consume less than 10% of the total stored electrical energy for steady driving in most U.S. climates. However, this result depends strongly upon the type of driving: The fraction of total power for heating and cooling ({open_quote}range penalty{close_quote}) increases sharply for driving scenarios having low average propulsion power, such as stop-and-go driving.

  1. Water Supply Infrastructure System Surety

    SciTech Connect

    EKMAN,MARK E.; ISBELL,DARYL

    2000-01-06

    The executive branch of the United States government has acknowledged and identified threats to the water supply infrastructure of the United States. These threats include contamination of the water supply, aging infrastructure components, and malicious attack. Government recognition of the importance of providing safe, secure, and reliable water supplies has a historical precedence in the water works of the ancient Romans, who recognized the same basic threats to their water supply infrastructure the United States acknowledges today. System surety is the philosophy of ''designing for threats, planning for failure, and managing for success'' in system design and implementation. System surety is an alternative to traditional compliance-based approaches to safety, security, and reliability. Four types of surety are recognized: reactive surety; proactive surety, preventative surety; and fundamental, inherent surety. The five steps of the system surety approach can be used to establish the type of surety needed for the water infrastructure and the methods used to realize a sure water infrastructure. The benefit to the water industry of using the system surety approach to infrastructure design and assessment is a proactive approach to safety, security, and reliability for water transmission, treatment, distribution, and wastewater collection and treatment.

  2. Characterization of natural ventilation in wastewater collection systems.

    PubMed

    Ward, Matthew; Corsi, Richard; Morton, Robert; Knapp, Tom; Apgar, Dirk; Quigley, Chris; Easter, Chris; Witherspoon, Jay; Pramanik, Amit; Parker, Wayne

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to characterize natural ventilation in full-scale gravity collection system components while measuring other parameters related to ventilation. Experiments were completed at four different locations in the wastewater collection systems of Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts, Los Angeles, California, and the King County Wastewater Treatment District, Seattle, Washington. The subject components were concrete gravity pipes ranging in diameter from 0.8 to 2.4 m (33 to 96 in.). Air velocity was measured in each pipe using a carbon-monoxide pulse tracer method. Air velocity was measured entering or exiting the components at vents using a standpipe and hotwire anemometer arrangement. Ambient wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity; headspace temperature and relative humidity; and wastewater flow and temperature were measured. The field experiments resulted in a large database of measured ventilation and related parameters characterizing ventilation in full-scale gravity sewers. Measured ventilation rates ranged from 23 to 840 L/s. The experimental data was used to evaluate existing ventilation models. Three models that were based upon empirical extrapolation, computational fluid dynamics, and thermodynamics, respectively, were evaluated based on predictive accuracy compared to the measured data. Strengths and weaknesses in each model were found and these observations were used to propose a concept for an improved ventilation model. PMID:21466074

  3. Simplified tools for evaluating domestic ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maansson, L.G.; Orme, M.

    1999-07-01

    Within an International Energy Agency (IEA) project, Annex 27, experts from 8 countries (Canada, France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, Sweden, UK and USA) have developed simplified tools for evaluating domestic ventilation systems during the heating season. Tools for building and user aspects, thermal comfort, noise, energy, life cycle cost, reliability and indoor air quality (IAQ) have been devised. The results can be used both for dwellings at the design stage and after construction. The tools lead to immediate answers and indications about the consequences of different choices that may arise during discussion with clients. This paper presents an introduction to these tools. Examples applications of the indoor air quality and energy simplified tools are also provided. The IAQ tool accounts for constant emission sources, CO{sub 2}, cooking products, tobacco smoke, condensation risks, humidity levels (i.e., for judging the risk for mould and house dust mites), and pressure difference (for identifying the risk for radon or land fill spillage entering the dwelling or problems with indoor combustion appliances). An elaborated set of design parameters were worked out that resulted in about 17,000 combinations. By using multi-variate analysis it was possible to reduce this to 174 combinations for IAQ. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was made using 990 combinations. The results from all the runs were used to develop a simplified tool, as well as quantifying equations relying on the design parameters. A computerized energy tool has also been developed within this project, which takes into account air tightness, climate, window airing pattern, outdoor air flow rate and heat exchange efficiency.

  4. Mobile zone, spray booth ventilation system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-26

    This concept endeavors to reduce the volume of air (to be treated) from spray paint booths, thereby increasing efficiency and improving air pollution abatement (VOC emissions especially). Most of the ventilation air is recycled through the booth to maintain laminar flow; the machinery is located on the supply side of the booth rather than on the exhaust side. 60 to 95% reduction in spray booth exhaust rate should result. Although engineering and production prototypes have been made, demand is low.

  5. Anaesthesia ventilators

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rajnish K; Swaminathan, Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Anaesthesia ventilators are an integral part of all modern anaesthesia workstations. Automatic ventilators in the operating rooms, which were very simple with few modes of ventilation when introduced, have become very sophisticated with many advanced ventilation modes. Several systems of classification of anaesthesia ventilators exist based upon various parameters. Modern anaesthesia ventilators have either a double circuit, bellow design or a single circuit piston configuration. In the bellows ventilators, ascending bellows design is safer than descending bellows. Piston ventilators have the advantage of delivering accurate tidal volume. They work with electricity as their driving force and do not require a driving gas. To enable improved patient safety, several modifications were done in circle system with the different types of anaesthesia ventilators. Fresh gas decoupling is a modification done in piston ventilators and in descending bellows ventilator to reduce th incidence of ventilator induced volutrauma. In addition to the conventional volume control mode, modern anaesthesia ventilators also provide newer modes of ventilation such as synchronised intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure-control ventilation and pressure-support ventilation (PSV). PSV mode is particularly useful for patients maintained on spontaneous respiration with laryngeal mask airway. Along with the innumerable benefits provided by these machines, there are various inherent hazards associated with the use of the ventilators in the operating room. To use these workstations safely, it is important for every Anaesthesiologist to have a basic understanding of the mechanics of these ventilators and breathing circuits. PMID:24249886

  6. Preoperational test report, primary ventilation condenser cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, F.T.

    1997-10-29

    This represents the preoperational test report for the Primary Ventilation Condenser Cooling System, Project W-030. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. The system uses a closed chilled water piping loop to provide offgas effluent cooling for tanks AY101, AY102, AZ1O1, AZ102; the offgas is cooled from a nominal 100 F to 40 F. Resulting condensation removes tritiated vapor from the exhaust stack stream. The piping system includes a package outdoor air-cooled water chiller with parallel redundant circulating pumps; the condenser coil is located inside a shielded ventilation equipment cell. The tests verify correct system operation and correct indications displayed by the central Monitor and Control System.

  7. Ignitor Electrical Power Supply System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, Alberto; Coletti, Roberto; Costa, Pietro; Maffia, Giuseppe; Ramogida, Giuseppe; Roccella, Massimo; Santinelli, Maurizio; Starace, Fabio

    2004-11-01

    An iterative optimization process to reduce the total installed electrical power required for Ignitor has been performed, bringing its value down to about 70% of that estimated originally. Ignitor is planned to be installed within the 400 kV Station of Rondissone (near Turin). The required electrical power (1000 MVA / 320 MVAr, including 480 MVAr locally compensated through static system, SVC) has been demonstrated by the technical authority GRTN to be compatible with the Grid capability. The magnet systems of Ignitor are supplied by means of a set of 14, 12 pulse, current regulated, sequentially or internal freewheeling controlled, fully static power amplifier units which are installed inside standard, outdoor-kind containers, located near to the related step-down transformers. Each container can house up to 100 MW, 2x12 pulse power amplifier units. The connection between the power amplifiers and the machine is performed by means of coaxial, outdoor-kind, segregated bus-bars. These choices make the whole power supply system as flexible as possible in terms of the overall layout of the Ignitor plant.

  8. Water spray ventilator system for continuous mining machines

    DOEpatents

    Page, Steven J.; Mal, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to a water spray ventilator system mounted on a continuous mining machine to streamline airflow and provide effective face ventilation of both respirable dust and methane in underground coal mines. This system has two side spray nozzles mounted one on each side of the mining machine and six spray nozzles disposed on a manifold mounted to the underside of the machine boom. The six spray nozzles are angularly and laterally oriented on the manifold so as to provide non-overlapping spray patterns along the length of the cutter drum.

  9. Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Use of this purchase specification is not mandatory. User should review the document and determine if it meets the user`s purpose. This document contains a fill-in-the-blanks guide specification for the procurement of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems greater than 10 kVA, organized as follows: Parts 1 through 7--technical requirements; Appendix A--technical requirements to be included in the proposal; Appendix B--UPS system data sheets to be completed by each bidder (Seller) and submitted with the proposal; Appendix C--general guidelines giving the specifier parameters for selecting a UPS system; it should be read before preparing an actual specification, and is not attached to the specification; Attachment 1--sketches prepared by the purchaser (Owner); Attachment 2--sample title page.

  10. A decision support system to determine optimal ventilator settings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Choosing the correct ventilator settings for the treatment of patients with respiratory tract disease is quite an important issue. Since the task of specifying the parameters of ventilation equipment is entirely carried out by a physician, physician’s knowledge and experience in the selection of these settings has a direct effect on the accuracy of his/her decisions. Nowadays, decision support systems have been used for these kinds of operations to eliminate errors. Our goal is to minimize errors in ventilation therapy and prevent deaths caused by incorrect configuration of ventilation devices. The proposed system is designed to assist less experienced physicians working in the facilities without having lung mechanics like cottage hospitals. Methods This article describes a decision support system proposing the ventilator settings required to be applied in the treatment according to the patients’ physiological information. The proposed model has been designed to minimize the possibility of making a mistake and to encourage more efficient use of time in support of the decision making process while the physicians make critical decisions about the patient. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is implemented in order to calculate frequency, tidal volume, FiO2 outputs, and this classification model has been used for estimation of pressure support / volume support outputs. For the obtainment of the highest performance in both models, different configurations have been tried. Various tests have been realized for training methods, and a number of hidden layers mostly affect factors regarding the performance of ANNs. Results The physiological information of 158 respiratory patients over the age of 60 and were treated in three different hospitals between the years 2010 and 2012 has been used in the training and testing of the system. The diagnosed disease, core body temperature, pulse, arterial systolic pressure, diastolic blood pressure, PEEP, PSO2, pH, pCO2

  11. Radioactive waste tank ventilation system incorporating tritium control

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.D.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the development of a ventilation system for radioactive waste tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The unique design of the system is aimed at cost-effective control of tritiated water vapor. The system includes recirculation ventilation and cooling for each tank in the facility and a central exhaust air clean-up train that includes a low-temperature vapor condenser and high-efficiency mist eliminator (HEME). A one-seventh scale pilot plant was built and tested to verify predicted performance of the low-temperature tritium removal system. Tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of the removal of condensable vapor and soluble and insoluble aerosols and to estimate the operating life of the mist eliminator. Definitive design of the ventilation system relied heavily on the test data. The unique design features of the ventilation system will result in far less release of tritium to the atmosphere than from conventional high-volume dilution systems and will greatly reduce operating costs. NESHAPs and TAPs NOC applications have been approved, and field construction is nearly complete. Start-up is scheduled for late 1996. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Software Configuration Management Plan for the B-Plant Canyon Ventilation Control System

    SciTech Connect

    MCDANIEL, K.S.

    1999-08-31

    Project W-059 installed a new B Plant Canyon Ventilation System. Monitoring and control of the system is implemented by the Canyon Ventilation Control System (CVCS). This Software Configuration Management Plan provides instructions for change control of the CVCS.

  13. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  14. Demand controlled ventilating systems: Sensor market survey. Energy conservation in buildings and community systems programme, annex 18, December 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatschen, W.; Sjoegren, M.

    The subject of indoor and outdoor air quality has generated a great deal of attention in many countries. Areas of concern include outgassing of building materials as well as occupant-generated pollutants such as carbon dioxide, moisture, and odors. Progress has also been made towards addressing issues relating to the air tightness of the building envelope. Indoor air quality studies indicate that better control of supply flow rates as well as the air distribution pattern within buildings are necessary. One method of maintaining good indoor air quality without extensive energy consumption is to control the ventilation rate according to the needs and demands of the occupants, or to preserve the building envelope. This is accomplished through the use of demand controlled ventilating (DCV) systems. The specific objective of Annex 18 is to develop guidelines for demand controlled ventilating systems based on state of the art analyses, case studies on ventilation effectiveness, and proposed ventilation rates for different users in domestic, office, and school buildings.

  15. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205 Section 154.1205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area:...

  16. Operational test report integrated system test (ventilation upgrade)

    SciTech Connect

    HARTY, W.M.

    1999-10-05

    Operational Final Test Report for Integrated Systems, Project W-030 (Phase 2 test, RECIRC and HIGH-HEAT Modes). Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks, including upgraded vapor space cooling and filtered venting of tanks AY101, Ay102, AZ101, AZ102.

  17. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205 Section 154.1205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205 Section 154.1205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205 Section 154.1205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1205 - Mechanical ventilation system: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mechanical ventilation system: Standards. 154.1205 Section 154.1205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction...

  1. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SUBSURFACE VOLATILIZATION AND VENTILATION SYSTEM - BROWN & ROOT ENVIRONMENTAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS*) is an in-situ vacuum extraction/air sparging and bioremediation technology for the treatment of subsurface organic contamination in soil and groundwater. The technology, developed by Billings and Associates, Inc., and o...

  2. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    SciTech Connect

    YOUNG, J.

    2000-08-09

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability.

  3. Visualisation for System Learning in Supply Chains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindskog, Magnus; Abrahamsson, Mats; Aronsson, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary supply chains are vastly complex, and decisions made by actors have system-wide consequences that these might not be able to foresee. There are gaps between "best practice"-founded theory and actual practice in supply chains. To remedy this, we argue, the supply chain actors need to enhance systems knowledge. There is a need to…

  4. Exhaust, Dust Collection and Ventilation Systems. Module SH-44. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on exhaust, dust collection, and ventilation systems is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module discusses the types of contaminants that can be controlled by ventilation, the types of ventilation systems, and the component parts of local exhaust systems. Following the introduction, 10 objectives…

  5. Assisted Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Dries, David J

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Mechanical Ventilation may be essential in the setting of severe respiratory failure but consequences to the patient including increased use of sedation and neuromuscular blockade may contribute to delirium, atelectasis, and diaphragm dysfunction. Assisted ventilation allows spontaneous breathing activity to restore physiological displacement of the diaphragm and recruit better perfused lung regions. Pressure Support Ventilation is the most frequently used mode of assisted mechanical ventilation. However, this mode continues to provide a monotonous pattern of support for respiration which is normally a dynamic process. Noisy Pressure Support Ventilation where tidal volume is varied randomly by the ventilator may improve ventilation and perfusion matching but the degree of support is still determined by the ventilator. Two more recent modes of ventilation, Proportional Assist Ventilation and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NAVA), allow patient determination of the pattern and depth of ventilation. Proposed advantages of Proportional Assist Ventilation and NAVA include decrease in patient ventilator asynchrony and improved adaptation of ventilator support to changing patient demand. Work of breathing can be normalized with these modes as well. To date, however, a clear pattern of clinical benefit has not been demonstrated. Existing challenges for both of the newer assist modes include monitoring patients with dynamic hyperinflation (auto-positive end expiratory pressure), obstructive lung disease, and air leaks in the ventilator system. NAVA is dependent on consistent transduction of diaphragm activity by an electrode system placed in the esophagus. Longevity of effective support with this technique is unclear. PMID:25501776

  6. Switching System for Redundant Power Supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, M.; Grant, R.; Parkinson, G.

    1986-01-01

    Load-transfer unit connects airborne computer to standby power supply in case primary supply fails. Concept adaptable to systems in which power interruptions cannot be tolerated; for example, computers with volatile memories, safety equipment, and precise timers. Load-transfer unit monitors voltages and load current. Microprocessor controls transistor switches that connect load to whichever power supply has highest priority and correct voltage.

  7. Advanced Hybrid Spacesuit Concept Featuring Integrated Open Loop and Closed Loop Ventilation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, Brian A.; Fitzpatrick, Garret R.; Gohmert, Dustin M.; Ybarra, Rick M.; Dub, Mark O.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses the design and prototype of an advanced spacesuit concept that integrates the capability to function seamlessly with multiple ventilation system approaches. Traditionally, spacesuits are designed to operate both dependently and independently of a host vehicle environment control and life support system (ECLSS). Spacesuits that operate independent of vehicle-provided ECLSS services must do so with equipment selfcontained within or on the spacesuit. Suits that are dependent on vehicle-provided consumables must remain physically connected to and integrated with the vehicle to operate properly. This innovation is the design and prototype of a hybrid spacesuit approach that configures the spacesuit to seamlessly interface and integrate with either type of vehicular systems, while still maintaining the ability to function completely independent of the vehicle. An existing Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) was utilized as the platform from which to develop the innovation. The ACES was retrofitted with selected components and one-off items to achieve the objective. The ventilation system concept was developed and prototyped/retrofitted to an existing ACES. Components were selected to provide suit connectors, hoses/umbilicals, internal breathing system ducting/ conduits, etc. The concept utilizes a lowpressure- drop, high-flow ventilation system that serves as a conduit from the vehicle supply into the suit, up through a neck seal, into the breathing helmet cavity, back down through the neck seal, out of the suit, and returned to the vehicle. The concept also utilizes a modified demand-based breathing system configured to function seamlessly with the low-pressure-drop closed-loop ventilation system.

  8. VWPS: A Ventilator Weaning Prediction System with Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Austin H.; Chen, Guan-Ting

    How to wean patients efficiently off mechanical ventilation continues to be a challenge for medical professionals. In this paper we have described a novel approach to the study of a ventilator weaning prediction system (VWPS). Firstly, we have developed and written three Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms to predict a weaning successful rate based on the clinical data. Secondly, we have implemented two user-friendly weaning success rate prediction systems; the VWPS system and the BWAP system. Both systems could be used to help doctors objectively and effectively predict whether weaning is appropriate for patients based on the patients' clinical data. Our system utilizes the powerful processing abilities of MatLab. Thirdly, we have calculated the performance through measures such as sensitivity and accuracy for these three algorithms. The results show a very high sensitivity (around 80%) and accuracy (around 70%). To our knowledge, this is the first design approach of its kind to be used in the study of ventilator weaning success rate prediction.

  9. A new bipolar Qtrim power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, C.; Bruno, D.; Drozd, J.; Nolan, T.; Orsatti, F.; Heppener, G.; Di Lieto, A.; Schultheiss, C.; Samms, T.; Zapasek, R.; Sandberg, J.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run of RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) operations. The reliability of superconducting magnet power supplies is one of the essential factors in the entire accelerator complex. Besides maintaining existing power supplies and their associated equipment, newly designed systems are also required based on the physicist’s latest requirements. A bipolar power supply was required for this year’s main quadruple trim power supply. This paper will explain the design, prototype, testing, installation and operation of this recently installed power supply system.

  10. 30 CFR 75.324 - Intentional changes in the ventilation system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intentional changes in the ventilation system... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.324 Intentional changes in the ventilation system. (a) A person designated by the operator shall supervise...

  11. Development of a Ventilation and Air-conditioning System using Fixed Bed Desiccant Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takahiko; Akisawa, Atsushi; Ueda, Yuki; Shindoh, Shinji; Godo, Masazumi; Takatsuka, Takeshi

    The study investigated fixed bed desiccant units for ventilation and air-conditioning. The role of the system is the dehumidification of the outdoor fresh air to be supplied to an air-conditioned room. Hence, the latent heat load of the air-conditioner in the room can be mitigated. The system consisted of two pairs of a desiccant unit and a heat storage unit. The microwave irradiation to the desiccant unit was examined as a candidate of the regeneration method of the system, and the performance of the microwave regeneration was compared with that of the hot air regeneration in terms of the supply air humidity ratio, outdoor air based COP, and the process air temperatures. The results revealed the effects of the switching time and the irradiation timing on the performance of the microwave irradiation.

  12. Talaromyces rubrifaciens, a new species discovered from heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Lu, Xiaohong; Bi, Wu; Liu, Fan; Gao, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    A new Talaromyces species, T. rubrifaciens, was isolated from supply air outlets of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in three kinds of public building in Beijing and Nanjing, China. Morphologically it exhibits many characters of section Trachyspermi but is distinguished from other species of this section by restricted growth and broad and strictly biverticillate conidiophores. Phylogenetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer rDNA (ITS), β-tubulin (BenA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase second largest subunit (RPB2) genes reveal that T. rubrifaciens is a distinct species in section Trachyspermi. PMID:27055570

  13. Indoor Chemistry: Materials, Ventilation Systems, and Occupant Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.C.; Corsi, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Wells, J.R.

    2006-05-01

    Chemical processes taking place in indoor environments can significantly alter the nature and concentrations of pollutants. Exposure to secondary contaminants generated in these reactions needs to be evaluated in association with many aspects of buildings to minimize their impact on occupant health and well-being. Focusing on indoor ozone chemistry, we describe alternatives for improving indoor air quality by controlling chemical changes related to building materials, ventilation systems, and occupant activities.

  14. Evaluating Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

    2013-02-01

    During the course of this project, an affordable and high performance ductwork system to directly address the problems of thermal losses, poor efficiency, and air leakage was designed. To save space and enable direct connections between different floors of the building, the ductwork system was designed in such a way that it occupied interior or exterior frame wall cavities. The ductwork system satisfied building regulations for structural support when bridging multiple floors, the spread of fire and smoke, and insulation to reduce the heat flow into or out of the building. Retrofits of urban residential buildings will be the main focus for the application of this ductwork system. Highly reflective foils and insulating materials were used to aid in the increase of the overall R-value of the ductwork itself and the wall assembly. It is expected that the proposed system will increase the efficiency of the HVAC system and the thermal resistance of the building envelope. The performance of the proposed ductwork design was numerically evaluated in a number of different ways. Our results indicate that the duct method is a very cost attractive alternative to the conventional method.

  15. Estimating the energy-saving benefit of reduced-flow and/or multi-speed commercial kitchen ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.; Schmid, F.; Spata, A.J.

    1999-07-01

    Kitchen exhaust ventilation systems are recognized as a major energy user within commercial food service facilities and restaurants. Minimizing the design ventilation rate of an appliance/hood system by optimizing hood performance in the laboratory is a viable strategy for reducing the makeup air heating and cooling loads as well as the exhaust and supply fan energy. Cutting back the exhaust flow under conditions of noncooking (appliance idle) can further reduce the energy load associated with a kitchen ventilation system. An optimized, two-speed exhaust system was installed within the scope of an energy-efficient, quick service restaurant (QSR) design and demonstration project. This paper evaluates the energy benefit of this variable-flow strategy as well as the savings associated with reducing the design ventilation rate (compared to an off-the-shelf exhaust hood). The paper describes a new public-domain software tool for estimating heating and cooling loads associated with the makeup air requirements of commercial kitchens. This bin-based software provides ASHRAE engineers with an alternative to hand calculations or more sophisticated hour-by-hour simulation. The dramatic impact that both makeup air set point and geographic location have on the outdoor air load is illustrated. The paper concludes with an industry-wide projection of energy savings associated with optimizing the design and operation of commercial kitchen ventilation (CKV) systems.

  16. Advanced Building Efficiency Testbed Initiative/Intelligent Workplace Energy Supply System; ABETI/IWESS

    SciTech Connect

    David Archer; Frederik Betz; Yun Gu; Rong Li; Flore Marion; Sophie Masson; Ming Qu; Viraj Srivastava; Hongxi Yin; Chaoqin Zhai; Rui Zhang; Elisabeth Aslanian; Berangere Lartigue

    2008-05-31

    ABETI/IWESS is a project carried out by Carnegie Mellon's Center for Building Performance and Diagnostics, the CBPD, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy/EERE, to design, procure, install, operate, and evaluate an energy supply system, an ESS, that will provide power, cooling, heating and ventilation for CBPD's Intelligent Workplace, the IW. The energy sources for this system, the IWESS, are solar radiation and bioDiesel fuel. The components of this overall system are: (1) a solar driven cooling and heating system for the IW comprising solar receivers, an absorption chiller, heat recovery exchanger, and circulation pump; (2) a bioDiesel fueled engine generator with heat recovery exchangers, one on the exhaust to provide steam and the other on the engine coolant to provide heated water; (3) a ventilation system including an enthalpy recovery wheel, an air based heat pump, an active desiccant wheel, and an air circulation fan; and (4) various convective and radiant cooling/heating units and ventilation air diffusers distributed throughout the IW. The goal of the ABETI/IWESS project is to demonstrate an energy supply system for a building space that will provide a healthy, comfortable environment for the occupants and that will reduce the quantity of energy consumed in the operation of a building space by a factor of 2 less than that of a conventional energy supply for power, cooling, heating, and ventilation based on utility power and natural gas fuel for heating.

  17. HIRFL-CSR power supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Daqing; Zhou, Zhongzu; Chen, Youxin; Wu, Rong; Shangguan, Jingbin; Bai, Zhen

    2001-12-01

    There are more than 200 power supplies will be employed in CSR power supply system. These power supplies provide DC and pulsed exciting current for all magnets in main ring (CSRm), experiment ring (CSRe), injection line of CSRm and RIB line. Six small-scale prototypes have been designed and made before formal manufacture. One thyristor rectifier pulsed converter was delivered to Lanzhou in January and all measurement has been finished in April. The result is satisfied.

  18. Operating experience review - Ventilation systems at Department of Energy Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Special Projects (DP-35), formerly Office of Self-Assessment (DP-9), analyzed occurrences caused by problems with equipment and material and recommended the following systems for an in-depth study: (1) Selective Alpha Air Monitor (SAAM), (2) Emergency Diesel Generator, (3) Ventilation System, (4) Fire Alarm System. Further, DP-35 conducted an in-depth review of the problems associated with SAAM and with diesel generators, and made several recommendations. This study focusses on ventilation system. The intent was to determine the causes for the events related to these system that were reported in the Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS), to identify components that failed, and to provide technical information from the commercial and nuclear industries on the design, operation, maintenance, and surveillance related to the system and its components. From these data, sites can develop a comprehensive program of maintenance management, including surveillance, to avoid similar occurrences, and to be in compliance with the following DOE orders.

  19. Pressure Dynamic Characteristics of Pressure Controlled Ventilation System of a Lung Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan; Ren, Shuai; Cai, Maolin; Xu, Weiqing; Deng, Qiyou

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an important life support treatment of critically ill patients, and air pressure dynamics of human lung affect ventilation treatment effects. In this paper, in order to obtain the influences of seven key parameters of mechanical ventilation system on the pressure dynamics of human lung, firstly, mechanical ventilation system was considered as a pure pneumatic system, and then its mathematical model was set up. Furthermore, to verify the mathematical model, a prototype mechanical ventilation system of a lung simulator was proposed for experimental study. Last, simulation and experimental studies on the air flow dynamic of the mechanical ventilation system were done, and then the pressure dynamic characteristics of the mechanical system were obtained. The study can be referred to in the pulmonary diagnostics, treatment, and design of various medical devices or diagnostic systems. PMID:25197318

  20. Pressure dynamic characteristics of pressure controlled ventilation system of a lung simulator.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Ren, Shuai; Cai, Maolin; Xu, Weiqing; Deng, Qiyou

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is an important life support treatment of critically ill patients, and air pressure dynamics of human lung affect ventilation treatment effects. In this paper, in order to obtain the influences of seven key parameters of mechanical ventilation system on the pressure dynamics of human lung, firstly, mechanical ventilation system was considered as a pure pneumatic system, and then its mathematical model was set up. Furthermore, to verify the mathematical model, a prototype mechanical ventilation system of a lung simulator was proposed for experimental study. Last, simulation and experimental studies on the air flow dynamic of the mechanical ventilation system were done, and then the pressure dynamic characteristics of the mechanical system were obtained. The study can be referred to in the pulmonary diagnostics, treatment, and design of various medical devices or diagnostic systems. PMID:25197318

  1. Usability Heuristics and Qualitative Indicators for the Usability Evaluation of Touch Screen Ventilator Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katre, Dinesh; Bhutkar, Ganesh; Karmarkar, Shekhar

    A ventilator system provides respiratory support to critically ill patients in the Intensive Care Unit. Increasing complexity in the user interface, features and functionalities of ventilator systems can cause medical errors and cost the life of a patient. Therefore, the usability of ventilator systems is most crucial to ensure patient safety. We have evolved a specialized set of heuristics combined with objectively defined usability indicators for the usability evaluation of touch screen based ventilator systems. Our study presents the heuristic evaluation of three touch screen based ventilator systems manufactured by three different companies. The heuristic evaluation has been performed by four different usability evaluators to ensure the reliability of heuristics proposed in this paper. The specialized set of heuristics linked with user interface components and the objectively defined usability indicators are found more reliable in identifying specific usability problems of ventilator systems.

  2. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    SciTech Connect

    YOUNG, J.

    2000-01-05

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability. Further, requiring an alarm to actuate upon CAM failure is not necessary to maintain the availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability. However, if CAM failures were only detected by the 92-day functional tests required in the Authorization Basis (AB), CAM availability would be much less than that credited in the safety analysis. Therefore it is recommended that the current surveillance practice of daily simple system checks, 30-day source checks and 92-day functional tests be continued in order to maintain CAM availability.

  3. Overall Ventilation System Flow Network Calculation for Site Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff J. Steinhoff

    2001-08-02

    The scope of this calculation is to determine ventilation system resistances, pressure drops, airflows, and operating cost estimates for the Site Recommendation (SR) design as detailed in the ''Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout'' (BSC (Bechtel SAIC Company) 2001a). The statutory limit for emplacement of waste in Yucca Mountain is 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) and is considered the base case for this report. The objective is to determine the overall repository system ventilation flow network for the monitoring phase during normal operations and to provide a basis for the system description document design descriptions. Any values derived from this calculation will not be used to support construction, fabrication, or procurement. The work scope is identified in the ''Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY01 Work Activities'' (CRWMS M&O 2001, pp. 6 and 13). In accordance with the technical work plan this calculation was prepared in accordance with AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' and other procedures invoked by AP-3.12Q. It also incorporates the procedure AP-SI1.Q, ''Software Management''.

  4. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, Robert E.; Basic, Steven L.; Smith, Russel M.

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  5. Development of an Integrated Residential Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification System for Residences

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.A.; D.A. Springer

    2008-06-18

    The Need and the Opportunity Codes such as ASHRAE 90.2 and IECC, and programs such as Energy Star and Builders Challenge, are causing new homes to be built to higher performance standards. As a result sensible cooling loads in new homes are going down, but indoor air quality prerogatives are causing ventilation rates and moisture loads to increase in humid climates. Conventional air conditioners are unable to provide the low sensible heat ratios that are needed to efficiently cool and dehumidify homes since dehumidification potential is strongly correlated with cooling system operating hours. The project team saw an opportunity to develop a system that is at least as effective as a conventional air conditioner plus dehumidifier, removes moisture without increasing the sensible load, reduces equipment cost by integrating components, and simplifies installation. Project Overview Prime contractor Davis Energy Group led a team in developing an Integrated Heating, Ventilation, Cooling, and Dehumidification (I-HVCD) system under the DOE SBIR program. Phase I and II SBIR project activities ran from July 2003 through December 2007. Tasks included: (1) Mechanical Design and Prototyping; (2) Controls Development; (3) Laboratory and Field Testing; and (4) Commercialization Activities Technology Description. Key components of the prototype I-HVCD system include an evaporator coil assembly, return and outdoor air damper, and controls. These are used in conjunction with conventional components that include a variable speed air handler or furnace, and a two-stage condensing unit. I-HVCD controls enable the system to operate in three distinct cooling modes to respond to indoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels. When sensible cooling loads are high, the system operates similar to a conventional system but varies supply airflow in response to indoor RH. In the second mode airflow is further reduced, and the reheat coil adds heat to the supply air. In the third mode, the

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR WASTE HANDLING BUILDING VENTILATION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    2000-11-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) waste handling building ventilation system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Preclosure Safety and Systems Engineering Section. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 2000). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 2000). This QA classification incorporates the current MGR design and the results of the ''Design Basis Event Frequency and Dose Calculation for Site Recommendation'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a) and ''Bounding Individual Category 1 Design Basis Event Dose Calculation to Support Quality Assurance Classification'' (Gwyn 2000).

  7. Internal crankcase ventilation system with easily accessible PCV valve

    SciTech Connect

    Balsley, R.L.

    1986-07-29

    A crankcase ventilation system is described having a flow limiting PCV valve and means defining and internal passage between a crankcase and a cylinder charge induction means of an engine, the system comprising an engine valve cover forming a part of the internal passage defining means and having an exterior wall, a cavity in the cover wall and forming a portion of the internal passage, the wall further including valve mounting means surrounding the passage and receiving the valve and a valve body seal in position to control flow through the mounting means and passage and an opening through the wall to the housing exterior and generally opposite the mounting means for removing and replacing a valve on the mounting means, and closure means normally closing the opening and preventing air leakage therethrough into the induction system, the closure means engaging the valve to maintain its installed position within the wall cavity and being openable to permit removal of the PCV valve.

  8. Influence of Ventilation Ratio on Desiccant Air Conditioning System's Efficiency Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thien Nha; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao; Hamamoto, Yoshinori

    Ventilation air is a concern for engineers since ventilated air controls indoor air contamination; additional ventilation, however, increases the energy consumption of buildings. The study investigates the energy efficiency performance of the desiccant dehumidification air conditioning system in the context of ventilation for a hot-humid climate such as summer in Japan. The investigation focuses on the variable ratio of ventilation air as required by the application of air conditioning system. The COP of the desiccant air conditioning system is determined. The evaluation is subsequently performed by comparing the desiccant based system with the conventional absorption cooling system and the vapor compression cooling system. Based on 12 desiccant rotor simulations, it is found that the desiccant regeneration temperature required varies between 47°C to 85°C as ventilation ratio increases from 0. 0 to 100%, and up to 52. 5°C as the ventilation ratio achieves 14%. The heat required for regenerating desiccant accounts for 55% and higher of the system's total heat consumption; the system is expected to be energy efficient by using wasted heat from the absorption chiller for desiccant regeneration; and its energy efficiency expands as the ratio of ventilation air rises above 15% compared with the conventional absorption cooling system. The energy efficiency also benefits as the ratio rises beyond 70% against the conventional vapor compression cooling system.

  9. Building America Case Study: Selecting Ventilation Systems for Existing Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-12-01

    This document addresses adding -or improving - mechanical ventilation systems to existing homes. The purpose of ventilation is to remove contaminants from homes, and this report discusses where, when, and how much ventilation is appropriate in a home, including some discussion of relevant codes and standards. Advantages, disadvantages, and approximate costs of various system types are presented along with general guidelines for implementing the systems in homes. CARB intends for this document to be useful to decision makers and contractors implementing ventilation systems in homes. Choosing the "best" system is not always straightforward; selecting a system involves balancing performance, efficiency, cost, required maintenance, and several other factors. It is the intent of this document to assist contractors in making more informed decisions when selecting systems. Ventilation is an integral part of a high-performance home. With more air-sealed envelopes, a mechanical means of removing contaminants is critical for indoor environmental quality and building durability.

  10. Applied patent RFID systems for building reacting HEPA air ventilation system in hospital operation rooms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented. PMID:22081235

  11. Effect of Room Ventilation Rates in Rodent Rooms with Direct-Exhaust IVC Systems.

    PubMed

    Geertsema, Roger S; Lindsell, Claire E

    2015-09-01

    When IVC are directly exhausted from a rodent housing room, the air quality of the room can become independent of the intracage air quality and may reduce the need for high room ventilation rates. This study assessed the effect of decreasing the ventilation rate in rodent rooms using direct-exhaust IVC systems. The study was conducted over 16 wk and compared conditions in 8 rodent rooms that had ventilation rates of 5 to 6 air changes per hour (ACH) with those in rooms at 10 to 12 ACH. At the low ventilation rate, rooms had higher CO₂ concentrations, higher dew point temperature, and lower particulate levels and spent a greater percentage of time above the temperature set point than did rooms at the high rate. The levels of allergens and endotoxins in room air were the same regardless of the ventilation rate. Differences seen in parameters within cages at the 2 ventilation rates were operationally irrelevant. We detected no total volatile organic compounds in the room that were attributable to ammonia, regardless of the ventilation rate. Clearing the air of ethanol after a spill took longer at the low compared with high rate. However, ethanol clearance was faster at the low rate when the demand-control system was activated than at the high ventilation rate alone. Air quality in the room and in the cages were acceptable with room ventilation rates of 5 to 6 ACH in rodent rooms that use direct-exhaust IVC systems. PMID:26424250

  12. Effect of Room Ventilation Rates in Rodent Rooms with Direct-Exhaust IVC Systems

    PubMed Central

    Geertsema, Roger S; Lindsell, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    When IVC are directly exhausted from a rodent housing room, the air quality of the room can become independent of the intracage air quality and may reduce the need for high room ventilation rates. This study assessed the effect of decreasing the ventilation rate in rodent rooms using direct-exhaust IVC systems. The study was conducted over 16 wk and compared conditions in 8 rodent rooms that had ventilation rates of 5 to 6 air changes per hour (ACH) with those in rooms at 10 to 12 ACH. At the low ventilation rate, rooms had higher CO2 concentrations, higher dew point temperature, and lower particulate levels and spent a greater percentage of time above the temperature set point than did rooms at the high rate. The levels of allergens and endotoxins in room air were the same regardless of the ventilation rate. Differences seen in parameters within cages at the 2 ventilation rates were operationally irrelevant. We detected no total volatile organic compounds in the room that were attributable to ammonia, regardless of the ventilation rate. Clearing the air of ethanol after a spill took longer at the low compared with high rate. However, ethanol clearance was faster at the low rate when the demand-control system was activated than at the high ventilation rate alone. Air quality in the room and in the cages were acceptable with room ventilation rates of 5 to 6 ACH in rodent rooms that use direct-exhaust IVC systems. PMID:26424250

  13. Experimental evaluation of the Skylab orbital workshop ventilation system concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allums, S. L.; Hastings, L. J.; Ralston, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive testing was conducted to evaluate the Orbital Workshop ventilation concept. Component tests were utilized to determine the relationship between operating characteristics at 1 and 0.34 atm. System tests were conducted at 1 atm within the Orbital Workshop full-scale mockup to assess delivered volumetric flow rate and compartment air velocities. Component tests with the Anemostat circular diffusers (plenum- and duct-mounted) demonstrated that the diffuser produced essentially equivalent airflow patterns and velocities in 1- and 0.34-atm environments. The tests also showed that the pressure drop across the diffuser could be scaled from 1 to 0.34 atm using the atmosphere pressure ratio. Fan tests indicated that the performance of a multiple, parallel-mounted fan cluster could be predicted by summing the single-fan flow rates at a given delta P.

  14. Development of a Ventilation and Air-conditioning System using Fixed Bed Desiccant Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takahiko; Akisawa, Atsushi; Shindoh, Shinji; Masazumi, Godo; Takeshi, Takatsuka; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Mori, Hideo

    The study investigated fixed bed desiccant units for ventilation and air-conditioning. The system mainly dehumidifies the outdoor fresh air to be supplied to an air-conditioned room. Hence, the airconditioning load of the air-conditioner in the room can be mitigated. Several adsorbents were compared from the viewpoints of humidity ratio at the outlet of the desiccant unit, dehumidified quantity per unit volume, and dehumidified quantity per unit adsorbent mass. The performance of the desiccant unit was predicted by simulation which was validated by comparison with experiment. The results revealed the most suitable adsorbent to reduce the desiccant unit size. It was also found that the humidity ratio at the outlet of the desiccant unit could be lowered by shortening the dimensionless switching time.

  15. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. 105.25-7 Section 105.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO... pumping system compartment. (a) Each compartment shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust...

  16. Canyon building ventilation system dynamic model -- Parameters and validation

    SciTech Connect

    Moncrief, B.R. ); Chen, F.F.K. )

    1993-01-01

    Plant system simulation crosses many disciplines. At the core is the mimic of key components in the form of mathematical models.'' These component models are functionally integrated to represent the plant. With today's low cost high capacity computers, the whole plant can be truly and effectively reproduced in a computer model. Dynamic simulation has its roots in single loop'' design, which is still a common objective in the employment of simulation. The other common objectives are the ability to preview plant operation, to anticipate problem areas, and to test the impact of design options. As plant system complexity increases and our ability to simulate the entire plant grows, the objective to optimize plant system design becomes practical. This shift in objectives from problem avoidance to total optimization by far offers the most rewarding potential. Even a small reduction in bulk materials and space can sufficiently justify the application of this technology. Furthermore, to realize an optimal plant starts from a tight and disciplined design. We believe the assurance required to execute such a design strategy can partly be derived from a plant model. This paper reports on the application of a dynamic model to evaluate the capacity of an existing production plant ventilation system. This study met the practical objectives of capacity evaluation under present and future conditions, and under normal and accidental situations. More importantly, the description of this application, in its methods and its utility, aims to validate the technology of dynamic simulation in the environment of plant system design and safe operation.

