Science.gov

Sample records for suppressor mutations affecting

  1. Suppressors of a genetic regulatory mutation affecting isoleucine-valine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, J E; Calhoun, D H

    1978-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 mutant PS187 carries a mutation, ilvA538, in the structural gene for the biosynthetic L-threonine deaminase that leads to a leucine-sensitive growth phenotype, an isoleucine- and leucine-hypersensitive L-threonine deaminase, and pleiotropic effects resulting in abnormally low and invariant expression of some of the isoleucine-valine biosynthetic enzymes. Fifty-eight derivatives of strain PS187 were isolated as resistant to growth inhibition by leucine, by valine, or by valine plus glycly-valine and were biochemically, genetically, and physiologically characterized. All of these derivatives produced the feedback-hypersensitive L-threonine deaminase, and thus presumably possess the ilvA538 allele of the parent strain. Elevated synthesis of L-threonine deaminase was observed in 41 of the 58 isolates. Among 18 strains analyzed genetically, only those with mutations linked to the ilv gene clusters at 83 min produced elevated levels of L-threonine deaminase. One of the strains, MSR91, isolated as resistant to valine plus glycyl-valine, was chosen for more detailed study. The locus in strain MSR91 conferring resistance was located in four factor crosses between ilvE and rbs, and is in or near the ilvO gene postulated to be a site controlling the expression of the ilvEDA genes. Synthesis of the ilvEDA gene products in strain MSR91 is constitutive and derepressed approximately 200-fold relative to the parent strain, indicating that the genetic regulatory effects of the ilvA538 allele have been suppressed. Strain MSR91 should be suitable for use in purification of the ilvA538 gene product, since enzyme synthesis is fully derepressed and the suppressor mutation is clearly not located within the ilvA gene. PMID:361682

  2. Suppressors of Mutations in the rII Gene of Bacteriophage T4 Affect Promoter Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Dwight H.; Snyder, Ronald D.

    1981-01-01

    Homyk, Rodriguez and Weil (1976) have described T4 mutants, called sip, that partially suppress the inability of T4rII mutants to grow in λ lysogens. We have found that mutants sip1 and sip2 are resistant to folate analogs and overproduce FH2 reductase. The results of recombination and complementation studies indicate that sip mutations are in the mot gene. Like other mot mutations (Mattson, Richardson and Goodin 1974; Chace and Hall 1975; Sauerbier, Hercules and Hall 1976), the sip2 mutation affects the expression of many genes and appears to affect promoter utilization. The mot gene function is not required for T4 growth on most hosts, but we have found that it is required for good growth on E. coli CTr5X. Homyk, Rodriguez and Weil (1976) also described L mutations that reverse the effects of sip mutations. L2 decreases the folate analog resistance and the inability of sip2 to grow on CTr5X. L2 itself is partially resistant to a folate analog, and appears to reverse the effects of sip2 on gene expression. These results suggest that L2 affects another regulatory gene related to the mot gene. PMID:7262547

  3. Interaction between Mutations in the Suppressor of Hairy Wing and Modifier of Mdg4 Genes of Drosophila Melanogaster Affecting the Phenotype of Gypsy-Induced Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, P.; Kozycina, M.

    1996-01-01

    The suppressor of Hairy-wing [su(Hw)] protein mediates the mutagenic effect of the gypsy retrotransposon by repressing the function of transcriptional enhancers located distally from the promoter with respect to the position of the su(Hw)-binding region. Mutations in a second gene, modifier of mdg4, also affect the gypsy-induced phenotype. Two major effects of the mod(mdg4)(1u1) mutation can be distinguished: the interference with insulation by the su(Hw)-binding region and direct inhibition of gene expression that is not dependent on the su(Hw)-binding region position. The mod(mdg4)(1u1) mutation partially suppresses ct(6), sc(D1) and Hw(1) mutations, possibly by interfering with the insulation effect of the su(Hw)-binding region. An example of the second effect of mod(mdg4)(1u1) is a complete inactivation of yellow expression in combination with the y(2) allele. Phenotypic analyses of flies with combinations of mod(mdg4)(1u1) and different su(Hw) mutations, or with constructions carrying deletions of the acidic domains of the su(Hw) protein, suggest that the carboxy-terminal acidic domain is important for direct inhibition of yellow transcription in bristles, while the amino-terminal acidic domain is more essential for insulation. PMID:8852842

  4. Mutational patterns in oncogenes and tumour suppressors.

    PubMed

    Baeissa, Hanadi M; Benstead-Hume, Graeme; Richardson, Christopher J; Pearl, Frances M G

    2016-06-15

    All cancers depend upon mutations in critical genes, which confer a selective advantage to the tumour cell. Knowledge of these mutations is crucial to understanding the biology of cancer initiation and progression, and to the development of targeted therapeutic strategies. The key to understanding the contribution of a disease-associated mutation to the development and progression of cancer, comes from an understanding of the consequences of that mutation on the function of the affected protein, and the impact on the pathways in which that protein is involved. In this paper we examine the mutation patterns observed in oncogenes and tumour suppressors, and discuss different approaches that have been developed to identify driver mutations within cancers that contribute to the disease progress. We also discuss the MOKCa database where we have developed an automatic pipeline that structurally and functionally annotates all proteins from the human proteome that are mutated in cancer. PMID:27284061

  5. Suppressors of Recb Mutations in Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Benson, N. R.; Roth, J.

    1994-01-01

    Using a screen that directly assesses transductional proficiency, we have isolated suppressors of recB mutations in Salmonella typhimurium. The alleles of sbcB reported here are phenotypically distinct from those isolated in Escherichia coli in that they restore recombination proficiency (Rec(+)), resistance to ultraviolet light (UV(R)), and mitomycin C resistance (MC(R)) in the absence of an accompanying sbcCD mutation. In addition the sbcB alleles reported here are co-dominant to sbcB(+). We have also isolated insertion and deletion mutants of the sbcB locus. These null mutations suppress only the UV(S) phenotype of recB mutants. We have also isolated sbcCD mutations, which map near proC. These sbcCD mutations increase the viability, recombination proficiency and MC(R) of both the transductional recombination suppressors (sbcB1 & sbcB6) and the sbcB null mutations. S. typhimurium recB sbcB1 sbcCD8 strains are 15-fold more recombination proficient than wild-type strains. The increase in transductants in these strains is accompanied by a loss of abortive transductants suggesting that these fragments are accessible to the mutant recombination apparatus. Using tandem duplications, we have constructed sbcB merodiploids and found that, in a recB mutant sbcCD(+) genetic background, the sbcB(+) allele is dominant to sbcB1 for transductional recombination but co-dominant for UV(R) and MC(R). However, in a recB sbcCD8 genetic background, the sbcB1 mutation is co-dominant to sbcB(+) for all phenotypes. Our results lead us to suggest that the SbcB and SbcCD proteins have roles in RecBCD-dependent recombination. PMID:8001778

  6. The sua8 suppressors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode replacements of conserved residues within the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and affect transcription start site selection similarly to sua7 (TFIIB) mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Berroteran, R W; Ware, D E; Hampsey, M

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sua8 gene were found to be suppressors of an aberrant ATG translation initiation codon in the leader region of the cyc1 gene. Analysis of cyc1 transcripts from sua8 mutants revealed that suppression is a consequence of diminished transcription initiation at the normal start sites in favor of initiation at downstream sites, including a site between the aberrant and normal ATG start codons. This effect is not cyc1 gene specific since initiation at other genes, including ADH1, CYC7, and HIS4, was similarly affected, although initiation at HIS3 and SPT15 was unaffected. The SUA8 gene was cloned and partially sequenced, revealing identity to RPB1, which encodes the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. The sua8 suppressors are the result of single amino acid replacements of highly conserved residues. Three replacements were found either within or immediately preceding homology block D, and a fourth was found adjacent to homology block H, indicating that these regions play a role in defining start sites in vivo. Nearly identical effects on start site selection were observed for sua7 suppressors, which encode altered forms of TFIIB. Synthetic lethality was associated with double sua7 sua8 suppressor mutations, and recessive sua7 mutants failed to fully complement recessive sua8 mutants in heterozygous diploids (nonallelic noncomplementation). These data indicate that the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and TFIIB are important determinants of transcription start site selection in S. cerevisiae and suggest that this function might be conferred by interaction between these two proteins. Images PMID:8264591

  7. Porocarcinomas harbor recurrent HRAS-activating mutations and tumor suppressor inactivating mutations.

    PubMed

    Harms, Paul W; Hovelson, Daniel H; Cani, Andi K; Omata, Kei; Haller, Michaela J; Wang, Michael L; Arps, David; Patel, Rajiv M; Fullen, Douglas R; Wang, Min; Siddiqui, Javed; Andea, Aleodor; Tomlins, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Porocarcinomas are a rare eccrine carcinoma with significant metastatic potential. Oncogenic drivers of porocarcinomas have been underexplored, with PIK3CA-activating mutation reported in 1 case. We analyzed 5 porocarcinomas by next-generation sequencing using the DNA component of the Oncomine Comprehensive Assay, which provides data on copy number changes and mutational events in 126 cancer-relevant genes through multiplex polymerase chain reaction. We detected an average of 3.3 high-confidence nonsynonymous mutations per tumor (range, 1-6), including a spectrum of oncogenic activation and tumor suppressor inactivation events. Tumor suppressor mutations included TP53 (4/5, 80%), RB1 (3/5, 60%), ATM (2/5, 40%), ARID1A (1/5, 20%), and CDKN2A (1/5, 20%). In 4 (80%) of 5 tumors, at least 1 potential oncogenic driver was identified. Activating HRAS mutations were detected in 2 (40%) of 5, including G13D and Q61L hotspot mutations. Mutations of EGFR were identified in 2 (40%) of 5; these mutations have been previously reported in cancer but did not affect classic activation hotspot sites. EGFR and HRAS mutations were mutually exclusive. HRAS mutations were detected by targeted sequencing in a minority of benign eccrine poromas (2/17; 11.7%), suggesting that HRAS activation may rarely be an early event in sweat gland neoplasia. Together, our data suggest roles for HRAS and EGFR as drivers in a subset of poroma and porocarcinoma. TP53 and RB1 inactivation events are also likely to contribute to tumorigenesis. These findings suggest that porocarcinomas display diversity with respect to oncogenic drivers, which may have implications for targeted therapy in metastatic or unresectable cases. PMID:27067779

  8. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 gene mutation status as a prognostic biomarker in classical Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bubolz, Anna-Maria; Lessel, Davor; Welke, Claudia; Rüther, Nele; Viardot, Andreas; Möller, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) mutations are among the most frequent somatic mutations in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), yet their prognostic relevance in cHL is unexplored. Here, we performed laser-capture microdissection of Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells from tumor samples in a cohort of 105 cHL patients. Full-length SOCS1 gene sequencing showed mutations in 61% of all cases (n = 64/105). Affected DNA-motifs and mutation pattern suggest that many of these SOCS1 mutations are the result of aberrant somatic hypermutation and we confirmed expression of mutant alleles at the RNA level. Contingency analysis showed no significant differences of patient-characteristics with HRS-cells containing mutant vs. wild-type SOCS1. By predicted mutational consequence, mutations can be separated into those with non-truncating point mutations (‘minor’ n = 49/64 = 77%) and those with length alteration (‘major’; n = 15/64 = 23%). Subgroups did not differ in clinicopathological characteristics; however, patients with HRS-cells that contained SOCS1 major mutations suffered from early relapse and significantly shorter overall survival (P = 0.03). The SOCS1 major status retained prognostic significance in uni-(P = 0.016) and multivariate analyses (P = 0.005). Together, our data indicate that the SOCS1 mutation type qualifies as a single-gene prognostic biomarker in cHL. PMID:26336985

  9. Mutations preventing expression of sup3 tRNASer nonsense suppressors of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, D; Willis, I; Hottinger, H; Bell, J; Kumar, A; Leupold, U; Söll, D

    1985-01-01

    Suppression of nonsense codons in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by sup3-e tRNASerUGA or sup3-i tRNASerUAA is reduced or abolished by mutations within the suppressor locus. Twenty-five suppressor-inactive sup3-e genes and thirteen mutant sup3-i genes were isolated from S. pombe genomic clone banks by colony hybridization. Sequence analysis of these revertant alleles corroborates genetic evidence for mutational hotspots within the sup3 tRNA gene. Fifteen types of point mutations or insertions were found. Many of these replace bases which are highly or completely conserved in eucaryotic tRNA genes. Transcription of the altered sup3 genes in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract enabled the identification of mutations which affect the rate of 5'-end maturation or splicing of the tRNA precursors or both. A total of seven mutations were found which alter transcriptional efficiencies. Of these, five are located outside the internal transcription control regions. Images PMID:3921825

  10. Tumor suppressor microRNAs are downregulated in myelodysplastic syndrome with spliceosome mutations

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Derya; Garde, Christian; Nygaard, Mette Katrine; Helbo, Alexandra Søgaard; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Hansen, Jakob Werner; Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Treppendahl, Marianne Bach; Sjø, Lene Dissing; Grønbæk, Kirsten; Kristensen, Lasse Sommer

    2016-01-01

    Spliceosome mutations are frequently observed in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, it is largely unknown how these mutations contribute to the disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs, which have been implicated in most human cancers due to their role in post transcriptional gene regulation. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of spliceosome mutations on the expression of miRNAs in a cohort of 34 MDS patients. In total, the expression of 76 miRNAs, including mirtrons and splice site overlapping miRNAs, was accurately quantified using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR. The majority of the studied miRNAs have previously been implicated in MDS. Stably expressed miRNA genes for normalization of the data were identified using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms. High-resolution melting assays covering all mutational hotspots within SF3B1, SRSF2, and U2AF1 (U2AF35) were developed, and all detected mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Overall, canonical miRNAs were downregulated in spliceosome mutated samples compared to wild-type (P = 0.002), and samples from spliceosome mutated patients clustered together in hierarchical cluster analyses. Among the most downregulated miRNAs were several tumor-suppressor miRNAs, including several let-7 family members, miR-423, and miR-103a. Finally, we observed that the predicted targets of the most downregulated miRNAs were involved in apoptosis, hematopoiesis, and acute myeloid leukemia among other cancer- and metabolic pathways. Our data indicate that spliceosome mutations may play an important role in MDS pathophysiology by affecting the expression of tumor suppressor miRNA genes involved in the development and progression of MDS. PMID:26848861

  11. Mutational and functional analysis of dominant SPT2 (SIN1) suppressor alleles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, L; Smith, M

    1993-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SPT2 gene was identified by genetic screens for mutations which are suppressors of Ty and delta insertional mutations at the HIS4 locus. The ability of spt2 mutations to suppress the transcriptional interference caused by the delta promoter insertion his-4-912 delta correlates with an increase in wild-type HIS4 mRNA levels. The SPT2 gene is identical to SIN1, which codes for a factor genetically defined as a negative regulator of HO transcription. Mutations in SPT2/SIN1 suppress the effects of trans-acting mutations in SWI genes and of partial deletions in the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II. Nuclear localization and protein sequence similarities suggested that the SPT2/SIN1 protein may be related to the nonhistone chromosomal protein HMG1. To assess the significance of this structural similarity and identify domains of SPT2 functionally important in the regulation of his4-912 delta, we have studied recessive and dominant spt2 mutations created by in vitro mutagenesis. We show here that several alleles carrying C-terminal deletions as well as point mutations in the C-terminal domain of the SPT2 protein exhibit a dominant suppressor phenotype. C-terminal basic residues necessary for wild-type SPT2 protein function which are absent from HMG1 have been identified. The competence of these mutant SPT2 proteins to interfere with the maintenance of the His- (Spt+) phenotype of a his4-912 delta SPT2+ strain is lost by deletion of internal HMG1-like sequences and is sensitive to the wild-type SPT2+ gene dosage. Using cross-reacting antipeptide polyclonal antibodies, we demonstrate that the intracellular level of the wild-type SPT2 protein is not affected in presence of dominant mutations and furthermore that the reversion of the dominance by internal deletion of HMG1-like sequences is not mediated by altered production or stability of the mutant polypeptides. Our results suggest that the products of dominant alleles

  12. Mutation analysis of large tumor suppressor genes LATS1 and LATS2 supports a tumor suppressor role in human cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tian; Bachman, John; Lai, Zhi-Chun

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, human cancer genome projects provide unprecedented opportunities for the discovery of cancer genes and signaling pathways that contribute to tumor development. While numerous gene mutations can be identified from each cancer genome, what these mutations mean for cancer is a challenging question to address, especially for those from less understood putative new cancer genes. As a powerful approach, in silico bioinformatics analysis could efficiently sort out mutations that are predicted to damage gene function. Such an analysis of human large tumor suppressor genes, LATS1 and LATS2, has been carried out and the results support a role of hLATS1//2 as negative growth regulators and tumor suppressors. PMID:25482410

  13. Systematic Production of Inactivating and Non-Inactivating Suppressor Mutations at the relA Locus That Compensate the Detrimental Effects of Complete spoT Loss and Affect Glycogen Content in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Viale, Alejandro M.; Almagro, Goizeder; Eydallin, Gustavo; Sevilla, Ángel; Cánovas, Manuel; Bernal, Cristina; Lozano, Ana Belén; Muñoz, Francisco José; Baroja-Fernández, Edurne; Bahaji, Abdellatif; Mori, Hirotada; Codoñer, Francisco M.; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, ppGpp is a major determinant of growth and glycogen accumulation. Levels of this signaling nucleotide are controlled by the balanced activities of the ppGpp RelA synthetase and the dual-function hydrolase/synthetase SpoT. Here we report the construction of spoT null (ΔspoT) mutants obtained by transducing a ΔspoT allele from ΔrelAΔspoT double mutants into relA+ cells. Iodine staining of randomly selected transductants cultured on a rich complex medium revealed differences in glycogen content among them. Sequence and biochemical analyses of 8 ΔspoT clones displaying glycogen-deficient phenotypes revealed different inactivating mutations in relA and no detectable ppGpp when cells were cultured on a rich complex medium. Remarkably, although the co-existence of ΔspoT with relA proficient alleles has generally been considered synthetically lethal, we found that 11 ΔspoT clones displaying high glycogen phenotypes possessed relA mutant alleles with non-inactivating mutations that encoded stable RelA proteins and ppGpp contents reaching 45–85% of those of wild type cells. None of the ΔspoT clones, however, could grow on M9-glucose minimal medium. Both Sanger sequencing of specific genes and high-throughput genome sequencing of the ΔspoT clones revealed that suppressor mutations were restricted to the relA locus. The overall results (a) defined in around 4 nmoles ppGpp/g dry weight the threshold cellular levels that suffice to trigger net glycogen accumulation, (b) showed that mutations in relA, but not necessarily inactivating mutations, can be selected to compensate total SpoT function(s) loss, and (c) provided useful tools for studies of the in vivo regulation of E. coli RelA ppGpp synthetase. PMID:25188023

  14. Second-site suppressors of HIV-1 capsid mutations: restoration of intracellular activities without correction of intrinsic capsid stability defects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Disassembly of the viral capsid following penetration into the cytoplasm, or uncoating, is a poorly understood stage of retrovirus infection. Based on previous studies of HIV-1 CA mutants exhibiting altered capsid stability, we concluded that formation of a capsid of optimal intrinsic stability is crucial for HIV-1 infection. Results To further examine the connection between HIV-1 capsid stability and infectivity, we isolated second-site suppressors of HIV-1 mutants exhibiting unstable (P38A) or hyperstable (E45A) capsids. We identified the respective suppressor mutations, T216I and R132T, which restored virus replication in a human T cell line and markedly enhanced the fitness of the original mutants as revealed in single-cycle infection assays. Analysis of the corresponding purified N-terminal domain CA proteins by NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the E45A and R132T mutations induced structural changes that are localized to the regions of the mutations, while the P38A mutation resulted in changes extending to neighboring regions in space. Unexpectedly, neither suppressor mutation corrected the intrinsic viral capsid stability defect associated with the respective original mutation. Nonetheless, the R132T mutation rescued the selective infectivity impairment exhibited by the E45A mutant in aphidicolin-arrested cells, and the double mutant regained sensitivity to the small molecule inhibitor PF74. The T216I mutation rescued the impaired ability of the P38A mutant virus to abrogate restriction by TRIMCyp and TRIM5α. Conclusions The second-site suppressor mutations in CA that we have identified rescue virus infection without correcting the intrinsic capsid stability defects associated with the P38A and E45A mutations. The suppressors also restored wild type virus function in several cell-based assays. We propose that while proper HIV-1 uncoating in target cells is dependent on the intrinsic stability of the viral capsid, the effects of stability

  15. In vivo suppressor mutations correct a murine model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Kara; Al-Dhalimy, Muhsen; Finegold, Milton; Grompe, Markus

    1999-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I and alkaptonuria are disorders of tyrosine catabolism caused by deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) and homogentisic acid dioxygenase (HGD), respectively. Tyrosinemia is a severe childhood disease that affects the liver and kidneys, but alkaptonuria is a more benign adult disorder in comparison. Because HGD is upstream of FAH in the tyrosine pathway, mice doubly mutant in both enzymes were found to be protected from the liver and renal damage of tyrosinemia as hypothesized. Mice mutant at the tyrosinemic locus but heterozygous for alkaptonuria spontaneously developed clonal nodules of functionally normal hepatocytes that were able to rescue the livers of some mice with this genotype. This phenotypic rescue was a result of an inactivating mutation of the wild-type homogentisic acid dioxygenase gene, thus presenting an example of an in vivo suppressor mutation in a mammalian model. PMID:10518553

  16. Mutation of p53 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tullo, A; Sbisà, E

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, the most commonly observed genetic alteration in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as in many other tumors affecting man, has been reported to be the mutation of the p53 coding gene (1,2). This gene has the features of a recessive oncosuppressor in its wild-type form and can be a dominant oncogene in its mutated form. The gene (20 kb) is located in a single copy on the short arm of chromosome 17 and contains 11 exons interrupted by 10 introns. The mRNA (2.8 kb) codes for a protein of 393 amino acids, which is expressed at relatively low levels in all tissues. p53 product is a 53-kDa phosphoprotein involved in the regulation of cell cycle, in DNA synthesis and repair, and in cell differentiation and apoptosis (see refs. 3-6, for reviews). PMID:21341051

  17. Mutations in E.coli 16s rRNA that enhance and decrease the activity of a suppressor tRNA.

    PubMed

    Prescott, C D; Kornau, H C

    1992-04-11

    The in vivo expression of mutations constructed within helix 34 of 16S rRNA has been examined together with a nonsense tRNA suppressor for their action at stop codons. The data revealed two novel results: in contrast to previous findings, some of the rRNA mutations affected suppression at UAA and UAG nonsense codons. Secondly, both an increase and a decrease in the efficiency of the suppressor tRNA were induced by the mutations. This is the first report that rRNA mutations decreased the efficiency of a suppressor tRNA. The data are interpreted as there being competition between the two release factors (RF-1 and RF-2) for an overlapping domain and that helix 34 influences this interaction. PMID:1374555

  18. Mutations in E.coli 16s rRNA that enhance and decrease the activity of a suppressor tRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, C D; Kornau, H C

    1992-01-01

    The in vivo expression of mutations constructed within helix 34 of 16S rRNA has been examined together with a nonsense tRNA suppressor for their action at stop codons. The data revealed two novel results: in contrast to previous findings, some of the rRNA mutations affected suppression at UAA and UAG nonsense codons. Secondly, both an increase and a decrease in the efficiency of the suppressor tRNA were induced by the mutations. This is the first report that rRNA mutations decreased the efficiency of a suppressor tRNA. The data are interpreted as there being competition between the two release factors (RF-1 and RF-2) for an overlapping domain and that helix 34 influences this interaction. PMID:1374555

  19. Point Mutations Effects on Charge Transport Properties of the Tumor-Suppressor Gene p53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roemer, Rudolf A.; Shih, Chi-Tin; Roche, Stephan

    2008-03-01

    We report on a theoretical study of point mutations effects on charge transfer properties in the DNA sequence of the tumor-suppressor p53 gene. On the basis of effective tight-binding models which simulate hole propagation along the DNA, a statistical analysis of mutation-induced charge transfer modifications is performed. In contrast to non-cancerous mutations, mutation hotspots tend to result in significantly weaker changes of transmission properties. This suggests that charge transport could play a significant role for DNA-repairing deficiency yielding carcinogenesis.

  20. Genetic analysis of suppressors of the PF10 mutation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Dutcher, S.K.; Gibbons, W.; Inwood, W.B.

    1988-12-01

    A mutation at the PF10 locus of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii leads to abnormal cell motility. The asymmetric form of the ciliary beat stroke characteristic of wild-type flagella is modified by this mutation to a nearly symmetric beat. We report here that this abnormal motility is a conditional phenotype that depends on light intensity. In the absence of light or under low light intensities, the motility is more severely impaired than at higher light intensities. By UV mutagenesis we obtained 11 intragenic and 70 extragenic strains that show reversion of the pf10 motility phenotype observed in low light. The intragenic events reverted the motility phenotype of the pf10 mutation completely. The extragenic events define at least seven suppressor loci; these map to linkage groups IV, VII, IX, XI, XII and XVII. Suppressor mutations at two of the seven loci (LIS1 and LIS2) require light for their suppressor activity. Forty-eight of the 70 extragenic suppressors were examined in heterozygous diploid cells; 47 of these mutants were recessive to the wild-type allele and one mutant (bop5-1) was dominant to the wild-type allele. Complementation analysis of the 47 recessive mutants showed unusual patterns. Most mutants within a recombinationally defined group failed to complement one another, although there were pairs that showed intra-allelic complementation. Additionally, some of the mutants at each recombinationally defined locus failed to complement mutants at other loci. They define dominant enhancers of one another.

  1. Extragenic Suppressors of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Prp4 Mutations Identify a Negative Regulator of Prp Genes

    PubMed Central

    Maddock, J. R.; Weidenhammer, E. M.; Adams, C. C.; Lunz, R. L.; Woolford-Jr., J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The PRP4 gene encodes a protein that is a component of the U4/U6 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle and is necessary for both spliceosome assembly and pre-mRNA splicing. To identify genes whose products interact with the PRP4 gene or gene product, we isolated second-site suppressors of temperature-sensitive prp4 mutations. We limited ourselves to suppressors with a distinct phenotype, cold sensitivity, to facilitate analysis of mutants. Ten independent recessive suppressors were obtained that identified four complementation groups, spp41, spp42, spp43 and spp44 (suppressor of prp4, numbers 1-4). spp41-spp44 suppress the pre-mRNA splicing defect as well as the temperature-sensitive phenotype of prp4 strains. Each of these spp mutations also suppresses prp3; spp41 and spp42 suppress prp11 as well. Neither spp41 nor spp42 suppresses null alleles of prp3 or prp4, indicating that the suppression does not occur via a bypass mechanism. The spp41 and spp42 mutations are neither allele- nor gene-specific in their pattern of suppression and do not result in a defect in pre-mRNA splicing. Thus the SPP41 and SPP42 gene products are unlikely to participate directly in mRNA splicing or interact directly with Prp3p or Prp4p. Expression of PRP3-lacZ and PRP4-lacZ gene fusions is increased in spp41 strains, suggesting that wild-type Spp41p represses expression of PRP3 and PRP4. SPP41 was cloned and sequenced and found to be essential. spp43 is allelic to the previously identified suppressor srn1, which encodes a negative regulator of gene expression. PMID:8005438

  2. A chemotactic signaling surface on CheY defined by suppressors of flagellar switch mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Roman, S J; Meyers, M; Volz, K; Matsumura, P

    1992-01-01

    CheY is the response regulator protein that interacts with the flagellar switch apparatus to modulate flagellar rotation during chemotactic signaling. CheY can be phosphorylated and dephosphorylated in vitro, and evidence indicates that CheY-P is the activated form that induces clockwise flagellar rotation, resulting in a tumble in the cell's swimming pattern. The flagellar switch apparatus is a complex macromolecular structure composed of at least three gene products, FliG, FliM, and FliN. Genetic analysis of Escherichia coli has identified fliG and fliM as genes in which mutations occur that allele specifically suppress cheY mutations, indicating interactions among these gene products. We have generated a class of cheY mutations selected for dominant suppression of fliG mutations. Interestingly, these cheY mutations dominantly suppressed both fliG and fliM mutations; this is consistent with the idea that the CheY protein interacts with both switch gene products during signaling. Biochemical characterization of wild-type and suppressor CheY proteins did not reveal altered phosphorylation properties or evidence for phosphorylation-dependent CheY multimerization. These data indicate that suppressor CheY proteins are specifically altered in the ability to transduce chemotactic signals to the switch at some point subsequent to phosphorylation. Physical mapping of suppressor amino acid substitutions on the crystal structure of CheY revealed a high degree of spatial clustering, suggesting that this region of CheY is a signaling surface that transduces chemotactic signals to the switch. Images PMID:1400175

  3. Identification of new adventitious rooting mutants amongst suppressors of the Arabidopsis thaliana superroot2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Pacurar, Daniel Ioan; Pacurar, Monica Lacramioara; Bussell, John Desmond; Schwambach, Joseli; Pop, Tiberia Ioana; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Gutierrez, Laurent; Cavel, Emilie; Chaabouni, Salma; Ljung, Karin; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano; Pamfil, Doru; Bellini, Catherine

    2014-04-01

    The plant hormone auxin plays a central role in adventitious rooting and is routinely used with many economically important, vegetatively propagated plant species to promote adventitious root initiation and development on cuttings. Nevertheless the molecular mechanisms through which it acts are only starting to emerge. The Arabidopsis superroot2-1 (sur2-1) mutant overproduces auxin and, as a consequence, develops excessive adventitious roots in the hypocotyl. In order to increase the knowledge of adventitious rooting and of auxin signalling pathways and crosstalk, this study performed a screen for suppressors of superroot2-1 phenotype. These suppressors provide a new resource for discovery of genetic players involved in auxin signalling pathways or at the crosstalk of auxin and other hormones or environmental signals. This study reports the identification and characterization of 26 sur2-1 suppressor mutants, several of which were identified as mutations in candidate genes involved in either auxin biosynthesis or signalling. In addition to confirming the role of auxin as a central regulator of adventitious rooting, superroot2 suppressors indicated possible crosstalk with ethylene signalling in this process. PMID:24596172

  4. PCR-RFLP to Detect Codon 248 Mutation in Exon 7 of "p53" Tumor Suppressor Gene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouyang, Liming; Ge, Chongtao; Wu, Haizhen; Li, Suxia; Zhang, Huizhan

    2009-01-01

    Individual genome DNA was extracted fast from oral swab and followed up with PCR specific for codon 248 of "p53" tumor suppressor gene. "Msp"I restriction mapping showed the G-C mutation in codon 248, which closely relates to cancer susceptibility. Students learn the concepts, detection techniques, and research significance of point mutations or…

  5. Point-Mutation Effects on Charge-Transport Properties of the Tumor-Suppressor Gene p53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chi-Tin; Roche, Stephan; Römer, Rudolf A.

    2008-01-01

    We report on a theoretical study of point mutations effects on charge transfer properties in the DNA sequence of the tumor-suppressor p53 gene. On the basis of effective tight-binding models which simulate hole propagation along the DNA, a statistical analysis of mutation-induced charge transfer modifications is performed. In contrast to noncancerous mutations, mutation hot spots tend to result in significantly weaker changes of transmission properties. This suggests that charge transport could play a significant role for DNA-repairing deficiency yielding carcinogenesis.

  6. Recurrent gross mutations of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in breast cancers with deficient DSB repair

    PubMed Central

    Saal, Lao H; Gruvberger-Saal, Sofia K; Persson, Camilla; Lövgren, Kristina; Jumppanen, Mervi; Staaf, Johan; Jönsson, Göran; Pires, Maira M; Maurer, Matthew; Holm, Karolina; Koujak, Susan; Subramaniyam, Shivakumar; Vallon-Christersson, Johan; Olsson, Haökan; Su, Tao; Memeo, Lorenzo; Ludwig, Thomas; Ethier, Stephen P; Krogh, Morten; Szabolcs, Matthias; Murty, Vundavalli VVS; Isola, Jorma; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Parsons, Ramon; Borg, Åke

    2010-01-01

    Basal-like breast cancer (BBC) is a subtype of breast cancer with poor prognosis1–3. Inherited mutations of BRCA1, a cancer susceptibility gene involved in double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair, lead to breast cancers that are nearly always of the BBC subtype3–5; however, the precise molecular lesions and oncogenic consequences of BRCA1 dysfunction are poorly understood. Here we show that heterozygous inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene Pten leads to the formation of basal-like mammary tumors in mice, and that loss of PTEN expression is significantly associated with the BBC subtype in human sporadic and BRCA1-associated hereditary breast cancers. In addition, we identify frequent gross PTEN mutations, involving intragenic chromosome breaks, inversions, deletions and micro copy number aberrations, specifically in BRCA1-deficient tumors. These data provide an example of a specific and recurrent oncogenic consequence of BRCA1-dependent dysfunction in DNA repair and provide insight into the pathogenesis of BBC with therapeutic implications. These findings also argue that obtaining an accurate census of genes mutated in cancer will require a systematic examination for gross gene rearrangements, particularly in tumors with deficient DSB repair. PMID:18066063

  7. Mutation and expression analysis of the putative prostate tumour-suppressor gene PTEN.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, I. C.; Stewart, L. M.; Phillips, S. M.; Hamilton, J. A.; Gray, N. E.; Watson, G. J.; Spurr, N. K.; Snary, D.

    1998-01-01

    The chromosomal region 10q23-24 is frequently deleted in a number of tumour types, including prostate adenocarcinoma and glioma. A candidate tumour-suppressor gene at 10q23.3, designated PTENor MMAC1, with putative actin-binding and tyrosine phosphatase domains has recently been described. Mutations in PTEN have been identified in cell lines derived from gliomas, melanomas and prostate tumours and from a number of tumour specimens derived from glial, breast, endometrial and kidney tissue. Germline mutations in PTEN appear to be responsible for Cowden disease. We identified five PTEN mutations in 37 primary prostatic tumours analysed and found that 70% of tumours showed loss or alteration of at least one PTEN allele, supporting the evidence for PTEN involvement in prostate tumour progression. We raised antisera to a peptide from PTEN and showed that reactivity occurs in numerous small cytoplasmic organelles and that the protein is commonly expressed in a variety of cell types. Northern blot analysis revealed multiple RNA species; some arise as a result of alternative polyadenylation sites, but others may be due to alternative splicing. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9823969

  8. Multicopy suppressors of temperature-sensitive mutations of yeast mRNA capping enzyme.

    PubMed

    Schwer, B; Shuman, S

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated three Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes-CES1, CES2, and CES3-- that, when present in high copy, suppress the ts growth defect caused by mutations in the CEG1 gene encoding mRNA guanylyltransferase (capping enzyme). Molecular characterization of the capping enzyme suppressor genes reveals the following. CES2 is identical to ESP1, a gene required for proper nuclear division. We show by deletion analysis that the 1573-amino acid ESP1 polypeptide is composed of distinct functional domains. The C-terminal portion of ESP1 is essential for cell growth, but dispensable for CES2 activity. The N-terminal half of ESP1, which is sufficient for CES2 function, displays local sequence similarity to the small subunit of the vaccinia virus RNA capping enzyme. This suggests a basis for suppression by physical or functional interaction between the CES2 domain of ESP1 and the yeast guanylyltransferase. CES1 encodes a novel hydrophilic 915-amino acid protein. The amino acid sequence of CES1 is uninformative, except for its extensive similarity to another yeast gene product of unknown function. The CES1 homologue (designated CES4) is also a multicopy suppressor of capping enzyme ts mutations. Neither CES1 nor CES4 is essential for cell growth, and a double deletion mutant is viable. CES3 corresponds to BUD5, which encodes a putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor. We hypothesize that CES1, CES4, and BUD5 may impact on RNA transactions downstream of cap synthesis that are cap dependent in vivo. PMID:8836740

  9. Human Ovarian Cancer Stroma Contains Luteinized Theca Cells Harboring Tumor Suppressor Gene GT198 Mutations*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Min; Zhang, Hao; Jaafar, Lahcen; Risinger, John I.; Huang, Shuang; Mivechi, Nahid F.; Ko, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal gynecological cancer, and its causes remain to be understood. Using a recently identified tumor suppressor gene, GT198 (PSMC3IP), as a unique marker, we searched for the identity of GT198 mutant cells in ovarian cancer. GT198 has germ line mutations in familial and early onset breast and ovarian cancers and recurrent somatic mutations in sporadic fallopian tube cancers. GT198 protein has been shown as a steroid hormone receptor coregulator and also as a crucial factor in DNA repair. In this study, using GT198 as a marker for microdissection, we find that ovarian tumor stromal cells harboring GT198 mutations are present in various types of ovarian cancer including high and low grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell, and granulosa cell carcinomas and in precursor lesions such as inclusion cysts. The mutant stromal cells consist of a luteinized theca cell lineage at various differentiation stages including CD133+, CD44+, and CD34+ cells, although the vast majority of them are differentiated overexpressing steroidogenic enzyme CYP17, a theca cell-specific marker. In addition, wild type GT198 suppresses whereas mutant GT198 protein stimulates CYP17 expression. The chromatin-bound GT198 on the human CYP17 promoter is decreased by overexpressing mutant GT198 protein, implicating the loss of wild type suppression in mutant cells. Together, our results suggest that GT198 mutant luteinized theca cells overexpressing CYP17 are common in ovarian cancer stroma. Because first hit cancer gene mutations would specifically mark cancer-inducing cells, the identification of mutant luteinized theca cells may add crucial evidence in understanding the cause of human ovarian cancer. PMID:24097974

  10. Suppressors of ssy1 and ptr3 null mutations define novel amino acid sensor-independent genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, H; Hammar, M; Andréasson, C; Molinér, A; Ljungdahl, P O

    2001-01-01

    Ssy1p and Ptr3p are components of the yeast plasma membrane SPS amino acid sensor. In response to extracellular amino acids this sensor initiates metabolic signals that ultimately regulate the functional expression of several amino acid-metabolizing enzymes and amino acid permeases (AAPs). As a result of diminished leucine uptake capabilities, ssy1Delta leu2 and ptr3Delta leu2 mutant strains are unable to grow on synthetic complete medium (SC). Genes affecting the functional expression of AAPs were identified by selecting spontaneous suppressing mutations in amino acid sensor-independent (ASI) genes that restore growth on SC. The suppressors define 11 recessive (asi) complementation groups and 5 dominant (ASI) linkage groups. Strains with mutations in genes assigned to these 16 groups fall into two phenotypic classes. Mutations in the class I genes (ASI1, ASI2, ASI3, TUP1, SSN6, ASI13) derepress the transcription of AAP genes. ASI1, ASI2, and ASI3 encode novel membrane proteins, and Asi1p and Asi3p are homologous proteins that have conserved ubiquitin ligase-like RING domains at their extreme C termini. Several of the class II genes (DOA4, UBA1, BRO1, BUL1, RSP5, VPS20, VPS36) encode proteins implicated in controlling aspects of post-Golgi endosomal-vacuolar protein sorting. The results from genetic and phenotypic analysis indicate that SPS sensor-initiated signals function positively to facilitate amino acid uptake and that two independent ubiquitin-mediated processes negatively modulate amino acid uptake. PMID:11454748

  11. Requirement for Host RNA-Silencing Components and the Virus-Silencing Suppressor when Second-Site Mutations Compensate for Structural Defects in the 3′ Untranslated Region

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Maitreyi; Stupina, Vera A.; Gao, Feng; Szarko, Christine R.; Kuhlmann, Micki M.; Yuan, Xuefeng; Shi, Kerong

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) contains a structured 3′ region with hairpins and pseudoknots that form a complex network of noncanonical RNA:RNA interactions supporting higher-order structure critical for translation and replication. We investigated several second-site mutations in the p38 coat protein open reading frame (ORF) that arose in response to a mutation in the asymmetric loop of a critical 3′ untranslated region (UTR) hairpin that disrupts local higher-order structure. All tested second-site mutations improved accumulation of TCV in conjunction with a partial reversion of the primary mutation (TCV-rev1) but had neutral or a negative effect on wild-type (wt) TCV or TCV with the primary mutation. SHAPE (selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) structure probing indicated that these second-site mutations reside in an RNA domain that includes most of p38 (domain 2), and evidence for RNA:RNA interactions between domain 2 and 3′UTR-containing domain 1 was found. However, second-site mutations were not compensatory in the absence of p38, which is also the TCV silencing suppressor, or in dcl-2/dcl4 or ago1/ago2 backgrounds. One second-site mutation reduced silencing suppressor activity of p38 by altering one of two GW motifs that are required for p38 binding to double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and interaction with RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-associated AGO1/AGO2. Another second-site mutation substantially reduced accumulation of TCV-rev1 in the absence of p38 or DCL2/DCL4. We suggest that the second-site mutations in the p38 ORF exert positive effects through a similar downstream mechanism, either by enhancing accumulation of beneficial DCL-produced viral small RNAs that positively regulate the accumulation of TCV-rev1 or by affecting the susceptibility of TCV-rev1 to RISC loaded with viral small RNAs. IMPORTANCE Genomes of positive-strand RNA viruses fold into high-order RNA structures. Viruses with mutations in regions

  12. Mutational analysis of the candidate tumor suppressor genes TEL and KIP1 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Stegmaier, K; Takeuchi, S; Golub, T R; Bohlander, S K; Bartram, C R; Koeffler, H P

    1996-03-15

    We have shown previously that loss of heterozygosity at chromosome band 12p13 is among the most frequent genetic abnormalities identified in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) of childhood. Two known genes map within the critically deleted region of 12p: TEL, the gene encoding a new member of the ETS family of transcription factors, which is rearranged in a variety of hematological malignancies; and KIP1, the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27. Both genes are, therefore, excellent candidate tumor suppressor genes. In this report, we determined the exon organization of the TEL gene and performed mutational analysis of TEL and KIP1 in 33 childhood ALL patients known to have loss of heterozygosity at this locus. No mutations in either TEL or KIP1 were found; this suggest that neither TEL nor KIP1 is the critical 12p tumor suppressor gene in childhood ALL. PMID:8640833

  13. dcd (dCTP deaminase) gene of Escherichia coli: mapping, cloning, sequencing, and identification as a locus of suppressors of lethal dut (dUTPase) mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Weiss, B

    1992-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, most of the dUMP that is used as a substrate for thymidylate synthetase is generated from dCTP through the sequential action of dCTP deaminase and dUTPase. Some mutations of the dut (dUTPase) gene are lethal even when the cells are grown in the presence of thymidine, but their lethality can be suppressed by extragenic mutations that can be produced by transposon insertion. Six suppressor mutations were tested, and all were found to belong to the same complementation group. The affected gene was cloned, it was mapped by hybridization with a library of recombinant DNA, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene is at 2,149 kb on the physical map. Its product, a 21.2-kDa polypeptide, was overproduced 1,000-fold via an expression vector and identified as dCTP deaminase, the enzyme affected in previously described dcd mutants. Null mutations in dcd probably suppress the lethality of dut mutations by reducing the accumulation of dUTP, which would otherwise lead to the excessive incorporation of uracil into DNA. Images PMID:1324907

  14. Frameshift mutations of a tumor suppressor gene ZNF292 in gastric and colorectal cancers with high microsatellite instability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hwa; Song, Sang Yong; Kim, Min Sung; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2016-07-01

    A transcription factor-encoding gene ZNF292 is considered a candidate tumor suppressor gene (TSG). Its mutations have been identified in cancers from liver, colon, and bone marrow. However, ZNF292 inactivating mutations that might suppress the TSG functions have not been reported in gastric (GC) and colorectal cancers (CRC) with microsatellite instability (MSI). In a public database, we found that ZNF292 gene had mononucleotide repeats in the coding sequences that might be mutation targets in the cancers with MSI. In this study, we analyzed 79 GCs and 124 CRCs including high MSI (MSI-H) and microsatellite stable/low MSI (MSS/MSI-L) cases for the detection of somatic mutations in the repeats. Overall, we identified frameshift mutations of ZNF292 in 3 (8.8%) GCs and 11 (13.9%) CRCs with MSI-H (14/113), but not in MSS/MSI-L cancers (0/90) (p < 0.001). Also, we studied intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of the ZNF292 frameshift mutations in 16 CRCs and found that two (12.5%) had regional ITH of the mutations. Our data show that ZNF292 gene harbors not only frameshift mutations but also mutational ITH, which together may be features of GC and CRC with MSI-H. Based on this, the ZNF292 frameshift mutations may possibly contribute to tumorigenesis by altering its TSG functions in GC and CRC. PMID:27150435

  15. Erythropoietin-driven proliferation of cells with mutations in the tumor suppressor gene TSC2

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M.; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Steagall, Wendy K.; El-Chemaly, Souheil; Gochuico, Bernadette R.; May, Rose M.; Hathaway, Olanda M.; Li, Shaowei; Wang, Ji-an; Darling, Thomas N.; Stylianou, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is characterized by cystic lung destruction, resulting from proliferation of smooth-muscle-like cells, which have mutations in the tumor suppressor genes TSC1 or TSC2. Among 277 LAM patients, severe disease was associated with hypoxia and elevated red blood cell indexes that accompanied reduced pulmonary function. Because high red cell indexes could result from hypoxemia-induced erythropoietin (EPO) production, and EPO is a smooth muscle cell mitogen, we investigated effects of EPO in human cells with genetic loss of tuberin function, and we found that EPO increased proliferation of human TSC2−/−, but not of TSC2+/−, cells. A discrete population of cells grown from explanted lungs was characterized by the presence of EPO receptor and loss of heterozygosity for TSC2, consistent with EPO involvement. In LAM cells from lung nodules, EPO was localized to the extracellular matrix, supporting evidence for activation of an EPO-driven signaling pathway. Although the high red cell mass of LAM patients could be related to advanced disease, we propose that EPO, synthesized in response to episodic hypoxia, may increase disease progression by enhancing the proliferation of LAM cells. PMID:21036916

  16. The Heritable Activation of Cryptic Suppressor-Mutator Elements by an Active Element

    PubMed Central

    Fedoroff, N.

