Science.gov

Sample records for surf sci nanotech

  1. The GMO-Nanotech (Dis)Analogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Ronald; Kay, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetically-modified-organism (GMO) experience has been prominent in motivating science, industry, and regulatory communities to address the social and ethical dimensions of nanotechnology. However, there are some significant problems with the GMO-nanotech analogy. First, it overstates the likelihood of a GMO-like backlash against…

  2. The GMO-Nanotech (Dis)Analogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Ronald; Kay, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    The genetically-modified-organism (GMO) experience has been prominent in motivating science, industry, and regulatory communities to address the social and ethical dimensions of nanotechnology. However, there are some significant problems with the GMO-nanotech analogy. First, it overstates the likelihood of a GMO-like backlash against…

  3. Surf Tourism, Artificial Surfing Reefs, and Environmental Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotkin, Michael H.; Chambliss, Karen; Vamosi, Alexander R.; Lindo, Chris

    2009-07-01

    This paper explores the confluence of surf tourism, artificial surfing reefs, and sustainability. Surfing is an ascendant recreational and tourism industry and artificial surfing reefs are a new and innovative technology and product. Presented within the context of Florida's Space Coast, empirical details on surf tourism are discussed along with the possible implications for sustainability.

  4. Surfing wave climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejo, Antonio; Losada, Iñigo J.; Méndez, Fernando J.

    2014-10-01

    International surfing destinations are highly dependent on specific combinations of wind-wave formation, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. Surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, and analyses of surf quality require the consideration of the seasonal, interannual and long-term variability of surf conditions on a global scale. A multivariable standardized index based on expert judgment is proposed for this purpose. This index makes it possible to analyze surf conditions objectively over a global domain. A summary of global surf resources based on a new index integrating existing wave, wind, tides and sea surface temperature databases is presented. According to general atmospheric circulation and swell propagation patterns, results show that west-facing low to middle-latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in the Southern Hemisphere. Month-to-month analysis reveals strong seasonal variations in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing the frequency of such events in the North Atlantic and the North Pacific. Interannual variability was investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional modes of low-frequency climate variability such as El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation, revealing their strong influence at both the global and the regional scale. Results of the long-term trends demonstrate an increase in the probability of surfable events on west-facing coasts around the world in recent years. The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers, the surf tourism industry and surf-related coastal planners and stakeholders.

  5. Surfing on the Spectrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apel, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Israel Paskowitz loves surfing. As a former competitive surfer, he has spent much of his life in the ocean and absorbed in a community of athletes that share a special connection with the water. Surfing is often thought of as a spiritual hobby that brings peace and relaxation to those who experience it. However, it was not until Israel's son,…

  6. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  7. SURF: Submm User Reduction Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, Tim; Lightfoot, John

    2014-03-01

    SURF reduces data from the SCUBA instrument from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Facilities are provided for reducing all the SCUBA observing modes including jiggle, scan and photometry modes. SURF uses the Starlink environment (ascl:1110.012).

  8. An Adaptive Surfing Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Gregory

    Reported is a study in which the effectiveness of an adapted surfing apparatus was evaluated for eight adolescents with upper extremity physical impairments. Related literature is reviewed, and a detailed analysis of the adapted device is presented. Case studies of the individual Ss are provided to demonstrate test performance in a pool and the…

  9. Face recognition using SURF features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Geng; Su, Fei; Cai, Anni

    2009-10-01

    The Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) proposed by David G. Lowe has been used in face recognition and proved to perform well. Recently, a new detector and descriptor, named Speed-Up Robust Features (SURF) suggested by Herbert Bay, attracts people's attentions. SURF is a scale and in-plane rotation invariant detector and descriptor with comparable or even better performance with SIFT. Because each of SURF feature has only 64 dimensions in general and an indexing scheme is built by using the sign of the Laplacian, SURF is much faster than the 128-dimensional SIFT at the matching step. Thus based on the above advantages of SURF, we propose to exploit SURF features in face recognition in this paper.

  10. Shock-wave surfing

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, Stuart J; Deiterding, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenon referred to as shock-wave surfing , in which a body moves in such a way as to follow the shock wave generated by another upstream body, is investigated numerically and theoretically. This process can lead to the downstream body accumulating a significantly higher lateral velocity than would otherwise be possible, and thus is of importance in situations such as meteoroid fragmentation, in which the fragment separation behaviour following disruption is determined to a large extent by aerodynamic effects. The surfing effect is first investigated in the context of interactions between a sphere and a planar oblique shock. Numerical simulations are performed and a simple theoretical model is developed to determine the forces acting on the sphere. A phase-plane description is employed to elucidate features of the system dynamics. The theoretical model is then generalised to the more complex situation of aerodynamic interactions between two spheres, and, through comparisons with further computations, is shown to adequately predict, in particular, the final separation velocity of the surfing sphere in initially touching configurations. Both numerical simulations and theory indicate a strong influence of the body radius ratio on the separation process and predict a critical radius ratio for initially touching fragments that delineates entrainment of the smaller fragment within the larger fragment s shock from expulsion; this critical ratio also results in the most extended surfing. Further, these results show that an earlier prediction for the separation velocity to scale with the square root of the radius ratio does not accurately describe the separation behaviour. The theoretical model is then employed to investigate initial configurations with varying relative sphere positions and initial velocities. A phase-space description is also shown to be useful in elucidating the dynamics of the sphere-sphere system. With regard to meteoroid fragmentation, it is shown that a large fraction of the variation in the separation behaviour deduced by previous authors from an analysis of terrestrial crater fields can be explained by a combination of surfing and a modest rotation rate of the parent body. Finally, a selection effect for multiple fragments travelling together, e.g., immediately following atmospheric disruption, is predicted, whereby larger fragments repel one another whereas smaller fragments are entrained within the shocks of larger bodies.

  11. Surfing the Internet.

    PubMed

    Clay, A T

    1995-08-01

    More physicians are surfing the Internet than ever before, thanks to the recent launch of MSMSNET, the Michigan State Medical Society's new online service for physician members. If words like World Wide Web, E-mail, and Hypertext links send you into a state of confusion, then read on. This month's cover story discusses MSMS's launch into the information superhighway and training programs MSMS has in store for physician members. Also included is an examination of the Internet--past, present and future--by the president of Voyager Information Networks, Inc., a Michigan corporation specializing in Internet services for Michigan trade groups and other organizations, including MSMS. This cover story marks the beginning of a series of articles on the Internet which will appear in future issues of Michigan Medicine. Hop on board and enjoy the ride! PMID:7565165

  12. Guide to Healthy Web Surfing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov/medlineplus/healthywebsurfing.html MedlinePlus Guide to Healthy Web Surfing To use the sharing features on this ... the site, use caution. Focus on quality--All Web sites are not created equal Does the site ...

  13. Surfing Electrons in Quantum Computers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomeau, Y.

    I take this opportunity of writing a piece of science for my friend Manuel G. Velarde to discuss things dear to his heart: surfing of electrons on acoustic waves. It has been claimed recently, but not by him, that transport of electrons by surf could be used to carry quantum information in quantum computers. This is physically impossible because this would require to maintain the quantum coherence linked to localisation, a coherence decaying very fastly in the real world.

  14. Plans for conversion of SURF II to SURF III

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, A.D.; Furst, M.L.; Hughey, L.R.; Madden, R.P.; OBrian, T.R.; Proctor, J.E.

    1996-09-01

    The Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF II) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA, has served as a primary radiometric standard in the vacuum ultraviolet region since its conversion from a synchrotron to an electron storage ring in 1974. The magnet iron, however, dates back to an original betatron design of the late 1940s. The advent of both modern materials and methods of finite element analysis have made possible the design of magnets offering far greater dc performance than the existing SURF system. In this paper we discuss the general design and plans to convert SURF II to SURF III, which will offer reduced radiometric uncertainty, an increase in energy from 300 MeV to 385 MeV, a modernized control system, and two new beamlines, which are not presently possible. Anticipated new beamline activities include a substantial new effort devoted to radiometric improvements from IR to far UV and development of stations for microspectoscopy and electroreflectance. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Lightcurve Analysis of 5181 Surf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes-Gehrke, Melissa N.; Afe, Adeseye; Cha, Daniel; Cotton, Ayana; Diedrick, Jasmine; Liu, Kevin; Livas, Matthew; Melone, Katelyn; Mistry, Samirbhai; Murphy, Jacob; Ren, Xin; Romano, Philip; Scearce, Michael; Smith, Andrew; Summers, Brian

    2015-10-01

    A lightcurve was determined for the main-belt asteroid 5181 SURF. The asteroid was observed for seven nights over the course of two months during 2015 March-April. The rotation period was found to be 6.111 ± 0.001 h.

  16. WATERSHED INFORMATION - SURF YOUR WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surf Your Watershed is both a database of urls to world wide web pages associated with the watershed approach of environmental management and also data sets of relevant environmental information that can be queried. It is designed for citizens and decision makers across the count...