  17. Measuring the Performance of Document Supply Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Line, Maurice B.

    Produced by Unesco as part of its program designed to help member states develop national information systems, including libraries, information services, and archives, this manual is a guide to document supply measurement techniques that are applicable to a wide range of countries. The first of seven chapters considers the objectives, nature, and…

  18. STANDARDIZED COST FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a significant number of water supply distribution systems in the United States that are deteriorating, resulting in a potential threat to the future quality of drinking water. orrective measures will directly influence the cost of providing water. t would be useful to h...

  19. Power Supply Systems for Rapid Cycling Synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Toshikazu; Someya, Hirohiko; Koseki, Shoichiro; Ogawa, Shinichi

    JAEA and KEK are jointly constructing a high intensity proton accelerator project J-PARC. Its main accelerator is 3GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). Two types of resonant excitation systems, parallel and cascade, are introduced to excite DC biased 25Hz AC currents through its main magnets. The parallel excitation is adopted for dipole magnets power supply system, and the cascade excitations are adopted for seven family quadrupole magnets systems. In this paper, two systems are investigated and analyzed, and it is explained why different types are adopted to each system. Authors believe that such hybrid exciting systems are most suitable for high power RCS.

  20. Ventilator-driven xenon ventilation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, R.T.; Thomas, F.D.; Gerson, J.I.

    1984-07-01

    A modification of a common commerical Xe-133 ventilation device is described for mechanically assisted ventilation imaging. The patient's standard ventilator serves as the power source controlling the ventilator rate and volume during the xenon study, but the gases in the two systems are not intermixed. This avoids contamination of the ventilator with radioactive xenon. Supplemental oxygen and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are provided if needed. The system can be converted quickly for conventional studies with spontaneous respiration.

  1. 24 CFR 3285.605 - Fuel supply system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fuel supply system. 3285.605... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Ductwork and Plumbing and Fuel Supply Systems § 3285.605 Fuel supply system. (a) Proper supply pressure. The gas piping system in the home...

  2. 24 CFR 3285.605 - Fuel supply system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Ductwork and Plumbing and Fuel Supply Systems § 3285.605 Fuel supply system. (a) Proper supply pressure. The gas piping system in the home is... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fuel supply system....

  3. 24 CFR 3285.605 - Fuel supply system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Ductwork and Plumbing and Fuel Supply Systems § 3285.605 Fuel supply system. (a) Proper supply pressure. The gas piping system in the home is... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fuel supply system....

  4. 24 CFR 3285.605 - Fuel supply system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Ductwork and Plumbing and Fuel Supply Systems § 3285.605 Fuel supply system. (a) Proper supply pressure. The gas piping system in the home is... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fuel supply system....

  5. Numerical investigation and recommendations for push-pull ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Chern, Ming-Jyh; Ma, Chen-Hsuan

    2007-03-01

    This study presents numerical simulations of push-pull ventilation systems. A push-pull system is a device commonly used in capturing pollutants from large tanks used in industrial chemical processes. An air jet is blown from one side of a tank and collected by an exhaust hood on the opposite side of the tank. In this study, a finite volume model coupled with the standard k -epsilon turbulent model is employed to describe the flow structures and characteristics. Moreover, the turbulence mass transfer equation is adopted to show the concentration distribution above the open surface tank. All the flow fields can be classified according to four dominant modes, i.e., dispersion, transition, encapsulation, and strong suction. The push and pull flow velocities should be adjusted into encapsulation and strong suction modes to ensure all pollutants can be captured by the exhaust hood. Other geometric parameters such as the flange size, pull-channel size, offset distance, etc., also influence the flow characteristics. For a variety of lengths of tanks and pollutant evaporation velocities, the push and pull flow velocity must be matched to achieve optimal operation. Furthermore, the flange size and other parameters are determined to enhance the capture efficiency of the push-pull system. Recommendations for design guidelines are introduced in this study. PMID:17237024

  6. [Chronic dependence on mechanical pulmonary ventilation in pediatric care: a necessary debate for Brazil's Unified Health System].

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Tereza Fonseca da; Gomes, Maria Auxiliadora; Pinto, Márcia

    2011-10-01

    People with prolonged dependence on mechanical ventilation require permanent care and the use of equipment that can result in longer term hospital internment. This can lead to difficulty of access for patients with acute injuries, as well as personal difficulties and stress with reduced quality of life for their families or caregivers due to such longer hospital internment. This critical review of publications dealing with dependence on mechanical ventilation among children and adolescents aimed at making information organized in a systematic manner available in order to support discussion on the subject. It should be borne in mind that changes in epidemiological profile and growing technological access determine needs such as intensive therapy hospital beds and complex home care for chronic patients, which still have limits of supply and regulatory restrictions in the Brazilian public health system. PMID:22031144

  7. 46 CFR 105.25-7 - Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation systems for cargo tank or pumping system compartment. 105.25-7 Section 105.25-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Additional Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are...

  8. Laboratory and Industrial Ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This handbook supplements the Facilities Engineering Handbook (NHB 7320.1) and provides additional policies and criteria for uniform application to ventilation systems. It expands basic requirements, provides additional design and construction guidance, and places emphasis on those design considerations which will provide for greater effectiveness in the use of these systems. The provisions of this handbook are applicable to all NASA field installations and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Since supply of this handbook is limited, abstracts of the portion or portions applicable to a given requirement will be made for the individual specific needs encountered rather than supplying copies of the handbook as has been past practice.

  9. Canyon building ventilation system dynamic model -- Parameters and validation

    SciTech Connect

    Moncrief, B.R.; Chen, F.F.K.

    1993-02-01

    Plant system simulation crosses many disciplines. At the core is the mimic of key components in the form of mathematical ``models.`` These component models are functionally integrated to represent the plant. With today`s low cost high capacity computers, the whole plant can be truly and effectively reproduced in a computer model. Dynamic simulation has its roots in ``single loop`` design, which is still a common objective in the employment of simulation. The other common objectives are the ability to preview plant operation, to anticipate problem areas, and to test the impact of design options. As plant system complexity increases and our ability to simulate the entire plant grows, the objective to optimize plant system design becomes practical. This shift in objectives from problem avoidance to total optimization by far offers the most rewarding potential. Even a small reduction in bulk materials and space can sufficiently justify the application of this technology. Furthermore, to realize an optimal plant starts from a tight and disciplined design. We believe the assurance required to execute such a design strategy can partly be derived from a plant model. This paper reports on the application of a dynamic model to evaluate the capacity of an existing production plant ventilation system. This study met the practical objectives of capacity evaluation under present and future conditions, and under normal and accidental situations. More importantly, the description of this application, in its methods and its utility, aims to validate the technology of dynamic simulation in the environment of plant system design and safe operation.

  10. A numerical model of an intensive care ventilator-humidifier system.

    PubMed

    Drew, T; Vardy, A; Tarnow-Mordi, W; Lerski, R

    1996-04-01

    Current intensive care ventilator-humidifier systems neither monitor nor adequately control inspired gas humidity. Problems of low delivered humidity and condensation within ventilator circuitry are commonly encountered. To help to address these problems, a numerical model of a complete ventilator-humidifier-patient intensive care system has been developed. The model, based on a finite difference technique, can predict pressures, flow-rates, temperatures and relative humidities at discrete points throughout the system. A comparison of numerical predictions and measurements in a real system is reported. A strong qualitative agreement is demonstrated in all cases studied, and a good quantitative agreement is obtained in most cases. It is concluded that such models could be used to assess methods of controlling ventilator-humidifier systems to prevent the occurrence of condensation. Similar models could be developed for other medical gas delivery systems. PMID:8718951

  11. Fluid-bed air-supply system

    DOEpatents

    Zielinski, Edward A.; Comparato, Joseph R.

    1979-01-01

    The air-supply system for a fluidized-bed furnace includes two air conduits for the same combustion zone. The conduits feed separate sets of holes in a distributor plate through which fluidizing air flows to reach the bed. During normal operation, only one conduit and set of holes is used, but the second conduit and set of holes is employed during start-up.

  12. 46 CFR 153.314 - Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation § 153.314 Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied. (a) Each... section. (b) Each enclosed space within the cargo area that does not have a permanent ventilation system... supply air to the extremities of the space; or (3) An attachment for temporary ductwork at the mount...

  13. 46 CFR 153.314 - Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation § 153.314 Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied. (a) Each... section. (b) Each enclosed space within the cargo area that does not have a permanent ventilation system... supply air to the extremities of the space; or (3) An attachment for temporary ductwork at the mount...

  14. 46 CFR 153.314 - Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation § 153.314 Ventilation of spaces not usually occupied. (a) Each... section. (b) Each enclosed space within the cargo area that does not have a permanent ventilation system... supply air to the extremities of the space; or (3) An attachment for temporary ductwork at the mount...

  15. Bleederless ventilation systems as a spontaneous combustion control measure in US coal mines. Information circular/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.C.; Diamond, W.P.; Mucho, T.P.; Organiscak, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a worldwide literature review of bleederless ventilation practices to evaluate their use as a spontaneous combustion control measure in U.S. coal mines. Factors that must be taken into account in the design and use of these systems include seal construction, the use of ventilation control devices, the use of methane-drainage systems in gassy mines, and the ground control plan. Monitoring for the detection of spontaneous combustion and the control of methane when methane-drainage techniques are employed is critical to the successful use of a bleederless ventilation system. The report describes the types of ventilation systems used throughout the world and the spontaneous combustion risks associated with these systems.

  16. Association of ventilation system type with SBS symptoms in office workers

    SciTech Connect

    Seppanen, Olli; Fisk, William J.

    2001-02-07

    This paper provides a review and synthesis of current knowledge about the associations of ventilation system types in office buildings with sick building syndrome symptoms and discusses potential explanations for the associations. Relative to natural ventilation, air conditioning, with or without humidification, was consistently associated with a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of one or more SBS symptoms. Prevalences were typically higher by approximately 30% to 200% in the air conditioned buildings. In two of three assessments from a single study, symptom prevalences were also significantly higher in air conditioned buildings than in buildings with simple mechanical ventilation and no humidification. In approximately half of assessments, SBS symptom prevalences were significantly higher in buildings with simple mechanical ventilation than in buildings with natural ventilation. Insufficient information was available for conclusions about the potential increased risk of SBS symptoms with humidification. The statistically significant associations of mechanical ventilation and air conditioning with SBS symptoms are much more frequent than expected from chance and also not likely to be a consequence of confounding by several potential personal, job, or building related confounders. The reasons for the increases in symptom prevalences with mechanical ventilation and particularly with air conditioning remain unclear. Multiple deficiencies in HVAC system design, construction, operation, or maintenance, including some which cause pollutant emissions from HVAC systems, may contribute to the increases in symptom prevalences.

  17. Design of Mine Ventilators Monitoring System Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Sheng; Song, Haiqiang

    2012-05-01

    A monitoring system for a mine ventilator is designed based on ZigBee wireless sensor network technology in the paper. The system consists of a sink node, sensor nodes, industrial personal computer and several sensors. Sensor nodes communicate with the sink node through the ZigBee wireless sensor network. The sink node connects with the configuration software on the pc via serial port. The system can collect or calculate vibration, temperature, negative pressure, air volume and other information of the mine ventilator. Meanwhile the system accurately monitors operating condition of the ventilator through these parameters. Especially it provides the most original information for potential faults of the ventilator. Therefore, there is no doubt that it improves the efficiency of fault diagnosis.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: NEW CONDENSATOR, INC.--THE CONDENSATOR DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested New Condensator Inc.'s Condensator Diesel Engine Retrofit Crankcase Ventilation System. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the ratio of engine fuel consumption to the engine power output, was evaluated for engine...

  19. Ventilation Model

    SciTech Connect

    H. Yang

    1999-11-04

    The purpose of this analysis and model report (AMR) for the Ventilation Model is to analyze the effects of pre-closure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts and provide heat removal data to support EBS design. It will also provide input data (initial conditions, and time varying boundary conditions) for the EBS post-closure performance assessment and the EBS Water Distribution and Removal Process Model. The objective of the analysis is to develop, describe, and apply calculation methods and models that can be used to predict thermal conditions within emplacement drifts under forced ventilation during the pre-closure period. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Provide a general description of effects and heat transfer process of emplacement drift ventilation. (2) Develop a modeling approach to simulate the impacts of pre-closure ventilation on the thermal conditions in emplacement drifts. (3) Identify and document inputs to be used for modeling emplacement ventilation. (4) Perform calculations of temperatures and heat removal in the emplacement drift. (5) Address general considerations of the effect of water/moisture removal by ventilation on the repository thermal conditions. The numerical modeling in this document will be limited to heat-only modeling and calculations. Only a preliminary assessment of the heat/moisture ventilation effects and modeling method will be performed in this revision. Modeling of moisture effects on heat removal and emplacement drift temperature may be performed in the future.

  20. Project W-320 high vacuum 241-AY-102 annulus ventilation system operability test report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-03-12

    This report documents the test results of OTP-320-001, Tank 241-AY-102 Annulus Ventilation System Testing. Included in the appendices are: (1) Supporting documentation prepared to demonstrate the structural integrity of the tank at high annulus vacuum (<20 INWG), and (2) a report that identifies potential cross connections between the primary and annulus ventilation systems. These cross connections were verified to be eliminated prior to the start of testing.

  1. Ventilation system O and M: A first step for improving IAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Ventresca, J.A. )

    1995-01-01

    The author identifies six common operations and maintenance (O and M) problems in ventilation systems and discusses their solutions. The study was conducted in a Columbus, Ohio, high-rise office building that was operated with minimum (Vmin) and maximum (Vmax) outside air ventilation. Both the perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) and the IAQ in terms of physical and chemical parameters were measured and reported previously. The new study revealed a significant practical observation: that IAQ complaints can often be resolved with proper ventilation system operation and maintenance (O and M). Extensive IAQ measurements revealed outside air was about 150 L/s (71 cfm) per person (as estimated from afternoon carbon dioxide measurements), and both the indoor and ambient air pollutant levels were very low. The IAQ complaints were resolved through a comprehensive operations and maintenance (O and M) assessment, and subsequence ventilation system O and M improvements.

  2. An advisory system for artificial ventilation of the newborn utilizing a neural network.

    PubMed

    Snowden, S; Brownlee, K G; Smye, S W; Dear, P R

    1993-01-01

    A neural network has been developed to manage ventilated neonates. The network inputs are the current ventilator settings (inspiratory and expiratory times, peak inspiratory and positive end-expiratory pressures and inspired oxygen concentration), partial pressures of arterial blood gases and pH. Two hidden layers comprising 50 nodes each are employed in the network, which utilizes a standard back-propagation algorithm. The network provides the new ventilator settings as five outputs that represent the most appropriate ventilator settings projected to maintain blood gases within an acceptable range. The network has been trained using a data set derived from a rule-based expert system developed for the same purpose. Performances of both systems have been compared. The neural network is capable of learning and adapting to the individual patient's response, which in principle offers significant advantages over the rule-based system. PMID:8072345

  3. Ultracapacitor-Based Uninterrupted Power Supply System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    The ultracapacitor-based uninterrupted power supply (UPS) system enhances system reliability; reduces life-of-system, maintenance, and downtime costs; and greatly reduces environmental impact when compared to conventional UPS energy storage systems. This design provides power when required and absorbs power when required to smooth the system load and also has excellent low-temperature performance. The UPS used during hardware tests at Glenn is an efficient, compact, maintenance-free, rack-mount, pure sine-wave inverter unit. The UPS provides a continuous output power up to 1,700 W with a surge rating of 1,870 W for up to one minute at a nominal output voltage of 115 VAC. The ultracapacitor energy storage system tested in conjunction with the UPS is rated at 5.8 F. This is a bank of ten symmetric ultracapacitor modules. Each module is actively balanced using a linear voltage balancing technique in which the cell-to-cell leakage is dependent upon the imbalance of the individual cells. The ultracapacitors are charged by a DC power supply, which can provide up to 300 VDC at 4 A. A constant-voltage, constant-current power supply was selected for this application. The long life of ultracapacitors greatly enhances system reliability, which is significant in critical applications such as medical power systems and space power systems. The energy storage system can usually last longer than the application, given its 20-year life span. This means that the ultracapacitors will probably never need to be replaced and disposed of, whereas batteries require frequent replacement and disposal. The charge-discharge efficiency of rechargeable batteries is approximately 50 percent, and after some hundreds of charges and discharges, they must be replaced. The charge-discharge efficiency of ultracapacitors exceeds 90 percent, and can accept more than a million charges and discharges. Thus, there is a significant energy savings through the efficiency improvement, and there is far less

  4. Electrofibrous prefilters for use in nuclear ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, W.; Kuhl, W.D.; Russell, W.L.; Taylor, R.D.; Hebard, H.D.; Biermann, A.H.; Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Lum, B.Y.

    1981-02-19

    We have established a comprehensive program for the US Department of Energy to develop electrofibrous prefilters to extend the life of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters that are used in the nuclear industry. We have selected the electrofibrous filter because, compared to the mechanical fibrous filter, it has a higher efficiency and longer lifetime. Two different electrofibrous filters have been developed for use in nuclear ventilation systems. One prototype is a stationary prefilter while the other is a rolling prefilter. Both prefilters use the same basic filtering technique in which a fibrous filter medium is sandwiched between a high voltage electrode and a ground electrode, both electrodes having a sufficient open area to offer minimum air resistance. The applied voltage on the electrodes generates an electric field that polarizes the filter fibers, which then attract suspended particles via electrostatic forces. The filter media and electrodes have been pleated to provide a sufficiently long particle residence time. The special requirement of protecting the HEPA filter from a high concentration of smoke aerosols during fire conditions led to the development of the rolling, electrofibrous prefilter. We established the feasibility of this concept in a series of tests using commercially available rolling prefilters that were modified for removing smoke aerosols. Although the rolling prefilter concept is not a cost effective measure for the sole purpose of protecting HEPA filters from smoke aerosols, it became cost effective when used primarily for protecting the HEPA filters from normal production aerosols. The same piece of equipment is then used for both normal operating conditions as well as emergency fire conditions. Several prototype electrofibrous rolling prefilters were designed, built and evaluated. The filter evaluations were conducted using NaCl and DOP aerosols as well as smoke aerosols.

  5. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-07-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

  6. Control system design for a Continuous Positive Airway Pressure ventilator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng-Long; Hu, Zhao-Yan; Dai, Hou-De

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) ventilation remains a mainstay treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Good pressure stability and pressure reduction during exhalation are of major importance to ensure clinical efficacy and comfort of CPAP therapy. In this study an experimental CPAP ventilator was constructed using an application-specific CPAP blower/motor assembly and a microprocessor. To minimize pressure variations caused by spontaneous breathing as well as the uncomfortable feeling of exhaling against positive pressure, we developed a composite control approach including the feed forward compensator and feedback proportional-integral-derivative (PID) compensator to regulate the pressure delivered to OSAS patients. The Ziegler and Nichols method was used to tune PID controller parameters. And then we used a gas flow analyzer (VT PLUS HF) to test pressure curves, flow curves and pressure-volume loops for the proposed CPAP ventilator. The results showed that it met technical criteria for sleep apnea breathing therapy equipment. Finally, the study made a quantitative comparison of pressure stability between the experimental CPAP ventilator and commercially available CPAP devices. PMID:22296604

  7. Control system design for a continuous positive airway pressure ventilator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) ventilation remains a mainstay treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Good pressure stability and pressure reduction during exhalation are of major importance to ensure clinical efficacy and comfort of CPAP therapy. In this study an experimental CPAP ventilator was constructed using an application-specific CPAP blower/motor assembly and a microprocessor. To minimize pressure variations caused by spontaneous breathing as well as the uncomfortable feeling of exhaling against positive pressure, we developed a composite control approach including the feed forward compensator and feedback proportional-integral-derivative (PID) compensator to regulate the pressure delivered to OSAS patients. The Ziegler and Nichols method was used to tune PID controller parameters. And then we used a gas flow analyzer (VT PLUS HF) to test pressure curves, flow curves and pressure-volume loops for the proposed CPAP ventilator. The results showed that it met technical criteria for sleep apnea breathing therapy equipment. Finally, the study made a quantitative comparison of pressure stability between the experimental CPAP ventilator and commercially available CPAP devices. PMID:22296604

  8. Desogestrel enhances ventilation in ondine patients: Animal data involving serotoninergic systems.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Fanny; Perrin-Terrin, Anne-Sophie; Verkaeren, Emilienne; Cardot, Philippe; Fiamma, Marie-Noëlle; Frugière, Alain; Rivals, Isabelle; Similowski, Thomas; Straus, Christian; Bodineau, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is a neurorespiratory disease characterized by life-threatening sleep-related hypoventilation involving an alteration of CO2/H(+) chemosensitivity. Incidental findings have suggested that desogestrel may allow recovery of the ventilatory response to CO2. The effects of desogestrel on resting ventilation have not been reported. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that desogestrel strengthens baseline ventilation by analyzing the ventilation of CCHS patients. Rodent models were used in order to determine the mechanisms involved. Ventilation in CCHS patients was measured with a pneumotachometer. In mice, ventilatory neural activity was recorded from ex vivo medullary-spinal cord preparations, ventilation was measured by plethysmography and c-fos expression was studied in medullary respiratory nuclei. Desogestrel increased baseline respiratory frequency of CCHS patients leading to a decrease in their PETCO2. In medullary spinal-cord preparations or in vivo mice, the metabolite of desogestrel, etonogestrel, induced an increase in respiratory frequency that necessitated the functioning of serotoninergic systems, and modulated GABAA and NMDA ventilatory regulations. c-FOS analysis showed the involvement of medullary respiratory groups of cell including serotoninergic neurons of the raphe pallidus and raphe obscurus nuclei that seem to play a key role. Thus, desogestrel may improve resting ventilation in CCHS patients by a stimulant effect on baseline respiratory frequency. Our data open up clinical perspectives based on the combination of this progestin with serotoninergic drugs to enhance ventilation in CCHS patients. PMID:27040794

  9. Ventilation patterns of the songbird lung/air sac system during different behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mackelprang, Rebecca; Goller, Franz

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Unidirectional, continuous airflow through the avian lung is achieved through an elaborate air sac system with a sequential, posterior to anterior ventilation pattern. This classical model was established through various approaches spanning passively ventilated systems to mass spectrometry analysis of tracer gas flow into various air sacs during spontaneous breathing in restrained ducks. Information on flow patterns in other bird taxa is missing, and these techniques do not permit direct tests of whether the basic flow pattern can change during different behaviors. Here we use thermistors implanted into various locations of the respiratory system to detect small pulses of tracer gas (helium) to reconstruct airflow patterns in quietly breathing and behaving (calling, wing flapping) songbirds (zebra finch and yellow-headed blackbird). The results illustrate that the basic pattern of airflow in these two species is largely consistent with the model. However, two notable differences emerged. First, some tracer gas arrived in the anterior set of air sacs during the inspiration during which it was inhaled, suggesting a more rapid throughput through the lung than previously assumed. Second, differences in ventilation between the two anterior air sacs emerged during calling and wing flapping, indicating that adjustments in the flow pattern occur during dynamic behaviors. It is unclear whether this modulation in ventilation pattern is passive or active. This technique for studying ventilation patterns during dynamic behaviors proves useful for establishing detailed timing of airflow and modulation of ventilation in the avian respiratory system. PMID:23788706

  10. Alternatives generation and analysis for double-shell tank primary ventilation systems emissions control and monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    1999-09-30

    This AGA addresses the question: ''What equipment upgrades, operational changes, and/or other actions are required relative to the DST tanks farms' ventilation systems to support retrieval, staging (including feed sampling), and delivery of tank waste to the Phase I private contractor?'' Issues and options for the various components within the ventilation subsystem affect each other. Recommended design requirements are presented and the preferred alternatives are detailed.

  11. Test Protocol for Room-to-Room Distribution of Outside Air by Residential Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, C. D.; Anderson, R.; Hendron, B.; Hancock, E.

    2007-12-01

    This test and analysis protocol has been developed as a practical approach for measuring outside air distribution in homes. It has been used successfully in field tests and has led to significant insights on ventilation design issues. Performance advantages of more sophisticated ventilation systems over simpler, less-costly designs have been verified, and specific problems, such as airflow short-circuiting, have been identified.

  12. Ventilation-Based Decellularization System of the Lung.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Mendez, Julio; Calle, Elizabeth A; Hatachi, Go; Doi, Ryoichiro; Zhao, Liping; Suematsu, Takashi; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Niklason, Laura E

    2016-01-01

    The demand for donated organs greatly exceeds the availability. Alternatives to organ donation, such as laboratory-engineered organs, are therefore being developed. One approach is to decellularize the organ and reseed it with selected cells, ideally from the organ recipient. Organ decellularization has typically been attempted by the administration of detergents into vessels such as the portal vein in the liver. However, in the case of the lung, the airway provides another potential administration route, because it has a wide contact area between cells and detergents in the tracheal tree and alveoli. In the present study, we introduce a novel ventilation-based decellularization system for the lung and compare its efficacy to ordinary decellularization systems administering detergent through the pulmonary artery. Rat lungs were decellularized using 500 mL of 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-Propanesulfonate (CHAPS) decellularization solution administrated through the pulmonary artery (vessel group) or through the trachea (airway group). The vessel group was infused CHAPS solution using a gravitational pressure head of 20 cmH2O. The airway group was infused with the detergent using negative pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure, for a volume 10cc with each inspiration in a bioreactor. Pathological and immunohistochemical findings indicated that components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including proteoglycans, elastic fibers, fibronectin, and laminin, were more decreased in the airway group than in the vessel group. Western blot analysis showed that MHC class I antigen and β-actin were not detected in both decellularized groups. A collagen assay showed that collagen was 70% preserved in both groups compared to native lung. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and DNA assays showed that GAG and DNA contents were strongly diminished in both decellularized groups, but those contents were smaller in the airway group than in the vessel group. Accordingly

  13. Ventilation-Based Decellularization System of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Mendez, Julio; Calle, Elizabeth A.; Hatachi, Go; Doi, Ryoichiro; Zhao, Liping; Suematsu, Takashi; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Niklason, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The demand for donated organs greatly exceeds the availability. Alternatives to organ donation, such as laboratory-engineered organs, are therefore being developed. One approach is to decellularize the organ and reseed it with selected cells, ideally from the organ recipient. Organ decellularization has typically been attempted by the administration of detergents into vessels such as the portal vein in the liver. However, in the case of the lung, the airway provides another potential administration route, because it has a wide contact area between cells and detergents in the tracheal tree and alveoli. In the present study, we introduce a novel ventilation-based decellularization system for the lung and compare its efficacy to ordinary decellularization systems administering detergent through the pulmonary artery. Rat lungs were decellularized using 500 mL of 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-Propanesulfonate (CHAPS) decellularization solution administrated through the pulmonary artery (vessel group) or through the trachea (airway group). The vessel group was infused CHAPS solution using a gravitational pressure head of 20 cmH2O. The airway group was infused with the detergent using negative pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure, for a volume 10cc with each inspiration in a bioreactor. Pathological and immunohistochemical findings indicated that components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including proteoglycans, elastic fibers, fibronectin, and laminin, were more decreased in the airway group than in the vessel group. Western blot analysis showed that MHC class I antigen and β-actin were not detected in both decellularized groups. A collagen assay showed that collagen was 70% preserved in both groups compared to native lung. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and DNA assays showed that GAG and DNA contents were strongly diminished in both decellularized groups, but those contents were smaller in the airway group than in the vessel group

  14. Ventilator-driven xenon ventilation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, R.T.; Thomas, F.D.; Gerson, J.I.

    1984-07-01

    A modification of a common commercial Xe-133 ventilation device is described for mechanically assisted ventilation imaging. The patient's standard ventilator serves as the power source controlling the ventilatory rate and volume during the xenon study, but the gases in the two systems are not intermixed. This avoids contamination of the ventilator with radioactive xenon. Supplemental oxygen and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) are provided if needed. The system can be converted quickly for conventional studies with spontaneous respiration.

  15. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.831 Ventilation... probable failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating, pressurization, or other systems...

  16. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.831 Ventilation... probable failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating, pressurization, or other systems...

  17. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.831 Ventilation... probable failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating, pressurization, or other systems...

  18. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.831 Ventilation... probable failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating, pressurization, or other systems...

  19. 14 CFR 25.831 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Ventilation and Heating § 25.831 Ventilation... probable failures or malfunctioning of the ventilating, heating, pressurization, or other systems...

  20. Assessment of the impact of dipped guideways on urban rail transit systems: Ventilation and safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The ventilation and fire safety requirements for subway tunnels with dipped profiles between stations as compared to subway tunnels with level profiles were evaluated. This evaluation is based upon computer simulations of a train fire emergency condition. Each of the tunnel configurations evaluated was developed from characteristics that are representative of modern transit systems. The results of the study indicate that: (1) The level tunnel system required about 10% more station cooling than dipped tunnel systems in order to meet design requirements; and (2) The emergency ventilation requirements are greater with dipped tunnel systems than with level tunnel systems.

  1. Ventilation Model

    SciTech Connect

    V. Chipman

    2002-10-05

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. The purposes of Revision 01 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of the discretization (Section 6.2.3.1), and the downstream applicability of the model results (i.e. wall heat fractions) to initialize post

  2. Pulmonary Drug Delivery System for inhalation therapy in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Rajiv; Sohal, Harjyot

    2008-01-01

    The Pulmonary Drug Delivery System (PDDS) Clinical represents a newer generation of electronic nebulizers that employ a vibrating mesh or aperture plate to generate an aerosol. The PDDS Clinical is designed for aerosol therapy in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. The components of the device include a control module that is connected to the nebulizer/reservoir unit by a cable. The nebulizer contains Aerogen's OnQ aerosol generator. A pressure sensor monitors the pressure in the inspiratory limb of the ventilator circuit and provides feedback to the control module. Based on the feedback from the pressure sensor, aerosol generation occurs only during a specific part of the respiratory cycle. In bench models, the PDDS Clinical has high efficiency for aerosol delivery both on and off the ventilator, with a lower respiratory tract delivery of 50-70% of the nominal dose. Currently, the PDDS Clinical is being evaluated for the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia with aerosolized amikacin, an aminoglycoside antibiotic. Preliminary studies in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia found that the administration of amikacin via PDDS reduced the need for concomitant intravenous antibiotics; however, more definitive clinical studies are needed. The PDDS Clinical delivers a high percentage of the nominal dose to the lower respiratory tract, and is well suited for inhalation therapy in mechanically ventilated patients. PMID:18095891

  3. Energy and IAQ Implications of Residential Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, William; Walker, Iain

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the energy, humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of residential ventilation cooling in all U.S. IECC climate zones. A computer modeling approach was adopted, using an advanced residential building simulation tool with airflow, energy and humidity models. An economizer (large supply fan) was simulated to provide ventilation cooling while outdoor air temperatures were lower than indoor air temperatures (typically at night). The simulations were performed for a full year using one-minute time steps to allow for scheduling of ventilation systems and to account for interactions between ventilation and heating/cooling systems.

  4. Evaluation of AY/AZ tank farm ventilation system during aging waste retrieval operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J.J.; Waters, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Management is currently planning to demonstrate mobilization of radioactive waste sludges in Tank 101-AZ beginning in October 1991. The retrieval system being designed will utilize mixer pumps that generate high-velocity, high-volume submerged liquid jets to mobilize settled solids. There is concern that these jets may also generate radioactive aerosols, some of which may be carried into the tank Ventilation system. The purpose of this study is to determine if the current AY/AZ ventilation system or the proposed ventilation system upgrade (Project W-030) will provide adequate deentrainment of liquid and solid aerosols during mixer pump operations, or if the radioactive aerosols will overload the HEPA filters.

  5. Methane emissions and airflow patterns along longwall faces and through bleeder ventilation systems

    PubMed Central

    Schatzel, Steven J.; Dougherty, Heather N.

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an investigation of longwall face and bleeder ventilation systems using tracer gas experiments and computer network ventilation. The condition of gateroad entries, along with the caved material’s permeability and porosity changes as the longwall face advances, determine the resistance of the airflow pathways within the longwall’s worked-out area of the bleeder system. A series of field evaluations were conducted on a four-panel longwall district. Tracer gas was released at the mouth of the longwall section or on the longwall face and sampled at various locations in the gateroads inby the shield line. Measurements of arrival times and concentrations defined airflow/gas movements for the active/completed panels and the bleeder system, providing real field data to delineate these pathways. Results showed a sustained ability of the bleeder system to ventilate the longwall tailgate corner as the panels retreated. PMID:26925166

  6. Measurement of HVAC system performance and local ventilation using passive perfluorocarbon tracer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; Goodrich, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    In April of 1993, two (2) perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) ventilation/indoor air quality assessment tests were performed in the Gleeson Hall building of the SUNY Farmingdale campus. The building was being modified, in part, as a result of significant occupant complaints of perceived poor air quality. The four story building had a basement first floor with air supplied normally by an HVAC system labelled as AC1. During this study, AC1 was inoperational and the basement interior rooms (walls) were primarily gone; the other three floors were still being used for classes. It is possible that a sense of poor air quality may have been perceived by first-floor occupants because they were working in the basement, but this issue could not be addressed. The second floor had two (2) lecture halls--Rm 202 (handled by AC4) and Rm 204 (handled by AC5); the balance of the second floor interior rooms and corridors was split between two other air handling systems, AC2 for the west side of the building and AC3 for the east side. The remaining 3rd and 4th floors were also split about evenly between AC2 and AC3. The perimeter rooms, equipped with wall units having their own outside air (OA) source plus centralized return air (RA) bypasses, were not included in this testing which was restricted to the basement floor (1st floor) and the four operating air handling systems, AC2 to AC5, during Test 1 and only AC2 to AC5 during Test 2. Two types of tests were performed using the full suite of 5 PFT types available. The first test was designed to measure the infiltration, exfiltration, and air exchange between the 5 AC zones above and the second test used the 5th tracer, which had been in the basement, as a distributed source throughout the four other zones to act as a surrogate pollutant source. This report provides final conclusions of both tests and suggestions regarding its usefulness in similar building ventilation and indoor air quality assessments.

  7. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Herbaceous

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional bale feedstock design has been established that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying herbaceous feedstocks as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move herbaceous biomass feedstock from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the uses of field-dried corn stover or switchgrass as a feedstock to annually supply an 800,000 DM ton conversion facility.

  8. Ventilation and ventilators.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B

    1982-01-01

    The history of ventilation is reviewed briefly and recent developments in techniques of ventilation are discussed. Operating features of ventilators have changed in the past few years, partly as the result of clinical progress; yet, technology appears to have outstripped the clinician's ability to harness it most effectively. Clinical discipline and training of medical staff in the use of ventilators could be improved. The future is promising if clinician and designer can work together closely. Ergonomics of ventilators and their controls and the provision of alarms need special attention. Microprocessors are likely to feature prominently in the next generation of designs. PMID:6754938

  9. A perfluorochemical loss/restoration (L/R) system for tidal liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Libros, R; Philips, C M; Wolfson, M R; Shaffer, T H

    2000-01-01

    Tidal liquid ventilation is the transport of dissolved respiratory gases via volume exchange of perfluorochemical (PFC) liquid to and from the PFC-filled lung. All gas-liquid surface tension is eliminated, increasing compliance and providing lung protection due to lower inflation pressures. Tidal liquid ventilation is achieved by cycling fluid from a reservoir to and from the lung by a ventilator. Current approaches are microprocessor-based with feedback control. During inspiration, warmed oxygenated PFC liquid is pumped from a fluid reservoir/gas exchanger into the lung. PFC fluid is conserved by condensing (60-80% efficiency) vapor in the expired gas. A feedback-control system was developed to automatically replace PFC lost due to condenser inefficiency. This loss/restoration (L/R) system consists of a PFC-vapor thermal detector (+/- 2.5%), pneumatics, amplifiers, a gas flow detector (+/- 1%), a PFC pump (+/- 5%), and a controller. Gravimetric studies of perflubron loss from a flask due to evaporation were compared with experimental L/R results and found to be within +/- 1.4%. In addition, when L/R studies were conducted with a previously reported liquid ventilation system over a four-hour period, the L/R system maintained system perflubron volume to within +/- 1% of prime volume and 11.5% of replacement volume, and the difference between experimental PFC loss and that of the L/R system was 1.8 mL/hr. These studies suggest that the PFC L/R system may have significant economic (appropriate dosing for PFC loss) as well as physiologic (maintenance of PFC inventory in the lungs and liquid ventilator) impact on liquid ventilation procedures. PMID:11098391

  10. Ventilation Transport Trade Study for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Robert; Vogel, Matthew; Paul, Heather L.

    2008-01-01

    A new and advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for space suit surface exploration will require a durable, compact, and energy efficient system to transport the ventilation stream through the space suit. Current space suits used by NASA circulate the ventilation stream via a ball-bearing supported centrifugal fan. As NASA enters the design phase for the next generation PLSS, it is necessary to evaluate available technologies to determine what improvements can be made in mass, volume, power, and reliability for a ventilation transport system. Several air movement devices already designed for commercial, military, and space applications are optimized in these areas and could be adapted for EVA use. This paper summarizes the efforts to identify and compare the latest fan and bearing technologies to determine candidates for the next generation PLSS.

  11. Recommended Ventilation Strategies for Energy-Efficient Production Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, J.; Brown, R.; Koomey, J.; Warner, J.; Greenberg, S.

    1998-12-01

    This report evaluates residential ventilation systems for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} Homes program and recommends mechanical ventilation strategies for new, low-infiltration, energy-efficient, single-family, ENERGY STAR production (site-built tract) homes in four climates: cold, mixed (cold and hot), hot humid, and hot arid. Our group in the Energy Analysis Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab compared residential ventilation strategies in four climates according to three criteria: total annualized costs (the sum of annualized capital cost and annual operating cost), predominant indoor pressure induced by the ventilation system, and distribution of ventilation air within the home. The mechanical ventilation systems modeled deliver 0.35 air changes per hour continuously, regardless of actual infiltration or occupant window-opening behavior. Based on the assumptions and analysis described in this report, we recommend independently ducted multi-port supply ventilation in all climates except cold because this strategy provides the safety and health benefits of positive indoor pressure as well as the ability to dehumidify and filter ventilation air. In cold climates, we recommend that multi-port supply ventilation be balanced by a single-port exhaust ventilation fan, and that builders offer balanced heat-recovery ventilation to buyers as an optional upgrade. For builders who continue to install forced-air integrated supply ventilation, we recommend ensuring ducts are airtight or in conditioned space, installing a control that automatically operates the forced-air fan 15-20 minutes during each hour that the fan does not operate for heating or cooling, and offering ICM forced-air fans to home buyers as an upgrade.

  12. Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Armin Rudd

    2005-08-30

    This paper reviews current and potential ventilation technologies for residential buildings, including a variety of mechanical systems, natural ventilation, and passive ventilation. with particular emphasis on North American climates and construction.

  13. Direct current uninterruptible power supply method and system

    DOEpatents

    Sinha, Gautam

    2003-12-02

    A method and system are described for providing a direct current (DC) uninterruptible power supply with the method including, for example: continuously supplying fuel to a turbine; converting mechanical power from the turbine into alternating current (AC) electrical power; converting the AC electrical power to DC power within a predetermined voltage level range; supplying the DC power to a load; and maintaining a DC load voltage within the predetermined voltage level range by adjusting the amount of fuel supplied to the turbine.