    1989-01-01

    A weakly active maize Suppressor-mutator (Spm-w) element is able to heritably activate cryptic Spm elements in the maize genome. The spontaneous activation frequency, which is 1-5 X 10(-5) in the present genetic background, increases by about 100-fold in the presence of an Spm-w and remains an order of magnitude above the background level a generation after removal of the activating Spm-w. Sectorial somatic reactivation of cryptic elements can be detected phenotypically in kernels. Selection of such kernels constitutes an efficient selection for plants with reactivated Spm elements. Analysis of the reactivation process reveals that it is gradual and proceeds through genetically metastable intermediates that exhibit different patterns of element expression during plant development. Newly reactivated elements tend to return to an inactive form. However, the probability that an element will remain in a heritably active state increases when the element is maintained in the presence of an active Spm element for several generations. PMID:2541047

  17. A RASopathy gene commonly mutated in cancer: the neurofibromatosis type 1 tumour suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Ratner, Nancy; Miller, Shyra J.

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common genetic disorder that predisposes affected individuals to tumours. The NF1 gene encodes a RAS GTPase-activating protein called neurofibromin and is one of several genes that (when mutant) affect RAS–MAPK signalling, causing related diseases collectively known as RASopathies. Several RASopathies, beyond NF1, are cancer predisposition syndromes. Somatic NF1 mutations also occur in 5–10% of human sporadic cancers and may contribute to resistance to therapy. To highlight areas for investigation in RASopathies and sporadic tumours with NF1 mutations, we summarize current knowledge of NF1 disease, the NF1 gene and neurofibromin, neurofibromin signalling pathways and recent developments in NF1 therapeutics. PMID:25877329

  18. Mutations in Gcr1, a Transcriptional Activator of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Glycolytic Genes, Function as Suppressors of Gcr2 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, H.; Jigami, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae GCR1 and GCR2 genes affect expression of most of the glycolytic genes. Evidence for Gcr1p/Gcr2p interaction has been presented earlier and is now supported by the isolation of mutations in Gcr1p suppressing gcr2, as assessed by growth and enzyme assay. Four specific mutation sites were identified. Together with use of the two-hybrid system of FIELDS and SONG, they show that Gcr1p in its N-terminal half has a potential transcriptional activating function as well as elements for interaction with Gcr2p, which perhaps acts normally to expose an otherwise cryptic activation domain on Gcr1p. Complementation of various gcr1 mutant alleles and results with the two-hybrid system also indicate that Gcr1p itself normally functions as an oligomer. PMID:7713414

  19. Intragenic and Extragenic Suppressors of Mutations in the Heptapeptide Repeat Domain of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Nonet, M. L.; Young, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    The largest subunit of RNA polymerase II contains a repeated heptapeptide sequence at its carboxy terminus. Yeast mutants with certain partial deletions of the carboxy-terminal repeat (CTR) domain are temperature-sensitive, cold-sensitive and are inositol auxotrophs. Intragenic and extragenic suppressors of the cold-sensitive phenotype of CTR domain deletion mutants were isolated and studied to investigate the function of this domain. Two types of intragenic suppressing mutations suppress the temperature-sensitivity, cold-sensitivity and inositol auxotrophy of CTR domain deletion mutants. Most intragenic mutations enlarge the repeat domain by duplicating various portions of the repeat coding sequence. Other intragenic suppressing mutations are point mutations in a conserved segment of the large subunit. An extragenic suppressing mutation (SRB2-1) was isolated that strongly suppresses the conditional and auxotrophic phenotypes of CTR domain mutations. The SRB2 gene was isolated and mapped, and an SRB2 partial deletion mutation (srb2Δ10) was constructed. The srb2Δ10 mutants are temperature-sensitive, cold-sensitive and are inositol auxotrophs. These phenotypes are characteristic of mutations in genes encoding components of the transcription apparatus. We propose that the SRB2 gene encodes a factor that is involved in RNA synthesis and may interact with the CTR domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. PMID:2693207

  20. CYTOMEGALOVIRUS CONTRIBUTES TO GLIOBLASTOMA IN THE CONTEXT OF TUMOR SUPPRESSOR MUTATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Chiocca, E. Antonio; Price, Richard L.; Hollon, Todd; Alvarez-Breackenridge, Christopher; Fernandez, Soledad; Oglesbee, Mike; Cook, Charles; Lawler, Sean; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There have been several reports that have linked human cytomegalovirus (CMV) to gliomas. Although clinical trials of immunotherapy against CMV antigens found in gliomas have commenced in multiple institutions, the data linking these tumors to this virus remains controversial. METHODS: To study the controversial role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in glioblastoma, we assessed the effects of murine CMV (MCMV) perinatal infection in a GFAP-cre; Nf1loxP/+ ; Trp53-/+ genetic mouse model of glioma (Mut3 mice). RESULTS: Early on after infection, MCMV antigen was predominantly localized in CD45+ lymphocytes in the brain with active viral replication and local areas of inflammation, but by 7 weeks there was a generalized loss of MCMV in brain, confirmed by bioluminescent imaging. MCMV-infected Mut3 mice exhibited a shorter survival time from their gliomas, when compared to control Mut3 mice, perinatally infected with mock or with a different neurotropic virus. Animal survival was also significantly shortened when orthotopic gliomas were implanted in mice perinatally infected with MCMV vs. controls. MCMV infection increased phosphorylated STAT3 (P-STAT3) levels in neural stem cells (NSCs) harvested from Mut3 mice SVZ and in vivo there was increased P-STAT3 in NSCs in MCMV-infected compared to control mice. Of relevance, human CMV (HCMV) also increased P-STAT3 and proliferation of patient-derived glioblastoma neurospheres, while a STAT3 inhibitor reversed this effect in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: These findings thus associate CMV infection to a STAT3-dependent modulatory role in glioma formation/progression in the context of tumor suppressor mutations in mice and possibly in humans. SECONDARY CATEGORY: Neuropathology & Tumor Biomarkers.

  1. Suppressor mutations in the Glutamine Dumper1 protein dissociate disturbance in amino acid transport from other characteristics of the Gdu1D phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi; Pratelli, Réjane; Denbow, Cynthia; Pilot, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular amino acid transport across plant membranes is critical for metabolic pathways which are often split between different organelles. In addition, transport of amino acids across the plasma membrane enables the distribution of organic nitrogen through the saps between leaves and developing organs. Amino acid importers have been studied for more than two decades, and their role in this process is well-documented. While equally important, amino acid exporters are not well-characterized. The over-expression of GDU1, encoding a small membrane protein with one transmembrane domain, leads to enhancement of amino acid export by Arabidopsis cells, glutamine secretion at the leaf margin, early senescence and size reduction of the plant, possibly caused by the stimulation of amino acid exporter(s). Previous work reported the identification of suppressor mutations of the GDU1 over-expression phenotype, which affected the GDU1 and LOG2 genes, the latter encoding a membrane-bound ubiquitin ligase interacting with GDU1. The present study focuses on the characterization of three additional suppressor mutations affecting GDU1. Size, phenotype, glutamine transport and amino acid tolerance were recorded for recapitulation plants and over-expressors of mutagenized GDU1 proteins. Unexpectedly, the over-expression of most mutated GDU1 led to plants with enhanced amino acid export, but failing to display secretion of glutamine and size reduction. The results show that the various effects triggered by GDU1 over-expression can be dissociated from one another by mutagenizing specific residues. The fact that these residues are not necessarily conserved suggests that the diverse biochemical properties of the GDU1 protein are not only born by the characterized transmembrane and VIMAG domains. These data provide a better understanding of the structure/function relationships of GDU1 and may enable modifying amino acid export in plants without detrimental effects on plant fitness

  2. Understanding the Significance of Mutations in Tumor Suppressor Genes Identified Using Next-Generation Sequencing: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sorscher, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of tumors has been heralded as a promising tool to identify ‘actionable’ abnormalities susceptible to therapies targeting these mutated genes. Inhibiting the oncoprotein expressed from a single dominant mutated gene (oncogene) forms the basis for the success of most of the targeted gene therapies approved in the last several years. The well over 20 FDA-approved kinase inhibitors for cancer treatment are examples [Janne et al.: Nat Rev Drug Discov 2009;8: 709–723]. These and other similar agents in development might prove effective therapies for tumors originating from tissues other than those for which these drugs are currently approved. Finding such mutations in tumors of patients through NGS is being aggressively pursued by patients and their oncologists. For identified mutated tumor suppressor genes (TSG) the challenge is really the opposite. Rather than inhibiting the action of an oncoprotein, targeting would involve restoring the activity of the wild-type (WT) TSG function [Knudson: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1971;249: 912–915]. Here, a case is reported that illustrates the implications of a mutated TSG (BRIP1) identified by NGS as potentially actionable. In such cases, measuring allelic mutation frequency potentially allows for the identification of tumors where the loss of heterozygosity of a TSG exists. Without substantial loss of expression of the WT TSG product, it would seem very unlikely that ‘replacing’ a WT TSG product that is not a lost product would be a useful therapy. PMID:27462233

  3. Genetic Analysis of 63 Mutations Affecting Maize Kernel Development Isolated from Mutator Stocks

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, M. J.; Stinard, P. S.; James, M. G.; Myers, A. M.; Robertson, D. S.

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-three mutations affecting development of the maize kernel were isolated from active Robertson's Mutator (Mu) stocks. At least 14 previously undescribed maize gene loci were defined by mutations in this collection. Genetic mapping located 53 of these defective kernel (dek) mutations to particular chromosome arms, and more precise map determinations were made for 21 of the mutations. Genetic analyses identified 20 instances of allelism between one of the novel mutations and a previously described dek mutation, or between new dek mutations identified in this study; phenotypic variability was observed in three of the allelic series. Viability testing of homozygous mutant kernels identified numerous dek mutations with various pleiotropic effects on seedling and plant development. The mutations described here presumably arose by insertion of a Mu transposon within a dek gene; thus, many of the affected loci are expected to be accessible to molecular cloning via transposon-tagging. PMID:8138165

  4. The LKB1 tumor suppressor differentially affects anchorage independent growth of HPV positive cervical cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Hildegard I.D.; Munger, Karl

    2013-11-15

    Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses is causally linked to cervical carcinogenesis. However, most lesions caused by high-risk HPV infections do not progress to cancer. Host cell mutations contribute to malignant progression but the molecular nature of such mutations is unknown. Based on a previous study that reported an association between liver kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor loss and poor outcome in cervical cancer, we sought to determine the molecular basis for this observation. LKB1-negative cervical and lung cancer cells were reconstituted with wild type or kinase defective LKB1 mutants and we examined the importance of LKB1 catalytic activity in known LKB1-regulated processes including inhibition of cell proliferation and elevated resistance to energy stress. Our studies revealed marked differences in the biological activities of two kinase defective LKB1 mutants in the various cell lines. Thus, our results suggest that LKB1 may be a cell-type specific tumor suppressor. - Highlights: • LKB1 is a tumor suppressor that is linked to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients have a high incidence of cervical cancer. • Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infections. • This study investigates LKB1 tumor suppressor activity in cervical cancer.

  5. THERMAL INSTABILITY OF ΔF508 CFTR CHANNEL FUNCTION: PROTECTION BY SINGLE SUPPRESSOR MUTATIONS AND INHIBITING CHANNEL ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuehong; O’Donnell, Nicolette; Landstrom, Allison; Skach, William R.; Dawson, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Deletion of Phe508 from CFTR results in a temperature-sensitive folding defect that impairs protein maturation and chloride channel function. Both of these adverse effects, however, can be mitigated to varying extents by second-site, suppressor mutations. To better understand the impact of second-site mutations on channel function, we compared the thermal sensitivity of CFTR channels in Xenopus oocytes. CFTR-mediated conductance of oocytes expressing wt or ΔF508 CFTR was stable at 22°C and increased at 28°C; a temperature permissive for ΔF508 CFTR expression in mammalian cells. At 37°C, however, CFTR-mediated conductance was further enhanced, whereas that due to ΔF508 CFTR channels decreased rapidly towards background, a phenomenon referred to here as “thermal inactivation.” Thermal inactivation of ΔF508 was mitigated by each of five suppressor mutations, I539T, R553M, G550E, R555K and R1070W; but each exerted unique effects on the severity of, and recovery from, thermal inactivation. Another mutation, K1250A, known to increase open probability (Po) of ΔF508 CFTR channels, exacerbated thermal inactivation. Application of potentiators known to increase Po of ΔF508 CFTR channels at room temperature failed to protect channels from inactivation at 37°C and one, PG-01, actually exacerbated thermal inactivation. Unstimulated ΔF508CFTR channels or those inhibited by CFTRinh-172, were partially protected from thermal inactivation, suggesting a possible inverse relationship between thermal stability and gating transitions. Thermal stability of channel function and temperature-sensitive maturation of the mutant protein appear to reflect related, but distinct facets of the ΔF508 CFTR conformational defect, both of which must be addressed by effective therapeutic modalities. PMID:22680785

  6. Bap1 Is a Bona Fide Tumor Suppressor: Genetic Evidence from Mouse Models Carrying Heterozygous Germline Bap1 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Kadariya, Yuwaraj; Cheung, Mitchell; Xu, Jinfei; Pei, Jianming; Sementino, Eleonora; Menges, Craig W; Cai, Kathy Q; Rauscher, Frank J; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Testa, Joseph R

    2016-05-01

    Individuals harboring inherited heterozygous germline mutations in BAP1 are predisposed to a range of benign and malignant tumor types, including malignant mesothelioma, melanoma, and kidney carcinoma. However, evidence to support a tumor-suppressive role for BAP1 in cancer remains contradictory. To test experimentally whether BAP1 behaves as a tumor suppressor, we monitored spontaneous tumor development in three different mouse models with germline heterozygous mutations in Bap1, including two models in which the knock-in mutations are identical to those reported in human BAP1 cancer syndrome families. We observed spontaneous malignant tumors in 54 of 93 Bap1-mutant mice (58%) versus 4 of 43 (9%) wild-type littermates. All three Bap1-mutant models exhibited a high incidence and similar spectrum of neoplasms, including ovarian sex cord stromal tumors, lung and mammary carcinomas, and spindle cell tumors. Notably, we also observed malignant mesotheliomas in two Bap1-mutant mice, but not in any wild-type animals. We further confirmed that the remaining wild-type Bap1 allele was lost in both spontaneous ovarian tumors and mesotheliomas, resulting in the loss of Bap1 expression. Additional studies revealed that asbestos exposure induced a highly significant increase in the incidence of aggressive mesotheliomas in the two mouse models carrying clinically relevant Bap1 mutations compared with asbestos-exposed wild-type littermates. Collectively, these findings provide genetic evidence that Bap1 is a bona fide tumor suppressor gene and offer key insights into the contribution of carcinogen exposure to enhanced cancer susceptibility. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2836-44. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26896281

  7. SPL1-1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutation affecting tRNA splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Kolman, C; Söll, D

    1993-01-01

    A genetic approach was used to isolate and characterize Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes affecting tRNA processing. Three mutants were isolated which were able to process and utilize splicing-deficient transcripts from inactivated Schizosaccharomyces pombe suppressor tRNA genes. Extragenic recovery of suppressibility was verified by the suppression of nonsense mutations in LEU2, HIS4, and ADE1. One mutant, SPL1-1, was chosen for detailed analysis on the basis of its increased synthesis of mature suppressor tRNA over wild-type cell levels as determined by Northern (RNA) analysis. This mutant exhibited strong suppression exclusively with the defective tRNA gene used in the mutant selection. Genetic analysis revealed that a single, dominant, haplo-lethal mutation was responsible for the suppression phenotype. The mutation mapped on chromosome III to an essential 1.5-kb open reading frame (L. S. Symington and T. D. Petes, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:595-604, 1988), recently named NFS1 (S. G. Oliver et al., Nature [London] 357:38-46, 1992), located adjacent (centromere proximal) to LEU2. Images PMID:8444805

  8. Cloning and characterization of SRP1, a suppressor of temperature-sensitive RNA polymerase I mutations, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Yano, R; Oakes, M; Yamaghishi, M; Dodd, J A; Nomura, M

    1992-01-01

    The SRP1-1 mutation is an allele-specific dominant suppressor of temperature-sensitive mutations in the zinc-binding domain of the A190 subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase I (Pol I). We found that it also suppresses temperature-sensitive mutations in the zinc-binding domain of the Pol I A135 subunit. This domain had been suggested to be in physical proximity to the A190 zinc-binding domain. We have cloned the SRP1 gene and determined its nucleotide sequence. The gene encodes a protein of 542 amino acids consisting of three domains: the central domain, which is composed of eight (degenerate) 42-amino-acid contiguous tandem repeats, and the surrounding N-terminal and C-terminal domains, both of which contain clusters of acidic and basic amino acids and are very hydrophilic. The mutational alteration (P219Q) responsible for the suppression was found to be in the central domain. Using antibody against the SRP1 protein, we have found that SRP1 is mainly localized at the periphery of the nucleus, apparently more concentrated in certain regions, as suggested by a punctate pattern in immunofluorescence microscopy. We suggest that SRP1 is a component of a larger macromolecular complex associated with the nuclear envelope and interacts with Pol I either directly or indirectly through other components in the structure containing SRP1. Images PMID:1448093

  9. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: involvement of the mitochondrial ND1 gene and evidence for an intragenic suppressor mutation.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, N; Kubacka, I; Xu, M; McCullough, D A

    1991-01-01

    A large Queensland family has an extreme form of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in which several neurological abnormalities and an infantile encephalopathy are present in addition to the characteristic ophthalmological changes. Sequence analysis of the seven mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of respiratory chain complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) reveals two novel features of the etiology of this mitochondrial genetic disease. The first conclusion from these studies is that the ophthalmological and neurological deficits in this family are produced by a mutation at nucleotide 4160 of the ND1 gene. This nucleotide alteration results in the substitution of proline for the highly conserved leucine residue at position 285 of the ND1 protein. Secondary-structure analysis predicts that the proline replacement disrupts a small alpha helix in a hydrophilic loop. All nine family members analyzed were homoplasmic for this mutation. The second major result from these studies is that the members of one branch of this family carry, at nucleotide 4136 of the same gene, a second mutation, also homoplasmic, which produces a cysteine-for-tyrosine replacement at position 277. The clinical and biochemical phenotypes of the family members indicate that this second nucleotide substitution may function as an intragenic suppressor mutation which ameliorates the neurological abnormalities and complex I deficiency. PMID:2018041

  10. Genetic and Molecular Analysis of the Soe1 Gene: A Trna(3)(glu) Missense Suppressor of Yeast Cdc8 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Su, J. Y.; Belmont, L.; Sclafani, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The CDC8 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes deoxythymidylate (dTMP) kinase and is required for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication in both the mitotic and meiotic cell cycles. All cdc8 temperature-sensitive mutants are partially defective in meiotic and mitochondrial functions at the permissive temperature. In a study of revertants of temperature-sensitive cdc8 mutants, the SOE201 and SOE1 mutants were isolated. The SOE201 mutant is a disome of chromosome X to which the cdc8 gene maps. Using the chromosome X aneuploids to vary cdc8 gene dosage, we demonstrate that different levels of dTMP kinase activity are required for mitotic, meiotic or mitochondrial DNA replication. The SOE1 mutant contains a dominant suppressor that suppresses five different cdc8 alleles but does not suppress a complete cdc8 deletion. The SOE1 gene is located <1.5 cM from the CYH2 gene on chromosome VII and is adjacent to the TSM437-CYH2 region, with the gene order being SOE1-TSM437-CYH2. SOE1 is an inefficient suppressor that can neither suppress the cdc8 hypomorphic phenotype nor restore dTMP kinase activity in vitro. SOE1 is a single C to T mutation in the anticodon of a tRNA(3)(Glu) gene and thereby, produces a missense suppressor tRNA capable of recognizing AAA lysine codons. We propose that the resultant lysine to glutamate change stabilizes thermo-labile dTMP kinase molecules in the cell. PMID:2155851

  11. Potential RNA Binding Proteins in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Identified as Suppressors of Temperature-Sensitive Mutations in Npl3

    PubMed Central

    Henry, M.; Borland, C. Z.; Bossie, M.; Silver, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    The NPL3 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein with similarity to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). Npl3p has been implicated in many nuclear-related events including RNA export, protein import, and rRNA processing. Several temperature-sensitive alleles of NPL3 have been isolated. We now report the sequence of these alleles. For one allele, npl3-1, four complementation groups of suppressors have been isolated. The cognate genes for the two recessive mutants were cloned. One of these is the previously known RNA15, which, like NPL3, also encodes a protein with similarity to the vertebrate hnRNP A/B protein family. The other suppressor corresponds to a newly defined gene we term HRP1, which also encodes a protein with similarity to the hnRNP A/B proteins of vertebrates. Mutations in HRP1 suppress all npl3 temperature-sensitive alleles but do not bypass an npl3 null allele. We show that HRP1 is essential for cell growth and that the corresponding protein is located in the nucleus. The discovery of two hnRNP homologues that can partially suppress the function of Np13p, also an RNA binding protein, will be discussed in terms of the possible roles for Npl3p in RNA metabolism. PMID:8770588

  12. Mutations in the su(s) gene affect RNA processing in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, P K; Chien, A J; Corces, V G; Green, M M

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the effect of mutations in the suppressor of sable [su(s)] gene on P element-induced yellow alleles. Two independent mutations tested, y76d28 and y1#7, contain a 1.1-kilobase (kb) P element inserted in the 5' transcribed untranslated portion of the yellow gene. Sequences responsible for the y1#7 mutation are inserted in the same transcriptional orientation as yellow and cannot be processed by splicing, and this mutation is not suppressed by su(s) mutations. P element sequences are located in a transcriptional orientation opposite to that of the yellow gene in y76d28; these sequences can be spliced from a composite P element-yellow mRNA, resulting in low accumulation of a functional 1.9-kb yellow transcript. The levels of both the putative precursor P element-yellow RNA and the 1.9-kb yellow transcript increase in y76d28 su(s) flies, suggesting that mutations in su(s) do not affect the efficiency of splicing of the P element sequences. Analysis of y76d28 cDNAs isolated from flies carrying a wild-type or mutant su(s) gene demonstrates that the choice of splice junctions to process P element sequences is unchanged in these different backgrounds, suggesting that mutations in su(s) do not affect the selection of donor and acceptor splice sites. We propose that the su(s) protein functions to control the stability of unprocessed RNA during the splicing reaction. Images PMID:1714588

  13. Tumor suppressor gene p16 (CDKN2A) mutation status and promoter inactivation in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Riese, U; Dahse, R; Fiedler, W; Theuer, C; Koscielny, S; Ernst, G; Beleites, E; Claussen, U; von Eggeling, F

    1999-07-01

    The p16INK4A (CDKN2A/MTS1) putative tumor suppressor gene encodes a cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor which plays an important role in the regulation of the G1/S phase cell cycle checkpoint. A high frequency of various p16 gene alterations were consequently observed in many primary tumors. P16 can be inactivated by different mechanisms: i) homozygous deletion, ii) methylation of the promoter region or iii) point mutation. In order to investigate p16 alterations in head and neck cancer (HNC) we analyzed 70 primary tumors of the larynx, pharynx and oral cavity including their corresponding normal mucosa for mutation inactivation by direct sequencing exon 2. We detected only one so far undescribed transversion G to T at position 322 (Asp108Tyr) and a known polymorphism (Ala148Thr) in five cases. The methylation status of the p16 promoter region was analyzed by an improved highly sensitive methylation-specific PCR protocol. P16 methylation inactivation was found in 16 of 55 cases (29%). Our data indicate that p16 point mutations in HNC are less frequent, but inactivation by methylation of the promoter region could be involved in genesis and progression of HNC. PMID:10373639

  14. The SRS2 suppressor of rad6 mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acts by channeling DNA lesions into the RAD52 DNA repair pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Schiestl, R.H.; Prakash, S.; Prakash, L. )

    1990-04-01

    rad6 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are defective in the repair of damaged DNA, DNA damage induced mutagenesis, and sporulation. In order to identify genes that can substitute for RAD6 function, the authors have isolated genomic suppressors of the UV sensitivity of rad6 deletion (rad6{Delta}) mutations and show that they also suppress the {gamma}-ray sensitivity but not the UV mutagenesis or sporulation defects of rad6. The suppressors show semidominance for suppression of UV sensitivity and dominance for suppression of {gamma}-ray sensitivity. The six suppressor mutations they isolated are all alleles of the same locus and are also allelic to a previously described suppressor of the rad6-1 nonsense mutation, SRS2. They show that suppression of rad6{Delta} is dependent on the RAD52 recombinational repair pathway since suppression is not observed in the rad6{Delta} SRS2 strain containing an additional mutation in either the RAD51, RAD52, RAD54, RAD55 or RAD57 genes. Possible mechanisms by which SRS2 may channel unrepaired DNA lesions into the RAD52 DNA repair pathway are discussed.

  15. Aberrant large tumor suppressor 2 (LATS2) gene expression correlates with EGFR mutation and survival in lung adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Susan Y.; Sit, Ko-Yung; Sihoe, Alan D.L.; Suen, Wai-Sing; Au, Wing-Kuk; Tang, Ximing; Ma, Edmond S.K.; Chan, Wai-Kong; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Minna, John D.; Tsao, George S.W.; Lam, David C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Large tumor suppressor 2 (LATS2) gene is a putative tumor suppressor gene with potential roles in regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in lung cancer. The aim of this study is to explore the association of aberrant LATS2 expression with EGFR mutation and survival in lung adenocarcinoma (AD), and the effects of LATS2 silencing in both lung AD cell lines. Methods LATS2 mRNA and protein expression in resected lung AD were correlated with demographic characteristics, EGFR mutation and survival. LATS2-specific siRNA was transfected into four EGFR wild-type (WT) and three EGFR mutant AD cell lines and the changes in LATS2 expression and relevant signaling molecules before and after LATS2 knockdown were assayed. Results Fifty resected lung AD were included (M:F = 23:27, smokers:non-smokers = 19:31, EGFR mutant:wild-type = 21:29) with LATS2 mRNA levels showed no significant difference between gender, age, smoking and pathological stages while LATS2 immunohistochemical staining on an independent set of 79 lung AD showed similar trend. LATS2 mRNA level was found to be a significant independent predictor for survival status (disease-free survival RR = 0.217; p = 0.003; Overall survival RR = 0.238; p = 0.036). siRNA-mediated suppression of LATS2 expression resulted in augmentation of ERK phosphorylation in EGFR wild-type AD cell lines with high basal LATS2 expression, discriminatory modulation of Akt signaling between EGFR wild-type and mutant cells, and induction of p53 accumulation in AD cell lines with low baseline p53 levels. Conclusions LATS2 expression level is predictive of survival in patients with resected lung AD. LATS2 may modulate and contribute to tumor growth via different signaling pathways in EGFR mutant and wild-type tumors. PMID:24976335

  16. Mutational and Functional Analysis of the Tumor-Suppressor PTPRD in Human Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Vijay; Prickett, Todd D.; Kim, Jung-Sik; Gartner, Jared J.; Lin, Jimmy C.; Zhou, Ming; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Elble, Randolph C.; Solomon, David A.; Waldman, Todd; Samuels, Yardena

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) tightly regulate tyrosine phosphorylation essential for cell growth, adhesion, migration, and survival. We performed a mutational analysis of the PTP gene family in cutaneous metastatic melanoma and identified 23 phosphatase genes harboring somatic mutations. Among these, receptor-type tyrosine–protein phosphatase delta (PTPRD) was one of the most highly mutated genes, harboring 17 somatic mutations in 79 samples, a prevalence of 21.5%. Functional evaluation of six PTPRD mutations revealed enhanced anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth. Interestingly, melanoma cells expressing mutant PTPRD were significantly more migratory than cells expressing wild-type PTPRD or vector alone, indicating a novel gain-of-function associated with mutant PTPRD. To understand the molecular mechanisms of PTPRD mutations, we searched for its binding partners by converting the active PTPRD enzyme into a “substrate trap” form. Using mass spectrometry and coimmunoprecipitation, we report desmoplakin, a desmosomal protein that is implicated in cell–cell adhesion, as a novel PTPRD substrate. Further analysis showed reduced phosphatase activity of mutant PTPRD against desmoplakin. Our findings identify an essential signaling cascade that is disrupted in melanoma. Moreover, because PTPRD is also mutated in glioblastomas and adenocarcinoma of the colon and lung, our data might be applicable to a large number of human cancers. PMID:25113440

  17. Identification of mutations in Colombian patients affected with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Alfredo; Mateus, Heidi Eliana; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Palacios, Maria Fernanda; Ospina, Sandra Yaneth; Pasqualim, Gabriela; da Silveira Matte, Ursula; Giugliani, Roberto

    2015-12-15

    Fabry Disease (FD) is an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid catabolism, caused by a deficiency of the lisosomal α-galactosidase A (AGAL). The disorder leads to a vascular disease secondary to the involvement of kidney, heart and the central nervous system. The mutation analysis is a valuable tool for diagnosis and genetic counseling. Although more than 600 mutations have been identified, most mutations are private. Our objective was to describe the analysis of nine Colombian patients with Fabry disease by automated sequencing of the seven exons of the GLA gene. Two novel mutations were identified in two patients affected with the classical subtype of FD, in addition to other 6 mutations previously reported. The present study confirms the heterogeneity of mutations in Fabry disease and the importance of molecular analysis for genetic counseling, female heterozygotes detection as well as therapeutic decisions. PMID:26297554

  18. Analysis of Dominant Mutations Affecting Muscle Excitation in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, D. J.; Weinshenker, D.; Thomas, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    We examined mutations that disrupt muscle activation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Fifteen of 17 of these genes were identified previously and we describe new mutations in three of them. We also describe mutations in two new genes, exp-3 and exp-4. We assessed the degree of defect in pharyngeal, body-wall, egg-laying, and enteric muscle activation in animals mutant for each gene. Mutations in all 17 genes are semidominant and, in cases that could be tested, appear to be gain-of-function. Based on their phenotypes, the genes fall into three broad categories: mutations in 11 genes cause defective muscle activation, mutations in four genes cause hyperactivated muscle, and mutations in two genes cause defective activation in some muscle types and hyperactivation in others. In all testable cases, the mutations blocked response to pharmacological activators of egg laying, but did not block muscle activation by irradiation with a laser microbeam. The data suggest that these mutations affect muscle excitation, but not the capacity of the muscle fibers to contract. For most of the genes, apparent loss-of-function mutants have a grossly wild-type phenotype. These observations suggest that there is a large group of genes that function in muscle excitation that can be identified primarily by dominant mutations. PMID:8582640

  19. Subcellular relocalization of a long-chain fatty acid CoA ligase by a suppressor mutation alleviates a respiration deficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Harington, A; Schwarz, E; Slonimski, P P; Herbert, C J

    1994-01-01

    We have isolated an extragenic suppressor, FAM1-1, which is able to restore respiratory growth to a deletion of the CEM1 gene (mitochondrial beta-keto-acyl synthase). The sequence of the suppressor strongly suggests that it encodes a long-chain fatty acid CoA ligase (fatty-acyl-CoA synthetase). We have also cloned and sequenced the wild-type FAM1 gene, which is devoid of suppressor activity. The comparison of the two sequences shows that the suppressor mutation is an A-->T transversion, which creates a new initiation codon and adds 18 amino acids to the N-terminus of the protein. This extension has all the characteristics of a mitochondrial targeting sequence, whilst the N-terminus of the wild-type protein has none of these characteristics. In vitro mitochondrial import experiments show that the N-terminal half of the suppressor protein, but not of the wild-type, is transported into mitochondria. Thus, we hypothesize that the suppressor acts by changing the subcellular localization of the protein and relocating at least some of the enzyme from the cytosol to the mitochondria. These results support the hypothesis that some form of fatty acid synthesis, specific for the mitochondria, is essential for the function of the organelle. Images PMID:7988550

  20. Restoration of domain folding and interdomain assembly by second-site suppressors of the DeltaF508 mutation in CFTR.

    PubMed

    He, Lihua; Aleksandrov, Luba A; Cui, Liying; Jensen, Timothy J; Nesbitt, Kenneth L; Riordan, John R

    2010-08-01

    Deletion of PHE508 (DeltaF508) from the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) of CFTR, which causes most cystic fibrosis, disrupts the folding and assembly of the protein. Although the folding pathways and yield of isolated NBD1 are altered, its global structure is not, and details of the changes in the rest of the protein remain unclear. To gain further insight into how the whole mutant protein is altered, we have determined the influence of known second-site suppressor mutations in NBD1 on the conformation of this domain and key interfaces between domains. We found that the suppressors restored maturation of only those processing mutations located in NBD1, but not in other domains, including those in the C-terminal cytoplasmic loop of the second membrane-spanning domain, which forms an interface with the NBD1 surface. Nevertheless, the suppressors promoted the formation of this interface and others in the absence of F508. The suppressors restored maturation in a DeltaF508 construct from which NBD2 was absent but to a lesser extent than in the full-length, indicating that DeltaF508 disrupts interactions involving NBD2, as well as other domains. Rescue of DeltaF508-CFTR by suppressors required the biosynthesis of the entire full-length protein in continuity, as it did not occur when N- and C-terminal "halves" were coexpressed. Simultaneous with these interdomain perturbations, DeltaF508 resulted in suppressor reversed alterations in accessibility of residues both in the F508-containing NBD1 surface loop and in the Q loop within the domain core. Thus, in the context of the full-length protein, DeltaF508 mutation causes detectable changes in NBD1 conformation, as well as interdomain interactions. PMID:20233947

  1. Tumor suppressor p53 and its homologue p73alpha affect cell migration.

    PubMed

    Sablina, Anna A; Chumakov, Peter M; Kopnin, Boris P

    2003-07-25

    The p53 tumor suppressor plays a central role in the negative control of growth and survival of abnormal cells. Previously we demonstrated that in addition to these functions, p53 expression affects cell morphology and lamellar activity of the cell edge (Alexandrova, A., Ivanov, A., Chumakov, P. M., Kopnin, P. B., and Vasiliev, J. M. (2000) Oncogene 19, 5826-5830). In the present work we studied the effects of p53 and its homologue p73alpha on cell migration. We found that loss of p53 function correlated with decreased cell migration that was analyzed by in vitro wound closure test and Boyden chamber assay. The decreased motility of p53-deficient cells was observed in different cell contexts: human foreskin fibroblasts (BJ), human colon and lung carcinoma cell lines (HCT116 and H1299, respectively), as well as mouse normal fibroblasts from lung and spleen, peritoneal macrophages, and keratinocytes. On the other hand, overexpression of the p53 family member p73alpha stimulated cell migration. Changes in cell migration correlated directly with transcription activation induced by p53 or p73alpha. Noteworthy, p53 modulated cell motility in the absence of stress. The effect of p53 and p73alpha on cell migration was mediated through the activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Rac1 pathway. This p53/p73 function was mainly associated with some modulation of intracellular signaling rather than with stimulation of production of secreted motogenic factors. The identified novel activity of the p53 family members might be involved in regulation of embryogenesis, wound healing, or inflammatory response. PMID:12750388

  2. Ampullary cancers harbor ELF3 tumor suppressor gene mutations and exhibit frequent WNT dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Gingras, Marie-Claude; Covington, Kyle R.; Chang, David K.; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Gill, Anthony J.; Ittmann, Michael M.; Creighton, Chad J.; Johns, Amber L.; Shinbrot, Eve; Dewal, Ninad; Fisher, William E.; Pilarsky, Christian; Grützmann, Robert; Overman, Michael J.; Jamieson, Nigel B.; Van Buren, George; Drummond, Jennifer; Walker, Kimberly; Hampton, Oliver A.; Xi, Liu; Muzny, Donna M.; Doddapaneni, Harsha; Lee, Sandra L.; Bellair, Michelle; Hu, Jianhong; Han, Yi; Dinh, Huyen H.; Dahdouli, Mike; Samra, Jaswinder S.; Bailey, Peter; Waddell, Nicola; Pearson, John V.; Harliwong, Ivon; Wang, Huamin; Aust, Daniela; Oien, Karin A.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Hodges, Sally E.; McElhany, Amy; Saengboonmee, Charupong; Duthie, Fraser R.; Grimmond, Sean M.; Biankin, Andrew V.; Wheeler, David A.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    The ampulla of Vater is a complex cellular environment from which adenocarcinomas arise to form a group of histopathologically heterogenous tumors. To evaluate the molecular features of these tumors, 98 ampullary adenocarcinomas, were evaluated and compared to 44 distal bile duct and 18 duodenal adenocarcinomas. Genomic analyses revealed mutations in the WNT signaling pathway among half of the patients and in all three adenocarcinomas irrespective of their origin and histological morphology. These tumors were characterized by a high frequency of inactivating mutations of ELF3, a high rate of microsatellite instability, and common focal deletions and amplifications, suggesting common attributes in the molecular pathogenesis are at play in these tumors. The high frequency of WNT pathway activating mutation, coupled with small molecule inhibitors of beta catenin in clinical trials, suggests future treatment decisions for these patients may be guided by genomic analysis. PMID:26804919

  3. Mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau Tumour Suppressor Gene in Central Nervous System Hemangioblastomas

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Central nervous system hemangioblastomas (cHAB) are rare tumours which most commonly arise in the cerebellum. Most tumours are sporadic, but as many as one third of cHABs occur in the course of the hereditary disorder - von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). In order to diagnose new VHL families in Poland we performed sequencing of the entire VHL gene in archival material (paraffin embedded hemangioblastoma tissues) in a large series of 203 unselected patients with cHAB. VHL gene mutations were detected in 70 (41%) of 171 tumour samples from which DNA of relatively good quality was isolated. We were able to obtain blood samples from 19 of mutation positive cases. Eight (42%) of these harboured germline mutations in persons from distinct undiagnosed VHL families. PMID:20233476

  4. Ampullary Cancers Harbor ELF3 Tumor Suppressor Gene Mutations and Exhibit Frequent WNT Dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Gingras, Marie-Claude; Covington, Kyle R; Chang, David K; Donehower, Lawrence A; Gill, Anthony J; Ittmann, Michael M; Creighton, Chad J; Johns, Amber L; Shinbrot, Eve; Dewal, Ninad; Fisher, William E; Pilarsky, Christian; Grützmann, Robert; Overman, Michael J; Jamieson, Nigel B; Van Buren, George; Drummond, Jennifer; Walker, Kimberly; Hampton, Oliver A; Xi, Liu; Muzny, Donna M; Doddapaneni, Harsha; Lee, Sandra L; Bellair, Michelle; Hu, Jianhong; Han, Yi; Dinh, Huyen H; Dahdouli, Mike; Samra, Jaswinder S; Bailey, Peter; Waddell, Nicola; Pearson, John V; Harliwong, Ivon; Wang, Huamin; Aust, Daniela; Oien, Karin A; Hruban, Ralph H; Hodges, Sally E; McElhany, Amy; Saengboonmee, Charupong; Duthie, Fraser R; Grimmond, Sean M; Biankin, Andrew V; Wheeler, David A; Gibbs, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    The ampulla of Vater is a complex cellular environment from which adenocarcinomas arise to form a group of histopathologically heterogenous tumors. To evaluate the molecular features of these tumors, 98 ampullary adenocarcinomas were evaluated and compared to 44 distal bile duct and 18 duodenal adenocarcinomas. Genomic analyses revealed mutations in the WNT signaling pathway among half of the patients and in all three adenocarcinomas irrespective of their origin and histological morphology. These tumors were characterized by a high frequency of inactivating mutations of ELF3, a high rate of microsatellite instability, and common focal deletions and amplifications, suggesting common attributes in the molecular pathogenesis are at play in these tumors. The high frequency of WNT pathway activating mutation, coupled with small-molecule inhibitors of β-catenin in clinical trials, suggests future treatment decisions for these patients may be guided by genomic analysis. PMID:26804919

  5. Autosomal Mutations Affecting Adhesion between Wing Surfaces in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Prout, M.; Damania, Z.; Soong, J.; Fristrom, D.; Fristrom, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    Integrins are evolutionarily conserved transmembrane α,β heterodimeric receptors involved in cell-to-matrix and cell-to-cell adhesions. In Drosophila the position-specific (PS) integrins mediate the formation and maintenance of junctions between muscle and epidermis and between the two epidermal wing surfaces. Besides integrins, other proteins are implicated in integrin-dependent adhesion. In Drosophila, somatic clones of mutations in PS integrin genes disrupt adhesion between wing surfaces to produce wing blisters. To identify other genes whose products function in adhesion between wing surfaces, we conducted a screen for autosomal mutations that produce blisters in somatic wing clones. We isolated 76 independent mutations in 25 complementation groups, 15 of which contain more than one allele. Chromosomal sites were determined by deficiency mapping, and genetic interactions with mutations in the β(PS) integrin gene myospheroid were investigated. Mutations in four known genes (blistered, Delta, dumpy and mastermind) were isolated. Mutations were isolated in three new genes (piopio, rhea and steamer duck) that affect myo-epidermal junctions or muscle function in embryos. Mutations in three other genes (kakapo, kiwi and moa) may also affect cell adhesion or muscle function at hatching. These new mutants provide valuable material for the study of integrin-dependent cell-to-cell adhesion. PMID:9136017

  6. Restoration of domain folding and interdomain assembly by second-site suppressors of the ΔF508 mutation in CFTR

    PubMed Central

    He, Lihua; Aleksandrov, Luba A.; Cui, Liying; Jensen, Timothy J.; Nesbitt, Kenneth L.; Riordan, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Deletion of PHE508 (ΔF508) from the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) of CFTR, which causes most cystic fibrosis, disrupts the folding and assembly of the protein. Although the folding pathways and yield of isolated NBD1 are altered, its global structure is not, and details of the changes in the rest of the protein remain unclear. To gain further insight into how the whole mutant protein is altered, we have determined the influence of known second-site suppressor mutations in NBD1 on the conformation of this domain and key interfaces between domains. We found that the suppressors restored maturation of only those processing mutations located in NBD1, but not in other domains, including those in the C-terminal cytoplasmic loop of the second membrane-spanning domain, which forms an interface with the NBD1 surface. Nevertheless, the suppressors promoted the formation of this interface and others in the absence of F508. The suppressors restored maturation in a ΔF508 construct from which NBD2 was absent but to a lesser extent than in the full-length, indicating that ΔF508 disrupts interactions involving NBD2, as well as other domains. Rescue of ΔF508-CFTR by suppressors required the biosynthesis of the entire full-length protein in continuity, as it did not occur when N- and C-terminal “halves” were coexpressed. Simultaneous with these interdomain perturbations, ΔF508 resulted in suppressor reversed alterations in accessibility of residues both in the F508-containing NBD1 surface loop and in the Q loop within the domain core. Thus, in the context of the full-length protein, ΔF508 mutation causes detectable changes in NBD1 conformation, as well as interdomain interactions.—He, L., Aleksandrov, L. A., Cui, L., Jensen, T. J., Nesbitt, K. L., Riordan, J. R. Restoration of domain folding and interdomain assembly by second-site suppressors of the ΔF508 mutation in CFTR. PMID:20233947

  7. An extragenic suppressor of the mitosis-defective bimD6 mutation of Aspergillus nidulans codes for a chromosome scaffold protein

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, C.L.; May, G.S.