  17. Issues and concerns in nanotech product development and its commercialization.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Kakkar, Vandita; Deol, Parneet Kaur; Yadav, Monika; Singh, Mandeep; Sharma, Ikksheta

    2014-11-10

    The revolutionary and ubiquitous nature of nanotechnology has fetched it a considerable attention in the past few decades. Even though its enablement and application to various sectors including pharmaceutical drug development is increasing with the enormous government aided funding for nanotechnology-based products, however the parallel commercialization of these systems has not picked up a similar impetus. The technology however does address the unmet needs of pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their solubility, bioavailability or toxicity profiles as observed from the wide array of high-quality research publications appearing in various scientific journals and magazines. Based on our decade-long experience in the field of nanotech-based drug delivery systems and extensive literature survey, we perceive that the major hiccups to the marketing of these nanotechnology products can be categorized as 1) inadequate regulatory framework; 2) lack of support and acceptance by the public, practicing physician, and industry; 3) developmental considerations like scalability, reproducibility, characterization, quality control, and suitable translation; 4) toxicological issues and safety profiles; 5) lack of available multidisciplinary platforms; and, 6) poor intellectual property protection. The present review dwells on these issues elaborating the trends followed by the industry, regulatory role of the USFDA and their implication, and the challenges set forth for a successful translation of these products from the lab and different clinical phases to the market. PMID:24933600

  18. Situated Learning in an Australian Surf Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The article examines learning and identity formation for young people in an Australian surf club. Drawing on Lave and Wenger's notion of situated learning, it identifies how membership in the surf club from an early age involves highly significant and meaningful learning and identity formation, where learning is co-constructed with other members…

  19. 50 CFR 648.72 - Minimum surf clam size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum surf clam size. 648.72 Section... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.72 Minimum surf clam size. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60622, Sept. 29, 2011. (a) Minimum length. The minimum length for surf clams is...

  20. 50 CFR 648.72 - Minimum surf clam size.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum surf clam size. 648.72 Section 648... Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.72 Minimum surf clam size. (a) Minimum length. The minimum length for surf clams is 4.75 inches (12.065 cm). (b) Determination of compliance. No more than...

  1. Juvenile Surf Smelt Surveys in Central Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Three size classes of juvenile surf smelt collected in a beach seine by USGS Western Fisheries Research Center scientists while conducting a survey for juvenile surf smelt on Bainbridge Island, WA. ...

  2. 6. Elevated view toward corner of Stillwell Avenue and Surf ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Elevated view toward corner of Stillwell Avenue and Surf Avenue showing association with Coney Island Amusement Park. Looking southeast. - Stillwell Avenue Station, Intersection of Stillwell & Surf Avenues, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  3. Development of Operational Surf Forecasting with Delft3D in the Conformation of Navy Standard Surf Output (SURF 3.2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Allard, R.

    2012-12-01

    The one-dimensional Navy Standard Surf Model (NSSM or SURF 3.2) has been implemented and used as an operational surf model at the Naval Oceanographic Office to provide accurate forecasts of surf conditions to support amphibious operations. Though NSSM shows its robustness, it can produce inaccurate wave and longshore current estimations for areas with complex bottom topography. NSSM assumes parallel bottom contours in the surf zone, and it can not account for longshore variations of bathymetry or forcing. Two- or three-dimensional models should be used to accommodate such variations. The Delft3D modeling suite, developed by Delft Hydraulics, is a fully integrated three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling system, capable of simulations of flows, waves, water quality, morphological developments, and ecology. Delft3D produces two- and three-dimensional forecasting output for many nearshore wave and flow parameters with a wave-current interaction capability. While Delft3D does not produce NSSM formats, we have implemented software that computes the standard surf parameters of NSSM such as maximum and significant breaker heights, breaker type statistics, percent of breaking, surf zone width, number of surf lines, and modified surf index (MSI). Surf forecasting can be extended in continuous alongshore direction because complex coastlines can be well resolved with the curvilinear, boundary-fitted grid system of Delft3D. Examples of nearshore modeling with Delft3D will be presented.

  4. Surfing Global Change: Negotiating Sustainable Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    SURFING GLOBAL CHANGE (SGC) serves as a procedural shell for attaining sustainable solutions for any interdisciplinary issue and is intended for use in advanced university courses. The participants' activities evolve through five levels from individual argumentation to molding one's own views for the "common good." The paradigm of "ethics of…

  5. Surfing Global Change: Negotiating Sustainable Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    SURFING GLOBAL CHANGE (SGC) serves as a procedural shell for attaining sustainable solutions for any interdisciplinary issue and is intended for use in advanced university courses. The participants' activities evolve through five levels from individual argumentation to molding one's own views for the "common good." The paradigm of "ethics of…

  6. Turbulent viscosity in natural surf zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, F.; Ruessink, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Waves breaking in the shallow surf zone near the shoreline inject turbulence into the water column that may reach the bed to suspend sediment. Breaking-wave turbulence in the surf zone is, however, poorly understood, which is one of the reasons why many process-based coastal-evolution models predict coastal change during severe storms inadequately. Here, we use data collected in two natural surf zones to derive a new parameterization for the stability function C? that determines the magnitude of the eddy viscosity ?t in two-equation turbulent-viscosity models, ?t = C?k2/?, where k is turbulent kinetic energy and ? is the turbulence dissipation rate. In both data sets, the ratio of turbulence production to dissipation is small (?0.15), while vertical turbulence diffusion is significant. This differs from assumptions underlying existing C? parameterizations, which we show to severely overpredict observed C? for most conditions. Additionally, we rewrite our new C? parameterization into a formulation that accurately reproduces our Reynolds-stress based estimates of turbulence production. This formulation is linear with strain, consistent with earlier theoritical work for large strain rates. Also, it does not depend on ? and can, therefore, also be applied in one-equation turbulent-viscosity models. We anticipate our work to improve turbulence modeling in natural surf zones and to eventually lead to more reliable predictions of coastal evolution in response to severe storms.

  7. Quantifying the Dynamics of Bacterial Crowd Surfing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscaritolo, Robert; Kinley, Matt; White, Robin; Kelly, Corey; Giuliani, Maximiliano; Burrows, Lori; Dutcher, John

    2013-03-01

    Type IV pili (TFP) are thin (several nanometers in diameter) adhesive protein filaments that can be extended and retracted by certain classes of Gram-negative bacteria including P. aeruginosa PAO1. The motion of bacteria on surfaces by TFP is referred to as twitching motility because of its jerky nature, and it leads to complex, collective motion of large numbers of cells. When non-motile mutants of P. aeruginosa cells, which do not have pili and therefore cannot twitch, are mixed with motile, wild type cells, we observed the non-motile cells being carried along (``crowd surfing'') by the moving wild type cells. Crowd surfing extends to other non-motile species as well as inert particles and can lead to unexpected transport of non-motile, pathogenic bacterial cells, with direct implications for the spread of bacterial infections. We have developed a protocol for tracking and analyzing the trajectories of moving bacterial cells. Using a custom built, temperature and humidity controlled environmental chamber, we characterize the crowd surfing phenomenon under different environmental conditions.

  8. Vertical structure of the undertow outside the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putrevu, Uday; Svendsen, Ib A.

    1993-12-01

    The vertical structure of the undertow in the shoaling region outside the surf zone is quite different from that inside the surf zone. Inside the surf zone the undertow typically has a large seaward directed velocity near the bottom and either a shoreward directed or a small seaward directed velocity at trough level. Measurements show that outside the surf zone the undertow has a small seaward directed velocity near the bed and a large seaward directed velocity at trough level. In this paper we develop theoretical expressions for the undertow outside the surf zone and show that the steady streaming from the bottom boundary layer which was earlier found to have a negligible effect in the surf zone (Svendsen et al., 1987) does have a significant influence on the vertical structure of the undertow in that region.

  9. Eco-innovation Strategies in the Construction Sector: Impacts on Nanotech Innovation in the Window Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, M. M.; Molin, M.

    In this paper we examine the strategic response of the construction companies to the climate agenda and the emerging nanotechnologies. A case is brought on the Danish window industry. The construction industry has for a long time been considered little innovative and this also goes for the window section. It seems that a combination of an intensified focus on climate issues and the potential of nanotechnology is invoking a new innovation potential and pressure in the window industry. Specifically we identify a strategic shift among the major players towards more systemic innovations that places the window as a part of the wider energy system of the house, a trend that isn’t driven by but could be reinforced by the new nanotech opportunities that so far only play a limited strategic role.

  10. Nanotech-derived topical microbicides for HIV prevention: the road to clinical development.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Javier; Vacas-Córdoba, Enrique; Gómez, Rafael; De La Mata, F Javier; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    More than three decades since its discovery, HIV infection remains one of the most aggressive epidemics worldwide, with more than 35 million people infected. In sub-Saharan Africa, heterosexual transmissions represent nearly 80% of new infections, with 50% of these occurring in women. In an effort to stop the dramatic spread of the HIV epidemic, new preventive treatments, such as microbicides, have been developed. Nanotechnology has revolutionized this field by designing and engineering novel highly effective nano-sized materials as microbicide candidates. This review illustrates the most recent advances in nanotech-derived HIV prevention strategies, as well as the main steps required to translate promising in vitro results into clinical trials. PMID:25446339

  11. Juvenile Surf Smelt Surveys in Central Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Juvenile sand lance collected in a beach seine by USGS Western Fisheries Research Center scientists while conducting a survey for juvenile surf smelt on Bainbridge Island, WA.  Like surf smelt, sand lance are an important forage fish in Puget Sound.  ...