  14. Cleanup and Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Ventilation Systems Using Robotic Tools - 13162

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Frederic; CIZEL, Jean-Pierre

    2013-07-01

    The UP1 plant reprocessed nearly 20,000 tons of used natural uranium gas cooled reactor fuel coming from the first generation of civil nuclear reactors in France. Following operating incidents in the eighties, the ventilation system of the continuous dissolution line facility was shut down and replaced. Two types of remote controlled tool carriers were developed to perform the decontamination and dismantling operations of the highly contaminated ventilation duct network. The first one, a dedicated small robot, was designed from scratch to retrieve a thick powder deposit within a duct. The robot, managed and confined by two dedicated glove boxes, was equipped for intervention inside the ventilation duct and used for carrying various cleanup and inspection tools. The second type, consisting of robotic tools developed on the base of an industrial platform, was used for the clean-up and dismantling of the ventilation duct system. Depending on the type of work to be performed, on the shape constraints of the rooms and any equipment to be dismantled, different kinds of robotic tools were developed and installed on a Brokk 40 carrier. After more than ten years of ventilation duct D and D operations at the UP1 plant, a lot of experience was acquired about remote operations. The three main important lessons learned in terms of remote controlled operation are: characterizing the initial conditions as much as reasonably possible, performing non-radioactive full scale testing and making it as simple and modular as possible. (authors)

  15. ADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING CONTROLS FOR THE OPERATION OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS FOR UNDERGROUND RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B.; Hansen, A.

    2013-11-13

    Liquid radioactive wastes from the Savannah River Site are stored in large underground carbon steel tanks. The majority of the waste is confined in double shell tanks, which have a primary shell, where the waste is stored, and a secondary shell, which creates an annular region between the two shells, that provides secondary containment and leak detection capabilities should leakage from the primary shell occur. Each of the DST is equipped with a purge ventilation system for the interior of the primary shell and annulus ventilation system for the secondary containment. Administrative flammability controls require continuous ventilation to remove hydrogen gas and other vapors from the waste tanks while preventing the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Should a leak from the primary to the annulus occur, the annulus ventilation would also serve this purpose. The functionality of the annulus ventilation is necessary to preserve the structural integrity of the primary shell and the secondary. An administrative corrosion control program is in place to ensure integrity of the tank. Given the critical functions of the purge and annulus ventilation systems, engineering controls are also necessary to ensure that the systems remain robust. The system consists of components that are constructed of metal (e.g., steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, etc.) and/or polymeric (polypropylene, polyethylene, silicone, polyurethane, etc.) materials. The performance of these materials in anticipated service environments (e.g., normal waste storage, waste removal, etc.) was evaluated. The most aggressive vapor space environment occurs during chemical cleaning of the residual heels by utilizing oxalic acid. The presence of NO{sub x} and mercury in the vapors generated from the process could potentially accelerate the degradation of aluminum, carbon steel, and copper. Once identified, the most susceptible materials were either replaced and/or plans for discontinuing operations

  16. 24 CFR 3280.704 - Fuel supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fuel supply systems. 3280.704... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.704 Fuel supply systems. (a) LP—Gas system design and service line pressure. (1)...

  17. Clinical Verification of A Clinical Decision Support System for Ventilator Weaning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Weaning is typically regarded as a process of discontinuing mechanical ventilation in the daily practice of an intensive care unit (ICU). Among the ICU patients, 39%-40% need mechanical ventilator for sustaining their lives. The predictive rate of successful weaning achieved only 35-60% for decisions made by physicians. Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) are promising in enhancing diagnostic performance and improve healthcare quality in clinical setting. To our knowledge, a prospective study has never been conducted to verify the effectiveness of the CDSS in ventilator weaning before. In this study, the CDSS capable of predicting weaning outcome and reducing duration of ventilator support for patients has been verified. Methods A total of 380 patients admitted to the respiratory care center of the hospital were randomly assigned to either control or study group. In the control group, patients were weaned with traditional weaning method, while in the study group, patients were weaned with CDSS monitored by physicians. After excluding the patients who transferred to other hospitals, refused further treatments, or expired the admission period, data of 168 and 144 patients in the study and control groups, respectively, were used for analysis. Results The results show that a sensitivity of 87.7% has been achieved, which is significantly higher (p<0.01) than the weaning determined by physicians (sensitivity: 61.4%). Furthermore, the days using mechanical ventilator for the study group (38.41 ± 3.35) is significantly (p<0.001) shorter than the control group (43.69 ± 14.89), with a decrease of 5.2 days in average, resulting in a saving of healthcare cost of NT$45,000 (US$1,500) per patient in the current Taiwanese National Health Insurance setting. Conclusions The CDSS is demonstrated to be effective in identifying the earliest time of ventilator weaning for patients to resume and sustain spontaneous breathing, thereby avoiding unnecessary prolonged

  18. Magnetically switched power supply system for lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A laser power supply system is described in which separate pulses are utilized to avalanche ionize the gas within the laser and then produce a sustained discharge to cause the gas to emit light energy. A pulsed voltage source is used to charge a storage device such as a distributed capacitance. A transmission line or other suitable electrical conductor connects the storage device to the laser. A saturable inductor switch is coupled in the transmission line for containing the energy within the storage device until the voltage level across the storage device reaches a predetermined level, which level is less than that required to avalanche ionize the gas. An avalanche ionization pulse generating circuit is coupled to the laser for generating a high voltage pulse of sufficient amplitude to avalanche ionize the laser gas. Once the laser gas is avalanche ionized, the energy within the storage device is discharged through the saturable inductor switch into the laser to provide the sustained discharge. The avalanche ionization generating circuit may include a separate voltage source which is connected across the laser or may be in the form of a voltage multiplier circuit connected between the storage device and the laser.

  19. TNKVNT: A model of the Tank 48 purge/ventilation exhaust system. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shadday, M.A. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    The waste tank purge ventilation system for Tank 48 is designed to prevent dangerous concentrations of hydrogen or benzene from accumulating in the gas space of the tank. Fans pull the gas/water vapor mixture from the tank gas space and pass it sequentially through a demister, a condenser, a reheater, and HEPA filters before discharging to the environment. Proper operation of the HEPA filters requires that the gas mixture passing through them has a low relative humidity. The ventilation system has been modified by increasing the capacity of the fans and changing the condenser from a two-pass heat exchanger to a single-pass heat exchanger. It is important to understand the impact of these modifications on the operation of the system. A hydraulic model of the ventilation exhaust system has been developed. This model predicts the properties of the air throughout the system and the flowrate through the system, as functions of the tank gas space and environmental conditions. This document serves as a Software Design Report, a Software Coding report, and a User`s Manual. All of the information required for understanding and using this code is herein contained: the governing equations are fully developed, the numerical algorithms are described in detail, and an extensively commented code listing is included. This updated version of the code models the entire purge ventilation system, and is therefore more general in its potential applications.

  20. Design and control of a demand flow system assuring spontaneous breathing of a patient connected to an HFO ventilator.

    PubMed

    Roubík, Karel; Ráfl, Jakub; van Heerde, Marc; Markhorst, Dick G

    2011-11-01

    Lung protective ventilation is intended to minimize the risk of ventilator induced lung injury and currently aimed at preservation of spontaneous breathing during mechanical ventilation. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is a lung protective ventilation strategy. Commonly used high-frequency oscillatory (HFO) ventilators, SensorMedics 3100, were not designed to tolerate spontaneous breathing. Respiratory efforts in large pediatric and adult patients impose a high workload to the patient and may cause pressure swings that impede ventilator function. A Demand Flow System (DFS) was designed to facilitate spontaneous breathing during HFOV. Using a linear quadratic Gaussian state feedback controller, the DFS alters the inflow of gas into the ventilator circuit, so that it instantaneously compensates for the changes in mean airway pressure (MAP) in the ventilator circuit caused by spontaneous breathing. The undesired swings in MAP are thus eliminated. The DFS significantly reduces the imposed work of breathing and improves ventilator function. In a bench test the performance of the DFS was evaluated using a simulator ASL 5000. With the gas inflow controlled, MAP was returned to its preset value within 115 ms after the beginning of inspiration. The DFS might help to spread the use of HFOV in clinical practice. PMID:21859597

  1. CBTL Design Case Summary Conventional Feedstock Supply System - Woody

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher T. Wright; Erin M. Searcy

    2012-02-01

    A conventional woody feedstock design has been developed that represents supply system technologies, costs, and logistics that are achievable today for supplying woody biomass as a blendstock with coal for energy production. Efforts are made to identify bottlenecks and optimize the efficiency and capacities of this supply system, within the constraints and consideration of existing local feedstock supplies, equipment, and permitting requirements. The feedstock supply system logistics operations encompass all of the activities necessary to move woody biomass from the production location to the conversion reactor ready for blending and insertion. This supply system includes operations that are currently available such that costs and logistics are reasonable and reliable. The system modeled for this research project includes the use of the slash stream since it is a more conservative analysis and represents the material actually used in the experimental part of the project.

  2. Feasibility of a machine-mounted scrubber system for ventilating coal-mine working faces. Open File report

    SciTech Connect

    Halfinger, G.

    1984-06-01

    Underground testing was carried out to determine the effectiveness of a machine-mounted scrubber system for ventilating the face during deep cutting. A continuous miner equipped with an integral flooded-bed dust scrubber system was instrumented. Methane and respirable dust data were collected at brattice setbacks of 25 ft (standard), 35 ft, and 50 ft (blowing ventilation) during production shifts.

  3. Parametric instabilities of rotor-support systems with application to industrial ventilators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parszewski, Z.; Krodkiemski, T.; Marynowski, K.

    1980-01-01

    Rotor support systems interaction with parametric excitation is considered for both unequal principal shaft stiffness (generators) and offset disc rotors (ventilators). Instability regions and types of instability are computed in the first case, and parametric resonances in the second case. Computed and experimental results are compared for laboratory machine models. A field case study of parametric vibrations in industrial ventilators is reported. Computed parametric resonances are confirmed in field measurements, and some industrial failures are explained. Also the dynamic influence and gyroscopic effect of supporting structures are shown and computed.

  4. Experimental study of a semi-passive ventilation grille with a feedback control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazio, A.; Fontana, L.; Salata, F.

    2011-08-01

    The diffusion of window frames with low air permeability, due to the energy saving regulations, has implied in several cases the worsening of the indoor microclimate and air quality. On the other hand, air-tight window frames imply uncontrolled and too high air change rates. The mechanical ventilation not always is a practicable solution because of economic reasons and because it implies energy waste. Various Italian and European environmental and energetic laws take into consideration and promote the use of controlled natural ventilation, though this definition is not associated to well defined and tested technical solutions. An adequate solution can be achieved by using semi-passive self adjustable ventilation devices, able to ensure controlled changes of indoor air. In this paper, a semi-passive damper with a feedback control system is proposed and its behavior is investigated by means of experimental study. The presented semi-passive grille allows to control the air flow rate, injected into the room by natural or artificial pressure gradient, more effectively than the usual passive ventilation grilles made available by the present industrial production. However, since the semi-passive grille has a one-way flow, in the natural ventilation of a flat the proper functioning of the system could be ensured with a more complex configuration, with respect to the passive self-regulating grilles, able to limit the flow of fresh air in the presence of high levels of Δp; conversely, it could have widespread use in applications requiring a more accurate control of airflow in case of mechanical ventilation plants.

  5. Ventilator-Related Adverse Events: A Taxonomy and Findings From 3 Incident Reporting Systems

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Julius Cuong; Williams, Tamara L; Sparnon, Erin M; Cillie, Tam K; Scharen, Hilda F; Marella, William M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2009, researchers from Johns Hopkins University's Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality; public agencies, including the FDA; and private partners, including the Emergency Care Research Institute and the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization, sought to form a public-private partnership for the promotion of patient safety (P5S) to advance patient safety through voluntary partnerships. The study objective was to test the concept of the P5S to advance our understanding of safety issues related to ventilator events, to develop a common classification system for categorizing adverse events related to mechanical ventilators, and to perform a comparison of adverse events across different adverse event reporting systems. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of ventilator-related adverse events reported in 2012 from the following incident reporting systems: the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System, UHC's Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization database, and the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database. Once each organization had its dataset of ventilator-related adverse events, reviewers read the narrative descriptions of each event and classified it according to the developed common taxonomy. RESULTS: A Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority, FDA, and UHC search provided 252, 274, and 700 relevant reports, respectively. The 3 event types most commonly reported to the UHC and the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System databases were airway/breathing circuit issue, human factor issues, and ventilator malfunction events. The top 3 event types reported to the FDA were ventilator malfunction, power source issue, and alarm failure. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found that (1) through the development of a common taxonomy, adverse events from 3 reporting systems can be evaluated, (2) the types of

  6. System Dynamics Modeling for Supply Chain Information Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yang

    In this paper, we try to use the method of system dynamics to model supply chain information sharing. Firstly, we determine the model boundaries, establish system dynamics model of supply chain before information sharing, analyze the model's simulation results under different changed parameters and suggest improvement proposal. Then, we establish system dynamics model of supply chain information sharing and make comparison and analysis on the two model's simulation results, to show the importance of information sharing in supply chain management. We wish that all these simulations would provide scientific supports for enterprise decision-making.

  7. Measuring Airflow in Local Exhaust Ventilation Systems. Module 23. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, contains self-instructional materials on measuring airflow in local exhaust ventilation systems. Following guidelines for students and instructors and an introduction that explains what the student will learn are three lessons: (1) naming each…

  8. Field Study and Numerical Simulation of Sub Slab Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnefous, Y.C.; Gadgil, A.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Prill, R.J.; Nematollahi, A.R.

    1992-05-01

    The effectiveness of the technique of subslab ventilation (SSV) for limiting radon entry into basements was investigated through complementary experimentation and numerical modeling. Subslab pressure fields resulting from SSV were measured in six well-characterized basements, each with a different combination of soil and aggregate permeability. The relationship between air velocity and pressure gradient was measured in the laboratory for the three types of aggregate installed beneath the basement slabs. A new numerical model of SSV was developed and verified with the field data. This model simulates non-Darcy flow in the aggregate. We demonstrate that non-Darcy effects significantly impact SSV performance. Field data and numerical simulations indicate that increasing the aggregate permeability within the investigated range of 2 x 10{sup -8} m{sup 2} to 3 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2} substantially improves the extension of the subslab pressure field due to SSV operation. Sealing of cracks in the slab and excavation of a small pit where the SSV pipe penetrates the slab also dramatically improve this pressure field extension. Our findings are consistent with the results of prior field studies; however, the studies reported here have improved our understanding of factors affecting SSV performance. The dependence of SSV performance on the relevant parameters are currently under investigation with the model.

  9. A novel fiber-optic measurement system for the evaluation of performances of neonatal pulmonary ventilators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battista, L.; Scorza, A.; Botta, F.; Sciuto, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Published standards for the performance evaluation of pulmonary ventilators are mainly directed to manufacturers rather than to end-users and often considered inadequate or not comprehensive. In order to contribute to overcome the problems above, a novel measurement system was proposed and tested with waveforms of mechanical ventilation by means of experimental trials carried out with infant ventilators typically used in neonatal intensive care units: the main quantities of mechanical ventilation in newborns are monitored, i.e. air flow rate, differential pressure and volume from infant ventilator are measured by means of two novel fiber-optic sensors (OFSs) developed and characterized by the authors, while temperature and relative humidity of air mass are obtained by two commercial transducers. The proposed fiber-optic sensors (flow sensor Q-OFS, pressure sensor P-OFS) showed measurement ranges of air flow and pressure typically encountered in neonatal mechanical ventilation, i.e. the air flow rate Q ranged from 3 l min-1 to 18 l min-1 (inspiratory) and from  -3 l min-1 to  -18 l min-1 (expiratory), the differential pressure ΔP ranged from  -15 cmH2O to 15 cmH2O. In each experimental trial carried out with different settings of the ventilator, outputs of the OFSs are compared with data from two reference sensors (reference flow sensor RF, reference pressure sensor RP) and results are found consistent: flow rate Q showed a maximum error between Q-OFS and RF up to 13 percent, with an output ratio Q RF/Q OFS of not more than 1.06  ±  0.09 (least square estimation, 95 percent confidence level, R 2 between 0.9822 and 0.9931). On the other hand the maximum error between P-OFS and RP on differential pressure ΔP was lower than 10 percent, with an output ratio ΔP RP/ΔP OFS between 0.977  ±  0.022 and 1.0  ±  0.8 (least square estimation, 95 percent confidence level, R 2 between 0.9864 and 0.9876). Despite the possible improvements

  10. ESTIMATING COSTS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The issue of economic effects and the cost of water supply is a continuing factor in implementing the Safe Drinking Water Act. The cost of distributing water to the final user after it has been treated is of growing concern as well as its quality. There are a significant number o...

  11. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test system supply facilities. 160.45 Section 160.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Facilities § 160.45 Test system supply facilities. (a) There shall be storage areas, as needed, for...

  12. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test system supply facilities. 792.45 Section 792.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Facilities § 792.45 Test system supply facilities. (a) There shall be storage areas,...

  13. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test system supply facilities. 792.45 Section 792.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Facilities § 792.45 Test system supply facilities. (a) There shall be storage areas,...

  14. FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM ANALYSIS FOR ESF PACKAGE 1E

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Vanica

    1995-06-14

    The primary objective of this analysis is to capture new inputs relative to the design of the Fuel Supply System (FSS) at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The new inputs are analyzed and changes to the Fuel Supply System are made as necessary.

  15. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  16. Steering magnet power supply control system for the TRISTAN AR

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, T.; Endo, K.; Fukuma, H.; Kabe, A.; Ozaki, T.

    1985-10-01

    The closed orbit distortion of TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR) is corrected by the steering magnets (correction dipole magnets). These magnets are excited by the bipolar power supplies with the rated power of about 1 KVA. The power supplies are controlled remotely through the serial camac dataway. The camac modules which include the microprocessor are developed for this system and these modules send out the reference current patterns to the individual power supply.

  17. Project W-420 Ventilation Stack Monitoring System Year 2000 Compliance Assessment Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BUSSELL, J.H.

    1999-08-25

    This assessment describes the potential Year 2000 (Y2K) problems and describes the methods for achieving Y2K Compliance for Project W-420, Ventilation Stack Monitoring Systems Upgrades. The purpose of this assessment is to give an overview of the project. This document will not be updated and any dates contained in this document are estimates and may change. The project work scope includes upgrades to ventilation stacks and generic effluent monitoring systems (GEMS) at the 244-A Double Contained Receiver Tank (DCRT), the 244-BX DCRT, the 244-CR Vault, tanks 241-C-105 and 241-C-106, the 244-S DCRT, and the 244-TX DCRT. A detailed description of system dates, functions, interfaces, potential Y2K problems, and date resolutions can not be described since the project is in the definitive design phase, This assessment will describe the methods, protocols, and practices to ensure that equipment and systems do not have Y2K problems.

  18. A novel simulator for mechanical ventilation in newborns: MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications.

    PubMed

    Baldoli, Ilaria; Cuttano, Armando; Scaramuzzo, Rosa T; Tognarelli, Selene; Ciantelli, Massimiliano; Cecchi, Francesca; Gentile, Marzia; Sigali, Emilio; Laschi, Cecilia; Ghirri, Paolo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo; Boldrini, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Respiratory problems are among the main causes of mortality for preterm newborns with pulmonary diseases; mechanical ventilation provides standard care, but long-term complications are still largely reported. In this framework, continuous medical education is mandatory to correctly manage assistance devices. However, commercially available neonatal respiratory simulators are rarely suitable for representing anatomical and physiological conditions; a step toward high-fidelity simulation, therefore, is essential for nurses and neonatologists to acquire the practice needed without any risk. An innovative multi-compartmental infant respirator simulator based on a five-lobe model was developed to reproduce different physio-pathological conditions in infants and to simulate many different kinds of clinical scenarios. The work consisted of three phases: (1) a theoretical study and modeling phase, (2) a prototyping phase, and (3) testing of the simulation software during training courses. The neonatal pulmonary simulator produced allows the replication and evaluation of different mechanical ventilation modalities in infants suffering from many different kinds of respiratory physio-pathological conditions. In particular, the system provides variable compliances for each lobe in an independent manner and different resistance levels for the airway branches; moreover, it allows the trainer to simulate both autonomous and mechanically assisted respiratory cycles in newborns. The developed and tested simulator is a significant contribution to the field of medical simulation in neonatology, as it makes it possible to choose the best ventilation strategy and to perform fully aware management of ventilation parameters. PMID:26238790

  19. Definition and means of maintaining the ventilation system confinement portion of the PFP safety envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, J.D.; Grover, G.A.; O`Brien, P.M., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-05

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant Heating Ventilation and Cooling system provides for the confinement of radioactive releases to the environment and provides for the confinement of radioactive contamination within designated zones inside the facility. This document identifies the components and procedures necessary to ensure the HVAC system provides these functions. Appendices E through J provide a snapshot of non-safety class HVAC equipment and need not be updated when the remainder of the document and Appendices A through D are updated.

  20. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  1. Development of an integrated medical supply information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Eric; Wermus, Marek; Blythe Bauman, Deborah

    2011-08-01

    The integrated medical supply inventory control system introduced in this study is a hybrid system that is shaped by the nature of medical supply, usage and storage capacity limitations of health care facilities. The system links demand, service provided at the clinic, health care service provider's information, inventory storage data and decision support tools into an integrated information system. ABC analysis method, economic order quantity model, two-bin method and safety stock concept are applied as decision support models to tackle inventory management issues at health care facilities. In the decision support module, each medical item and storage location has been scrutinised to determine the best-fit inventory control policy. The pilot case study demonstrates that the integrated medical supply information system holds several advantages for inventory managers, since it entails benefits of deploying enterprise information systems to manage medical supply and better patient services.

  2. Evaluation of high-pressure drilling fluid supply systems

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, M.C.; Reichman, J.M.; Theimer, K.J.

    1981-10-01

    A study was undertaken to help determine the technical and economic feasibility of developing a high-pressure fluid-jet drilling system for the production of geothermal wells. Three system concepts were developed and analyzed in terms of costs, component availability, and required new-component development. These concepts included a single-conduit system that supplies the downhole cutting nozzles directly via surface-located high-pressure pumps; a single-conduit system utilizing low-pressure surface pumps to supply and operate a high-pressure downhole pump, which in turn supplies the cutting nozzles; and a dual-conduit system supplying surface-generated high-pressure fluid for cutting via one conduit and low-pressure scavenging fluid via the other. It is concluded that the single-conduit downhole pump system concept has the greatest potential for success in this application. 28 figures, 11 tables.

  3. Visualization of airflows in push-pull ventilation systems applied to surface treatment tanks.

    PubMed

    Marzal, F; González, E; Miñana, A; Baeza, A

    2003-01-01

    A pilot installation was designed that simulates a surface treatment tank fitted with a push-pull ventilation system. The installation contained elements for measuring and controlling the operational variables (flow rate and tank temperature) and smoke generating equipment for injecting smoke through the holes of the push unit and from the tank surface. Visual observation and video recording of the flows involved meant it was possible to follow the qualitative behavior of the push flow rate along the tank surface and to identify any emissions not captured by the exhaust system. It was possible to differentiate the initial semifree push curtain, its impact with the tank surface, the wall jet that moved toward the exhaust, and its entrance into the exhaust. The methodology proposed is complemented by a quantitative technique for measuring the efficiency, using sulfur hexafluoride as tracer, which permits the causes and location of losses in the ventilation system to be determined. PMID:12908859

  4. The Complex Economic System of Supply Chain Financing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lili; Yan, Guangle

    Supply Chain Financing (SCF) refers to a series of innovative and complicated financial services based on supply chain. The SCF set-up is a complex system, where the supply chain management and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) financing services interpenetrate systematically. This paper establishes the organization structure of SCF System, and presents two financing models respectively, with or without the participation of the third-party logistic provider (3PL). Using Information Economics and Game Theory, the interrelationship among diverse economic sectors is analyzed, and the economic mechanism of development and existent for SCF system is demonstrated. New thoughts and approaches to solve SMEs financing problem are given.

  5. Sunlight supply and gas exchange systems in microalgal bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, K.; Ohya, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Furune, H.

    1987-01-01

    The bioreactor with sunlight supply system and gas exchange systems presented has proved feasible in ground tests and shows much promise for space use as a closed ecological life support system device. The chief conclusions concerning the specification of total system needed for a life support system for a man in a space station are the following: (1) Sunlight supply system - compactness and low electrical consumption; (2) Bioreactor system - high density and growth rate of chlorella; and (3) Gas exchange system - enough for O2 production and CO2 assimilation.

  6. Solar ventilation and tempering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adámek, Karel; Pavlů, Miloš; Bandouch, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The paper presents basic information about solar panels, designed, realized and used for solar ventilation of rooms. Used method of numerical flow simulation gives good overview about warming and flowing of the air in several kinds of realized panels (window, facade, chimney). Yearlong measurements give a good base for calculations of economic return of invested capital. The operation of the system in transient period (spring, autumn) prolongs the period without classical heating of the room or building, in winter the classical heating is supported. In the summer period the system, furnished with chimney, can exhaust inner warm air together with necessary cooling of the system by gravity circulation, only. System needs not any invoiced energy source; it is supplied entirely by solar energy. Large building systems are supported by classical electric fan respectively.

  7. Intelligent vehicle electrical power supply system with central coordinated protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Diange; Kong, Weiwei; Li, Bing; Lian, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect; electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle's battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle's power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  8. Modeling sustainability in renewable energy supply chain systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Fei

    This dissertation aims at modeling sustainability of renewable fuel supply chain systems against emerging challenges. In particular, the dissertation focuses on the biofuel supply chain system design, and manages to develop advanced modeling framework and corresponding solution methods in tackling challenges in sustaining biofuel supply chain systems. These challenges include: (1) to integrate "environmental thinking" into the long-term biofuel supply chain planning; (2) to adopt multimodal transportation to mitigate seasonality in biofuel supply chain operations; (3) to provide strategies in hedging against uncertainty from conversion technology; and (4) to develop methodologies in long-term sequential planning of the biofuel supply chain under uncertainties. All models are mixed integer programs, which also involves multi-objective programming method and two-stage/multistage stochastic programming methods. In particular for the long-term sequential planning under uncertainties, to reduce the computational challenges due to the exponential expansion of the scenario tree, I also developed efficient ND-Max method which is more efficient than CPLEX and Nested Decomposition method. Through result analysis of four independent studies, it is found that the proposed modeling frameworks can effectively improve the economic performance, enhance environmental benefits and reduce risks due to systems uncertainties for the biofuel supply chain systems.

  9. Recirculating Molten Metal Supply System And Method

    DOEpatents

    Kinosz, Michael J.; Meyer, Thomas N.

    2003-07-01

    The melter furnace includes a heating chamber (16), a pump chamber (18), a degassing chamber (20), and a filter chamber (22). The pump chamber (18) is located adjacent the heating chamber (16) and houses a molten metal pump (30). The degassing chamber (20) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the pump chamber (18), and houses a degassing mechanism (36). The filter chamber (22) is located adjacent and in fluid communication with the degassing chamber (20). The filter chamber (22) includes a molten metal filter (38). The melter furnace (12) is used to supply molten metal to an externally located holder furnace (14), which then recirculates molten metal back to the melter furnace (12).

  10. Renin-angiotensin system in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction: Potential protective role of Angiotensin (1-7).

    PubMed

    Sigurta', Anna; Zambelli, Vanessa; Bellani, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction is a feared complication of mechanical ventilation that adversely affects the outcome of intensive care patients. Human and animal studies demonstrate atrophy and ultrastructural alteration of diaphragmatic muscular fibers attributable to increased oxidative stress, depression of the anabolic pathway regulated by Insulin-like growing factor 1 and increased proteolysis. The renin-angiotensin system, through its main peptide Angiotensin II, plays a major role in skeletal muscle diseases, mainly increasing oxidative stress and inducing insulin resistance, atrophy and fibrosis. Conversely, its counter-regulatory peptide Angiotensin (1-7) has a protective role in these processes. Recent data on rodent models show that renin-angiotensin system is activated after mechanical ventilation and that infusion of Angiotensin II induces diaphragmatic skeletal muscle atrophy. Given: (A) common pathways shared by ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction and skeletal muscle pathology induced by renin-angiotensin system, (B) evidences of an involvement of renin-angiotensin system in diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction, we hypothesize that renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction, while Angiotensin (1-7) can have a protective effect on this pathological process. The activation of renin-angiotensin system in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction can be demonstrated by quantification of its main components in the diaphragm of ventilated humans or animals. The infusion of Angiotensin (1-7) in an established rodent model of ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction can be used to test its potential protective role, that can be further confirmed with the infusion of Angiotensin (1-7) antagonists like A-779. Verifying this hypothesis can help in understanding the processes involved in ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction pathophysiology and open new possibilities for its

  11. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-04-01

    Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.

  12. An evaluation of industrial ventilation branch screening methods for obstructions in working exhaust systems.

    PubMed

    Booth, D W; Guffey, S E

    2001-01-01

    This research evaluated the effectiveness of screening methods in identifying obstructed branches in industrial ventilation systems. These methods were divided into two categories: pressure comparisons and pressure ratio comparisons. The first category contained techniques that compare measured static pressures with the corresponding design static pressures or with previously measured pressures. Certain aspects of the method suggested in the Industrial Ventilation Manual were also tested. The second category compares the ratios of two measured pressures and includes the new reference ratio method. Data were collected from six industrial ventilation systems. Four of the systems were used to control wood dust, and two were used to control metal shavings from a saw-sharpening operation. Each system was tested for naturally occurring or deliberately inserted obstructions. Appropriate static and velocity pressures were measured to calculate each troubleshooting method's parameter. The change in the parameter was compared with a range of thresholds for the test cases. Receiver operator characteristic curves and bootstrapping techniques were used to identify the best method for determining the presence of obstructions or alterations. The pressure ratio methods were found to be substantially superior to the pressure comparison methods at detecting obstructions. PMID:11549133

  13. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  14. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  15. Application information on typical hygrometers used in heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.Y.; Snyder, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Hygrometer selection information is provided for application in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A general review of hygrometer literature has been provided and the most commonly used ones for HVAC are discussed. Typical hygrometer parameters are listed to indicate the type of performance that can be expected. Laboratory test results of self-regulating, salt-phase transition hygrometers are presented and discussed in detail.

  16. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Multifamily Individual Heating and Ventilation Systems, Lawrence, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    The conversion of an older Massachusetts building into condominiums illustrates a safe, durable, and cost-effective solution for heating and ventilation systems that can potentially benefit millions of multifamily buildings. In this project, Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) partnered with U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing mass masonry building (a former convent).

  17. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be storage areas, as needed, for feed, nutrients, soils, bedding, supplies, and equipment. Storage areas for feed nutrients, soils, and bedding shall be separated from areas where the test systems...

  18. Measurement of airflow and pressure characteristics of a fan built in a car ventilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorný, Jan; Poláček, Filip; Fojtlín, Miloš; Fišer, Jan; Jícha, Miroslav

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a set of operating points of a fan built in ventilation system of our test car. These operating points are given by the fan pressure characteristics and are defined by a pressure drop of the HVAC system (air ducts and vents) and volumetric flow rate of ventilation air. To cover a wide range of pressure drops situations, four cases of vent flaps setup were examined: (1) all vents opened, (2) only central vents closed (3) only central vents opened and (4) all vents closed. To cover a different volumetric flows, the each case was measured at least for four different speeds of fan defined by the fan voltage. It was observed that the pressure difference of the fan is proportional to the fan voltage and strongly depends on the throttling of the air distribution system by the settings of the vents flaps. In case of our test car we identified correlations between volumetric flow rate of ventilation air, fan pressure difference and fan voltage. These correlations will facilitate and reduce time costs of the following experiments with this test car.

  19. Study on the Oil Supply System for Rotary Compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takahide; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Fujitani, Makoto; Murata, Nobuo

    Research has been undertaken to clarify the shaft oil pump mechanisms and oil supply network systems for rotary compressors. Numerical expressions were developed for each part of the rotary compressor,(such as drive shaft,oil pump and journal bearing grooves)in order to confirm that the calculated values agree with the experimental results. Finally,a computer program has been developed to evaluate the oil supply system performance under steady conditions for rotary compressors.

  20. Electric Transport Traction Power Supply System With Distributed Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, E. Y.; Schurov, N. I.; Rozhkova, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper states the problem of traction substation (TSS) leveling of daily-load curve for urban electric transport. The circuit of traction power supply system (TPSS) with distributed autonomous energy source (AES) based on photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage (ES) units is submitted here. The distribution algorithm of power flow for the daily traction load curve leveling is also introduced in this paper. In addition, it illustrates the implemented experiment model of power supply system.

  1. Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Zoeller, William; Williamson, James; Puttafunta, Srikanth

    2015-07-30

    One method of code-compliance for crawlspaces is to seal and insulate the crawlspace, rather than venting to the outdoors. However, codes require mechanical ventilation; either via conditioned supply air from the HVAC system, or a continuous exhaust ventilation strategy. As the CARB's building partner, Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, intended to use the unvented crawlspace in a recent

  2. Monitoring systems for community water supplies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Brooks, R. R.; Jeffers, E. L.; Linton, A. T.; Poel, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    Water monitoring system includes equipment and techniques for waste water sampling sensors for determining levels of microorganisms, oxygen, chlorine, and many other important parameters. System includes data acquisition and display system that allows computation of water quality information for real time display.

  3. Multiple fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Crothers, William T.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple fuel supply or an internal combustion engine wherein phase separation of components is deliberately induced. The resulting separation permits the use of a single fuel tank to supply components of either or both phases to the engine. Specifically, phase separation of a gasoline/methanol blend is induced by the addition of a minor amount of water sufficient to guarantee separation into an upper gasoline phase and a lower methanol/water phase. A single fuel tank holds the two-phase liquid with separate fuel pickups and separate level indicators for each phase. Either gasoline or methanol, or both, can be supplied to the engine as required by predetermined parameters. A fuel supply system for a phase-separated multiple fuel supply contained in a single fuel tank is described.

  4. A microcomputer system for monitoring ventilation in neonates.

    PubMed

    Brennan, J; Schulze, K; James, L S

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of a microcomputer-based system for measuring ventilatory parameters in neonates on mechanical ventilatory assistance are described. The tidal flows of the infant are sensed by a pneumotachometer housed in the wall of a constant pressure plethysmograph. The processed signal from the pneumotachometer is fed to a dedicated analog-to-digital converter and 6502 microcomputer, which, in turn, loads a dual ported RAM buffer with smoothed, digitized, tidal flow data. At the end of each minute the Apple 2+ processes the accumulated data and computes tidal volume, respiratory frequency, minute volume and the difference between inspired and expired volume. Numerical outputs for these variables and a histogram, representing the distribution of tidal volumes for the minute, are printed on a dot matrix printer. This inexpensive system is capable of presenting contemporary, summarized, ventilatory data in a form that is potentially very useful for the clinicians who are managing the care of the infant. PMID:3772218

  5. The Moxus Modular metabolic system evaluated with two sensors for ventilation against the Douglas bag method.

    PubMed

    Rosdahl, Hans; Lindberg, Thomas; Edin, Fredrik; Nilsson, Johnny

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated the Moxus metabolic system with the Douglas bag method (DBM) as criterion. Reliability and validity were investigated in a wide range of ventilation and oxygen uptake and two sensors for determining ventilation were included. Thirteen well-trained athletes participated in one pre-test and four tests for data collection, exercising on a cycle ergometer at five submaximal powers (50-263 W) and at VO₂max. Gas exchange variables were measured simultaneously using a serial setup with data collected on different days in an order randomized between Moxus with pneumotachometer (MP) and turbine flowmeter (MT) sensors for ventilation. Reliability with both sensors was comparable to the DBM. Average CV (%) of all exercise intensities were with MP: 3.0 ± 1.3 for VO₂, 3.8 ± 1.5 for VCO₂, 3.1 ± 1.2 for the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and 4.2 ± 0.8 for V E. The corresponding values with MT were: 2.7 ± 0.3 for VO₂, 4.7 ± 0.4 for VCO₂, 3.3 ± 0.9 for RER and 4.8 ± 1.4 for V E. Validity was acceptable except for small differences related to the determination of ventilation. The relative differences in relation to DBM at the powers including VO₂max were similar for both sensors with the ranges being: +4 to -2 % for V E, +5 to -3 % for VO₂ and +5 to -4 % for VCO₂ while RER did not differ at any power. The Moxus metabolic system shows high and adequate reliability and reasonable validity over a wide measurement range. At a few exercise levels, V E differed slightly from DBM, resulting in concomitant changes in VO₂ and VCO₂. PMID:23224357

  6. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed preprocessing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, jr., David J.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Tan, Eric; Jacobson, Jacob; Schwab, Amy; Wu, May; Argo, Andrew; Brandt, Craig C.; Cafferty, Kara; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Dutta, Abhijit; Eaton, Laurence M.; Searcy, Erin

    2014-03-31

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the

  7. The imperative for stronger vaccine supply and logistics systems.

    PubMed

    Zaffran, Michel; Vandelaer, Jos; Kristensen, Debra; Melgaard, Bjørn; Yadav, Prashant; Antwi-Agyei, K O; Lasher, Heidi

    2013-04-18

    With the introduction of new vaccines, developing countries are facing serious challenges in their vaccine supply and logistics systems. Storage capacity bottlenecks occur at national, regional, and district levels and system inefficiencies threaten vaccine access, availability, and quality. As countries adopt newer and more expensive vaccines and attempt to reach people at different ages and in new settings, their logistics systems must be strengthened and optimized. As a first step, national governments, donors, and international agencies have crafted a global vision for 2020 vaccine supply and logistics systems with detailed plans of action to achieve five priority objectives. Vaccine products and packaging are designed to meet the needs of developing countries. Immunization supply systems support efficient and effective vaccine delivery. The environmental impact of energy, materials, and processes used in immunization systems is minimized. Immunization information systems enable better and more timely decision-making. Competent and motivated personnel are empowered to handle immunization supply chain issues. Over the next decade, vaccine supply and logistics systems in nearly all developing countries will require significant investments of time and resources from global and national partners, donors, and governments. These investments are critical if we are to reach more people with current and newer vaccines. PMID:23598495

  8. Expert systems for space power supply - Design, analysis, and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ralph S.; Thomson, M. Kemer; Hoshor, Alan

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of applying expert systems to the conceptual design, analysis, and evaluation of space power supplies in particular, and complex systems in general is evaluated. To do this, the space power supply design process and its associated knowledge base were analyzed and characterized in a form suitable for computer emulation of a human expert. The existing expert system tools and the results achieved with them were evaluated to assess their applicability to power system design. Some new concepts for combining program architectures (modular expert systems and algorithms) with information about the domain were applied to create a 'deep' system for handling the complex design problem. NOVICE, a code to solve a simplified version of a scoping study of a wide variety of power supply types for a broad range of missions, has been developed, programmed, and tested as a concrete feasibility demonstration.

  9. Towards energy efficient operation of Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems via advanced supervisory control design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswiecinska, A.; Hibbs, J.; Zajic, I.; Burnham, K. J.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents conceptual control solution for reliable and energy efficient operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems used in large volume building applications, e.g. warehouse facilities or exhibition centres. Advanced two-level scalable control solution, designed to extend capabilities of the existing low-level control strategies via remote internet connection, is presented. The high-level, supervisory controller is based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) architecture, which is the state-of-the-art for indoor climate control systems. The innovative approach benefits from using passive heating and cooling control strategies for reducing the HVAC system operational costs, while ensuring that required environmental conditions are met.

  10. Intelligent process quality control system into supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie; Jiang, Xingyu; Wang, Yingchun

    2010-01-01

    To cope with the challenges of monitoring dynamic and variable quality variation into supply chain, diagnosing the abnormal variation at the right moment, is a difficult problem that a enterprise in supply chain faces in process quality control. An intelligent process quality control mode into supply chain, which integrated quality prevention, analysis, diagnosis and adjustment, and corresponding functional modules and framework were all put forward. This mode dealt mainly with constructing and running intelligent quality control system, such as the theory of similarity manufacturing, Statistical Process Control (SPC), neural network. Furthermore, some key enabling technologies were studied in detail, including process quality analysis on-line based on similarity process and process quality diagnosis based on Elman and expert system of process quality adjustment. It is basis of realizing network, intelligent and automatic process quality control into supply.

  11. Intelligent process quality control system into supply chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie; Jiang, Xingyu; Wang, Yingchun

    2009-12-01

    To cope with the challenges of monitoring dynamic and variable quality variation into supply chain, diagnosing the abnormal variation at the right moment, is a difficult problem that a enterprise in supply chain faces in process quality control. An intelligent process quality control mode into supply chain, which integrated quality prevention, analysis, diagnosis and adjustment, and corresponding functional modules and framework were all put forward. This mode dealt mainly with constructing and running intelligent quality control system, such as the theory of similarity manufacturing, Statistical Process Control (SPC), neural network. Furthermore, some key enabling technologies were studied in detail, including process quality analysis on-line based on similarity process and process quality diagnosis based on Elman and expert system of process quality adjustment. It is basis of realizing network, intelligent and automatic process quality control into supply.