    1996-03-01

    We previously identified a gene, bimD, that functions in chromosome segregation and contains sequences suggesting that it may be a DNA-binding protein. Two conditionally lethal mutations in bimD arrest with aberrant mitotic spindles at restrictive temperature. These spindles have one-third the normal number of microtubules, and the chromosomes never attach to the remaining microtubules. For this reason, we hypothesized that BIMD functioned in chromosome segregation, possibly as a component of the kinetochore. To identify other components that function with bimD, we conducted a screen for extragenic suppressors of the bimD5 and bimD6 mutations. We have isolated seven cold-sensitive extragenic suppressors of bimD6 heat sensitivity that represent three or possibly four separate sud genes. We have cloned one of the suppressor genes by complementation of the cold-sensitive phenotype of the sudA3 mutation. SUDA belongs to the DA-box protein family. DA-box proteins have been shown to function in chromosome structure and segregation. Thus bimD and the sud genes cooperatively function in chromosome segregation in Aspergillus nidulans. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Large-scale mapping of mutations affecting zebrafish development

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Robert; Rauch, Gerd-Jörg; Geiger-Rudolph, Silke; Albrecht, Andrea; van Bebber, Frauke; Berger, Andrea; Busch-Nentwich, Elisabeth; Dahm, Ralf; Dekens, Marcus PS; Dooley, Christopher; Elli, Alexandra F; Gehring, Ines; Geiger, Horst; Geisler, Maria; Glaser, Stefanie; Holley, Scott; Huber, Matthias; Kerr, Andy; Kirn, Anette; Knirsch, Martina; Konantz, Martina; Küchler, Axel M; Maderspacher, Florian; Neuhauss, Stephan C; Nicolson, Teresa; Ober, Elke A; Praeg, Elke; Ray, Russell; Rentzsch, Brit; Rick, Jens M; Rief, Eva; Schauerte, Heike E; Schepp, Carsten P; Schönberger, Ulrike; Schonthaler, Helia B; Seiler, Christoph; Sidi, Samuel; Söllner, Christian; Wehner, Anja; Weiler, Christian; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane

    2007-01-01

    Background Large-scale mutagenesis screens in the zebrafish employing the mutagen ENU have isolated several hundred mutant loci that represent putative developmental control genes. In order to realize the potential of such screens, systematic genetic mapping of the mutations is necessary. Here we report on a large-scale effort to map the mutations generated in mutagenesis screening at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology by genome scanning with microsatellite markers. Results We have selected a set of microsatellite markers and developed methods and scoring criteria suitable for efficient, high-throughput genome scanning. We have used these methods to successfully obtain a rough map position for 319 mutant loci from the Tübingen I mutagenesis screen and subsequent screening of the mutant collection. For 277 of these the corresponding gene is not yet identified. Mapping was successful for 80 % of the tested loci. By comparing 21 mutation and gene positions of cloned mutations we have validated the correctness of our linkage group assignments and estimated the standard error of our map positions to be approximately 6 cM. Conclusion By obtaining rough map positions for over 300 zebrafish loci with developmental phenotypes, we have generated a dataset that will be useful not only for cloning of the affected genes, but also to suggest allelism of mutations with similar phenotypes that will be identified in future screens. Furthermore this work validates the usefulness of our methodology for rapid, systematic and inexpensive microsatellite mapping of zebrafish mutations. PMID:17212827

  9. A conserved suppressor mutation in a tryptophan auxotroph results in dysregulation of Pseudomonas quinolone signal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Knoten, Claire A; Wells, Greg; Coleman, James P; Pesci, Everett C

    2014-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common nosocomial pathogen that relies on three cell-to-cell signals to regulate multiple virulence factors. The Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS; 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone) is one of these signals, and it is known to be important for P. aeruginosa pathogenesis. PQS is synthesized in a multistep reaction that condenses anthranilate and a fatty acid. In P. aeruginosa, anthranilate is produced via the kynurenine pathway and two separate anthranilate synthases, TrpEG and PhnAB, the latter of which is important for PQS synthesis. Others have previously shown that a P. aeruginosa tryptophan auxotroph could grow on tryptophan-depleted medium with a frequency of 10(-5) to 10(-6). These revertants produced more pyocyanin and had increased levels of phnA transcript. In this study, we constructed similar tryptophan auxotroph revertants and found that the reversion resulted from a synonymous G-to-A nucleotide mutation within pqsC. This change resulted in increased pyocyanin and decreased PQS, along with an increase in the level of the pqsD, pqsE, and phnAB transcripts. Reporter fusion and reverse transcriptase PCR studies indicated that a novel transcript containing pqsD, pqsE, and phnAB occurs in these revertants, and quantitative real-time PCR experiments suggested that the same transcript appears in the wild-type strain under nutrient-limiting conditions. These results imply that the PQS biosynthetic operon can produce an internal transcript that increases anthranilate production and greatly elevates the expression of the PQS signal response protein PqsE. This suggests a novel mechanism to ensure the production of both anthranilate and PQS-controlled virulence factors. PMID:24748618

  10. Hepatitis C virus mutation affects proteasomal epitope processing

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Ulrike; Liermann, Heike; Racanelli, Vito; Halenius, Anne; Wiese, Manfred; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Ruppert, Thomas; Rispeter, Kay; Henklein, Peter; Sijts, Alice; Hengel, Hartmut; Kloetzel, Peter-M.; Rehermann, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The high incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) persistence raises the question of how HCV interferes with host immune responses. Studying a single-source HCV outbreak, we identified an HCV mutation that impaired correct carboxyterminal cleavage of an immunodominant HLA-A2–restricted CD8 cell epitope that is frequently recognized by recovered patients. The mutation, a conservative HCV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) tyrosine to phenylalanine substitution, was absent in 54 clones of the infectious source, but present in 15/21 (71%) HLA-A2–positive and in 11/24 (46%) HLA-A2–negative patients with chronic hepatitis C. In order to analyze whether the mutation affected the processing of the HLA-A2–restricted CD8 cell epitope, mutant and wild-type NS3 polypeptides were digested in vitro with 20S constitutive proteasomes and with immunoproteasomes. The presence of the mutation resulted in impaired carboxyterminal cleavage of the epitope. In order to analyze whether impaired epitope processing affected T cell priming in vivo, HLA-A2–transgenic mice were infected with vaccinia viruses encoding either wild-type or mutant HCV NS3. The mutant induced fewer epitope-specific, IFN-γ;–producing and fewer tetramer+ cells than the wild type. These data demonstrate how a conservative mutation in the flanking region of an HCV epitope impairs the induction of epitope-specific CD8+ T cells and reveal a mechanism that may contribute to viral sequence evolution in infected patients. PMID:15254592

  11. Point mutations in the tumor suppressor Smad4/DPC4 enhance its phosphorylation by GSK3 and reversibly inactivate TGF-β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Demagny, Hadrien; De Robertis, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor Smad4/DPC4 is an essential transcription factor in the TGF-β pathway and is frequently mutated or deleted in prostate, colorectal, and pancreatic carcinomas. We recently discovered that Smad4 activity and stability are regulated by the FGF/EGF and Wnt signaling pathways through a series of MAPK and GSK3 phosphorylation sites located in its linker region. In the present study, we report that loss-of-function associated with 2 point mutations commonly found in colorectal and pancreatic cancers results from enhanced Smad4 phosphorylation by GSK3, generating a phosphodegron that leads to subsequent β-TrCP–mediated polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Using chemical GSK3 inhibitors, we show that Smad4 point mutant proteins can be stabilized and TGF-β signaling restored in cancer cells harboring such mutations. PMID:27308538

  12. Suppressor analysis of temperature-sensitive mutations of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a suppressor gene encodes the second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase I.

    PubMed Central

    Yano, R; Nomura, M

    1991-01-01

    The SRP3-1 mutation is an allele-specific suppressor of temperature-sensitive mutations in the largest subunit (A190) of RNA polymerase I from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two mutations known to be suppressed by SRP3-1 are in the putative zinc-binding domain of A190. We have cloned the SRP3 gene by using its suppressor activity and determined its complete nucleotide sequence. We conclude from the following evidence that the SRP3 gene encodes the second-largest subunit (A135) of RNA polymerase I. First, the deduced amino acid sequence of the gene product contains several regions with high homology to the corresponding regions of the second-largest subunits of RNA polymerases of various origins, including those of RNA polymerase II and III from S. cerevisiae. Second, the deduced amino acid sequence contains known amino acid sequences of two tryptic peptides from the A135 subunit of RNA polymerase I purified from S. cerevisiae. Finally, a strain was constructed in which transcription of the SRP3 gene was controlled by the inducible GAL7 promoter. When this strain, which can grow on galactose but not on glucose, was shifted from galactose medium to glucose medium, a large decrease in the cellular concentration of A135 was observed by Western blot analysis. We have also identified the specific amino acid alteration responsible for suppression by SRP3-1 and found that it is located within the putative zinc-binding domain conserved among the second-largest subunits of eucaryotic RNA polymerases. From these results, it is suggested that this putative zinc-binding domain is in physical proximity to and interacts with the putative zinc-binding domain of the A190 subunit. Images PMID:1990281

  13. The classical pink-eyed dilution mutation affects angiogenic responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michael S; Boyartchuk, Victor; Rohan, Richard M; Birsner, Amy E; Dietrich, William F; D'Amato, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed from existing vessels. Mammalian populations, including humans and mice, harbor genetic variations that alter angiogenesis. Angiogenesis-regulating gene variants can result in increased susceptibility to multiple angiogenesis-dependent diseases in humans. Our efforts to dissect the complexity of the genetic diversity that regulates angiogenesis have used laboratory animals due to the availability of genome sequence for many species and the ability to perform high volume controlled breeding. Using the murine corneal micropocket assay, we have observed more than ten-fold difference in angiogenic responsiveness among various mouse strains. This degree of difference is observed with either bFGF or VEGF induced corneal neovascularization. Ongoing mapping studies have identified multiple loci that affect angiogenic responsiveness in several mouse models. In this study, we used F2 intercrosses between C57BL/6J and the 129 substrains 129P1/ReJ and 129P3/J, as well as the SJL/J strain, where we have identified new QTLs that affect angiogenic responsiveness. In the case of AngFq5, on chromosome 7, congenic animals were used to confirm the existence of this locus and subcongenic animals, combined with a haplotype-based mapping approach that identified the pink-eyed dilution mutation as a candidate polymorphism to explain AngFq5. The ability of mutations in the pink-eyed dilution gene to affect angiogenic response was demonstrated using the p-J allele at the same locus. Using this allele, we demonstrate that pink-eyed dilution mutations in Oca2 can affect both bFGF and VEGF-induced corneal angiogenesis. PMID:22615734

  14. Isolation and Genetic Analysis of Extragenic Suppressors of the Hyper-Deletion Phenotype of the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Hpr1δ Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Rosa, H.; Aguilera, A.

    1995-01-01

    The HPR1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisae is involved in maintaining low levels of deletions between DNA repeats. To understand how deletions initiate in the absence of the Hpr1 protein and the mechanisms of recombination leading to deletions in S. cerevisiae, we have isolated mutations as suppressors of the hyper-deletion phenotype of the hpr1δ mutation. The mutations defined five different genes called HRS for hyper-recombination suppression. They suppress the hyper-deletion phenotype of hpr1δ strains for three direct repeat systems tested. The mutations eliminated the hyper-deletion phenotype of hpr1δ strains either completely (hrs1-1 and hrs2-1) or significantly (hrs3-1, hrs4-1 and hrs5-1). None of the mutations has a clear effect on the levels of spontaneous and double-strand break-induced deletions. Among other characteristics we have found are the following: (1) one mutation, hrs1-1, reduces the frequency of deletions in rad52-1 strains 20-fold, suggesting that the HRS1 gene is involved in the formation of RAD52-independent deletions; (2) the hrs2-1 hpr1δ mutant is sensitive to methyl-methane-sulfonate and the single mutants hpr1δ and hrs2-1 are resistant, which suggests that the HPR1 and HRS2 proteins may have redundant DNA repair functions; (3) the hrs4-1 mutation confers a hyper-mutator phenotype and (4) the phenotype of lack of activation of gene expression observed in hpr1δ strains is only partially suppressed by the hrs2-1 mutation, which suggests that the possible functions of the Hpr1 protein in gene expression and recombination repair can be separated. We discuss the possible relationship between the HPR1 and the HRS genes and their involvement in initiation of the events responsible for deletion formation. PMID:7705651

  15. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Mutations Affecting the Interleukin-10 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Glocker, Erik-Oliver; Kotlarz, Daniel; Boztug, Kaan; Gertz, E. Michael; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Noyan, Fatih; Perro, Mario; Diestelhorst, Jana; Allroth, Anna; Murugan, Dhaarini; Hätscher, Nadine; Pfeifer, Dietmar; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Sauer, Martin; Kreipe, Hans; Lacher, Martin; Nustede, Rainer; Woellner, Cristina; Baumann, Ulrich; Salzer, Ulrich; Koletzko, Sibylle; Shah, Neil; Segal, Anthony W.; Sauerbrey, Axel; Buderus, Stephan; Snapper, Scott B.; Grimbacher, Bodo; Klein, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The molecular cause of inflammatory bowel disease is largely unknown. METHODS We performed genetic-linkage analysis and candidate-gene sequencing on samples from two unrelated consanguineous families with children who were affected by early-onset inflammatory bowel disease. We screened six additional patients with early-onset colitis for mutations in two candidate genes and carried out functional assays in patients’ peripheral-blood mononuclear cells. We performed an allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in one patient. RESULTS In four of nine patients with early-onset colitis, we identified three distinct homozygous mutations in genes IL10RA and IL10RB, encoding the IL10R1 and IL10R2 proteins, respectively, which form a heterotetramer to make up the interleukin-10 receptor. The mutations abrogate interleukin-10–induced signaling, as shown by deficient STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) phosphorylation on stimulation with interleukin-10. Consistent with this observation was the increased secretion of tumor necrosis factor α and other proinflammatory cytokines from peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from patients who were deficient in IL10R subunit proteins, suggesting that interleukin-10–dependent “negative feedback” regulation is disrupted in these cells. The allogeneic stem-cell transplantation performed in one patient was successful. CONCLUSIONS Mutations in genes encoding the IL10R subunit proteins were found in patients with early-onset enterocolitis, involving hyperinflammatory immune responses in the intestine. Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation resulted in disease remission in one patient. PMID:19890111

  16. Identical mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene in the gliomatous and the sarcomatous components of gliosarcomas suggest a common origin from glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Biernat, W.; Aguzzi, A.; Sure, U.

    1995-09-01

    Gliosarcomas are morphologically heterogeneous tumors of the central nervous system composed of gliomatous and sarcomatous components. The histogenesis of the latter is still a matter of debate. As mutations of the p53 tumor suppressor gene represent an early event in the development of gliomas, we attempted to determine whether both components of gliosarcomas share identical alterations of the p53 gene. Using single-strand conformation analysis (SSCA) and direct DNA sequencing of the p53 gene, we analyzed dissected gliomatous and sarcomatous parts of 12 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gliosarcomas. The two tumors that contained a p53 alteration were found to carry the identical mutation (exon 5; codon 151, CCC {r_arrow} TCC; codon 173, GTG {r_arrow} GTA) in the gliomatous and the sarcomatous components. These findings suggest a common origin of the two cellular components from neoplastic glial cells. 37 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Suppressor Mutations in the Study of Photosystem I Biogenesis: sll0088 Is a Previously Unidentified Gene Involved in Reaction Center Accumulation in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianping; Shen, Gaozhong; Wang, Tao; Bryant, Donald A.; Golbeck, John H.; McIntosh, Lee

    2003-01-01

    In previous work, some members of our group isolated mutant strains of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in which point mutations had been inserted into the psaC gene to alter the cysteine residues to the FA and FB iron-sulfur clusters in the PsaC subunit of photosystem I (J. P. Yu, I. R. Vassiliev, Y. S. Jung, J. H. Golbeck, and L. McIntosh, J. Biol. Chem. 272:8032-8039, 1997). These mutant strains did not grow photoautotrophically due to suppressed levels of chlorophyll a and photosystem I. In the results described here, we show that suppressor mutations produced strains that are capable of photoautotrophic growth at moderate light intensity (20 μmol m−2 s−1). Two separate suppressor strains of C14SPsaC, termed C14SPsaC-R62 and C14SPsaC-R18, were studied and found to have mutations in a previously uncharacterized open reading frame of the Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 genome named sll0088. C14SPsaC-R62 was found to substitute Pro for Arg at residue 161 as the result of a G482→C change in sll0088, and C14SPsaC-R18 was found to have a three-amino-acid insertion of Gly-Tyr-Phe following Cys231 as the result of a TGGTTATTT duplication at T690 in sll0088. These suppressor strains showed near-wild-type levels of chlorophyll a and photosystem I, yet the serine oxygen ligand to FB was retained as shown by the retention of the S ≥ 3/2 spin state of the [4Fe-4S] cluster. The inactivation of sll0088 by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cartridge in the primary C14SPsaC mutant produced an engineered suppressor strain capable of photoautotrophic growth. There was no difference in psaC gene expression or in the amount of PsaC protein assembled in thylakoids between the wild type and an sll0088 deletion mutant. The sll0088 gene encodes a protein predicted to be a transcriptional regulator with sequence similarities to transcription factors in other prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, including Arabidopsis thaliana. The protein contains a typical helix

  18. Exclusive Association of p53 Mutation with Super-High Methylation of Tumor Suppressor Genes in the p53 Pathway in a Unique Gastric Cancer Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ema, Akira; Katada, Natsuya; Kikuchi, Shiro; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Background A comprehensive search for DNA methylated genes identified candidate tumor suppressor genes that have been proven to be involved in the apoptotic process of the p53 pathway. In this study, we investigated p53 mutation in relation to such epigenetic alteration in primary gastric cancer. Methods The methylation profiles of the 3 genes: PGP9.5, NMDAR2B, and CCNA1, which are involved in the p53 tumor suppressor pathway in combination with p53 mutation were examined in 163 primary gastric cancers. The effect of epigenetic reversion in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs on apoptosis was also assessed according to the tumor p53 mutation status. Results p53 gene mutations were found in 44 primary gastric tumors (27%), and super-high methylation of any of the 3 genes was only found in cases with wild type p53. Higher p53 pathway aberration was found in cases with male gender (p = 0.003), intestinal type (p = 0.005), and non-infiltrating type (p = 0.001). The p53 pathway aberration group exhibited less recurrence in lymph nodes, distant organs, and peritoneum than the p53 non-aberration group. In the NUGC4 gastric cancer cell line (p53 wild type), epigenetic treatment augmented apoptosis by chemotherapeutic drugs, partially through p53 transcription activity. On the other hand, in the KATO III cancer cell line (p53 mutant), epigenetic treatment alone induced robust apoptosis, with no trans-activation of p53. Conclusion In gastric cancer, p53 relevant and non-relevant pathways exist, and tumors with either pathway type exhibited unique clinical features. Epigenetic treatments can induce apoptosis partially through p53 activation, however their apoptotic effects may be explained largely by mechanism other than through p53 pathways. PMID:26447864

  19. Targeting activating mutations of EZH2 leads to potent cell growth inhibition in human melanoma by derepression of tumor suppressor genes

    PubMed Central

    Tiffen, Jessamy C.; Gunatilake, Dilini; Gallagher, Stuart J.; Gowrishankar, Kavitha; Heinemann, Anja; Cullinane, Carleen; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Pupo, Gulietta M.; Strbenac, Dario; Yang, Jean Y.; Madore, Jason; Mann, Graham J.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; McArthur, Grant A.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Hersey, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The epigenetic modifier EZH2 is part of the polycomb repressive complex that suppresses gene expression via histone methylation. Activating mutations in EZH2 are found in a subset of melanoma that contributes to disease progression by inactivating tumor suppressor genes. In this study we have targeted EZH2 with a specific inhibitor (GSK126) or depleted EZH2 protein by stable shRNA knockdown. We show that inhibition of EZH2 has potent effects on the growth of both wild-type and EZH2 mutant human melanoma in vitro particularly in cell lines harboring the EZH2Y646 activating mutation. This was associated with cell cycle arrest, reduced proliferative capacity in both 2D and 3D culture systems, and induction of apoptosis. The latter was caspase independent and mediated by the release of apoptosis inducing factor (AIFM1) from mitochondria. Gene expression arrays showed that several well characterized tumor suppressor genes were reactivated by EZH2 inhibition. This included activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) that was validated as an EZH2 target gene by ChIP-qPCR. These results emphasize a critical role for EZH2 in the proliferation and viability of melanoma and highlight the potential for targeted therapy against EZH2 in treatment of patients with melanoma. PMID:26304929

  20. Isolation of Two Apsa Suppressor Strains in Aspergillus Nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, M.; Fischer, R.

    1996-01-01

    Aspergillus nidulans reproduces asexually with single nucleated conidia. In apsA (anucleate primary sterigmata) strains, nuclear positioning is affected and conidiation is greatly reduced. To get further insights into the cellular functions of apsA, aconidial apsA strains were mutagenized and conidiating suppressor strains were isolated. The suppressors fell into two complementation groups, samA and samB (suppressor of anucleate metulae). samA mapped on linkage group I close to pyrG. The mutant allele was dominant in diploids homozygous for apsA. Viability of conidia of samA suppressor strains (samA(-); apsA(-)) was reduced to 50% in comparison to wild-type conidia. Eighty percent of viable spores produced small size colonies that were temperature- and benomyl-sensitive. samB mapped to chromosome VIII and was recessive. Viability of conidia from samB suppressor strains (apsA(-); samB(-)) was also affected but no small size colonies were observed. Both suppressors produced partial defects in sexual reproduction and both suppressed an apsA deletion mutation. In wild-type background the mutant loci affected hyphal growth rate (samA) or changed the colony morphology (samB) and inhibited sexual spore formation (samA and samB). Only subtle effects on conidiation were found. We conclude that both suppressor genes bypass the apsA function and are involved in microtubule-dependent processes. PMID:8889518

  1. Interallelic Complementation at the Suppressor of Forked Locus of Drosophila Reveals Complementation between Suppressor of Forked Proteins Mutated in Different Regions

    PubMed Central

    Simonelig, M.; Elliott, K.; Mitchelson, A.; O'Hare, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Su(f) protein of Drosophila melanogaster shares extensive homologies with proteins from yeast (RNA14) and man (77 kD subunit of cleavage stimulation factor) that are required for 3' end processing of mRNA. These homologies suggest that su(f) is involved in mRNA 3' end formation and that some aspects of this process are conserved throughout eukaryotes. We have investigated the genetic and molecular complexity of the su(f) locus. The su(f) gene is transcribed to produce three RNAs and could encode two proteins. Using constructs that contain different parts of the locus, we show that only the larger predicted gene product of 84 kD is required for the wild-type function of su(f). Some lethal alleles of su(f) complement to produce viable combinations. The structures of complementing and noncomplementing su(f) alleles indicate that 84-kD Su(f) proteins mutated in different domains can act in combination for partial su(f) function. Our results suggest protein-protein interaction between or within wild-type Su(f) molecules. PMID:8846900

  2. The Cystic Fibrosis-causing Mutation ΔF508 Affects Multiple Steps in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Biogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Patrick H.; Richardson, John M.; Wang, Wei; Millen, Linda; Watson, Jarod; Mendoza, Juan L.; Du, Kai; Fischman, Sharon; Senderowitz, Hanoch; Lukacs, Gergely L.; Kirk, Kevin; Thomas, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    The deletion of phenylalanine 508 in the first nucleotide binding domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is directly associated with >90% of cystic fibrosis cases. This mutant protein fails to traffic out of the endoplasmic reticulum and is subsequently degraded by the proteasome. The effects of this mutation may be partially reversed by the application of exogenous osmolytes, expression at low temperature, and the introduction of second site suppressor mutations. However, the specific steps of folding and assembly of full-length cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) directly altered by the disease-causing mutation are unclear. To elucidate the effects of the ΔF508 mutation, on various steps in CFTR folding, a series of misfolding and suppressor mutations in the nucleotide binding and transmembrane domains were evaluated for effects on the folding and maturation of the protein. The results indicate that the isolated NBD1 responds to both the ΔF508 mutation and intradomain suppressors of this mutation. In addition, identification of a novel second site suppressor of the defect within the second transmembrane domain suggests that ΔF508 also effects interdomain interactions critical for later steps in the biosynthesis of CFTR. PMID:20667826

  3. Germ-Line Mutations in the von Hippel–Lindau Tumor-Suppressor Gene Are Similar to Somatic von Hippel–Lindau Aberrations in Sporadic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Jean M.; Naglich, Joseph; Gelbert, Lawrence; Hsia, Y. Edward; Lamiell, James M.; Green, Jane S.; Collins, Debra; Neumann, Hartmut P. H.; Laidlaw, Jana; Li, Fred P.; Klein-Szanto, Andres J. P.; Seizinger, Bernd R.; Kley, Nikolai

    1994-01-01

    von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) disease is a hereditary tumor syndrome predisposing to multifocal bilateral renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), pheochromocytomas, and pancreatic tumors, as well as angiomas and hemangioblastomas of the CNS. A candidate gene for VHL was recently identified, which led to the isolation of a partial cDNA clone with extended open reading frame, without significant homology to known genes or obvious functional motifs, except for an acidic pentamer repeat domain. To further characterize the functional domains of the VHL gene and assess its involvement in hereditary and nonhereditary tumors, we performed mutation analyses and studied its expression in normal and tumor tissue. We identified germ-line mutations in 39% of VHL disease families. Moreover, 33% of sporadic RCCs and all (6/6) sporadic RCC cell lines analyzed showed mutations within the VHL gene. Both germ-line and somatic mutations included deletions, insertions, splice-site mutations, and missense and nonsense mutations, all of which clustered at the 3' end of the corresponding partial VHL cDNA open reading frame, including an alternatively spliced exon 123 nt in length, suggesting functionally important domains encoded by the VHL gene in this region. Over 180 sporadic tumors of other types have shown no detectable base changes within the presumed coding sequence of the VHL gene to date. We conclude that the gene causing VHL has an important and specific role in the etiology of sporadic RCCs, acts as a recessive tumor-suppressor gene, and appears to encode important functional domains within the 3' end of the known open reading frame. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:7977367

  4. G673 could be a novel mutational hot spot for intragenic suppressors of pheS5 lesion in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ponmani, Thangaraj; Munavar, M Hussain

    2014-06-01

    The pheS5 Ts mutant of Escherichia coli defined by a G293 → A293 transition, which is responsible for thermosensitive Phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase has been well studied at both biochemical and molecular level but genetic analyses pertaining to suppressors of pheS5 were hard to come by. Here we have systematically analyzed a spectrum of Temperature-insensitive derivatives isolated from pheS5 Ts mutant and identified two intragenic suppressors affecting the same base pair coordinate G673 (pheS19 defines G673 → T673 ; Gly225 → Cys225 and pheS28 defines G673 → C673 ; Gly225 → Arg225). In fact in the third derivative, the intragenic suppressor originally named pheS43 (G673 → C673 transversion) is virtually same as pheS28. In the fourth case, the very pheS5 lesion itself has got changed from A293 → T293 (named pheS40). Cloning of pheS(+), pheS5, pheS5-pheS19, pheS5-pheS28 alleles into pBR322 and introduction of these clones into pheS5 mutant revealed that excess of double mutant protein is not at all good for the survival of cells at 42°C. These results clearly indicate a pivotal role for Gly225 in the structural/functional integrity of alpha subunit of E. coli PheRS enzyme and it is proposed that G673 might define a hot spot for intragenic suppressors of pheS5. PMID:24811065

  5. Mutations affecting the chemosensory neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Starich, T A; Herman, R K; Kari, C K; Yeh, W H; Schackwitz, W S; Schuyler, M W; Collet, J; Thomas, J H; Riddle, D L

    1995-01-01

    We have identified and characterized 95 mutations that reduce or abolish dye filling of amphid and phasmid neurons and that have little effect on viability, fertility or movement. Twenty-seven mutations occurred spontaneously in strains with a high frequency of transposon insertion. Sixty-eight were isolated after treatment with EMS. All of the mutations result in defects in one or more chemosensory responses, such as chemotaxis to ammonium chloride or formation of dauer larvae under conditions of starvation and overcrowding. Seventy-five of the mutations are alleles of 12 previously defined genes, mutations which were previously shown to lead to defects in amphid ultrastructure. We have assigned 20 mutations to 13 new genes, called dyf-1 through dyf-13. We expect that the genes represented by dye-filing defective mutants are important for the differentiation of amphid and phasmid chemosensilla. PMID:7705621

  6. Mutations affecting the chemosensory neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Starich, T.A.; Herman, R.K.; Kari, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    We have identified and characterized 95 mutations that reduce or abolish dye filling of amphid and phasmid neurons and that have little effect on viability, fertility or movement. Twenty-seven mutations occurred spontaneously in strains with a high frequency of transposon insertion. Sixty-eight were isolated after treatment with EMS. All of the mutations result in defects in one or more chemosensory responses, such as chemotaxis to ammonium chloride or formation of dauer larvae under conditions of starvation and overcrowding. Seventy-five of the mutations are alleles of 12 previously defined genes, mutations which were previously shown to lead to defects in amphid ultrastructure. We have assigned 20 mutations to 13 new genes, called dyf-1 through dyf-13. We expect that the genes represented by dye-filling defective mutants are important for the differentiation of amphid and phasmid chemosensilla. 58 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. CHEMICAL SELECTIVITY OF NUCLEOBASE ADDUCTION RELATIVE TO IN VIVO MUTATION SITES ON EXON 7 FRAGMENT OF P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENE

    PubMed Central

    Malla, Spundana; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Fu, You-Jun; Choudhary, Dharamainder; Jansson, Ingela; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Damage to p53 tumor suppressor gene is found in half of all human cancers. Databases integrating studies of large numbers of tumors and cancer cell cultures show that mutation sites of specific p53 codons are correlated with specific types of cancers. If the most frequently damaged p53 codons in vivo correlate with the most frequent chemical damage sites in vitro, predictions of organ-specific cancer risks might result. Herein, we describe LC-MS/MS methodology to reveal codons with metabolite-adducted nucleobases by LC-MS/MS for oligonucleotides longer than 20 base pairs. Specifically, we used a known carcinogen, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide (BPDE) to determine the most frequently adducted nucleobases within codons. We used a known sequence of 32 base pairs (bp) representing part of p53 exon 7 with 5 possible reactive hot spots. This is the first nucleobase reactivity study of a double stranded DNA p53 fragment featuring more than 20 base pairs with multiple reactive sites. We reacted the 32 bp fragment with benzo[a]pyrene metabolite BPDE that undergoes nucleophilic substitution by DNA bases. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for sequencing of oligonucleotide products from the reacted 32 bp fragment after fragmentation by a restriction endonuclease. Analysis of the adducted p53 fragment compared with unreacted fragment revealed guanines of codons 248 and 244 as most frequently targeted, which are also mutated with high frequency in human tumors. Codon 248 is mutated in non-small cell and small cell lung, head and neck, colorectal and skin cancer, while codon 244 is mutated in small cell lung cancer, all of which involve possible BDPE exposure. Results suggest the utility of this approach for screening of adducted p53 gene by drugs and environmental chemicals to predict risks for organ specific cancers. PMID:26417421

  8. Mobile Element Insertions Causing Mutations in the Drosophila Suppressor of Sable Locus Occur in Dnase I Hypersensitive Subregions of 5'-Transcribed Nontranslated Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, R. A.; Graves, J.; Gibson, W.; Eisenberg, M.

    1990-01-01

    The locations of 16 mobile element insertions causing mutations at the Drosophila suppressor of sable [su(s)] locus were determined by restriction mapping and DNA sequencing of the junction sites. The transposons causing the mutations are: P element (5 alleles), gypsy (3 alleles), 17.6, HMS Beagle, springer, Delta 88, prygun, Stalker, and a new mobile element which was named roamer (2 alleles). Four P element insertions occur in 5' nontranslated leader sequences, while the fifth P element and all 11 non-P elements inserted into the 2053 nucleotide, 5'-most intron that is spliced from the 5' nontranslated leader ~100 nucleotides upstream of the translation start. Fifteen of the 16 mobile elements inserted within a ~1900 nucleotide region that contains seven 100-200-nucleotide long DNase I-hypersensitive subregions that alternate with DNase I-resistant intervals of similar lengths. The locations of these 15 insertion sites correlate well with the roughly estimated locations of five of the DNase I-hypersensitive subregions. These findings suggest that the features of chromatin structure that accompany gene activation may also make the DNA susceptible to insertion of mobile elements. PMID:1963868

  9. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 10q23 and mutation of the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 tumor suppressor gene in Korean hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jei-Jun; Rho, Jin-Woo; Lee, Tae-Jin; Yun, Sung-Su; Kim, Hong-Jin; Choi, Joon-Hyuk; Jeong, Daewon; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Lee, Tae-Yoon

    2007-10-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the 10q23 chromosomal region was analyzed in 18 tissue samples from Korean hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. LOH at the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) region (D10S215, AFMa086wg9 and D10S541) was found in 8 of the 18 (44.4%) HCCs. LOH (20%) and microsatellite instability (26.7%) were also frequently found at the D10S2177 locus, which is located on the telomere side of the PTEN region. LOH was found in other loci, such as AFM280we1 and D10S2281. The presence of LOH in regions other than the PTEN region on chromosome 10q23 suggested the presence of additional tumor suppressor gene(s). PTEN mutation was found in only a subset of HCCs: A single base insertion at the end of the 5'-end splice signal (AG-GUAAGUU) in intron 5 and a silent mutation in exon 6 (codon 188, CTG-Val to CTA). Our data collectively suggest that the genetic alterations of chromosome 10q23, including the PTEN gene, could be important in hepatocarcinogenesis in the Korean population. PMID:17786367

  10. The tumour suppressor gene WWOX is mutated in autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia with epilepsy and mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Mallaret, Martial; Synofzik, Matthis; Lee, Jaeho; Sagum, Cari A.; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Sharkia, Rajech; Drouot, Nathalie; Renaud, Mathilde; Klein, Fabrice A. C.; Anheim, Mathieu; Tranchant, Christine; Mignot, Cyril; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Bedford, Mark; Bauer, Peter; Salih, Mustafa A.; Schüle, Rebecca; Schöls, Ludger; Aldaz, C. Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    We previously localized a new form of recessive ataxia with generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy and mental retardation to a 19 Mb interval in 16q21-q23 by homozygosity mapping of a large consanguineous Saudi Arabian family. We now report the identification by whole exome sequencing of the missense mutation changing proline 47 into threonine in the first WW domain of the WW domain containing oxidoreductase gene, WWOX, located in the linkage interval. Proline 47 is a highly conserved residue that is part of the WW motif consensus sequence and is part of the hydrophobic core that stabilizes the WW fold. We demonstrate that proline 47 is a key amino acid essential for maintaining the WWOX protein fully functional, with its mutation into a threonine resulting in a loss of peptide interaction for the first WW domain. We also identified another highly conserved homozygous WWOX mutation changing glycine 372 to arginine in a second consanguineous family. The phenotype closely resembled the index family, presenting with generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy, mental retardation and ataxia, but also included prominent upper motor neuron disease. Moreover, we observed that the short-lived Wwox knock-out mouse display spontaneous and audiogenic seizures, a phenotype previously observed in the spontaneous Wwox mutant rat presenting with ataxia and epilepsy, indicating that homozygous WWOX mutations in different species causes cerebellar ataxia associated with epilepsy. PMID:24369382

  11. Mutations affecting GABAergic signaling in seizures and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2010-01-01

    The causes of epilepsies and epileptic seizures are multifactorial. Genetic predisposition may contribute in certain types of epilepsies and seizures, whether idiopathic or symptomatic of genetic origin. Although these are not very common, they have offered a unique opportunity to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. Among the implicated gene mutations, a number of GABAA receptor subunit mutations have been recently identified that contribute to several idiopathic epilepsies, febrile seizures, and rarely to certain types of symptomatic epilepsies, like the severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy. Deletion of GABAA receptor genes has also been linked to Angelman syndrome. Furthermore, mutations of proteins controlling chloride homeostasis, which indirectly defines the functional consequences of GABAA signaling, have been identified. These include the chloride channel 2 (CLCN2) and the potassium chloride cotransporter KCC3. The pathogenic role of CLCN2 mutations has not been clearly demonstrated and may represent either susceptibility genes or, in certain cases, innocuous polymorphisms. KCC3 mutations have been associated with hereditary motor and sensory polyneuropathy with corpus callosum agenesis (Andermann syndrome) that often manifests with epileptic seizures. This review summarizes the recent progress in the genetic linkages of epilepsies and seizures to the above genes and discusses potential pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the age, sex, and conditional expression of these seizures in carriers of these mutations. PMID:20352446

  12. Reversion of the Arabidopsis rpn12a-1 exon-trap mutation by an intragenic suppressor that weakens the chimeric 5’ splice site

    PubMed Central

    Smalle, Jan A

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the Arabidopsis 26S proteasome mutant rpn12a-1, an exon-trap T-DNA is inserted 531 base pairs downstream of the RPN12a STOP codon. We have previously shown that this insertion activates a STOP codon-associated latent 5' splice site that competes with the polyadenylation signal during processing of the pre-mRNA. As a result of this dual input from splicing and polyadenylation in the rpn12a-1 mutant, two RPN12a transcripts are produced and they encode the wild-type RPN12a and a chimeric RPN12a-NPTII protein. Both proteins form complexes with other proteasome subunits leading to the formation of wild-type and mutant proteasome versions. The net result of this heterogeneity of proteasome particles is a reduction of total cellular proteasome activity. One of the consequences of reduced proteasomal activity is decreased sensitivity to the major plant hormone cytokinin. Methods: We performed ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis of rpn12a-1 and isolated revertants with wild-type cytokinin sensitivity. Results: We describe the isolation and analyses of suppressor of rpn12a-1 ( sor1). The sor1 mutation is intragenic and located at the fifth position of the chimeric intron. This mutation weakens the activated 5' splice site associated with the STOP codon and tilts the processing of the RPN12a mRNA back towards polyadenylation. Conclusions: These results validate our earlier interpretation of the unusual nature of the rpn12a-1 mutation. Furthermore, the data show that optimal 26S proteasome activity requires RPN12a accumulation beyond a critical threshold. Finally, this finding reinforces our previous conclusion that proteasome function is critical for the cytokinin-dependent regulation of plant growth. PMID:24358894

  13. Suppressors Reveal Two Classes of Glucose Repression Genes in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, J. R.; Johnston, M.

    1994-01-01

    We selected and analyzed extragenic suppressors of mutations in four genes-GRR1, REG1, GAL82 and GAL83-required for glucose repression of the GAL genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The suppressors restore normal or nearly normal glucose repression of GAL1 expression in these glucose repression mutants. Tests of the ability of each suppressor to cross-suppress mutations in the other glucose repression genes revealed two groups of mutually cross-suppressed genes: (1) REG1, GAL82 and GAL83 and (2) GRR1. Mutations of a single gene, SRG1, were found as suppressors of reg1, GAL83-2000 and GAL82-1, suggesting that these three gene products act at a similar point in the glucose repression pathway. Mutations in SRG1 do not cross-suppress grr1 or hxk2 mutations. Conversely, suppressors of grr1 (rgt1) do not cross-suppress any other glucose repression mutation tested. These results, together with what was previously known about these genes, lead us to propose a model for glucose repression in which Grr1p acts early in the glucose repression pathway, perhaps affecting the generation of the signal for glucose repression. We suggest that Reg1p, Gal82p and Gal83p act after the step(s) executed by Grr1p, possibly transmitting the signal for repression to the Snf1p protein kinase. PMID:8013904

  14. Calmodulin Point Mutations Affect Drosophila Development and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, H. B.; Heiman, R. G.; Bolduc, C.; Kovalick, G. E.; Whitley, P.; Stern, M.; Beckingham, K.