  12. Sea-spray aerosol particles generated in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eijk, A. M. J.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J. T.; Francius, M. J.; Tedeschi, G.; Piazzola, J.; Merritt, D. L.; Fontana, J. D.

    2011-10-01

    To assess the properties of aerosol particles generated over the surf zone, two experiments were held at the pier of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO), La Jolla CA, and at the pier of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF) in Duck NC. On both sites concentrations of surf-generated sea spray particles, wave parameters and meteorological conditions were measured. The surf-aerosol concentrations in the diameter range 0.2-10 microns were obtained from the difference in aerosol size distributions measured upwind and downwind of the surf zone. It was found that the flux of surf-generated particles at diameters at formation can be expressed in terms of wave energy dissipation, which itself is related to the properties of the incoming wavefield and the bathymetry of the beach. Although the flux can also be modeled in terms of wind speed, this relation is considered to be not universal and limited to low- to medium wind speeds. In Duck NC, two transport experiments were performed under offshore flow conditions. In this case, the surf-aerosol concentrations were obtained from the differences in three aerosol size distributions, measured just before and just behind the surf zone and up to 16 km downwind (out to sea). No significant decrease in concentration was observed at the farthest range, which suggests that an appreciable amount of surf-generated aerosols is advected over tens of kilometers.

  13. Unique sled rig plugs oil leaking wells in surf zone

    SciTech Connect

    Zylstra, L.P. )

    1994-01-10

    Several leaking oil wells drilled in the late 1800s in the surf zone in Southern California required a specially built rig and platform for proper abandonment. The abandonment operations were complicated because the beach is heavily used by the public and the condition of the wells was unknown. A mobile sled was designed to support a drilling rig safely in the rough surf zone. The surf sled vehicle has a modular design for efficient assembly on the beach with minimal disturbance of the environment. No structures had to be built on the beach or in the surf zone to access the wellheads, thereby reducing costs and environmental impact. The surf sled vehicle used special equipment to keep the drilling rig level and to prevent oil spills or contamination during the drilling and abandonment procedures. The wells were abandoned safely and in a timely manner, despite the challenges of working in such a sensitive area. This paper describes the equipment and procedures used.

  14. Surfing into spirituality and a new, aquatic nature religion.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bron

    2007-01-01

    "Soul surfers" consider surfing to be a profoundly meaningful practice that brings physical, psychological, and spiritual benefits. They generally agree on where surfing initially developed, that it assumed a religious character, was suppressed for religious reasons, has been undergoing a revival, and enjoins reverence for and protection of nature. This subset of the global surfing community should be understood as a new religious movement-a globalizing, hybridized, and increasingly influential example of what I call aquatic nature religion. For these individuals, surfing is a religious form in which a specific sensual practice constitutes its sacred center, and the corresponding experiences are constructed in a way that leads to a belief in nature as powerful, transformative, healing, and sacred. I advance this argument by analyzing these experiences, as well as the myths, rites, symbols, terminology, technology, material culture, and ethical mores that are found within surfing subcultures. PMID:20681093

  15. User's Manual for Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfer, N. C.

    1996-01-01

    A unique collection of computer codes, Space Debris Surfaces (SD_SURF), have been developed to assist in the design and analysis of space debris protection systems. SD_SURF calculates and summarizes a vehicle's vulnerability to space debris as a function of impact velocity and obliquity. An SD_SURF analysis will show which velocities and obliquities are the most probable to cause a penetration. This determination can help the analyst select a shield design which is best suited to the predominant penetration mechanism. The analysis also indicates the most suitable parameters for development or verification testing. The SD_SURF programs offer the option of either FORTRAN programs and Microsoft EXCEL spreadsheets and macros. The FORTRAN programs work with BUMPERII version 1.2a or 1.3 (Cosmic released). The EXCEL spreadsheets and macros can be used independently or with selected output from the SD_SURF FORTRAN programs.

  16. SURF1 deficiency causes demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Daniele; Chassagne, Maïté; Mayençon, Martine; Padet, Sylvie; Melchionda, Laura; Rouvet, Isabelle; Lannes, Béatrice; Bozon, Dominique; Latour, Philippe; Zeviani, Massimo; Mousson de Camaret, Bénédicte

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether mutations in the SURF1 gene are a cause of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Methods: We describe 2 patients from a consanguineous family with demyelinating autosomal recessive CMT disease (CMT4) associated with the homozygous splice site mutation c.107-2A>G in the SURF1 gene, encoding an assembly factor of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV. This observation led us to hypothesize that mutations in SURF1 might be an unrecognized cause of CMT4, and we investigated SURF1 in a total of 40 unrelated patients with CMT4 after exclusion of mutations in known CMT4 genes. The functional impact of c.107-2A>G on splicing, amount of SURF1 protein, and on complex IV activity and assembly was analyzed. Results: Another patient with CMT4 was found to harbor 2 additional SURF1 mutations. All 3 patients with SURF1-associated CMT4 presented with severe childhood-onset neuropathy, motor nerve conduction velocities <25 m/s, and lactic acidosis. Two patients had brain MRI abnormalities, including putaminal and periaqueductal lesions, and developed cerebellar ataxia years after polyneuropathy. The c.107-2A>G mutation produced no normally spliced transcript, leading to SURF1 absence. However, complex IV remained partially functional in muscle and fibroblasts. Conclusions: We found SURF1 mutations in 5% of families (2/41) presenting with CMT4. SURF1 should be systematically screened in patients with childhood-onset severe demyelinating neuropathy and additional features such as lactic acidosis, brain MRI abnormalities, and cerebellar ataxia developing years after polyneuropathy. PMID:24027061

  17. Delineation of surf scoter habitat in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland: macrobenthic and sediment composition of surf scoter feeding sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidwell, D.M.; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) along the Atlantic coast of the United States have shown population declines in recent decades. The Chesapeake Bay has traditionally been a key wintering area for surf scoters. Past and present research has shown that bivalves constitute a major food item for seaducks in the Chesapeake Bay, with surf scoters feeding primarily on hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum) and dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis). Degraded water quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay have been well documented and have been shown to greatly influence the composition of benthic communities. Large concentrations of feeding surf scoters (>500 individuals) in the Bay were determined through monthly boat surveys. Locations consistently lacking surf scoters were also determined. Macrobenthos were seasonally sampled at 3 locations containing scoters and 3 locations without scoters. A 1 kilometer square grid was superimposed over each location using GIS and sampling sites within the square were randomly chosen. Benthos were sampled at each site using SCUBA and a meter square quadrat. Biomass and size class estimates were determined for all bivalves within each kilometer square. Results indicated that scoter feeding sites contained significantly greater biomass of M. lateralis, I. recurvum, and Gemma gemma than locations where no scoters were present. Substrate differences were also detected, with scoter feeding sites being composed of a sand/shell mix while non-scoter sites consisted primarily of mud. This data indicates that surf scoters in the Chesapeake Bay are selecting areas with high densities of preferred food items, potentially maximizing there foraging energetics. In addition, two scoter feeding sites also contained a patchwork of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and oyster shell, on which much of the I. recurvum was attached. This suggests the possibility that surf scoters utilize eastern oyster habitat and the dramatic depletion of oysters in the Bay could be a possible factor in surf scoter decline. More research is needed into the possible relationship between surf scoters and the eastern oyster.

  18. 76 FR 8651 - Special Local Regulation; Mavericks Surf Competition, Half Moon Bay, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Mavericks Surf Competition... the Mavericks Surf Competition. This special local regulation is necessary to ensure the safety of... dangers posed by the surf conditions during the Mavericks Surf Competition, the special local...

  19. Wave transformation across the inner surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raubenheimer, B.; Guza, R. T.; Elgar, Steve

    1996-11-01

    Sea and swell wave heights observed on transects crossing the mid and inner surf zone on three beaches (a steep concave-up beach, a gently sloped approximately planar beach, and a beach with an approximately flat terrace adjacent to a steep foreshore) were depth limited (i.e., approximately independent of the offshore wave height), consistent with previous observations. The wave evolution is well predicted by a numerical model based on the one-dimensional nonlinear shallow water equations with bore dissipation. The model is initialized with the time series of sea surface elevation and cross-shore current observed at the most offshore sensors (located about 50 to 120 m from the mean shoreline in mean water depths 0.80 to 2.10 m). The model accurately predicts the cross-shore variation of energy at both infragravity (nominally 0.004 < f < 0.05 Hz) and sea swell (here 0.05 < f ≤ 0.18 Hz) frequencies. In models of surf zone hydrodynamics, wave energy dissipation is frequently parameterized in terms of γs, the ratio of the sea swell significant wave height to the local mean water depth. The observed and predicted values of γs increase with increasing beach slope β and decreasing normalized (by a characteristic wavenumber k) water depth kh and are well correlated with β/kh, a measure of the fractional change in water depth over a wavelength. Errors in the predicted individual values of γs, are typically less than 20%. It has been suggested that infragravity motions affect waves in the sea swell band and hence γs, but this speculation is difficult to test with field observations. Numerical simulations suggest that for the range of conditions considered here, γs is insensitive to infragravity energy levels.