  12. A study on the ventilation method for a factory exposed to high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Lee, E.; Jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    On this work, the importance of industrial ventilation was investigated and examined the theoretical point and problems about general ventilation of factory exposed on high temperature during summer. As a case study, the ventilation planning of the PCB etching process for an electronic company was carried out and each of those characteristics were compared by installing actual ventilation systems and measuring the changing state of the working environment in accordance with ventilation method during summer. The purpose of the study is to present an efficient ventilation method for a factory with a closed structure under high temperature environment. In summary, for a factory with a sealed structure such as the target PCB manufacturing factory in this study, the forced supply and exhaust method was the most appropriate ventilation method for maintaining a low indoor air temperature and for keeping the contaminated air of the factory below the hazardous level.

  13. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    SciTech Connect

    Abodeely, Jared; Stevens, Daniel; Ray, Allison; Newby, Deborah; Schaller, Kastli

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  14. Glacial-interglacial variations in coupled thermocline ventilation and sedimentary iron delivery to the Peru upwelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, F.; McManus, J.; Mix, A. C.; Hensen, C.; Schneider, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Primary productivity in the Humboldt Current system off Peru is limited by the supply of bioavailable iron (Fe) from reducing seafloor sediments. Previous studies have demonstrated that bottom water redox conditions exert first-order control on the Fe efflux from continental margin sediments. Fluctuations in thermocline ventilation therefore have the potential to modulate ocean fertility by altering the net efflux of Fe from the seafloor on a variety of timescales. We present a 140 ka record of high-resolution XRD core scanning, reactive Fe, redox sensitive trace metal and nitrogen isotope data for a sediment core from the present-day oxygen minimum zone off Peru. Coarser grain size as well as decreased δ15N values (≥3 ‰) and increased uranium to molybdenum ratios (≤1.6 μg g-1/μg g-1) indicate enhanced thermocline ventilation compared to the present-day (δ15 ≈ 6 ‰, U/Mo ≈ 0.2 μg g-1/μg g-1) during the LGM, MIS4, MIS5b, MIS5d and MIS6. Sediments that were deposited during these intervals are depleted in reactive Fe suggesting that the redox regime prevailing during cooler intervals fostered seafloor Fe release. The relative accumulation rate of uranium and molybdenum indicates that shifts in the Fe mobilization efficiency were related to a transition from sulfate- to Fe-reducing conditions in the sediment pore water. We suggest that lower concentrations of pore water sulfide close to the sediment surface facilitated dissolved Fe loss across the benthic boundary by decreasing Fe fixation as Fe sulfide. Our data suggest that a redox-shift toward more reducing conditions in oxygen minimum zones may not enhance but rather decrease the sedimentary Fe efflux. We will discuss implications of these findings for nitrate utilization and productivity in the ocean at glacial-interglacial transitions and in response to future de-oxygenation.

  15. Dehumidification Performance of Humidity Control System with Double Ventilation Sorbent Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, Sadao; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Nishina, Yuki; Inaba, Hideo

    The desiccant air-conditioning will be suitable for effective use of the exhaust heat. We have reported high dehumidification efficiency of the proposed system that is composed of a sorbent rotor and a refrigerating cycle. In this study, to improve the sorption efficiency of the rotor, the double ventilation rotor is proposed. After the processing air is dehumidified at the sorption area 1 of the rotor, the air is cooled and has higher relative humidity. And then, the air is blew into the sorption area 2 from the rotor opposite. The double ventilation characteristics on the influence of the division area of the rotor, the flow rate, the recovery temperature, and the temperature of the air cooler were investigated. As a result, the behavior of the double ventilation rotor is clarified and it is found that the quantity of dehumidification of the rotor is greater in the case of 1:1:2 (sorption(1): sorption(2): desorption ) division rate of the rotor than that of 1:1:1.

  16. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk.

    PubMed

    Manbeck, Harvey B; Hofstetter, Daniel W; Murphy, Dennis J; Puri, Virendra M

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  17. Online Design Aid for Evaluating Manure Pit Ventilation Systems to Reduce Entry Risk

    PubMed Central

    Manbeck, Harvey B.; Hofstetter, Daniel W.; Murphy, Dennis J.; Puri, Virendra M.

    2016-01-01

    On-farm manure storage pits contain both toxic and asphyxiating gases such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, methane, and ammonia. Farmers and service personnel occasionally need to enter these pits to conduct repair and maintenance tasks. One intervention to reduce the toxic and asphyxiating gas exposure risk to farm workers when entering manure pits is manure pit ventilation. This article describes an online computational fluid dynamics-based design aid for evaluating the effectiveness of manure pit ventilation systems to reduce the concentrations of toxic and asphyxiating gases in the manure pits. This design aid, developed by a team of agricultural engineering and agricultural safety specialists at Pennsylvania State University, represents the culmination of more than a decade of research and technology development effort. The article includes a summary of the research efforts leading to the online design aid development and describes protocols for using the online design aid, including procedures for data input and for accessing design aid results. Design aid results include gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment curves inside the manure pit and inside the barns above the manure pits, as well as animated motion pictures of individual gas concentration decay and oxygen replenishment in selected horizontal and vertical cut plots in the manure pits and barns. These results allow the user to assess (1) how long one needs to ventilate the pits to remove toxic and asphyxiating gases from the pit and barn, (2) from which portions of the barn and pit these gases are most and least readily evacuated, and (3) whether or not animals and personnel need to be removed from portions of the barn above the manure pit being ventilated. PMID:27303661

  18. COST FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM REHABILITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major challenge for the society in the twenty-first century will be design, rehabilitation, replacement, and optimal management of drinking water distribution systems. A recent survey conducted by the USEPA found that $138B will be needed to maintain and replace existing drinki...

  19. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant`s breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  20. Air exchange effectiveness of conventional and task ventilation for offices

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Prill, R.J.

    1991-12-01

    Air quality and comfort complaints within large buildings are often attributed to air distribution problems. We define three air exchange effectiveness parameters related to air distribution. The first two indicate the indoor air flow pattern (i.e., the extent of short circuiting, mixing, or displacement flow) for an entire building or region. The third parameter is most useful for assessments of the spatial variability of ventilation. We also define the air diffusion effectiveness which indicates the air flow pattern within specific rooms or sections of buildings. The results of measurements of these parameters in US office buildings by the authors and other researchers are reviewed. Almost all measurements indicate very limited short circuiting or displacement flow between locations of air supply and removal. However, a moderate degree of short circuiting is evident from a few measurements in rooms with heated supply air. The results of laboratory-based measurements by the authors are consistent with the field data. Our measurements in office buildings do indicate that ventilation rates can vary substantially between indoor locations, probably due to variation in air supply rates between locations rather than variation in the indoor air flow patterns. One possible method of improving air distribution is to employ task ventilation with air supplied closer to the occupant's breathing zone. We have evaluated two task ventilation systems in a laboratory setting. During most operating conditions, these systems did not provide a region of substantially increased ventilation where occupants breath. However, both systems are capable of providing substantially enhanced ventilation at the breathing zone under some operating conditions. Therefore, task ventilation is a potential option for using ventilation air more effectively.

  1. Vehicle propulsion system with external propellant supply

    SciTech Connect

    Criswell, D.R.

    1993-07-06

    A vehicle propulsion system is described, comprising: a vehicle designed for travel along an arranged travel path in a single extended surrounding medium; propellant depositing means for distributing propellant into a propellant trail having no structural constraint in the extended medium and extending along at least part of the travel path in advance of the vehicle; and the vehicle having combustion means for immediate combustion and expansion of at least some of the propellant distributed along the path to produce thrust on the vehicle, and exhaust means for expelling burnt propellant from the vehicle.

  2. Ligncellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Ric Hoefnagels; Kara Cafferty; Erin Searcy; Jacob J. Jacobson; Martin Junginger; Thijs Cornelissen; Andre Faaij

    2014-12-01

    With growing demand for biomass from industrial uses and international trade, the logistic operations required to economically move the biomass from the field or forest to the end users have become increasingly complex. In addition to economics, understanding energy and GHG emissions is required to design cost effective, sustainable logistic process operations; in order to improve international supply chains it is also important to understate their interdependencies and related uncertainties. This article presents an approach to assess lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems at the operational level. For this purpose, the Biomass Logistic Model (BLM) has been linked with the Geographic Information Systems based Biomass Intermodal Transportation model (BIT-UU) and extended with inter-continental transport routes. Case studies of herbaceous and woody biomass, produced in the U.S. Midwest and U.S. Southeast, respectively, and shipped to Europe for conversion to Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel are included to demonstrate how intermodal transportation and, in particular, overseas shipping integrates with the bioenergy supply chains. For the cases demonstrated, biomass can be supplied at 99 € Mg-1 to 117 € Mg-1 (dry) and converted to FT-diesel at 19 € GJ-1 to 24 € GJ-1 depending on the feedstock type and location, intermediate (chips or pellets) and size of the FT-diesel production plant. With the flexibility to change the design of supply chains as well as input variables, many alternative supply chain cases can be assessed.

  3. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 6: Appendixes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The optimization of the cryogenic supply system for space shuttles is discussed. The subjects considered are: (1) auxiliary power unit parametric data, (2) propellant acquisition, (3) thermal protection and thermodynamic properties, (4) instrumentation and controls, and (5) initial component redundancy evaluations. Diagrams of the systems are provided. Graphs of the performance capabilities are included.

  4. Bimode uninterruptible power supply compatibility in renewable hybrid energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, W. ); O'Sullivan, G. )

    1990-08-01

    Inverters installed in renewable hybrid energy systems are typically used in a stand-alone mode to supply ac power to loads from battery storage when the engine-generator is not being used. Similarities in topology and in the performance requirements of the standby uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system and the hybrid system suggest the UPS could be used in hybrid energy systems. Another alternative to inverters with add-on charging circuits or standby UPS hardware is the Bimode UPS. The bimode UPS uses common circuitry and power components for dc to ac inversion and battery charging. It also provides an automatic and nearly instantaneous ac power transfer function when the engine-generator is started or stopped. The measured operating and transfer characteristics of a bimode UPS in a utility system and in a hybrid system are presented. The applicability of the bimode UPS to hybrid systems and its compatibility in a PV/engine-generator hybrid system are given.

  5. On the acoustic analysis and optimization of ducted ventilation systems using a sub-structuring approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, X; Cui, F S; Cheng, L

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a general sub-structuring approach to predict the acoustic performance of ducted ventilation systems. The modeling principle is to determine the subsystem characteristics by calculating the transfer functions at their coupling interfaces, and the assembly is enabled by using a patch-based interface matching technique. For a particular example of a bended ventilation duct connecting an inlet and an outlet acoustic domain, a numerical model is developed to predict its sound attenuation performance. The prediction accuracy is thoroughly validated against finite element models. Through numerical examples, the rigid-walled duct is shown to provide relatively weak transmission loss (TL) across the frequency range of interest, and exhibit only the reactive behavior for sound reflection. By integrating sound absorbing treatment such as micro-perforated absorbers into the system, the TL can be significantly improved, and the system is seen to exhibit hybrid mechanisms for sound attenuation. The dissipative effect dominates at frequencies where the absorber is designed to be effective, and the reactive effect provides compensations at the absorption valleys attributed to the resonant behavior of the absorber. This ultimately maintains the system TL at a relatively high level across the entire frequency of interest. The TL of the system can be tuned or optimized in a very efficient way using the proposed approach due to its modular nature. It is shown that a balance of the hybrid mechanism is important to achieve an overall broadband attenuation performance in the design frequency range. PMID:26827024

  6. Individually Ventilated Cages Impose Cold Stress on Laboratory Mice: A Source of Systemic Experimental Variability

    PubMed Central

    David, John M; Knowles, Scott; Lamkin, Donald M; Stout, David B

    2013-01-01

    Individual ventilated cages (IVC) are increasing in popularity. Although mice avoid IVC in preference testing, they show no aversion when provided additional nesting material or the cage is not ventilated. Given the high ventilation rate in IVC, we developed 3 hypotheses: that mice housed in IVC experience more cold stress than do mice housed in static cages; that IVC-induced cold stress affects the results of experiments using mice; and that, when provided shelters, mice behaviorally thermoregulate and thereby rescue the cold-stress effects of IVC. To test these hypotheses, we housed mice in IVC, IVC with shelters, and static cages maintained at 20 to 21 °C. We quantified the cold stress of each housing system on mice by assessing nonshivering thermogenesis and brown adipose vacuolation. To test housing effects in a common, murine model of human disease, we implanted mice with subcutaneous epidermoid carcinoma cells and quantified tumor growth, tumor metabolism, and adrenal weight. Mice housed in IVC had histologic signs of cold stress and significantly higher nonshivering thermogenesis, smaller subcutaneous tumors, lower tumor metabolism, and larger adrenal weights than did mice in static cages. Shelters rescued IVC-induced nonshivering thermogenesis, adrenal enlargement, and phenotype-dependent cold-mediated histologic changes in brown adipose tissue and tumor size. IVC impose chronic cold stress on mice, alter experimental results, and are a source of systemic confounders throughout rodent-dependent research. Allowing mice to exhibit behavioral thermoregulation through seeking shelter markedly rescues the experiment-altering effects of housing-imposed cold stress, improves physiologic uniformity, and increases experimental reproducibility across housing systems. PMID:24351762

  7. Smart Power Supply for Battery-Powered Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence; Prokop, Norman F.; Flatico, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    A power supply for battery-powered systems has been designed with an embedded controller that is capable of monitoring and maintaining batteries, charging hardware, while maintaining output power. The power supply is primarily designed for rovers and other remote science and engineering vehicles, but it can be used in any battery alone, or battery and charging source applications. The supply can function autonomously, or can be connected to a host processor through a serial communications link. It can be programmed a priori or on the fly to return current and voltage readings to a host. It has two output power busses: a constant 24-V direct current nominal bus, and a programmable bus for output from approximately 24 up to approximately 50 V. The programmable bus voltage level, and its output power limit, can be changed on the fly as well. The power supply also offers options to reduce the programmable bus to 24 V when the set power limit is reached, limiting output power in the case of a system fault detected in the system. The smart power supply is based on an embedded 8051-type single-chip microcontroller. This choice was made in that a credible progression to flight (radiation hard, high reliability) can be assumed as many 8051 processors or gate arrays capable of accepting 8051-type core presently exist and will continue to do so for some time. To solve the problem of centralized control, this innovation moves an embedded microcontroller to the power supply and assigns it the task of overseeing the operation and charging of the power supply assets. This embedded processor is connected to the application central processor via a serial data link such that the central processor can request updates of various parameters within the supply, such as battery current, bus voltage, remaining power in battery estimations, etc. This supply has a direct connection to the battery bus for common (quiescent) power application. Because components from multiple vendors may have

  8. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

    2012-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  9. TVENT1: a computer code for analyzing tornado-induced flow in ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, R.W.; Tang, P.K.; Gregory, W.S.

    1983-07-01

    TVENT1 is a new version of the TVENT computer code, which was designed to predict the flows and pressures in a ventilation system subjected to a tornado. TVENT1 is essentially the same code but has added features for turning blowers off and on, changing blower speeds, and changing the resistance of dampers and filters. These features make it possible to depict a sequence of events during a single run. Other features also have been added to make the code more versatile. Example problems are included to demonstrate the code's applications.

  10. Stem Photosynthesis not Pressurized Ventilation is Responsible for Light-enhanced Oxygen Supply to Submerged Roots of Alder (Alnus glutinosa)

    PubMed Central

    ARMSTRONG, WILLIAM; ARMSTRONG, JEAN

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Claims that submerged roots of alder and other wetland trees are aerated by pressurized gas flow generated in the stem by a light-induced thermo-osmosis have seemed inconsistent with root anatomy. Our aim was to seek a verification using physical root–stem models, stem segments with or without artificial roots, and rooted saplings. • Methods Radial O2 loss (ROL) from roots was monitored polarographically as the gas space system of the models, and stems were pressurized artificially. ROL and internal pressurization were also measured when stems were irradiated and the xylem stream was either CO2 enriched or not. Stem photosynthesis and respiration were measured polarographically. Stem and root anatomy were examined by light and fluorescence microscopy. • Key Results Pressurizing the models and stems to ≤10 kPa, values much higher than those reportedly generated by thermo-osmosis, created only a negligible density-induced increase in ROL, but ROL increased rapidly when ambient O2 concentrations were raised. Internal pressures rose by several kPa when shoots were exposed to high light flux and ROL increased substantially, but both were due to O2 accumulation from stem photosynthesis using internally sourced CO2. Increased stem pressures had little effect on O2 transport, which remained largely diffusive. Oxygen flux from stems in high light periods indicated a net C gain by stem photosynthesis. Chloroplasts were abundant in the secondary cortex and secondary phloem, and occurred throughout the secondary xylem rays and medulla of 3-year-old stems. Diurnal patterns of ROL, most marked when light reached submerged portions of the stem, were modified by minor variations in light flux and water level. Low root temperatures also helped improve root aeration. • Conclusions Pressurized gas flow to submerged roots does not occur to any significant degree in alder, but stem photosynthesis, using internally sourced CO2 from respiration and the

  11. Clinical challenges in mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Goligher, Ewan C; Ferguson, Niall D; Brochard, Laurent J

    2016-04-30

    Mechanical ventilation supports gas exchange and alleviates the work of breathing when the respiratory muscles are overwhelmed by an acute pulmonary or systemic insult. Although mechanical ventilation is not generally considered a treatment for acute respiratory failure per se, ventilator management warrants close attention because inappropriate ventilation can result in injury to the lungs or respiratory muscles and worsen morbidity and mortality. Key clinical challenges include averting intubation in patients with respiratory failure with non-invasive techniques for respiratory support; delivering lung-protective ventilation to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury; maintaining adequate gas exchange in severely hypoxaemic patients; avoiding the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction; and diagnosing and treating the many pathophysiological mechanisms that impair liberation from mechanical ventilation. Personalisation of mechanical ventilation based on individual physiological characteristics and responses to therapy can further improve outcomes. PMID:27203509

  12. Weaning Patients From Mechanical Ventilation: A Knowledge-Based System Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tong, David A.

    1990-01-01

    The WEANing PROtocol (WEANPRO) knowledge-based system assists respiratory therapists and nurses in weaning post-operative cardiovascular patients from mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit. The knowledge contained in WEANPRO is represented by rules and is implemented in M.1® by Teknowledge, Inc. WEANPRO will run on any IBM® compatible microcomputer. WEANPRO's performance in weaning patients in the intensive care unit was evaluated three ways: (1) a statistical comparison between the mean number of arterial blood gases required to wean patients to a T-piece with and without the use of WEANPRO, (2) a critique of the suggestions offered by the system by clinicians not involved in the system development, and (3) an inspection of the user's acceptance of WEANPRO in the intensive care unit. The results of the evaluations revealed that using WEANPRO significantly decreases the number of arterial blood gas analyses needed to wean patients from total dependance on mechanical ventilation to independent breathing using a T-piece. In doing so, WEANPRO's suggestions are accurate and its use is accepted by the clinicians. Currently, WEANPRO is being used in the intensive care unit at the East Unit of Baptist Memorial Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee.

  13. DEMAND CONTROLLED VENTILATION AND CLASSROOM VENTILATION

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Mendell, Mark J.; Davies, Molly; Eliseeva, Ekaterina; Faulkner, David; Hong, Tienzen; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling. Major findings included: ? The single-location carbon dioxide sensors widely used for demand controlled ventilation frequently have large errors and will fail to effectively control ventilation rates (VRs).? Multi-location carbon dioxide measurement systems with more expensive sensors connected to multi-location sampling systems may measure carbon dioxide more accurately.? Currently-available optical people counting systems work well much of the time but have large counting errors in some situations. ? In meeting rooms, measurements of carbon dioxide at return-air grilles appear to be a better choice than wall-mounted sensors.? In California, demand controlled ventilation in general office spaces is projected to save significant energy and be cost effective only if typical VRs without demand controlled ventilation are very high relative to VRs in codes. Based on the research, several recommendations were developed for demand controlled ventilation specifications in the California Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards.The research on classroom ventilation collected data over two years on California elementary school classrooms to investigate associations between VRs and student illness absence (IA). Major findings included: ? Median classroom VRs in all studied climate zones were below the California guideline, and 40percent lower in portable than permanent buildings.? Overall, one additional L/s per person of VR was associated with 1.6percent less IA. ? Increasing average VRs in California K-12 classrooms from the current average to the required level is estimated to decrease IA by 3.4percent, increasing State attendance-based funding to school districts by $33M, with $6.2 M in increased energy costs. Further VR increases would provide additional benefits

  14. Ventilation Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    V. Chipman; J. Case

    2002-12-20

    The purpose of the Ventilation Model is to simulate the heat transfer processes in and around waste emplacement drifts during periods of forced ventilation. The model evaluates the effects of emplacement drift ventilation on the thermal conditions in the emplacement drifts and surrounding rock mass, and calculates the heat removal by ventilation as a measure of the viability of ventilation to delay the onset of peak repository temperature and reduce its magnitude. The heat removal by ventilation is temporally and spatially dependent, and is expressed as the fraction of heat carried away by the ventilation air compared to the fraction of heat produced by radionuclide decay. One minus the heat removal is called the wall heat fraction, or the remaining amount of heat that is transferred via conduction to the surrounding rock mass. Downstream models, such as the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' (BSC 2001), use the wall heat fractions as outputted from the Ventilation Model to initialize their post-closure analyses. The Ventilation Model report was initially developed to analyze the effects of preclosure continuous ventilation in the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) emplacement drifts, and to provide heat removal data to support EBS design. Revision 00 of the Ventilation Model included documentation of the modeling results from the ANSYS-based heat transfer model. Revision 01 ICN 01 included the results of the unqualified software code MULTIFLUX to assess the influence of moisture on the ventilation efficiency. The purposes of Revision 02 of the Ventilation Model are: (1) To validate the conceptual model for preclosure ventilation of emplacement drifts and verify its numerical application in accordance with new procedural requirements as outlined in AP-SIII-10Q, Models (Section 7.0). (2) To satisfy technical issues posed in KTI agreement RDTME 3.14 (Reamer and Williams 2001a). Specifically to demonstrate, with respect to the ANSYS ventilation model, the adequacy of

  15. 24 CFR 3280.704 - Fuel supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fuel supply systems. 3280.704 Section 3280.704 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED...

  16. 77 FR 48177 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... COMMISSION Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On July 5, 2012 (77 FR 39745), the U.S. Nuclear... ADAMS. II. Background On July 5, 2012 (77 FR 39745), the NRC published a notice of issuance...

  17. 78 FR 36278 - Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1282 on July 5, 2012 (77 FR 39745) for a 60-day public comment period. The public comment period was extended until September 28, 2012 (77 FR 48177). Public comments were received... COMMISSION Fuel Oil Systems for Emergency Power Supplies AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  18. 24 CFR 3285.605 - Fuel supply system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fuel supply system. 3285.605 Section 3285.605 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  19. Collaborative Learning in Advanced Supply Systems: The KLASS Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Ed; Carter, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    The Knowledge and Learning in Advanced Supply Systems (KLASS) project developed collaborative learning networks of suppliers in the British automotive and aerospace industries. Methods included face-to-face and distance learning, work toward National Vocational Qualifications, and diagnostic workshops for senior managers on improving quality,…

  20. Corn management systems for improved synchrony of soil N supply

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen supply to the corn producing farmland all along the Mississippi watershed has a significant potential for contributing to the hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico. Recent advances in conservation tillage systems, that incorporate manure or slow release fertilizers, have been promoted as a way to ...

  1. 117. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111), LSB (BLDG. 770), FACING NORTH. CONTROLS FOR FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATION OF HELIUM ON LEFT SIDE OF PANEL; CONTROLS FOR NITROGEN ON RIGHT SIDE OF PANEL (AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 116. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    116. PNEUMATIC SUPPLY PANEL IN CENTER OF VEHICLE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ROOM (111) OF LSB (BLDG. 770), FACING NORTH. CONTROLS FOR FLOW AND PRESSURE REGULATION OF NITROGEN ON RIGHT SIDE OF PANEL; CONTROLS FOR HELIUM ON LEFT SIDE OF PANEL (AT LEFT EDGE OF PHOTO). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. A number of upgrades on RHIC power supply system

    SciTech Connect

    Mi, C.; Bruno, D.; Drozd, J.; Nolan, T.; Orsatti, F.; Heppener, G.; Di Lieto, A.; Schultheiss, C.; Samms, T.; Zapasek, R.; Sandberg, J.

    2015-05-03

    This year marks the 15th run for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Operation of a reliable superconducting magnet power supply system is a key factor of an accelerator’s performance. Over the past 15 years, the RHIC power supply group has made many improvements to increase the machine availability and reduce failures. During these past 15 years of operating RHIC a lot of problems have been solved or addressed. In this paper some of the essential upgrades/improvements are discussed.

  4. Establishment of a total liquid ventilation system using saline-based oxygen micro/nano-bubble dispersions in rats.

    PubMed

    Kakiuchi, Kenta; Matsuda, Kenichi; Harii, Norikazu; Sou, Keitaro; Aoki, Junko; Takeoka, Shinji

    2015-09-01

    Micro/nano-bubbles are practical nanomaterials designed to increase the gas content in liquids. We attempted to use oxygen micro/nano-bubble dispersions as an oxygen-rich liquid as a means for total liquid ventilation. To determine the oxygen content in the bubble dispersion, a new method based on a spectrophotometric change between oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin was established. The oxygen micro/nano-bubble dispersion was supplied to an experimental total ventilation liquid in anesthetic rats. Though the amount of dissolving oxygen was as low as 6 mg/L in physiological saline, the oxygen content in the oxygen micro/nano-bubble dispersion was increased to 45 mg/L. The positive correlation between the oxygen content and the life-saving time under liquid ventilation clearly indicates that the life-saving time is prolonged by increasing the oxygen content in the oxygen micro/nano-bubble dispersion. This is the first report indicating that the oxygen micro/nano-bubbles containing a sufficient amount of oxygen are useful in producing oxygen-rich liquid for the process of liquid ventilation. PMID:25854604

  5. Clinical assessment of a commercial aerosol delivery system for ventilation scanning by comparison with KR-81m

    SciTech Connect

    Wollmer, P.; Eriksson, L.; Andersson, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive aerosols offer a means for steady state ventilation scanning in multiple views. The clinical use of radioaerosol techniques has been hampered by the lack of delivery systems producing sufficiently small particles. If the aerosol contains large particles, heavy deposition occurs in major airways, especially in patients with airways disease. The authors have assessed a new, commercial aerosol delivery system (Syntevent) by comparison with Kr-81m ventilation scanning in 23 patients with airways obstruction. An indirect comparison was also made with a settling bad technique. Ventilation scans in four projections were obtained during continuous inhalation of Kr-81m. Subsequently, the patient inhaled an aerosol labelled with In-113m from the Syntevent system, and aerosol ventilation scans were obtained in the same projections. Spirometry was performed to establish the degree of airways obstruction. The aerosol delineated the ventilated regions of the lungs adequately in all the patients. Deposition of aerosol in larger airways was seen in a few patients only, and this did not impede the interpretation of the scintigram. A quantitative analysis of the penetration of the aerosol to the periphery of the lung failed to demonstrate any significant correlation between particle penetration and airways obstruction. Aerosol penetration was significantly greater (p<0.001) with the Syntevent system than with a settling bag technique.

  6. Double Shell Tank (DST) Ventilation System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SASAKI, L.M.

    2000-06-08

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the primary ventilation systems of the AN, AP, AW, and AY/AZ tank farms. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Air DQO) (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications. Vapor samples will be obtained from tank farm ventilation systems, downstream from the tanks and upstream of any filtration. Samples taken in support of the DQO will consist of SUMMA{trademark} canisters, triple sorbent traps (TSTs), sorbent tube trains (STTs), polyurethane foam (PUF) samples. Particulate filter samples and tritium traps will be taken for radiation screening to allow the release of the samples for analysis. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from the vapor samples.

  7. Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. Jacobson; R. Mohammad; K. Cafferty; K. Kenney; E. Searcy; J. Hansen

    2014-09-01

    The success of the earlier logistic pathway designs (Biochemical and Thermochemical) from a feedstock perspective was that it demonstrated that through proper equipment selection and best management practices, conventional supply systems (referred to in this report as “conventional designs,” or specifically the 2012 Conventional Design) can be successfully implemented to address dry matter loss, quality issues, and enable feedstock cost reductions that help to reduce feedstock risk of variable supply and quality and enable industry to commercialize biomass feedstock supply chains. The caveat of this success is that conventional designs depend on high density, low-cost biomass with no disruption from incremental weather. In this respect, the success of conventional designs is tied to specific, highly productive regions such as the southeastern U.S. which has traditionally supported numerous pulp and paper industries or the Midwest U.S for corn stover.

  8. Mechanical ventilation in children.

    PubMed

    Kendirli, Tanil; Kavaz, Asli; Yalaki, Zahide; Oztürk Hişmi, Burcu; Derelli, Emel; Ince, Erdal

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation can be lifesaving, but > 50% of complications in conditions that require intensive care are related to ventilatory support, particularly if it is prolonged. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of patients who had mechanical ventilation in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) during a follow-up period between January 2002-May 2005. Medical records of 407 patients were reviewed. Ninety-one patients (22.3%) were treated with mechanical ventilation. Ages of all patients were between 1-180 (median: 8) months. The mechanical ventilation time was 18.8 +/- 14.1 days. Indication of mechanical ventilation could be divided into four groups as respiratory failure (64.8%), cardiovascular failure (19.7%), central nervous system disease (9.8%) and safety airway (5.4%). Tracheostomy was performed in four patients. The complication ratio of mechanically ventilated children was 42.8%, and diversity of complications was as follows: 26.3% atelectasia, 17.5% ventilator-associated pneumonia, 13.1% pneumothorax, 5.4% bleeding, 4.3% tracheal edema, and 2.1% chronic lung disease. The mortality rate of mechanically ventilated patients was 58.3%, but the overall mortality rate in the PICU was 12.2%. In conclusion, there are few published epidemiological data on the follow-up results and mortality in infants and children who are mechanically ventilated. PMID:17290566

  9. Mathematical model for calculation of the heat-hydraulic modes of heating points of heat-supplying systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaginova, Z. I.

    2016-03-01

    The mathematical model and calculation method of the thermal-hydraulic modes of heat points, based on the theory of hydraulic circuits, being developed at the Melentiev Energy Systems Institute are presented. The redundant circuit of the heat point was developed, in which all possible connecting circuits (CC) of the heat engineering equipment and the places of possible installation of control valve were inserted. It allows simulating the operating modes both at central heat points (CHP) and individual heat points (IHP). The configuration of the desired circuit is carried out automatically by removing the unnecessary links. The following circuits connecting the heating systems (HS) are considered: the dependent circuit (direct and through mixing elevator) and independent one (through the heater). The following connecting circuits of the load of hot water supply (HWS) were considered: open CC (direct water pumping from pipelines of heat networks) and a closed CC with connecting the HWS heaters on single-level (serial and parallel) and two-level (sequential and combined) circuits. The following connecting circuits of the ventilation systems (VS) were also considered: dependent circuit and independent one through a common heat exchanger with HS load. In the heat points, water temperature regulators for the hot water supply and ventilation and flow regulators for the heating system, as well as to the inlet as a whole, are possible. According to the accepted decomposition, the model of the heat point is an integral part of the overall heat-hydraulic model of the heat-supplying system having intermediate control stages (CHP and IHP), which allows to consider the operating modes of the heat networks of different levels connected with each other through CHP as well as connected through IHP of consumers with various connecting circuits of local systems of heat consumption: heating, ventilation and hot water supply. The model is implemented in the Angara data

  10. A comparison of health care and blood supply system structures.

    PubMed

    AuBuchon, J P; Custer, B; Sher, G

    2011-01-01

    There is great diversity in the practice of blood banking and transfusion medicine between countries. We sought to relate this to the variety of health care and blood supply systems in different countries. Questionnaires were completed by respondents from 15 countries selected from among those with higher Human Development Indices. These data were reviewed searching for correlations with blood banking and transfusion medicine practices. Wide varieties of health care and blood supply schemes were documented. There was no apparent relationship between their structure and organization nor their financing arrangements and their proclivity for the implementation of new methods or approaches such as pathogen inactivation and universal leucoreduction. The costs of the operation of the blood supply system as represented by their product fees and the rate of collection of red cells could also not be associated with the factors examined. The diversity of practice evident across developed countries is not explicable solely through their health care and blood supply system structures. Other factors are likely involved but are not easy to define or measure. PMID:21175653

  11. An evaluation of ventilation system flow rates and levels of carbon dioxide, ambient temperature, and relative humidity in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Akbar-Khanzadeh, Farhang; Tan, Yin; Brown, Eric N; Akbar-Khanzadeh, Mahboubeh

    2002-09-01

    Studies of the indoor air quality of restaurants have rarely focused on ventilation system performance in relation to air pollutants and climatic factors. This study was conducted in eight restaurants to examine this issue by determining the ventilation flow rates and the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), ambient temperature, and relative humidity during at least one complete shift of serving a meal. The mean values of number of dining patrons, ventilation flow rates, and the levels of CO2, ambient temperature, and relative humidity were not significantly different in the nonsmoking dining rooms and the smoking dining rooms. The mean ventilation flow rates in individual restaurants ranged from 42-113 cubic feet per minute per person (cfm/person), overall exceeding the recommended lower limit of 30 cfm/person. The mean levels of CO2 in two restaurants (646 and 819 ppm) were below, and in the other six restaurants (ranging 1,012-1,820 ppm) were above the recommended upper limit of 1000 ppm. The levels of CO2 in each restaurant significantly correlated with the number of dining patrons and in four restaurants accumulated gradually over time. In the nonsmoking dining rooms, the levels of CO2 increased significantly as the ventilation How rates decreased. The mean ambient temperature in restaurants (ranging from 22 degrees C - 24 degrees C) were within the recommended range of 20 degrees C - 26 degrees C. The mean relative humidity in six restaurants (ranging from 46%-59%) were within the recommended upper limit of 60 percent, and in two restaurants (62% and 71%) were slightly higher than this recommended limit. It was concluded that although the mean ventilation flow rates in all restaurants exceeded the recommended value, the design of the ventilation system or the distribution of air flow rate in some sections of restaurants were not appropriate to keep the levels of CO2 and relative humidity at some measurement locations below the recommended limits. PMID:12216594

  12. [A design of simple ventilator control system based on LabVIEW].

    PubMed

    Pei, Baoqing; Xu, Shengwei; Li, Hui; Li, Deyu; Pei, Yidong; He, Haixing

    2011-01-01

    This paper designed a ventilator control system to control proportional valves and motors. It used LabVIEW to control the object mentioned above and design ,validate, evaluate arithmetic, and establish hardware in loop platform. There are two system' s hierarchies. The high layer was used to run non-real time program and the low layer was used to run real time program. The two layers communicated through TCP/IP net. The program can be divided into several modules, which can be expanded and maintained easily. And the harvest in the prototype designing can be seamlessly used to embedded products. From all above, this system was useful in employing OEM products. PMID:21553538

  13. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR MAINTENANCE AND SUPPLY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) maintenance and supply system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  14. Selected Bibliographies for Pharmaceutical Supply Systems. Volume 5: Pharmaceutical Supply Systems Bibliographies. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaumann, Leif

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 7 in the Method Series, Pharmaceutical Supply System Planning (CE 024 234), this fifth of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with alternative methodologies for planning and analyzing pharmaceutical supply…

  15. An expert system for the interpretation of radionuclide ventilation-perfusion lung scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabor, Frank V.; Datz, Frederick L.; Christian, Paul E.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Morton, Kathryn A.

    1993-09-01

    One of the most commonly performed imaging procedures in nuclear medicine is the lung scan for suspected pulmonary embolism. The purpose of this research was to develop an expert system that interprets lung scans and gives a probability of pulmonary embolism. Three standard ventilation and eight standard perfusion images are first outlined manually. Then the images are normalized. Because lung size varies from patient to patient, each image undergoes a two-dimensional stretch onto a standard-size mask. To determine the presence of regional defects in ventilation or perfusion, images are then compared on a pixel by pixel basis with a normal database. This database consists of 21 normal studies that represent the variation in activity between subjects. Any pixel that falls more than 2.2 standard deviations below the normal file is flagged as possibly abnormal. To reduce statistical fluctuations, a clustering criteria is applied such that each pixel must have at least two continuous neighbors that are abnormal for a pixel to be flagged abnormal.

  16. A study of energy use for ventilation and air-conditioning systems in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chung Hoi Philip

    Most of the local modern buildings are high-rise with enclosed structure. Mechanical ventilation and air conditioning (MVAC) systems are installed for thermal comfort. Various types of MVAC systems found in Hong Kong were critically reviewed with comments on their characteristics in energy efficiency as well as application. The major design considerations were also discussed. Besides MVAC, other energy-consuming components in commercial buildings were also identified, such as lighting, lifts and escalators, office equipment, information technology facilities, etc. A practical approach has been adopted throughout this study in order that the end results will have pragmatic value to the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry in Hong Kong. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) has become a major issue in commercial buildings worldwide including Hong Kong. Ventilation rate is no doubt a critical element in the design of HVAC systems, which can be realized more obviously in railway train compartments where the carbon dioxide level will be built up quickly when the compartments are crowded during rush hours. A study was carried out based on a simplified model using a train compartment that is equipped with an MVAC system. Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) is a single-value parameter for controlling building energy use and is relatively simple to implement legislatively. The local government has taken a first step in reacting to the worldwide concern of energy conservation and environmental protection since 1995. Different methods of OTTV calculation were studied and the computation results were compared. It gives a clear picture of the advantages and limitations for each method to the building designers. However, due to the limitations of using OTTV as the only parameter for building energy control, some new approaches to a total control of building energy use were discussed and they might be considered for future revision of the building energy codes in Hong

  17. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide...

  18. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide...

  19. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide...

  20. A simple and accurate automated system for continuous long-term metabolic studies during artificial ventilation.

    PubMed

    Stam, H; van den Berg, B; Bogaard, J M; Versprille, A

    1987-08-01

    Energy expenditure and the amount of metabolised carbohydrate, protein and lipid can be calculated from the O2 consumption, CO2 production and nitrogen excretion using indirect calorimetry. A low-cost automatic system has been developed suitable for short- and long-term measurements during artificial ventilation, in which the gas analysers were calibrated automatically every 10 min and in which the desired variables were calculated and printed every 5 min. O2 and CO2 concentrations of mixed expired and inspiratory gas, the expired minute volume VE, and patient's rectal temperature, were sampled at regular time intervals and a simple programmable calculator with printer was used for the on-line data analysis. Tests on accuracy, stability, reproducibility and feasibility showed this system to be suitable for clinical application. PMID:3113814

  1. Evaluation of a Mapleson D CPAP system for weaning of mechanical ventilation in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Palomero-Rodríguez, Miguel Angel; de Arteaga, Héctor Chozas; Báez, Yolanda Laporta; de Vicente Sánchez, Jesús; Carretero, Pascual Sanabria; Conde, Pilar Sánchez; Ferrer, Antonio Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the last years, we have used a flow-inflating bag circuit with a nasotracheal or nasopharyngeal tube as an interface to deliver effective CPAP support in infants (“Mapleson D CPAP system”). The primary goal of this study was to assess the usefulness of the “Mapleson D CPAP system” for weaning of mechanical ventilation (MV) in infants who received MV over 24 h. Materials and Methods: All infants who received MV for more than 24 h in the last year were enrolled in the study. Demographic data included age, gender, weight, and admission diagnosis. Heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were measured during MV, 2 h after the nasotracheal Mapleson D CPAP system and 2 h after extubation. Patients were classified into two groups: patients MV more than 48 h, and patients with MV fewer than 48 h. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 50 children were enrolled in the study, with a median age was 34 ± 45 months (range, 1–59 months) and median weight was 11.98 ± 9.31 kg (range, 1–48 kg). Median duration of MV was 480 h (range, 2–570). There were no significant differences in PaO2, PaCO2, and pH among MV, 2 h after the nasotracheal Mapleson D CPAP system and 2 h after extubation and spontaneous ventilation with the nasopharyngeal Mapleson D CPAP system or with nasal prongs. The overall extubation failure rate was 26% (n = 13). Weight and age were significantly associated with extubation failure (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The Mapleson D CPAP system, in our opinion, is a useful and safe alternative to more complex and expensive noninvasive CPAP and BiPAP weaning from MV in infants.