    1997-01-01

    Calmodulin (CAM) is recognized as a major intermediary in intracellular calcium signaling, but as yet little is known of its role in developmental and behavioral processes. We have generated and studied mutations to the endogenous Cam gene of Drosophila melanogaster that change single amino acids within the protein coding region. One of these mutations produces a striking pupal lethal phenotype involving failure of head eversion. Various mutant combinations produce specific patterns of ectopic wing vein formation or melanotic scabs on the cuticle. Anaphase chromosome bridging is also seen as a maternal effect during the early embryonic nuclear divisions. In addition, specific behavioral defects such as poor climbing and flightlessness are detected among these mutants. Comparisons with other Drosophila mutant phenotypes suggests potential CAM targets that may mediate these developmental and behavioral effects, and analysis of the CAM crystal structure suggests the structural consequences of the individual mutations. PMID:9409836

  15. Allelic deletion and mutation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene in pancreatic microcystic adenomas.

    PubMed Central

    Vortmeyer, A. O.; Lubensky, I. A.; Fogt, F.; Linehan, W. M.; Khettry, U.; Zhuang, Z.

    1997-01-01

    An association between pancreatic microcystic (serous) adenomas (MCAs) and von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease has been suggested. However, genetic alterations of the VHL gene in MCAs of the pancreas have never been reported. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of 12 pancreatic MCAs. In 2 cases, VHL disease was documented clinically, and 10 cases were sporadic. For LOH analysis, tumor and normal pancreatic cells were procured from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded material using tissue microdissection. After DNA extraction, the samples were amplified by polymerase chain reaction using the polymorphic markers D3S2452, D3S1110, D3S192, and D3S656. In addition, the sporadic tumors were analyzed for VHL gene mutations using probes 3b/10b and K55/K56. Both MCAs associated with VHL disease showed LOH with at least one of the microsatellite markers tested. Among the 10 sporadic cases, 7 tumors showed LOH at the VHL gene locus. A somatic VHL gene mutation on exon 2 was documented in one sporadic case. The study provides the first direct genetic evidence for the role of the VHL gene in MCA tumorigenesis. Furthermore, VHL gene alterations may be detected in both VHL-associated and sporadic pancreatic MCAs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9327728

  16. Suppressors of a cold-sensitive mutation in yeast U4 RNA define five domains in the splicing factor Prp8 that influence spliceosome activation.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, A N; Brow, D A

    2000-01-01

    The highly conserved splicing factor Prp8 has been implicated in multiple stages of the splicing reaction. However, assignment of a specific function to any part of the 280-kD U5 snRNP protein has been difficult, in part because Prp8 lacks recognizable functional or structural motifs. We have used a large-scale screen for Saccharomyces cerevisiae PRP8 alleles that suppress the cold sensitivity caused by U4-cs1, a mutant U4 RNA that blocks U4/U6 unwinding, to identify with high resolution five distinct regions of PRP8 involved in the control of spliceosome activation. Genetic interactions between two of these regions reveal a potential long-range intramolecular fold. Identification of a yeast two-hybrid interaction, together with previously reported results, implicates two other regions in direct and indirect contacts to the U1 snRNP. In contrast to the suppressor mutations in PRP8, loss-of-function mutations in the genes for two other splicing factors implicated in U4/U6 unwinding, Prp44 (Brr2/Rss1/Slt22/Snu246) and Prp24, show synthetic enhancement with U4-cs1. On the basis of these results we propose a model in which allosteric changes in Prp8 initiate spliceosome activation by (1) disrupting contacts between the U1 snRNP and the U4/U6-U5 tri-snRNP and (2) orchestrating the activities of Prp44 and Prp24. PMID:10924465

  17. Nonsense mutations in the human. beta. -globin gene affect mRNA metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Baserga, S.J.; Benz, E.J. Jr. )

    1988-04-01

    A number of premature translation termination mutations (nonsense mutations) have been described in the human {alpha}- and {beta}-globin genes. Studies on mRNA isolated from patients with {beta}{sup 0}-thalassemia have shown that for both the {beta}-17 and the {beta}-39 mutations less than normal levels of {beta}-globin mRNA accumulate in peripheral blood cells. (The codon at which the mutation occurs designates the name of the mutation; there are 146 codons in human {beta}-globin mRNA). In vitro studies using the cloned {beta}-39 gene have reproduced this effect in a heterologous transfection system and have suggested that the defect resides in intranuclear metabolism. The authors have asked if this phenomenon of decreased mRNA accumulation is a general property of nonsense mutations and if the effect depends on the location or the type of mutation. Toward this end, they have studied the effect of five nonsense mutations and two missense mutations on the expression of human {beta}-globin mRNA in a heterologous transfection system. In all cases studied, the presence of a translation termination codon correlates with a decrease in the steady-state level of mRNA. The data suggest that the metabolism of a mammalian mRNA is affected by the presence of a mutation that affects translation.

  18. Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity (Beighton type); mutation analysis in eight affected South African families.

    PubMed

    Vorster, A A; Beighton, P; Ramesar, R S

    2015-05-01

    Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity (SEMD-JL), type 1 is an autosomal recessive disorder which has been identified in more than 30 affected children in the Afrikaans-speaking community of South Africa. Sequencing of B3GALT6 revealed a specific mutation, c.235A > G, in homozygous form in four families, while three others were compound heterozygotes for this mutation in combination with the c.200C > T mutation. In addition, a proband from one family carried the c.16C > T mutation combined with c.200C > T. In a series of five Iranian persons, mutations in B3GALT6 have been implicated in a syndrome characterised by skeletal abnormalities with intellectual disability, bone and connective tissue fragility. Other mutations in B3GALT6 resulted in the classical SEMD-JL phenotype in seven Japanese families and in a syndrome which has been likened to a progeroid form of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). It is evident that there is considerable intragenic heterogeneity in B3GALT6. One of the mutations, c.200C > T, in the affected South Africans was also present in one of the Japanese persons and the respective phenotypes were identical. The multiplicity of allelic mutations and the phenotypic differences in the affected persons supports the concept that a spectrum of connective tissue disorders is programmed by mutations in B3GALT6. PMID:24766538

  19. Mutation of the Zinc-Binding Metalloprotease Motif Affects Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Activity but Does Not Affect Propeptide Processing

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Augusto A.; Buckwold, Simy L.; Shin, Jai W.; Ascon, Miguel; Sears, Cynthia L.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the zinc-binding metalloprotease in Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) processing and activity, the zinc-binding consensus sequences (H348, E349, H352, G355, H358, and M366) were mutated by site-directed-mutagenesis. Our results indicated that single point mutations in the zinc-binding metalloprotease motif do not affect BFT processing but do reduce or eliminate BFT biologic activity in vitro. PMID:16041055

  20. Destabilizing missense mutations in the tumour suppressor protein p53 enhance its ubiquitination in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Harumi; Saliba, David; Wallace, Maura; Finlan, Lee; Langridge-Smith, Patrick R. R.; Hupp, Ted R.

    2006-01-01

    p53 ubiquitination catalysed by MDM2 (murine double minute clone 2 oncoprotein) provides a biochemical assay to dissect stages in E3-ubiquitin-ligase-catalysed ubiquitination of a conformationally flexible protein. A mutant form of p53 (p53F270A) containing a mutation in the second MDM2-docking site in the DNA-binding domain of p53 (F270A) is susceptible to modification of long-lived and high-molecular-mass covalent adducts in vivo. Mutant F270A is hyperubiquitinated in cells as defined by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting with an anti-ubiquitin antibody. Transfection of His-tagged ubiquitin along with p53R175H or p53F270A also results in selective hyperubiquitination in cells under conditions where wild-type p53 is refractory to covalent modification. The extent of mutant p53R175H or p53F270A unfolding in cells as defined by exposure of the DO-12 epitope correlates with the extent of hyperubiquitination, suggesting a link between substrate conformation and E3 ligase function. The p53F270A:6KR chimaeric mutant (where 6KR refers to the simultaneous mutation of lysine residues at positions 370, 372, 373, 381, 382 and 386 to arginine) maintains the high-molecular-mass covalent adducts and is modified in an MDM2-dependent manner. Using an in vitro ubiquitination system, mutant p53F270A and the p53F270A:6KR chimaeric mutant is also subject to hyperubiquitination outwith the C-terminal domain, indicating direct recognition of the mutant p53 conformation by (a) factor(s) in the cell-free ubiquitination system. These data identify an in vitro and in vivo assay with which to dissect how oligomeric protein conformational alterations are linked to substrate ubiquitination in cells. This has implications for understanding the recognition of misfolded proteins during aging and in human diseases such as cancer. PMID:16579792

  1. Mutations in Ran system affected telomere silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Naoyuki Kobayashi, Masahiko; Shimizu, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Murakami, Seishi; Nishimoto, Takeharu

    2007-11-23

    The Ran GTPase system regulates the direction and timing of several cellular events, such as nuclear-cytosolic transport, centrosome formation, and nuclear envelope assembly in telophase. To gain insight into the Ran system's involvement in chromatin formation, we investigated gene silencing at the telomere in several mutants of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which had defects in genes involved in the Ran system. A mutation of the RanGAP gene, rna1-1, caused reduced silencing at the telomere, and partial disruption of the nuclear Ran binding factor, yrb2-{delta}2, increased this silencing. The reduced telomere silencing in rna1-1 cells was suppressed by a high dosage of the SIR3 gene or the SIT4 gene. Furthermore, hyperphosphorylated Sir3 protein accumulated in the rna1-1 mutant. These results suggest that RanGAP is required for the heterochromatin structure at the telomere in budding yeast.

  2. Parental Age Affects Somatic Mutation Rates in the Progeny of Flowering Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gurumoorthy, Viswanathan; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-01-01

    In humans, it is well known that the parental reproductive age has a strong influence on mutations transmitted to their progeny. Meiotic nondisjunction is known to increase in older mothers, and base substitutions tend to go up with paternal reproductive age. Hence, it is clear that the germinal mutation rates are a function of both maternal and paternal ages in humans. In contrast, it is unknown whether the parental reproductive age has an effect on somatic mutation rates in the progeny, because these are rare and difficult to detect. To address this question, we took advantage of the plant model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where mutation detector lines allow for an easy quantitation of somatic mutations, to test the effect of parental age on somatic mutation rates in the progeny. Although we found no significant effect of parental age on base substitutions, we found that frameshift mutations and transposition events increased in the progeny of older parents, an effect that is stronger through the maternal line. In contrast, intrachromosomal recombination events in the progeny decrease with the age of the parents in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Our results clearly show that parental reproductive age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny and, thus, that some form of age-dependent information, which affects the frequency of double-strand breaks and possibly other processes involved in maintaining genome integrity, is transmitted through the gametes. PMID:25810093

  3. Parental age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gurumoorthy, Viswanathan; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-05-01

    In humans, it is well known that the parental reproductive age has a strong influence on mutations transmitted to their progeny. Meiotic nondisjunction is known to increase in older mothers, and base substitutions tend to go up with paternal reproductive age. Hence, it is clear that the germinal mutation rates are a function of both maternal and paternal ages in humans. In contrast, it is unknown whether the parental reproductive age has an effect on somatic mutation rates in the progeny, because these are rare and difficult to detect. To address this question, we took advantage of the plant model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where mutation detector lines allow for an easy quantitation of somatic mutations, to test the effect of parental age on somatic mutation rates in the progeny. Although we found no significant effect of parental age on base substitutions, we found that frameshift mutations and transposition events increased in the progeny of older parents, an effect that is stronger through the maternal line. In contrast, intrachromosomal recombination events in the progeny decrease with the age of the parents in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Our results clearly show that parental reproductive age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny and, thus, that some form of age-dependent information, which affects the frequency of double-strand breaks and possibly other processes involved in maintaining genome integrity, is transmitted through the gametes. PMID:25810093

  4. Activating Mutations Affecting the Dbl Homology Domain of SOS2 Cause Noonan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cordeddu, Viviana; Yin, Jiani C; Gunnarsson, Cecilia; Virtanen, Carl; Drunat, Séverine; Lepri, Francesca; De Luca, Alessandro; Rossi, Cesare; Ciolfi, Andrea; Pugh, Trevor J; Bruselles, Alessandro; Priest, James R; Pennacchio, Len A; Lu, Zhibin; Danesh, Arnavaz; Quevedo, Rene; Hamid, Alaa; Martinelli, Simone; Pantaleoni, Francesca; Gnazzo, Maria; Daniele, Paola; Lissewski, Christina; Bocchinfuso, Gianfranco; Stella, Lorenzo; Odent, Sylvie; Philip, Nicole; Faivre, Laurence; Vlckova, Marketa; Seemanova, Eva; Digilio, Cristina; Zenker, Martin; Zampino, Giuseppe; Verloes, Alain; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Roberts, Amy E; Cavé, Hélène; Gelb, Bruce D; Neel, Benjamin G; Tartaglia, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The RASopathies constitute a family of autosomal-dominant disorders whose major features include facial dysmorphism, cardiac defects, reduced postnatal growth, variable cognitive deficits, ectodermal and skeletal anomalies, and susceptibility to certain malignancies. Noonan syndrome (NS), the commonest RASopathy, is genetically heterogeneous and caused by functional dysregulation of signal transducers and regulatory proteins with roles in the RAS/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction pathway. Mutations in known disease genes account for approximately 80% of affected individuals. Here, we report that missense mutations altering Son of Sevenless, Drosophila, homolog 2 (SOS2), which encodes a RAS guanine nucleotide exchange factor, occur in a small percentage of subjects with NS. Four missense mutations were identified in five unrelated sporadic cases and families transmitting NS. Disease-causing mutations affected three conserved residues located in the Dbl homology (DH) domain, of which two are directly involved in the intramolecular binding network maintaining SOS2 in its autoinhibited conformation. All mutations were found to promote enhanced signaling from RAS to ERK. Similar to NS-causing SOS1 mutations, the phenotype associated with SOS2 defects is characterized by normal development and growth, as well as marked ectodermal involvement. Unlike SOS1 mutations, however, those in SOS2 are restricted to the DH domain. PMID:26173643

  5. Tumor suppressor KAI1 affects integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated ovarian cancer cell adhesion, motility, and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruseva, Zlatna; Geiger, Pamina Xenia Charlotte; Hutzler, Peter; Kotzsch, Matthias; Luber, Birgit; Schmitt, Manfred; Gross, Eva; Reuning, Ute

    2009-06-10

    The tetraspanin KAI1 had been described as a metastasis suppressor in many different cancer types, a function for which associations of KAI1 with adhesion and signaling receptors of the integrin superfamily likely play a role. In ovarian cancer, integrin {alpha}v{beta}3 correlates with tumor progression and its elevation in vitro provoked enhanced cell adhesion accompanied by significant increases in cell motility and proliferation in the presence of its major ligand vitronectin. In the present study, we characterized integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated tumor biological effects as a function of cellular KAI1 restoration and proved for the first time that KAI1, besides its already known physical crosstalk with {beta}1-integrins, also colocalizes with integrin {alpha}v{beta}3. Functionally, elevated KAI1 levels drastically increased integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-dependent ovarian cancer cell adhesion. Since an intermediate level of cell adhesive strength is required for optimal cell migration, we next studied ovarian cancer cell motility as a function of KAI1 restoration. By time lapse video microscopy, we found impaired integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-mediated cell migration most probably due to strongly enhanced cellular immobilization onto the adhesion-supporting matrix. Moreover, KAI1 reexpression significantly diminished cell proliferation. These data strongly indicate that KAI1 may suppress ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-provoked tumor cell motility and proliferation as important hallmarks of the oncogenic process.

  6. MicroRNA-155 may affect allograft survival by regulating the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Maomao; Zhang, Qi; Liu, Fang; Yin, Li; Yu, Bo; Wu, Jian

    2011-10-01

    Immune rejection of organ transplants has life-threatening implications. It is believed that allograft rejection is initiated by the activation of lymphocytes following recognition of donor antigens, leading to generation of effector T lymphocytes, alloantibody production, and graft infiltration by alloreactive cells. There is solid evidence that miRNAs are integral for maintaining immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. A deeper understanding of the regulation of the immune response by miRNAs could define new mechanisms for manipulating graft immunity and preventing rejection. The miRNA miR-155 is of particular interest due to its known roles in regulating the expression of genes relevant to allograft rejection and the induction of immune tolerance. Indeed, miR-155 has been shown to dramatically impact both innate and adaptive immune processes, including inflammation, antigen presentation, T-cell differentiation, cytokine production, and T regulatory cell (Treg) functions. The suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is a critical regulator of immune cell function and an evolutionarily conserved target of miR-155 in breast cancer cells. We propose that suppression of miR-155 could enhance SOCS1 expression in immune cells and suppress allograft rejection. Further studies on the specific role of miR-155 in allograft rejection may lead to the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21802214

  7. Feeding a high dosage of zinc oxide affects suppressor of cytokine gene expression in Salmonella Typhimurium infected piglets.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Jasper N; Brockmann, Gudrun A; Kreuzer-Redmer, Susanne

    2016-10-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play an important role in the regulation of the immune response by inhibiting cytokines. Here we investigated the effects of zinc oxide fed at three different dosages (LZN=57ppm, MZN=167ppm, HZN=2425ppm) to weaned piglets that were or were not orally infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104. We detected higher expression of SOCS3 six days after weaning for all analyzed piglets, regardless of the infection or the zinc feeding, suggesting a stress induced immune response. Whereas, SOCS1 showed only higher transcript amounts in S. Typhimurium infected piglets, especially the LZN group. This might indicate an infection regulating effect of zinc oxide in the infection model. After 42days of infection, the expression of SOCS2, SOCS4, and SOCS7 was increased only in animals fed the highest concentrations of zinc oxide, while non-infected piglets at the age of 56days showed no regulation for these genes. The up-regulation of SOCS genes in the mesenteric lymph nodes of piglets fed a diet with a very high concentration of zinc over 6 weeks suggests that such treatments may impair the immune response. PMID:27496737

  8. NEK8 mutations affect ciliary and centrosomal localization and may cause nephronophthisis.

    PubMed

    Otto, Edgar A; Trapp, Melissa L; Schultheiss, Ulla T; Helou, Juliana; Quarmby, Lynne M; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2008-03-01

    Nephronophthisis, an autosomal recessive kidney disease, is the most frequent genetic cause of chronic renal failure in the first 3 decades of life. Causative mutations in 8 genes (NPHP1-8) have been identified, and homologous mouse models for NPHP2/INVS and NPHP3 have been described. The jck mouse is another model of recessive cystic kidney disease, and this mouse harbors a missense mutation, G448V, in the highly conserved RCC1 domain of Nek8. We hypothesized that mutations in NEK8 might cause nephronophthisis in humans, so we performed mutational analysis in a worldwide cohort of 588 patients. We identified 3 different amino acid changes that were conserved through evolution (L330F, H425Y, and A497P) and that were absent from at least 80 ethnically matched controls. All 3 mutations were within RCC1 domains, and the mutation H425Y was positioned within the same RCC1 repeat as the mouse jck mutation. To test the functional significance of these mutations, we introduced them into full-length mouse Nek8 GFP-tagged cDNA constructs. We transiently overexpressed the constructs in inner medullary collecting duct cells (IMCD-3 cell line) and compared the subcellular localization of mutant Nek8 to wild-type Nek8. All mutant forms of Nek8 showed defects in ciliary localization to varying degrees; the H431Y mutant (human H425Y) was completely absent from cilia and the amount localized to centrosomes was decreased. Overexpression of these mutants did not affect overall ciliogenesis, mitosis, or centriole number. Our genetic and functional data support the assumption that mutations in NEK8 cause nephronophthisis (NPHP9), adding another link between proteins mutated in cystic kidney disease and their localization to cilia and centrosomes. PMID:18199800

  9. Prognostic role and implications of mutation status of tumor suppressor gene ARID1A in cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Luchini, Claudio; Veronese, Nicola; Solmi, Marco; Cho, Hanbyoul; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Chou, Angela; Gill, Anthony J; Faraj, Sheila F; Chaux, Alcides; Netto, George J; Nakayama, Kentaro; Kyo, Satoru; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Duck-Woo; Yousef, George M; Scorilas, Andreas; Nelson, Gregg S; Köbel, Martin; Kalloger, Steve E; Schaeffer, David F; Yan, Hai-Bo; Liu, Feng; Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Zhang, Xianyu; Pang, Da; Lichner, Zsuzsanna; Sergi, Giuseppe; Manzato, Enzo; Capelli, Paola; Wood, Laura D; Scarpa, Aldo; Correll, Christoph U

    2015-11-17

    Loss of the tumor suppressor gene AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A (ARID1A) has been demonstrated in several cancers, but its prognostic role is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk associated with loss of ARID1A (ARID1A-) for all-cause mortality, cancer-specific mortality and recurrence of disease in subjects with cancer. PubMed and SCOPUS search from database inception until 01/31/2015 without language restriction was conducted, contacting authors for unpublished data. Eligible were prospective studies reporting data on prognostic parameters in subjects with cancer, comparing participants with presence of ARID1A (ARID1A+) vs. ARID1A-, assessed either via immunohistochemistry (loss of expression) or with genetic testing (presence of mutation). Data were summarized using risk ratios (RR) for number of deaths/recurrences and hazard ratios (HR) for time-dependent risk related to ARID1A- adjusted for potential confounders. Of 136 hits, 25 studies with 5,651 participants (28 cohorts; ARID1A-: n = 1,701; ARID1A+: n = 3,950), with a mean follow-up period of 4.7 ± 1.8 years, were meta-analyzed. Compared to ARID1A+, ARID1A- significantly increased cancer-specific mortality (studies = 3; RR = 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19-2.00, I(2) = 31%). Using HRs adjusted for potential confounders, ARID1A- was associated with a greater risk of cancer-specific mortality (studies = 2; HR = 2.55, 95%CI = 1.19-5.45, I(2) = 19%) and cancer recurrence (studies = 10; HR = 1.93, 95%CI = 1.22-3.05, I(2) = 76%). On the basis of these results, we have demonstrated that loss of ARID1A shortened time to cancer-specific mortality, and to recurrence of cancer when adjusting for potential confounders. For its role, this gene should be considered as an important potential target for personalized medicine in cancer treatment. PMID:26384299

  10. Prognostic role and implications of mutation status of tumor suppressor gene ARID1A in cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luchini, Claudio; Veronese, Nicola; Solmi, Marco; Cho, Hanbyoul; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Chou, Angela; Gill, Anthony J.; Faraj, Sheila F.; Chaux, Alcides; Netto, George J.; Nakayama, Kentaro; Kyo, Satoru; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Duck-Woo; Yousef, George M.; Scorilas, Andreas; Nelson, Gregg S.; Köbel, Martin; Kalloger, Steve E.; Schaeffer, David F.; Yan, Hai-Bo; Liu, Feng; Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Zhang, Xianyu; Pang, Da; Lichner, Zsuzsanna; Sergi, Giuseppe; Manzato, Enzo; Capelli, Paola; Wood, Laura D.; Scarpa, Aldo; Correll, Christoph U.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of the tumor suppressor gene AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A (ARID1A) has been demonstrated in several cancers, but its prognostic role is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk associated with loss of ARID1A (ARID1A−) for all-cause mortality, cancer-specific mortality and recurrence of disease in subjects with cancer. PubMed and SCOPUS search from database inception until 01/31/2015 without language restriction was conducted, contacting authors for unpublished data. Eligible were prospective studies reporting data on prognostic parameters in subjects with cancer, comparing participants with presence of ARID1A (ARID1A+) vs. ARID1A−, assessed either via immunohistochemistry (loss of expression) or with genetic testing (presence of mutation). Data were summarized using risk ratios (RR) for number of deaths/recurrences and hazard ratios (HR) for time-dependent risk related to ARID1A− adjusted for potential confounders. Of 136 hits, 25 studies with 5,651 participants (28 cohorts; ARID1A−: n = 1,701; ARID1A+: n = 3,950), with a mean follow-up period of 4.7 ± 1.8 years, were meta-analyzed. Compared to ARID1A+, ARID1A− significantly increased cancer-specific mortality (studies = 3; RR = 1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.19–2.00, I2 = 31%). Using HRs adjusted for potential confounders, ARID1A− was associated with a greater risk of cancer-specific mortality (studies = 2; HR = 2.55, 95%CI = 1.19–5.45, I2 = 19%) and cancer recurrence (studies = 10; HR = 1.93, 95%CI = 1.22–3.05, I2 = 76%). On the basis of these results, we have demonstrated that loss of ARID1A shortened time to cancer-specific mortality, and to recurrence of cancer when adjusting for potential confounders. For its role, this gene should be considered as an important potential target for personalized medicine in cancer treatment. PMID:26384299

  11. First missense mutation outside of SERAC1 lipase domain affecting intracellular cholesterol trafficking.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, María Elena; Martín-Hernández, Elena; de Aragón, Ana Martínez; García-Silva, María Teresa; Quijada-Fraile, Pilar; Arenas, Joaquín; Martín, Miguel A; Martínez-Azorín, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We report the clinical and genetic findings in a Spanish boy who presented MEGDEL syndrome, a very rare inborn error of metabolism. Whole-exome sequencing uncovered a new homozygous mutation in the serine active site containing 1 (SERAC1) gene, which is essential for both mitochondrial function and intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Functional studies in patient fibroblasts showed that p.D224G mutation affects the intracellular cholesterol trafficking. Only three missense mutations in this gene have been described before, being p.D224G the first missense mutation outside of the SERAC1 serine-lipase domain. Therefore, we conclude that the defect in cholesterol trafficking is not limited to alterations in this specific part of the protein. PMID:26445863

  12. A molecular description of mutations affecting the pollen component of the Nicotiana alata S locus.

    PubMed Central

    Golz, J F; Su, V; Clarke, A E; Newbigin, E

    1999-01-01

    Mutations affecting the self-incompatibility response of Nicotiana alata were generated by irradiation. Mutants in the M1 generation were selected on the basis of pollen tube growth through an otherwise incompatible pistil. Twelve of the 18 M1 plants obtained from the mutagenesis screen were self-compatible. Eleven self-compatible plants had mutations affecting only the pollen function of the S locus (pollen-part mutants). The remaining self-compatible plant had a mutation affecting only the style function of the S locus (style-part mutant). Cytological examination of the pollen-part mutant plants revealed that 8 had an extra chromosome (2n + 1) and 3 did not. The pollen-part mutation in 7 M1 plants was followed in a series of crosses. DNA blot analysis using probes for S-RNase genes (encoding the style function of the S locus) indicated that the pollen-part mutation was associated with an extra S allele in 4 M1 plants. In 3 of these plants, the extra S allele was located on the additional chromosome. There was no evidence of an extra S allele in the 3 remaining M1 plants. The breakdown of self-incompatibility in plants with an extra S allele is discussed with reference to current models of the molecular basis of self-incompatibility. PMID:10388830

  13. Mutations Affecting Potassium Import Restore the Viability of the Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III holD Mutant.

    PubMed

    Durand, Adeline; Sinha, Anurag Kumar; Dard-Dascot, Cloelia; Michel, Bénédicte

    2016-06-01

    Mutants lacking the ψ (HolD) subunit of the Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol III HE) have poor viability, but a residual growth allows the isolation of spontaneous suppressor mutations that restore ΔholD mutant viability. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of two suppressor mutations in the trkA and trkE genes, involved in the main E. coli potassium import system. Viability of ΔholD trk mutants is abolished on media with low or high K+ concentrations, where alternative K+ import systems are activated, and is restored on low K+ concentrations by the inactivation of the alternative Kdp system. These findings show that the ΔholD mutant is rescued by a decrease in K+ import. The effect of trk inactivation is additive with the previously identified ΔholD suppressor mutation lexAind that blocks the SOS response indicating an SOS-independent mechanism of suppression. Accordingly, although lagging-strand synthesis is still perturbed in holD trkA mutants, the trkA mutation allows HolD-less Pol III HE to resist increased levels of the SOS-induced bypass polymerase DinB. trk inactivation is also partially additive with an ssb gene duplication, proposed to stabilize HolD-less Pol III HE by a modification of the single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) binding mode. We propose that lowering the intracellular K+ concentration stabilizes HolD-less Pol III HE on DNA by increasing electrostatic interactions between Pol III HE subunits, or between Pol III and DNA, directly or through a modification of the SSB binding mode; these three modes of action are not exclusive and could be additive. To our knowledge, the holD mutant provides the first example of an essential protein-DNA interaction that strongly depends on K+ import in vivo. PMID:27280472

  14. Mutations Affecting Potassium Import Restore the Viability of the Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III holD Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    Mutants lacking the ψ (HolD) subunit of the Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III holoenzyme (Pol III HE) have poor viability, but a residual growth allows the isolation of spontaneous suppressor mutations that restore ΔholD mutant viability. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of two suppressor mutations in the trkA and trkE genes, involved in the main E. coli potassium import system. Viability of ΔholD trk mutants is abolished on media with low or high K+ concentrations, where alternative K+ import systems are activated, and is restored on low K+ concentrations by the inactivation of the alternative Kdp system. These findings show that the ΔholD mutant is rescued by a decrease in K+ import. The effect of trk inactivation is additive with the previously identified ΔholD suppressor mutation lexAind that blocks the SOS response indicating an SOS-independent mechanism of suppression. Accordingly, although lagging-strand synthesis is still perturbed in holD trkA mutants, the trkA mutation allows HolD-less Pol III HE to resist increased levels of the SOS-induced bypass polymerase DinB. trk inactivation is also partially additive with an ssb gene duplication, proposed to stabilize HolD-less Pol III HE by a modification of the single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) binding mode. We propose that lowering the intracellular K+ concentration stabilizes HolD-less Pol III HE on DNA by increasing electrostatic interactions between Pol III HE subunits, or between Pol III and DNA, directly or through a modification of the SSB binding mode; these three modes of action are not exclusive and could be additive. To our knowledge, the holD mutant provides the first example of an essential protein-DNA interaction that strongly depends on K+ import in vivo. PMID:27280472

  15. Different inactivating mutations of the mineralocorticoid receptor in fourteen families affected by type I pseudohypoaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Sartorato, Paola; Lapeyraque, Anne-Laure; Armanini, Decio; Kuhnle, Ursula; Khaldi, Yasmina; Salomon, Rémi; Abadie, Véronique; Di Battista, Eliana; Naselli, Arturo; Racine, Alain; Bosio, Maurizio; Caprio, Massimiliano; Poulet-Young, Véronique; Chabrolle, Jean-Pierre; Niaudet, Patrick; De Gennes, Christiane; Lecornec, Marie-Hélène; Poisson, Elodie; Fusco, Anna Maria; Loli, Paola; Lombès, Marc; Zennaro, Maria-Christina

    2003-06-01

    We have analyzed the human mineralocorticoid receptor (hMR) gene in 14 families with autosomal dominant or sporadic pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1), a rare form of mineralocorticoid resistance characterized by neonatal renal salt wasting and failure to thrive. Six heterozygous mutations were detected. Two frameshift mutations in exon 2 (insT1354, del8bp537) and one nonsense mutation in exon 4 (C2157A, Cys645stop) generate truncated proteins due to premature stop codons. Three missense mutations (G633R, Q776R, L979P) differently affect hMR function. The DNA binding domain mutant R633 exhibits reduced maximal transactivation, although its binding characteristics and ED(50) of transactivation are comparable with wild-type hMR. Ligand binding domain mutants R776 and P979 present reduced or absent aldosterone binding, respectively, which is associated with reduced or absent ligand-dependent transactivation capacity. Finally, P979 possesses a transdominant negative effect on wild-type hMR activity, whereas mutations G633R and Q776R probably result in haploinsufficiency in PHA1 patients. We conclude that hMR mutations are a common feature of autosomal dominant PHA1, being found in 70% of our familial cases. Their absence in some families underscores the importance of an extensive investigation of the hMR gene and the role of precise diagnostic procedures to allow for identification of other genes potentially involved in the disease. PMID:12788847

  16. A novel mutation in TFL1 homolog affecting determinacy in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Dhanasekar, P; Reddy, K S

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in the widely conserved Arabidopsis Terminal Flower 1 (TFL1) gene and its homologs have been demonstrated to result in determinacy across genera, the knowledge of which is lacking in cowpea. Understanding the molecular events leading to determinacy of apical meristems could hasten development of cowpea varieties with suitable ideotypes. Isolation and characterization of a novel mutation in cowpea TFL1 homolog (VuTFL1) affecting determinacy is reported here for the first time. Cowpea TFL1 homolog was amplified using primers designed based on conserved sequences in related genera and sequence variation was analysed in three gamma ray-induced determinate mutants, their indeterminate parent "EC394763" and two indeterminate varieties. The analyses of sequence variation exposed a novel SNP distinguishing the determinate mutants from the indeterminate types. The non-synonymous point mutation in exon 4 at position 1,176 resulted from transversion of cytosine (C) to adenine (A) leading to an amino acid change (Pro-136 to His) in determinate mutants. The effect of the mutation on protein function and stability was predicted to be detrimental using different bioinformatics/computational tools. The functionally significant novel substitution mutation is hypothesized to affect determinacy in the cowpea mutants. Development of suitable regeneration protocols in this hitherto recalcitrant crop and subsequent complementation assay in mutants or over-expressing assay in parents could decisively conclude the role of the SNP in regulating determinacy in these cowpea mutants. PMID:25146839

  17. Mutation in the Monocarboxylate Transporter 12 Gene Affects Guanidinoacetate Excretion but Does Not Cause Glucosuria.

    PubMed

    Dhayat, Nasser; Simonin, Alexandre; Anderegg, Manuel; Pathare, Ganesh; Lüscher, Benjamin P; Deisl, Christine; Albano, Giuseppe; Mordasini, David; Hediger, Matthias A; Surbek, Daniel V; Vogt, Bruno; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Kloeckener-Gruissem, Barbara; Fuster, Daniel G

    2016-05-01

    A heterozygous mutation (c.643C>A; p.Q215X) in the monocarboxylate transporter 12-encoding gene MCT12 (also known as SLC16A12) that mediates creatine transport was recently identified as the cause of a syndrome with juvenile cataracts, microcornea, and glucosuria in a single family. Whereas the MCT12 mutation cosegregated with the eye phenotype, poor correlation with the glucosuria phenotype did not support a pathogenic role of the mutation in the kidney. Here, we examined MCT12 in the kidney and found that it resides on basolateral membranes of proximal tubules. Patients with MCT12 mutation exhibited reduced plasma levels and increased fractional excretion of guanidinoacetate, but normal creatine levels, suggesting that MCT12 may function as a guanidinoacetate transporter in vivo However, functional studies in Xenopus oocytes revealed that MCT12 transports creatine but not its precursor, guanidinoacetate. Genetic analysis revealed a separate, undescribed heterozygous mutation (c.265G>A; p.A89T) in the sodium/glucose cotransporter 2-encoding gene SGLT2 (also known as SLC5A2) in the family that segregated with the renal glucosuria phenotype. When overexpressed in HEK293 cells, the mutant SGLT2 transporter did not efficiently translocate to the plasma membrane, and displayed greatly reduced transport activity. In summary, our data indicate that MCT12 functions as a basolateral exit pathway for creatine in the proximal tubule. Heterozygous mutation of MCT12 affects systemic levels and renal handling of guanidinoacetate, possibly through an indirect mechanism. Furthermore, our data reveal a digenic syndrome in the index family, with simultaneous MCT12 and SGLT2 mutation. Thus, glucosuria is not part of the MCT12 mutation syndrome. PMID:26376857

  18. Water Collective Dynamics in Whole Photosynthetic Green Algae as Affected by Protein Single Mutation.

    PubMed

    Russo, Daniela; Rea, Giuseppina; Lambreva, Maya D; Haertlein, Michael; Moulin, Martine; De Francesco, Alessio; Campi, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    In the context of the importance of water molecules for protein function/dynamics relationship, the role of water collective dynamics in Chlamydomonas green algae carrying both native and mutated photosynthetic proteins has been investigated by neutron Brillouin scattering spectroscopy. Results show that single point genetic mutation may notably affect collective density fluctuations in hydrating water providing important insight on the transmission of information possibly correlated to biological functionality. In particular, we highlight that the damping factor of the excitations is larger in the native compared to the mutant algae as a signature of a different plasticity and structure of the hydrogen bond network. PMID:27300078

  19. Evidence for two tumor suppressor loci associated with proximal chromosome 9p to q and distal chromosome 9q in bladder cancer and the initial screening for GAS1 and PTC mutations.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, A R; Spruck, C H; Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Gonzalgo, M L; Chan, M F; Tsai, Y C; Dean, M; Steven, K; Horn, T; Jones, P A

    1996-11-01

    The most common genetic alteration identified to date in bladder cancer is loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of chromosome 9, suggesting the presence of possible tumor suppressor genes on this chromosome. We attempted to map the location of these genes by analyzing 69 primary transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder with a panel of microsatellite markers for LOH on chromosome 9. Monosomy 9 (defined by LOH of all informative markers analyzed on 9p and 9q) was detected in 26 of 69 (38%) tumors, and 22 of 69 (32%) tumors showed subchromosomal deletions. Twelve tumors (17%) demonstrated partial LOH of chromosome 9 and indicated two distinct regions of LOH. Eight tumors showed distal allelic loss of 9q with a minimal region of common deletion flanked proximally by marker GSN on 9q33. Six tumors showed proximal allelic loss of 9p and 9q with a minimal area of common deletion flanked by markers D9S970 on 9p12 and D9S283 on 9q21. Two tumors showed loss of both the distal region of 9q and the proximal region of 9p and 9q, which were separated by a possible 6-44 cM of retained genetic material. The proximal minimal area of common deletion excluded 9q22.3-q31 to where two putative tumor suppressor genes, the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome and multiple self-healing squamous epithelioma (ESS1) genes, have been mapped. The growth arrest-specific gene (GAS1), a candidate tumor suppressor gene, was included within the proximal minimal region. We evaluated the GAS1 gene for its potential role in bladder cancer using single-strand conformational polymorphism to screen for mutations in GAS1 in 10 bladder cancer cell lines and 14 primary bladder tumors. A polymorphism at codon 88 was noted in one primary bladder tumor, but no other abnormalities were found, suggesting that another potential tumor suppressor gene important to bladder cancer resides in these minimally deleted regions. Because the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome gene has long been speculated to be a putative

  20. A novel SMARCAL1 missense mutation that affects splicing in a severely affected Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia patient.

    PubMed

    Barraza-García, Jimena; Rivera-Pedroza, Carlos I; Belinchón, Alberta; Fernández-Camblor, Carlota; Valenciano-Fuente, Blanca; Lapunzina, Pablo; Heath, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by skeletal dysplasia, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, renal failure and immunodeficiency. In this work, we report the molecular studies undertaken in a severely affected SIOD patient that died at six years old due to nephropathy. The patient was screened for mutations using a targeted skeletal dysplasias panel. A homozygous novel missense mutation was identified, c.1615C > G (p.[Leu539Val]) that was predicted as mildly pathogenic by in silico pathogenicity prediction tools. However, splicing prediction software suggested that this variant may create a new splicing donor site in exon 9, which was subsequently confirmed using a minigene assay in HEK293 cells. Thus, the splicing alteration, c.1615C > G; r.1615c > g, 1615_1644del; (p.[Leu539_Ile548del]), results in the loss of 10 amino acids of the HARP-ATPase catalytic domain and the RPA-binding domain. Several studies have demonstrated a weak genotype-phenotype correlation among such patients. Thus, the molecular characterization has helped us to understand why a predicted weakly pathogenic missense mutation results in severe SIOD and should be considered in similar scenarios. PMID:27282802

  1. Progranulin Mutations Affects Brain Oscillatory Activity in Fronto-Temporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Davide V.; Benussi, Luisa; Fostinelli, Silvia; Ciani, Miriam; Binetti, Giuliano; Ghidoni, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a clinical stage indicating a prodromal phase of dementia. This practical concept could be used also for fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). Progranulin (PGRN) has been recently recognized as a useful diagnostic biomarker for fronto-temporal lobe degeneration (FTLD) due to GRN null mutations. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a reliable tool in detecting brain networks changes. The working hypothesis of the present study is that EEG oscillations could detect different modifications among FTLD stages (FTD-MCI versus overt FTD) as well as differences between GRN mutation carriers versus non-carriers in patients with overt FTD. Materials and Methods: EEG in all patients and PGRN dosage in patients with a clear FTD were detected. The cognitive state has been investigated through mini mental state examination (MMSE). Results: MCI-FTD showed a significant lower spectral power in both alpha and theta oscillations as compared to overt FTD. GRN mutations carriers affected by FTLD show an increase in high alpha and decrease in theta oscillations as compared to non-carriers. Conclusion: EEG frequency rhythms are sensible to different stage of FTD and could detect changes in brain oscillatory activity affected by GRN mutations. PMID:26973510

  2. Identification of Regulatory Mutations in SERPINC1 Affecting Vitamin D Response Elements Associated with Antithrombin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Toderici, Mara; de la Morena-Barrio, María Eugenia; Padilla, José; Miñano, Antonia; Antón, Ana Isabel; Iniesta, Juan Antonio; Herranz, María Teresa; Fernández, Nuria; Vicente, Vicente; Corral, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Antithrombin is a crucial anticoagulant serpin whose even moderate deficiency significantly increases the risk of thrombosis. Most cases with antithrombin deficiency carried genetic defects affecting exons or flanking regions of SERPINC1.We aimed to identify regulatory mutations inSERPINC1 through sequencing the promoter, intron 1 and 2 of this gene in 23 patients with antithrombin deficiency but without known genetic defects. Three cases with moderate antithrombin deficiency (63–78%) carried potential regulatory mutations. One located 200 bp before the initiation ATG and two in intron 1. These mutations disrupted two out of five potential vitamin D receptor elements (VDRE) identified in SERPINC1 with different software. One genetic defect, c.42-1060_-1057dupTTGA, was a new low prevalent polymorphism (MAF: 0.01) with functional consequences on plasma antithrombin levels. The relevance of the vitamin D pathway on the regulation of SERPINC1 was confirmed in a cell model. Incubation of HepG2 with paricalcitol, a vitamin D analog, increased dose-dependently the levels of SERPINC1transcripts and antithrombin released to the conditioned medium. This study shows further evidence of the transcriptional regulation of SERPINC1 by vitamin D and first describes the functional and pathological relevance of mutations affecting VDRE of this gene. Our study opens new perspectives in the search of new genetic defects involved in antithrombin deficiency and the risk of thrombosis as well as in the design of new antithrombotic treatments. PMID:27003919

  3. Mutations and epimutations in the origin of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Peltomaeki, Paeivi

    2012-02-15

    Cancer is traditionally viewed as a disease of abnormal cell proliferation controlled by a series of mutations. Mutations typically affect oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes thereby conferring growth advantage. Genomic instability facilitates mutation accumulation. Recent findings demonstrate that activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, as well as genomic instability, can be achieved by epigenetic mechanisms as well. Unlike genetic mutations, epimutations do not change the base sequence of DNA and are potentially reversible. Similar to genetic mutations, epimutations are associated with specific patterns of gene expression that are heritable through cell divisions. Knudson's hypothesis postulates that inactivation of tumor suppressor genes requires two hits, with the first hit occurring either in somatic cells (sporadic cancer) or in the germline (hereditary cancer) and the second one always being somatic. Studies on hereditary and sporadic forms of colorectal carcinoma have made it evident that, apart from genetic mutations, epimutations may serve as either hit or both. Furthermore, recent next-generation sequencing studies show that epigenetic genes, such as those encoding histone modifying enzymes and subunits for chromatin remodeling systems, are themselves frequent targets of somatic mutations in cancer and can act like tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. This review discusses genetic vs. epigenetic origin of cancer, including cancer susceptibility, in light of recent discoveries. Situations in which mutations and epimutations occur to serve analogous purposes are highlighted.