  20. From the Director: Surfing the Web for Health Information

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issue Past Issues From the Director: Surfing the Web for Health Information Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table ... all information on the Internet is reliable. Some Web sites post inaccurate or biased medical information. Others ...

  1. A role for heparan sulfate in viral surfing

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Myung-Jin; Akhtar, Jihan; Desai, Prashant; Shukla, Deepak; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) moieties on cell surfaces are known to provide attachment sites for many viruses including herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Here, we demonstrate that cells respond to HSV-1 infection by enhancing filopodia formation. Filopodia express HS and are subsequently utilized for the transport of HSV-1 virions to cell bodies in a surfing-like phenomenon, which is facilitated by the underlying actin cytoskeleton and is regulated by transient activation of a small Rho GTPase, Cdc42. We also demonstrate that interaction between a highly conserved herpesvirus envelope glycoprotein B (gB) and HS is required for surfing. A HSV-1 mutant that lacks gB fails to surf and quantum dots conjugated with gB demonstrate surfing-like movements. Our data demonstrates a novel use of a common receptor, HS, which could also be exploited by multiple viruses and quite possibly, many additional ligands for transport along the plasma membrane.

  2. Complex IV Deficient Surf1?/? Mice Initiate Mitochondrial Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Pulliam, Daniel A.; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S.; Liu, Yuhong; Hill, Shauna; Lin, Ai-Ling; Bhattacharya, Arunabh; Shi, Yun; Sloane, Lauren; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Van Remmen, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mutations in SURF1 cytochrome c oxidase (COX) assembly protein are associated with Leigh’s syndrome, a human mitochondrial disorder that manifests as severe mitochondrial phenotypes and early lethality. In contrast, mice lacking the Surf1 protein (Surf1?/?) are viable and were previously shown to have enhanced longevity and a greater than 50% reduction in COX activity. We measured mitochondrial function in heart and skeletal muscle, and despite the significant reduction in COX activity, we found little or no difference in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, membrane potential, ATP production or respiration in isolated mitochondria from Surf1?/? mice compared to wild-type. However, blood lactate levels are elevated and Surf1?/? mice have reduced running endurance, suggesting compromised mitochondrial energy metabolism in vivo. Decreased COX activity in Surf1?/? mice is associated with increased markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1? and VDAC) in both heart and skeletal muscle. While mitochondrial biogenesis is a common response in the two tissues, skeletal muscle have an up-regulation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRMT) and heart exhibits induction of the Nrf2 antioxidant response pathway. These data are the first to report induction of the UPRMT in a mammalian model of diminished COX activity. In addition our results suggest that impaired mitochondrial function can lead to induction of mitochondrial stress pathways to confer protective effects on cellular homeostasis. Loss of complex IV assembly factor Surf1 in mice results in compensatory responses including mitochondrial biogenesis, the nrf2 pathway and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response. This compensatory response may contribute to the lack of deleterious phenotypes under basal conditions. PMID:24911525

  3. Stopover habitats of spring migrating surf scoters in southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lok, E.K.; Esler, Daniel; Takekawa, J.Y.; De La Cruz, S.W.; Sean, Boyd W.; Nysewander, D.R.; Evenson, J.R.; Ward, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat conditions and nutrient reserve levels during spring migration have been suggested as important factors affecting population declines in waterfowl, emphasizing the need to identify key sites used during spring and understand habitat features and resource availability at stopover sites. We used satellite telemetry to identify stopover sites used by surf scoters migrating through southeast Alaska during spring. We then contrasted habitat features of these sites to those of random sites to determine habitat attributes corresponding to use by migrating scoters. We identified 14 stopover sites based on use by satellite tagged surf scoters from several wintering sites. We identified Lynn Canal as a particularly important stopover site for surf scoters originating throughout the Pacific winter range; approximately half of tagged coastally migrating surf scoters used this site, many for extended periods. Stopover sites were farther from the mainland coast and closer to herring spawn sites than random sites, whereas physical shoreline habitat attributes were generally poor predictors of site use. The geography and resource availability within southeast Alaska provides unique and potentially critical stopover habitat for spring migrating surf scoters. Our work identifies specific sites and habitat resources that deserve conservation and management consideration. Aggregations of birds are vulnerable to human activity impacts such as contaminant spills and resource management decisions. This information is of value to agencies and organizations responsible for emergency response planning, herring fisheries management, and bird and ecosystem conservation. Copyright ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  4. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake (SURF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesko, K. T.

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the Berkeley and CUBED low-background counters. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability. These plans include a Generation-2 Dark Matter experiment and the US flagship neutrino experiment, LBNE.

  5. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake (SURF)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lesko, K. T.

    2015-03-24

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the Majorana Demonstrator neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the Berkeley and CUBED low-background counters. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark mattermore » experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability. These plans include a Generation-2 Dark Matter experiment and the US flagship neutrino experiment, LBNE.« less

  6. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake (SURF)

    SciTech Connect

    Lesko, K. T.

    2015-03-24

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the Majorana Demonstrator neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the Berkeley and CUBED low-background counters. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability. These plans include a Generation-2 Dark Matter experiment and the US flagship neutrino experiment, LBNE.

  7. Synchrotron ultraviolet radiation facility (SURF II) radiometric instrumentation calibration facility

    SciTech Connect

    Furst, M.L.; Graves, R.M.; Madden, R.P. )

    1993-11-01

    Spectrometer calibrations have been performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly the National Bureau of Standards) for over 10 yr using the calculable synchrotron radiation from the SURF 2 electron storage ring. SURF 2 is not a high-performance storage ring that can operate at electron energies up to 300 MeV and with over 250 mA of stored current. One beam line, operationally supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), is dedicated for use as a radiometric instrumentation calibration facility for outside users.

  8. Internet Surfing for Kindergarten Children: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    The Internet is an effective learning tool for gifted children because it allows them to independently select the areas in which they have talent. The Internet also enables children to discover and maximize their potential. However, younger children might not have a large enough vocabulary to surf the Internet, even if they are gifted. For…

  9. "Surfing Global Change": How Didactic Visions Can Be Implemented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahamer, Gilbert

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims to examine a negotiation-oriented and partly web-based game "Surfing Global Change" (SGC) invented by the author based on didactics of self-managed learning and successfully implemented in WebCT. Design/methodology/approach: Along three historic generations of web-based teaching (WBT), the key functionalities of any platform…

  10. Collaboration on ICT in Dutch Higher Education: The SURF Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boezerooy, Petra; Cordewener, Bas; Liebrand, Wim

    2007-01-01

    In "Thinking Ahead: A Vision of the Role of ICT in Education and Research in the Future, 2007-2010," the higher education institutions in the Netherlands agreed on future strategy. Under the direction of SURF, the Dutch national organization, a collaborative strategy for the application of information and communications technology (ICT) was…

  11. Safety Strategies While Surfing Online in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbilek, Muhammet; Cilesiz, Sebnem; Tozoglu, Dogan

    The Internet has become an indispensable medium of the 21st century. Millions of people are using the Internet for exchanging information, surfing for information on virtually any topic, communicating all over the world, participating in discussion groups, shopping, traveling, and many other online activities. The World Wide Web is constantly…

  12. Assimilation of Remote Sensing Observations to Estimate Surf Zone Bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, G.; Özkan-Haller, H. T.; Holman, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The surf zone (defined as the coastal ocean region where wave breaking dominates the dynamics) is a highly energetic region with large spatial/temporal variability - a challenging environment for in-situ observation. Hence, remote sensing (usually land-based) plays an important role in surf zone research. Recent progress in surf zone remote sensing shows a trend towards increasingly quantitative data products, for example remotely sensed estimates of wavefield properties and time-averaged currents - data which can be directly compared to numerical model predictions. As these new products become mature, it is easy to envision them being integrated into forecasts of surf zone waves and currents. In particular, one wonders whether such data can help to reduce uncertainty in nearshore bathymetry, which is a key source of error in models due to its rapid evolution and complex physics. To that end, we have developed an ensemble-based sequential data assimilation system which corrects for bathymetric error by assimilating remote sensing observations of waves and currents. Data (both in-situ and remotely sensed) from a 2010 field experiment at Duck, NC, has been used to calibrate and test this system, showing it is capable of reducing bathymetric error over time and improving forecasts. We present these results, as well as the details of the modeling system and the data.

  13. Internet Surfing for Kindergarten Children: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    The Internet is an effective learning tool for gifted children because it allows them to independently select the areas in which they have talent. The Internet also enables children to discover and maximize their potential. However, younger children might not have a large enough vocabulary to surf the Internet, even if they are gifted. For…

  14. CoBrowser: Surfing the Web Using a Standard Browser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maly, K.; Zubair, M.; Li, L.