  2. Performance evaluation of the pilot-scale, double-shell tank ventilation system using simulated aerosol streams

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, T.M.; Peterson, M.E.

    1989-12-01

    Radioactive waste slurries are currently being stored in underground tanks on the Hanford Site. The slurries that are being stored in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) are various mixtures of radioactive solids, liquids, and aqueous wastes. The tanks must be maintained at a negative pressure relative to atmospheric pressure to safeguard against pressurization and the subsequent leakage of entrained radioactive aerosols to the environment. A ventilation system must be capable of withdrawing the total volume of off gas generated from the tanks while maintaining the tanks at a negative pressure. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has identified a need to improve the efficiency of the ventilation system being used on the tank farms to meet the more restrictive release limits for radioactive isotopes. Kaiser Engineers Hanford Company (KEH) has been contracted by WHC to design the new ventilation system for the existing tank farms. WHC contracted the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to fabricate and test the prototypic pilot-scale design prior to finalizing the design of the ventilation system. The PNL has conducted tests to determine (1) the effectiveness of the system for removal of vapors condensable at 35{degrees}F, (2) the effectiveness for removal of soluble and insoluble aerosols, and (3) the life span of the mist eliminators to be used in the new system. The results of extensive testing of the pilot-scale system with condensables and both soluble and insoluble aerosols are presented in this report. 7 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Vulnerability Assessment of Water Supply Systems: Status, Gaps and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional frameworks for assessing the impacts of climate change on water resource systems use cascades of climate and hydrological models to provide 'top-down' projections of future water availability, but these are subject to high uncertainty and are model and scenario-specific. Hence there has been recent interest in 'bottom-up' frameworks, which aim to evaluate system vulnerability to change in the context of possible future climate and/or hydrological conditions. Such vulnerability assessments are generic, and can be combined with updated information from top-down assessments as they become available. While some vulnerability methods use hydrological models to estimate water availability, fully bottom-up schemes have recently been proposed that directly map system vulnerability as a function of feasible changes in water supply characteristics. These use stochastic algorithms, based on reconstruction or reshuffling methods, by which multiple water supply realizations can be generated under feasible ranges of change in water supply conditions. The paper reports recent successes, and points to areas of future improvement. Advances in stochastic modeling and optimization can address some technical limitations in flow reconstruction, while various data mining and system identification techniques can provide possibilities to better condition realizations for consistency with top-down scenarios. Finally, we show that probabilistic and Bayesian frameworks together can provide a potential basis to combine information obtained from fully bottom-up analyses with projections available from climate and/or hydrological models in a fully integrated risk assessment framework for deep uncertainty.

  4. Evaluation of a Shaker Dust Collector for Use in a Recirculating Ventilation System.

    PubMed

    Peters, Thomas M; Sawvel, Russell A; Park, Jae Hong; Anthony, T Renée

    2015-01-01

    General ventilation with recirculated air may be cost-effective to control the concentration of low-toxicity, contaminants in workplaces with diffuse, dusty operations, such as in agriculture. Such systems are, however, rarely adopted with little evidence showing improved air quality and ability to operate under harsh conditions. The goal of this work was to examine the initial and long-term performance of a fabric-filter shaker dust collector (SDC) in laboratory tests and as deployed within a recirculating ventilation system in an agricultural building. In laboratory tests, collection efficiency and pressure drop were tracked over several filter loading cycles, and the recovery of filter capacity (pressure drop) from filter shaking was examined. Collection efficiencies of particles larger than 5 μm was high (>95%) even when the filter was pristine, showing effective collection of large particles that dominate inhalable concentrations typical of agricultural dusts. For respirable-sized particles, collection efficiencies were low when the filter was pristine (e.g., 27% for 1 μm) but much higher when a dust cake developed on the filter (>99% for all size particles), even after shaking (e.g., 90% for 1 μm). The first shake of a filter was observed to recovery a substantial fraction of filter capacity, with subsequent shakes providing little benefit. In field tests, the SDC performed effectively over a period of three months in winter when incorporated in a recirculating ventilation system of a swine farrowing room. Trends in collection efficiency and pressure drop with loading were similar to those observed in the laboratory with overall collection efficiencies high (>80%) when pressure drop exceeded 230 Pa, or 23% of the maximum loading recommended by the manufacturer. This work shows that the SDC can function effectively over the harsh winter in swine rearing operations. Together with findings of improved air quality in the farrowing room reported in a

  5. Evaluation of a Shaker Dust Collector for Use in a Recirculating Ventilation System

    PubMed Central

    Sawvel, Russell A.; Park, Jae Hong; Anthony, T. Renée

    2016-01-01

    General ventilation with recirculated air may be cost-effective to control the concentration of low-toxicity, contaminants in workplaces with diffuse, dusty operations, such as in agriculture. Such systems are, however, rarely adopted with little evidence showing improved air quality and ability to operate under harsh conditions. The goal of this work was to examine the initial and long-term performance of a fabric-filter shaker dust collector (SDC) in laboratory tests and as deployed within a recirculating ventilation system in an agricultural building. In laboratory tests, collection efficiency and pressure drop were tracked over several filter loading cycles, and the recovery of filter capacity (pressure drop) from filter shaking was examined. Collection efficiencies of particles larger than 5 μm was high (>95%) even when the filter was pristine, showing effective collection of large particles that dominate inhalable concentrations typical of agricultural dusts. For respirable-sized particles, collection efficiencies were low when the filter was pristine (e.g., 27% for 1 μm) but much higher when a dust cake developed on the filter (>99% for all size particles), even after shaking (e.g., 90% for 1 μm). The first shake of a filter was observed to recovery a substantial fraction of filter capacity, with subsequent shakes providing little benefit. In field tests, the SDC performed effectively over a period of three months in winter when incorporated in a recirculating ventilation system of a swine farrowing room. Trends in collection efficiency and pressure drop with loading were similar to those observed in the laboratory with overall collection efficiencies high (>80%) when pressure drop exceeded 230 Pa, or 23% of the maximum loading recommended by the manufacturer. This work shows that the SDC can function effectively over the harsh winter in swine rearing operations. Together with findings of improved air quality in the farrowing room reported in a companion

  6. A study of industrial hydrogen and syngas supply systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amos, W. J.; Solomon, J.; Eliezer, K. F.

    1979-01-01

    The potential and incentives required for supplying hydrogen and syngas feedstocks to the U.S. chemical industry from coal gasification systems were evaluated. Future hydrogen and syngas demand for chemical manufacture was estimated by geographic area and projected economics for hydrogen and syngas manufacture was estimated with geographic area of manufacture and plant size as parameters. Natural gas, oil and coal feedstocks were considered. Problem areas presently affecting the commercial feasibility of coal gasification discussed include the impact of potential process improvements, factors involved in financing coal gasification plants, regulatory barriers affecting coal gasification, coal mining/transportation, air quality regulations, and competitive feedstock pricing barriers. The potential for making coal gasification the least costly H2 and syngas supply option. Options to stimulate coal gasification system development are discussed.

  7. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  8. Supply of reactants for Redox bulk energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahn, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    World resources, reserves, production, and costs of reactant materials, iron, chromium, titanium and bromine for proposed redox cell bulk energy storage systems are reviewed. Supplying required materials for multimegawatt hour systems appears to be feasible even at current production levels. Iron and chromium ores are the most abundant and lowest cost of four reactants. Chromium is not a domestic reserve, but redox system installations would represent a small fraction of U.S. imports. Vast quantities of bromine are available, but present production is low and therefore cost is high. Titanium is currently available at reasonable cost, with ample reserves available for the next fifty years.

  9. Reliability of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, P.; Jungst, R.G., Ingersoll, D.; O'Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

    1998-11-30

    We investigate the reliability If a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. A model system was constructed for this that includes the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supp Iy system, the rechargeable battery and a load. The solar resource and the system load are modeled as SI ochastic processes. The photovoltaic system and the rechargeable battery are modeled deterministically, imd an artificial neural network is incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate dartage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework and a fwst passage problem is solved to assess system reliability.

  10. Subsurface volatilization and ventilation system (SVVS) (trade name): Innovative technology evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.; Beckman, S.; Kitaplioqlu, O.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a Demonstration Test of Brown and Root Environmental`s Subsurface Volatilization and Ventilation System (SVVS) process. Under the SITE program, the technology was evaluated to determine its effectiveness in reducing volatile organic contamination in the vadose zone of the former `dry well area` of the Electro-Voice facility after one year of treatment. The SVVS process is an integrated technology that utilizes the benefits of soil vapor extraction/air sparging and in-situ bioremediation for the treatment of subsurface organic contamination in soil and groundwater. Demonstration results showed that the SVVS achieved an overall 80.6% reduction in the sum of the seven critical VOCs in the vadose zone, exceeding the vendors claims. Reductions of 81.5% were achieved in the `sludge` layer, and between 97.8% and 99.8% for the other vadose zone layers.

  11. Microclimate measuring and fluid‑dynamic simulation in an industrial broiler house: testing of an experimental ventilation system.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Biagio; Giametta, Ferruccio; La Fianza, Giovanna; Gentile, Andrea; Catalano, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    The environment in the broiler house is a combination of physical and biological factors generating a complex dynamic system of interactions between birds, husbandry system, light, temperature, and the aerial environment. Ventilation plays a key role in this scenario. It is pivotal to remove carbon dioxide and water vapor from the air of the hen house. Adequate ventilation rates provide the most effective method of controlling temperature within the hen house. They allow for controlling the relative humidity and can play a key role in alleviating the negative effects of high stocking density and of wet litter. In the present study the results of experimental tests performed in a breeding broiler farm are shown. In particular the efficiency of a semi transversal ventilation system was studied against the use of a pure transversal one. In order to verify the efficiency of the systems, fluid dynamic simulations were carried out using the software Comsol multiphysics. The results of this study show that a correct architectural and structural design of the building must be supported by a design of the ventilation system able to maintain the environmental parameters within the limits of the thermo‑neutral and welfare conditions and to achieve the highest levels of productivity. PMID:26129658

  12. Using integrated information systems in supply chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzálvez-Gallego, Nicolás; Molina-Castillo, Francisco-Jose; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Varajao, Joao; Trigo, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically test not only the direct effects of information and communication technology (ICT) capabilities and integrated information systems (IS) on firm performance, but also the moderating role of IS integration along the supply chain in the relationship between ICT external and capabilities and business performance. Data collected from 102 large Iberian firms from Spain and Portugal are used to test the research model. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis is employed to test the direct effects and the moderating relationships proposed. Results show that external and internal ICT capabilities are important drivers of firm performance, while merely having integrated IS do not lead to better firm performance. In addition, a moderating effect of IS integration in the relationship between ICT capabilities and business performance is found, although this integration only contributes to firm performance when it is directed to connect with suppliers or customers rather than when integrating the whole supply chain.

  13. [Collateral ventilation].

    PubMed

    Voshaar, Th H

    2008-06-01

    The phenomenon of collateral ventilation is defined as ventilation of alveolar structures through passages or channels that bypass the normal airways. Such bypassing structures can be interalveolar, bronchiole-alveolar, interbronchiole, and interlobar. Collateral ventilation structures seem to be prominent in human lungs with trapped air and emphysema. In healthy human lungs normally no relevant collateral ventilation can be detected. In emphysematic lungs the ventilation through collateral channels can probably improve gas exchange mechanisms. The phenomenon of collateral ventilation explains several clinical observations in human lungs such as the absence of atalectasis following complete bronchial obstruction, e. g. after foreign body aspiration or tumour. The various results after bronchoscopic implantation of one-way endobronchial valves as a new technique for treating emphysema can also be explained by collateral ventilation. Understanding collateral ventilation is of high importance for clinicians, those working in the field of physiology of emphysema in human lungs and may be central to planning new bronchoscopic techniques for treating emphysema. The paper offers an overview of history, physiology and the relevance for lung volume reduction methods. Moreover, a new imaging technique to demonstrate collateral ventilation in vivo is described. PMID:18535980

  14. Evaluation of individually ventilated cage systems for laboratory rodents: cage environment and animal health aspects.

    PubMed

    Höglund, A U; Renström, A

    2001-01-01

    The use of individually ventilated cage (IVC) systems has become an attractive housing regime of laboratory rodents. The benefits of IVC systems are, reportedly, a high degree of containment combined with relative ease of handling, and a high degree of protection from allergenes. In the present study we tested whether two IVC systems (BioZone VentiRack, IVC1 and Techniplast SealSafe, IVC2S), in which we held mature male NMRI mice, were constructed to maintain a constant differential pressure, positive or negative, during a prolonged period of time. We also measured ammonia (NH3) concentrations after about 2 weeks of use, and CO2 build-up during a 60 min simulated power failure situation. In addition, animal weight development and bite-wound frequency were recorded (Renström et al. 2000). From the present study it is concluded that the IVC1 air handling system provides a more uniform and balanced differential pressure than the IVC2S. Both systems effectively scavenge NH3 when bedding material is not soaked by urine. Although the IVCs are dependent on the continual function of the fans to work properly, it seems unlikely that CO2 concentrations increase to hazardous levels, as a result of a one hour power failure, with the type of cages used in this study. Differences in weight development and bite-wound occurrence were noted between the two IVC systems. Causes for these differences could not be established and need more investigation. PMID:11201288

  15. Building a Comprehensive System of Services to Support Adults Living with Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Leasa, David; Elson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increasing numbers of individuals require long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) in the community. In the South West Local Health Integration Network (LHIN) in Ontario, multiple organizations have come together to design, build, and operate a system to serve adults living with LTMV. Objective. The goal was to develop an integrated approach to meet the health and supportive care needs of adults living with LTMV. Methods. The project was undertaken in three phases: System Design, Implementation Planning, and Implementation. Results. There are both qualitative and quantitative evidences that a multiorganizational system of care is now operational and functioning in a way that previously did not exist. An Oversight Committee and an Operations Management Committee currently support the system of services. A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed by the participating organizations. There is case-based evidence that hospital admissions are being avoided, transitions in care are being thoughtfully planned and executed collaboratively among service providers, and new roles and responsibilities are being accepted within the overall system of care. Conclusion. Addressing the complex and variable needs of adults living with LTMV requires a systems response involving the full continuum of care. PMID:27445527

  16. Building a Comprehensive System of Services to Support Adults Living with Long-Term Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Leasa, David; Elson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Increasing numbers of individuals require long-term mechanical ventilation (LTMV) in the community. In the South West Local Health Integration Network (LHIN) in Ontario, multiple organizations have come together to design, build, and operate a system to serve adults living with LTMV. Objective. The goal was to develop an integrated approach to meet the health and supportive care needs of adults living with LTMV. Methods. The project was undertaken in three phases: System Design, Implementation Planning, and Implementation. Results. There are both qualitative and quantitative evidences that a multiorganizational system of care is now operational and functioning in a way that previously did not exist. An Oversight Committee and an Operations Management Committee currently support the system of services. A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed by the participating organizations. There is case-based evidence that hospital admissions are being avoided, transitions in care are being thoughtfully planned and executed collaboratively among service providers, and new roles and responsibilities are being accepted within the overall system of care. Conclusion. Addressing the complex and variable needs of adults living with LTMV requires a systems response involving the full continuum of care. PMID:27445527

  17. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation: the benefits of the BiPAP system.

    PubMed

    Teba, L; Marks, P; Benzo, R

    1996-01-01

    Many of the complications with endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation can be avoided with the use of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV). This technique has been especially successful in treating patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF). NIMV improves gas exchange, avoids complications caused by endotracheal intubation, and allows patients to talk and take medications orally. This article reviews our experiences treating 27 patients with ARF with a BiPAP (bi-level positive airway pressure) ventilator. This is a portable unit which allows for selection of different modes of ventilation and adjustment of inspiratory and expiratory pressures. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation should be considered in patients presenting with ARF who are hemodynamically stable and in whom spontaneous breathing is preserved. PMID:8599242

  18. Developments in longwall ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, J.F.; Aman, J.P.; Kotch, M.

    1999-07-01

    Rapid development in longwall mining technology has brought significant changes in panel layout and geometry. These changes require adaptations in the ventilation system to provide sufficient air quantities in longwall face and bleeder areas. At CONSOL, various longwall bleeder systems in the Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam have been studied with detailed ventilation surveys. Computer model network simulations were conducted from these surveys to study the effects of different bleeder configurations and ventilation adjustments. This paper examines the relationships between the longwall face air quantity and the convergence in the tailgate-to-bleeder entries, number of development entries, bleeder fan pressure and the tailgate ventilation scheme. It shows that, using conventional ventilation patterns, the face air quantity may be limited if the gob caves tightly. In such cases, modification of the ventilation pattern to an internal bleeder system, combined with appropriate tailgate ventilation and higher bleeder fan pressure may be required. Experience in CONSOL's operations has proven this method successful especially in mines that changed from four-entry to three-entry longwall development.

  19. Performance of constructed wetland system for public water supply.

    PubMed

    Elias, J M; Salati Filho, E; Salati, E

    2001-01-01

    The project is being conducted in the town of Analândia, São Paulo, Brazil. The constructed wetlands system for water supply consists of a channel with floating aquatic macrophytes, HDS system (Water Decontamination with Soil-Patent PI 850.3030), chlorinating system, filtering system and distribution. The project objectives include investigating the process variables to further optimize design and operation factors, evaluating the relation of nutrients and plants development, biomass production, shoot development, nutrient cycling and total and fecal coliforms removal, comparing the treatment efficiency among the seasons of the year; and moreover to compare the average values obtained between February and June 1998 (Salati et al., 1998) with the average obtained for the same parameters between March and June 2000. Studies have been developed in order to verify during one year the drinking quality of the water for the following parameters: turbidity, color, pH, dissolved oxygen, total of dissolved solids, COD, chloride, among others, according to the Ministry of Health's Regulation 36. This system of water supply projected to treat 15 L s(-1) has been in continuous operation for 2 years, it was implemented with support of the National Environment Fund (FNMA), administered by the Center of Environmental Studies (CEA-UNESP), while the technical supervision and design were performed by the Institute of Applied Ecology. The actual research project is being supported by FAPESP. PMID:11804153

  20. Electronics in cars: consequences for the energy-supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beil, Falk

    The amount of electronics in cars is constantly increasing. Thus, the question arises, whether the current wiring designs will continue to be able to meet the required output related to this increase in the future. Which consequences result, then, for the design of the wiring system and its components? An examination of the electrical consumers currently installed in motor vehicles, and of those planned for future use, shows that the wiring system load during driving will increase to as much as 2000 W. Many new devices, such as the telephone, will also enjoy increasing use while the vehicle is at a standstill, which will result in the type of wiring system load changing in the future. In addition to this, loading will increase due to greater traffic density; the vehicle will be operated more often at idling speed, leading to a reduction in the available current. Thus, a balanced current supply can no longer be ensured with present designs. That means new energy supply concepts are required, e.g. the 24 V wiring system and energy management. In addition, the wiring system components must be optimized. This particularly applies to the battery, which must be further developed in order to obtain increased cell strength, a longer service life and improved temperature stability.

  1. Alignment of Information Systems with Supply Chains: Impacts on Supply Chain Performance and Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qrunfleh, Sufian M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an important focus of researchers has been on supply chain management (SCM), as many organizations believe that effective SCM is the key to building and sustaining competitive advantage for their products/services. To manage the supply chain, companies need to adopt an SCM strategy (SCMS) and implement appropriate SCM…

  2. Strategic supply system design - a holistic evaluation of operational and production cost for a biorefinery supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Lamers, Patrick; Tan, Eric C.D.; Searcy, Erin M.; Scarlata, Christopher J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2015-08-20

    Pioneer cellulosic biorefineries across the United States rely on a conventional feedstock supply system based on one-year contracts with local growers, who harvest, locally store, and deliver feed-stock in low-density format to the conversion facility. While the conventional system is designed for high biomass yield areas, pilot scale operations have experienced feedstock supply shortages and price volatilities due to reduced harvests and competition from other industries. Regional supply dependency and the inability to actively manage feedstock stability and quality, provide operational risks to the biorefinery, which translate into higher investment risk. The advanced feedstock supply system based on a network of depots can mitigate many of these risks and enable wider supply system benefits. This paper compares the two concepts from a system-level perspective beyond mere logistic costs. It shows that while processing operations at the depot increase feedstock supply costs initially, they enable wider system benefits including supply risk reduction (leading to lower interest rates on loans), industry scale-up, conversion yield improvements, and reduced handling equipment and storage costs at the biorefinery. When translating these benefits into cost reductions per liter of gasoline equivalent (LGE), we find that total cost reductions between -$0.46 to -$0.21 per LGE for biochemical and -$0.32 to -$0.12 per LGE for thermochemical conversion pathways are possible. Naturally, these system level benefits will differ between individual actors along the feedstock supply chain. Further research is required with respect to depot sizing, location, and ownership structures.

  3. Strategic supply system design - a holistic evaluation of operational and production cost for a biorefinery supply chain

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lamers, Patrick; Tan, Eric C.D.; Searcy, Erin M.; Scarlata, Christopher J.; Cafferty, Kara G.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2015-08-20

    Pioneer cellulosic biorefineries across the United States rely on a conventional feedstock supply system based on one-year contracts with local growers, who harvest, locally store, and deliver feed-stock in low-density format to the conversion facility. While the conventional system is designed for high biomass yield areas, pilot scale operations have experienced feedstock supply shortages and price volatilities due to reduced harvests and competition from other industries. Regional supply dependency and the inability to actively manage feedstock stability and quality, provide operational risks to the biorefinery, which translate into higher investment risk. The advanced feedstock supply system based on a networkmore » of depots can mitigate many of these risks and enable wider supply system benefits. This paper compares the two concepts from a system-level perspective beyond mere logistic costs. It shows that while processing operations at the depot increase feedstock supply costs initially, they enable wider system benefits including supply risk reduction (leading to lower interest rates on loans), industry scale-up, conversion yield improvements, and reduced handling equipment and storage costs at the biorefinery. When translating these benefits into cost reductions per liter of gasoline equivalent (LGE), we find that total cost reductions between -$0.46 to -$0.21 per LGE for biochemical and -$0.32 to -$0.12 per LGE for thermochemical conversion pathways are possible. Naturally, these system level benefits will differ between individual actors along the feedstock supply chain. Further research is required with respect to depot sizing, location, and ownership structures.« less

  4. Continuous endotracheal tube cuff pressure control system protects against ventilator-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The use of a system for continuous control of endotracheal tube cuff pressure reduced the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in one randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 112 patients but not in another RCT with 142 patients. In several guidelines on the prevention of VAP, the use of a system for continuous or intermittent control of endotracheal cuff pressure is not reviewed. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of VAP in a large sample of patients (n = 284) treated with either continuous or intermittent control of endotracheal tube cuff pressure. Methods We performed a prospective observational study of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation during more than 48 hours in an intensive care unit (ICU) using either continuous or intermittent endotracheal tube cuff pressure control. Multivariate logistic regression analysis (MLRA) and Cox proportional hazard regression analysis were used to predict VAP. The magnitude of the effect was expressed as odds ratio (OR) or hazard ratio (HR), respectively, and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results We found a lower incidence of VAP with the continuous (n = 150) than with the intermittent (n = 134) pressure control system (22.0% versus 11.2%; p = 0.02). MLRA showed that the continuous pressure control system (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.22-0.89; p = 0.02) and the use of an endotracheal tube incorporating a lumen for subglottic secretion drainage (SSD) (OR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.19-0.84; p = 0.02) were protective factors against VAP. Cox regression analysis showed that the continuous pressure control system (HR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.24-0.84; p = 0.01) and the use of an endotracheal tube incorporating a lumen for SSD (HR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.15-0.56; p < 0.001) were protective factors against VAP. However, the interaction between type of endotracheal cuff pressure control system (continuous or intermittent) and endotracheal tube

  5. 30 CFR 57.8520 - Ventilation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ventilation plan. 57.8520 Section 57.8520... Underground Only § 57.8520 Ventilation plan. A plan of the mine ventilation system shall be set out by the... ventilation plan or revisions thereto shall be submitted to the District Manager for review and comments...

  6. 30 CFR 57.8520 - Ventilation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation plan. 57.8520 Section 57.8520... Underground Only § 57.8520 Ventilation plan. A plan of the mine ventilation system shall be set out by the... ventilation plan or revisions thereto shall be submitted to the District Manager for review and comments...

  7. 30 CFR 57.8520 - Ventilation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ventilation plan. 57.8520 Section 57.8520... Underground Only § 57.8520 Ventilation plan. A plan of the mine ventilation system shall be set out by the... ventilation plan or revisions thereto shall be submitted to the District Manager for review and comments...

  8. 30 CFR 57.8520 - Ventilation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ventilation plan. 57.8520 Section 57.8520... Underground Only § 57.8520 Ventilation plan. A plan of the mine ventilation system shall be set out by the... ventilation plan or revisions thereto shall be submitted to the District Manager for review and comments...

  9. 30 CFR 57.8520 - Ventilation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ventilation plan. 57.8520 Section 57.8520... Underground Only § 57.8520 Ventilation plan. A plan of the mine ventilation system shall be set out by the... ventilation plan or revisions thereto shall be submitted to the District Manager for review and comments...

  10. 33 CFR 175.201 - Ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... unless it is equipped with an operable ventilation system that meets the requirements of 33 CFR 183.610... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation. 175.201 Section 175... SAFETY EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Ventilation § 175.201 Ventilation. No person may operate a boat built...

  11. Airflow analysis in mechanically ventilated obstructed rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, John Brian

    1999-11-01

    Local and mean air velocities and standard deviations were measured in realistic rooms. Obstructions represented occupants and equipment in the rooms, internal heat loads varied and supply air temperature differed from room averages. Experimental setups differed for the isothermal and nonisothermal tests. Room dimensions for isothermal tests were 2.44 m high by 4.88 x 4.88 m. Ten different obstruction ratios using three different inlet types were analyzed. Obstructions covered 0 to 30% floor area and from 0 to 75% of room height. Air was supplied at ventilation rates ranging between 0.8 and 1.1 m 3/s. Room dimensions for the nonisothermal tests were 2.44 m high by 3.66 x 7.32 m. Obstruction differences between solid versus open partitions for farrowing crates were investigated for three commercially available inlets using two ventilation loads. Ventilation rates were 0.11 to 1.18 m 3/s, simulating cold and warm weather ventilation conditions, respectively. Based on these data and theoretical calculations, a kinetic energy model that predicts average room air velocity and energy level was developed as a practical room air flow design and analysis tool. It was recommended that designers interested in using CFD as a tool should use a three dimensional laminar model for acceptable qualitative flow results. It was concluded that for typical room flowrates and inlet types the room air distribution system is obstruction ratio independent. Local velocities and standard deviations varied with each obstruction setup and inlet combination. However, average air velocities and turbulence intensities were not influenced by obstruction setups or inlet configurations. The decay rate of mean velocity kinetic energy in the bulk flow region was independent of obstructions and inlets. Room average kinetic energy was a function of the supplied kinetic energy within the supply jet plus internal kinetic energy resulting from internal heat load (convective energy).

  12. A model-based simulator for testing rule-based decision support systems for mechanical ventilation of ARDS patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sailors, R. M.; East, T. D.

    1994-01-01

    A model-based simulator was developed for testing rule-based decision support systems that manages ventilator therapy of patients with the Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The simulator is based on a multi-compartment model of the human body and mathematical models of the gas exchange abnormalities associated with ARDS. Initial testing of this system indicates that model-based simulators are a viable tool for testing rule-based expert systems used in health-care. PMID:7949849

  13. Modelica Library for Building Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wetter, Michael

    2009-06-17

    This paper presents a freely available Modelica library for building heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. The library is based on the Modelica.Fluid library. It has been developed to support research and development of integrated building energy and control systems. The primary applications are controls design, energy analysis and model-based operation. The library contains dynamic and steady-state component models that are applicable for analyzing fast transients when designing control algorithms and for conducting annual simulations when assessing energy performance. For most models, dimensional analysis is used to compute the performance for operating points that differ from nominal conditions. This allows parameterizing models in the absence of detailed geometrical information which is often impractical to obtain during the conceptual design phase of building systems. In the first part of this paper, the library architecture and the main classes are described. In the second part, an example is presented in which we implemented a model of a hydronic heating system with thermostatic radiator valves and thermal energy storage.

  14. Ventilation and Heart Rate Monitoring in Drivers using a Contactless Electrical Bioimpedance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, R.; García, M. A.; Ramos, J.; Bragós, R.; Fernández, M.

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, the road safety is one of the most important priorities in the automotive industry. Many times, this safety is jeopardized because of driving under inappropriate states, e.g. drowsiness, drugs and/or alcohol. Therefore several systems for monitoring the behavior of subjects during driving are researched. In this paper, a device based on a contactless electrical bioimpedance system is shown. Using the four-wire technique, this system is capable of obtaining the heart rate and the ventilation of the driver through multiple textile electrodes. These textile electrodes are placed on the car seat and the steering wheel. Moreover, it is also reported several measurements done in a controlled environment, i.e. a test room where there are no artifacts due to the car vibrations or the road state. In the mentioned measurements, the system response can be observed depending on several parameters such as the placement of the electrodes or the number of clothing layers worn by the driver.

  15. Energy storage in remote area power supply (RAPS) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moseley, Patrick T.

    Preliminary cost analyses indicate that hybrid RAPS systems are more economically attractive as a means to provide electricity to remote villages than are alternatives such as 24 h diesel generation. A hybrid remote area power supply (RAPS) system is being deployed to provide 24 h electricity to villages in the Amazon region of Peru. The RAPS system consists of modules designed to provide 150 kWh per day of utility grade ac electricity over a 24 h period. Each module contains a diesel generator, battery bank using heavy-duty 2 V VRLA gelled electrolyte batteries, a battery charger, a photovoltaic array and an inverter. Despite early difficulties, the system in the first village has now commenced operation and the promise of RAPS schemes as a means for providing sustainable remote electrification appears to be bright.

  16. Shuttle Orbiter medical system equipment/supplies evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maidlow, Kristin; Schulz, John M.; Lloyd, Charles W.; Breeding, Tiffany

    1991-01-01

    The effectivity was evaluated in zero gravity of several medical equipment and supply items flown in the Shuttle Orbiter Medical System (SOMS). Several procedures listed in Medical Operations Medical Checklist, JSC 1732 were also evaluated. Several items were drawn out of the kits and tested on the KC-135. In two different flights, the following elements were examined: (1) measuring IV flow (drip chamber, one way flow valve, and air/fluid separator); (2) chemstrip protocol for urine analysis in zero-gravity; and (3) tamper resistant seals for injectable medications.

  17. Smart power supply system for LED street lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risteiu, Mircea; Ileana, Ioan; Marc, Gheorghe; Sofalca, Ionut

    2015-02-01

    The paper is focused on designing a smart LED power supply, with adjustable working point in accordance with local conditions, LED photometric characteristics. We have develop a flyback driver controlled by a signal which is a combination of the sensed LED forward current, and a PWM working regime. This method is used in order to increase the LED lighting efficiency at the same thermal regime. At the end of the implementation we have tested major issues related to the correct work of the LED, energetic and luminous efficiency, and the way of sensor integration into the smart system.

  18. Role of the Fas/FasL system in a model of RSV infection in mechanically ventilated mice

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Elske; van Woensel, Job B. M.; Bos, Albert P.; Bem, Reinout A.; Altemeier, William A.; Gill, Sean E.; Martin, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in children can progress to respiratory distress and acute lung injury necessitating mechanical ventilation (MV). MV enhances apoptosis and inflammation in mice infected with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a mouse pneumovirus that has been used as a model for severe RSV infection in mice. We hypothesized that the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system, a dual proapoptotic/proinflammatory system involved in other forms of lung injury, is required for enhanced lung injury in mechanically ventilated mice infected with PVM. C57BL/6 mice and Fas-deficient (“lpr”) mice were inoculated intratracheally with PVM. Seven or eight days after PVM inoculation, the mice were subjected to 4 h of MV (tidal volume 10 ml/kg, fraction of inspired O2 = 0.21, and positive end-expiratory pressure = 3 cm H2O). Seven days after PVM inoculation, exposure to MV resulted in less severe injury in lpr mice than in C57BL/6 mice, as evidenced by decreased numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and lower concentrations of the proinflammatory chemokines KC, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-2 in the lungs. However, when PVM infection was allowed to progress one additional day, all of the lpr mice (7/7) died unexpectedly between 0.5 and 3.5 h after the onset of ventilation compared with three of the seven ventilated C57BL/6 mice. Parameters of lung injury were similar in nonventilated mice, as was the viral content in the lungs and other organs. Thus, the Fas/FasL system was partly required for the lung inflammatory response in ventilated mice infected with PVM, but attenuation of lung inflammation did not prevent subsequent mortality. PMID:21743025

  19. A system for continuous long-term measurement of respiratory gas exchange in ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, J; Krieg, N; Vogel, W M

    1987-01-01

    A system for continuous long-term measurement of respiratory gas exchange in ventilated patients is presented. The method is noninvasive and may be applied in a clinical setting over a period of several days without adversely affecting the patient's wellbeing. The set-up was designed exclusively as a research tool. It registers oxygen uptake and CO2 elimination at 5 min intervals; breath-averaged measurements are carried out every 30 s. Expired minute volume is measured with a pneumotachograph equipped with an automatic drift compensation. A newly developed gas mixer insures that the inspiratory oxygen concentration remains constant. Expired gases are analysed for O2 and CO2 concentrations by mass spectrometer. The effect of the compressible gas volume is eliminated by segregating the inspiratory gas from the expired gas. The basic accuracy of measurement of the method is +/- 2.5% for oxygen uptake and +/- 2.0% for CO2 elimination. This result is based on a comparison of the individual components of the system with standard methods. The system's time constant (t90) for changes in O2 and CO2 concentrations is about 50 s. Based on the results of a case study, we will discuss oxygen uptake, CO2 elimination and the oxygen uptake profile of a patient measured over a period of seven days. PMID:3120837

  20. Ventilatory failure, ventilator support, and ventilator weaning.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Martin J; Laghi, Franco; Jubran, Amal

    2012-10-01

    The development of acute ventilatory failure represents an inability of the respiratory control system to maintain a level of respiratory motor output to cope with the metabolic demands of the body. The level of respiratory motor output is also the main determinant of the degree of respiratory distress experienced by such patients. As ventilatory failure progresses and patient distress increases, mechanical ventilation is instituted to help the respiratory muscles cope with the heightened workload. While a patient is connected to a ventilator, a physician's ability to align the rhythm of the machine with the rhythm of the patient's respiratory centers becomes the primary determinant of the level of rest accorded to the respiratory muscles. Problems of alignment are manifested as failure to trigger, double triggering, an inflationary gas-flow that fails to match inspiratory demands, and an inflation phase that persists after a patient's respiratory centers have switched to expiration. With recovery from disorders that precipitated the initial bout of acute ventilatory failure, attempts are made to discontinue the ventilator (weaning). About 20% of weaning attempts fail, ultimately, because the respiratory controller is unable to sustain ventilation and this failure is signaled by development of rapid shallow breathing. Substantial advances in the medical management of acute ventilatory failure that requires ventilator assistance are most likely to result from research yielding novel insights into the operation of the respiratory control system. PMID:23720268

  1. Space shuttle electrical power generation and reactant supply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    The design philosophy and development experience of fuel cell power generation and cryogenic reactant supply systems are reviewed, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. Technology advancements span a period of 10 years from initial definition phase to the most recent space transportation system (STS) flights. The development program encompassed prototype, verification, and qualification hardware, as well as post-STS-1 design improvements. Focus is on the problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches employed to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained. Major technology barriers are discussed, and the evolving technology development paths are traced from their conceptual beginnings to the fully man-rated systems which are now an integral part of the shuttle vehicle.

  2. Solid Desiccant Cooling System Employed with Ventilation Cycle: A Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmar, H.; Hindoliya, D. A.

    2012-10-01

    For better use of evaporative cooling techniques in humid climate, employment of desiccant cooling system (DCS) can be a suitable option. Desiccant augmented evaporative cooling system may be employed for energy saving in buildings in place of conventional vapour compression based cooling system. This article presents a sensitive analysis of DCS simulated under the humid climate of Mumbai, India. Mathematical computations have been performed using outdoor specific humidity, ambient dry bulb temperature and room supply temperature. A sensitive analysis considering some important forcing parameters was conducted. It was observed that the "effectiveness" of direct evaporative cooler to be predominantly high influencing parameter compared to others, for the performance of DCS.

  3. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    the experimental measurements was applied to evaluate particle losses in supply and return duct runs. Model results suggest that duct losses are negligible for particle sizes less than 1 {micro}m and complete for particle sizes greater than 50 {micro}m. Deposition to insulated ducts, horizontal duct floors and bends are predicted to control losses in duct systems. When combined with models for HVAC filtration and deposition to indoor surfaces to predict the ultimate fates of particles within buildings, these results suggest that ventilation ducts play only a small role in determining indoor particle concentrations, especially when HVAC filtration is present. However, the measured and modeled particle deposition rates are expected to be important for ventilation system contamination.

  4. Abolished ventilation and perfusion of lung caused by blood clot in the left main bronchus: auto-downregulation of pulmonary arterial blood supply.

    PubMed

    Afzelius, P; Bergmann, A; Henriksen, J H

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the lungs possess arterial autoregulation associated with bronchial obstruction. A patient with pneumonia and congestive heart failure unexpectedly developed frequent haemoptysis. High-resolution CT and diagnostic CT were performed as well as ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy with single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT. V/Q SPECT/CT demonstrated abolished ventilation due to obstruction of the left main bronchus and markedly reduced perfusion of the entire left lung, a condition that was completely reversed after removal of a blood clot. We present the first pictorially documented case of hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction and flow shift in a main pulmonary artery due to a complete intrinsic obstruction of the ipsilateral main bronchus. The condition is reversible, contingent on being relieved within a few days. PMID:26374773

  5. Residential Ventilation: A Review of Established Systems and a Laboratory Investigation of the Fine Wire Heat Recovery Ventilator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hippel, Matthew Hans Benjamin

    A novel vehicle concept is introduced and its feasibility as an autonomous, self-propelled weather buoy for use in violent storm systems is analyzed. The vehicle concept is a spar sailboat -- consisting of only a deep keel and a sailing rig; no hull -- a design which is intended to improve longevity in rough seas as well as provide ideal placement opportunities for meteorological sensors. To evaluate the hypothetical locomotive and meteorological observation capabilities of the concept sailing spar in hurricane-like conditions, several relevant oceanographic phenomena are analyzed with the performance of the concept vehicle in mind. Enthalpy transfer from the ocean to the air is noted as the primary driving force of tropical storms and therefore becomes the measuring objective of the sailing spar. A discrete, iterative process for optimizing driving force while achieving equilibrium between the four airfoil surfaces is used to steer the sailing spar towards any objective despite variable and opposing simulated winds. Based on the limitations of sailing theory, logic is developed to autonomously navigate the sailing spar between human-selected waypoints on a digitized geographic map. Due the perceived inability to measure air-sea enthalpy exchange because the nature of tropical storms and due to its small scale, the sailing spar is deemed infeasible as a hurricane-capable meteorological observation platform.

  6. Reducing Mortality from Terrorist Releases of Chemical and Biological Agents: I. Filtration for Ventilation Systems in Commercial Building

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, Tracy L.; Daisey, Joan M.

    1999-09-01

    There is growing concern about potential terrorist attacks involving releases of chemical and/or biological (CB) agents, such as sarin or anthrax, in and around buildings. For an external release, the CB agent can enter the building through the air intakes of a building's mechanical ventilation system and by infiltration through the building envelope. For an interior release in a single room, the mechanical ventilation system, which often recirculates some fraction of the air within a building, may distribute the released CB agent throughout the building. For both cases, installing building systems that remove chemical and biological agents may be the most effective way to protect building occupants. Filtration systems installed in the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems of buildings can significantly reduce exposures of building occupants in the event of a release, whether the release is outdoors or indoors. Reduced exposures can reduce the number of deaths from a terrorist attack. The purpose of this report is to provide information and examples of the design of filtration systems to help building engineers retrofit HVAC systems. The report also provides background information on the physical nature of CB agents and brief overviews of the basic principles of particle and vapor filtration.