  4. Mutations in the putative calcium-binding domain of polyomavirus VP1 affect capsid assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, J. I. 2nd; Chang, D.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Calcium ions appear to play a major role in maintaining the structural integrity of the polyomavirus and are likely involved in the processes of viral uncoating and assembly. Previous studies demonstrated that a VP1 fragment extending from Pro-232 to Asp-364 has calcium-binding capabilities. This fragment contains an amino acid stretch from Asp-266 to Glu-277 which is quite similar in sequence to the amino acids that make up the calcium-binding EF hand structures found in many proteins. To assess the contribution of this domain to polyomavirus structural integrity, the effects of mutations in this region were examined by transfecting mutated viral DNA into susceptible cells. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that although viral protein synthesis occurred normally, infective viral progeny were not produced in cells transfected with polyomavirus genomes encoding either a VP1 molecule lacking amino acids Thr-262 through Gly-276 or a VP1 molecule containing a mutation of Asp-266 to Ala. VP1 molecules containing the deletion mutation were unable to bind 45Ca in an in vitro assay. Upon expression in Escherichia coli and purification by immunoaffinity chromatography, wild-type VP1 was isolated as pentameric, capsomere-like structures which could be induced to form capsid-like structures upon addition of CaCl2, consistent with previous studies. However, although VP1 containing the point mutation was isolated as pentamers which were indistinguishable from wild-type VP1 pentamers, addition of CaCl2 did not result in their assembly into capsid-like structures. Immunogold labeling and electron microscopy studies of transfected mammalian cells provided in vivo evidence that a mutation in this region affects the process of viral assembly.

  5. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (TAAD)-causing Mutation in Actin Affects Formin Regulation of Polymerization*

    PubMed Central

    Malloy, Lindsey E.; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; Pierick, Alyson R.; Wedemeyer, Elesa W.; Bergeron, Sarah E.; Vanderpool, Nicole D.; McKane, Melissa; Rubenstein, Peter A.; Bartlett, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    More than 30 mutations in ACTA2, which encodes α-smooth muscle actin, have been identified to cause autosomal dominant thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. The mutation R256H is of particular interest because it also causes patent ductus arteriosus and moyamoya disease. R256H is one of the more prevalent mutations and, based on its molecular location near the strand-strand interface in the actin filament, may affect F-actin stability. To understand the molecular ramifications of the R256H mutation, we generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells expressing only R256H yeast actin as a model system. These cells displayed abnormal cytoskeletal morphology and increased sensitivity to latrunculin A. After cable disassembly induced by transient exposure to latrunculin A, mutant cells were delayed in reestablishing the actin cytoskeleton. In vitro, mutant actin exhibited a higher than normal critical concentration and a delayed nucleation. Consequently, we investigated regulation of mutant actin by formin, a potent facilitator of nucleation and a protein needed for normal vascular smooth muscle cell development. Mutant actin polymerization was inhibited by the FH1-FH2 fragment of the yeast formin, Bni1. This fragment strongly capped the filament rather than facilitating polymerization. Interestingly, phalloidin or the presence of wild type actin reversed the strong capping behavior of Bni1. Together, the data suggest that the R256H actin mutation alters filament conformation resulting in filament instability and misregulation by formin. These biochemical effects may contribute to abnormal histology identified in diseased arterial samples from affected patients. PMID:22753406

  6. Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAAD)-causing mutation in actin affects formin regulation of polymerization.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Lindsey E; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; Pierick, Alyson R; Wedemeyer, Elesa W; Bergeron, Sarah E; Vanderpool, Nicole D; McKane, Melissa; Rubenstein, Peter A; Bartlett, Heather L

    2012-08-17

    More than 30 mutations in ACTA2, which encodes α-smooth muscle actin, have been identified to cause autosomal dominant thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. The mutation R256H is of particular interest because it also causes patent ductus arteriosus and moyamoya disease. R256H is one of the more prevalent mutations and, based on its molecular location near the strand-strand interface in the actin filament, may affect F-actin stability. To understand the molecular ramifications of the R256H mutation, we generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells expressing only R256H yeast actin as a model system. These cells displayed abnormal cytoskeletal morphology and increased sensitivity to latrunculin A. After cable disassembly induced by transient exposure to latrunculin A, mutant cells were delayed in reestablishing the actin cytoskeleton. In vitro, mutant actin exhibited a higher than normal critical concentration and a delayed nucleation. Consequently, we investigated regulation of mutant actin by formin, a potent facilitator of nucleation and a protein needed for normal vascular smooth muscle cell development. Mutant actin polymerization was inhibited by the FH1-FH2 fragment of the yeast formin, Bni1. This fragment strongly capped the filament rather than facilitating polymerization. Interestingly, phalloidin or the presence of wild type actin reversed the strong capping behavior of Bni1. Together, the data suggest that the R256H actin mutation alters filament conformation resulting in filament instability and misregulation by formin. These biochemical effects may contribute to abnormal histology identified in diseased arterial samples from affected patients. PMID:22753406

  7. Mendelian and non-mendelian mutations affecting surface antigen expression in Paramecium tetraurelia

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, L.M.; Forney, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    A screening procedure was devised for the isolation of X-ray-induced mutations affecting the expression of the A immobilization antigen (i-antigen) in Paramecium tetraurelia. Two of the mutations isolated by this procedure proved to be in modifier genes. The two genes are unlinked to each other and unlinked to the structural A i-antigen gene. These are the first modifier genes identified in a Paramecium sp. that affect surface antigen expression. Another mutation was found to be a deletion of sequences just downstream from the A i-antigen gene. In cells carrying this mutation, the A i-antigen gene lies in close proximity to the end of a macronuclear chromosome. The expression of the A i-antigen is not affected in these cells, demonstrating that downstream sequences are not important for the regulation and expression of the A i-antigen gene. A stable cell line was also recovered which shows non-Mendelian inheritance of a macronuclear deletion of the A i-antigen gene. This mutant does not contain the gene in its macronucleus, but contains a complete copy of the gene in its micronucleus. In the cytoplasm of wild-type animals, the micronuclear gene is included in the developing macronucleus; in the cytoplasm of the mutant, the incorporation of the A i-antigen gene into the macronucleus is inhibited. This is the first evidence that a mechanism is available in ciliates to control the expression of a gene by regulating its incorporation into developing macronuclei.

  8. Mutations in SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION1, a Factor Required for Normal Chloroplast Translation, Suppress var2-Mediated Leaf Variegation in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Liu, Xiayan; Alsheikh, Muath; Park, Sungsoon; Rodermel, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana yellow variegated2 (var2) mutant is variegated due to lack of a chloroplast FtsH-like metalloprotease (FtsH2/VAR2). We have generated suppressors of var2 variegation to gain insight into factors and pathways that interact with VAR2 during chloroplast biogenesis. Here, we describe two such suppressors. Suppression of variegation in the first line, TAG-FN, was caused by disruption of the nuclear gene (SUPPRESSOR OF VARIEGATION1 [SVR1]) for a chloroplast-localized homolog of pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase, which isomerizes uridine to Ψ in noncoding RNAs. svr1 single mutants were epistatic to var2, and they displayed a phenotypic syndrome that included defects in chloroplast rRNA processing, reduced chloroplast translation, reduced chloroplast protein accumulation, and elevated chloroplast mRNA levels. In the second line (TAG-IE), suppression of variegation was caused by a lesion in SVR2, the gene for the ClpR1 subunit of the chloroplast ClpP/R protease. Like svr1, svr2 was epistatic to var2, and clpR1 mutants had a phenotype that resembled svr1. We propose that an impairment of chloroplast translation in TAG-FN and TAG-IE decreased the demand for VAR2 activity during chloroplast biogenesis and that this resulted in the suppression of var2 variegation. Consistent with this hypothesis, var2 variegation was repressed by chemical inhibitors of chloroplast translation. In planta mutagenesis revealed that SVR1 not only played a role in uridine isomerization but that its physical presence was necessary for proper chloroplast rRNA processing. Our data indicate that defects in chloroplast rRNA processing are a common, but not universal, molecular phenotype associated with suppression of var2 variegation. PMID:18599582

  9. Mutations in the clk-1 gene of Caenorhabditis elegans affect developmental and behavioral timing

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.; Boutis, P.; Hekimi, S.

    1995-03-01

    We have identified three allelic, maternal-effect mutations that affect developmental and behavioral timing in Caenorhabditis elegans. They result in a mean lengthening of embryonic and postembryonic development, the cell cycle period and life span, as well as the periods of the defecation, swimming and pumping cycles. These mutants also display a number of additional phenotypes related to timing. For example, the variability in the length of embryonic development is several times larger in the mutants than in the wild type, resulting in the occasional production of mutant embryos developing more rapidly than the most rapidly developing wild-type embryos. In addition, the duration of embryonic development of the mutants, but not of the wild type, depends on the temperature at which their parents were raised. Finally, individual variations in the severity of distinct mutant phenotypes are correlated in a counterintuitive way. For example, the animals with the shortest embryonic development have the longest defecation cycle and those with the longest embryonic development have the shortest defecation cycle. Most of the features affected by these mutations are believed to be controlled by biological clocks, and we therefore call the gene defined by these mutations clk-1, for {open_quotes}abnormal function of biological clocks.{close_quotes} 52 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. WWOX: a fragile tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Schrock, Morgan S.; Huebner, Kay

    2015-01-01

    WWOX, the WW domain-containing oxidoreductase gene at chromosome region 16q23.3-q24.1, spanning chromosomal fragile site FRA16D, encodes the 46 kDa Wwox protein. WWOX is a tumor suppressor that is lost or reduced in expression in a wide variety of cancers, including breast, prostate, ovarian, and lung. The function of WWOX as a tumor suppressor implies that it serves an essential function in the prevention of carcinogenesis. Indeed, in vitro studies show that Wwox protein interacts with many binding partners to regulate cellular apoptosis, proliferation and/or maturation. It has been reported that newborn Wwox knockout mice exhibit nascent osteosarcomas while Wwox+/- mice exhibit increased incidence of spontaneous and induced tumors. Furthermore, absence or reduction of Wwox expression in mouse xenograft models results in increased tumorigenesis, which can be rescued by Wwox re-expression, though there is not universal agreement among investigators regarding the role of Wwox loss in these experimental models. Despite this proposed tumor suppressor function, the overlap of WWOX with FRA16D sensitizes the gene to protein-inactivating deletions caused by replication stress. The high frequency of deletions within the WWOX locus in cancers of various types, without the hallmark protein inactivation-associated mutations of ‘classical’ tumor suppressors, has led to the proposal that WWOX deletions in cancers are passenger events that occur in early cancer progenitor cells due to fragility of the genetic locus, rather than driver events which provide the cancer cell a selective advantage. Recently, a proposed epigenetic cause of chromosomal fragility has suggested a novel mechanism for early fragile site instability and has implications regarding the involvement of tumor suppressor genes at CFSs in cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of the evidence for WWOX as a tumor suppressor gene and put this into the context of fragility associated with the FRA16D

  11. Genetic mapping of hph2, a mutation affecting amino acid transport in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Symula, D J; Shedlovsky, A; Dove, W F

    1997-02-01

    We describe the genetic mapping of hyperphenylal-aninemia 2 (hph2), a recessive mutation in the mouse that causes deficient amino acid transport similar to Hartnup disorder, a human genetic amino acid transport disorder. The hph2 locus was mapped in three separate crosses to identify candidate genes for hph2 and a region of homology in the human genome where we propose the Hartnup Disorder gene might lie. The mutation maps to mouse Chromosome (Chr) 7 distal of the simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) marker D7Mit140 and does not recombine with D7Nds4, an SSLP marker in the fibroblast growth factor 3 (Fgf3) gene. Unexpectedly, the mutant chromosome affects recombination frequency in the D7Mit12 to D7Nds4 interval. PMID:9060407

  12. A Point Mutation within the Replicase Gene Differentially Affects Coronavirus Genome versus Minigenome Replication

    PubMed Central

    Galán, Carmen; Enjuanes, Luis; Almazán, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    During the construction of the transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) full-length cDNA clone, a point mutation at position 637 that was present in the defective minigenome DI-C was maintained as a genetic marker. Sequence analysis of the recovered viruses showed a reversion at this position to the original virus sequence. The effect of point mutations at nucleotide 637 was analyzed by reverse genetics using a TGEV full-length cDNA clone and cDNAs from TGEV-derived minigenomes. The replacement of nucleotide 637 of TGEV genome by a T, as in the DI-C sequence, or an A severely affected virus recovery from the cDNA, yielding mutant viruses with low titers and small plaques compared to those of the wild type. In contrast, T or A at position 637 was required for minigenome rescue in trans by the helper virus. No relationship between these observations and RNA secondary-structure predictions was found, indicating that mutations at nucleotide 637 most likely had an effect at the protein level. Nucleotide 637 occupies the second codon position at amino acid 108 of the pp1a polyprotein. This position is predicted to map in the N-terminal polyprotein papain-like proteinase (PLP-1) cleavage site at the p9/p87 junction. Replacement of G-637 by A, which causes a drastic amino acid change (Gly to Asp) at position 108, affected PLP-1-mediated cleavage in vitro. A correlation was found between predicted cleaving and noncleaving mutations and efficient virus rescue from cDNA and minigenome amplification, respectively. PMID:16306572

  13. Genetic and molecular analysis of eight tRNA(Trp) amber suppressors in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Kondo, K; Makovec, B; Waterston, R H; Hodgkin, J

    1990-09-01

    Over 100 revertants of five different amber mutants were analyzed by Southern blot hybridization using synthetic oligomers as probes to detect a single base change at the anticodon, CCA to CTA (amber), of tRNA(Trp) genes of Caenohrabditis elegans. Of the 12 members of the tRNA(Trp) gene family, a total of eight were converted to amber suppressor alleles. All eight encode identical tRNAs; three of these are new tRNA(Trp) suppressors, sup-21, sup-33 and sup-34. Previous results had suggested that individual suppressor tRNA genes were expressed differentially in a cell-type- or developmental stage-specific manner. To extend these observations to the new genes and to test the specificity of expression against additional genes, cross suppression tests of these eight amber suppressors were carried out against amber mutations in several different genes including genes likely to be expressed in the same cell-type: three nervous system-affecting genes, two muscle structure-affecting genes and two genes presumed to be expressed in hypodermis. Seven out of eight suppressors could be distinguished one from another by the spectrum of their suppression efficiencies. These results also provide further evidence of cell-type-specific patterns of expression in the nervous system, muscle and hypodermis. The suppression pattern of the suppressor against the two muscle-affecting genes, unc-15 and unc-52, suggested that either the suppressors are expressed in a developmental stage-specific manner or that the unc-52 products are expressed in cell-types other than muscle, possibly hypodermis. PMID:2398498

  14. Epilepsy due to PNPO mutations: genotype, environment and treatment affect presentation and outcome.

    PubMed

    Mills, Philippa B; Camuzeaux, Stephane S M; Footitt, Emma J; Mills, Kevin A; Gissen, Paul; Fisher, Laura; Das, Krishna B; Varadkar, Sophia M; Zuberi, Sameer; McWilliam, Robert; Stödberg, Tommy; Plecko, Barbara; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Maier, Oliver; Calvert, Sophie; Riney, Kate; Wolf, Nicole I; Livingston, John H; Bala, Pronab; Morel, Chantal F; Feillet, François; Raimondi, Francesco; Del Giudice, Ennio; Chong, W Kling; Pitt, Matthew; Clayton, Peter T

    2014-05-01

    The first described patients with pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency all had neonatal onset seizures that did not respond to treatment with pyridoxine but responded to treatment with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Our data suggest, however, that the clinical spectrum of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency is much broader than has been reported in the literature. Sequencing of the PNPO gene was undertaken for a cohort of 82 individuals who had shown a reduction in frequency and severity of seizures in response to pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Novel sequence changes were studied using a new cell-free expression system and a mass spectrometry-based assay for pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase. Three groups of patients with PNPO mutations that had reduced enzyme activity were identified: (i) patients with neonatal onset seizures responding to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (n = 6); (ii) a patient with infantile spasms (onset 5 months) responsive to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (n = 1); and (iii) patients with seizures starting under 3 months of age responding to pyridoxine (n = 8). Data suggest that certain genotypes (R225H/C and D33V) are more likely to result in seizures that to respond to treatment with pyridoxine. Other mutations seem to be associated with infertility, miscarriage and prematurity. However, the situation is clearly complex with the same combination of mutations being seen in patients who responded and did not respond to pyridoxine. It is possible that pyridoxine responsiveness in PNPO deficiency is affected by prematurity and age at the time of the therapeutic trial. Other additional factors that are likely to influence treatment response and outcome include riboflavin status and how well the foetus has been supplied with vitamin B6 by the mother. For some patients there was a worsening of symptoms on changing from pyridoxine to pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Many of the mutations in PNPO affected residues involved in binding flavin mononucleotide or

  15. Epilepsy due to PNPO mutations: genotype, environment and treatment affect presentation and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Philippa B.; Camuzeaux, Stephane S.M.; Footitt, Emma J.; Mills, Kevin A.; Gissen, Paul; Fisher, Laura; Das, Krishna B.; Varadkar, Sophia M.; Zuberi, Sameer; McWilliam, Robert; Stödberg, Tommy; Plecko, Barbara; Baumgartner, Matthias R.; Maier, Oliver; Calvert, Sophie; Riney, Kate; Wolf, Nicole I.; Livingston, John H.; Bala, Pronab; Morel, Chantal F.; Feillet, François; Raimondi, Francesco; Del Giudice, Ennio; Chong, W. Kling; Pitt, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The first described patients with pyridox(am)ine 5’-phosphate oxidase deficiency all had neonatal onset seizures that did not respond to treatment with pyridoxine but responded to treatment with pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Our data suggest, however, that the clinical spectrum of pyridox(am)ine 5’-phosphate oxidase deficiency is much broader than has been reported in the literature. Sequencing of the PNPO gene was undertaken for a cohort of 82 individuals who had shown a reduction in frequency and severity of seizures in response to pyridoxine or pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Novel sequence changes were studied using a new cell-free expression system and a mass spectrometry-based assay for pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase. Three groups of patients with PNPO mutations that had reduced enzyme activity were identified: (i) patients with neonatal onset seizures responding to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (n = 6); (ii) a patient with infantile spasms (onset 5 months) responsive to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (n = 1); and (iii) patients with seizures starting under 3 months of age responding to pyridoxine (n = 8). Data suggest that certain genotypes (R225H/C and D33V) are more likely to result in seizures that to respond to treatment with pyridoxine. Other mutations seem to be associated with infertility, miscarriage and prematurity. However, the situation is clearly complex with the same combination of mutations being seen in patients who responded and did not respond to pyridoxine. It is possible that pyridoxine responsiveness in PNPO deficiency is affected by prematurity and age at the time of the therapeutic trial. Other additional factors that are likely to influence treatment response and outcome include riboflavin status and how well the foetus has been supplied with vitamin B6 by the mother. For some patients there was a worsening of symptoms on changing from pyridoxine to pyridoxal 5’-phosphate. Many of the mutations in PNPO affected residues involved in binding flavin

  16. Identification of a mutation affecting an alanine-alpha-ketoisovalerate transaminase activity in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, J O

    1979-10-01

    A mutation affecting alanine-alpha-ketoisovalerate transaminase activity has been shown to be cotransducible with ilv gene cluster. The transaminase deficiency results in conditional isoleucine auxotrophy in the presence of alanine. PMID:396446

  17. A Point Mutation in Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling 2 (Socs2) Increases the Susceptibility to Inflammation of the Mammary Gland while Associated with Higher Body Weight and Size and Higher Milk Production in a Sheep Model

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Rachel; Senin, Pavel; Sarry, Julien; Allain, Charlotte; Tasca, Christian; Ligat, Laeticia; Portes, David; Woloszyn, Florent; Bouchez, Olivier; Tabouret, Guillaume; Lebastard, Mathieu; Caubet, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Mastitis is an infectious disease mainly caused by bacteria invading the mammary gland. Genetic control of susceptibility to mastitis has been widely evidenced in dairy ruminants, but the genetic basis and underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. We describe the discovery, fine mapping and functional characterization of a genetic variant associated with elevated milk leukocytes count, or SCC, as a proxy for mastitis. After implementing genome-wide association studies, we identified a major QTL associated with SCC on ovine chromosome 3. Fine mapping of the region, using full sequencing with 12X coverage in three animals, provided one strong candidate SNP that mapped to the coding sequence of a highly conserved gene, suppressor of cytokine signalling 2 (Socs2). The frequency of the SNP associated with increased SCC was 21.7% and the Socs2 genotype explained 12% of the variance of the trait. The point mutation induces the p.R96C substitution in the SH2 functional domain of SOCS2 i.e. the binding site of the protein to various ligands, as well-established for the growth hormone receptor GHR. Using surface plasmon resonance we showed that the p.R96C point mutation completely abrogates SOCS2 binding affinity for the phosphopeptide of GHR. Additionally, the size, weight and milk production in p.R96C homozygote sheep, were significantly increased by 24%, 18%, and 4.4%, respectively, when compared to wild type sheep, supporting the view that the point mutation causes a loss of SOCS2 functional activity. Altogether these results provide strong evidence for a causal mutation controlling SCC in sheep and highlight the major role of SOCS2 as a tradeoff between the host’s inflammatory response to mammary infections, and body growth and milk production, which are all mediated by the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. PMID:26658352

  18. A Point Mutation in Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling 2 (Socs2) Increases the Susceptibility to Inflammation of the Mammary Gland while Associated with Higher Body Weight and Size and Higher Milk Production in a Sheep Model.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Rachel; Senin, Pavel; Sarry, Julien; Allain, Charlotte; Tasca, Christian; Ligat, Laeticia; Portes, David; Woloszyn, Florent; Bouchez, Olivier; Tabouret, Guillaume; Lebastard, Mathieu; Caubet, Cécile; Foucras, Gilles; Tosser-Klopp, Gwenola

    2015-12-01

    Mastitis is an infectious disease mainly caused by bacteria invading the mammary gland. Genetic control of susceptibility to mastitis has been widely evidenced in dairy ruminants, but the genetic basis and underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. We describe the discovery, fine mapping and functional characterization of a genetic variant associated with elevated milk leukocytes count, or SCC, as a proxy for mastitis. After implementing genome-wide association studies, we identified a major QTL associated with SCC on ovine chromosome 3. Fine mapping of the region, using full sequencing with 12X coverage in three animals, provided one strong candidate SNP that mapped to the coding sequence of a highly conserved gene, suppressor of cytokine signalling 2 (Socs2). The frequency of the SNP associated with increased SCC was 21.7% and the Socs2 genotype explained 12% of the variance of the trait. The point mutation induces the p.R96C substitution in the SH2 functional domain of SOCS2 i.e. the binding site of the protein to various ligands, as well-established for the growth hormone receptor GHR. Using surface plasmon resonance we showed that the p.R96C point mutation completely abrogates SOCS2 binding affinity for the phosphopeptide of GHR. Additionally, the size, weight and milk production in p.R96C homozygote sheep, were significantly increased by 24%, 18%, and 4.4%, respectively, when compared to wild type sheep, supporting the view that the point mutation causes a loss of SOCS2 functional activity. Altogether these results provide strong evidence for a causal mutation controlling SCC in sheep and highlight the major role of SOCS2 as a tradeoff between the host's inflammatory response to mammary infections, and body growth and milk production, which are all mediated by the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. PMID:26658352

  19. Human CalDAG-GEFI gene (RASGRP2) mutation affects platelet function and causes severe bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Canault, Matthias; Ghalloussi, Dorsaf; Grosdidier, Charlotte; Guinier, Marie; Perret, Claire; Chelghoum, Nadjim; Germain, Marine; Raslova, Hana; Peiretti, Franck; Morange, Pierre E.; Saut, Noemie; Pillois, Xavier; Nurden, Alan T.; Cambien, François; Pierres, Anne; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Tregouet, David-Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The nature of an inherited platelet disorder was investigated in three siblings affected by severe bleeding. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified the culprit mutation (cG742T) in the RAS guanyl-releasing protein-2 (RASGRP2) gene coding for calcium- and DAG-regulated guanine exchange factor-1 (CalDAG-GEFI). Platelets from individuals carrying the mutation present a reduced ability to activate Rap1 and to perform proper αIIbβ3 integrin inside-out signaling. Expression of CalDAG-GEFI mutant in HEK293T cells abolished Rap1 activation upon stimulation. Nevertheless, the PKC- and ADP-dependent pathways allow residual platelet activation in the absence of functional CalDAG-GEFI. The mutation impairs the platelet’s ability to form thrombi under flow and spread normally as a consequence of reduced Rac1 GTP-binding. Functional deficiencies were confined to platelets and megakaryocytes with no leukocyte alteration. This contrasts with the phenotype seen in type III leukocyte adhesion deficiency caused by the absence of kindlin-3. Heterozygous did not suffer from bleeding and have normal platelet aggregation; however, their platelets mimicked homozygous ones by failing to undergo normal adhesion under flow and spreading. Rescue experiments on cultured patient megakaryocytes corrected the functional deficiency after transfection with wild-type RASGRP2. Remarkably, the presence of a single normal allele is sufficient to prevent bleeding, making CalDAG-GEFI a novel and potentially safe therapeutic target to prevent thrombosis. PMID:24958846

  20. Recombination affects accumulation of damaging and disease-associated mutations in human populations.

    PubMed

    Hussin, Julie G; Hodgkinson, Alan; Idaghdour, Youssef; Grenier, Jean-Christophe; Goulet, Jean-Philippe; Gbeha, Elias; Hip-Ki, Elodie; Awadalla, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Many decades of theory have demonstrated that, in non-recombining systems, slightly deleterious mutations accumulate non-reversibly, potentially driving the extinction of many asexual species. Non-recombining chromosomes in sexual organisms are thought to have degenerated in a similar fashion; however, it is not clear the extent to which damaging mutations accumulate along chromosomes with highly variable rates of crossing over. Using high-coverage sequencing data from over 1,400 individuals in the 1000 Genomes and CARTaGENE projects, we show that recombination rate modulates the distribution of putatively deleterious variants across the entire human genome. Exons in regions of low recombination are significantly enriched for deleterious and disease-associated variants, a signature varying in strength across worldwide human populations with different demographic histories. Regions with low recombination rates are enriched for highly conserved genes with essential cellular functions and show an excess of mutations with demonstrated effects on health, a phenomenon likely affecting disease susceptibility in humans. PMID:25685891

  1. Mutations Affecting the Trna-Splicing Endonuclease Activity of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Winey, M.; Culbertson, M. R.

    1988-01-01

    Two unlinked mutations that alter the enzyme activity of tRNA-splicing endonuclease have been identified in yeast. The sen1-1 mutation, which maps on chromosome 12, causes temperature-sensitive growth, reduced in vitro endonuclease activity, and in vivo accumulation of unspliced pre-tRNAs. The sen2-1 mutation does not confer a detectable growth defect, but causes a temperature-dependent reduction of in vitro endonuclease activity. Pre-tRNAs do not accumulate in sen2-1 strains. The in vitro enzyme activities of sen1-1 and sen2-1 complement in extracts from a heterozygous diploid, but fail to complement in mixed extracts from separate sen1-1 and sen2-1 haploid strains. These results suggest a direct role for SEN gene products in the enzymatic removal of introns from tRNA that is distinct from the role of other products known to affect tRNA splicing. PMID:3284787

  2. Mutations in the white gene of Drosophila melanogaster affecting ABC transporters that determine eye colouration.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, S M; Brooker, M R; Gill, T R; Cox, G B; Howells, A J; Ewart, G D

    1999-07-15

    The white, brown and scarlet genes of Drosophila melanogaster encode proteins which transport guanine or tryptophan (precursors of the red and brown eye colour pigments) and belong to the ABC transporter superfamily. Current models envisage that the white and brown gene products interact to form a guanine specific transporter, while white and scarlet gene products interact to form a tryptophan transporter. In this study, we report the nucleotide sequence of the coding regions of five white alleles isolated from flies with partially pigmented eyes. In all cases, single amino acid changes were identified, highlighting residues with roles in structure and/or function of the transporters. Mutations in w(cf) (G589E) and w(sat) (F590G) occur at the extracellular end of predicted transmembrane helix 5 and correlate with a major decrease in red pigments in the eyes, while brown pigments are near wild-type levels. Therefore, those residues have a more significant role in the guanine transporter than the tryptophan transporter. Mutations identified in w(crr) (H298N) and w(101) (G243S) affect amino acids which are highly conserved among the ABC transporter superfamily within the nucleotide binding domain. Both cause substantial and similar decreases of red and brown pigments indicating that both tryptophan and guanine transport are impaired. The mutation identified in w(Et87) alters an amino acid within an intracellular loop between transmembrane helices 2 and 3 of the predicted structure. Red and brown pigments are reduced to very low levels by this mutation indicating this loop region is important for the function of both guanine and tryptophan transporters. PMID:10407069

  3. Mutations in SGOL1 cause a novel cohesinopathy affecting heart and gut rhythm.

    PubMed

    Chetaille, Philippe; Preuss, Christoph; Burkhard, Silja; Côté, Jean-Marc; Houde, Christine; Castilloux, Julie; Piché, Jessica; Gosset, Natacha; Leclerc, Séverine; Wünnemann, Florian; Thibeault, Maryse; Gagnon, Carmen; Galli, Antonella; Tuck, Elizabeth; Hickson, Gilles R; El Amine, Nour; Boufaied, Ines; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; de Santa Barbara, Pascal; Faure, Sandrine; Jonzon, Anders; Cameron, Michel; Dietz, Harry C; Gallo-McFarlane, Elena; Benson, D Woodrow; Moreau, Claudia; Labuda, Damian; Zhan, Shing H; Shen, Yaoqing; Jomphe, Michèle; Jones, Steven J M; Bakkers, Jeroen; Andelfinger, Gregor

    2014-11-01

    The pacemaking activity of specialized tissues in the heart and gut results in lifelong rhythmic contractions. Here we describe a new syndrome characterized by Chronic Atrial and Intestinal Dysrhythmia, termed CAID syndrome, in 16 French Canadians and 1 Swede. We show that a single shared homozygous founder mutation in SGOL1, a component of the cohesin complex, causes CAID syndrome. Cultured dermal fibroblasts from affected individuals showed accelerated cell cycle progression, a higher rate of senescence and enhanced activation of TGF-β signaling. Karyotypes showed the typical railroad appearance of a centromeric cohesion defect. Tissues derived from affected individuals displayed pathological changes in both the enteric nervous system and smooth muscle. Morpholino-induced knockdown of sgol1 in zebrafish recapitulated the abnormalities seen in humans with CAID syndrome. Our findings identify CAID syndrome as a novel generalized dysrhythmia, suggesting a new role for SGOL1 and the cohesin complex in mediating the integrity of human cardiac and gut rhythm. PMID:25282101

  4. Identification of Destabilizing and Stabilizing Mutations of Ste2p, a G Protein Coupled Receptor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Zuber, Jeffrey; Danial, Shairy Azmy; Connelly, Sara M.; Naider, Fred; Dumont, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The isolation of mutations affecting the stabilities of transmembrane proteins is useful for enhancing the suitability of proteins for structural characterization and for identification of determinants of membrane protein stability. We have pursued a strategy for identification of stabilized variants of the yeast α-factor receptor Ste2p. Because it was not possible to screen directly for mutations providing thermal stabilization, we first isolated a battery of destabilized temperature sensitive variants, based on loss of signaling function and decreased binding of fluorescent ligand, then screened for intragenic second-site suppressors of these phenotypes. The initial screens recovered singly and multiply substituted mutations conferring temperature sensitivity throughout the predicted transmembrane helices of the receptor. All of the singly-substituted variants exhibit decreases in cell-surface expression. We then screened randomly mutagenized libraries of clones expressing temperature sensitive variants for second-site suppressors that restore elevated levels of binding sites for fluorescent ligand. To determine whether any of these were global suppressors, and thus likely stabilizing mutations, they were combined with different temperature sensitive mutations. Eight of the suppressors exhibited the ability to reverse the defect in ligand binding of multiple temperature sensitive mutations. Combining certain of the suppressors into a single allele resulted in greater levels of suppression than was seen with either suppressor alone. Solubilized receptors containing suppressor mutations in the absence of temperature sensitive mutations exhibit a reduced tendency to aggregate during immobilization on an affinity matrix. Several of the suppressors also exhibit allele-specific behavior indicative of specific intramolecular interactions in the receptor. PMID:25647246

  5. Somatic mutation of GRIN2A in malignant melanoma results in loss of tumor suppressor activity via aberrant NMDAR complex formation.

    PubMed

    Prickett, Todd D; Zerlanko, Brad J; Hill, Victoria K; Gartner, Jared J; Qutob, Nouar; Jiang, Jiji; Simaan, May; Wunderlich, John; Gutkind, J Silvio; Rosenberg, Steven A; Samuels, Yardena

    2014-09-01

    The ionotropic glutamate receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs)) are composed of large complexes of multi-protein subunits creating ion channels in the cell plasma membranes that allow for influx or efflux of mono- or divalent cations (e.g., Ca(2+)) important for synaptic transmissions, cellular migration, and survival. Recently, we discovered the high prevalence of somatic mutations within one of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, GRIN2A, in malignant melanoma. Functional characterization of a subset of GRIN2A mutants demonstrated a loss of NMDAR complex formation between GRIN1 and GRIN2A, increased anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and increased migration. Somatic mutation of GRIN2A results in a dominant negative effect inhibiting the tumor-suppressive phenotype of wild-type (WT) GRIN2A in melanoma. Depletion of endogenous GRIN2A in melanoma cells expressing WT GRIN2A resulted in increased proliferation compared with control. In contrast, short-hairpin RNA depletion of GRIN2A in mutant cell lines slightly reduced proliferation. Our data show that somatic mutation of GRIN2A results in increased survival, and we demonstrate the functional importance of GRIN2A mutations in melanoma and the significance that ionotropic glutamate receptor signaling has in malignant melanoma. PMID:24739903

  6. Rare Mutations of CACNB2 Found in Autism Spectrum Disease-Affected Families Alter Calcium Channel Function

    PubMed Central

    Breitenkamp, Alexandra F. S.; Matthes, Jan; Nass, Robert Daniel; Sinzig, Judith; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Nürnberg, Peter; Herzig, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental diseases clinically defined by dysfunction of social interaction. Dysregulation of cellular calcium homeostasis might be involved in ASD pathogenesis, and genes coding for the L-type calcium channel subunits CaV1.2 (CACNA1C) and CaVβ2 (CACNB2) were recently identified as risk loci for psychiatric diseases. Here, we present three rare missense mutations of CACNB2 (G167S, S197F, and F240L) found in ASD-affected families, two of them described here for the first time (G167S and F240L). All these mutations affect highly conserved regions while being absent in a sample of ethnically matched controls. We suggest the mutations to be of physiological relevance since they modulate whole-cell Ba2+ currents through calcium channels when expressed in a recombinant system (HEK-293 cells). Two mutations displayed significantly decelerated time-dependent inactivation as well as increased sensitivity of voltage-dependent inactivation. In contrast, the third mutation (F240L) showed significantly accelerated time-dependent inactivation. By altering the kinetic parameters, the mutations are reminiscent of the CACNA1C mutation causing Timothy Syndrome, a Mendelian disease presenting with ASD. In conclusion, the results of our first-time biophysical characterization of these three rare CACNB2 missense mutations identified in ASD patients support the hypothesis that calcium channel dysfunction may contribute to autism. PMID:24752249

  7. The transcriptional activities and cellular localization of the human estrogen receptor alpha are affected by the synonymous Ala87 mutation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Calero, Tamara; Astrada, Soledad; Alberti, Alvaro; Horjales, Sofía; Arnal, Jean Francois; Rovira, Carlos; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Flouriot, Gilles; Marin, Mónica

    2014-09-01

    Until recently, synonymous mutations (which do not change amino acids) have been much neglected. Some evidence suggests that this kind of mutations could affect mRNA secondary structure or stability, translation kinetics and protein structure. To explore deeper the role of synonymous mutations, we studied their consequence on the functional activity of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). The ERα is a ligand-inducible transcription factor that orchestrates pleiotropic cellular effects, at both genomic and non-genomic levels in response to estrogens. In this work we analyzed in transient transfection experiments, the activity of ERα carrying the synonymous mutation Ala87, a polymorphism involving about 5-10% of the population. In comparison to the wild type receptor, our results show that ERαA87 mutation reduces the transactivation efficiency of ERα on an ERE reporter gene while its expression level remains similar. This mutation enhances 4-OHT-induced transactivation of ERα on an AP1 reporter gene. Finally, the mutation affects the subcellular localization of ERα in a cell type specific manner. It enhances the cytoplasmic location of ERα without significant changes in non-genomic effects of E2. The functional alteration of the ERαA87 determined in this work highlights the relevance of synonymous mutations for biomedical and pharmacological points of view. PMID:24607813

  8. Mutations of the Drosophila Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Affect Courtship Song and Reduce Reproductive Success

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Samya; Vu, Hien; Foelber, Veronica; Vigoreaux, Jim O.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila indirect flight muscles (IFM) rely on an enhanced stretch-activation response to generate high power output for flight. The IFM is neurally activated during the male courtship song, but its role, if any, in generating the small amplitude wing vibrations that produce the song is not known. Here, we examined the courtship song properties and mating behavior of three mutant strains of the myosin regulatory light chain (DMLC2) that are known to affect IFM contractile properties and impair flight: (i) Dmlc2Δ2–46 (Ext), an N-terminal extension truncation; (ii) Dmlc2S66A,S67A (Phos), a disruption of two MLC kinase phosphorylation sites; and (iii) Dmlc2Δ2–46;S66A,S67A (Dual), expressing both mutations. Our results show that the Dmlc2 gene is pleiotropic and that mutations that have a profound effect on flight mechanics (Phos and Dual) have minimal effects on courtship song. None of the mutations affect interpulse interval (IPI), a determinant of species-specific song, and intrapulse frequency (IPF) compared to Control (Dmlc2+ rescued null strain). However, abnormalities in the sine song (increased frequency) and the pulse song (increased cycles per pulse and pulse length) evident in Ext males are not apparent in Dual males suggesting that Ext and Phos interact differently in song and flight mechanics, given their known additive effect on the latter. All three mutant males produce a less vigorous pulse song and exhibit impaired mating behavior compared to Control males. As a result, females are less receptive to Ext, Phos, and Dual males when a Control male is present. These results open the possibility that DMLC2, and perhaps contractile protein genes in general, are partly under sexual selection. That mutations in DMLC2 manifest differently in song and flight suggest that this protein fulfills different roles in song and flight and that stretch activation plays a smaller role in song production than in flight. PMID:24587213

  9. Clinical and structural impact of mutations affecting the residue Phe367 of FOXP3 in patients with IPEX syndrome.

    PubMed

    Colobran, Roger; Álvarez de la Campa, Elena; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; Pujol-Borrell, Ricardo; de la Cruz, Xavier; Martínez-Gallo, Mónica

    2016-02-01

    Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is a monogenic autoimmune disease characterized by early-onset life-threatening multisystemic autoimmunity. This rare hereditary disorder is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) transcription factor, which plays a key role in the differentiation and function of CD4(+)CD25(+) natural regulatory T cells (Tregs), essential for the establishment and maintenance of natural tolerance. We identified a novel mutation in the FOXP3 gene affecting the Phe367 residue of the protein (F367V) in a family with three male siblings affected by IPEX. Two other mutations affecting the FOXP3 Phe367 residue (F367L and F367C) have been described previously. This unique situation of three mutations affecting the same residue in FOXP3 led us to study the molecular impact of these mutations on the structure of FOXP3 protein. Structure analysis showed that Phe367 is involved in a rich interaction network related to both monomer and dimer structure stabilization, and is crucial for FOXP3 regulatory activity. The relevance of this location is confirmed by the results of SIFT and PolyPhen-2 pathogenicity predictions for F367V mutation. In summary, as assessment of the pathogenicity of a novel mutation is crucial to achieve a proper molecular diagnosis, we analysed the impact of mutations affecting the Phe367 residue using a combined approach that provides a mechanistic view of their pathogenic effect. PMID:26748374

  10. Mutations in cadherin 23 affect tip links in zebrafish sensory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Söllner, Christian; Rauch, Gerd-Jörg; Siemens, Jan; Geisler, Robert; Schuster, Stephan C; Müller, Ulrich; Nicolson, Teresa

    2004-04-29

    Hair cells have highly organized bundles of apical projections, or stereocilia, that are deflected by sound and movement. Displacement of stereocilia stretches linkages at the tips of stereocilia that are thought to gate mechanosensory channels. To identify the molecular machinery that mediates mechanotransduction in hair cells, zebrafish mutants were identified with defects in balance and hearing. In sputnik mutants, stereociliary bundles are splayed to various degrees, with individuals displaying reduced or absent mechanotransduction. Here we show that the defects in sputnik mutants are caused by mutations in cadherin 23 (cdh23). Mutations in Cdh23 also cause deafness and vestibular defects in mice and humans, and the protein is present in hair bundles. We show that zebrafish Cdh23 protein is concentrated near the tips of hair bundles, and that tip links are absent in homozygous sputnik(tc317e) larvae. Moreover, tip links are absent in larvae carrying weak alleles of cdh23 that affect mechanotransduction but not hair bundle integrity. We conclude that Cdh23 is an essential tip link component required for hair-cell mechanotransduction. PMID:15057246

  11. Glutamine synthetase-constitutive mutation affecting the glnALG upstream promoter of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    León, P; Romero, D; Garciarrubio, A; Bastarrachea, F; Covarrubias, A A

    1985-01-01

    The spontaneous gln-76 mutation of Escherichia coli (Osorio et al., Mol. Gen. Genet. 194:114-123, 1984) was previously shown to be responsible for the cis-dominant constitutive expression of the glnA gene in the absence of a glnG-glnF activator system. Nucleotide sequence analysis has now revealed that gln-76 is a single transversion T.A to A.T, an up-promoter mutation affecting the -10 region of glnAp1, the upstream promoter of the glnALG control region. Both, wild-type and gln-76 DNA control regions were cloned into the promoter-probe plasmid pKO1. Galactokinase activity determinations of cells carrying the fused plasmids showed 10-fold more effective expression mediated by gln-76 than by the glnA wild-type control region. Primer extension experiments with RNA from strains carrying the gln-76 control region indicated that the transcription initiation sites were the same in both the gln-76 mutant and the wild type. Images PMID:2866175

  12. Four novel cystic fibrosis mutations in splice junction sequences affecting the CFTR nucleotide binding folds

    SciTech Connect

    Doerk, T.; Wulbrand, U.; Tuemmler, B. )

    1993-03-01

    Single cases of the four novel splice site mutations 1525[minus]1 G [r arrow] A (intron 9), 3601[minus]2 A [r arrow] G (intron 18), 3850[minus]3 T [r arrow] G (intron 19), and 4374+1 G [r arrow] T (intron 23) were detected in the CFTR gene of cystic fibrosis patients of Indo-Iranian, Turkish, Polish, and Germany descent. The nucleotide substitutions at the +1, [minus]1, and [minus]2 positions all destroy splice sites and lead to severe disease alleles associated with features typical of gastrointestinal and pulmonary cystic fibrosis disease. The 3850[minus]3 T-to-G change was discovered in a very mildly affected 33-year-old [Delta]F508 compound heterozygote, suggesting that the T-to-G transversion at the less conserved [minus]3 position of the acceptor splice site may retain some wildtype function. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Mutation in bovine beta-carotene oxygenase 2 affects milk color.