    Co-browsing is a synchronous class of collaborative applications, which allows a group of users to surf the Web together. Such an application can be deployed in an education environment in several ways. One example of where it can be used would be in courses that are project-oriented. Students would be required to collectively research or explore…

  15. Women's Recreational Surfing: A Patronising Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Rebecca; McCuaig, Louise; Phillips, Murray G.

    2015-01-01

    Research analysing the operation of power within sport and physical activity has exposed the marginalisation and exclusion of women's sport in explicit and institutionalised ways. However, for women in recreational and alternative physical activities like surfing, sporting experiences lie outside institutionalised structures, thus requiring…

  16. Women's Recreational Surfing: A Patronising Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olive, Rebecca; McCuaig, Louise; Phillips, Murray G.

    2015-01-01

    Research analysing the operation of power within sport and physical activity has exposed the marginalisation and exclusion of women's sport in explicit and institutionalised ways. However, for women in recreational and alternative physical activities like surfing, sporting experiences lie outside institutionalised structures, thus requiring…

  17. Juvenile Surf Smelt Surveys in Central Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Western Fisheries Research Center scientists Lisa Gee, Collin Smith, and Ryan Tomka display a bycatch of perch collected in a beach seine while conducting a survey for juvenile surf smelt on Bainbridge Island, WA. Washington's Puget Sound is a complex ecosystem directly adjacent to a robust me...

  18. Juvenile Surf Smelt Surveys in Central Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Western Fisheries Research Center scientists haul a beach seine over an eelgrass bed while conducting a survey for juvenile surf smelt on Bainbridge Island, WA. Washington's Puget Sound is a complex ecosystem directly adjacent to a robust metropolitan area that scientists from the USGS Western...

  19. Juvenile Surf Smelt Surveys in Central Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS Western Fisheries Research Center scientists identify fish collected in a beach seine while conducting a survey for juvenile surf smelt on Bainbridge Island, WA. Washington's Puget Sound is a complex ecosystem directly adjacent to a robust metropolitan area that scientists from the USGS Wester...

  20. Modeling surf zone-inner shelf exchange: Interaction of rip currents and stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, N.; Feddersen, F.

    2014-12-01

    Transient rip currents on alongshore uniform beaches develop from the coalescence of surf zone eddies, exchanging tracers between the surf zone and the potentially stratified inner shelf. The interaction of stratification and transient rip currents has not yet been investigated. Surf zone eddies responsible for transient rip currents are generated by short-crested wave breaking, a process included in wave-resolving (WR) Boussinesq models. However, WR models are depth-integrated and cannot account for stratification and vertically sheared flows. Wave-averaged (WA) models can simulate these processes, but cannot create surf zone eddies. A combination of WR and WA models is required to accurately simulate surf zone-inner shelf exchange. Here, WR depth-integrated Boussinessq model funwaveC is coupled to the stratification and depth-resolving WA Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. The surf zone eddy generation forcing is extracted from a funwaveC simulation of normally incident waves on a planar beach, and provided to COAWST as a depth-uniform surf zone force. COAWST model simulations resolving the surf zone to mid-shelf are conducted with surf zone eddy forcing, idealistic surface heating/cooling, stratification, and Coriolis effects. These simulations provide three-dimensional evolution of velocity and temperature, diagnosed to quantify the role of surf zone eddy forcing in surf zone-inner shelf exchange. The impact of stratification on rip currents and exchange is studied by varying the stratification. Funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  1. A Lagrangian stochastic model of surf zone drifter dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spydell, Matthew S.; Feddersen, Falk

    2012-03-01

    Drifter-derived cross-shore and alongshore surf zone diffusivities were previously estimated on an alongshore uniform beach over 1000 s for five Huntington Beach, California, 2006 (HB06) experiment release days. The cross-shore diffusivity Kx had a nonmonotonic time dependence, potentially due to the shoreline or to weaker diffusivity seaward of the surf zone. The alongshore diffusivities Ky were qualitatively consistent with shear dispersion but differed from the classic Taylor laminar theory. Here, modeled and analytic diffusivities for the five release days are derived from a Lagrangian stochastic model (LSM) that uses the drifter-derived bulk (cross-shore averaged) velocity variance and cross-shore-dependent mean alongshore current. The LSM modeled and analytic cross-shore diffusivities are nonmonotonic due to the shoreline and strongly suggest that the observed cross-shore diffusivity is shoreline affected. The LSM typically reproduce well the observed Kx with Lagrangian time scale between 75 and 200 s, consistent with surf zone eddy time scales. HB06 drifter trajectories were too short to observe the analytic long-time Kx limit, and weaker diffusivity seaward of the surf zone may be important at longer times (>1000 s). On all release days, the LSM model and analytic alongshore diffusivity reproduce well the observed Ky with alongshore Lagrangian time scales between 95 and 155 s. The isolated shear-induced diffusivity is very well represented by an analytic theory which incorporates a nonzero Lagrangian time scale. Many of the stochastic model parameters can be specified a priori with reasonable assumptions to predict surf zone dispersion of an initial value problem pollution spill.

  2. Ultraviolet degradation study of photomultiplier tubes at SURF III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum, Lindsay; Shaw, Ping-Shine; Li, Zhigang; Lykke, Keith R.; Bishop, Michael L.

    2009-05-01

    Photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are used in biological detection systems in order to detect the presence of biological warfare agents. To ensure proper operation of these biological detection systems, the performance of PMTs must be characterized in terms of their responsivity and long-term stability. We report a technique for PMT calibration at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). SURF III provides synchrotron radiation with a smooth and continuous spectrum covering the entire UV range for accurate PMT measurements. By taking advantage of the ten decade variability in the flux of the synchrotron radiation, we studied properties of commercial PMTs such as the linearity, spatial uniformity, and spectral responsivity. We demonstrate the degradation of PMTs by comparing new PMTs with PMTs that were used and operated in a biological detection system for a long period of time. The observed degradation is discussed.

  3. Region duplication forgery detection technique based on SURF and HAC.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Parul; Mishra, Nishchol; Sharma, Sanjeev; Patel, Ravindra

    2013-01-01

    Region duplication forgery detection is a special type of forgery detection approach and widely used research topic under digital image forensics. In copy move forgery, a specific area is copied and then pasted into any other region of the image. Due to the availability of sophisticated image processing tools, it becomes very hard to detect forgery with naked eyes. From the forged region of an image no visual clues are often detected. For making the tampering more robust, various transformations like scaling, rotation, illumination changes, JPEG compression, noise addition, gamma correction, and blurring are applied. So there is a need for a method which performs efficiently in the presence of all such attacks. This paper presents a detection method based on speeded up robust features (SURF) and hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC). SURF detects the keypoints and their corresponding features. From these sets of keypoints, grouping is performed on the matched keypoints by HAC that shows copied and pasted regions. PMID:24311972

  4. UV/VUV radiometric calibrations at SURF II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furst, Mitchell L.; Canfield, L. R.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1981 more than 150 instrument calibrations have been performed on the radiometric instrumentation calibration beamline at the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF II) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This 300 MeV electron storage ring operates routinely at electron currents greater than 250 mA. The spectrometer calibration beamline provides a continuum of radiation from 4 nm through the visual spectral region in the form of an intense beam with total angular divergence of 1.2 mrad. The probable uncertainty for the flux ranges from about 5 percent at 4 nm to less than 2 percent above 20 nm. The new system will radiometrically trace to SURF II, and thus is expected to reduce the calibration uncertainty for diodes in this region by a factor of five to the 1-2 percent level.

  5. Distinguishing high surf from volcanic long-period earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, John J.; Haney, Matthew M.; Fee, David; Paskievitch, John F.

    2014-02-01

    Repeating long-period (LP) earthquakes are observed at active volcanoes worldwide and are typically attributed to unsteady pressure fluctuations associated with fluid migration through the volcanic plumbing system. Nonvolcanic sources of LP signals include ice movement and glacial outburst floods, and the waveform characteristics and frequency content of these events often make them difficult to distinguish from volcanic LP events. We analyze seismic and infrasound data from an LP swarm recorded at Pagan volcano on 12-14 October 2013 and compare the results to ocean wave data from a nearby buoy. We demonstrate that although the events show strong similarity to volcanic LP signals, the events are not volcanic but due to intense surf generated by a passing typhoon. Seismo-acoustic methods allow for rapid distinction of volcanic LP signals from those generated by large surf and other sources, a critical task for volcano monitoring.

  6. The surf zone heat budget: The effect of wave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnett, Gregory; Feddersen, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Surf zone incident wave energy flux is dissipated by wave breaking which through viscosity generates heat. This effect is not present in shelf heat budgets and has not previously been considered. Pier-based observations of water temperature in 1-4 m depth, meteorology, and waves are used to test a surf zone heat budget, which closes on diurnal and longer time scales. Wave energy flux is the second most variable term with mean contribution one fourth of the mean short-wave radiation. The heat budget residual has semidiurnal and higher-frequency variability and net cooling. Cross-shore advective heat flux driven by internal wave events, rip currents, and undertow contribute to this residual variability and net cooling. In locations with large waves, steeper beaches, or less solar radiation, the ratio of wave energy flux to short-wave radiation may be >1.