  7. Energy and air quality implications of passive stack ventilation in residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max

    2011-01-01

    Ventilation requires energy to transport and condition the incoming air. The energy consumption for ventilation in residential buildings depends on the ventilation rate required to maintain an acceptable indoor air quality. Historically, U.S. residential buildings relied on natural infiltration to provide sufficient ventilation, but as homes get tighter, designed ventilation systems are more frequently required particularly for new energy efficient homes and retrofitted homes. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 is used to specify the minimum ventilation rate required in residential buildings and compliance is normally achieved with fully mechanical whole-house systems; however, alternative methods may be used to provide the required ventilation when their air quality equivalency has been proven. One appealing method is the use of passive stack ventilation systems. They have been used for centuries to ventilate buildings and are often used in ventilation regulations in other countries. Passive stacks are appealing because they require no fans or electrical supply (which could lead to lower cost) and do not require maintenance (thus being more robust and reliable). The downside to passive stacks is that there is little control of ventilation air flow rates because they rely on stack and wind effects that depend on local time-varying weather. In this study we looked at how passive stacks might be used in different California climates and investigated control methods that can be used to optimize indoor air quality and energy use. The results showed that passive stacks can be used to provide acceptable indoor air quality per ASHRAE 62.2 with the potential to save energy provided that they are sized appropriately and flow controllers are used to limit over-ventilation.

  8. PCR Testing of a Ventilated Caging System to Detect Murine Fur Mites

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Eric S; Allen, Kenneth P; Henderson, Kenneth S; Szabo, Aniko; Thulin, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents housed in microisolation caging are commonly monitored for infectious agents by the use of soiled bedding sentinels. This strategy relies on the successful transmission of rodent pathogens from the index rodents via soiled bedding to sentinel cages and the subsequent infection or colonization of sentinel rodents. When the prevalence of a pathogen is low or the target agent is not readily transmitted by soiled bedding, alternative testing methodologies should be used. Given the continued prevalence of institutions self-reporting murine fur mites and with the advent of a new sensitive and specific PCR assay for mites, we sought to determine whether the exhaust system of an individual ventilated caging (IVC) system could be used for monitoring the rack's rodent population for mites rather than relying on the responses of sentinels. We deployed single cages of mice (Mus musculus) that were known to be infested with either Radfordia affinis or Myobia musculi on a 70-cage rack, sampled the horizontal exhaust manifolds weekly, and used the new PCR assay to test these samples for mite DNA. We detected the presence of fur mites at a 94.1% probability of detection within 4 wk of placement. Therefore, we recommend swabbing and testing the shelf exhaust manifolds of IVC racks rather than relying on soiled-bedding sentinels as an indicator of the mite status of the rodents on that rack. PMID:23562030

  9. PCR testing of a ventilated caging system to detect murine fur mites.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric S; Allen, Kenneth P; Henderson, Kenneth S; Szabo, Aniko; Thulin, Joseph D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents housed in microisolation caging are commonly monitored for infectious agents by the use of soiled bedding sentinels. This strategy relies on the successful transmission of rodent pathogens from the index rodents via soiled bedding to sentinel cages and the subsequent infection or colonization of sentinel rodents. When the prevalence of a pathogen is low or the target agent is not readily transmitted by soiled bedding, alternative testing methodologies should be used. Given the continued prevalence of institutions self-reporting murine fur mites and with the advent of a new sensitive and specific PCR assay for mites, we sought to determine whether the exhaust system of an individual ventilated caging (IVC) system could be used for monitoring the rack's rodent population for mites rather than relying on the responses of sentinels. We deployed single cages of mice (Mus musculus) that were known to be infested with either Radfordia affinis or Myobia musculi on a 70-cage rack, sampled the horizontal exhaust manifolds weekly, and used the new PCR assay to test these samples for mite DNA. We detected the presence of fur mites at a 94.1% probability of detection within 4 wk of placement. Therefore, we recommend swabbing and testing the shelf exhaust manifolds of IVC racks rather than relying on soiled-bedding sentinels as an indicator of the mite status of the rodents on that rack. PMID:23562030

  10. Evaluation of carbon dioxide rebreathing during pressure support ventilation with airway management system (BiPAP) devices.

    PubMed

    Lofaso, F; Brochard, L; Touchard, D; Hang, T; Harf, A; Isabey, D

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether carbon dioxide (CO2) rebreathing occurs in acute respiratory failure patients ventilated using the standard airway management system (BiPAP pressure support ventilator; Respironics; Murrysville, Pa) with positive inspiratory airway pressure and a minimal level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and whether any CO2 rebreathing may be efficiently prevented by the addition of a nonrebreathing valve to the BiPAP system circuit. In the first part of the study, the standard device was tested on a lung model with a nonrebreathing valve (BiPAP-NRV) and with the usual Whisper Swivel connector (BiPAP-uc). With the BiPAP-uc device, the resident volume of expired air in the inspiratory circuit at the end of expiration (RVEA) was 55% of the tidal volume (VT) when the inspiratory pressure was 10 cm H2O and the frequency was at 15 cycles per minute. The BiPAP-NRV device efficiently prevented CO2 rebreathing but resulted in a slight decrease in VT, which was due to a significant increase in external PEEP (2.4 vs 1.3 cm H2O) caused by the additional expiratory valve resistance. For similar reasons, both the pressure swing necessary to trigger pressure support and the imposed expiratory work were increased in the lung model when the nonrebreathing valve was used. In the second part of the study, seven patients weaned from mechanical ventilation were investigated using a randomized crossover design to compare three situations: pressure support ventilation with a conventional intensive care ventilator (CIPS), BiPAP system use, and BiPAP-NRV. When we compared the BiPAP system use with the other two systems, we observed no significant effect on blood gases but found significant increases in VT, minute ventilation, and work of breathing. These findings are experimental and are clinical evidence that significant CO2 rebreathing occurs with the standard BiPAP system. This drawback can be overcome by using a non-rebreathing valve

  11. Do individually ventilated cage systems generate a problem for genetic mouse model research?

    PubMed

    Logge, W; Kingham, J; Karl, T

    2014-09-01

    Technological developments over recent decades have produced a novel housing system for laboratory mice, so-called 'individually ventilated cage' (IVC) systems. IVCs present a cage environment which is different to conventional filter-top cages (FILTER). Nothing is known about the consequences of IVC housing on genetic mouse models, despite studies reporting IVC-mediated changes to the phenotypes of inbred mouse strains. Thus, in this study, we systematically compared the established behavioural phenotype of a validated mouse model for the schizophrenia risk gene neuregulin 1 (TM Nrg1 HET) kept in FILTER housing with Nrg1 mutant mice raised in IVC systems. We found that particular schizophrenia-relevant endophenotypes of TM Nrg1 HETs which had been established and widely published using FILTER housing were altered when mice were raised in IVC housing. IVCs diminished the schizophrenia-relevant prepulse inhibition deficit of Nrg1 mutant males. Furthermore, IVC housing had a sex-dependent moderate effect on the locomotive phenotype of Nrg1 mice across test paradigms. Behavioural effects of IVC housing were less prominent in female mice. Thus, transferring the breeding colony of mouse mutants from FILTER to IVC systems can shift disease-relevant behaviours and therefore challenge the face validity of these mice. Researchers facing an upgrade of their mouse breeding or holding facilities to IVC systems must be aware of the potential impact this upgrade might have on their genetic mouse models. Future publications should provide more details on the cage system used to allow appropriate data comparison across research sites. PMID:24920375

  12. Does Mixing Make Residential Ventilation More Effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain

    2010-08-16

    Ventilation dilutes or removes indoor contaminants to reduce occupant exposure. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. The total ventilation rate is the most important factor in determining the exposure of occupants to given sources, but the zone- specific distribution of exhaust and supply air, and the mixing of ventilation air can have significant roles. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of mixing depending on several factors such as air leakage through the building envelope, air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper reports recent results of investigations to determine the impact that air mixing has on exposures of residential occupants to prototypical contaminants of concern. Evaluations of existing field measurements and simulations reported in the literature are combined with new analyses to provide an integrated overview of the topic. The results show that for extreme cases additional mixing can be a significant factor but for typical homes looking at average exposures mixing is not helpful and can even make exposures worse.

  13. Harnessing natural ventilation benefits.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, John

    2013-04-01

    Making sure that a healthcare establishment has a good supply of clean fresh air is an important factor in keeping patients, staff, and visitors, free from the negative effects of CO2 and other contaminants. John O'Leary of Trend Controls, a major international supplier of building energy management solutions (BEMS), examines the growing use of natural ventilation, and the health, energy-saving, and financial benefits, that it offers. PMID:23678661

  14. Inhibition of Nitro-Oxidative Stress Attenuates Pulmonary and Systemic Injury Induced by High-Tidal Volume Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Caro, Leticia; Nin, Nicolás; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Carolina; Ferruelo, Antonio; El Assar, Mariam; de Paula, Marta; Fernández-Segoviano, Pilar; Esteban, Andrés; Lorente, José A

    2015-07-01

    Mechanisms contributing to pulmonary and systemic injury induced by high tidal volume (VT) mechanical ventilation are not well known. We tested the hypothesis that increased peroxynitrite formation is involved in organ injury and dysfunction induced by mechanical ventilation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subject to low- (VT, 9 mL/kg; positive end-expiratory pressure, 5 cmH2O) or high- (VT, 25 mL/kg; positive end-expiratory pressure, 0 cmH2O) VT mechanical ventilation for 120 min, and received 1 of 3 treatments: 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB, 10 mg/kg, intravenous, a poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase [PARP] inhibitor), or the metalloporphyrin manganese(III) tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin (MnTMPyP, 5 mg/kg intravenous, a peroxynitrite scavenger), or no treatment (control group), 30 min before starting the mechanical ventilation protocol (n = 8 per group, 6 treatment groups). We measured mean arterial pressure, peak inspiratory airway pressure, blood chemistry, and gas exchange. Oxidation (fluorescence for oxidized dihydroethidium), protein nitration (immunofluorescence and Western blot for 3-nitrotyrosine), PARP protein (Western blot) and gene expression of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isoforms (quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) were measured in lung and vascular tissue. Lung injury was quantified by light microscopy. High-VT mechanical ventilation was associated with hypotension, increased peak inspiratory airway pressure, worsened oxygenation; oxidation and protein nitration in lung and aortic tissue; increased PARP protein in lung; up-regulation of NOS isoforms in lung tissue; signs of diffuse alveolar damage at histological examination. Treatment with 3AB or MnTMPyP attenuated the high-VT mechanical ventilation-induced changes in pulmonary and cardiovascular function; down-regulated the expression of NOS1, NOS2, and NOS3; decreased oxidation and nitration in lung and aortic tissue; and attenuated

  15. Total System Performance Assessment- License Appication Design Selection (LADS) Phase 1 Analysis for Post-Closure Ventilation (Design Alternative 3)

    SciTech Connect

    N. Erb

    1999-06-21

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the effect of potential changes to the TSPA-VA base case design on long-term repository performance. The design changes that are evaluated in this report include two configurations for post-closure ventilation. bow tie and open loop (Design Alternative 3 or D3). The following paragraphs briefly describe the motivation for evaluating post-closure ventilation. The bow tie configuration for post closure ventilation has been identified as a design alternative to the TSPA-VA base case model (CRWMS M&O, 1998a) that may provide improved performance by reducing the temperature and relative humidity within the waste package drifts. The bow tie configuration for post-closure ventilation is a closed-loop design. In this design. cross drifts are placed in pairs with each drift angling up on opposite sides of the repository. From the side, the cross drifts and side drifts form the shape of a bow tie. Movement of air through the system is driven by convective heating from the waste packages in the cross drifts. The open loop configuration is also being considered for its potential to improve post-closure performance of the repository. As with the bow tie configuration, the open loop is designed to decrease temperature and relative humidity within the waste package drifts. For the open loop configuration, air is drawn into the drifts from outside the mountain. The configuration for the repository with open-loop ventilation is similar to the base case repository design with a few added shafts to increase air flow through the drifts. This report documents the modeling assumptions and calculations conducted to evaluate the long-term performance of Design Alternative 3. The performance measure for this evaluation is dose rate. Results are presented that compare the dose-rate time histories with the new design alternatives to that for the TSPA-VA base case calculation (CRWMS M&O, 1998a).

  16. ASME AG-1 REQUIREMENT EXEMPTION JUSTIFICATIONS FOR VENTILATION SYSTEMS AT NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS AT THE HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2004-09-03

    Washington State Department of Health regulations require compliance with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) AG-1, ''Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment,'' for all new radioactive air emission units. As a result, these requirements have been applied to systems that ventilate the radioactive waste storage tanks in the tank farm facilities on the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. ASME AG-1 is applied as a regulatory constraint to waste tank ventilation systems at the Hanford Site, even though the code was not intended for these systems. An assessment was performed to identify which requirements should be exempted for waste tank ventilation systems. The technical justifications for requirement exemptions were prepared and presented to the regulator. The technical justifications were documented so that select requirement exemptions for specific projects and systems can be sought through the regulator's permitting process. This paper presents the rationale for attempting to receive requirement exemption and presents examples of the technical justifications that form the basis for these exemptions.

  17. Newer nonconventional modes of mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Trikha, Anjan

    2014-07-01

    The conventional modes of ventilation suffer many limitations. Although they are popularly used and are well-understood, often they fail to match the patient-based requirements. Over the years, many small modifications in ventilators have been incorporated to improve patient outcome. The ventilators of newer generation respond to patient's demands by additional feedback systems. In this review, we discuss the popular newer modes of ventilation that have been accepted in to clinical practice. Various intensive care units over the world have found these modes to improve patient ventilator synchrony, decrease ventilator days and improve patient safety. The various modes discusses in this review are: Dual control modes (volume assured pressure support, volume support), Adaptive support ventilation, proportional assist ventilation, mandatory minute ventilation, Bi-level airway pressure release ventilation, (BiPAP), neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and NeoGanesh. Their working principles with their advantages and clinical limitations are discussed in brief. PMID:25114434

  18. Newer nonconventional modes of mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Trikha, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    The conventional modes of ventilation suffer many limitations. Although they are popularly used and are well-understood, often they fail to match the patient-based requirements. Over the years, many small modifications in ventilators have been incorporated to improve patient outcome. The ventilators of newer generation respond to patient's demands by additional feedback systems. In this review, we discuss the popular newer modes of ventilation that have been accepted in to clinical practice. Various intensive care units over the world have found these modes to improve patient ventilator synchrony, decrease ventilator days and improve patient safety. The various modes discusses in this review are: Dual control modes (volume assured pressure support, volume support), Adaptive support ventilation, proportional assist ventilation, mandatory minute ventilation, Bi-level airway pressure release ventilation, (BiPAP), neurally adjusted ventilatory assist and NeoGanesh. Their working principles with their advantages and clinical limitations are discussed in brief. PMID:25114434

  19. Electronically-controlled system for supplying fuel into cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Oosuga, M.; Nishimura, Y.; Oyama, Y.

    1986-06-24

    An electronically-controlled cylinder fuel supply system is described for an engine comprising: combustion chambers each of which is provided with a fuel injector and an ignition plug; a suction air path for supplying air into each of the combustion chambers; an exhaust path for discharging an exhaust gas from each of the combustion chambers; sensor means for sensing an operating condition of the engine; first means for determining the amount of fuel to be injected and the time of ignition for discharge of the ignition plug for each combustion chamber on the basis of sensed signals from the sensor means; means for causing the fuel injector of each combustion chamber to inject the amount of fuel determined by the first means directly into the associated combustion chamber within the period of time from initiation of the intake stroke of the combustion chamber to the time of the ignition as determined by the first means for the respective combustion chamber; and second means for determining an air quantity to be drawn into the suction air path on the basis of the sensed signals from the sensor means; wherein the injector comprises a fuel holding portion provided at a fuel injection end of the injector for temporarily holding injected fuel therein and a vibration means for vibrating the fuel holding portion such that the fuel held in the fuel holding portion is atomized and scattered in the combustion chamber in the atomized state.

  20. Design and Integrate Improved Systems for Nuclear Facility Ventilation and Exhaust Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.

    2014-04-15

    Objective: The objective of this R&D project would complete the development of three new systems and integrate them into a single experimental effort. However, each of the three systems has stand-alone applicability across the DOE complex. At US DOE nuclear facilities, indoor air is filtered and ventilated for human occupancy, and exhaust air to the outdoor environment must be regulated and monitored. At least three technical standards address these functions, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory would complete an experimental facility to answer at least three questions: (1) Can the drag coefficient of a new Los Alamos air mixer be reduced for better operation in nuclear facility exhaust stacks? (2) Is it possible to verify the accuracy of a new dilution method for HEPA filter test facilities? (3) Is there a performance-based air flow metric (volumetric flow or mass flow) for operating HEPA filters? In summary, the three new systems are: a mixer, a diluter and a performance-based metric, respectively. The results of this project would be applicable to at least four technical standards: ANSI N13.1 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities; ASTM F1471 Standard Test Method for Air Cleaning Performance of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filter System, ASME N511: In-Service Testing of Nuclear Air Treatment, Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems, and ASME AG-1: Code On Nuclear Air And Gas Treatment. All of the three proposed new systems must be combined into a single experimental device (i.e. to develop a new function of the Los Alamos aerosol wind tunnel). Technical Approach: The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally (2006) designed to evaluate small air samplers (cf. US EPA 40 CFR 53.42). In 2009, the tunnel was modified for exhaust stack verifications per the ANSI N13.1 standard. In 2010, modifications were started on the

  1. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  2. Inverse Modeling of Respiratory System during Noninvasive Ventilation by Maximum Likelihood Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatci, Esra; Akan, Aydin

    2010-12-01

    We propose a procedure to estimate the model parameters of presented nonlinear Resistance-Capacitance (RC) and the widely used linear Resistance-Inductance-Capacitance (RIC) models of the respiratory system by Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE). The measurement noise is assumed to be Generalized Gaussian Distributed (GGD), and the variance and the shape factor of the measurement noise are estimated by MLE and Kurtosis method, respectively. The performance of the MLE algorithm is also demonstrated by the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) with artificially produced respiratory signals. Airway flow, mask pressure, and lung volume are measured from patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) under the noninvasive ventilation and from healthy subjects. Simulations show that respiratory signals from healthy subjects are better represented by the RIC model compared to the nonlinear RC model. On the other hand, the Patient group respiratory signals are fitted to the nonlinear RC model with lower measurement noise variance, better converged measurement noise shape factor, and model parameter tracks. Also, it is observed that for the Patient group the shape factor of the measurement noise converges to values between 1 and 2 whereas for the Control group shape factor values are estimated in the super-Gaussian area.

  3. Possibilities of utilizing alternative energy sources for combined heat supply systems in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Shipkovs, P.; Grislis, V.; Zebergs, V. )

    1991-01-01

    The problem of alternative energy sources is an issue of major importance for the Baltic republics because of the limited supply of conventional energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem could be the introduction of combined heat supply systems (CHSS). The combined heat supply systems are such systems where various energy sources in different regimes are made use of to ensure the optimum temperature on residential and industrial premises. The influence of climatic conditions on the selection of heat supply systems has been studied at large. In the present paper the use of alternative energy sources (AES) in combined heat supply systems (CHSS) is described.

  4. Analytical and experimental studies of ventilation systems subjected to simulated tornado conditions: Verification of the TVENT computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.A.; Gregory, W.S.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.; Littleton, P.E.; Talbott, D.V.

    1988-04-01

    Analytical and experimental studies of ventilation systems have been conducted to verify the Los Alamos National Laboratory TVENT accident analysis computer code for simulated tornado conditions. This code was developed to be a user-friendly analysis tool for designers and regulatory personnel and was designed to predict pressure and flow transients in arbitrary ventilation systems. The experimental studies used two relatively simple, yet sensitive, physical systems designed using similitude analysis. These physical models were instrumented end-to-end for pressure and volumetric flow rate and then subjected to the worst credible tornado conditions using a special blowdown apparatus. We verified TVENT by showing that it successfully predicted our experimental results. By comparing experimental results from both physical models with TVENT results, we showed that we have derived the proper similitude relations (governed by compressibility effects) for all sizes of ventilation systems. As a by-product of our studies, we determined the need for fan speed variation modeling in TVENT. This modification was made and resulted in a significant improvement in our comparisons of analytical and experimental results.

  5. Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Zoeller, William; Williamson, James; Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2015-07-01

    One method of code-compliance for crawlspaces is to seal and insulate the crawlspace, rather than venting to the outdoors. However, codes require mechanical ventilation; either via conditioned supply air from the HVAC system, or a continuous exhaust ventilation strategy. As the CARB's building partner, Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, intended to use the unvented crawlspace in a recent development, CARB was interested in investigating a hybrid ventilation method that includes the exhaust air from the crawlspace as a portion of an ASHRAE 62.2 compliant whole-house ventilation strategy. This hybrid ventilation method was evaluated through a series of long-term monitoring tests that observed temperature, humidity, and pressure conditions through the home and crawlspace.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1107-8 - Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems. (a) Fire suppression systems using water or... supplies for fire suppression devices installed on underground equipment may be maintained in mounted water tanks or by connection to water mains. Such water supplies shall be continuously connected to the...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1107-8 - Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems. (a) Fire suppression systems using water or... supplies for fire suppression devices installed on underground equipment may be maintained in mounted water tanks or by connection to water mains. Such water supplies shall be continuously connected to the...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1107-8 - Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems. (a) Fire suppression systems using water or... supplies for fire suppression devices installed on underground equipment may be maintained in mounted water tanks or by connection to water mains. Such water supplies shall be continuously connected to the...

  9. 46 CFR 161.002-9 - Automatic fire detecting system, power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic fire detecting system, power supply. 161.002-9 Section 161.002-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT...-9 Automatic fire detecting system, power supply. The power supply for an automatic fire...

  10. [Central sterile supply department management system design and implementation based on RFID technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei

    2012-03-01

    With the analysis of the requirements of sterilization and supply center of hospital(referred to as "supply room"), the management system of supply room was developed and integrated into the RFID technology. The?system has achieve disinfection materials circulation process traceability to improve the quality management of disinfection materials and reduce the management costs. PMID:22737889

  11. [A computer-controlled closed circle system for ventilation during anesthesia and intensive care and its possibilities for patient monitoring].

    PubMed

    Verkaaik, A P; Rubreht, J; van Dijk, G; Westerkamp, B; Erdmann, W

    1991-01-01

    A computer feed back controlled anaesthesia- and intensive care ventilator has been developed with on-line and separate lung function measurement. The system design is built on the principle of a totally closed circuit (closed rebreathing respirometer) and an inspiratory "high flow", the gas being rotated through the closed circuit unidirectionally by a blower with 70 l/min. Ventilation is performed by metal membranes freely movable in membrane chambers with an internal part included into the closed circuit and an external part connected to pressurized air controlling inspiratory valves expiratory valves. The electronic valves are software controlled by the computer to exactly perform the desired preset ventilatory mode. Membrane movement are on-line measured capacitively and transformed into respective flow and volume values, whereby the compressibility of the system gas (on-line pressure recording) is taken into account. Volatile anaesthetic gases are feed back controlled to preset end expiratory values (MAC-controlled anaesthesia), circuit volume is maintained by N20-addition and oxygen is added to maintain the desired present inspiratory concentration measured with paramagnetic oxygen sensors. Ergonometric aspects led to the triangular from of the new anaesthesia and intensive care ventilator with the controlling service screen turnable to all three sides of the ventilator (high flexibility of the user) and all necessary equipment and material included into the "Anaesthesia workstation". All measured and present parameters are continuously displayed on the service (computer) screen and entered into the computer-memory in minute cycles with a memory capacity of 75 h anaesthesia. At any desired moment the memorized values can be transferred to IBM-compatible disc systems for storage or into the respective data management systems, thus at the end of anaesthesia, at the end of the working day or at the end of the week. PMID:1888427

  12. Fuel cell and system for supplying electrolyte thereto

    DOEpatents

    Adlhart, Otto J.; Feigenbaum, Haim

    1984-01-01

    An electrolyte distribution and supply system for use with a fuel cell having means for drawing electrolyte therein is formed by a set of containers of electrolyte joined to respective fuel cells in a stack of such cells. The electrolyte is separately stored so as to provide for electrical isolation between electrolytes of the individual cells of the stack. Individual storage compartments are coupled by capillary tubes to the respective fuel cells. Hydrostatic pressure is maintained individually for each of the fuel cells by separately elevating each compartment of the storing means to a specific height above the corresponding fuel cell which is to be fed from that compartment of the storing means. The individual compartments are filled with electrolyte by allowing the compartments to overflow thereby maintaining the requisite depth of electrolyte in each of the storage compartments.

  13. Commercialization of willow bioenergy - a dedicated feedstock supply system

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Robison, D.J.

    1995-11-01

    Willow hybrids grown as a Dedicated Feedstock Supply System (DFSS) have been analyzed and found to be a feasibile means of augmenting current coal and natural gas resources for power generation. This study focused on the technology and infrastructure required to grow willow DFSS and integrate it with four existing pulverized coal electric generation facilities in central and western New York. The study found that both utilities and growers can forge a long-term business relationship that offers fuel diversity, fuel cost competitiveness and environmental benefits for the utility partners while reinvigorating central and western New York business in the agricultural sector. Growers can bring idle land and land being farmed at a loss back into profitable production while reducing environmental impacts associated with more traditional row crops. The Consortium is gearing up to put in place the growers contracts and the acreage necessary to take the first steps to prove and develop a major new business opportunity for rural New York.

  14. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the "fresh" air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent. CARB researchers have found that most new high performance, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. In this research project, CARB evaluated the four ventilation strategies in the field to validate system performance.

  15. Waste tank 241-SY-101 dome airspace and ventilation system response to a flammable gas plume burn

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, F.J.

    1995-11-01

    A series of flammable gas plume burn and transient pressure analyses have been completed for a nuclear waste tank (241-SY-101) and associated tank farm ventilation system at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford facility. The subject analyses were performed to address issues concerning the effects of transient pressures resulting from igniting a small volume of concentrated flammable gas just released from the surface of the waste as a plume and before the flammable gas concentration could be reduced by mixing with the dome airspace by local convection and turbulent diffusion. Such a condition may exist as part of an in progress episode gas release (EGR) or gas plume event. The analysis goal was to determine the volume of flammable gas that if burned within the dome airspace would result in a differential pressure, after propagating through the ventilation system, greater than the current High Efficiency Particulate Filter (HEPA) limit of 2.49 KPa (10 inches of water or 0. 36 psi). Such a pressure wave could rupture the tank ventilation system inlet and outlet HEPA filters leading to a potential release of contaminants to the environment

  16. Control system devices : architectures and supply channels overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, Jason; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Mulder, John C.

    2010-08-01

    This report describes a research project to examine the hardware used in automated control systems like those that control the electric grid. This report provides an overview of the vendors, architectures, and supply channels for a number of control system devices. The research itself represents an attempt to probe more deeply into the area of programmable logic controllers (PLCs) - the specialized digital computers that control individual processes within supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. The report (1) provides an overview of control system networks and PLC architecture, (2) furnishes profiles for the top eight vendors in the PLC industry, (3) discusses the communications protocols used in different industries, and (4) analyzes the hardware used in several PLC devices. As part of the project, several PLCs were disassembled to identify constituent components. That information will direct the next step of the research, which will greatly increase our understanding of PLC security in both the hardware and software areas. Such an understanding is vital for discerning the potential national security impact of security flaws in these devices, as well as for developing proactive countermeasures.

  17. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  18. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  19. Ventilator-associated lung injury.

    PubMed

    Kuchnicka, Katarzyna; Maciejewski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation of disease-affected lungs, as well as being an inadequate mode of ventilation for initially healthy lungs, can cause significant changes in their structure and function. In order to differentiate these processes, two terms are used: ventilator-associated lung injury (VALI) and ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). In both cases, lung injury primarily results from differences in transpulmonary pressure - a consequence of an imbalance between lung stress and strain. This paper focuses on changes in lung structure and function due to this imbalance. Moreover, in this context, barotrauma, volutrauma and atelectrauma are interpreted, and the importance of signal transduction as a process inducing local and systemic inflammatory responses (biotrauma), is determined. None of the assessed methods of reducing VALI and VILI has been found to be entirely satisfactory, yet studies evaluating oscillatory ventilation, liquid ventilation, early ECMO, super-protective ventilation or noisy ventilation and administration of certain drugs are under way. Low tidal volume ventilation and adequately adjusted PEEP appear to be the best preventive measures of mechanical ventilation in any setting, including the operating theatre. Furthermore, this paper highlights the advances in VILI/VALI prevention resulting from better understanding of pathophysiological phenomena. PMID:24092514

  20. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  1. Optimizing system capacity expansion schedules for groundwater supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Liang-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Ming-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Groundwater plays a vital role in regional water resources management. In conventional design, a full-scale network system is installed initially to use groundwater resources. However, the system capacity may exceed water demand in the early stages because water demand generally increases with time. Therefore, this work proposes a novel optimal capacity expansion model capable of determining an optimal schedule to expand system capacity according to increasing water demand. The proposed algorithm hybridizes a genetic algorithm (GA) and constrained differential dynamic programming (CDDP). The chromosomes of the GA represent a possible design alternative, a groundwater network with capacity that expands with time. The CDDP algorithm is then used to compute the optimal pumping policy associated with the chromosome. Simulation results indicate that the capacity expansion model saves more total present value cost than conventional designs for the same annual interest rate and water demand. Results of this study demonstrate promise for the proposed model in facilitating a cost-effective groundwater network design with capacity expansion for regional groundwater supply.

  2. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aquatic plants. (2) Facilities for plant growth, including, but not limited to greenhouses, growth... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  3. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aquatic plants. (2) Facilities for plant growth, including, but not limited to greenhouses, growth... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  4. 40 CFR 160.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aquatic plants. (2) Facilities for plant growth, including, but not limited to greenhouses, growth... preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall be provided....

  5. Indoor air flow and pollutant removal in a room with desk-top ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Faulkner, D.; Fisk, W.J.; Sullivan, D.P.

    1993-04-01

    In a furnished experimental facility with three workstations separated by partitions, we studied indoor air flow patterns and tobacco smoke removal efficiency of a desk-top task ventilation system. The task ventilation system permits occupant control of the temperature, flow rate and direction of air supplied through two desk-mounted supply nozzles. In the configuration evaluated, air exited the ventilated space through a ceiling-mounted return grill. To study indoor air flow patterns, we measured the age of air at multiple indoor locations using the tracer gas step-up procedure. To study the intra-room transport of tobacco smoke particles and the efficiency of panicle removal by ventilation, a cigarette was smoked mechanically in one workstation and particle concentrations were measured at multiple indoor locations including the exhaust airstream. Test variables included the direction of air supply from the nozzles, supply nozzle area, supply flow rate and temperature, percent recirculation of chamber air, and internal heatloads. With nozzles pointed toward the occupants, 100% outside air supplied at the desk-top, and air supply rates of approximately 40 L/s per workstation, the age of air at the breathing level of ventilated workstations was approximately 30% less than the age of air that would occur throughout the test space with perfectly mixed indoor air. With smaller air supply rates and/or air supplied parallel to the edges of the desk, ages of air at breathing locations were not significantly lower than the age with perfect mixing. Indoor tobacco smoke particle concentrations at specific locations were generally within 12% of the average measured indoor concentration and concentrations of particles in the exhaust airstream were not significantly different from concentration of particles at breathing locations.

  6. Field measurement of ventilation rates.

    PubMed

    Persily, A K

    2016-02-01

    Ventilation rates have significant impacts on building energy use and indoor contaminant concentrations, making them key parameters in building performance. Ventilation rates have been measured in buildings for many decades, and there are mature measurement approaches available to researchers and others who need to know actual ventilation rates in buildings. Despite the fact that ventilation rates are critical in interpreting indoor concentration measurements, it is disconcerting how few Indoor Air Quality field studies measure ventilation rates or otherwise characterize the ventilation design of the study building(s). This paper summarizes parameters of interest in characterizing building ventilation, available methods for quantifying these parameters, and challenges in applying these methods to different types of buildings and ventilation systems. These parameters include whole-building air change rates, system outdoor air intake rates, and building infiltration rates. Tracer gas methods are reviewed as well as system airflow rate measurements using, for example, duct traverses. Several field studies of ventilation rates conducted over the past 75 years are described to highlight the approaches employed and the findings obtained. PMID:25689218

  7. Radiological and toxicological analyses of tank 241-AY-102 and tank 241-C-106 ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, D.A.

    1998-08-11

    The high heat content solids contained in Tank 241-C-106 are to be removed and transferred to Tank 241-AY-102 by sluicing operations, to be authorized under project W320. While sluicing operations are underway, the state of these tanks will be transformed from unagitated to agitated. This means that the partition fraction which describes the aerosol content of the head space will increase from IE-10 to IE-8 (see WHC-SD-WM-CN062, Rev. 2 for discussion of partition fractions). The head spare will become much more loaded with suspended material. Furthermore, the nature of this suspended material can change significantly: sluicing could bring up radioactive solids which normally would lay under many meters of liquid supernate. It is assumed that the headspace and filter aerosols in Tank 241-AY-102 are a 90/10 liquid/solid split. It is further assumed that the sluicing line, the headspace in Tank 241-C-106, and the filters on Tank 241-C-106 contain aerosols which are a 67/33 liquid/solid split. The bases of these assumptions are discussed in Section 3.0. These waste compositions (referred to as mitigated compositions) were used in Attachments 1 through 4 to calculate survey meter exposure rates per liter of inventory in the various system components. Three accident scenarios are evaluated: a high temperature event which melts or burns the HEPA filters and causes releases from other system components; an overpressure event which crushes and blows out the HEPA filters and causes releases from other system components; and an unfiltered release of tank headspace air. The initiating event for the high temperature release is a fire caused by a heater malfunction inside the exhaust dust or a fire outside the duct. The initiating event for the overpressure event could be a steam bump which over pressurizes the tank and leads to a blowout of the HEPA filters in the ventilation system. The catastrophic destruction of the HEPA filters would release a fraction of the accumulated

  8. Examination of redirected continuous miner scrubber discharge configurations for exhaust face ventilation systems

    PubMed Central

    Organiscak, J.A.; Beck, T.W.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (OMSHR) has recently studied several redirected scrubber discharge configurations in its full-scale continuous miner gallery for both dust and gas control when using an exhaust face ventilation system. Dust and gas measurements around the continuous mining machine in the laboratory showed that the conventional scrubber discharge directed outby the face with a 12.2-m (40-ft) exhaust curtain setback appeared to be one of the better configurations for controlling dust and gas. Redirecting all the air toward the face equally up both sides of the machine increased the dust and gas concentrations around the machine. When all of the air was redirected toward the face on the off-curtain side of the machine, gas accumulations tended to be reduced at the face, at the expense of increased dust levels in the return and on the curtain side of the mining machine. A 6.1-m (20-ft) exhaust curtain setback without the scrubber operating resulted in the lowest dust levels around the continuous mining machine, but this configuration resulted in some of the highest levels of dust in the return and gas on the off-curtain side of the mining face. Two field studies showed some similarities to the laboratory findings, with elevated dust levels at the rear corners of the continuous miner when all of the scrubber exhaust was redirected toward the face either up the off-tubing side or equally up both sides of the mining machine. PMID:26251566

  9. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... maintaining algae and aquatic plants. (2) Facilities, as specified in the protocol, for plant growth, including but not limited to, greenhouses, growth chambers, light banks, and fields. (c) When appropriate... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  10. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maintaining algae and aquatic plants. (2) Facilities, as specified in the protocol, for plant growth, including but not limited to, greenhouses, growth chambers, light banks, and fields. (c) When appropriate... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  11. 40 CFR 792.45 - Test system supply facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... maintaining algae and aquatic plants. (2) Facilities, as specified in the protocol, for plant growth, including but not limited to, greenhouses, growth chambers, light banks, and fields. (c) When appropriate... supplies shall be preserved by appropriate means. (b) When appropriate, plant supply facilities shall...

  12. Effectiveness of a manure scraper system for odor control in tunnel-ventilated swine finisher barns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Options for odor control from tunnel-ventilated swine barns are limited. Automated scrapers have been successful for reducing odor emissions in free-stall dairies, and for reducing H2S emissions in research-scale swine finisher rooms, but their effectiveness for reducing odor in commercial tunnel-v...

  13. "Fighting the system": Families caring for ventilator-dependent children and adults with complex health care needs at home

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasing number of individuals with complex health care needs now receive life-long and life-prolonging ventilatory support at home. Family members often take on the role of primary caregivers. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of families giving advanced care to family members dependent on home mechanical ventilation. Methods Using qualitative research methods, a Grounded Theory influenced approach was used to explore the families' experiences. A total of 15 family members with 11 ventilator-dependent individuals (three children and eight adults) were recruited for 10 in-depth interviews. Results The core category, "fighting the system," became the central theme as family members were asked to describe their experiences. In addition, we identified three subcategories, "lack of competence and continuity", "being indispensable" and "worth fighting for". This study revealed no major differences in the families' experiences that were dependent on whether the ventilator-dependent individual was a child or an adult. Conclusions These findings show that there is a large gap between family members' expectations and what the community health care services are able to provide, even when almost unlimited resources are available. A number of measures are needed to reduce the burden on these family members and to make hospital care at home possible. In the future, the gap between what the health care can potentially provide and what they can provide in real life will rapidly increase. New proposals to limit the extremely costly provision of home mechanical ventilation in Norway will trigger new ethical dilemmas that should be studied further. PMID:21726441

  14. Nasal ventilation.

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, A. K.

    1998-01-01

    Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation is likely to have an increasing role in the management of acute ventilatory failure, weaning, and chronic ventilatory problems. Further improvements in ventilator and mask design will be seen. Appropriate application is likely to reduce both mortality and admissions to intensive care, while domiciliary use can improve life expectancy and/or quality of life in chronic ventilatory disorders. As with any new technique, enthusiasm should not outweigh clear outcome information, and possible new indications should always be subject to careful assessment. Images Figure 2 PMID:9799887

  15. System Performance Measurement Supports Design Recommendations for Solar Ventilation Preheat System (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    Technical briefing to report the outcomes of a data monitoring effort to determine the nature of solar vent preheat system performance problems at a U.S. military installation. The analysis reports up-to-date research and findings regarding system design, helping to clarify the issue as a factor of system design, rather than a shortcoming of SVP systems.

  16. Ventilators for noninvasive ventilation to treat acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele; Naldi, Mario

    2008-08-01

    The application of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) to treat acute respiratory failure has increased tremendously both inside and outside the intensive care unit. The choice of ventilator is crucial for success of NIV in the acute setting, because poor tolerance and excessive air leaks are significantly correlated with NIV failure. Patient-ventilator asynchrony and discomfort can occur if the physician or respiratory therapist fails to adequately set NIV to respond to the patient's ventilatory demand, so clinicians need to fully understood the ventilator's technical peculiarities (eg, efficiency of trigger and cycle systems, speed of pressurization, air-leak compensation, CO(2) rebreathing, reliability of fraction of inspired oxygen reading, monitoring accuracy). A wide range of ventilators of different complexity have been introduced into clinical practice to noninvasively support patients in acute respiratory failure, but the numerous commercially available ventilators (bi-level, intermediate, and intensive care unit ventilators) have substantial differences that can influence patient comfort, patient-ventilator interaction, and, thus, the chance of NIV clinical success. This report examines the most relevant aspects of the historical evolution, the equipment, and the acute-respiratory-failure clinical application of NIV ventilators. PMID:18655744

  17. Assessment of Energy Savings Potential from the Use of Demand Control Ventilation Systems in General Office Spaces in California

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tianzhen; Fisk, William J.