    PubMed

    Berry, S D; Davis, S R; Beattie, E M; Thomas, N L; Burrett, A K; Ward, H E; Stanfield, A M; Biswas, M; Ankersmit-Udy, A E; Oxley, P E; Barnett, J L; Pearson, J F; van der Does, Y; Macgibbon, A H K; Spelman, R J; Lehnert, K; Snell, R G

    2009-07-01

    beta-Carotene biochemistry is a fundamental process in mammalian biology. Aberrations either through malnutrition or potentially through genetic variation may lead to vitamin A deficiency, which is a substantial public health burden. In addition, understanding the genetic regulation of this process may enable bovine improvement. While many bovine QTL have been reported, few of the causative genes and mutations have been identified. We discovered a QTL for milk beta-carotene and subsequently identified a premature stop codon in bovine beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2), which also affects serum beta-carotene content. The BCO2 enzyme is thereby identified as a key regulator of beta-carotene metabolism. PMID:19398771

  14. Different X-linked KDM5C mutations in affected male siblings: is maternal reversion error involved?

    PubMed

    Fujita, A; Waga, C; Hachiya, Y; Kurihara, E; Kumada, S; Takeshita, E; Nakagawa, E; Inoue, K; Miyatake, S; Tsurusaki, Y; Nakashima, M; Saitsu, H; Goto, Y-I; Miyake, N; Matsumoto, N

    2016-09-01

    Genetic reversion is the phenomenon of spontaneous gene correction by which gene function is partially or completely rescued. However, it is unknown whether this mechanism always correctly repairs mutations, or is prone to error. We investigated a family of three boys with intellectual disability, and among them we identified two different mutations in KDM5C, located at Xp11.22, using whole-exome sequencing. Two affected boys have c.633delG and the other has c.631delC. We also confirmed de novo germline (c.631delC) and low-prevalence somatic (c.633delG) mutations in their mother. The two mutations are present on the same maternal haplotype, suggesting that a postzygotic somatic mutation or a reversion error occurred at an early embryonic stage in the mother, leading to switched KDM5C mutations in the affected siblings. This event is extremely unlikely to arise spontaneously (with an estimated probability of 0.39-7.5 × 10(-28) ), thus a possible reversion error is proposed here to explain this event. This study provides evidence for reversion error as a novel mechanism for the generation of somatic mutations in human diseases. PMID:26919706

  15. A family with a dystrophin gene mutation specifically affecting dystrophin expression in the heart

    SciTech Connect

    Muntoni, F.; Davies, K.; Dubowitz, V.

    1994-09-01

    We recently described a family with X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy where a large deletion in the muscle promoter region of the dystrophin gene was associated with a severe dilated cardiomyopathy in absence of clinical skeletal muscle involvement. The deletion removed the entire muscle promoter region, the first muscle exon and part of intron 1. The brain and Purkinje cell promoters were not affected by the deletion. Despite the lack of both the muscle promoter and the first muscle exon, dystrophin was detected immunocytochemically in relative high levels in the skeletal muscle of the affected males. We have now found that both the brain and Purkinje cell promoters were transcribed at high levels in the skeletal muscle of these individuals. This phenomenon, that does not occur in normal skeletal muscle, indicates that these two isoforms, physiologically expressed mainly in the central nervous system, can be transcribed and be functionally active in skeletal muscle under specific circumstances. Contrary to what is observed in skeletal muscle, dystrophin was not detected in the heart of one affected male using immunocytochemistry and an entire panel of anti-dystrophin antibodies. This was most likely the cause for the pronounced cardiac fibrosis observed and eventually responsible for the severe cardiac involvement invariably seen in seven affected males. In conclusion, the mutation of the muscle promoter, first muscle exon and part of intron 1 specifically affected expression of dystrophin in the heart. We believe that this deletion removes sequences involved in regulation of dystrophin expression in the heart and are at the moment characterizing other families with X-linked cardiomyopathy secondary to a dystrophinopathy.

  16. Balancing Protein Stability and Activity in Cancer: A New Approach for Identifying Driver Mutations Affecting CBL Ubiquitin Ligase Activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Minghui; Kales, Stephen C; Ma, Ke; Shoemaker, Benjamin A; Crespo-Barreto, Juan; Cangelosi, Andrew L; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Panchenko, Anna R

    2016-02-01

    Oncogenic mutations in the monomeric Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl) gene have been found in many tumors, but their significance remains largely unknown. Several human c-Cbl (CBL) structures have recently been solved, depicting the protein at different stages of its activation cycle and thus providing mechanistic insight underlying how stability-activity tradeoffs in cancer-related proteins-may influence disease onset and progression. In this study, we computationally modeled the effects of missense cancer mutations on structures representing four stages of the CBL activation cycle to identify driver mutations that affect CBL stability, binding, and activity. We found that recurrent, homozygous, and leukemia-specific mutations had greater destabilizing effects on CBL states than random noncancer mutations. We further tested the ability of these computational models, assessing the changes in CBL stability and its binding to ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2, by performing blind CBL-mediated EGFR ubiquitination assays in cells. Experimental CBL ubiquitin ligase activity was in agreement with the predicted changes in CBL stability and, to a lesser extent, with CBL-E2 binding affinity. Two thirds of all experimentally tested mutations affected the ubiquitin ligase activity by either destabilizing CBL or disrupting CBL-E2 binding, whereas about one-third of tested mutations were found to be neutral. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that computational methods incorporating multiple protein conformations and stability and binding affinity evaluations can successfully predict the functional consequences of cancer mutations on protein activity, and provide a proof of concept for mutations in CBL. PMID:26676746

  17. Metastasis Suppressor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jinchun; Yang, Qin; Huang, Qihong

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is a major cause of cancer mortality. Metastasis is a complex process that requires the regulation of both metastasis-promoting and metastasis suppressor genes. The discovery of metastasis suppressor genes contributes significantly to our understanding of metastasis mechanisms and provides prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in clinical cancer management. In this review, we summarize the methods that have been used to identify metastasis suppressors and the potential clinical impact of these genes. PMID:23348381

  18. ColE1 plasmid incompatibility: localization and analysis of mutations affecting incompatibility.

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto-Gotoh, T; Inselburg, J

    1979-01-01

    Deletion mutants of plasmid ColE1 that involve the replication origin and adjacent regions of the plasmid have been studied to determine the mechanism by which those mutations affect the expression of plasmid incompatibility. It was observed that (i) a region of ColE1 that is involved in the expression of plasmid incompatibility lies between base pairs -185 and -684; (ii) the integrity of at least part of the region of ColE1 DNA between base pairs -185 and -572 is essential for the expression of ColE1 incompatibility; (iii) the expression of incompatibility is independent of the ability of the ColE1 genome to replicate autonomously; (iv) plasmid incompatibility is affected by plasmid copy number; and (v) ColE1 plasmid-mediated DNA replication of the lambda phage-ColE1 chimera lambda imm434 Oam29 Pam3 ColE1 is inhibited by ColE1-incompatible but not by ColE1-compatible plasmids. Images PMID:378980

  19. Identification of and Molecular Basis for SIRT6 Loss-of-Function Point Mutations in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kugel, Sita; Feldman, Jessica L; Klein, Mark A; Silberman, Dafne M; Sebastián, Carlos; Mermel, Craig; Dobersch, Stephanie; Clark, Abbe R; Getz, Gad; Denu, John M; Mostoslavsky, Raul

    2015-10-20

    Chromatin factors have emerged as the most frequently dysregulated family of proteins in cancer. We have previously identified the histone deacetylase SIRT6 as a key tumor suppressor, yet whether point mutations are selected for in cancer remains unclear. In this manuscript, we characterized naturally occurring patient-derived SIRT6 mutations. Strikingly, all the mutations significantly affected either stability or catalytic activity of SIRT6, indicating that these mutations were selected for in these tumors. Further, the mutant proteins failed to rescue sirt6 knockout (SIRT6 KO) cells, as measured by the levels of histone acetylation at glycolytic genes and their inability to rescue the tumorigenic potential of these cells. Notably, the main activity affected in the mutants was histone deacetylation rather than demyristoylation, pointing to the former as the main tumor-suppressive function for SIRT6. Our results identified cancer-associated point mutations in SIRT6, cementing its function as a tumor suppressor in human cancer. PMID:26456828

  20. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of PTC124, a nonaminoglycoside nonsense mutation suppressor, following single- and multiple-dose administration to healthy male and female adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hirawat, Samit; Welch, Ellen M; Elfring, Gary L; Northcutt, Valerie J; Paushkin, Sergey; Hwang, Seongwoo; Leonard, Eileen M; Almstead, Neil G; Ju, William; Peltz, Stuart W; Miller, Langdon L

    2007-04-01

    Nonsense (premature stop codon) mutations are causative in 5% to 15% of patients with monogenetic inherited disorders. PTC124, a 284-Dalton 1,2,4-oxadiazole, promotes ribosomal readthrough of premature stop codons in mRNA and offers therapeutic potential for multiple genetic diseases. The authors conducted 2 phase I studies of PTC124 in 62 healthy adult volunteers. The initial, single-dose study evaluated doses of 3 to 200 mg/kg and assessed fed-fasting status on pharmacokinetics following a dose of 50 mg/kg. The subsequent multiple-dose study evaluated doses from 10 to 50 mg/kg/dose twice per day (bid) for up to 14 days. PTC124 administered orally as a liquid suspension was palatable and well tolerated through single doses of 100 mg/kg. At 150 and 200 mg/kg, PTC124 induced mild headache, dizziness, and gastrointestinal events. With repeated doses through 50 mg/kg/dose bid, reversible transaminase elevations <2 times the upper limit of normal were sometimes observed. Immunoblot analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cell extracts revealed no protein elongation due to nonspecific ribosomal readthrough of normal stop codons. PTC124 plasma concentrations exceeding the 2- to 10-microg/mL values associated with activity in preclinical genetic disease models were safely achieved. No sex-related differences in pharmacokinetics were seen. No drug accumulation with repeated dosing was apparent. Diurnal variation was observed, with greater PTC124 exposures after evening doses. PTC124 excretion in the urine was <2%. PTC124 pharmacokinetics were described by a 1-compartment model. Collectively, the data support initiation of phase II studies of PTC124 in patients with nonsense mutation-mediated cystic fibrosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. PMID:17389552

  1. Mutations affecting the SAND domain of DEAF1 cause intellectual disability with severe speech impairment and behavioral problems.

    PubMed

    Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Rajamanickam, Shivakumar; Jensik, Philip J; Vergult, Sarah; de Rocker, Nina; Newhall, Kathryn J; Raghavan, Ramya; Reardon, Sara N; Jarrett, Kelsey; McIntyre, Tara; Bulinski, Joseph; Ownby, Stacy L; Huggenvik, Jodi I; McKnight, G Stanley; Rose, Gregory M; Cai, Xiang; Willaert, Andy; Zweier, Christiane; Endele, Sabine; de Ligt, Joep; van Bon, Bregje W M; Lugtenberg, Dorien; de Vries, Petra F; Veltman, Joris A; van Bokhoven, Hans; Brunner, Han G; Rauch, Anita; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Carvill, Gemma L; Hoischen, Alexander; Mefford, Heather C; Eichler, Evan E; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Menten, Björn; Collard, Michael W; de Vries, Bert B A

    2014-05-01

    Recently, we identified in two individuals with intellectual disability (ID) different de novo mutations in DEAF1, which encodes a transcription factor with an important role in embryonic development. To ascertain whether these mutations in DEAF1 are causative for the ID phenotype, we performed targeted resequencing of DEAF1 in an additional cohort of over 2,300 individuals with unexplained ID and identified two additional individuals with de novo mutations in this gene. All four individuals had severe ID with severely affected speech development, and three showed severe behavioral problems. DEAF1 is highly expressed in the CNS, especially during early embryonic development. All four mutations were missense mutations affecting the SAND domain of DEAF1. Altered DEAF1 harboring any of the four amino acid changes showed impaired transcriptional regulation of the DEAF1 promoter. Moreover, behavioral studies in mice with a conditional knockout of Deaf1 in the brain showed memory deficits and increased anxiety-like behavior. Our results demonstrate that mutations in DEAF1 cause ID and behavioral problems, most likely as a result of impaired transcriptional regulation by DEAF1. PMID:24726472

  2. A mosaic genetic screen for Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor genes based on defective pupation.

    PubMed

    Menut, Laurent; Vaccari, Thomas; Dionne, Heather; Hill, Joseph; Wu, Geena; Bilder, David

    2007-11-01

    The Drosophila neoplastic tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) coordinately control cell polarity and proliferation in epithelial and neuronal tissues. While a small group of neoplastic TSG mutations have been isolated and their corresponding genes cloned, the regulatory pathways that normally prevent inappropriate growth remain unclear. Identification of additional neoplastic TSGs may provide insight into this question. We report here the design of an efficient screen for isolating neoplastic TSG mutations utilizing genetically mosaic larvae. This screen is based on a defective pupation phenotype seen when a single pair of imaginal discs is homozygous for a neoplastic TSG mutation, which suggests that continuously proliferating cells can interfere with metamorphosis. Execution of this screen on two chromosome arms led to the identification of mutations in at least seven new neoplastic TSGs. The isolation of additional loci that affect hyperplastic as well as neoplastic growth indicates the utility of this screening strategy for studying epithelial growth control. PMID:17947427

  3. TERT promoter mutations in bladder cancer affect patient survival and disease recurrence through modification by a common polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna; Hosen, Ismail; de Verdier, Petra J; Fallah, Mahdi; Heidenreich, Barbara; Ryk, Charlotta; Wiklund, N Peter; Steineck, Gunnar; Schadendorf, Dirk; Hemminki, Kari; Kumar, Rajiv

    2013-10-22

    The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter, an important element of telomerase expression, has emerged as a target of cancer-specific mutations. Originally described in melanoma, the mutations in TERT promoter have been shown to be common in certain other tumor types that include glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and bladder cancer. To fully define the occurrence and effect of the TERT promoter mutations, we investigated tumors from a well-characterized series of 327 patients with urothelial cell carcinoma of bladder. The somatic mutations, mainly at positions -124 and -146 bp from ATG start site that create binding motifs for E-twenty six/ternary complex factors (Ets/TCF), affected 65.4% of the tumors, with even distribution across different stages and grades. Our data showed that a common polymorphism rs2853669, within a preexisting Ets2 binding site in the TERT promoter, acts as a modifier of the effect of the mutations on survival and tumor recurrence. The patients with the mutations showed poor survival in the absence [hazard ratio (HR) 2.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-4.70] but not in the presence (HR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18-1.01) of the variant allele of the polymorphism. The mutations in the absence of the variant allele were highly associated with the disease recurrence in patients with Tis, Ta, and T1 tumors (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.11-3.08). The TERT promoter mutations are the most common somatic lesions in bladder cancer with clinical implications. The association of the mutations with patient survival and disease recurrence, subject to modification by a common polymorphism, can be a unique putative marker with individualized prognostic potential. PMID:24101484

  4. The localization of FGFR3 mutations causing thanatophoric dysplasia type I differentially affects phosphorylation, processing and ubiquitylation of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Bonaventure, Jacky; Gibbs, Linda; Horne, William C; Baron, Roland

    2007-06-01

    Recurrent missense fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations have been ascribed to skeletal dysplasias of variable severity including the lethal neonatal thanatophoric dysplasia types I (TDI) and II (TDII). To elucidate the role of activating mutations causing TDI on receptor trafficking and endocytosis, a series of four mutants located in different domains of the receptor were generated and transiently expressed. The putatively elongated X807R receptor was identified as three isoforms. The fully glycosylated mature isoform was constitutively but mildly phosphorylated. Similarly, mutations affecting the extracellular domain (R248C and Y373C) induced moderate constitutive receptor phosphorylation. By contrast, the K650M mutation affecting the tyrosine kinase 2 (TK2) domain produced heavy phosphorylation of the nonglycosylated and mannose-rich isoforms that impaired receptor trafficking through the Golgi network. This resulted in defective expression of the mature isoform at the cell surface. Normal processing was rescued by tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Internalization of the R248C and Y373C mutant receptors, which form stable disulfide-bonded dimers at the cell surface was less efficient than the wild-type, whereas ubiquitylation was markedly increased but apparently independent of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl). Constitutive phosphorylation of c-Cbl by the K650M mutant appeared to be related to the intracellular retention of the receptor. Therefore, although mutation K650M affecting the TK2 domain induces defective targeting of the overphosphorylated receptor, a different mechanism characterized by receptor retention at the plasma membrane, excessive ubiquitylation and reduced degradation results from mutations that affect the extracellular domain and the stop codon. PMID:17509076

  5. Mutations Affecting Sexual Conjugation and Related Processes in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. II. Genetic Analysis of Nonmating Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Vivian; Manney, Thomas R.

    1974-01-01

    Rare diploids formed by sterile mutants have been studied by tetrad analysis. Sixteen classes of mutants representing at least five distinct genetic loci have been defined. One group of mutations, isolated only in α, maps at the mating-type locus, while none of the others shows any linkage to mating type. Some of the mutations are nonspecific for mating type, while others act only on a or α. In addition, mutations were found that prevent sporulation when heterozygous in diploids. These appear to be mutations of the mating-type alleles. PMID:4595644

  6. A mutation in the C31 subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase III affects transcription initiation.

    PubMed Central

    Thuillier, V; Stettler, S; Sentenac, A; Thuriaux, P; Werner, M

    1995-01-01

    The C31 subunit belongs to a complex of three subunits (C31, C34 and C82) specific to RNA polymerase (pol) III that have no counterparts in other RNA polymerases. This complex is thought to play a role in transcription initiation since it interacts with the general initiation factor TFIIIB via subunit C34. We have obtained a conditional mutation of pol III by partially deleting the acidic C-terminus of the C31 subunit. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain carrying this truncated C31 subunit is impaired in in vivo transcription of tRNAs and failed to grow at 37 degrees C. This conditional growth phenotype was suppressed by overexpression of the gene coding for the largest subunit of pol III (C160), suggesting an interaction between C160 and C31. The mutant pol III enzyme transcribed non-specific templates at wild-type rates in vitro, but was impaired in its capacity to transcribe tRNA genes in the presence of general initiation factors. Transcription initiation, but not termination or recycling of the enzyme, was affected in the mutant, suggesting that it could be altered on interaction with initiation factors or on the formation of the open complex. Interestingly, the C-terminal deletion was also suppressed by a high gene dosage of the DED1 gene encoding a putative helicase. Images PMID:7835345

  7. Mutations in the CRE pocket of bacterial RNA polymerase affect multiple steps of transcription

    PubMed Central

    Petushkov, Ivan; Pupov, Danil; Bass, Irina; Kulbachinskiy, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    During transcription, the catalytic core of RNA polymerase (RNAP) must interact with the DNA template with low-sequence specificity to ensure efficient enzyme translocation and RNA extension. Unexpectedly, recent structural studies of bacterial promoter complexes revealed specific interactions between the nontemplate DNA strand at the downstream edge of the transcription bubble (CRE, core recognition element) and a protein pocket formed by core RNAP (CRE pocket). We investigated the roles of these interactions in transcription by analyzing point amino acid substitutions and deletions in Escherichia coli RNAP. The mutations affected multiple steps of transcription, including promoter recognition, RNA elongation and termination. In particular, we showed that interactions of the CRE pocket with a nontemplate guanine immediately downstream of the active center stimulate RNA-hairpin-dependent transcription pausing but not other types of pausing. Thus, conformational changes of the elongation complex induced by nascent RNA can modulate CRE effects on transcription. The results highlight the roles of specific core RNAP–DNA interactions at different steps of RNA synthesis and suggest their importance for transcription regulation in various organisms. PMID:25990734

  8. Genetics of mutations affecting the development of a barley floral bract.

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, C; Faccioli, P; Terzi, V; Stanca, A M; Cerioli, S; Castiglioni, P; Fink, R; Capone, R; Müller, K J; Bossinger, G; Rohde, W; Salamini, F

    2000-01-01

    Two groups of mutants that affect the morphology of the lemma, a floral bract of barley, are described. The first comprises phenotypes associated with mutant alleles of calcaroides loci. On the lemma of these mutants, a well-organized neomorphic structure is formed, termed the sac. We provide a morphological description of wild-type (WT) and mutant lemmas, based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), showing that both consist of similar tissues, but that the mutant is characterized by reversed growth polarity. The sac is a unique structure among grasses, and it is remarkable that recessive mutations at five different genetic loci lead to the same organ. The second group of mutants carry recessive alleles of two leafy lemma genes, both of which are necessary to cause the transformation of the lemma into a structure having all characteristics of a vegetative leaf, as shown by SEM analysis. The presence of sheath, blade, and ligule in the mutant lemma suggests that wild-type lemma development is interrupted at a leaf-like stage. The genes cal a, b, C, d, 23, lel1, and lel2 have now been mapped at precise positions on linkage groups 2, 7, 7, 3, 7, 5, and 7, respectively. The mutants considered in this article are unaffected in other floral organs. A model for lemma development is suggested. PMID:10757774

  9. P-Element Insertion Alleles of Essential Genes on the Third Chromosome of Drosophila Melanogaster: Mutations Affecting Embryonic Pns Development

    PubMed Central

    Salzberg, A.; Prokopenko, S. N.; He, Y.; Tsai, P.; Pal, M.; Maroy, P.; Glover, D. M.; Deak, P.; Bellen, H. J.

    1997-01-01

    To identify novel genes and to isolate tagged mutations in known genes that are required for the development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), we have screened a novel collection of 2460 strains carrying lethal or semilethal P-element insertions on the third chromosome. Monoclonal antibody 22C10 was used as a marker to visualize the embryonic PNS. We identified 109 mutant strains that exhibited reproducible phenotypes in the PNS. Cytological and genetic analyses of these strains indicated that 87 mutations affect previously identified genes: tramtrack (n = 18 alleles), string (n = 15), cyclin A (n = 13), single-minded (n = 13), Delta (n = 9), neuralized (n = 4), pointed (n = 4), extra macrochaetae (n = 4), prospero (n = 3), tartan (n = 2), and pebble (n = 2). In addition, 13 mutations affect genes that we identified recently in a chemical mutagenesis screen designed to isolate similar mutants: hearty (n = 3), dorsotonals (n = 2), pavarotti (n = 2), sanpodo (n = 2), dalmatian (n = 1), missensed (n = 1), senseless (n = 1), and sticky ch1 (n = 1). The remaining nine mutations define seven novel complementation groups. The data presented here demonstrate that this collection of P elements will be useful for the identification and cloning of novel genes on the third chromosome, since >70% of mutations identified in the screen are caused by the insertion of a P element. A comparison between this screen and a chemical mutagenesis screen undertaken earlier highlights the complementarity of the two types of genetic screens. PMID:9409832

  10. Genetic and biochemical characterization of mutations affecting the ability of the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus to metabolize D-xylose

    SciTech Connect

    James, A.P.; Zahab, D.M.; Mahmourides, G.; Maleszka, R.; Schneider, H. )

    1989-11-01

    Induced mutants, selected for their defective growth on D-xylose while retaining the ability to grow normally on D-glucose, were studied in Pachysolen tannophilus, a yeast capable of converting D-xylose to ethanol. Fourteen of the mutations were found to occur at nine distinct loci, and data indicated that many more loci remain to be detected. Most of the mutations were pleiotropic in character, and the expression of some of them was much affected by nutritional conditions and by genetic background. Mutations at several loci resulted in poor growth on at least one compound that was either an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, succinate or {alpha}-ketoglutarate, or on compounds metabolizable via this cycle, ethanol or glycerol. An initial biochemical characterization of the mutants was undertaken. Analysis for xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, and xylulose kinase activity showed that one or more of these activities was affected in 12 of 13 mutants. However, drastic reduction in activity of a single enzyme was confined to that of xylitol dehydrogenase by mutations at three different loci and to that of D-xylose reductase by mutation at another locus. Growth of these latter four mutants was normal on all carbon sources tested that were not five-carbon sugars.

  11. Biallelic mutations in huntington disease: A new case with just one affected parent, review of the literature and terminology.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Wendy R; Peñaherrera, Maria S; Robinson, Wendy P; Milunsky, Jeff M; Nicholson, Jane M; Albin, Roger L

    2015-05-01

    Patients with biallelic mutations for Huntington disease (HD) are rare. We present a 46-year-old female with two expanded Huntingtin (HTT) alleles with just one known affected parent. This is the first reported patient with molecular studies performed to exclude HTT uniparental disomy (UPD). The proband had biparental inheritance of HTT alleles (42/44 CAG repeats). Given the negative UPD results, the proband's unaffected mother either had a reduced penetrance allele that expanded into the full mutation range during transmission to our patient or an unknown full HTT mutation and died before symptom onset, unlikely given no family history of HD and asymptomatic at age 59. We made the novel observation in our literature review that most patients with biallelic HD did not have two full HTT mutations. Most had one HTT allele that was in the intermediate or reduced penetrance ranges or 40 CAG repeats, the lowest limit of the full mutation range. Although the number of patients is small, when an allele in these size ranges was present, generally the age of HD onset was in the 50s. If the second HTT allele had >45 repeats, then onset was typically 20s-30s. While similar ages of onset have been reported for patients with one or two HTT mutations, patients with biallelic mutations may have later onset if an expanded HTT allele has ≤40 CAG repeats. Finally, we propose that "biallelic mutations" or "compound heterozygosity" are more accurate descriptive terms than "homozygosity" when there are two non-identical expanded HTT alleles. PMID:25736541

  12. Replication Mode and Landscape Topology Differentially Affect RNA Virus Mutational Load and Robustness▿

    PubMed Central

    Sardanyés, Josep; Solé, Ricard V.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2009-01-01

    Regardless of genome polarity, intermediaries of complementary sense must be synthesized and used as templates for the production of new genomic strands. Depending on whether these new genomic strands become themselves templates for producing extra antigenomic ones, thus giving rise to geometric growth, or only the firstly synthesized antigenomic strands can be used to this end, thus following Luria's stamping machine model, the abundances and distributions of mutant genomes will be different. Here we propose mathematical and bit string models that allow distinguishing between stamping machine and geometric replication. We have observed that, regardless the topology of the fitness landscape, the critical mutation rate at which the master sequence disappears increases as the mechanism of replication switches from purely geometric to stamping machine. We also found that, for a wide range of mutation rates, large-effect mutations do not accumulate regardless the scheme of replication. However, mild mutations accumulate more in the geometric model. Furthermore, at high mutation rates, geometric growth leads to a population collapse for intermediate values of mutational effects at which the stamping machine still produces master genomes. We observed that the critical mutation rate was weakly dependent on the strength of antagonistic epistasis but strongly dependent on synergistic epistasis. In conclusion, we have shown that RNA viruses may increase their robustness against the accumulation of deleterious mutations by replicating as stamping machines and that the magnitude of this benefit depends on the topology of the fitness landscape assumed. PMID:19776117

  13. A deleterious RNF43 germline mutation in a severely affected serrated polyposis kindred

    PubMed Central

    Taupin, Douglas; Lam, Wesley; Rangiah, David; McCallum, Larissa; Whittle, Belinda; Zhang, Yafei; Andrews, Daniel; Field, Matthew; Goodnow, Christopher C; Cook, Matthew C

    2015-01-01

    We report a germline nonsense mutation within the extracellular domain of the RING finger ubiquitin ligase RNF43, segregating with a severe form of serrated polyposis within a kindred. The finding provides evidence that inherited RNF43 mutations define a familial cancer syndrome. PMID:27081527

  14. Mutations affecting both the rearranged and the unrearranged PML alleles in refractory acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Iaccarino, Licia; Ottone, Tiziana; Divona, Mariadomenica; Cicconi, Laura; Cairoli, Roberto; Voso, Maria Teresa; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is characterized by the PML/RARA fusion transcript. PML and RARA mutations have been shown to directly respond to arsenic trioxide (ATO) and all-trans retinoic (ATRA). We analysed the prevalence of PML mutations in 32 patients with de novo or therapy-related APL (t-APL; n = 5), treated with ATO. We identified one ATO-resistant t-APL patient, who presented a PML A216T mutation in both the rearranged and unrearranged PML alleles, and two mutations in the rearranged RARA gene. In this patient, subclones with different PML and RARA mutations acquired clonal dominance during the disease course, probably leading to treatment resistance. PMID:26728337

  15. Biallelic nonsense mutations in the otogelin-like gene (OTOGL) in a child affected by mild to moderate hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, C; Louha, M; Loundon, N; Michalski, N; Verpy, E; Smagghe, L; Hardelin, J-P; Rouillon, I; Jonard, L; Couderc, R; Gherbi, S; Garabedian, E N; Denoyelle, F; Petit, C; Marlin, S

    2013-09-25

    Hearing impairment is characterized by great genetic heterogeneity. We report the identification, by whole exome sequencing, of two different nonsense mutations (c.1558C>T; p.Gln520 and c.2773C>T; p.Arg925) in the otogelin-like gene (OTOGL), in a child affected by mild to moderate isolated deafness. Parental genotypes allowed us to conclude that these mutations are present in the compound heterozygous state in the patient. In addition, our clinical data establish that the tectorial membrane and/or the outer hair cells are defective in this form of deafness. PMID:23850727

  16. Identification of novel mutations in HEXA gene in children affected with Tay Sachs disease from India.

    PubMed

    Mistri, Mehul; Tamhankar, Parag M; Sheth, Frenny; Sanghavi, Daksha; Kondurkar, Pratima; Patil, Swapnil; Idicula-Thomas, Susan; Gupta, Sarita; Sheth, Jayesh

    2012-01-01

    Tay Sachs disease (TSD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to β-hexosaminidase A deficiency caused by mutations in the HEXA gene. The mutations leading to Tay Sachs disease in India are yet unknown. We aimed to determine mutations leading to TSD in India by complete sequencing of the HEXA gene. The clinical inclusion criteria included neuroregression, seizures, exaggerated startle reflex, macrocephaly, cherry red spot on fundus examination and spasticity. Neuroimaging criteria included thalamic hyperdensities on CT scan/T1W images of MRI of the brain. Biochemical criteria included deficiency of hexosaminidase A (less than 2% of total hexosaminidase activity for infantile patients). Total leukocyte hexosaminidase activity was assayed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine lysis and hexosaminidase A activity was assayed by heat inactivation method and 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine-6-sulphate lysis method. The exons and exon-intron boundaries of the HEXA gene were bidirectionally sequenced using an automated sequencer. Mutations were confirmed in parents and looked up in public databases. In silico analysis for mutations was carried out using SIFT, Polyphen2, MutationT@ster and Accelrys Discovery Studio softwares. Fifteen families were included in the study. We identified six novel missense mutations, c.340 G>A (p.E114K), c.964 G>A (p.D322N), c.964 G>T (p.D322Y), c.1178C>G (p.R393P) and c.1385A>T (p.E462V), c.1432 G>A (p.G478R) and two previously reported mutations. c.1277_1278insTATC and c.508C>T (p.R170W). The mutation p.E462V was found in six unrelated families from Gujarat indicating a founder effect. A previously known splice site mutation c.805+1 G>C and another intronic mutation c.672+30 T>G of unknown significance were also identified. Mutations could not be identified in one family. We conclude that TSD patients from Gujarat should be screened for the common mutation p.E462V. PMID:22723944

  17. Identification of Novel Mutations in HEXA Gene in Children Affected with Tay Sachs Disease from India

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Frenny; Sanghavi, Daksha; Kondurkar, Pratima; Patil, Swapnil; Idicula-Thomas, Susan; Gupta, Sarita; Sheth, Jayesh

    2012-01-01

    Tay Sachs disease (TSD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to β-hexosaminidase A deficiency caused by mutations in the HEXA gene. The mutations leading to Tay Sachs disease in India are yet unknown. We aimed to determine mutations leading to TSD in India by complete sequencing of the HEXA gene. The clinical inclusion criteria included neuroregression, seizures, exaggerated startle reflex, macrocephaly, cherry red spot on fundus examination and spasticity. Neuroimaging criteria included thalamic hyperdensities on CT scan/T1W images of MRI of the brain. Biochemical criteria included deficiency of hexosaminidase A (less than 2% of total hexosaminidase activity for infantile patients). Total leukocyte hexosaminidase activity was assayed by 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine lysis and hexosaminidase A activity was assayed by heat inactivation method and 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine-6-sulphate lysis method. The exons and exon-intron boundaries of the HEXA gene were bidirectionally sequenced using an automated sequencer. Mutations were confirmed in parents and looked up in public databases. In silico analysis for mutations was carried out using SIFT, Polyphen2, MutationT@ster and Accelrys Discovery Studio softwares. Fifteen families were included in the study. We identified six novel missense mutations, c.340 G>A (p.E114K), c.964 G>A (p.D322N), c.964 G>T (p.D322Y), c.1178C>G (p.R393P) and c.1385A>T (p.E462V), c.1432 G>A (p.G478R) and two previously reported mutations. c.1277_1278insTATC and c.508C>T (p.R170W). The mutation p.E462V was found in six unrelated families from Gujarat indicating a founder effect. A previously known splice site mutation c.805+1 G>C and another intronic mutation c.672+30 T>G of unknown significance were also identified. Mutations could not be identified in one family. We conclude that TSD patients from Gujarat should be screened for the common mutation p.E462V. PMID:22723944

  18. A mutation, tl2, in pea (Pisum sativum L.) affects leaf development only in the heterozygous state.

    PubMed

    Berdnikov, V A; Gorel, F L

    2005-04-01

    After gamma irradiation of pea seeds, a mutation designated as tendril-less2 (tl2) was induced. In the heterozygous state, it transforms tendrils into very narrow leaflets that resemble the heterozygote phenotype of the classic tl mutation. The tendrils of the double heterozygote tl2/+, tl/+ are converted into oval leaflets. Unlike tl, the novel mutation in the homozygous state does not affect tendrils. The leaf phenotype of homozygotes tl2/tl2 and Tl2/Tl2 do not differ in the tl/+ background. However, the anthocyanin pigmentation is strongly suppressed in petals of tl2/tl2 plants. Some hypotheses to explain the unusual phenotypic manifestation of tl2 are suggested. PMID:15714325

  19. Clonal analysis of T lymphocytes in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Evidence for an abnormality affecting individual helper and suppressor T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Margolick, J B; Volkman, D J; Lane, H C; Fauci, A S

    1985-01-01

    Purified helper-inducer (T4+) and suppressor-cytotoxic (T8+) lymphocytes from eight patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and eight healthy heterosexual donors were examined by limiting dilution analysis for their ability to be clonally expanded. It was demonstrated that viable T4+ and T8+ lymphocytes from patients with AIDS had markedly reduced proportions of clonable cells compared to the healthy donors (T4 = 1:255 vs. 1:34, P = 0.06; T8 = 1:355 vs. 1:55, P = 0.01). However, the cloned T cells that were obtained from the patients with AIDS demonstrated normal proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and alloantigen, and normal ability to help or suppress pokeweed mitogen-driven IgG synthesis. These results strongly suggest that, in addition to a quantitative diminution of T4+ lymphocytes in AIDS, there is an intrinsic functional defect in the surviving T4+ and T8+ lymphocytes, which is reflected by a severe decrease in their potential for clonal expansion. PMID:3161909

  20. LKB1, the multitasking tumour suppressor kinase

    PubMed Central

    Marignani, P A

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the lkb1 gene are found in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), with loss of heterozygosity or somatic mutations at the lkb1 locus, suggesting the gene product, the serine/threonine kinase LKB1, may function as a tumour suppressor. Patients with PJS are at a greater risk of developing cancers of epithelial tissue origin. It is widely accepted that the presence of hamartomatous polyps in PJS does not in itself lead to the development of malignancy. The signalling mechanisms that lead to these PJS related malignancies are not well understood. However, it is evident from the recent literature that LKB1 is a multitasking kinase, with unlimited potential in orchestrating cell activity. Thus far, LKB1 has been found to play a role in chromatin remodelling, cell cycle arrest, Wnt signalling, cell polarity, and energy metabolism, all of which may require the tumour suppressor function of this kinase and/or its catalytic activity. PMID:15623475

  1. Point mutations in the pore region directly or indirectly affect glibenclamide block of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Jyoti; Linsdell, Paul

    2002-03-01

    The sulfonylurea glibenclamide is a relatively potent inhibitor of the CFTR Cl(-) channel. This inhibition is thought to be via an open channel block mechanism. However, nothing is known about the physical nature of the glibenclamide-binding site on CFTR. Here we show that mutations in the pore-forming 6th and 12th transmembrane regions of CFTR affect block by intracellular glibenclamide, confirming previous suggestions that glibenclamide enters the pore in order to block the channel. Two mutations in the 6th transmembrane region, F337A and T338A, significantly weakened glibenclamide block, consistent with a direct interaction between glibenclamide and this region of the pore. Interestingly, two mutations in the 12th transmembrane region (N1138A and T1142A) significantly strengthened block. These two mutations also abolished the dependence of block on the extracellular Cl(-) concentration, which in wild-type CFTR suggests an interaction between Cl(-) and glibenclamide within the channel pore that limits block. We suggest that mutations in the 12th transmembrane region strengthen glibenclamide block not by directly altering interactions between glibenclamide and the pore walls, but indirectly by reducing interactions between Cl(-) ions and glibenclamide within the pore. This work demonstrates that glibenclamide binds within the CFTR channel pore and begins to define its intrapore binding site. PMID:11889571

  2. New VMD2 gene mutations identified in patients affected by Best vitelliform macular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Marchant, D; Yu, K; Bigot, K; Roche, O; Germain, A; Bonneau, D; Drouin‐Garraud, V; Schorderet, D F; Munier, F; Schmidt, D; Neindre, P Le; Marsac, C; Menasche, M; Dufier, J L; Fischmeister, R; Hartzell, C; Abitbol, M

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The mutations responsible for Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) are found in a gene called VMD2. The VMD2 gene encodes a transmembrane protein named bestrophin‐1 (hBest1) which is a Ca2+‐sensitive chloride channel. This study was performed to identify disease‐specific mutations in 27 patients with BVMD. Because this disease is characterised by an alteration in Cl− channel function, patch clamp analysis was used to test the hypothesis that one of the VMD2 mutated variants causes the disease. Methods Direct sequencing analysis of the 11 VMD2 exons was performed to detect new abnormal sequences. The mutant of hBest1 was expressed in HEK‐293 cells and the associated Cl− current was examined using whole‐cell patch clamp analysis. Results Six new VMD2 mutations were identified, located exclusively in exons four, six and eight. One of these mutations (Q293H) was particularly severe. Patch clamp analysis of human embryonic kidney cells expressing the Q293H mutant showed that this mutant channel is non‐functional. Furthermore, the Q293H mutant inhibited the function of wild‐type bestrophin‐1 channels in a dominant negative manner. Conclusions This study provides further support for the idea that mutations in VMD2 are a necessary factor for Best disease. However, because variable expressivity of VMD2 was observed in a family with the Q293H mutation, it is also clear that a disease‐linked mutation in VMD2 is not sufficient to produce BVMD. The finding that the Q293H mutant does not form functional channels in the membrane could be explained either by disruption of channel conductance or gating mechanisms or by improper trafficking of the protein to the plasma membrane. PMID:17287362

  3. Mutations in MCT8 in patients with Allan-Herndon-Dudley-syndrome affecting its cellular distribution.

    PubMed

    Kersseboom, Simone; Kremers, Gert-Jan; Friesema, Edith C H; Visser, W Edward; Klootwijk, Wim; Peeters, Robin P; Visser, Theo J

    2013-05-01

    Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is a thyroid hormone (TH)-specific transporter. Mutations in the MCT8 gene are associated with Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome (AHDS), consisting of severe psychomotor retardation and disturbed TH parameters. To study the functional consequences of different MCT8 mutations in detail, we combined functional analysis in different cell types with live-cell imaging of the cellular distribution of seven mutations that we identified in patients with AHDS. We used two cell models to study the mutations in vitro: 1) transiently transfected COS1 and JEG3 cells, and 2) stably transfected Flp-in 293 cells expressing a MCT8-cyan fluorescent protein construct. All seven mutants were expressed at the protein level and showed a defect in T3 and T4 transport in uptake and metabolism studies. Three mutants (G282C, P537L, and G558D) had residual uptake activity in Flp-in 293 and COS1 cells, but not in JEG3 cells. Four mutants (G221R, P321L, D453V, P537L) were expressed at the plasma membrane. The mobility in the plasma membrane of P537L was similar to WT, but the mobility of P321L was altered. The other mutants studied (insV236, G282C, G558D) were predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. In essence, loss of function by MCT8 mutations can be divided in two groups: mutations that result in partial or complete loss of transport activity (G221R, P321L, D453V, P537L) and mutations that mainly disturb protein expression and trafficking (insV236, G282C, G558D). The cell type-dependent results suggest that MCT8 mutations in AHDS patients may have tissue-specific effects on TH transport probably caused by tissue-specific expression of yet unknown MCT8-interacting proteins. PMID:23550058

  4. Search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of atomic bomb survivors: preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, J.V.; Satoh, C.; Hamilton, H.B.; Otake, M.; Goriki, K.; Kageoka, T.; Fujita, M.; Neriishi, S.; Asakawa J.

    1980-07-01

    A total of 289,868 locus tests, based on 28 different protein phenotypes and using one-dimensional electrophoresis to detect variant proteins, has yielded one probable mutation in the offspring of proximally exposed parents, who received an estimated average gonadal exposure of 31 to 39 rem in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There were no mutations in 208,196 locus tests involving children of distally exposed parents, who had essentially no radiation exposure.