  7. SURF IA Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Wilson, Sara R.; Commo, Sean A.; Barker, Glover D.

    2012-01-01

    The Enhanced Traffic Situational Awareness on the Airport Surface with Indications and Alerts (SURF IA) algorithm was evaluated in a fast-time batch simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. SURF IA is designed to increase flight crew situation awareness of the runway environment and facilitate an appropriate and timely response to potential conflict situations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the performance of the SURF IA algorithm under various runway scenarios, multiple levels of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) system equipage, and various levels of horizontal position accuracy. This paper gives an overview of the SURF IA concept, simulation study, and results. Runway incursions are a serious aviation safety hazard. As such, the FAA is committed to reducing the severity, number, and rate of runway incursions by implementing a combination of guidance, education, outreach, training, technology, infrastructure, and risk identification and mitigation initiatives [1]. Progress has been made in reducing the number of serious incursions - from a high of 67 in Fiscal Year (FY) 2000 to 6 in FY2010. However, the rate of all incursions has risen steadily over recent years - from a rate of 12.3 incursions per million operations in FY2005 to a rate of 18.9 incursions per million operations in FY2010 [1, 2]. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) also considers runway incursions to be a serious aviation safety hazard, listing runway incursion prevention as one of their most wanted transportation safety improvements [3]. The NTSB recommends that immediate warning of probable collisions/incursions be given directly to flight crews in the cockpit [4].

  8. Fatal accidents due to train surfing in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Strauch, H; Wirth, I; Geserick, G

    1998-06-01

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of analysing under the aspect of legal medicine, fatal accidents due to train surfing in the local transport system of Berlin (S-Bahn and underground). The period of investigation was from 1989 through 1995, with 41 train surfing accidents, among them 18 with fatal outcome. Evaluation included those 14 deaths which were forensically autopsied. It was based on autopsy records of Berlin-based university institutes (Humboldt University and Free University) as well as the Brandenburg State Institute of Legal Medicine. Also used were data obtained from the Berlin Transport Police Record. The casualties were aged between 13 and 25 years, most of them between 16 and 20. The male-female gender ratio was 13:1. Accidents occurred above all in the warmer season of the year, most of them between 20:00 h and midnight. More than 50% of all cases were affected by alcohol, but centrally acting medicaments or other addictive drugs were not noticed at all. Most of the fatal accidents occurred to users of the Berlin S-Bahn network. Older train models were the preferred surfing objects due to their structural peculiarities. Collision with close-to-track obstacles and slipping from the train proved to be the major sources of danger. An analysis of injuries revealed polytraumatisation but for one exception, with craniocerebral injuries being the most common and severest events. The longest survival time amounted to 24 h. As the psychosocial causes of high-risk behaviour of adolescents will hardly be controllable, withdrawal of technical, that is structural design possibilities appears to be the most important approach to prevention of accidents in the future. This demand is met by the new series of the Berlin S-Bahn. The model of the old series, suitable for surfing, still accounts for about 10% of the rolling stock and is to be decommissioned in 1998. PMID:9670490

  9. Stern-Gerlach surfing in laser wakefield accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, Stephen P.; Burton, David A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the effects of a Stern-Gerlach-type addition to the Lorentz force on electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator. The Stern-Gerlach-type terms are found to generate a family of trajectories describing electrons that 'surf' along the plasma density wave driven by a laser pulse. Such trajectories could lead to an increase in the size of an electron bunch, which may have implications for attempts to exploit such bunches in future free electron lasers.

  10. Sea spray aerosol and wave energy dissipation in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francius, M. J.; Piazolla, J.; Forget, P.; Le Calve, O.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.

    2007-09-01

    Results from a quantitative model for the prediction of the sea-salt mass flux produced in the surf zone are presented in this paper. The model relates the surf zone sea salt mass flux to the amount of wave energy dissipated in the surf zone. In order to apply this aerosol emission model, a wave numerical model is required to obtain estimates for the total wave energy dissipated in the surf zone, as well as for the width of the surf zone. In the present work, we show using different wave models that the aerosol emission model is not sensitive to the details of the formulation of the wave model, provided a clear definition for the width of surf zone is adopted and the calibration of the numerical models is properly done.

  11. A real-time FPGA-based architecture for OpenSURF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaoxiu; Yong, Huang; Zhong, Sheng; Yan, Luxin

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a low-cost FPGA architecture of Speed-Up Robust Features (SURF) algorithm based on OpenSURF. It optimizes the computing architecture for the steps of feature detection and feature description involved in SURF to reduce the resource utilization and improve processing speed. As a result, this architecture can detect feature and extract descriptor from video streams of 800x600 resolutions at 60 frames per second (60fps). Extensive experiments have demonstrated its efficiency and effectiveness.

  12. Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects

    PubMed Central

    Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Zeviani, Massimo; Mráček, Tomáš; Viscomi, Carlo; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial protein SURF1 is a specific assembly factor of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), but its function is poorly understood. SURF1 gene mutations cause a severe COX deficiency manifesting as the Leigh syndrome in humans, whereas in mice SURF1−/− knockout leads only to a mild COX defect. We used SURF1−/− mouse model for detailed analysis of disturbed COX assembly and COX ability to incorporate into respiratory supercomplexes (SCs) in different tissues and fibroblasts. Furthermore, we compared fibroblasts from SURF1−/− mouse and SURF1 patients to reveal interspecies differences in kinetics of COX biogenesis using 2D electrophoresis, immunodetection, arrest of mitochondrial proteosynthesis and pulse-chase metabolic labeling. The crucial differences observed are an accumulation of abundant COX1 assembly intermediates, low content of COX monomer and preferential recruitment of COX into I–III2–IVn SCs in SURF1 patient fibroblasts, whereas SURF1−/− mouse fibroblasts were characterized by low content of COX1 assembly intermediates and milder decrease in COX monomer, which appeared more stable. This pattern was even less pronounced in SURF1−/− mouse liver and brain. Both the control and SURF1−/− mice revealed only negligible formation of the I–III2–IVn SCs and marked tissue differences in the contents of COX dimer and III2–IV SCs, also less noticeable in liver and brain than in heart and muscle. Our studies support the view that COX assembly is much more dependent on SURF1 in humans than in mice. We also demonstrate markedly lower ability of mouse COX to form I–III2–IVn supercomplexes, pointing to tissue-specific and species-specific differences in COX biogenesis. PMID:26804654

  13. Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects.

    PubMed

    Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Zeviani, Massimo; Mráček, Tomáš; Viscomi, Carlo; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondrial protein SURF1 is a specific assembly factor of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), but its function is poorly understood. SURF1 gene mutations cause a severe COX deficiency manifesting as the Leigh syndrome in humans, whereas in mice SURF1(-/-) knockout leads only to a mild COX defect. We used SURF1(-/-) mouse model for detailed analysis of disturbed COX assembly and COX ability to incorporate into respiratory supercomplexes (SCs) in different tissues and fibroblasts. Furthermore, we compared fibroblasts from SURF1(-/-) mouse and SURF1 patients to reveal interspecies differences in kinetics of COX biogenesis using 2D electrophoresis, immunodetection, arrest of mitochondrial proteosynthesis and pulse-chase metabolic labeling. The crucial differences observed are an accumulation of abundant COX1 assembly intermediates, low content of COX monomer and preferential recruitment of COX into I-III2-IVn SCs in SURF1 patient fibroblasts, whereas SURF1(-/-) mouse fibroblasts were characterized by low content of COX1 assembly intermediates and milder decrease in COX monomer, which appeared more stable. This pattern was even less pronounced in SURF1(-/-) mouse liver and brain. Both the control and SURF1(-/-) mice revealed only negligible formation of the I-III2-IVn SCs and marked tissue differences in the contents of COX dimer and III2-IV SCs, also less noticeable in liver and brain than in heart and muscle. Our studies support the view that COX assembly is much more dependent on SURF1 in humans than in mice. We also demonstrate markedly lower ability of mouse COX to form I-III2-IVn supercomplexes, pointing to tissue-specific and species-specific differences in COX biogenesis. PMID:26804654

  14. Liquid-bubble Interaction under Surf Zone Breaking Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derakhti, M.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Liquid-bubble interaction, especially in complex two-phase bubbly flow under breaking waves, is still poorly understood. Derakhti and Kirby (2014a,b) have recently studied bubble entrainment and turbulence modulation by dispersed bubbles under isolated unsteady breaking waves along with extensive model verifications and convergence tests. In this presentation, we continue this examination with attention turned to the simulation of periodic surf zone breaking waves. In addition, the relative importance of preferential accumulation of dispersed bubbles in coherent vortex cores is investigated. Heavier-than-liquid particles, i.e. sediment, tend to accumulate in regions of high strain rate and avoid regions of intense vorticity. In contrast, lighter-than-liquid particles such as bubbles tend to congregate in vortical regions. We perform a three dimensional (3D) large-eddy simulation (LES) using a Navier-Stokes solver extended to incorporate entrained bubble populations, using an Eulerian-Eulerian formulation for the polydisperse bubble phase. The volume of fluid (VOF) method is used for free surface tracking. The model accounts for momentum exchange between dispersed bubbles and liquid phase as well as bubble-induced dissipation. We investigate the formation and evolution of breaking-induced turbulent coherent structures (BTCS) under both plunging and spilling periodic breaking waves as well as BTCS's role on the intermittent 3D distributions of bubble void fraction in the surf zone. We particularly examine the correlation between bubble void fractions and Q-criterion values to quantify this interaction. Also, the vertical transport of dispersed bubbles by downburst type coherent structures in the transition region is compared to that by obliquely descending eddies. All the results are summarized at different zones from outer to inner surf zone.