    2009-07-08

    Demand controlled ventilation (DCV) was evaluated for general office spaces in California. A medium size office building meeting the prescriptive requirements of the 2008 California building energy efficiency standards (CEC 2008) was assumed in the building energy simulations performed with the EnergyPlus program to calculate the DCV energy savings potential in five typical California climates. Three design occupancy densities and two minimum ventilation rates were used as model inputs to cover a broader range of design variations. The assumed values of minimum ventilation rates in offices without DCV, based on two different measurement methods, were 81 and 28 cfm per occupant. These rates are based on the co-author's unpublished analyses of data from EPA's survey of 100 U.S. office buildings. These minimum ventilation rates exceed the 15 to 20 cfm per person required in most ventilation standards for offices. The cost effectiveness of applying DCV in general office spaces was estimated via a life cycle cost analyses that considered system costs and energy cost reductions. The results of the energy modeling indicate that the energy savings potential of DCV is largest in the desert area of California (climate zone 14), followed by Mountains (climate zone 16), Central Valley (climate zone 12), North Coast (climate zone 3), and South Coast (climate zone 6). The results of the life cycle cost analysis show DCV is cost effective for office spaces if the typical minimum ventilation rates without DCV is 81 cfm per person, except at the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2} in climate zones 3 and 6. At the low design occupancy of 10 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the greatest DCV life cycle cost savings is a net present value (NPV) of $0.52/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 14, followed by $0.32/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 16 and $0.19/ft{sup 2} in climate zone 12. At the medium design occupancy of 15 people per 1000 ft{sup 2}, the DCV savings are higher with a NPV $0

  18. Visible solar-ray supply system for space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kei; Tanatsugu, Nobuhiko; Yamashita, Masamichi

    The solar-ray supply system presented here will mainly provide the visible solar ray necessary for the various activities in the space station, such as cultivation experiments on plants, fishes, birds and animals, room lighting for modules, and crew sun-bathing. Even natural solar rays reaching earth surface contain harmful rays for human beings, animals, higher plants and algae: Ultraviolet rays of medium (UV-B) and long wavelength (UV-A), infrared and heat rays, are all harmful to life. On a space station, the most dangerous short-wavelength ultraviolet (UB-C), X-ray and gamma-ray are additionally included, besides those cited above in markedly higher intensity. The range of rays useful and harmless to life is the visible band of wavelengths. No conclusive studies have been conducted concerning the unexpected powerful effects on the growth of plants and algae that can be brought by pure visible solar rays, in comparison with the corresponding effects of other kinds of artificial light source.

  19. [Rules to control ddrinking water supply systems in livestock farming].

    PubMed

    Hartung, J

    2000-08-01

    Water is regarded as one of the most important distributors of infectious diseases. Moreover it can carry chemical compounds and toxic substances. Presently there are no specific legal regulations which define the quality of the drinking water for animals in Germany. However, some rules and criteria exist which help to survey and secure the water supply of animals on farm level. When controlling the hygienic quality of water on the farm it is necessary to investigate not only the water itself but also the local facilities around the water well. If health problems occur in the stock the water tanks, the tubing system which distributes the water in the animal houses and the drinkers have to be checked carefully. Water samples for the analysis on microorganisms and chemical contaminants should be taken according to a strict protocol. The regulations of the German drinking water directive for humans can be used as an orientation to characterise the drinking water quality for the animals. Nevertheless it seems useful to elaborate animal species specific thresholds for water contaminants particularly for food producing animals. A proposal for some threshold values is reported. PMID:11036779

  20. Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Recent Advances in Diagnostics and Controls to Improve Air-Handling System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig; Wray, Craig P.; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, I.S.; Dickerhoff, D.J.; Federspiel, C.C.

    2008-02-01

    The performance of air-handling systems in buildings needs to be improved. Many of the deficiencies result from myths and lore and a lack of understanding about the non-linear physical principles embedded in the associated technologies. By incorporating these principles, a few important efforts related to diagnostics and controls have already begun to solve some of the problems. This paper illustrates three novel solutions: one rapidly assesses duct leakage, the second configures ad hoc duct-static-pressure reset strategies, and the third identifies useful intermittent ventilation strategies. By highlighting these efforts, this paper seeks to stimulate new research and technology developments that could further improve air-handling systems.

  1. Public water supplies of North Carolina : a summary of water sources, use, treatment, and capacity of water-supply systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mann, L.T., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Data were collected during 1970-76 on 224 public water supply systems in North Carolina with 500 or more customers. This report summarizes these data that were previously published in five separate regional reports. The data are presented in order to Council of Government region, county, and water system name and include population served, average and maximum daily use, industrial use, water source, allowable draft of surface-water supplies, raw water pumping capacity, raw and finished water storage, type of water treatment, treatment plant capacity, and a summary of the chemical quality of finished water. Tables and maps provide cross references for system names, counties, Council of Government regions and water source.

  2. Space station ventilation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.; Allen, G. E.

    1972-01-01

    A ventilation system design and selection method which is applicable to any manned vehicle were developed. The method was used to generate design options for the NASA 33-foot diameter space station, all of which meet the ventilation system design requirements. System characteristics such as weight, volume, and power were normalized to dollar costs for each option. Total system costs for the various options ranged from a worst case $8 million to a group of four which were all approximately $2 million. A system design was then chosen from the $2 million group and is presented in detail. A ventilation system layout was designed for the MSFC space station mockup which provided comfortable, efficient ventilation of the mockup. A conditioned air distribution system design for the 14-foot diameter modular space station, using the same techniques, is also presented. The tradeoff study resulted in the selection of a system which costs $1.9 million, as compared to the alternate configuration which would have cost $2.6 million.

  3. 3.6MW Power Supply System of the 170GHz ECH&CD System in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Eun-yong; Ahn, Il-kun; Seo, Tae-won; Lee, Seung-kyo; Bae, Young-soon; Joung, Jin-Hyun; Joung, Mi

    2012-09-01

    A 3.6 MW (-66 kV/55 A) Gyrotron power supply system was developed for the 170 GHz ECH&CD gyrotron system in KSTAR. This power supply system consists of Cathode Power Supply(CPS), Anode Power Supply(APS) and Body Power Supply(BPS). The CPS is using the Pulse Step Modulation by the 32set of IGBT choppers. The respons time of Chopper is very fast. So the cathode voltaget is able to be controlled rapidly. The APS is a sort of voltage devider using zener and switch component. It was achieved 3kHz modulation operation. The BPS is combined the commercial power supply and special high voltage switches. It is very simple topology but 5kHz modulation was accomplished easily. Theses power supply system were installed and commissioned successfully in 2011. This paper presents the topology of the each power supply and test result for 170 GHz gyrotron in KSTAR.

  4. Considerations of the Skilled Manpower Needs for Water Supply Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Gregor

    1981-01-01

    General methods for determining skilled labor needs for water supply and wastewater treatment plant operation as applied in Turkey are outlined along with a model program for training personnel to meet these needs. (DC)

  5. Mechanical Ventilation

    MedlinePlus

    ... or husband or next of kin). It is important that you talk with your family members and your doctors about using a ventilator and what you would like to happen in different situations. The more clearly you explain your values and choices to friends, loved ones and doctors, ...

  6. Dynamic imaging of pulmonary ventilation. Description of a novel digital fluoroscopic system.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, A; Svedström, E; Kuuluvainen, I

    1991-03-01

    A new fluoroscopic imaging device consisting of an AT-microcomputer and a digital image memory unit has been used in experimental and clinical ventilation studies during a 2-year period. Digital images with 256 shades of gray were collected during one to 3 ventilation cycles at the rate of 6 to 25 images/s and stored on an optical laser disc. Both subtracted time interval difference (TID-) images and images relative, for example, to the mean image of the cycle (REL-images) were produced. The series of images could also be evaluated dynamically using animation sequences or analyzed using region of interest calculations. The method gave dynamic information with adequate spatial resolution and was easy to use in clinical practice. The radiation dose was kept low due to the high kilovoltage and heavy beam filtration technique. In experimental studies the software enabled flexible measurements of physiological pulmonary parameters. PMID:2031793

  7. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor nuclear steam supply system design

    SciTech Connect

    Memmott, M. J.; Harkness, A. W.; Van Wyk, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the first in a series of four papers which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. Also described in this series are the key drivers influencing the design of the Westinghouse SMR and the unique passive safety features of the Westinghouse SMR. Several critical motivators contributed to the development and integration of the Westinghouse SMR design. These design driving motivators dictated the final configuration of the Westinghouse SMR to varying degrees, depending on the specific features under consideration. These design drivers include safety, economics, AP1000{sup R} reactor expertise and experience, research and development requirements, functionality of systems and components, size of the systems and vessels, simplicity of design, and licensing requirements. The Westinghouse SMR NSSS consists of an integral reactor vessel within a compact containment vessel. The core is located in the bottom of the reactor vessel and is composed of 89 modified Westinghouse 17x17 Robust Fuel Assemblies (RFA). These modified fuel assemblies have an active core length of only 2.4 m (8 ft) long, and the entirety of the core is encompassed by a radial reflector. The Westinghouse SMR core operates on a 24 month fuel cycle. The reactor vessel is approximately 24.4 m (80 ft) long and 3.7 m (12 ft) in diameter in order to facilitate standard rail shipping to the site. The reactor vessel houses hot and cold leg channels to facilitate coolant flow, control rod drive mechanisms (CRDM), instrumentation and cabling, an intermediate flange to separate flow and instrumentation and facilitate simpler refueling, a pressurizer, a straight tube, recirculating steam

  8. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Eric C. D. Tan; Jacob J. Jacobson; Amy Schwab; May M. Wu; Andrew Argo; Craig C. Brandt; Kara G. Cafferty; Yi-Wen Chiu; Abhijit Dutta; Laurence M. Eaton; Erin M. Searcy

    2014-08-01

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the

  9. A computer model of the artificially ventilated human respiratory system in adult intensive care.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A J; Murphy, C M; Brook, B S; Breen, D; Miles, A W; Tilley, D G

    2009-11-01

    A multi-technique approach to modelling artificially ventilated patients on the adult general intensive care unit (ICU) is proposed. Compartmental modelling techniques were used to describe the mechanical ventilator and the flexible hoses that connect it to the patient. 3D CFD techniques were used to model flow in the major airways and a Windkessel style balloon model was used to model the mechanical properties of the lungs. A multi-compartment model of the lung based on bifurcating tree structures representing the conducting airways and pulmonary circulation allowed lung disease to be modelled in terms of altered V/Q ratios within a lognormal distribution of values and it is from these that gas exchange was determined. A compartmental modelling tool, Bathfp, was used to integrate the different modelling techniques into a single model. The values of key parameters in the model could be obtained from measurements on patients in an ICU whilst a sensitivity analysis showed that the model was insensitive to the value of other parameters within it. Measured and modelled values for arterial blood gases and airflow parameters are compared for 46 ventilator settings obtained from 6 ventilator dependent patients. The results show correlation coefficients of 0.88 and 0.85 for the arterial partial pressures of the O(2) and CO(2), respectively (p<0.01) and of 0.99 and 0.96 for upper airway pressure and tidal volume, respectively (p<0.01). The difference between measured and modelled values was large in physiological terms, suggesting that some optimisation of the model is required. PMID:19699134

  10. [Implementation of modern trends in the methods of the ventilation support in the new apparatus for artificial lung ventilation Avenir-221 P].

    PubMed

    Gal'perin, Iu Sh; Alkhimova, L R; Dmitriev, N D; Kozlova, I A; Nemirovskiĭ, S B; Makarov, M V; Safronov, A Iu

    2005-01-01

    In the new ventilator Avenir-221 P modern lines of development of ventilation support in intensive therapy of adults and children are implemented. The capacities of the ventilator are successfully combined with its technical decisions which include microprocessor parametrical controlling, programming-controlled electric drive, an information saturation, intuitively clear control system, protection against interruption of power supply sources and oxygen feeding falls. A set of functional characteristics (modes VCV, PCV, Ass/Contr, PSV, SIMV, PEEP, Sigh, etc.) in combination with an original design make the device the most accessible and promising for application in intensive care and resuscitation units of a wide network of Russian hospitals and clinics. The ventilator Avenir-221 P has passed all required tests and is presently commercially available. PMID:16491658

  11. Master's Degree in Management Information Systems with a Supply Chain Management Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswamy, Kizhanatham V.; Boyd, Joseph L.; Desai, Mayur

    2007-01-01

    A graduate curriculum in Management Information Systems with a Supply Chain Management focus is presented. The motivation for this endeavor stems from the fact that the global scope of modern business organizations and the competitive environment in which they operate, requires an information system leveraged supply chain management system (SCM)…

  12. Analysis of residual chlorine in simple drinking water distribution system with intermittent water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Roopali V.; Patel, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of residual chlorine concentration at various locations in drinking water distribution system is essential final check to the quality of water supplied to the consumers. This paper presents a methodology to find out the residual chlorine concentration at various locations in simple branch network by integrating the hydraulic and water quality model using first-order chlorine decay equation with booster chlorination nodes for intermittent water supply. The explicit equations are developed to compute the residual chlorine in network with a long distribution pipe line at critical nodes. These equations are applicable to Indian conditions where intermittent water supply is the most common system of water supply. It is observed that in intermittent water supply, the residual chlorine at farthest node is sensitive to water supply hours and travelling time of chlorine. Thus, the travelling time of chlorine can be considered to justify the requirement of booster chlorination for intermittent water supply.

  13. MODEL BASED BIOMASS SYSTEM DESIGN OF FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Jacob J. Jacobson; Kenneth M. Bryden

    2013-08-01

    Engineering feedstock supply systems that deliver affordable, high-quality biomass remains a challenge for the emerging bioenergy industry. Cellulosic biomass is geographically distributed and has diverse physical and chemical properties. Because of this feedstock supply systems that deliver cellulosic biomass resources to biorefineries require integration of a broad set of engineered unit operations. These unit operations include harvest and collection, storage, preprocessing, and transportation processes. Design decisions for each feedstock supply system unit operation impact the engineering design and performance of the other system elements. These interdependencies are further complicated by spatial and temporal variances such as climate conditions and biomass characteristics. This paper develops an integrated model that couples a SQL-based data management engine and systems dynamics models to design and evaluate biomass feedstock supply systems. The integrated model, called the Biomass Logistics Model (BLM), includes a suite of databases that provide 1) engineering performance data for hundreds of equipment systems, 2) spatially explicit labor cost datasets, and 3) local tax and regulation data. The BLM analytic engine is built in the systems dynamics software package PowersimTM. The BLM is designed to work with thermochemical and biochemical based biofuel conversion platforms and accommodates a range of cellulosic biomass types (i.e., herbaceous residues, short- rotation woody and herbaceous energy crops, woody residues, algae, etc.). The BLM simulates the flow of biomass through the entire supply chain, tracking changes in feedstock characteristics (i.e., moisture content, dry matter, ash content, and dry bulk density) as influenced by the various operations in the supply chain. By accounting for all of the equipment that comes into contact with biomass from the point of harvest to the throat of the conversion facility and the change in characteristics, the

  14. A New Heat Supply System of Cogeneration for the Local Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideki; Hisazumi, Yoshinori; Asano, Hitoshi; Morita, Hikaru; Hori, Toshihiro; Matsumoto, Toshiki; Abiko, Tetsuo

    In order for economically viable distributed generation systems for local communities to be widely accepted, it is essential to develop an efficient and low-cost heat supply system. For this purpose, we propose a new heat supply system which we already presented at the ICOPE-05 Chicago. The key technology for the system is to connect compact heat supply units with a heat storage function installed in all the households of the local community, such as condominiums, by a single-loop of hot water pipe. A phase change material was used for the heat supply unit as the heat storage material. However, for easier handling and reducing the cost of the unit, we have developed a new heat supply unit whose heat storage tank is made of plastic. Hot water for space heating is used as the heat storage material. Further we constructed a heat supply system for 7 lived-in households with a 5 kW gas engine and a 42 kW boiler as the heat sources. Some experiments with a heat supply unit and a heat supply system, such as for heat storage and heat supply for peak demand were conducted. Additionally, dynamic simulations of heat demand by 50 households and a COP evaluation of a new CO2 heat pump system using low-temperature exhaust gas from the gas engine were also conducted.

  15. Comparison of tunnel ventilation emissions monitoring data against predicted modeling results

    SciTech Connect

    Kasprak, A.; Schattanek, G.

    1997-12-31

    On December 15, 1995, the new Ted Williams Tunnel (TWT) opened for commercial and taxi traffic between South and East Boston. This opening of the TWT constitutes the Early Opening Phase which will extend until the completion of the Central Artery/Tunnel (CA/T) Project, when the connection between the TWT, the Massachusetts Turnpike (I-90), and the Central Artery (I-93) will be completed and fully opened for general public use. The ventilation system for the TWT is a fully transverse ventilation system that is comprised of numerous supply and exhaust fans and ancillary equipment housed in two separate ventilation buildings. Emissions from vehicles are ventilated to the outside atmosphere through a series of exhaust stacks, housed on each ventilation building. During the Early Opening Phase of the TWT, a monitoring program is being conducted to determine if the emissions from each ventilation building are within the ranges of the projected emissions used in the design of the tunnel`s ventilation system. This paper presents the results of the emissions monitoring program and compares projected emissions data with the actual emissions data recorded during the monitoring program. In addition, a comparison is made regarding monitoring emissions data within the tunnel with predicted emission data using the current Mobile 5a Emission Factor Model.

  16. Laboratory Ventilation and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steere, Norman V.

    1965-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of both safety and economy, laboratory ventilation systems must effectively remove air-borne toxic and flammable materials and at the same time exhaust a minimum volume of air. Laboratory hoods are the most commonly used means of removing gases, dusts, mists, vapors, and fumed from laboratory operations. To be effective,…

  17. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  18. RESIDENTIAL VENTILATION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated the effectiveness, first costs and operational costs of various types of residential ventilation systems in three different climates in the U.S. The Agency, through its Energy Star Program, recommends that builders construct homes that are energy efficient ...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1107-8 - Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equivalent protective devices and a rising stem or other visual indicator-type shutoff valve. (b) Water supplies for fire suppression devices installed on underground equipment may be maintained in mounted water... Fire suppression devices; extinguishant supply systems. (a) Fire suppression systems using water...

  20. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  1. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  2. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  3. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  4. 46 CFR 111.103-3 - Machinery space ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Machinery space ventilation. 111.103-3 Section 111.103-3...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-3 Machinery space ventilation. (a) Each machinery space ventilation system must have two controls to stop the ventilation, one of which may be the...

  5. Structures and Opportunities to Supply the Telecommunication Systems in Underground Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojaczek, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Telecommunication systems in underground mines require reliable power supply both of stationary and underground devices. Special problems connected with power supply occur in a case when subscriber devices are located in explosion hazard areas. The paper presents the basic problems connected with power supply of stationary elements of safety systems as well as subscriber devices located in explosion hazard areas that are significantly distant from stationary elements. Acceptable methods of supplying the subscribers devices under technical environment conditions of mine undergrounds have been determined.

  6. Quantitative assessment of resilience of a water supply system under rainfall reduction due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarasinghe, Pradeep; Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Barnes, Paul; McGree, James; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-09-01

    A water supply system can be impacted by rainfall reduction due to climate change, thereby reducing its supply potential. This highlights the need to understand the system resilience, which refers to the ability to maintain service under various pressures (or disruptions). Currently, the concept of resilience has not yet been widely applied in managing water supply systems. This paper proposed three technical resilience indictors to assess the resilience of a water supply system. A case study analysis was undertaken of the Water Grid system of Queensland State, Australia, to showcase how the proposed indicators can be applied to assess resilience. The research outcomes confirmed that the use of resilience indicators is capable of identifying critical conditions in relation to the water supply system operation, such as the maximum allowable rainfall reduction for the system to maintain its operation without failure. Additionally, resilience indicators also provided useful insight regarding the sensitivity of the water supply system to a changing rainfall pattern in the context of climate change, which represents the system's stability when experiencing pressure. The study outcomes will help in the quantitative assessment of resilience and provide improved guidance to system operators to enhance the efficiency and reliability of a water supply system.

  7. PEP-III magnet power conversion systems: Power supplies for large magnet strings

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, T.; Saab, A.; Shimer, D.

    1995-05-01

    This paper presents the cooperative design efforts of LBL, SLAC, and LLNL on the magnet power conversion systems for PEP-II. The systems include 900 channels of correction magnet bipolar supplies and 400 unipolar supplies in the range of 5 to 500 kW. We show the decision process and technical considerations influencing the choice of power supply technologies employed. We also show the development of specifications that take maximum advantage of both the resources available and existing facilities while at the same time satisfying tight constraints for cost control, scheduling and coordination of different working groups. Switch-mode power conversion techniques will be used extensively in these systems, from the corrector supplies to the largest units if the dynamic performance specifications demand it. General system descriptions for each of the power supply ranges and for a new common control system interface and regulator are included.

  8. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 4: Cryogenic cooling in environmental control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of cryogenic fluid cooling in the environmental control system of the space shuttle was conducted. The technique for treating the cryogenic fluid storage and supply tanks and subsystems as integrated systems was developed. It was concluded that a basic incompatibility exists between the heat generated and the cryogen usage rate and cryogens cannot be used to absorb the generated heat. The use of radiators and accumulators to provide additional cooling capability is recommended.

  9. A prospective, randomized study of ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients using a closed vs. open suction system.

    PubMed

    Zeitoun, Sandra Salloum; de Barros, Alba Lúcia Botura Leite; Diccini, Solange

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia in intubated and extended mechanically ventilated patients having endotracheal suctioning by an open vs. closed suction method aiming to decrease nosocomial pneumonia. Twenty-four (51.1%) patients received open-tracheal suction and 23 (48.9%) received closed-tracheal suction. The inclusion criteria were: surgical and medical patients older than 13 years, undergoing mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. Additional data were gathered using the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, and details on smoking, alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, renal failure, previous lung disease, and previous use of antibiotics, steroids, H2 antagonists and antacids. Among the 24 patients having open-tracheal suction, 11 developed nosocomial pneumonia while of the 23 patients undergoing closed-tracheal suction, seven developed infection (P = 0.278). Risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia were not significantly different between the two groups. In the final logistical regression model the following variables remained: groups (open and closed) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.014; confidence interval (CI) = 0.001-0.416; P = 0.014] and use of prior antibiotics (OR = 2.297; CI = 1.244-4.242; P = 0.008). Use of a closed suction system did not decrease the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia when compared with the open system. The exogenous risk factors were the most important for acquiring this infection. PMID:12790861

  10. An intelligent traceability system: Efficient tool for a supply chain sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougdira, Abdesselam; Ahaitouf, Abdelaziz; Akharraz, Ismail

    2016-07-01

    The supply chain sustainability becomes a necessity for a smooth, a rapid and a fluid economic transaction. To reach a sustainable supply chain, we propose to focus attention on products and their lifecycle. So, we consider the traceability as a major success key to ensure the supply chain sustainability. For that, we consider a supply chain design that use an intelligent products traced by an intelligent traceability system. This system identifies, restores history and properties of a product, besides it tracks, in real-time a product. This solution can, also, bring, in the product environment, appropriate adjustments to prevent any risk of threatening qualities for the product. So, it helps supply chain contributors making the sustainable adjustments and the instant benchmark of the supply chain sustainability.

  11. Evaluation of Ventilation Strategies in New Construction Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.; Berger, D.; Zuluaga, M.

    2014-07-01

    In multifamily buildings, particularly in the Northeast, exhaust ventilation strategies are the norm as a means of meeting both local exhaust and whole-unit mechanical ventilation rates. The issue of where the 'fresh' air is coming from is gaining significance as air-tightness standards for enclosures become more stringent, and the 'normal leakage paths through the building envelope' disappear. CARB researchers have found that the majority of high performance, new construction, multifamily housing in the Northeast use one of four general strategies for ventilation: continuous exhaust only with no designated supply or make-up air source, continuous exhaust with ducted make-up air to apartments, continuous exhaust with supply through a make-up air device integral to the unit HVAC, and continuous exhaust with supply through a passive inlet device, such as a trickle vent. Insufficient information is available to designers on how these various systems are best applied. Product performance data are based on laboratory tests, and the assumption is that products will perform similarly in the field. Proper application involves matching expected performance at expected building pressures, but there is no guarantee that those conditions will exist consistently in the finished building. This research effort, which included several weeks of building pressure monitoring, sought to provide field validation of system performance. The performance of four substantially different strategies for providing make-up air to apartments was evaluated.

  12. Test wire for high voltage power supply crowbar system

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.T. III; Collins, M.

    1997-09-01

    The klystron microwave amplifier tubes used in the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) and to be used in the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) plant have a strict upper limit on the amount of energy which can be safely dissipated within the klystron`s vacuum envelope during a high voltage arc. One way to prevent damage from occurring to the klystron microwave amplifier tube is through the use of a crowbar circuit which diverts the energy stored in the power supply filter capacitors from the tube arc. The crowbar circuit must be extremely reliable. To test the crowbar circuit, a wire that is designed to fuse when it absorbs a predetermined amount of energy is switched between the high voltage output terminals. The energy required to fuse the wire was investigated for a variety of circuits that simulated the power supply circuit. Techniques for calculating wire length and energy are presented along with verifying experimental data.

  13. Development of a time-cycled volume-controlled pressure-limited respirator and lung mechanics system for total liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Larrabe, J L; Alvarez, F J; Cuesta, E G; Valls-i-Soler, A; Alfonso, L F; Arnaiz, A; Fernández, M B; Loureiro, B; Publicover, N G; Roman, L; Casla, J A; Gómez, M A

    2001-10-01

    Total liquid ventilation can support gas exchange in animal models of lung injury. Clinical application awaits further technical improvements and performance verification. Our aim was to develop a liquid ventilator, able to deliver accurate tidal volumes, and a computerized system for measuring lung mechanics. The computer-assisted, piston-driven respirator controlled ventilatory parameters that were displayed and modified on a real-time basis. Pressure and temperature transducers along with a lineal displacement controller provided the necessary signals to calculate lung mechanics. Ten newborn lambs (<6 days old) with respiratory failure induced by lung lavage, were monitored using the system. Electromechanical, hydraulic, and data acquisition/analysis components of the ventilator were developed and tested in animals with respiratory failure. All pulmonary signals were collected synchronized in time, displayed in real-time, and archived on digital media. The total mean error (due to transducers, analog-to-digital conversion, amplifiers, etc.) was less than 5% compared with calibrated signals. Components (tubing, pistons, etc.) in contact with exchange fluids were developed so that they could be readily switched, a feature that will be important in clinical settings. Improvements in gas exchange and lung mechanics were observed during liquid ventilation, without impairment of cardiovascular profiles. The total liquid ventilator maintained accurate control of tidal volumes and the sequencing of inspiration/expiration. The computerized system demonstrated its ability to monitor in vivo lung mechanics, providing valuable data for early decision making. PMID:11585037

  14. A model of household choice of water supply systems in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madanat, Samer; Humplick, Frannie

    1993-05-01

    Studies of pipe water demand in developing countries have traditionally analyzed household connection decisions to the pipe water system. On the other hand, empirical observations have revealed that often, after connecting, households do not use their pipe water supply, or augment it with alternative sources. Due to deficiencies in pipe water quality, pressure, or availability, households invest in coping strategies in the form of alternative supplies and storage facilities. Because these strategies have important economic implications, there is a need to develop an understanding of households' water demand that goes beyond connection decisions. This paper presents a model system of household water supply choices. The system accounts for the fact that households may use different supply systems for different uses of water. Moreover, the relation between households' choices of water supply and their connection decisions is explicitly modeled. The approach is illustrated using data from Faisalabad, Pakistan.

  15. Effect of radiant barriers and attic ventilation on residential attics and attic duct systems: New tools for measuring and modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.; Wilkes, K.E.

    1998-07-01

    A simple duct system was installed in an attic test module for a large scale climate simulator at a US national laboratory. The goal of the tests and subsequent modeling was to develop an accurate method of assessing duct system performance in the laboratory, enabling limiting conditions to be imposed at will and results to be applied to residential attics with attic duct systems. Steady-state tests were done at a severe summer and a mild winter condition. In all tests the roof surface was heated above ambient air temperatures by infrared lights. The attic test module first included then did not include the duct system. Attic ventilation from eave vents to a ridge vent was varied from none to values achievable by a high level of power ventilation. A radiant barrier was attached to the underside of the roof deck, both with and without the duct system in place. Tests were also done without the radiant barrier, both with and without the duct system. When installed, the insulated ducts ran along the floor of the attic, just above the attic insulation and along the edge of the attic near the eaves and one gable. These tests in a climate simulator achieved careful control and reproducibility of conditions. This elucidated dependencies that would otherwise be hidden by variations in uncontrolled variables. Based on the comparisons with the results of the tests at the mild winter condition and the severe summer condition, model predictions for attic air and insulation temperatures should be accurate within {+-} 10 F ({+-} 6 C). This is judged adequate for design purposes and could be better when exploring the effect of changes in attic and duct parameters at fixed climatic conditions.

  16. Transmission of Mycobacterium chimaera from Heater–Cooler Units during Cardiac Surgery despite an Ultraclean Air Ventilation System

    PubMed Central

    Sommerstein, Rami; Rüegg, Christian; Kohler, Philipp; Bloemberg, Guido; Kuster, Stefan P.

    2016-01-01

    Heater–cooler units (HCUs) were recently identified as a source of Mycobacterium chimaera causing surgical site infections. We investigated transmission of this bacterium from HCUs to the surgical field by using a thermic anemometer and particle counter, videotape of an operating room equipped with an ultraclean laminar airflow ventilation system, and bacterial culture sedimentation plates in a nonventilated room. Smoke from the HCU reached the surgical field in 23 s by merging with ultraclean air. The HCU produced on average 5.2, 139, and 14.8 particles/min in the surgical field at positions Off, On/oriented toward, and On/oriented away, respectively. Culture plates were positive for M. chimaera <5 m from the HCU in the test room. These experiments confirm airborne transmission of M. chimaera aerosols from a contaminated HCU to an open surgical field despite ultraclean air ventilation. Efforts to mitigate infectious risks during surgery should consider contamination from water sources and airflow-generating devices. PMID:27070958

  17. Transmission of Mycobacterium chimaera from Heater-Cooler Units during Cardiac Surgery despite an Ultraclean Air Ventilation System.

    PubMed

    Sommerstein, Rami; Rüegg, Christian; Kohler, Philipp; Bloemberg, Guido; Kuster, Stefan P; Sax, Hugo

    2016-06-01

    Heater-cooler units (HCUs) were recently identified as a source of Mycobacterium chimaera causing surgical site infections. We investigated transmission of this bacterium from HCUs to the surgical field by using a thermic anemometer and particle counter, videotape of an operating room equipped with an ultraclean laminar airflow ventilation system, and bacterial culture sedimentation plates in a nonventilated room. Smoke from the HCU reached the surgical field in 23 s by merging with ultraclean air. The HCU produced on average 5.2, 139, and 14.8 particles/min in the surgical field at positions Off, On/oriented toward, and On/oriented away, respectively. Culture plates were positive for M. chimaera <5 m from the HCU in the test room. These experiments confirm airborne transmission of M. chimaera aerosols from a contaminated HCU to an open surgical field despite ultraclean air ventilation. Efforts to mitigate infectious risks during surgery should consider contamination from water sources and airflow-generating devices. PMID:27070958

  18. Isotopic metrics for structure, connectivity, and residence time in urban water supply systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Gabriel; Kennedy, Casey; Good, Stephen; Ehleringer, James

    2014-05-01

    Public water supply systems are the life-blood of urban areas, accessing, managing, and distributing water from an often complex array of sources to provide on-demand access to safe, potable water at the point-of-use. Water managers are faced with a wide range of potential threats, ranging from climate change to infrastructure failure to supply contamination. Information on the structure of supply and conveyance systems, connectivity within these systems, and links between the point-of-use and environmental water sources are thus critical to assessing the stability of water supplies and responding efficiently and effectively to water supply threats. We report datasets documenting stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of public supply water in cities of the United States across a range of scales. The data show a wide range of spatial and temporal variability that can be attributed to a combination of regional hydroclimate and water supply characteristics. Comparisons of public supply waters with model-based estimates of the isotopic composition of regional water sources suggests that major factors reflected in the tap water data include the degree of fragmentation of natural and man-made storage and conveyance systems, inter-basinal transfer of water, evaporative losses, and the total residence time of the natural and artificial systems being exploited. Because each of these factors contributes to determining the sustainability of water supply systems and their sensitivity to environmental disturbance, we propose a set of isotope-based metrics that can be used to efficiently assess and monitor the characteristics of public-supply systems in water security assessments and in support of management, planning, and outreach activities.

  19. Mapping Climate Change Vulnerability Distribution of Water Resources in a Regional Water Supply System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Tung, C.; Li, M.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, the threat of increasing frequency of extreme weather rise up human attention on climate change. It is important to know how climate change might effect regional water resources, however, there is not much information to help government understanding how climate change will effect the water resources locally. To a regional water supply system, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable to climate. For example, the water supply of some area is from the water of river. When the storm occurred, the water can't be treated due to high density of suspended sediment in the river. Then the water supply in this area is more vulnerable to climate. This study used an integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources, which includes 10 GCMs output of SRES A2, A1B, B2 scenarios, weather generator, GWLF model, and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) tool. A water supply system is very complex which needs dynamic modeling to determine the vulnerability distribution. This study used a system dynamics model- VENSIM connected with TaiWAP to simulate a water supply system and evaluate vulnerability of each unit in a water supply system. The vulnerable hotspots will be indicated in the system and the adaptive strategies will be applied to strengthen the local vulnerable area. The adaptive capacity will be enhanced to mitigate climate change impacts on water supply system locally to achieve sustainable water uses.

  20. Railgun power supply system utilizing traction motors and vacuum interrupters

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.; Parker, J.V.; Thullen, P.

    1985-01-01

    A railgun power supply has been designed that utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, which store approximately 75 MJ, energize the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a peak current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected directly to the railgun and require no opening switches. By staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1 MA to 1.3 MA ramped current waveform can be delivered to the railgun.

  1. DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR PIGNON, HAITI

    EPA Science Inventory

    In conducting a survey of the population we found that Pignon is in need of a sustainable water supply and distribution system. We had no prior available data on the town, so we collected elevation data, figured water demand and modeled it against the supply, mapped the entire...

  2. 46 CFR 38.20-10 - Ventilation-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation-T/ALL. 38.20-10 Section 38.20-10 Shipping... Ventilation § 38.20-10 Ventilation—T/ALL. (a) A power ventilation system shall be provided for compartments... equipped with power ventilation of the exhaust type having capacity sufficient to effect a complete...

  3. Influence of push element geometry on the capture efficiency of push-pull ventilation systems in surface treatment tanks.

    PubMed

    Marzal, F; Gonzalez, E; Minana, A; Baeza, A

    2002-06-01

    A full-scale installation which simulates a surface treatment tank provided with a push-pull ventilation system has been designed. This study examines the influence of the geometry of the push element on the capture efficiency of the system. It is observed that: (i) capture efficiency increases with the number of holes because of the continuous curtain formed, the size of the holes having no significant effect within the range studied (5-20 mm diameter); (ii) the push element is best supported on the tank wall so that no air from outside penetrates below the emitting jets because in this way the impact of the curtain on the tank occurs earlier and losses are less; (iii) the best results are obtained when the holes are directed downwards towards the tank surface at an angle of between 22 and 45 degrees. PMID:12176707

  4. Heat Exchanger/Humidifier Trade Study and Conceptual Design for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Ventilation Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Sompayrac, Robert; Conger, Bruce; Chamberlain, Mateo

    2009-01-01

    As development of the Constellation Space Suit Element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control, to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream, and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.

  5. Heat Exchanger/Humidifier Trade Study and Conceptual Design for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Ventilation Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Conger, Bruce; Sompyrac, Robert; Chamberlain, Mateo

    2008-01-01

    As development of the Constellation Space Suit Element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control, to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream, and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.

  6. Indoor air quality and health in two office buildings with different ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hedge, A. ); Sterling, T.D. ); Sterling, E.M.; Collett, C.W. ); Sterling, D.A. ); Nie, V. )

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of indoor air pollutants were taken in (1) an air conditioned and (2) an adjacent, naturally ventilated office of a public sector organization. Self-administered questionnaires on the work environment and health were distributed to all workers. No differences in concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone, and total oxidants were found between buildings. Concentrations of formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and respirable particulates were higher in the air conditioned offices. Symptoms of sleepiness, nasal irritation, concentration difficulties, cold/flu-like symptoms, and eye focusing problems were significantly more prevalent in the air conditioned offices. In the air conditioned offices, most symptoms were significantly more prevalent among women than men. Passive smoking was associated with symptom prevalence, but alcohol, tea, and coffee consumption was unrelated. No significant correlations between pollutant concentrations and symptom prevalence were found, however, recalled reports of leaving work early because of feeling ill were significantly correlated with formaldehyde levels in the air conditioned building.

  7. [Intra-operative drop in sevoflurane and oxygen concentrations. Leakage of the ventilation system].

    PubMed

    Roiss, M; Bremer, K; Schmidt, G N

    2009-12-01

    After problem-free induction of narcosis in an 84-year-old female patient an intra-operative drop in sevoflurane and oxygen concentrations occurred during low-flow anesthesia. Although the concentrations of sevoflurane and oxygen in the fresh gas flow were increased no adequate elevation of the inspiratory concentrations could be achieved. Disconnection of the Dräger Primus IE manual bag-valve-mask could be identified as the cause of the drop in concentrations. Interestingly no error alarm function was initiated. This case demonstrates how important knowledge of the function, set-up and alarm conditions of respiratory machines is. This should be an important component of training in anesthesiology as well as securely established algorithms for difficult ventilation to ensure safe anesthesia despite technical failures. PMID:20012245

  8. VENTILATION RESEARCH (INDOOR ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT BRANCH, AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ventilation research program conducts research on heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems to determine the impact of these systems on human exposure to indoor air pollutants. The emphasis of the program is on determining emissions from ventilation systems. Inform...

  9. Decommissioning of Active Ventilation Systems in a Nuclear R and D Facility to Prepare for Building Demolition (Whiteshell Laboratories Decommissioning Project, Canada) - 13073

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, Brian; May, Doug; Howlett, Don; Bilinsky, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    Whiteshell Laboratories (WL) is a nuclear research establishment owned by the Canadian government and operated by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) since the early 1960's. WL is currently under a decommissioning license and the mandate is to remediate the nuclear legacy liabilities in a safe and cost effective manner. The WL Project is the first major nuclear decommissioning project in Canada. A major initiative underway is to decommission and demolish the main R and D Laboratory complex. The Building 300 R and D complex was constructed to accommodate laboratories and offices which were mainly used for research and development associated with organic-cooled reactors, nuclear fuel waste management, reactor safety, advanced fuel cycles and other applications of nuclear energy. Building 300 is a three storey structure of approximately 16,000 m{sup 2}. In order to proceed with building demolition, the contaminated systems inside the building have to be characterized, removed, and the waste managed. There is a significant focus on volume reduction of radioactive waste for the WL project. The active ventilation system is one of the significant contaminated systems in Building 300 that requires decommissioning and removal. The active ventilation system was designed to manage hazardous fumes and radioactivity from ventilation devices (e.g., fume hoods, snorkels and glove boxes) and to prevent the escape of airborne hazardous material outside of the laboratory boundary in the event of an upset condition. The system includes over 200 ventilation devices and 32 active exhaust fan units and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The strategy to remove the ventilation system was to work from the laboratory end back to the fan/filter system. Each ventilation duct was radiologically characterized. Fogging was used to minimize loose contamination. Sections of the duct were removed by various cutting methods and bagged for temporary storage prior to disposition

  10. Proposal of an Improved Helium Supply Process for the Inflation of Large Balloon Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, M.

    2015-09-01

    Based on the experience with the supply of helium and inflation support for many large balloon systems, this paper proposes an improved process for the inflation concept for such systems. We propose to generally change to a supply of helium product in its liquid form, reducing the cost of deliveries. Secondly, the implementation of a mobile evaporator unit will reduce inflation time risks of balloon/payload losses due to changing weather conditions. The use of state-of-art flow measurement gives detailed information on the gas volume/static lift supplied to the balloon system.

  11. NSTX Protection And Interlock Systems For Coil And Powers Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    X. Zhao, S. Ramakrishnan, J. Lawson, C.Neumeyer, R. Marsala, H. Schneider, Engineering Operations

    2009-09-24

    NSTX at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) requires sophisticated plasma positioning control system for stable plasma operation. TF magnetic coils and PF magnetic coils provide electromagnetic fields to position and shape the plasma vertically and horizontally respectively. NSTX utilizes twenty six coil power supplies to establish and initiate electromagnetic fields through the coil system for plasma control. A power protection and interlock system is utilized to detect power system faults and protect the TF coils and PF coils against excessive electromechanical forces, overheating, and over current. Upon detecting any fault condition the power system is restricted, and it is either prevented from initializing or suppressed to de-energize coil power during pulsing. Power fault status is immediately reported to the computer system. This paper describes the design and operation of NSTX's protection and interlocking system and possible future expansion.