  5. Spectrum of splicing errors caused by CHRNE mutations affecting introns and intron/exon boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, K; Tsujino, A; Shen, X; Milone, M; Engel, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Mutations in CHRNE, the gene encoding the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ε subunit, cause congenital myasthenic syndromes. Only three of the eight intronic splice site mutations of CHRNE reported to date have had their splicing consequences characterised. Methods: We analysed four previously reported and five novel splicing mutations in CHRNE by introducing the entire normal and mutant genomic CHRNEs into COS cells. Results and conclusions: We found that short introns (82–109 nucleotides) favour intron retention, whereas medium to long introns (306–1210 nucleotides) flanking either or both sides of an exon favour exon skipping. Two mutations are of particular interest. Firstly, a G→T substitution at the 3' end of exon 8 predicts an R286M missense mutation, but instead results in skipping of exon 8. In human genes, a mismatch of the last exonic nucleotide to U1 snRNP is frequently compensated by a matching nucleotide at intron position +6. CHRNE intron 8 has a mismatch at position +6, and accordingly fails to compensate for the exonic mutation at position –1. Secondly, a 16 bp duplication, giving rise to two 3' splice sites (g.IVS10-9_c.1167dup16), results in silencing of the downstream 3' splice site. This conforms to the scanning model of recognition of the 3' splice site, which predicts that the first "ag" occurring after the branch point is selected for splicing. PMID:16061559

  6. Novel missense mutation in the GALNS gene in an affected patient with severe form of mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA.

    PubMed

    Seyedhassani, Seyed Mohammad; Hashemi-Gorji, Feyzollah; Yavari, Mahdieh; Mirfakhraie, Reza

    2015-10-23

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA (MPS IVA), also known as Morquio A, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), which causes major skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities and affects multiple organ systems. In this study, one MPS IVA patient with a severe form from consanguine large Iranian family has been investigated. To find a mutation, all of the 14 exons and intron-exon junctions of GALNS gene were sequenced. Sequencing results were analyzed using bioinformatic analysis in order to predict probable pathogenic effect of the variant. One novel homozygous missense mutation in exon 5, c.542A>G (p.Y181C), was found in the proband. That was predicted as being probably pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis. Segregation and familial study confirmed this pathogenic mutation. In conclusion, we have identified the novel mutation responsible for MPS IVA in an Iranian patient to assist in the diagnosis, genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of the affected families. PMID:26276046

  7. A novel papillation assay for the identification of genes affecting mutation rate in Pseudomonas putida and other pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Tagel, Mari; Tavita, Kairi; Hõrak, Rita; Kivisaar, Maia; Ilves, Heili

    2016-08-01

    Formation of microcolonies (papillae) permits easy visual screening of mutational events occurring in single colonies of bacteria. In this study, we have established a novel papillation assay employable in a wide range of pseudomonads including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas putida for monitoring mutation frequency in distinct colonies. With the aid of this assay, we conducted a genome-wide search for the factors affecting mutation frequency in P. putida. Screening ∼27,000 transposon mutants for increased mutation frequency allowed us to identify 34 repeatedly targeted genes. In addition to genes involved in DNA replication and repair, we identified genes participating in metabolism and transport of secondary metabolites, cell motility, and cell wall synthesis. The highest effect on mutant frequency was observed when truA (tRNA pseudouridine synthase), mpl (UDP-N-acetylmuramate-alanine ligase) or gacS (multi-sensor hybrid histidine kinase) were inactivated. Inactivation of truA elevated the mutant frequency only in growing cells, while the deficiency of gacS affected mainly stationary-phase mutagenesis. Thus, our results demonstrate the feasibility of the assay for isolating mutants with elevated mutagenesis in growing as well as stationary-phase bacteria. PMID:27447898

  8. HERC 1 Ubiquitin Ligase Mutation Affects Neocortical, CA3 Hippocampal and Spinal Cord Projection Neurons: An Ultrastructural Study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Rocío; Pérez-Villegas, Eva María; Bachiller, Sara; Rosa, José Luis; Armengol, José Angel

    2016-01-01

    The spontaneous mutation tambaleante is caused by the Gly483Glu substitution in the highly conserved N terminal RCC1-like domain of the HERC1 protein, which leads to the increase of mutated protein levels responsible for cerebellar Purkinje cell death by autophagy. Until now, Purkinje cells have been the only central nervous neurons reported as being targeted by the mutation, and their degeneration elicits an ataxic syndrome in adult mutant mice. However, the ultrastructural analysis performed here demonstrates that signs of autophagy, such as autophagosomes, lysosomes, and altered mitochondria, are present in neocortical pyramidal, CA3 hippocampal pyramidal, and spinal cord motor neurons. The main difference is that the reduction in the number of neurons affected in the tambaleante mutation in the neocortex, the hippocampus, and the spinal cord is not so evident as the dramatic loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Interestingly, signs of autophagy are absent in both interneurons and neuroglia cells. Affected neurons have in common that they are projection neurons which receive strong and varied synaptic inputs, and possess the highest degree of neuronal activity. Therefore, because the integrity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is essential for protein degradation and hence, for normal protein turnover, it could be hypothesized that the deleterious effects of the misrouting of these pathways would depend directly on the neuronal activity. PMID:27147983

  9. HERC 1 Ubiquitin Ligase Mutation Affects Neocortical, CA3 Hippocampal and Spinal Cord Projection Neurons: An Ultrastructural Study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Rocío; Pérez-Villegas, Eva María; Bachiller, Sara; Rosa, José Luis; Armengol, José Angel

    2016-01-01

    The spontaneous mutation tambaleante is caused by the Gly483Glu substitution in the highly conserved N terminal RCC1-like domain of the HERC1 protein, which leads to the increase of mutated protein levels responsible for cerebellar Purkinje cell death by autophagy. Until now, Purkinje cells have been the only central nervous neurons reported as being targeted by the mutation, and their degeneration elicits an ataxic syndrome in adult mutant mice. However, the ultrastructural analysis performed here demonstrates that signs of autophagy, such as autophagosomes, lysosomes, and altered mitochondria, are present in neocortical pyramidal, CA3 hippocampal pyramidal, and spinal cord motor neurons. The main difference is that the reduction in the number of neurons affected in the tambaleante mutation in the neocortex, the hippocampus, and the spinal cord is not so evident as the dramatic loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Interestingly, signs of autophagy are absent in both interneurons and neuroglia cells. Affected neurons have in common that they are projection neurons which receive strong and varied synaptic inputs, and possess the highest degree of neuronal activity. Therefore, because the integrity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is essential for protein degradation and hence, for normal protein turnover, it could be hypothesized that the deleterious effects of the misrouting of these pathways would depend directly on the neuronal activity. PMID:27147983

  10. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) negatively regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides by affecting the Stat transcriptional activity in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie-Jie; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Xu, Ji-Dong; Niu, Guo-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2016-09-01

    The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family is a kind of negative regulators in the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/Stat) pathway in mammals and Drosophila. In kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, SOCS2 is identified and its expression can be stimulated by peptidoglycan and polycytidylic acid. However, if SOCS2 participates in regulating Jak/Stat pathway in shrimp still needs further study. In this study, SOCS2 with Src homology 2 domain and SOCS box was identified in kuruma shrimp, M. japonicus. SOCS2 existed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine, the expression of SOCS2 was upregulated significantly in the hemocytes and intestine of shrimp challenged with Vibrio anguillarum at 6 h. To analyze SOCS2 function in shrimp immunity, bacterial clearance and survival rate were analyzed after knockdown of SOCS2 in shrimp challenged with V. anguillarum. Results showed that bacterial clearance increased, and the survival rate improved significantly comparing with controls. The SOCS2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant SOCS2 was injected into shrimp, and Stat phosphorylation and translocation were analyzed. The result showed that "overexpression" of SOCS2 declined Stat phosphorylation level and inhibited Stat translocation into the nucleus. After knockdown of SOCS2 in shrimp prior to V. anguillarum infection, the expression level of antimicrobial peptides, including anti-lipopolysaccharide factors C1, C2 and D1, and Crustin I was upregulated significantly, and the expression of the AMPs was declined after recombinant SOCS2 injection. The SOCS2 expression was also decreased in Stat-knockdown shrimp challenged by V. anguillarum at 6 and 12 h. Therefore, SOCS2 negatively regulates the AMP expression by inhibiting Stat phosphorylation and translocation into nucleus in shrimp, meanwhile, SOCS2 expression was also regulated by Jak/Stat pathway. PMID:27492125

  11. C-Nap1 mutation affects centriole cohesion and is associated with a Seckel-like syndrome in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Floriot, Sandrine; Vesque, Christine; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Bourgain-Guglielmetti, Florence; Karaiskou, Anthi; Gautier, Mathieu; Duchesne, Amandine; Barbey, Sarah; Fritz, Sébastien; Vasilescu, Alexandre; Bertaud, Maud; Moudjou, Mohammed; Halliez, Sophie; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; E.L. Hokayem, Joyce; Nigg, Erich A.; Manciaux, Luc; Guatteo, Raphaël; Cesbron, Nora; Toutirais, Geraldine; Eggen, André; Schneider-Maunoury, Sylvie; Boichard, Didier; Sobczak-Thépot, Joelle; Schibler, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Caprine-like Generalized Hypoplasia Syndrome (SHGC) is an autosomal-recessive disorder in Montbéliarde cattle. Affected animals present a wide range of clinical features that include the following: delayed development with low birth weight, hind limb muscular hypoplasia, caprine-like thin head and partial coat depigmentation. Here we show that SHGC is caused by a truncating mutation in the CEP250 gene that encodes the centrosomal protein C-Nap1. This mutation results in centrosome splitting, which neither affects centriole ultrastructure and duplication in dividing cells nor centriole function in cilium assembly and mitotic spindle organization. Loss of C-Nap1-mediated centriole cohesion leads to an altered cell migration phenotype. This discovery extends the range of loci that constitute the spectrum of autosomal primary recessive microcephaly (MCPH) and Seckel-like syndromes. PMID:25902731

  12. C-Nap1 mutation affects centriole cohesion and is associated with a Seckel-like syndrome in cattle.

    PubMed

    Floriot, Sandrine; Vesque, Christine; Rodriguez, Sabrina; Bourgain-Guglielmetti, Florence; Karaiskou, Anthi; Gautier, Mathieu; Duchesne, Amandine; Barbey, Sarah; Fritz, Sébastien; Vasilescu, Alexandre; Bertaud, Maud; Moudjou, Mohammed; Halliez, Sophie; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Hokayem, Joyce E L; Nigg, Erich A; Manciaux, Luc; Guatteo, Raphaël; Cesbron, Nora; Toutirais, Geraldine; Eggen, André; Schneider-Maunoury, Sylvie; Boichard, Didier; Sobczak-Thépot, Joelle; Schibler, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Caprine-like Generalized Hypoplasia Syndrome (SHGC) is an autosomal-recessive disorder in Montbéliarde cattle. Affected animals present a wide range of clinical features that include the following: delayed development with low birth weight, hind limb muscular hypoplasia, caprine-like thin head and partial coat depigmentation. Here we show that SHGC is caused by a truncating mutation in the CEP250 gene that encodes the centrosomal protein C-Nap1. This mutation results in centrosome splitting, which neither affects centriole ultrastructure and duplication in dividing cells nor centriole function in cilium assembly and mitotic spindle organization. Loss of C-Nap1-mediated centriole cohesion leads to an altered cell migration phenotype. This discovery extends the range of loci that constitute the spectrum of autosomal primary recessive microcephaly (MCPH) and Seckel-like syndromes. PMID:25902731

  13. The ts111 Mutation of Paramecium tetraurelia Affects a Member of the Protein Palmitoylation Family.

    PubMed

    Prajer, Małgorzata; Tarcz, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The thermosensitive ts111 mutant of Parameciun tetraurelia carries a recessive mutation which causes cell death after 2-8 divisions at the restrictive temperature of 35 degrees C. Expression at 35 degrees C induces disassembly of the infraciliary lattice (ICL). In this study, we found that the ts111 mutation also results in significant abnormalities in the number and structure of contractile vacuole complexes (CVCs) and in their functioning at the restrictive temperature. In order to characterize the ts111 gene, the complementation cloning was performed by microinjection into the macronucleus of an indexed genomic DNA library. The mutation was complemented by a sequence of 852 bp, which differed from the mutant sequence by a single nucleotide substitution. The deduced protein sequence is 284 amino acids long. It contains a domain referred to as the DHHC domain, associated with 2 trans-membrane helices. The DHHC proteins belong to the Palmitoyl-Acyl Transferases (PATs) protein family, which is implicated in the protein palmitoylation process playing the role in protein addressing. The ts111 mutation induces the amino acid change, localized before the first membrane helix. Transformation of ts111 mutant cells with the TS111-GFP gene fusion showed the expected reparation restoring thermoresistance and also demonstrated a localization of the protein in contractile vacuoles, but not in the ICL. The entire gene silencing in wild type cells at restrictive temperature caused the same effect as the expression of a point mutation in ts111 mutant. The authors propose the following hypotheses: (i) function of CVCs at the restrictive temperature depends in Paramecium on the TS111 protein--a member of the PAT family, and the primary effect of the termosensitive ts111 mutation are morphological abnormalities and dysfunction of CVCs, (ii) disassembly of the ICL is a secondary effect of the ts111 mutation, which results from disturbed regulation of the intracellular concentration

  14. The shiverer mutation affects the persistence of Theiler's virus in the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Bihl, F; Pena-Rossi, C; Guénet, J L; Brahic, M; Bureau, J F

    1997-01-01

    Theiler's virus persists in the white matter of the spinal cord of genetically susceptible mice and causes primary demyelination. The virus persists in macrophages/microglial cells, but also in oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells. Susceptibility/resistance to this chronic infection has been mapped to several loci including one tentatively located in the telomeric region of chromosome 18, close to the myelin basic protein locus (Mbp locus). To determine if the MBP gene influences viral persistence, we inoculated C3H mice bearing the shiverer mutation, a 20-kb deletion in the gene. Whereas control C3H mice were of intermediate susceptibility, C3H mice heterozygous for the mutation were very susceptible, and those homozygous for the mutation were completely resistant. This resistance was not immune mediated. Furthermore, C3H/101H mice homozygous for a point mutation in the gene coding for the proteolipid protein of myelin, the rumpshaker mutation, were resistant. These results strongly support the view that oligodendrocytes are a necessary viral target for the establishment of a persistent infection by Theiler's virus. PMID:9188567

  15. High dietary intake of sodium selenite does not affect gene mutation frequency in rat colon and liver.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Uthus, Eric O; Ross, Sharon A; Davis, Cindy D

    2009-10-01

    Our previous studies have shown that selenium (Se) is protective against dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced preneoplastic colon cancer lesions, and protection against DNA damage has been hypothesized to be one mechanism for the anticancer effect of Se. The present study was designed to determine whether dietary selenite affects somatic mutation frequency in vivo. We used the Big Blue transgenic model to evaluate the in vivo mutation frequency of the cII gene in rats fed either a Se-deficient (0 microg Se/g diet) or Se-supplemented diet (0.2 or 2 microg Se/g diet; n = 3 rats/diet in experiment 1 and n = 5 rats/group in experiment 2) and injected with DMH (25 mg/kg body weight, i.p.). There were no significant differences in body weight between the Se-deficient and Se-supplemented (0.2 or 2 microg Se/g diet) rats, but the activities of liver glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase and concentration of liver Se were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) in Se-deficient rats compared to rats supplemented with Se. We found no effect of dietary Se on liver 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Gene mutation frequency was significantly lower in liver (p < 0.001) than that of colon regardless of dietary Se. However, there were no differences in gene mutation frequency in DNA from colon mucosa or liver from rats fed the Se-deficient diet compared to those fed the Se-supplemented (0.2 or 2 microg Se/g diet) diet. Although gene mutations have been implicated in the etiology of cancer, our data suggest that decreasing gene mutation is not likely a key mechanism through which dietary selenite exerts its anticancer action against DMH-induced preneoplastic colon cancer lesions in a Big Blue transgenic rat model. PMID:19263001

  16. Differential expression of five tRNA(UAGTrp) amber suppressors in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, K; Hodgkin, J; Waterston, R H

    1988-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has 12 tRNA(UGGTrp) genes as defined by Southern analysis. In order to evaluate the function of the individual members of this multigene family, we sought to recover amber (UAG)-suppressing mutations from reversion experiments with animals carrying amber mutations in a nervous system-affecting gene (unc-13) or a sex-determining gene (tra-3). Revertants were analyzed by Southern blot, exploiting the fact that the CCA to CTA change at the anticodon creates a new XbaI site. Five different members of the tRNATrp gene family were identified as suppressors: sup-7 X, sup-5 III, sup-24 IV, sup-28 X, and sup-29 IV. All five suppressor genes were sequenced and found to encode identical tRNA(UAGTrp) molecules with a single base change (CCA to CTA) at the anticodon compared with their wild-type counterparts. The flanking sequences had only limited homology. The relative expression of these five genes was determined by measuring the efficiencies of suppressers against amber mutations in genes affecting the nervous system, hypodermis, muscle, and sex determination. The results of these cross-suppression tests showed that the five members of the tRNA(Trp) gene family were differentially regulated in a tissue- or development stage-specific manner. Images PMID:3221861

  17. Viable Maternal-Effect Mutations That Affect the Development of the Nematode Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hekimi, S.; Boutis, P.; Lakowski, B.

    1995-01-01

    We carried out a genetic screen for viable maternal-effect mutants to identify genes with a critical function relatively early in development. This type of mutation would not have been identified readily in previous screens for viable mutants and therefore could define previously unidentified genes. We screened 30,000 genomes and identified 41 mutations falling into 24 complementation groups. We genetically mapped these 24 loci; only two of them appear to correspond to previously identified genes. We present a partial phenotypic characterization of the mutants and a quantitative analysis of the degree to which they can be maternally or zygotically rescued. PMID:8601479

  18. Mutation Rate and Dominance of Genes Affecting Viability in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Terumi; Chigusa, Sadao I.; Mettler, L. E.; Crow, James F.

    1972-01-01

    Spontaneous mutations were allowed to accumulate in a second chromosome that was transmitted only through heterozygous males for 40 generations. At 10-generation intervals the chromosomes were assayed for homozygous effects of the accumulated mutants. From the regression of homozygous viability on the number of generations of mutant accumulation and from the increase in genetic variance between replicate chromosomes it is possible to estimate the mutation rate and average effect of the individual mutants. Lethal mutations arose at a rate of 0.0060 per chromosome per generation. The mutants having small effects on viability are estimated to arise with a frequency at least 10 times as high as lethals, more likely 20 times as high, and possibly many more times as high if there is a large class of very nearly neutral mutations.—The dominance of such mutants was measured for chromosomes extracted from a natural population. This was determined from the regression of heterozygous viability on that of the sum of the two constituent homozygotes. The average dominance for minor viability genes in an equilibrium population was estimated to be 0.21. This is lower than the value for new mutants, as expected since those with the greatest heterozygous effect are most quickly eliminated from the population. That these mutants have a disproportionately large heterozygous effect on total fitness (as well as on the viability component thereof) is shown by the low ratio of the genetic load in equilibrium homozygotes to that of new mutant homozygotes. PMID:4630587

  19. Characterization of novel Brown midrib 6 mutations affecting lignin biosynthesis in sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of lignin reduces the quality of lignocellulosic biomass for forage materials and feedstock for biofuels. In C4 grasses, the brown midrib phenotype has been linked to mutations to genes in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway. For example, the Bmr6 gene in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has b...

  20. Vps33b pathogenic mutations preferentially affect VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes.

    PubMed

    Tornieri, Karine; Zlatic, Stephanie A; Mullin, Ariana P; Werner, Erica; Harrison, Robert; L'hernault, Steven W; Faundez, Victor

    2013-12-20

    Mutations in Vps33 isoforms cause pigment dilution in mice (Vps33a, buff) and Drosophila (car) and the neurogenic arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction and cholestasis syndrome in humans (ARC1, VPS33B). The later disease is also caused by mutations in VIPAS39, (Vps33b interacting protein, apical-basolateral polarity regulator, SPE-39 homolog; ARC2), a protein that interacts with the HOmotypic fusion and Protein Sorting (HOPS) complex, a tether necessary for endosome-lysosome traffic. These syndromes offer insight into fundamental endosome traffic processes unique to metazoans. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these mutant phenotypes remain poorly understood. Here we investigate interactions of wild-type and disease-causing mutations in VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b by yeast two hybrid, immunoprecipitation and quantitative fluorescent microscopy. We find that although few mutations prevent interaction between VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b, some mutants fragment VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes, but all mutants alter the subcellular localization of Vps33b to VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes. Our data suggest that the ARC syndrome may result through impaired VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b-dependent endosomal maturation or fusion. PMID:23918659

  1. Vps33b pathogenic mutations preferentially affect VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Tornieri, Karine; Zlatic, Stephanie A.; Mullin, Ariana P.; Werner, Erica; Harrison, Robert; L'Hernault, Steven W.; Faundez, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in Vps33 isoforms cause pigment dilution in mice (Vps33a, buff) and Drosophila (car) and the neurogenic arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction and cholestasis syndrome in humans (ARC1, VPS33B). The later disease is also caused by mutations in VIPAS39, (Vps33b interacting protein, apical-basolateral polarity regulator, SPE-39 homolog; ARC2), a protein that interacts with the HOmotypic fusion and Protein Sorting (HOPS) complex, a tether necessary for endosome–lysosome traffic. These syndromes offer insight into fundamental endosome traffic processes unique to metazoans. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these mutant phenotypes remain poorly understood. Here we investigate interactions of wild-type and disease-causing mutations in VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b by yeast two hybrid, immunoprecipitation and quantitative fluorescent microscopy. We find that although few mutations prevent interaction between VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b, some mutants fragment VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes, but all mutants alter the subcellular localization of Vps33b to VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes. Our data suggest that the ARC syndrome may result through impaired VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b-dependent endosomal maturation or fusion. PMID:23918659

  2. A mutation affecting carbon catabolite repression suppresses growth defects in pyruvate carboxylase mutants from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, M A; Gamo, F J; Gancedo, C

    1995-12-18

    Yeasts with disruptions in the genes PYC1 and PYC2 encoding the isoenzymes of pyruvate carboxylase cannot grow in a glucose-ammonium medium (Stucka et al. (1991) Mol. Gen. Genet. 229, 307-315). We have isolated a dominant mutation, BPC1-1, that allows growth in this medium of yeasts with interrupted PYC1 and PYC2 genes. The BPC1-1 mutation abolishes catabolite repression of a series of genes and allows expression of the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle during growth in glucose. A functional glyoxylate cycle is necessary for suppression as a disruption of gene ICL1 encoding isocitrate lyase abolished the phenotypic effect of BPC1-1 on growth in glucose-ammonium. Concurrent expression from constitutive promoters of genes ICL1 and MLS1 (encoding malate synthase) also suppressed the growth phenotype of pyc1 pyc2 mutants. The mutation BPC1-1 is either allelic or closely linked to the mutation DGT1-1. PMID:8543050

  3. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I: Identification and characterization of mutations affecting alpha-L-iduronidase activity.

    PubMed

    Lee-Chen, Guey-Jen; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Chen, I-Shen; Chang, Jui-Hung; Yang, Chyau-Wen; Chin, Yi-Wen

    2002-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA). MPS I covers a broad spectrum of clinical severity ranging from severe Hurler syndrome through intermediate Hurler/Scheie syndrome to mild Scheie syndrome. Mutation screening was performed in two unrelated Taiwanese MPS I patients. A Hurler/Scheie patient had A79V (C to T transition in codon 79) in exon 2 and R619G (C to G transversion in codon 619) in exon 14. R619G has been shown to cause disease. Expression of A79V in COS-7 cells showed trace amounts of IDUA activity, demonstrating the deleterious nature of the mutation. A79V mutation did not cause a reduction in IDUA mRNA levels. The reduced level of IDUA protein suggests increased degradation of the mutant enzyme. A Hurler patient had 134del12 (in-frame deletion of codons 16-19 in signal peptide) in exon 1 and Q584X (C to T transition in codon 584) in exon 13. Transfection of COS-7 cells with Q584X did not yield active enzyme. Q584X mutation caused an apparent reduction in the IDUA mRNA level and no IDUA protein was detected. Conversely, 134del12 showed 124.6% of normal activity in transfected cells and a 77-kDa precursor protein was observed on Western blot, suggesting biologic activity of precursor IDUA without posttranslational cleavage. These findings provide further evidence of the molecular heterogeneity in mutations in MPS I. PMID:12189649

  4. MVP-Associated Filamin A Mutations Affect FlnA-PTPN12 (PTP-PEST) Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Damien; Labbé, Pauline; Bureau, Léa; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Norris, Russell A.; Markwald, Roger R.; Levine, Robert; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Mérot, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Although the genetic basis of mitral valve prolapse (MVP) has now been clearly established, the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the pathological processes associated to a specific mutation often remain to be determined. The FLNA gene (encoding Filamin A; FlnA) was the first gene associated to non-syndromic X-linked myxomatous valvular dystrophy, but the impacts of the mutations on its function remain un-elucidated. Here, using the first repeats (1–8) of FlnA as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN12 (PTP-PEST) as a specific binding partner of this region of FlnA protein. In addition, using yeast two-hybrid trap assay pull down and co-immunoprecipitation experiments, we showed that the MVP-associated FlnA mutations (G288R, P637Q, H743P) abolished FlnA/PTPN12 interactions. PTPN12 is a key regulator of signaling pathways involved in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) crosstalk, cellular responses to mechanical stress that involve integrins, focal adhesion transduction pathways, and actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Interestingly, we showed that the FlnA mutations impair the activation status of two PTPN12 substrates, the focal adhesion associated kinase Src, and the RhoA specific activating protein p190RhoGAP. Together, these data point to PTPN12/FlnA interaction and its weakening by FlnA mutations as a mechanism potentially involved in the physiopathology of FlnA-associated MVP. PMID:26594644

  5. Dispersion suppressors with bending

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    Dispersion suppressors of two main types are usually used. In one the cell quadrupole focussing structure is the same as in normal cells but some of the dipoles are replaced by drifts. In the other, the quadrupole strengths and/or spacings are different from those of the normal cells, but the bending is about the same as it is in the cells. In SSC designs to date, dispersion suppressors of the former type have been used, consisting of two cells with bending equivalent to one. In this note a suppressor design with normal bending and altered focussing is presented. The advantage of this scheme is that circumference is reduced. The disadvantages are that additional special quadrupoles must be provided (however, they need not be adjustable), and the maximum beta values within them are about 30% higher than the cell maxima.

  6. Degenerate in vitro genetic selection reveals mutations that diminish alfalfa mosaic virus RNA replication without affecting coat protein binding.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, Gail; Petrillo, Jessica; Guogas, Laura; Gehrke, Lee

    2004-08-01

    The alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs are infectious only in the presence of the viral coat protein; however, the mechanisms describing coat protein's role during replication are disputed. We reasoned that mechanistic details might be revealed by identifying RNA mutations in the 3'-terminal coat protein binding domain that increased or decreased RNA replication without affecting coat protein binding. Degenerate (doped) in vitro genetic selection, based on a pool of randomized 39-mers, was used to select 30 variant RNAs that bound coat protein with high affinity. AUGC sequences that are conserved among AMV and ilarvirus RNAs were among the invariant nucleotides in the selected RNAs. Five representative clones were analyzed in functional assays, revealing diminished viral RNA expression resulting from apparent defects in replication and/or translation. These data identify a set of mutations, including G-U wobble pairs and nucleotide mismatches in the 5' hairpin, which affect viral RNA functions without significant impact on coat protein binding. Because the mutations associated with diminished function were scattered over the 3'-terminal nucleotides, we considered the possibility that RNA conformational changes rather than disruption of a precise motif might limit activity. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments showed that the 3' RNA conformation was indeed altered by nucleotide substitutions. One interpretation of the data is that coat protein binding to the AUGC sequences determines the orientation of the 3' hairpins relative to one another, while local structural features within these hairpins are also critical determinants of functional activity. PMID:15254175

  7. The DMRT3 'Gait keeper' mutation affects performance of Nordic and Standardbred trotters.

    PubMed

    Jäderkvist, K; Andersson, L S; Johansson, A M; Árnason, T; Mikko, S; Eriksson, S; Andersson, L; Lindgren, G

    2014-10-01

    In a previous study it was shown that a nonsense mutation in the DMRT3 gene alters the pattern of locomotion in horses and that this mutation has a strong positive impact on trotting performance of Standardbreds. One aim of this study was to test if racing performance and trotting technique in the Nordic (Coldblood) trotters are also influenced by the DMRT3 genotype. Another aim was to further investigate the effect of the mutation on performance in Standardbreds, by using a within-family analysis and genotype-phenotype correlations in a larger horse material than in the previous study. We genotyped 427 Nordic trotters and 621 Standardbreds for the DMRT3 nonsense mutation and a SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium with it. In Nordic trotters, we show that horses homozygous for the DMRT3 mutation (A) had significantly higher EBV for trotting performance traits than heterozygous (CA) or homozygous wild-type (CC) horses (P = 0.001). Furthermore, AA homozygotes had a higher proportion of victories and top 3 placings than horses heterozygous or homozygous wild-type, when analyzing performance data for the period 3 to 6 yr of age (P = 0.06 and P = 0.05, respectively). Another finding in the Nordic trotters was that the DMRT3 mutation influenced trotting technique (P = 2.1 × 10(-8)). Standardbred horses homozygous AA had significantly higher EBV for all traits than horses with at least 1 wild-type allele (CA and CC; P = 1.6 × 10(-16)). In a within-family analysis of Standardbreds, we found significant differences in several traits (e.g., earnings, P = 0.002; number of entered races, P = 0.004; and fraction of offspring that entered races, P = 0.002) among paternal half-sibs with genotype AA or CA sired by a CA stallion. For most traits, we found significant differences at young ages. For Nordic trotters, most of the results were significant at 3 yr of age but not for the older ages, and for the Standardbreds most of the results for the ages 3 to 5 were significant. For

  8. Mutation at position 791 in Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA affects processes involved in the initiation of protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Tapprich, W E; Goss, D J; Dahlberg, A E

    1989-01-01

    A single base was mutated from guanine to adenine at position 791 in 16S rRNA in the Escherichia coli rrnB operon on the multicopy plasmid pKK3535. The plasmid-coded rRNA was processed and assembled into 30S ribosomal subunits in E. coli and caused a retardation of cell growth. The mutation affected crucial functional roles of the 30S subunit in the initiation of protein synthesis. The affinity of the mutant 30S subunits for 50S subunits was reduced and the association equilibrium constant for initiation factor 3 was decreased by a factor of 10 compared to wild-type 30S subunits. The interrelationship among the region of residue 790 in 16S rRNA, subunit association, and initiation factor 3 binding during initiation complex formation, as revealed by this study, offers insights into the functional role of rRNA in protein synthesis. PMID:2662189

  9. Missense mutations in Desmocollin-2 N-terminus, associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, affect intracellular localization of desmocollin-2 in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Beffagna, Giorgia; De Bortoli, Marzia; Nava, Andrea; Salamon, Michela; Lorenzon, Alessandra; Zaccolo, Manuela; Mancuso, Luisa; Sigalotti, Luca; Bauce, Barbara; Occhi, Gianluca; Basso, Cristina; Lanfranchi, Gerolamo; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Thiene, Gaetano; Danieli, Gian Antonio; Rampazzo, Alessandra

    2007-01-01

    Background Mutations in genes encoding desmosomal proteins have been reported to cause arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), an autosomal dominant disease characterised by progressive myocardial atrophy with fibro-fatty replacement. We screened 54 ARVC probands for mutations in desmocollin-2 (DSC2), the only desmocollin isoform expressed in cardiac tissue. Methods Mutation screening was performed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct sequencing. To evaluate the pathogenic potentials of the DSC2 mutations detected in patients affected with ARVC, full-length wild-type and mutated cDNAs were cloned in eukaryotic expression vectors to obtain a fusion protein with green fluorescence protein (GFP); constructs were transfected in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and in HL-1 cells. Results We identified two heterozygous mutations (c.304G>A (p.E102K) and c.1034T>C (p.I345T)) in two probands and in four family members. The two mutations p.E102K and p.I345T map to the N-terminal region, relevant to adhesive interactions. In vitro functional studies demonstrated that, unlike wild-type DSC2, the two N-terminal mutants are predominantly localised in the cytoplasm. Conclusion The two missense mutations in the N-terminal domain affect the normal localisation of DSC2, thus suggesting the potential pathogenic effect of the reported mutations. Identification of additional DSC2 mutations associated with ARVC may result in increased diagnostic accuracy with implications for genetic counseling. PMID:17963498

  10. Transient congenital hypothyroidism caused by compound heterozygous mutations affecting the NADPH-oxidase domain of DUOX2.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa-Ogasawara, Atsuko; Abe, Kiyomi; Ogikubo, Sayaka; Narumi, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Satoh, Mari

    2016-03-01

    Here, we describe three cases of loss-of-function mutations in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase (NOX) domain of dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) occurring along with concurrent missense mutations in thyroid peroxidase (TPO), leading to transient congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Three Japanese boys with nonconsanguineous parents were diagnosed with CH during their neonatal screenings. All patients presented with moderate-to-severe neonatal hypothyroidism and were diagnosed with transient CH after re-evaluation of thyroid function. Two siblings were compound heterozygous for p.[R1110Q]+[Y1180X] in DUOX2; one of them was also heterozygous for p.[R361L] in TPO. The third patient was compound heterozygous for p.[L1160del]+[R1334W] in DUOX2 and heterozygous for p.[P883S] in TPO. This is the first report of a de novo L1160del mutation affecting the DUOX2 gene and of the novel mutations Y1180X in DUOX2 and R361L in TPO. R1110Q and L1160del were found to reduce H2O2 production (5%-9%, p<0.01), while Y1180X, which introduces a premature stop codon, did not confer detectable H2O2 production (-0.7%±0.6%, p<0.01). Moreover, R1334W, a missense mutation possibly affecting electron transfer, led to reduced H2O2 production (24%±0.9%, p<0.01) in vitro, and R1110Q and R1334W resulted in reduced protein expression. Y1180X was detected in a 120 kDa truncated form, whereas L1160del expression was maintained. Further, R361L, a novel missense mutation in TPO, caused partial reduction in peroxidase activity (20.6%±0.8%, p=0.01), whereas P883S, a missense variant, increased it (133.7%±2.8%, p=0.02). The protein expression levels in the case of R361L and P883S were maintained. In conclusion, we provide clinical and in vitro demonstrations of different functional defects and phenotypic heterogeneity in the same thyroid hormonogenesis pathway. PMID:26565538

  11. A new Gsdma3 mutation affecting anagen phase of first hair cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shigekazu; Tamura, Masaru; Aoki, Aya; Fujii, Tomoaki; Komiyama, Hiromitsu; Sagai, Tomoko; Shiroishi, Toshihiko . E-mail: tshirois@lab.nig.ac.jp

    2007-08-10

    Recombination-induced mutation 3 (Rim3) is a spontaneous mouse mutation that exhibits dominant phenotype of hyperkeratosis and hair loss. Fine linkage analysis of Rim3 and sequencing revealed a novel single point mutation, G1124A leading to Ala348Thr, in Gsdma3 in chromosome 11. Transgenesis with BAC DNA harboring the Rim3-type Gsdma3 recaptured the Rim3 phenotype, providing direct evidence that Gsdma3 is the causative gene of Rim3. We examined the spatial expression of Gsdma3 and characterized the Rim3 phenotype in detail. Gsdma3 is expressed in differentiated epidermal cells in the skin, but not in the proliferating epidermal cells. Histological analysis of Rim3 mutant showed hyperplasia of the epidermal cells in the upper hair follicles and abnormal anagen phase at the first hair cycle. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed hyperproliferation and misdifferentiation of the upper follicular epidermis in Rim3 mutant. These results suggest that Gsdma3 is involved in the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal stem cells.

  12. A Remote Mutation Affects the Hydride Transfer by Disrupting Concerted Protein Motions in Thymidylate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Abeysinghe, Thelma; Finer-Moore, Janet S.; Stroud, Robert M.; Kohen, Amnon

    2012-01-01

    The role of protein flexibility in enzyme-catalyzed activation of chemical bonds is an evolving perspective in enzymology. Here we examine the role of protein motions in the hydride transfer reaction catalyzed by thymidylate synthase (TSase). Being remote from the chemical reaction site, the Y209W mutation of E. coli TSase significantly reduces the protein activity, despite the remarkable similarity between the crystal structures of the wild type and mutant enzymes with ligands representing their Michaelis complexes. The most conspicuous difference between those two crystal structures is in the anisotropic B-factors, which indicates disruption of the correlated atomic vibrations of protein residues in the mutant. This dynamically altered mutant allows a variety of small thiols to compete for the reaction intermediate that precedes the hydride transfer, indicating disruption of motions that preorganize the protein environment for this chemical step. Although the mutation causes higher enthalpy of activation of the hydride transfer, it only shows a small effect on the temperature-dependence of the intrinsic KIE, suggesting marginal changes in the geometry and dynamics of the H-donor and acceptor at the tunneling ready state. These observations suggest that that the mutation disrupts the concerted motions that bring the H-donor and acceptor together during the pre- and re-organization of the protein environment. The integrated structural and kinetic data allow us to probe the impact of protein motions on different timescales on the hydride transfer reaction within a complex enzymatic mechanism. PMID:23034004

  13. Characterization of novel Brown midrib 6 mutations affecting lignin biosynthesis in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Scully, Erin D; Gries, Tammy; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Xin, Zhanguo; Kovacs, Frank A; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E

    2016-02-01

    The presence of lignin reduces the quality of lignocellulosic biomass for forage materials and feedstock for biofuels. In C4 grasses, the brown midrib phenotype has been linked to mutations to genes in the monolignol biosynthesis pathway. For example, the Bmr6 gene in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has been previously shown to encode cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), which catalyzes the final step of the monolignol biosynthesis pathway. Mutations in this gene have been shown to reduce the abundance of lignin, enhance digestibility, and improve saccharification efficiencies and ethanol yields. Nine sorghum lines harboring five different bmr6 alleles were identified in an EMS-mutagenized TILLING population. DNA sequencing of Bmr6 revealed that the majority of the mutations impacted evolutionarily conserved amino acids while three-dimensional structural modeling predicted that all of these alleles interfered with the enzyme's ability to bind with its NADPH cofactor. All of the new alleles reduced in vitro CAD activity levels and enhanced glucose yields following saccharification. Further, many of these lines were associated with higher reductions in acid detergent lignin compared to lines harboring the previously characterized bmr6-ref allele. These bmr6 lines represent new breeding tools for manipulating biomass composition to enhance forage and feedstock quality. PMID:26172142

  14. Cancer-associated SF3B1 mutations affect alternative splicing by promoting alternative branchpoint usage

    PubMed Central

    Alsafadi, Samar; Houy, Alexandre; Battistella, Aude; Popova, Tatiana; Wassef, Michel; Henry, Emilie; Tirode, Franck; Constantinou, Angelos; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Dutertre, Martin; Stern, Marc-Henri

    2016-01-01

    Hotspot mutations in the spliceosome gene SF3B1 are reported in ∼20% of uveal melanomas. SF3B1 is involved in 3′-splice site (3′ss) recognition during RNA splicing; however, the molecular mechanisms of its mutation have remained unclear. Here we show, using RNA-Seq analyses of uveal melanoma, that the SF3B1R625/K666 mutation results in deregulated splicing at a subset of junctions, mostly by the use of alternative 3′ss. Modelling the differential junctions in SF3B1WT and SF3B1R625/K666 cell lines demonstrates that the deregulated splice pattern strictly depends on SF3B1 status and on the 3'ss-sequence context. SF3B1WT knockdown or overexpression do not reproduce the SF3B1R625/K666 splice pattern, qualifying SF3B1R625/K666 as change-of-function mutants. Mutagenesis of predicted branchpoints reveals that the SF3B1R625/K666-promoted splice pattern is a direct result of alternative branchpoint usage. Altogether, this study provides a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying splicing alterations induced by mutant SF3B1 in cancer, and reveals a role for alternative branchpoints in disease. PMID:26842708

  15. Mutations that affect production of branched RNA-linked msDNA in Myxococcus xanthus.

    PubMed Central

    Dhundale, A; Furuichi, T; Inouye, M; Inouye, S

    1988-01-01

    A deletion mutation of the gene (msd-msr) for the branched RNA-linked msDNA of Myxococcus xanthus was constructed by replacing the chromosomal 0.7-kilobase (kb) SmaI-XhoI fragment encompassing msd-msr with a 1.4-kb fragment carrying a gene for kanamycin resistance. It was found that this deletion strain (delta msSX) could not produce msDNA, although it still contained another species of msDNA, mrDNA (msDNA, reduced size). No apparent differences between delta msSX and the wild-type strain were observed in terms of cell growth, morphogenesis, fruiting-body formation, or motility. Both a deletion mutation at the region 100 base pairs upstream of msd and an insertion mutation at a site 500 base pairs upstream of msd showed a significant reduction of msDNA production, indicating that there is a cis- or trans-acting positive element in this region. When the 3.5-kb BamHI fragment carrying msd-msr from Stigmatella aurantiaca was inserted into the M. xanthus chromosome, the S. aurantiaca msDNA was found to be produced in M. xanthus. Images PMID:2461359

  16. Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Hamilton, M. Kristina; Rust, Bret; Raybould, Helen E.; Newman, John W.; Martin, Roy; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] resulted in large increases of amylose and resistant starch content. The presence of these four mutations was also associated with an average 5% reduction in kernel weight (P = 0.0007) and 15% reduction in grain yield (P = 0.06) compared to the wild type. Complete milling and pasta quality analysis showed that the mutant lines have an acceptable quality with positive effects on pasta firmness and negative effects on semolina extraction and pasta color. Positive fermentation responses were detected in rats (Rattus spp.) fed with diets incorporating mutant wheat flour. This study quantifies benefits and limitations associated with the deployment of the SBEIIa/b-AB mutations in durum wheat and provides the information required to develop realistic strategies to deploy durum wheat varieties with increased levels of amylose and resistant starch. PMID:27134286

  17. Intronic mutations affecting splicing of MBTPS2 cause ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oeffner, Frank; Martinez, Francisco; Schaffer, Julie; Salhi, Aïcha; Monfort, Sandra; Oltra, Silvestre; Neidel, Ulrike; Bornholdt, Dorothea; van Bon, Bregje; König, Arne; Happle, Rudolf; Grzeschik, Karl-Heinz

    2011-05-01

    Ichthyosis follicularis, alopecia and photophobia (IFAP) syndrome is an X-linked genodermatosis with congenital atrichia being the most prominent feature. Recently, we have shown that functional deficiency of MBTPS2 (membrane-bound transcription factor protease site 2) - a zinc metalloprotease essential for cholesterol homeostasis and endoplasmic reticulum stress response - causes the disease. Here, we present results obtained by analysing two intronic MBTPS2 mutations, c.671-9T>G and c.225-6T>A, using in silico and cell-based splicing assays. Accordingly, the c.225-6T>A transversion generated a new splice acceptor site, which caused extension of exon 3 by four bases and subsequently introduced a premature stop codon. Both, minigene experiments and RT-PCR analysis with patient-derived mRNA, demonstrated that the c.671-9T>G mutation resulted in skipping of exon 6, most likely because of disruption of the polypyrimidin tract or a putative intronic splicing enhancer (ISE). Our combined biocomputational and experimental analysis strongly suggested that both intronic alterations are disease-causing mutations. PMID:21426410

  18. Mild mutations in the pan neural gene prospero affect male-specific behaviour in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, Yaël; Savy, Mathilde; Soichot, Julien; Everaerts, Claude; Cézilly, Frank; Ferveur, Jean François

    2004-01-30

    The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most appropriate model organisms to study the genetics of behaviour. Here, we focus on prospero (pros), a key gene for the development of the nervous system which specifies multiple aspects from the early formation of the embryonic central nervous system to the formation of larval and adult sensory organs. We studied the effects on locomotion, courtship and mating behaviour of three mild pros mutations. These newly isolated pros mutations were induced after the incomplete excision of a transposable genomic element that, before excision, caused a lethal phenotype during larval development. Strikingly, these mutant strains, but not the strains with a clean excision, produced a high frequency of heterozygous flies, after more than 50 generations in the lab. We investigated the factors that could decrease the fitness of homozygotes relatively to heterozygous pros mutant flies. Flies of both genotypes had slightly different levels of fertility. More strikingly, homozygous mutant males had a lower sexual activity than heterozygous males and failed to mate in a competitive situation. No similar effect was detected in mutant females. These findings suggest that mild mutations in pros did not alter vital functions during development but drastically changed adult male behaviour and reproductive fitness. PMID:14744542

  19. Inactivation of X-linked tumor suppressor genes in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Runhua; Kain, Mandy; Wang, Lizhong

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells silence autosomal tumor suppressor genes by Knudson’s two-hit mechanism in which loss-of-function mutations and then loss of heterozygosity occur at the tumor suppressor gene loci. However, the identification of X-linked tumor suppressor genes has challenged the traditional theory of “two-hit inactivation” in tumor suppressor genes, introducing the novel concept that a single genetic hit can cause loss of tumor suppressor function. The mechanism through which these genes are silenced in human cancer is unclear, but elucidating the details will greatly enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of human cancer. Here, we review the identification of X-linked tumor suppressor genes and discuss the potential mechanisms of their inactivation. In addition, we also discuss how the identification of X-linked tumor suppressor genes can potentially lead to new approaches to cancer therapy. PMID:22515449

  20. A novel COL11A1 mutation affecting splicing in a patient with Stickler syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Kobayashi, Haruka; Watanabe, Miki; Okamoto, Nana; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Imoto, Issei; Okamoto, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Stickler syndrome is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous collagenopathy characterized by ocular, auditory, skeletal and orofacial abnormalities, commonly occurring as an autosomal dominant trait. We conducted target resequencing to analyze candidate genes associated with known clinical phenotypes from a 4-year-old girl with Stickler syndrome. We detected a novel heterozygous intronic mutation (NM_001854.3:c.3168+5G>A) in COL11A1 that may impair splicing, which was suggested by in silico prediction and a minigene assay. PMID:27081549

  1. Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and early events of the virus life cycle.