  15. Composition and Dynamics of the Nucleolinus, a Link between the Nucleolus and Cell Division Apparatus in Surf Clam (Spisula) Oocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Alliegro, Mark C.; Hartson, Steven; Alliegro, Mary Anne

    2012-01-01

    The nucleolinus is a little-known cellular structure, discovered over 150 years ago (Agassiz, L. (1857) Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America, First Monograph, Part IIL, Little, Brown and Co., Boston) and thought by some investigators in the late 19th to mid-20th century to function in the formation of the centrosomes or spindle. A role for the nucleolinus in formation of the cell division apparatus has recently been confirmed in oocytes of the surf clam, Spisula solidissima (Alliegro, M. A., Henry, J. J., and Alliegro, M. C. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 13718–13723). However, we know so little about the composition and dynamics of this compartment, it is difficult to construct mechanistic hypotheses or even to be sure that prior reports were describing analogous structures in the cells of mammals, amphibians, plants, and other organisms where it was observed. Surf clam oocytes are an attractive model to approach this problem because the nucleolinus is easily visible by light microscopy, making it accessible by laser microsurgery as well as isolation by common cell fractionation techniques. In this report, we analyze the macromolecular composition of isolated Spisula nucleolini and examine the relationship of this structure to the nucleolus and cell division apparatus. Analysis of nucleolinar RNA and protein revealed a set of molecules that overlaps with but is nevertheless distinct from the nucleolus. The proteins identified were primarily ones involved in nucleic acid metabolism and cell cycle regulation. Monoclonal antibodies generated against isolated nucleolini revealed centrosomal forerunners in the oocyte cytoplasm. Finally, induction of damage to the nucleolinus by laser microsurgery altered the trafficking of α- and γ-tubulin after fertilization. These observations strongly support a role for the nucleolinus in cell division and represent our first clues regarding mechanism. PMID:22219192

  16. Boron nitride nanotube-functionalised myoblast/microfibre constructs: a nanotech-assisted tissue-engineered platform for muscle stimulation.

    PubMed

    Danti, Serena; Ciofani, Gianni; Pertici, Gianni; Moscato, Stefania; D'Alessandro, Delfo; Ciabatti, Elena; Chiellini, Federica; D'Acunto, Mario; Mattoli, Virgilio; Berrettini, Stefano

    2015-07-01

    In this communication, we introduce boron nitride nanotube (BNNT)-functionalised muscle cell/microfibre mesh constructs, obtained via tissue engineering, as a three-dimensional (3D) platform to study a wireless stimulation system for electrically responsive cells and tissues. Our stimulation strategy exploits the piezoelectric behaviour of some classes of ceramic nanoparticles, such as BNNTs, able to polarize under mechanical stress, e.g. using low-frequency ultrasound (US). In the microfibre scaffolds, C2C12 myoblasts were able to differentiate into viable myotubes and to internalize BNNTs, also upon US irradiation, so as to obtain a nanotech-assisted 3D in vitro model. We then tested our stimulatory system on 2D and 3D cellular models by investigating the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43), as a molecule involved in cell crosstalk and mechanotransduction, and myosin, as a myogenic differentiation marker. Cx43 gene expression revealed a marked model dependency. In control samples (without US and/or BNNTs), Cx43 was upregulated under 2D culture conditions (10.78?±?1.05-fold difference). Interactions with BNNTs increased Cx43 expression in 3D samples. Cx43 mRNA dropped in 2D under the 'BNNTs?+?US' regimen, while it was best enhanced in 3D samples (3.58?±?1.05 vs 13.74?±?1.42-fold difference, p?=?0.0001). At the protein level, the maximal expressions of Cx43 and myosin were detected in the 3D model. In contrast with the 3D model, in 2D cultures, BNNTs and US exerted a synergistic depletive effect upon myosin synthesis. These findings indicate that model dimensionality and stimulatory regimens can strongly affect the responses of signalling and differentiation molecules, proving the importance of developing proper in vitro platforms for biological modelling. PMID:24596180

  17. Learning and Identity in Overlapping Communities of Practice: Surf Club, School and Sports Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard; Nash, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Large numbers of children and young people spend their weekends and holidays engaged in the activities of over 300 surf clubs across Australia each summer. Long term membership in these clubs, beginning from as young as five years of age, forms a significant part of children's and young people's development yet surf clubs have yet to receive…

  18. The effects of surfing behaviour on the development of external auditory canal exostosis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, V; Lau, A; Beaumont, E; Hope, A

    2015-07-01

    To examine how individual surfing behaviour affects the development of external auditory canal exostosis and to produce a model to predict exostosis severity. A standardised questionnaire was completed and each participant underwent an otoscopic examination. Surfers were recruited from August to October 2011 from surfing competitions and from colleges in the South West of England. 207 surfers were included, 53 % had evidence of external auditory canal; exostosis: grade 1, 23%; grade 2, 16%, grade 3, 16%. This risk of exostosis significantly increased with (1) surfing for 6 or more years, (2) surfing in the winter months, (3) surfing five or more times per month in the winter and (4) reported ear symptoms. Interestingly, participation in other water sports and wearing earplugs or a hood reduced the risk of developing exostosis. Surfers who surf in England are at significant risk of exostosis. A probability model was designed, incorporating different surfing behaviours and ear symptoms, the first of its kind in exostosis research. This model will be a useful tool for raising awareness of external ear canal exostosis in the surfing community and in assessing individual need for surgical intervention. PMID:24619201

  19. Downscaling surfing conditions in nearshore areas: seasonal, interannual and long term variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, I.; Espejo, A.; Mendez, F.

    2012-12-01

    During the last years several artificial surf reefs have been constructed. Most of them have had slight effect on improving surf quality and in some cases the results have not been enough satisfactory. One cause of this lack of success can be blamed to an incipient design and construction technique but also because the location of these structures responds to socio-economic principles rather than in oceanographic ones. This work describes a hybrid downscaling method used to get detailed tracing spectral wave and wind data in order to determine historical surf quality time series in a regional (10-200 km) or a local scale. Our assessment is conducted by means of an objective and standardized index on the basis of expert judgment that takes into account the multivariate character of the surf resource. The availability of long hourly time series (more than 60 years) of the surf quality allows the statistical analysis at any particular spot. Thus, we offer a reliable tool for identifying optimum reef location, and determining spatial patterns of surf consistency in terms of seasonal, interannual and long term variability. This method have been applied in the north-eastern coast of Spain identifying world class spots like Mundaka and other places where in spite of occurring good wave-wind conditions there is no bathymetric anomalies able to produce peeling waves. This method provides the decision making process when planning an artificial surf reef construction and at the same time offers useful information for coastal management and surf related stakeholders.

  20. The Ocean as a Unique Therapeutic Environment: Developing a Surfing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily D.; Armitano, Cortney N.; Lamont, Linda S.; Audette, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Educational aquatic programming offers necessary physical activity opportunities to children with disabilities and the benefits of aquatic activities are more pronounced for children with disabilities than for their able-bodied peers. Similar benefits could potentially be derived from surfing in the ocean. This article describes an adapted surfing…

  1. Habitat use by larval fishes in a temperate South African surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt-Pringle, Peter; Strydom, Nadine A.

    2003-12-01

    Larval fishes were sampled in the Kwaaihoek surf zone on the south east coast of South Africa. On six occasions between February and May 2002, larval fishes were collected in two habitat types identified in the inner surf zone using a modified beach-seine net. The surf zone habitats were classified as either sheltered trough areas or adjacent exposed surf areas. Temperature, depth and current measurements were taken at all sites. Trough habitats consisted of a depression in surf topography characterised by reduced current velocities and greater average depth than adjacent surf areas. In total, 325 larval fishes were collected. Of these, 229 were collected in trough and 96 in surf habitats. At least 22 families and 37 species were represented in the catch. Dominant families were the Mugilidae, Sparidae, Atherinidae, and Engraulidae. Dominant species included Liza tricuspidens and Liza richardsonii (Mugilidae), Rhabdosargus holubi and Sarpa salpa (Sparidae), Atherina breviceps (Atherinidae) and Engraulis japonicus (Engraulide). Mean CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent species was significantly greater in trough areas. The proportion of postflexion larval fishes in trough habitat was significantly greater than that of preflexion stages, a result that was not apparent in surf habitat sampled. CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent fishes was negatively correlated with current magnitude and positively correlated with habitat depth. Mean body length of larval fishes was significantly greater in trough than in surf habitats. These results provide evidence that the CPUE of postflexion larvae of estuary-dependent fishes is higher in trough habitat in the surf zone and this may be indicative of active habitat selection for areas of reduced current velocity/wave action. The implications of this behaviour for estuarine recruitment processes are discussed.