  12. Air supply system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Eftink, A.J.

    1991-03-12

    This patent describes a reciprocating piston internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and at least two cylinders, each cylinder having a displacement volume V{sub 1}, the improved means for supplying air to each cylinder. It comprises: a rotary, trochoidal chamber air pump defining at least one pair of pumping chambers, the number of pumping chambers being equal to the number of cylinders in the engine; air intake conduits connecting each pumping chamber to one cylinder of the engine; a rotor rotatable in each pair of pumping chambers, the rotor having three faces such that passage of a face of the rotor through a pumping chamber forces air in the pumping chamber into the associated air intake conduit and, consequently, into the engine cylinder; and means interconnecting the rotor and the crankshaft so as to rotate the rotor approximately one revolution for every three revolutions of the crankshaft.

  13. The basis and basics of mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bone, R C; Eubanks, D H

    1991-06-01

    The development of mechanical ventilators and the procedures for their application began with the simple foot pump developed by Fell O'Dwyer in 1888. Ventilators have progressed through three generations, beginning with intermittent positive pressure breathing units such as the Bird and Bennett device in the 1960s. These were followed by second-generation units--represented by the Bennett MA-2 ventilator--in the 1970s, and the third-generation microprocessor-controlled units of today. During this evolutionary process clinicians recognized Types I and II respiratory failure as being indicators for mechanical ventilatory support. More recently investigators have expanded, clarified, and clinically applied the physiology of the work of breathing (described by Julius Comroe and other pioneers) to muscle fatigue, requiring ventilatory support. A ventilator classification system can help the clinician understand how ventilators function and under what conditions they may fail to operate as desired. Pressure-support ventilation is an example of how industry has responded to a clinical need--that is, to unload the work of breathing. All positive pressure ventilators generate tidal volumes by using power sources such as medical gas cylinders, air compressors, electrically driven turbines, or piston driven motors. Positive end-expiratory pressures, synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation, pressure support ventilation, pressure release ventilation, and mandatory minute ventilation, are examples of the special functions available on modern ventilators. Modern third-generation ventilators use microprocessors to control operational functions and monitors. Because these units have incorporated the experience learned from earlier ventilators, it is imperative that clinicians understand basic ventilator operation and application in order to most effectively prescribe and assess their use. PMID:2036934

  14. Optimization of Ventilation Energy Demands and Indoor Air Quality in High-Performance Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hun, Diana E; Jackson, Mark C; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    High-performance homes require that ventilation energy demands and indoor air quality (IAQ) be simultaneously optimized. We attempted to bridge these two areas by conducting tests in a research house located in Oak Ridge, TN, that was 20 months old, energy-efficient (i.e., expected to consume 50% less energy than a house built per the 2006 IRC), tightly-built (i.e., natural ventilation rate ~0.02 h-1), unoccupied, and unfurnished. We identified air pollutants of concern in the test home that could generally serve as indicators of IAQ, and conduced field experiments and computer simulations to determine the effectiveness and energy required by various techniques that lessened the concentration of these contaminants. Formaldehyde was selected as the main pollutant of concern among the contaminants that were sampled in the initial survey because it was the only compound that showed concentrations that were greater than the recommended exposure levels. Field data indicate that concentrations were higher during the summer primarily because emissions from sources rise with increases in temperature. Furthermore, supply ventilation and gas-phase filtration were effective means to reduce formaldehyde concentrations; however, exhaust ventilation had minimal influence on this pollutant. Results from simulations suggest that formaldehyde concentrations obtained while ventilating per ASHRAE 62.2-2010 could be decreased by about 20% from May through September through three strategies: 1) increasing ASHRAE supply ventilation by a factor of two, 2) reducing the thermostat setpoint from 76 to 74 F, or 3) running a gas-phase filtration system while decreasing supply ventilation per ASHRAE by half. In the mixed-humid climate of Oak Ridge, these strategies caused increases in electricity cost of ~$5 to ~$15/month depending on outdoor conditions.

  15. Guidelines for Analysis of Pharmaceutical Supply System Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 7: Pharmaceutical Supply System Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaumann, Leif; And Others

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this seventh of ten manuals in the Interational Health Planning Methods Series deals with pharmaceutical supply systems planning in developing countries. Following an…

  16. STRATEGIES FOR MONITORING THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF WATER SUPPLY IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring strategies for characterizing the bacteriological quality of water in the distribution system require a complete understanding of a variety of interrelated aspects that include treated water quality, water supply retention in storage and infrastructure deterioration in...

  17. POWER SUPPLY CONTROL AND MONITORING FOR THE SNS RING AND TRANSPORT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    LAMBIASE,R.; OERTER,B.; PENG,S.; SMITH,J.

    2001-06-28

    There are approximately 300 magnet power supplies in the SNS accumulator ring and transport lines. Control and monitoring of the these converters will be primarily accomplished with a new Power Supply Interface and Controller (PSI/PSC) system developed for the SNS project. This PSI/PSC system provides all analog and digital commands and status readbacks in one fiber isolated module. With a maximum rate of 10KHz, the PSI/PSC must be supplemented with higher speed systems for the wide bandwidth pulsed injection supplies, and the even wider bandwidth extraction kickers. This paper describes the implementation of this PSI/PSC system, which was developed through an industry/laboratory collaboration, and the supplementary equipment used to support the wider bandwidth pulsed supplies.

  18. [Comparison of different types automatic water-supply system for mouse rearing (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, S; Suzuki, M; Tagashira, Y

    1979-04-01

    Rearing and breeding scores were compared between groups of mice (JCL : ICR and ddN strains) raised with two different types of automatic water-supply systems; the Japanese type and the American type, using manual water-supply system as control. The mice raised with the manual water-supply system were superior in body weight gain as compared to those with two automatic water-supply systems. As to the survival rate, however, the m; anual water-supply system and the Japanese type gave better results than the American type. As to weanling rate in the breeding test, the manual water-supply system gave somewhat better result than either of the two automatic types. Accidental water leaks, which are serious problems of automatic systems, occurred frequently only when the American type was used. Only one defect of the Japanese type revealed was that it was unfavorable for mice with smaller size (e.g., young ddN mice), resulting in lower body weight gain as well as lower breeding scores. PMID:477745

  19. Prototype of a computer method for designing and analyzing heating, ventilating and air conditioning proportional, electronic control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Steven J.

    1986-09-01

    The Air Force needs a better method of designing new and retrofit heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) control systems. Air Force engineers currently use manual design/predict/verify procedures taught at the Air Force Institute of Technology, School of Civil Engineering, HVAC Control Systems course. These existing manual procedures are iterative and time-consuming. The objectives of this research were to: (1) Locate and, if necessary, modify an existing computer-based method for designing and analyzing HVAC control systems that is compatible with the HVAC Control Systems manual procedures, or (2) Develop a new computer-based method of designing and analyzing HVAC control systems that is compatible with the existing manual procedures. Five existing computer packages were investigated in accordance with the first objective: MODSIM (for modular simulation), HVACSIM (for HVAC simulation), TRNSYS (for transient system simulation), BLAST (for building load and system thermodynamics) and Elite Building Energy Analysis Program. None were found to be compatible or adaptable to the existing manual procedures, and consequently, a prototype of a new computer method was developed in accordance with the second research objective.

  20. The Maintenance of Heating, Ventilating and Air-Conditioning Systems and Indoor Air Quality in Schools: A Guide for School Facility Managers. Technical Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    To help maintain good indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools, guidance for the development and implementation of an effective program for maintenance and operation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are discussed. Frequently, a building's occupants will complain about IAQ when the temperature or humidity are at uncomfortable…

  1. Endovascular Treatment of Hemoptysis by Abnormal Systemic Pulmonary Artery Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, J.J. Garcia, J.A.; Bentabol, M.; Padin, M.I.; Serrano, F.

    2008-03-15

    We report the case of a 29-year-old man with hemoptysis. The patient came to the emergency department, where a laboratory test and chest radiograph were reported as normal. The following day the patient again had hemoptysis, though less than previously. He reported no chest pain, dyspnea, fever, catarrh, changes in urine or feces, contact with patients with bacillus disease or constitutional symptoms. Doppler ultrasound of the chest showed right basal parenchymatous condensation containing a vessel with arterial flow (in the opposite direction to the aortic flow) compatible with an aberrant vessel, possibly a sequestration, leaving the aorta above the celiac trunk. Because of the findings of the chest echogram and magnetic resonance study, thoracoabdominal computed tomography angiography was undertaken; this showed right basal condensation and an anomalous vessel originating 1 cm above the celiac trunk, supplying the right lower lobe. An aortic and pulmonary arteriogram via an arterial and right femoral vein approach confirmed the findings. The patient was treated successfully with percutaneous embolization with coils. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  2. The Vanuatu medical supply system – documenting opportunities and challenges to meet the Millennium Development Goals

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew; Gilbert, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Limited human resources are widely recognised as a barrier to achieve health-related Millennium Development Goals. Availability of medical supplies and suitably trained health personnel are crucial to ensuring a well-functioning medical supply system. The objective of this paper is to identify the factors which influence the availability of medical supplies within the health facilities of Vanuatu. Methods: A qualitative triangulated strategy using semi-structured interviews, observational workplace surveys and semi-structured focus groups was developed. This research was approved by the Human Ethics Committee of the University of Canberra and was funded through a direct grant from the United Nations Population Fund Suva, Pacific sub regional office. Results: During two weeks of data collection, 21 interviews were conducted, observational workplace surveys were completed in 19 facilities and 22 personnel participated in three focus groups across three provinces. The interviewees had a wide range of primary professional groupings and were representative of the Vanuatu health workforce. A complex array of medical supply issues are described from within the three tiered structure of the medical supply system. Conclusion: The results of this research have further informed our understanding of the competencies required by healthcare personnel to conduct medical supply management activities effectively in Pacific Island countries. As a result of this research, a platform is provided for the government of Vanuatu to engage development partners to work toward a sustainable medical supply system. PMID:23093895

  3. Enhanced deep ocean ventilation and oxygenation with global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froelicher, T. L.; Jaccard, S.; Dunne, J. P.; Paynter, D.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    Twenty-first century coupled climate model simulations, observations from the recent past, and theoretical arguments suggest a consistent trend towards warmer ocean temperatures and fresher polar surface oceans in response to increased radiative forcing resulting in increased upper ocean stratification and reduced ventilation and oxygenation of the deep ocean. Paleo-proxy records of the warming at the end of the last ice age, however, suggests a different outcome, namely a better ventilated and oxygenated deep ocean with global warming. Here we use a four thousand year global warming simulation from a comprehensive Earth System Model (GFDL ESM2M) to show that this conundrum is a consequence of different rates of warming and that the deep ocean is actually better ventilated and oxygenated in a future warmer equilibrated climate consistent with paleo-proxy records. The enhanced deep ocean ventilation in the Southern Ocean occurs in spite of increased positive surface buoyancy fluxes and a constancy of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds - circumstances that would otherwise be expected to lead to a reduction in deep ocean ventilation. This ventilation recovery occurs through a global scale interaction of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation undergoing a multi-centennial recovery after an initial century of transient decrease and transports salinity-rich waters inform the subtropical surface ocean to the Southern Ocean interior on multi-century timescales. The subsequent upwelling of salinity-rich waters in the Southern Ocean strips away the freshwater cap that maintains vertical stability and increases open ocean convection and the formation of Antarctic Bottom Waters. As a result, the global ocean oxygen content and the nutrient supply from the deep ocean to the surface are higher in a warmer ocean. The implications for past and future changes in ocean heat and carbon storage will be discussed.

  4. Fundamental performance of novel power supply for HTS magnet using solar energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yoon Do; Kim, Dae Wook; Jo, Hyun Chul; Yoon, Yong Soo; Kim, Hyun Ki; Ko, Tae Kuk

    2011-06-01

    A technical fusion is an important option to establish renewal development in the mutual fields. We have proposed a novel superconducting power supply that is combined with superconducting power supply and solar energy system. An eternal electric energy can be converted by solar energy system, which contains solar panel, photovoltaic (PV) controller and energy-storing battery, can be utilized in the utility power of superconducting power applications. The novel power supply could operate without external utility power to charge the HTS load magnet due to the solar energy. We can improve the operating efficiency and install it in remote locations where utility power is not available. In this paper, as a first step of this work, we showed the possibility of technical fusion between a superconducting power supply and a solar energy system.

  5. Demand-Supply Balancing Capability Analysis for a Future Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Kataoka, Kazuto; Ikegami, Takashi; Nonaka, Shunsuke; Azuma, Hitoshi; Fukutome, Suguru

    Under the anticipated high penetration of variable renewable energy generation such as photovoltaics and higher share of nuclear generation, the issue of supply-demand balancing capability should be evaluated and fixed in a future power system. Improvement of existing balancing measures and new technologies such as demand activation and energy storage are expected to solve the issue. Under the situation, a long-range power system supply-demand analysis should have the capability to evaluate the balancing capability and balancing counter measures. This paper presents a new analysis methodology of activated demand model and evaluation of supply-demand balancing capability for a long-range power system demand-supply analysis model, ESPRIT. Model analysis was made to verify the new methodology of the tool including day-ahead scheduling of a heat pump water heater, an EV/PHEV and a battery.

  6. The static pressure-volume relationship of the respiratory system determined with a computer-controlled ventilator.

    PubMed

    Svantesson, C; Drefeldt, B; Jonson, B

    1997-07-01

    The pressure-volume relationship of the respiratory system offers a guideline for setting of ventilators. The occlusion method for determination of the static elastic pressure-volume (Pel(st)/V) relationship is used as a reference and the aim of the study was to improve it with respect to time consumption and precision of recording and analysis. The inspiratory Pel(st)/V curve was determined with a computer-controlled ventilator using its pressure and flow sensors. During an automated procedure, an operator-defined volume history preceded each of a number of study breaths. These were interrupted at different volumes evenly distributed over a predefined volume interval. Total positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was measured and could be separated into its components, external PEEP and auto-PEEP. The volume relationship between the curve and the current tidal volume was defined. An analytical method for definition of a linear segment of the Pel(st)/V curve and determination of its compliance is presented. In eight healthy human anaesthetized subjects duplicate Pel(st)/V curves were studied with respect to compliance and the position along the volume axis of the linear segment. The difference in compliance between measurements was 1.6 +/- 1.3 ml cmH2O(-1) or 1.2 +/- 0.9%. The position of the curve differed between measurements by 15 +/- 10 ml or by 1.1 +/- 0.9%. In a patient with acute lung injury the feasibility of applying a numerical method for a more detailed description of the Pel(st)/V curve was illustrated. PMID:19361153

  7. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Mohammad S. Roni; Patrick Lamers; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  8. A novel test cage with an air ventilation system as an alternative to conventional cages for the efficacy testing of mosquito repellents.

    PubMed

    Obermayr, U; Rose, A; Geier, M

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a novel test cage and improved method for the evaluation of mosquito repellents. The method is compatible with the United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2000 draft OPPTS 810.3700 Product Performance Test Guidelines for Testing of Insect Repellents. The Biogents cages (BG-cages) require fewer test mosquitoes than conventional cages and are more comfortable for the human volunteers. The novel cage allows a section of treated forearm from a volunteer to be exposed to mosquito probing through a window. This design minimizes residual contamination of cage surfaces with repellent. In addition, an air ventilation system supplies conditioned air to the cages after each single test, to flush out and prevent any accumulation of test substances. During biting activity tests, the untreated skin surface does not receive bites because of a screen placed 150 mm above the skin. Compared with the OPPTS 810.3700 method, the BG-cage is smaller (27 liters, compared with 56 liters) and contains 30 rather than hundreds of blood-hungry female mosquitoes. We compared the performance of a proprietary repellent formulation containing 20% KBR3023 with four volunteers on Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) in BG- and conventional cages. Repellent protection time was shorter in tests conducted with conventional cages. The average 95% protection time was 4.5 +/- 0.4 h in conventional cages and 7.5 +/- 0.6 h in the novel BG-cages. The protection times measured in BG-cages were more similar to the protection times determined with these repellents in field tests. PMID:21175061

  9. BENEFITS OF MAINTAINING A CHLORINE RESIDUAL IN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protection afforded the water consumer by the maintenance of a chlorine residual in water distribution systems was evaluated in laboratory holding tanks and reservoirs and existing municipal water distribution systems. In the laboratory studies, tap water, adjusted to the app...

  10. Summary of human responses to ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Seppanen, Olli A.; Fisk, William J.

    2004-06-01

    The effects of ventilation on indoor air quality and health is a complex issue. It is known that ventilation is necessary to remove indoor generated pollutants from indoor air or dilute their concentration to acceptable levels. But, as the limit values of all pollutants are not known, the exact determination of required ventilation rates based on pollutant concentrations and associated risks is seldom possible. The selection of ventilation rates has to be based also on epidemiological research (e.g. Seppanen et al., 1999), laboratory and field experiments (e.g. CEN 1996, Wargocki et al., 2002a) and experience (e.g. ECA 2003). Ventilation may also have harmful effects on indoor air quality and climate if not properly designed, installed, maintained and operated as summarized by Seppdnen (2003). Ventilation may bring indoors harmful substances that deteriorate the indoor environment. Ventilation also affects air and moisture flow through the building envelope and may lead to moisture problems that deteriorate the structures of the building. Ventilation changes the pressure differences over the structures of building and may cause or prevent the infiltration of pollutants from structures or adjacent spaces. Ventilation is also in many cases used to control the thermal environment or humidity in buildings. Ventilation can be implemented with various methods which may also affect health (e.g. Seppdnen and Fisk, 2002, Wargocki et al., 2002a). In non residential buildings and hot climates, ventilation is often integrated with air-conditioning which makes the operation of ventilation system more complex. As ventilation is used for many purposes its health effects are also various and complex. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on positive and negative effects of ventilation on health and other human responses. The focus of the paper is on office-type working environment and residential buildings. In the industrial premises the problems of air quality are usually

  11. Chinese plasma-derived products supply under the lot release management system in 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuejun; Ye, Shengliang; Du, Xi; Yuan, Jing; Zhao, Chaoming; Li, Changqing

    2013-11-01

    In 2007, the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) implemented a management system for lot release of all plasma-derived products. Since then, there have been only a few systematic studies of the blood supply, which is a concern when considering the small amount of plasma collected per capita (approximately 3 L/1000 people). As a result, there may be a threat to the safety of the available blood supply. In this study, we examined the characteristics of the supply of Chinese plasma-derived products. We investigated the reports of lot-released biological products derived from all 8 national or regional regulatory authorities in China from 2007 to 2011. The market supply characteristics of Chinese plasma-derived products were analyzed by reviewing the changes in supply varieties, the batches of lot-released plasma-derived products and the actual supply. As a result, the national regulatory authorities can more accurately develop a specific understanding of the production and quality management information provided by Chinese plasma product manufacturers. The implementation of the lot release system further ensures the clinical validity of the plasma-derived products in China and improves the safety of using plasma-derived products. This work provides an assessment of the future Chinese market supply of plasma-derived products and can function as a theoretical basis for the establishment of hemovigilance. PMID:23856276

  12. Electric energy supply systems: description of available technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenhauer, J.L.; Rogers, E.A.; King, J.C.; Stegen, G.E.; Dowis, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    When comparing coal transportation with electric transmission as a means of delivering electric power, it is desirable to compare entire energy systems rather than just the transportation/transmission components because the requirements of each option may affect the requirements of other energy system components. PNL's assessment consists of two parts. The first part, which is the subject of this document, is a detailed description of the technical, cost, resource and environmental characteristics of each system component and technologies available for these components. The second part is a computer-based model that PNL has developed to simulate construction and operation of alternative system configurations and to compare the performance of these systems under a variety of economic and technical conditions. This document consists of six chapters and two appendices. A more thorough description of coal-based electric energy systems is presented in the Introduction and Chapter 1. Each of the subsequent chapters describes technologies for five system components: Western coal resources (Chapter 2), coal transportation (Chapter 3), coal gasification and gas transmission (Chapter 4), and electric power transmission (Chapter 6).

  13. Ventilation Model and Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    V. Chipman

    2003-07-18

    This model and analysis report develops, validates, and implements a conceptual model for heat transfer in and around a ventilated emplacement drift. This conceptual model includes thermal radiation between the waste package and the drift wall, convection from the waste package and drift wall surfaces into the flowing air, and conduction in the surrounding host rock. These heat transfer processes are coupled and vary both temporally and spatially, so numerical and analytical methods are used to implement the mathematical equations which describe the conceptual model. These numerical and analytical methods predict the transient response of the system, at the drift scale, in terms of spatially varying temperatures and ventilation efficiencies. The ventilation efficiency describes the effectiveness of the ventilation process in removing radionuclide decay heat from the drift environment. An alternative conceptual model is also developed which evaluates the influence of water and water vapor mass transport on the ventilation efficiency. These effects are described using analytical methods which bound the contribution of latent heat to the system, quantify the effects of varying degrees of host rock saturation (and hence host rock thermal conductivity) on the ventilation efficiency, and evaluate the effects of vapor and enhanced vapor diffusion on the host rock thermal conductivity.

  14. Easily constructed, economical seawater intake and supply system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouck, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    A water intake system was designed and installed in Admiralty Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington. The dual system consisted of polyvinylchloride (PVC) pipes, a concrete pit and pumps located on shore at zero tide; and cables attached laterally to the pipelines and terminally between a shoreward anchor and to a seaward intake sled held in place with an 1800 kg Dansforth anchor. The overall construction costs were much lower than those for concrete-lined ductile iron pipe. Nearly three years after its construction, this system has withstood tides and storms without apparent adverse effect. Its application to lakes or rivers is equally possible.

  15. Wii, Kinect, and Move. Heart Rate, Oxygen Consumption, Energy Expenditure, and Ventilation due to Different Physically Active Video Game Systems in College Students

    PubMed Central

    SCHEER, KRISTA S.; SIEBRANT, SARAH M.; BROWN, GREGORY A.; SHAW, BRANDON S.; SHAW, INA

    2014-01-01

    Nintendo Wii, Sony Playstation Move, and Microsoft XBOX Kinect are home video gaming systems that involve player movement to control on-screen game play. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that playing Wii is moderate physical activity at best, but Move and Kinect have not been as thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation while playing the games Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation were measured at rest and during a graded exercise test in 10 males and 9 females (19.8 ± 0.33 y, 175.4 ± 2.0 cm, 80.2 ± 7.7 kg,). On another day, in a randomized order, the participants played Wii Boxing, Kinect Boxing, and Move Gladiatorial Combat while heart rate, ventilation, and oxygen consumption were measured. There were no differences in heart rate (116.0 ± 18.3 vs. 119.3 ± 17.6 vs. 120.1 ± 17.6 beats/min), oxygen consumption (9.2 ± 3.0 vs. 10.6 ± 2.4 vs. 9.6 ± 2.4 ml/kg/min), or minute ventilation (18.9 ± 5.7 vs. 20.8 ± 8.0 vs. 19.7 ± 6.4 L/min) when playing Wii boxing, Kinect boxing, or Move Gladiatorial Combat (respectively). Playing Nintendo Wii Boxing, XBOX Kinect Boxing, and Sony PlayStation Move Gladiatorial Combat all increase heart rate, oxygen consumption, and ventilation above resting levels but there were no significant differences between gaming systems. Overall, playing a “physically active” home video game system does not meet the minimal threshold for moderate intensity physical activity, regardless of gaming system. PMID:27182399

  16. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  17. Extravehicular mobility unit subcritical liquid oxygen storage and supply system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John; Martin, Timothy; Hodgson, ED

    1992-01-01

    The storage of life support oxygen in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit in the liquid state offers some advantages over the current method of storing the oxygen as a high pressure gas. Storage volume is reduced because of the increased density associated with liquid. The lower storage and operating pressures also reduce the potential for leakage or bursting of the storage tank. The potential for combustion resulting from adiabatic combustion of the gas within lines and components is substantially reduced. Design constraints on components are also relaxed due to the lower system pressures. A design study was performed to determine the requirements for a liquid storage system and prepare a conceptual design. The study involved four tasks. The first was to identify system operating requirements that influence or direct the design of the system. The second was to define candidate storage system concepts that could possibly satisfy the requirements. An evaluation and comparison of the candidate concepts was conducted in the third task. The fourth task was devoted to preparing a conceptual design of the recommended storage system and to evaluate concerns with integration of the concept into the EMU. The results are presented.

  18. Short-term exposure to high-pressure ventilation leads to pulmonary biotrauma and systemic inflammation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hoegl, Sandra; Boost, Kim A; Flondor, Michael; Scheiermann, Patrick; Muhl, Heiko; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Zwissler, Bernhard; Hofstetter, Christian

    2008-04-01

    Though often lifesaving, mechanical ventilation itself bears the risk of lung damage [ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI)]. The underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, but stress-induced mediators seem to play an important role in biotrauma related to VILI. Our purpose was to evaluate an animal model of VILI that allows the observation of pathophysiologic changes along with parameters of biotrauma. For VILI induction, rats (n=16) were ventilated with a peak airway pressure (pmax) of 45 cm H2O and end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 0 for 20 min, followed by an observation time of 4 h. In the control group (n=8) the animals were ventilated with a pmax of 20 cm H2O and PEEP of 4. High-pressure ventilation resulted in an increase in paCO2 and a decrease in paO2 and mean arterial pressure. Only 4 animals out of 16 survived 4 h and VILI lungs showed severe macroscopic and microscopic damage, oedema and neutrophil influx. High-pressure ventilation increased the cytokine levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and IL-1beta in bronchoalveolar lavage and plasma. VILI also induced pulmonary heat shock protein-70 expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. The animal model used enabled us to observe the effect of high-pressure ventilation on mortality, lung damage/function and biotrauma. Thus, by combining barotrauma with biotrauma, this animal model may be suitable for studying therapeutical approaches to VILI. PMID:18360698

  19. Air intake side secondary air supply system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, H.; Tomobe, N.

    1987-03-10

    This patent describes an air intake side secondary air supply system for an internal combustion engine having a choke valve and a throttle valve in an intake air passage. The system is adapted to supply an air intake side secondary air into an intake air passage downstream of the throttle valve by a control valve and in response to an operating condition of the engine during a cold operation of the engine. The improvement described here comprises means for detecting a no-load operating state of the engine during the cold operation of the engine in which the choke valve is actuated to close the intake air passage, and means for stopping a supply of the air intake side secondary air upon detection of the non-load operating state so as to enrich an air-fuel mixture supplied to the engine.

  20. Coverage versus supply cost in facility location: Physics of frustrated spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Chi Ho; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Li, Bo

    2014-06-01

    A comprehensive coverage is crucial for communication, supply, and transportation networks, yet it is limited by the requirement of extensive infrastructure and heavy energy consumption. Here, we draw an analogy between spins in antiferromagnet and outlets in supply networks, and apply techniques from the studies of disordered systems to elucidate the effects of balancing the coverage and supply costs on the network behavior. A readily applicable, coverage optimization algorithm is derived. Simulation results show that magnetized and antiferromagnetic domains emerge and coexist to balance the need for coverage and energy saving. The scaling of parameters with system size agrees with the continuum approximation in two dimensions and the tree approximation in random graphs. Due to frustration caused by the competition between coverage and supply cost, a transition between easy and hard computation regimes is observed. We further suggest a local expansion approach to greatly simplify the message updates which shed light on simplifications in other problems.

  1. Probabilistic Analysis of Rechargeable Batteries in a Photovoltaic Power Supply System

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, P.; Ingersoll, D.; Jungst, R.; O'Gorman, C.; Paez, T.L.; Urbina, A.

    1998-11-24

    We developed a model for the probabilistic behavior of a rechargeable battery acting as the energy storage component in a photovoltaic power supply system. Stochastic and deterministic models are created to simulate the behavior of the system component;. The components are the solar resource, the photovoltaic power supply system, the rechargeable battery, and a load. Artificial neural networks are incorporated into the model of the rechargeable battery to simulate damage that occurs during deep discharge cycles. The equations governing system behavior are combined into one set and solved simultaneously in the Monte Carlo framework to evaluate the probabilistic character of measures of battery behavior.

  2. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  3. Power Supplies for Space Systems Quality Assurance by Sandia Laboratories

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Hannigan, R. L.; Harnar, R. R.

    1976-07-01

    The Sandia Laboratories` participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space systems over the past 10 years is summarized. Basic elements of this QA program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are presented, including SNAP 19 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo), Transit, Multi Hundred Watt (LES 8/9 and MJS), and a new program, High Performance Generator Mod 3. The outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted.

  4. Information Supply Chain System for Managing Rare Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gopalakrishna-Remani, Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    Timely identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases has important economic, social and health implications. In this study, we investigate how different stakeholders in the existing reporting system influence the timeliness in identification and reporting of rare infectious diseases. Building on the vision of the information supply…

  5. ESB-based Sensor Web integration for the prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application. PMID:23955435

  6. ESB-Based Sensor Web Integration for the Prediction of Electric Power Supply System Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Stoimenov, Leonid; Bogdanovic, Milos; Bogdanovic-Dinic, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    Electric power supply companies increasingly rely on enterprise IT systems to provide them with a comprehensive view of the state of the distribution network. Within a utility-wide network, enterprise IT systems collect data from various metering devices. Such data can be effectively used for the prediction of power supply network vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present the Enterprise Service Bus (ESB)-based Sensor Web integration solution that we have developed with the purpose of enabling prediction of power supply network vulnerability, in terms of a prediction of defect probability for a particular network element. We will give an example of its usage and demonstrate our vulnerability prediction model on data collected from two different power supply companies. The proposed solution is an extension of the GinisSense Sensor Web-based architecture for collecting, processing, analyzing, decision making and alerting based on the data received from heterogeneous data sources. In this case, GinisSense has been upgraded to be capable of operating in an ESB environment and combine Sensor Web and GIS technologies to enable prediction of electric power supply system vulnerability. Aside from electrical values, the proposed solution gathers ambient values from additional sensors installed in the existing power supply network infrastructure. GinisSense aggregates gathered data according to an adapted Omnibus data fusion model and applies decision-making logic on the aggregated data. Detected vulnerabilities are visualized to end-users through means of a specialized Web GIS application. PMID:23955435

  7. Development of indigenous local exhaust ventilation system: reduction of welders exposure to welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Shakeel; Sathawara, Natvarbhai; Kumar, Sunil; Gandhi, Sumitra; Parmar, Chimanlal; Saiyed, Habibullah

    2004-07-01

    Two (portable and mobile) local exhaust ventilation (LEV) units were developed in collaboration with the Rural Technology Institute, Gandhinagar, India. Basically, each unit consists of three parts comprising an electric motor, a blower and a fume hood. In both units the motor is fixed in a rectangular iron frame in a foot-mount position and equipped compactly with a blower, which in turn is connected to a fume hood through a flexible hosepipe. The portable unit is light in weight (50 kg) and has a cone shaped metallic fume hood. The mobile unit, on the other hand, differs from the portable model with respect to its weight (150 kg), size, RPM, voltage requirement, hood shape and size, and has a motor enclosure. The efficiency of the portable and mobile units on trial bases was tested by measuring the manganese concentration as a reference metal in welding fumes generated by electric arc welding. The concentration of manganese (mean +/- SD) was 0.218 +/- 0.06 microg/m3 in the general environment. In the workplace area where joining of metal objects by welding was done, the concentration of manganese was found to be 0.63 +/- 0.09 and 3.75 +/- 0.56 microg/m3 at a distance of 5 m and 2 m away from the site of operation, respectively. In the breathing zone it was 22.16 +/- 20.90 microg/m3 which was reduced to 8.25 +/- 4.5 microg /m3 after application of a portable LEV showing about 63% removal of the manganese concentration from the breathing zone of the welder. In another experiment conducted with a mobile LEV unit for heavy-duty work, the concentration of manganese in the breathing zone without operating the mobile LEV was 70.06 +/- 37.38 microg /m3 but was lowered to 8.29 +/- 1.76 microg /m3 after operating the mobile LEV. This indicated an average removal of manganese content by about 88% from the breathing zone of the welder. In both the experiments locations of sample collection were similar. PMID:15308834

  8. Control of airborne infectious diseases in ventilated spaces

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    We protect ourselves from airborne cross-infection in the indoor environment by supplying fresh air to a room by natural or mechanical ventilation. The air is distributed in the room according to different principles: mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation, etc. A large amount of air is supplied to the room to ensure a dilution of airborne infection. Analyses of the flow in the room show that there are a number of parameters that play an important role in minimizing airborne cross-infection. The air flow rate to the room must be high, and the air distribution pattern can be designed to have high ventilation effectiveness. Furthermore, personalized ventilation may reduce the risk of cross-infection, and in some cases, it can also reduce the source of infection. Personalized ventilation can especially be used in hospital wards, aircraft cabins and, in general, where people are in fixed positions. PMID:19740921

  9. Strategic stockpiling of power system supplies for disaster recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W; Coffrein, Carleton; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2010-11-23

    This paper studies the Power System Stochastic Storage Problem (PSSSP), a novel application in power restoration which consists of deciding how to store power system components throughout a populated area to maximize the amount of power served after disaster restoration. The paper proposes an exact mixed-integer formulation for the linearized DC power flow model and a general column-generation approach. Both formulations were evaluated experimentally on benchmarks using the electrical power infrastructure of the United States and disaster scenarios generated by state-of-the-art hurricane simulation tools similar to those used by the National Hurricane Center. The results show that the column-generation algorithm produces near-optimal solutions quickly and produces orders of magnitude speedups over the exact formulation for large benchmarks. Moreover, both the exact and the column-generation formulations produce significant improvements over greedy approach and hence should yield significant benefits in practice.

  10. Power line monitoring system using fiber optic power supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yosuke; Shioda, Tatsutoshi; Kurokawa, Takashi; Oka, Junji; Ueta, Kazuyuki; Fukuoka, Toshiharu

    2009-05-01

    We propose a novel power-line-monitoring system using optical fibers for transmitting power as well as signal. The principle is experimentally confirmed with a system composed of a monitoring side with a 1.5-μm laser diode, transmission line of a single mode fiber, and a sensing side having an efficient photovoltaic (PV) cell, electrical junction sensor, and low power liquid crystal optical modulator (LCOM). The PV cell generates the electrical power in the sensing side with a conversion efficiency of 20%. The LCOM is driven with low power of less than 50 μW, modulates the laser light with a signal indicating the power line condition, and transmits the optical signal. The developed sensing unit produces an optical signal having an extinction ratio of 15 dB with low optical power of 1.8 mW. Five systems were in operation for two years, faithfully monitoring the oil pressure in electrical cables every 20 min without incident.

  11. Optimal Management of the Israeli National Water Supply System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, U.; Housh, M.; Kronaveter-Goldstein, L.; Dvoskin, D.; Feldman, M.; Shoval, R.

    2014-12-01

    Our team is developing for the Operations Division of the Israel Water Authority a suite of models for optimal operation of parts of the national water systems, and eventually of the entire system. At this time we have elaborated and are testing two components, one for long-term monthly operation the Kinneret and the other for determining the purchase of monthly quantities from the five existing desalination plants. In parallel, we are preparing the model for the national system, based on data received from the Planning Division of the Water Authority. In each case, the first phase is a deterministic model that is tested and run under a range of hydrologic conditions, scenarios, economic parameters and management rules. The models are being used to support ongoing decision making by the Water Authority, as they are being tested for stability and ease of use through tailor-made interfaces. In the following phase, one or more approaches and methods for optimizing under uncertainty will be employed. This work encounters challenges of several kinds - uncertainty in water availability, demands, economic functions and parameters, non-linearity and size of the models, and - most important - the imperative of making the models useful and usable in practice by the Water Authority teams at the professional and management levels.The work is conducted by AGAT Engineering for the Operations Division of the Israeli National Water Authority, led by Mr. Zeev Achipaz and aided by Dr. Avichai Haddad.

  12. Energy and cost associated with ventilating office buildings in a tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Rim, Donghyun; Schiavon, Stefano; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01

    Providing sufficient amounts of outdoor air to occupants is a critical building function for supporting occupant health, well-being and productivity. In tropical climates, high ventilation rates require substantial amounts of energy to cool and dehumidify supply air. This study evaluates the energy consumption and associated cost for thermally conditioning outdoor air provided for building ventilation in tropical climates, considering Singapore as an example locale. We investigated the influence on energy consumption and cost of the following factors: outdoor air temperature and humidity, ventilation rate (L/s per person), indoor air temperature and humidity, air conditioning system coefficient of performance (COP), and cost of electricity. Results show that dehumidification of outdoor air accounts for more than 80% of the energy needed for building ventilation in Singapore's tropical climate. Improved system performance and/or a small increase in the indoor temperature set point would permit relatively large ventilation rates (such as 25 L/s per person) at modest or no cost increment. Overall, even in a thermally demanding tropical climate, the energy cost associated with increasing ventilation rate up to 25 L/s per person is less than 1% of the wages of an office worker in an advanced economy like Singapore's. This result implies that the benefits of increasing outdoor air ventilation rate up to 25 L/s per person--which is suggested to provide for productivity increases, lower sick building syndrome symptom prevalence, and reduced sick leave--can be much larger than the incremental cost of ventilation. PMID:25822504

  13. Energy and Cost Associated with Ventilating Office Buildings in a Tropical Climate

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Donghyun; Schiavon, Stefano; Nazaroff, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Providing sufficient amounts of outdoor air to occupants is a critical building function for supporting occupant health, well-being and productivity. In tropical climates, high ventilation rates require substantial amounts of energy to cool and dehumidify supply air. This study evaluates the energy consumption and associated cost for thermally conditioning outdoor air provided for building ventilation in tropical climates, considering Singapore as an example locale. We investigated the influence on energy consumption and cost of the following factors: outdoor air temperature and humidity, ventilation rate (L/s per person), indoor air temperature and humidity, air conditioning system coefficient of performance (COP), and cost of electricity. Results show that dehumidification of outdoor air accounts for more than 80% of the energy needed for building ventilation in Singapore’s tropical climate. Improved system performance and/or a small increase in the indoor temperature set point would permit relatively large ventilation rates (such as 25 L/s per person) at modest or no cost increment. Overall, even in a thermally demanding tropical climate, the energy cost associated with increasing ventilation rate up to 25 L/s per person is less than 1% of the wages of an office worker in an advanced economy like Singapore’s. This result implies that the benefits of increasing outdoor air ventilation rate up to 25 L/s per person — which is suggested to provide for productivity increases, lower sick building syndrome symptom prevalence, and reduced sick leave — can be much larger than the incremental cost of ventilation. PMID:25822504

  14. Building America Case Study: Sealed Crawl Spaces with Integrated Whole-House Ventilation in a Cold Climate, Ithaca, New York

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    "9One method of code-compliance for crawlspaces is to seal and insulate the crawlspace, rather than venting to the outdoors. However, codes require mechanical ventilation; either via conditioned supply air from the HVAC system, or a continuous exhaust ventilation strategy. As the CARB's building partner, Ithaca Neighborhood Housing Services, intended to use the unvented crawlspace in a recent development, CARB was interested in investigating a hybrid ventilation method that includes the exhaust air from the crawlspace as a portion of an ASHRAE 62.2 compliant whole-house ventilation strategy. This hybrid ventilation method was evaluated through a series of long-term monitoring tests that observed temperature, humidity, and pressure conditions through the home and crawlspace. Additionally, CARB worked with NREL to perform multi-point tracer gas testing on six separate ventilation strategies - varying portions of 62.2 required flow supplied by the crawlspace fan and an upstairs bathroom fan. The intent of the tracer gas testing was to identify effective Reciprocal Age of Air (RAoA), which is equivalent to the air change rate in well-mixed zones, for each strategy while characterizing localized infiltration rates in several areas of the home.

  15. Shuttle cryogenic supply system optimization study. Volume 2: Technical report, sections 4 through 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and development of cryogenic supply systems for space shuttle vehicles are discussed. The weights, component counts, and statements of advantages and disadvantages of the systems considered are presented. Performance characteristics of the systems are analyzed in the form of graphs. Block diagrams and engineering drawings of the candidate systems are provided. Special consideration is given to flow rates and thermodynamic properties of the cryogenic systems.

  16. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Singh, P.; George, R.A.

    1999-07-27

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell. 4 figs.

  17. Cover and startup gas supply system for solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Singh, Prabhakar; George, Raymond A.

    1999-01-01

    A cover and startup gas supply system for a solid oxide fuel cell power generator is disclosed. Hydrocarbon fuel, such as natural gas or diesel fuel, and oxygen-containing gas are supplied to a burner. Combustion gas exiting the burner is cooled prior to delivery to the solid oxide fuel cell. The system mixes the combusted hydrocarbon fuel constituents with hydrogen which is preferably stored in solid form to obtain a non-explosive gas mixture. The system may be used to provide both non-explosive cover gas and hydrogen-rich startup gas to the fuel cell.

  18. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252

  19. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  20. Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

    2012-03-12

    Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. PMID:22351622