    PubMed

    Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A

    2015-01-15

    Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectors with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding events of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. PMID:25462351

  2. Human CLP1 mutations alter tRNA biogenesis affecting both peripheral and central nervous system function

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Ender; Weitzer, Stefan; Pehlivan, Davut; Shiraishi, Hiroshi; Gogakos, Tasos; Hanada, Toshikatsu; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Wiszniewski, Wojciech; Withers, Marjorie; Campbell, Ian M.; Erdin, Serkan; Isikay, Sedat; Franco, Luis M.; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Gambin, Tomasz; Gelowani, Violet; Hunter, Jill V.; Yesil, Gozde; Koparir, Erkan; Yilmaz, Sarenur; Brown, Miguel; Briskin, Daniel; Hafner, Markus; Morozov, Pavel; Farazi, Thalia A.; Bernreuther, Christian; Glatzel, Markus; Trattnig, Siegfried; Friske, Joachim; Kronnerwetter, Claudia; Bainbridge, Matthew N.; Gezdirici, Alper; Seven, Mehmet; Muzny, Donna M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Ozen, Mustafa; Clausen, Tim; Tuschl, Thomas; Yuksel, Adnan; Hess, Andreas; Gibbs, Richard A.; Martinez, Javier; Penninger, Josef M.; Lupski, James R.

    2014-01-01

    CLP1 is a RNA kinase involved in tRNA splicing. Recently, CLP1 kinase-dead mice were shown to display a neuromuscular disorder with loss of motor neurons and muscle paralysis. Human genome analyses now identified a CLP1 homozygous missense mutation (p.R140H) in five unrelated families, leading to a loss of CLP1 interaction with the tRNA splicing endonuclease (TSEN) complex, largely reduced pre-tRNA cleavage activity, and accumulation of linear tRNA introns. The affected individuals develop severe motor-sensory defects, cortical dysgenesis and microcephaly. Mice carrying kinase-dead CLP1 also displayed microcephaly and reduced cortical brain volume due to the enhanced cell death of neuronal progenitors that is associated with reduced numbers of cortical neurons. Our data elucidate a novel neurological syndrome defined by CLP1 mutations that impair tRNA splicing. Reduction of a founder mutation to homozygosity illustrates the importance of rare variations in disease and supports the clan genomics hypothesis. PMID:24766809

  3. Mutations altering the gammaretrovirus endoproteolytic motif affect glycosylation of the envelope glycoprotein and early events of the virus life cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Argaw, Takele; Wilson, Carolyn A.

    2015-01-15

    Previously, we found that mutation of glutamine to proline in the endoproteolytic cleavage signal of the PERV-C envelope (RQKK to RPKK) resulted in non-infectious vectors. Here, we show that RPKK results in a non-infectious vector when placed in not only a PERV envelope, but also the envelope of a related gammaretrovirus, FeLV-B. The amino acid substitutions do not prevent envelope precursor cleavage, viral core and genome assembly, or receptor binding. Rather, the mutations result in the formation of hyperglycosylated glycoprotein and a reduction in the reverse transcribed minus strand synthesis and undetectable 2-LTR circular DNA in cells exposed to vectors with these mutated envelopes. Our findings suggest novel functions associated with the cleavage signal sequence that may affect trafficking through the glycosylation machinery of the cell. Further, the glycosylation status of the envelope appears to impact post-binding events of the viral life cycle, either membrane fusion, internalization, or reverse transcription. - Highlights: • Env cleavage signal impacts infectivity of gammaretroviruses. • Non-infectious mutants have hyper-glycosylated envelope that bind target cells. • Non-infectious mutants have defects in the formation of the double-stranded DNA. • Env cleavage motif has functions beyond cleavage of the env precursor.

  4. The prevalence of ABCB1:c.227_230delATAG mutation in affected dog breeds from European countries.

    PubMed

    Firdova, Zuzana; Turnova, Evelina; Bielikova, Marcela; Turna, Jan; Dudas, Andrej

    2016-06-01

    Deletion of 4-base pairs in the canine ABCB1 (MDR1) gene, responsible for encoding P-glycoprotein, leads to nonsense frame-shift mutation, which causes hypersensitivity to macrocyclic lactones drugs (e.g. ivermectin). To date, at least 12 purebred dog breeds have been found to be affected by this mutation. The aim of this study was to update information about the prevalence of ABCB1 mutation (c.227_230delATAG) in predisposed breeds in multiple European countries. This large scale survey also includes countries which were not involved in previous studies. The samples were collected in the period from 2012 to 2014. The overview is based on genotyping data of 4729 individuals. The observed mutant allele frequencies were 58.5% (Smooth Collie), 48.3% (Rough Collie), 35% (Australian Shepherd), 30.3% (Shetland Sheepdog), 28.1% (Silken Windhound), 26.1% (Miniature Australian Shepherd), 24.3% (Longhaired Whippet), 16.2% (White Swiss Shepherd) and 0% (Border Collie). The possible presence of an ABCB1 mutant allele in Akita-Inu breed has been investigated with negative results. This information could be helpful for breeders in optimization of their breeding strategy and for veterinarians when prescribing drug therapy for dogs of predisposed breeds. PMID:27234542

  5. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hsp70 mutations affect [PSI+] prion propagation and cell growth differently and implicate Hsp40 and tetratricopeptide repeat cochaperones in impairment of [PSI+].

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gary W; Masison, Daniel C

    2003-01-01

    We previously described an Hsp70 mutant (Ssa1-21p), altered in a conserved residue (L483W), that dominantly impairs yeast [PSI(+)] prion propagation without affecting growth. We generated new SSA1 mutations that impaired [PSI(+)] propagation and second-site mutations in SSA1-21 that restored normal propagation. Effects of mutations on growth did not correlate with [PSI(+)] phenotype, revealing differences in Hsp70 function required for growth and [PSI(+)] propagation and suggesting that Hsp70 interacts differently with [PSI(+)] prion aggregates than with other cellular substrates. Complementary suppression of altered activity between forward and suppressing mutations suggests that mutations that impair [PSI(+)] affect a similar Hsp70 function and that suppressing mutations similarly overcome this effect. All new mutations that impaired [PSI(+)] propagation were located in the ATPase domain. Locations and homology of several suppressing substitutions suggest that they weaken Hsp70's substrate-trapping conformation, implying that impairment of [PSI(+)] by forward mutations is due to altered ability of the ATPase domain to regulate substrate binding. Other suppressing mutations are in residues important for interactions with Hsp40 or TPR-containing cochaperones, suggesting that such interactions are necessary for the impairment of [PSI(+)] propagation caused by mutant Ssa1p. PMID:12618389

  6. pigk Mutation underlies macho behavior and affects Rohon-Beard cell excitability

    PubMed Central

    Carmean, V.; Yonkers, M. A.; Tellez, M. B.; Willer, J. R.; Willer, G. B.; Gregg, R. G.; Geisler, R.; Neuhauss, S. C.

    2015-01-01

    The study of touch-evoked behavior allows investigation of both the cells and circuits that generate a response to tactile stimulation. We investigate a touch-insensitive zebrafish mutant, macho (maco), previously shown to have reduced sodium current amplitude and lack of action potential firing in sensory neurons. In the genomes of mutant but not wild-type embryos, we identify a mutation in the pigk gene. The encoded protein, PigK, functions in attachment of glycophosphatidylinositol anchors to precursor proteins. In wild-type embryos, pigk mRNA is present at times when mutant embryos display behavioral phenotypes. Consistent with the predicted loss of function induced by the mutation, knock-down of PigK phenocopies maco touch insensitivity and leads to reduced sodium current (INa) amplitudes in sensory neurons. We further test whether the genetic defect in pigk underlies the maco phenotype by overexpressing wild-type pigk in mutant embryos. We find that ubiquitous expression of wild-type pigk rescues the touch response in maco mutants. In addition, for maco mutants, expression of wild-type pigk restricted to sensory neurons rescues sodium current amplitudes and action potential firing in sensory neurons. However, expression of wild-type pigk limited to sensory cells of mutant embryos does not allow rescue of the behavioral touch response. Our results demonstrate an essential role for pigk in generation of the touch response beyond that required for maintenance of proper INa density and action potential firing in sensory neurons. PMID:26133798

  7. Yeast killer plasmid mutations affecting toxin secretion and activity and toxin immunity function

    SciTech Connect

    Bussey, H.; Sacks, W.; Galley, D.; Saville, D.

    1982-04-01

    M double-stranded RNA (MdsRNA) plasmid mutants were obtained by mutagenesis and screening of a diploid killer culture partially heat cured of the plasmid, so that a high proportion of the cells could be expected to have only one M plasmid. Mutants with neutral (K/sup -/), immune (R/sup +/) or suicide (killer (K/sup +/), sensitive (R/sup -/)) phenotypes were examined. All mutants became K/sup -/ R/sup -/ sensitives on heat curing of the MdsRNA plasmid, and showed cytoplasmic inheritance by random spore analysis. In some cases, M plasmid mutations were indicated by altered mobility of the MdsRNA by agarose gel electrophoresis or by altered size of in vitro translation products from denatured dsRNA. Neutral mutants were of two types: nonsecretors of the toxin protein or secretors of an inactive toxin. Of three neutral nonsecretors examined, one (NLP-1), probably a nonsense mutation, made a smaller protoxin precursor in vitro and in vivo, and two made full-size protoxin molecules. The in vivo protoxin of 43,000 molecular weight was unstable in the wild type and kinetically showed a precursor product relationship to the processed, secreted 11,000-molecular-weight toxin. In one nonsecretor (N1), the protoxin appeared more stable in a pulse-chase experiment, and could be altered in a recognition site required for protein processing.

  8. A single mutation in Escherichia coli ribonuclease II inactivates the enzyme without affecting RNA binding.

    PubMed

    Amblar, Mónica; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2005-01-01

    Exoribonuclease II (RNase II), encoded by the rnb gene, is a ubiquitous enzyme that is responsible for 90% of the hydrolytic activity in Escherichia coli crude extracts. The E. coli strain SK4803, carrying the mutant allele rnb296, has been widely used in the study of the role of RNase II. We determined the DNA sequence of rnb296 and cloned this mutant gene in an expression vector. Only a point mutation in the coding sequence of the gene was detected, which results in the single substitution of aspartate 209 for asparagine. The mutant and the wild-type RNase II enzymes were purified, and their 3' to 5' exoribonucleolytic activity, as well as their RNA binding capability, were characterized. We also studied the metal dependency of the exoribonuclease activity of RNase II. The results obtained demonstrated that aspartate 209 is absolutely essential for RNA hydrolysis, but is not required for substrate binding. This is the first evidence of an acidic residue that is essential for the activity of RNase II-like enzymes. The possible involvement of this residue in metal binding at the active site of the enzyme is discussed. These results are particularly relevant at this time given that no structural or mutational analysis has been performed for any protein of the RNR family of exoribonucleases. PMID:15654875

  9. A mutation in protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit A affects auxin transport in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbers, C.; DeLong, A.; Deruere, J.; Bernasconi, P.; Soll, D.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin controls processes such as cell elongation, root hair development and root branching. Tropisms, growth curvatures triggered by gravity, light and touch, are also auxin-mediated responses. Auxin is synthesized in the shoot apex and transported through the stem, but the molecular mechanism of auxin transport is not well understood. Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and other inhibitors of auxin transport block tropic curvature responses and inhibit root and shoot elongation. We have isolated a novel Arabidopsis thaliana mutant designated roots curl in NPA (rcn1). Mutant seedlings exhibit altered responses to NPA in root curling and hypocotyl elongation. Auxin efflux in mutant seedlings displays increased sensitivity to NPA. The rcn1 mutation was transferred-DNA (T-DNA) tagged and sequences flanking the T-DNA insert were cloned. Analysis of the RCN1 cDNA reveals that the T-DNA insertion disrupts a gene for the regulatory A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-A). The RCN1 gene rescues the rcn1 mutant phenotype and also complements the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PP2A-A mutation, tpd3-1. These data implicate protein phosphatase 2A in the regulation of auxin transport in Arabidopsis.

  10. A mutation in protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit A affects auxin transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed Central

    Garbers, C; DeLong, A; Deruére, J; Bernasconi, P; Söll, D

    1996-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin controls processes such as cell elongation, root hair development and root branching. Tropisms, growth curvatures triggered by gravity, light and touch, are also auxin-mediated responses. Auxin is synthesized in the shoot apex and transported through the stem, but the molecular mechanism of auxin transport is not well understood. Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and other inhibitors of auxin transport block tropic curvature responses and inhibit root and shoot elongation. We have isolated a novel Arabidopsis thaliana mutant designated roots curl in NPA (rcn1). Mutant seedlings exhibit altered responses to NPA in root curling and hypocotyl elongation. Auxin efflux in mutant seedlings displays increased sensitivity to NPA. The rcn1 mutation was transferred-DNA (T-DNA) tagged and sequences flanking the T-DNA insert were cloned. Analysis of the RCN1 cDNA reveals that the T-DNA insertion disrupts a gene for the regulatory A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-A). The RCN1 gene rescues the rcn1 mutant phenotype and also complements the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PP2A-A mutation, tpd3-1. These data implicate protein phosphatase 2A in the regulation of auxin transport in Arabidopsis. Images PMID:8641277

  11. Glutamine synthetase mutations which affect expression of nitrogen fixation genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Ausubel, F M; Bird, S C; Durbin, K J; Janssen, K A; Margolskee, R F; Peskin, A P

    1979-01-01

    Previous studies have implicated glutamine synthetase (L-glutamate:ammonia ligase [adenosine diphosphate for-ing], EC 6.6.1.2) as a major controlling element of the nitrogen fixation (nif) genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae. We report here the isolation of a new class of K. pneumoniae mutants which exhibit altered patterns of nif and hut (histidine utlization) regulation. The expression of nif in these mutants, which were isolated as Gln+ (glutamine nonrequiring) revertants of a particular glnA mutation, is extremely sensitive to ammonia repression. These mutants have a Nif- Hut- phenotype at external ammonia concentrations at which wild-type strains are Nif+ Hut+. On the other hand, these mutants can be fully derepressed for nif at very low ammonia concentrations. We adopted the nomenclature "GlnR- (Nif- Hut-)" to facilitate discussion of the phenotype of these mutant strains. The mutations in these strains which confer the GlnR- phenotype map at or near glnA, the structural gene for glutamine synthetase. PMID:40960

  12. Novel familial dilated cardiomyopathy mutation in MYL2 affects the structure and function of myosin regulatory light chain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenrui; Liang, Jingsheng; Yuan, Chen-Ching; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Zhou, Zhiqun; Morales, Ana; McBride, Kim L; Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M; Hershberger, Ray E; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta

    2015-06-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the myocardium characterized by left ventricular dilatation and diminished contractile function. Here we describe a novel DCM mutation in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC), in which aspartic acid at position 94 is replaced by alanine (D94A). The mutation was identified by exome sequencing of three adult first-degree relatives who met formal criteria for idiopathic DCM. To obtain insight into the functional significance of this pathogenic MYL2 variant, we cloned and purified the human ventricular RLC wild-type (WT) and D94A mutant proteins, and performed in vitro experiments using RLC-mutant or WT-reconstituted porcine cardiac preparations. The mutation induced a reduction in the α-helical content of the RLC, and imposed intra-molecular rearrangements. The phosphorylation of RLC by Ca²⁺/calmodulin-activated myosin light chain kinase was not affected by D94A. The mutation was seen to impair binding of RLC to the myosin heavy chain, and its incorporation into RLC-depleted porcine myosin. The actin-activated ATPase activity of mutant-reconstituted porcine cardiac myosin was significantly higher compared with ATPase of wild-type. No changes in the myofibrillar ATPase-pCa relationship were observed in wild-type- or D94A-reconstituted preparations. Measurements of contractile force showed a slightly reduced maximal tension per cross-section of muscle, with no change in the calcium sensitivity of force in D94A-reconstituted skinned porcine papillary muscle strips compared with wild-type. Our data indicate that subtle structural rearrangements in the RLC molecule, followed by its impaired interaction with the myosin heavy chain, may trigger functional abnormalities contributing to the DCM phenotype. PMID:25825243

  13. A cis-acting mutation in the Sindbis virus junction region which affects subgenomic RNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Grakoui, A; Levis, R; Raju, R; Huang, H V; Rice, C M

    1989-01-01

    The synthesis of Sindbis virus minus-strand and genomic and subgenomic RNAs is believed to require specific cis-acting sequences or structures in the template RNAs and a combination of virus-specific proteins and host components which act in trans. A conserved sequence of about 21 nucleotides in the junction region and encompassing the start site for the subgenomic RNA has been proposed to function as the promoter on the minus-strand template for synthesis of the subgenomic RNA (J.-H. Ou, C. M. Rice, L. Dalgarno, E. G. Strauss, and J. H. Strauss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:5235-5239, 1982). We introduced a three-base insertion in this sequence, which also inserts a single amino acid near the COOH terminus of nsP4, in a cDNA clone of Sindbis virus from which infectious RNA transcripts can be generated. The phenotype of this mutant, called Toto1100CR4.1, was studied after RNA transfection of chicken embryo fibroblasts or BHK cells. The mutation leads to a drastic reduction in the level of the subgenomic RNA but does not alter the start site of the RNA. Probably as a consequence of depressed structural-protein synthesis, very few progeny virions are released and the mutant makes tiny or indistinct plaques even after prolonged incubation. The cis-acting effect of this mutation was demonstrated by incorporating either a wild-type or mutant junction region into a defective-interfering RNA and examining the relative synthesis of defective-interfering RNA-derived subgenomic RNA in vivo in the presence of wild-type helper virus. These results show that the junction region is recognized by yet unidentified viral trans-acting components for subgenomic RNA synthesis. When the Toto1100CR4.1 mutant was passaged in culture, plaque morphology variants readily arose. A total of 24 independent revertants were isolated, and 16 were characterized in detail. All revertants analyzed showed an increase in the level of subgenomic RNA synthesis. Sequence analysis of the junction region

  14. Factors affecting the decision to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy among women with BRCA gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongwon; Kang, Eunyoung; Hwang, Euijun; Sun, Young; Hwang, Yoonsun; Yom, Cha Kyong; Kim, Kidong; No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom; Kim, Sung-Won

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that affect the decision to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations carriers in South Korea. The medical records of 124 women who had been found to have BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation at our institution between May 2003 and December 2011 were reviewed. The carriers were divided into RRSO and non-RRSO groups for comparison of their clinicopathologic, socio-economic, and psychosocial factors. Of the 71 carriers eligible for RRSO, 21 had undergone RRSO. In univariate analysis, classification of carriers into 3 groups by decade of life (4th, 5th, or 6th and later decade) and subsequent analysis revealed that 52.6% of carriers in the 5th decade had undergone RRSO, a rate significantly higher than that of the other age groups (p = 0.007). The RRSO rate was higher in carriers with a personal history of breast cancer than in those without (39.2% vs. 5.0%, p = 0.004), in carriers with a family history of breast cancer than in those without (35.5% vs. 11.8%, p = 0.065), and in carriers with a family history of ovarian cancer than in those carriers without a family history (66.7% vs. 24.2%, p = 0.016). Multivariate analysis identified age and personal history of breast cancer as independent factors affecting the decision to undergo RRSO. Age and personal history of breast cancer are important factors in the decision to undergo, and should thus be considered when counseling BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:23504064

  15. Mutations in the bvgA gene of Bordetella pertussis that differentially affect regulation of virulence determinants.

    PubMed Central

    Stibitz, S

    1994-01-01

    By using chemical mutagenesis and genetic mapping, a search was undertaken for previously undescribed genes which may be involved in different regulatory mechanisms governing different virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis. Previous studies have shown that the fha locus encoding filamentous hemagglutinin is regulated directly by the bvgAS two component system, while regulation of ptx encoding pertussis toxin is less direct or occurs by a different mechanism. With a strain containing gene fusions to each of these regulated loci, screening was done for mutations which were defective for ptx expression but maintained normal or nearly normal levels of fha expression. Two mutations which had such a phenotype and were also deficient in adenylate cyclase toxin/hemolysin expression were found and characterized more fully. Both were found to affect residues in the C-terminal portion of the BvgA response regulator protein, a domain which shares sequence similarity with a family of regulatory proteins including FixJ, UhpA, MalT, RcsA, RcsB, and LuxR. The residues affected are within a region which, by extension from studies on the LuxR protein, may be involved in transcriptional activation. Images PMID:8083156

  16. Mutations Affecting the Dissimilation of Mannitol by Escherichia coli K-121

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, E.; Lin, E. C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 defective in the mannitol-specific enzyme II complex of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PTS) or lacking mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase have been isolated. These mutants fail only to grow on mannitol. Growth of the dehydrogenase-negative mutant on casein hydrolysate can be abruptly inhibited by exposure to mannitol. A mutant with constitutive expression of both of these enzymes has also been isolated. All three mutations are clustered in a region represented at min 71 of the Taylor map. In a mutant with less than 5% of the activity of enzyme I of the PTS, both the enzyme II complex and the dehydrogenase remain inducible by mannitol. In the mutant defective in the enzyme II complex, mannitol is able to induce the dehydrogenase. Thus, mannitol, rather than its phosphorylated product, seems to be the inducer. PMID:4559737

  17. Single amino acid mutation in alpha-helical peptide affect second harmonic generation hyperpolarizability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jing; Wang, Jin-Yun; Zhang, Min-Yi; Chai, Guo-Liang; Lin, Chen-Sheng; Cheng, Wen-Dan

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effect of side chain on the first-order hyperpolarizability in α-helical polyalanine peptide with the 10th alanine mutation (Acetyl(ala)9X(ala)7NH2). Structures of various substituted peptides are optimized by ONIOM (DFT: AM1) scheme, and then linear and nonlinear optical properties are calculated by SOS//CIS/6-31G∗ method. The polarizability and first-order hyperpolarizability increase obviously only when 'X' represents phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. We also discuss the origin of nonlinear optical response and determine what caused the increase of first-order hyperpolarizability. Our results strongly suggest that side chains containing benzene, phenol and indole have important contributions to first-order hyperpolarizability.

  18. Genetic analysis of jumbled spine and ribs (Jsr) mutation affecting the vertebral development in mice.

    PubMed

    Okano, Shinya; Asano, Atsushi; Kon, Yasuhiro; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Tomomasa

    2002-10-01

    The jumbled spine and ribs (Jsr) mouse was derived from a spontaneous mutation. As the phenotype, a shortened trunk and kinky tail are characteristic Jsr traits. In this study, on high resolution mapping it was found that Lunatic fringe (Lfng) mapped at the same position as Jsr. Lfng was identified as the candidate gene for Jsr, but sequence analysis of this gene revealed no substitution in the coding region of cDNA. Therefore, we adopted the strategy of positional cloning for Jsr using a mouse bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library. A BAC contig was constructed from three BAC clones showing positive signals of Lfng and 11MMHAP75FRD8.seq near the Jsr locus on chromosome 5. Based on the genetic mapping of both T7 and sp6 ends of a clone of BAC382-O-7 (BAC382), the Jsr gene was considered to exist in BAC382 and to be positioned near the sp6 side. PMID:12392169

  19. Mutations in NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase of Escherichia coli affect growth on mixed amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Prüss, B M; Nelms, J M; Park, C; Wolfe, A J

    1994-01-01

    We isolated and characterized mutants defective in nuo, encoding NADH dehydrogenase I, the multisubunit complex homologous to eucaryotic mitochondrial complex I. By Southern hybridization and/or sequence analysis, we characterized three distinct mutations: a polar insertion designated nuoG::Tn10-1, a nonpolar insertion designated nuoF::Km-1, and a large deletion designated delta(nuoFGHIJKL)-1. Cells carrying any of these three mutations exhibited identical phenotypes. Each mutant exhibited reduced NADH oxidase activity, grew poorly on minimal salts medium containing acetate as the sole carbon source, and failed to produce the inner, L-aspartate chemotactic band on tryptone swarm plates. During exponential growth in tryptone broth, nuo mutants grew as rapidly as wild-type cells and excreted similar amounts of acetate into the medium. As they began the transition to stationary phase, in contrast to wild-type cells, the mutant cells abruptly slowed their growth and continued to excrete acetate. The growth defect was entirely suppressed by L-serine or D-pyruvate, partially suppressed by alpha-ketoglutarate or acetate, and not suppressed by L-aspartate or L-glutamate. We extended these studies, analyzing the sequential consumption of amino acids by both wild-type and nuo mutant cells growing in tryptone broth. During the lag and exponential phases, both wild-type and mutant cells consumed, in order, L-serine and L-aspartate. As they began the transition to stationary phase, both cell types consumed L-tryptophan. Whereas wild-type cells then consumed L-glutamate, glycine, L-threonine, and L-alanine, mutant cells utilized these amino acids poorly. We propose that cells defective for NADH dehydrogenase I exhibit all these phenotypes, because large NADH/NAD+ ratios inhibit certain tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, e.g., citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase. Images PMID:8157582

  20. Mutations of Arabidopsis TBL32 and TBL33 Affect Xylan Acetylation and Secondary Wall Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Youxi; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; Haghighat, Marziyeh; Richardson, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Xylan is a major acetylated polymer in plant lignocellulosic biomass and it can be mono- and di-acetylated at O-2 and O-3 as well as mono-acetylated at O-3 of xylosyl residues that is substituted with glucuronic acid (GlcA) at O-2. Based on the finding that ESK1, an Arabidopsis thaliana DUF231 protein, specifically mediates xylan 2-O- and 3-O-monoacetylation, we previously proposed that different acetyltransferase activities are required for regiospecific acetyl substitutions of xylan. Here, we demonstrate the functional roles of TBL32 and TBL33, two ESK1 close homologs, in acetyl substitutions of xylan. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32 and TBL33 resulted in a significant reduction in xylan acetyl content and endoxylanase digestion of the mutant xylan released GlcA-substituted xylooligomers without acetyl groups. Structural analysis of xylan revealed that the tbl32 tbl33 mutant had a nearly complete loss of 3-O-acetylated, 2-O-GlcA-substituted xylosyl residues. A reduction in 3-O-monoacetylated and 2,3-di-O-acetylated xylosyl residues was also observed. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32, TBL33 and ESK1 resulted in a severe reduction in xylan acetyl level down to 15% of that of the wild type, and concomitantly, severely collapsed vessels and stunted plant growth. In particular, the S2 layer of secondary walls in xylem vessels of tbl33 esk1 and tbl32 tbl33 esk1 exhibited an altered structure, indicating abnormal assembly of secondary wall polymers. These results demonstrate that TBL32 and TBL33 play an important role in xylan acetylation and normal deposition of secondary walls. PMID:26745802

  1. Mutations of Arabidopsis TBL32 and TBL33 affect xylan acetylation and secondary wall deposition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yuan, Youxi; Teng, Quincy; Zhong, Ruiqin; Haghighat, Marziyeh; Richardson, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Zheng -Hua; Zhang, Jin -Song

    2016-01-08

    Xylan is a major acetylated polymer in plant lignocellulosic biomass and it can be monoand di-acetylated at O-2 and O-3 as well as mono-acetylated at O-3 of xylosyl residues that is substituted with glucuronic acid (GlcA) at O-2. Based on the finding that ESK1, an Arabidopsis thaliana DUF231 protein, specifically mediates xylan 2-O- and 3-O-monoacetylation, we previously proposed that different acetyltransferase activities are required for regiospecific acetyl substitutions of xylan. Here, we demonstrate the functional roles of TBL32 and TBL33, two ESK1 close homologs, in acetyl substitutions of xylan. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32 and TBL33 resulted in a significant reductionmore » in xylan acetyl content and endoxylanase digestion of the mutant xylan released GlcA-substituted xylooligomers without acetyl groups. Structural analysis of xylan revealed that the tbl32 tbl33 mutant had a nearly complete loss of 3-O-acetylated, 2-O-GlcA-substituted xylosyl residues. A reduction in 3-Omonoacetylated and 2,3-di-O-acetylated xylosyl residues was also observed. Simultaneous mutations of TBL32, TBL33 and ESK1 resulted in a severe reduction in xylan acetyl level down to 15% of that of the wild type, and concomitantly, severely collapsed vessels and stunted plant growth. In particular, the S2 layer of secondary walls in xylem vessels of tbl33 esk1 and tbl32 tbl33 esk1 exhibited an altered structure, indicating abnormal assembly of secondary wall polymers. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that TBL32 and TBL33 play an important role in xylan acetylation and normal deposition of secondary walls.« less

  2. Experimental and molecular dynamics studies showed that CBP KIX mutation affects the stability of CBP:c-Myb complex.

    PubMed

    Odoux, Anne; Jindal, Darren; Tamas, Tamara C; Lim, Benjamin W H; Pollard, Drake; Xu, Wu

    2016-06-01

    The coactivators CBP (CREBBP) and its paralog p300 (EP300), two conserved multi-domain proteins in eukaryotic organisms, regulate gene expression in part by binding DNA-binding transcription factors. It was previously reported that the CBP/p300 KIX domain mutant (Y650A, A654Q, and Y658A) altered both c-Myb-dependent gene activation and repression, and that mice with these three point mutations had reduced numbers of platelets, B cells, T cells, and red blood cells. Here, our transient transfection assays demonstrated that mouse embryonic fibroblast cells containing the same mutations in the KIX domain and without a wild-type allele of either CBP or p300, showed decreased c-Myb-mediated transcription. Dr. Wright's group solved a 3-D structure of the mouse CBP:c-Myb complex using NMR. To take advantage of the experimental structure and function data and improved theoretical calculation methods, we performed MD simulations of CBP KIX, CBP KIX with the mutations, and c-Myb, as well as binding energy analysis for both the wild-type and mutant complexes. The binding between CBP and c-Myb is mainly mediated by a shallow hydrophobic groove in the center where the side-chain of Leu302 of c-Myb plays an essential role and two salt bridges at the two ends. We found that the KIX mutations slightly decreased stability of the CBP:c-Myb complex as demonstrated by higher binding energy calculated using either MM/PBSA or MM/GBSA methods. More specifically, the KIX mutations affected the two salt bridges between CBP and c-Myb (CBP-R646 and c-Myb-E306; CBP-E665 and c-Myb-R294). Our studies also revealed differing dynamics of the hydrogen bonds between CBP-R646 and c-Myb-E306 and between CBP-E665 and c-Myb-R294 caused by the CBP KIX mutations. In the wild-type CBP:c-Myb complex, both of the hydrogen bonds stayed relatively stable. In contrast, in the mutant CBP:c-Myb complex, hydrogen bonds between R646 and E306 showed an increasing trend followed by a decreasing trend, and hydrogen

  3. Measurand transient signal suppressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A transient signal suppressor for use in a controls system which is adapted to respond to a change in a physical parameter whenever it crosses a predetermined threshold value in a selected direction of increasing or decreasing values with respect to the threshold value and is sustained for a selected discrete time interval is presented. The suppressor includes a sensor transducer for sensing the physical parameter and generating an electrical input signal whenever the sensed physical parameter crosses the threshold level in the selected direction. A manually operated switch is provided for adapting the suppressor to produce an output drive signal whenever the physical parameter crosses the threshold value in the selected direction of increasing or decreasing values. A time delay circuit is selectively adjustable for suppressing the transducer input signal for a preselected one of a plurality of available discrete suppression time and producing an output signal only if the input signal is sustained for a time greater than the selected suppression time. An electronic gate is coupled to receive the transducer input signal and the timer output signal and produce an output drive signal for energizing a control relay whenever the transducer input is a non-transient signal which is sustained beyond the selected time interval.

  4. Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein mutations that affect membrane fusion activity and abolish virus infectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Fredericksen, B L; Whitt, M A

    1995-01-01

    We have introduced amino acid substitutions into two regions of the extracellular domain of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) glycoprotein (G protein) and examined the effect of these mutations on protein transport, low-pH-induced stability of G protein oligomers, and membrane fusion activity. We suggested previously that the region between amino acids 118 and 139 may be important for the membrane fusion activity of G protein, on the basis of the characterization of a fusion-defective G protein mutant (M. A. Whitt, P. Zagouras, B. Crise, and J. K. Rose, J. Virol. 64:4907-4913, 1990). It has also been postulated by others that this region as well as the region between amino acids 181 and 212 may constitute putative internal fusion domains of VSV G protein. In this report, we show that three different amino acids substitutions between residues 118 and 139 (G-124-->E, P-127-->D, and A-133-->K) either altered or abolished low-pH-dependent membrane fusion activity. In contrast, substitutions between residues 192 and 212 resulted either in G proteins that had wild-type fusion activity or in mutant proteins in which the mutation prevented transport of G protein to the cell surface. Two of the substitutions between residues 118 and 139 (G-124-->E and P-127-->D) resulted in G proteins that were fusion defective at pH 5.7, although syncytia were observed after cells were treated with fusion buffer at pH 5.5, albeit at levels significantly less than that induced by wild-type G protein. Interestingly, when either G-124-->E or P-127-->D was incorporated into tsO45 virions, the resulting particles were not infectious, presumably because the viral envelope was not able to fuse with the proper intracellular membrane. These results support the hypothesis that the region between amino acids 118 and 139 is important for the membrane fusion activity of VSV G protein and may constitute an internal fusion domain. PMID:7853475

  5. Characterization and genetic mapping of a mutation affecting apurinic endonuclease activity in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Tam, J E; Pattee, P A

    1986-01-01

    Protoplast fusion between the Rec- mutant RN981 (L. Wyman, R. V. Goering, and R. P. Novick, Genetics 76:681-702, 1974) of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 and a Rec+ NCTC 8325 derivative yielded Rec+ recombinants that exhibited the increased sensitivity to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine characteristic of RN981. Transformation analyses identified a specific mutation, designated ngr-374, that was responsible not only for N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine sensitivity, but also sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, nitrous acid, and UV irradiation. However, ngr-374-carrying recombinants showed no significant increase in their sensitivity to mitomycin C or 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide and were unaffected in recombination proficiency. In vitro assays showed that ngr-374-carrying strains had lower apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activities than the wild type. The chromosomal locus occupied by ngr-374 was shown to exist in the gene order omega(Chr::Tn551)40-ngr-374-thrB106. PMID:2430940

  6. Histone H2B mutations in inner region affect ubiquitination, centromere function, silencing and chromosome segregation.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Takeshi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Hayashi, Takeshi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2006-06-01

    The reiterated nature of histone genes has hampered genetic approach to dissect the role of histones in chromatin dynamics. We here report isolation of three temperature-sensitive (ts) Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains, containing amino-acid substitutions in the sole histone H2B gene (htb1+). The mutation sites reside in the highly conserved, non-helical residues of H2B, which are implicated in DNA-protein or protein-protein interactions in the nucleosome. In the allele of htb1-72, the substitution (G52D) occurs at the DNA binding loop L1, causing disruption of the gene silencing in heterochromatic regions and lagging chromosomes in anaphase. In another allele htb1-223 (P102L) locating in the junction between alpha3 and alphaC, the mutant residue is in contact with H2A and other histones, leading to structural aberrations in the central centromere chromatin and unequal chromosome segregation in anaphase. The third allele htb1-442 (E34K) near alpha1 displayed little defect. Evidence is provided that monoubiquitinated H2B is greatly unstable in P102L mutant, possibly owing to proteasome-independent destruction or enhanced deubiquitination. Histone H2B thus plays an important role in centromere/kinetochore formation. PMID:16688222

  7. The kakapo Mutation Affects Terminal Arborization and Central Dendritic Sprouting of Drosophila Motorneurons

    PubMed Central

    Prokop, Andreas; Uhler, Jay; Roote, John; Bate, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The lethal mutation l(2)CA4 causes specific defects in local growth of neuronal processes. We uncovered four alleles of l(2)CA4 and mapped it to bands 50A-C on the polytene chromosomes and found it to be allelic to kakapo (Prout et al. 1997. Genetics. 146:275– 285). In embryos carrying our kakapo mutant alleles, motorneurons form correct nerve branches, showing that long distance growth of neuronal processes is unaffected. However, neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) fail to form normal local arbors on their target muscles and are significantly reduced in size. In agreement with this finding, antibodies against kakapo (Gregory and Brown. 1998. J. Cell Biol. 143:1271–1282) detect a specific epitope at all or most Drosophila NMJs. Within the central nervous system of kakapo mutant embryos, neuronal dendrites of the RP3 motorneuron form at correct positions, but are significantly reduced in size. At the subcellular level we demonstrate two phenotypes potentially responsible for the defects in neuronal branching: first, transmembrane proteins, which can play important roles in neuronal growth regulation, are incorrectly localized along neuronal processes. Second, microtubules play an important role in neuronal growth, and kakapo appears to be required for their organization in certain ectodermal cells: On the one hand, kakapo mutant embryos exhibit impaired microtubule organization within epidermal cells leading to detachment of muscles from the cuticle. On the other, a specific type of sensory neuron (scolopidial neurons) shows defects in microtubule organization and detaches from its support cells. PMID:9832556

  8. A glycosylation mutation affects cell fate in chimeras of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed Central

    Houle, J; Balthazar, J; West, C M

    1989-01-01

    Prestalk and prespore cells form a simple pattern in the pseudoplasmodium of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Prestalk cells are distinguished from prespore cells by a low level of expression of a glycoantigen on their surfaces and by reduced intercellular cohesion. We examined the possible significance of these differences, using the modB mutation, which eliminates this glycoantigen genetically, leading to reduced intercellular cohesion, modB mutant cells were allowed to develop together with normal cells to form chimeric slugs. Mutant cells labeled by feeding with fluorescent bacteria were highly enriched in the prestalk cell zone at the anterior end of the slug. In contrast, normal cells, if in a minority, were concentrated in the rear part of the prespore cell zone. Immunoblot analysis and cell-by-cell double-label immunofluorescence of these mixtures showed that mutant cells underproduced several prespore cell markers. Mutant cells tended not to form spores in chimeras unless they exceeded a threshold proportion of ca. 30%. However, mutant cells showed no tendency to produce excess prestalk cells when allowed to develop alone. These findings are most simply explained by postulating that reduced glycoantigen expression and intercellular adhesion encourage a more anterior cell localization, which in turn causes differentiation into a prestalk cell. Since normal prestalk cells also show reduced glycoantigen expression and intercellular adhesion, this suggests that a similar mechanism may contribute to pattern formation during normal development. Images PMID:2726746

  9. Suppressor Mutants of Neurospora Crassa That Tolerate Allelic Differences at Single or at Multiple Heterokaryon Incompatibility Loci

    PubMed Central

    Arganoza, M. T.; Ohrnberger, J.; Min, J.; Akins, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Allelic differences at any one of at least 11 heterokaryon incompatibility (het) loci in Neurospora crassa trigger an incompatibility response: localized cell death at sites of hyphal anastomosis. We have isolated spontaneous and insertional suppressor mutants that are heterokaryon-compatible in spite of allelic differences at one or at several het loci. Some intra- and extragenic mutants tolerated allelic differences only at single het loci. Multi-tolerant spontaneous mutants were isolated by selecting simultaneously for tolerance of differences at het-c, -d and -e, or at each of these plus mating-type. Some suppressor mutants were specific for only one allele at the affected het locus; others suppressed both alleles. Insertional mutations were isolated from banks of transformants, each having a plasmid integrated into a random position in the chromosome. One mutant tolerated allelic differences at het-d. A homologous cosmid from a Neurospora genomic bank complemented the mutant phenotype. A second insertional inactivation mutant was tolerant of het-c differences. Inactivation of the wild-type locus corresponding to the integration site was accomplished by repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). The RIP progeny, like the original mutant, were tolerant of differences at het-c. It may be possible to use such suppressor mutants as universal donors of hypovirulence in pathogenic fungi. PMID:8088519

  10. Mutations which affect the inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A by simian virus 40 small-t antigen in vitro decrease viral transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Mungre, S; Enderle, K; Turk, B; Porrás, A; Wu, Y Q; Mumby, M C; Rundell, K

    1994-01-01

    Three independent point mutations within residues 97 to 103 of the simian virus 40-small-t antigen (small-t) greatly reduced the ability of purified small-t to inhibit protein phosphatase 2A in vitro. These mutations affected the interaction of small-t antigen with the protein phosphatase 2A A subunit translated in vitro, and a peptide from the region identified by these mutations released the A subunit from immune complexes. When introduced into virus, the mutations eliminated the ability of small-t to enhance viral transformation of growth-arrested rat F111 cells. In contrast, the mutant small-t antigens were unimpaired in the transactivation of the adenovirus E2 promoter, an activity which was reduced by a double mutation in small-t residues 43 and 45. Images PMID:8107228