  2. Wave Acceleration Induced Sediment Transport in the Surf Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefel, F.; Elgar, S.

    2002-12-01

    A bedload sediment transport formulation (Drake and Calantoni, 2001) that accounts for the effects of near-bottom wave-orbital velocity acceleration skewness predicts onshore sandbar migration observed near Duck, NC. Including acceleration effects in an energetics sediment transport model results in improved skill in reproducing cross-shore sandbar migration patterns observed over a 40 day period during which the bar moved both offshore in storms and onshore between storms. These results suggest that skewed acceleration time series, associated with the pitched forward shapes of nearly breaking and broken waves, play an important role in wave-induced sediment transport in the surf zone. The passage of steep wave fronts results in spikes in acceleration when orbital velocities are directed onshore, producing strong horizontal pressure gradient forces that act on the sediment. In contrast to velocity skewness, which remains approximately constant across the surf zone, acceleration skewness is observed to increase from small values offshore to a maximum near the bar crest, and then to decrease toward the shoreline, producing cross-shore spatial gradients in acceleration-driven transport that are consistent with erosion offshore and accretion onshore of the bar crest. As the sandbar migrates shoreward, the maximum of acceleration skewness also moves onshore, causing a positive feedback mechanism that promotes continued onshore sediment transport motion provided the forcing remains constant. Funded by ARO, ONR, and NOPP.

  3. Information surfing with the JHU/APL coherent imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Shipley, Kara R.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Wolfe, Kevin C.

    2015-05-01

    The ability to perform remote forensics in situ is an important application of autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs). Forensics objectives may include remediation of mines and/or unexploded ordnance, as well as monitoring of seafloor infrastructure. At JHU/APL, digital holography is being explored for the potential application to underwater imaging and integration with an AUV. In previous work, a feature-based approach was developed for processing the holographic imagery and performing object recognition. In this work, the results of the image processing method were incorporated into a Bayesian framework for autonomous path planning referred to as information surfing. The framework was derived assuming that the location of the object of interest is known a priori, but the type of object and its pose are unknown. The path-planning algorithm adaptively modifies the trajectory of the sensing platform based on historical performance of object and pose classification. The algorithm is called information surfing because the direction of motion is governed by the local information gradient. Simulation experiments were carried out using holographic imagery collected from submerged objects. The autonomous sensing algorithm was compared to a deterministic sensing CONOPS, and demonstrated improved accuracy and faster convergence in several cases.

  4. The antioxidant potential of the New Zealand surf clams.

    PubMed

    Odeleye, Tinu; Li, Yan; White, William Lindsey; Nie, Shaoping; Chen, Shuping; Wang, Junqiao; Lu, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The antioxidant action of three New Zealand surf clams was evaluated for the first time. Aqueous (cd) and ethanolic extracts from Diamond shell - Crassula aequilatera, Storm shell - Mactra murchisoni, and Tua tua - Paphies donacina were studied for their antioxidant potentials using two in vitro assays. The ethanolic extracts were further fractioned into four parts; petroleum ether (pe), ethyl acetate (ea), n-butanol (nb), and the final aqueous fraction (w). Comparing among all fractions tested, the ea fraction of P. donacina showed the strongest free radical scavenging power, with a radical scavenging activity of 76.14% at 20μg/mL. The ea fraction of C. aequilatera had the highest copper reducing activity with an absorbance of 1.596 at 20μg/mL. Results from this study suggest that some bioactive compounds with significant antioxidant effects may exist in the New Zealand surf clams, and could potentially reduce oxidative stress to deliver health benefits or to produce functional foods. PMID:26988487

  5. Leigh syndrome in Drosophila melanogaster: morphological and biochemical characterization of Surf1 post-transcriptional silencing.

    PubMed

    Da-Rè, Caterina; von Stockum, Sophia; Biscontin, Alberto; Millino, Caterina; Cisotto, Paola; Zordan, Mauro A; Zeviani, Massimo; Bernardi, Paolo; De Pittà, Cristiano; Costa, Rodolfo

    2014-10-17

    Leigh Syndrome (LS) is the most common early-onset, progressive mitochondrial encephalopathy usually leading to early death. The single most prevalent cause of LS is occurrence of mutations in the SURF1 gene, and LS(Surf1) patients show a ubiquitous and specific decrease in the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase, COX). SURF1 encodes an inner membrane mitochondrial protein involved in COX assembly. We established a Drosophila melanogaster model of LS based on the post-transcriptional silencing of CG9943, the Drosophila homolog of SURF1. Knockdown of Surf1 was induced ubiquitously in larvae and adults, which led to lethality; in the mesodermal derivatives, which led to pupal lethality; or in the central nervous system, which allowed survival. A biochemical characterization was carried out in knockdown individuals, which revealed that larvae unexpectedly displayed defects in all complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and in the F-ATP synthase, while adults had a COX-selective impairment. Silencing of Surf1 expression in Drosophila S2R(+) cells led to selective loss of COX activity associated with decreased oxygen consumption and respiratory reserve. We conclude that Surf1 is essential for COX activity and mitochondrial function in D. melanogaster, thus providing a new tool that may help clarify the pathogenic mechanisms of LS. PMID:25164807

  6. Global assessment of surfing conditions: seasonal, interannual and long-term variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejo, A.; Losada, I.; Mendez, F.

    2012-12-01

    International surfing destinations owe a great debt to specific combinations of wind-wave, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. As surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, a multivariable standardized index on the basis of expert judgment is proposed to analyze surf resource in a worldwide domain. Data needed is obtained by combining several datasets (reanalyses): 60-year satellite-calibrated spectral wave hindcast (GOW, WaveWatchIII), wind fields from NCEP/NCAR, global sea surface temperature from ERSST.v3b, and global tides from TPXO7.1. A summary of the global surf resource is presented, which highlights the high degree of variability in surfable events. According to general atmospheric circulation, results show that west facing low to middle latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in Southern Hemisphere. Month to month analysis reveals strong seasonal changes in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing those in North Atlantic or North Pacific. Interannual variability is investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional climate patterns showing a great influence at both, global and regional scales. Analysis of long term trends shows an increase in the probability of surfable events over the west facing coasts on the planet (i.e. + 30 hours/year in California). The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers and surf related stakeholders, coastal planning, education, and basic research.; Figure 1. Global distribution of medium quality (a) and high quality surf conditions probability (b).

  7. Surf zone diatoms: A review of the drivers, patterns and role in sandy beaches food chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odebrecht, Clarisse; Du Preez, Derek R.; Abreu, Paulo Cesar; Campbell, Eileen E.

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of high biomass of diatoms in the surf zone is a characteristic feature of some sandy beaches where the wave energy is sufficiently high. A few species of diatoms, called surf diatoms, thrive in this harsh environment. The main processes driving the spatial and temporal distribution of surf diatoms as well as their standing biomass and growth were described twenty to thirty years ago based on studies conducted on the western coast of the United States of America and South African beaches. Since then, over fifty locations around the world have been reported to have surf diatom accumulations with most (three-quarters) of these being in the southern hemisphere. Their occurrence is controlled by physical and chemical factors, including wave energy, beach slope and length, water circulation patterns in the surf zone and the availability of nutrients to sustain the high biomass. The main forces driving the patterns of temporal variability of surf diatom accumulations are meteorological. In the short term (hours), the action of wind stress and wave energy controls the diatom accumulation. In the intermediate time scale (weeks to months), seasonal onshore winds of sufficient strength, as well as storm events are important. Furthermore, anthropogenic disturbances that influence the beach ecosystem as well as large-scale events, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation, may lead to significant changes in surf diatom populations in the long term (inter-annual). Surf diatoms form the base of a short and very productive food chain in the inshore of the sandy beaches where they occur. However, the role of surf diatoms in the microbial food web is not clear and deserves further studies.

  8. Surfing Plasma Waves: A New Paradigm for Particle Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Chandrashekhar

    Accelerator-based experiments have produced key breakthroughs in our understanding of the physical world. New accelerators, to explore the frontiers of Tera-scale Physics, appear possible, based on concepts developed over the last three decades in multi-disciplinary endeavors. The Plasma-Based Particle Accelerator is one concept that has made spectacular advances in the last few years. In this scheme, electrons or positrons gain energy by surfing the electric field of a plasma wave that is produced by the passage of an intense laser pulse or an electron beam through the plasma. This talk reviews the principles of this new technique and prognosticates how it is likely to impact science and technology in the future.

  9. Droplets move over viscoelastic substrates by surfing a ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpitschka, S.; Das, S.; van Gorcum, M.; Perrin, H.; Andreotti, B.; Snoeijer, J. H.

    2015-08-01

    Liquid drops on soft solids generate strong deformations below the contact line, resulting from a balance of capillary and elastic forces. The movement of these drops may cause strong, potentially singular dissipation in the soft solid. Here we show that a drop on a soft substrate moves by surfing a ridge: the initially flat solid surface is deformed into a sharp ridge whose orientation angle depends on the contact line velocity. We measure this angle for water on a silicone gel and develop a theory based on the substrate rheology. We quantitatively recover the dynamic contact angle and provide a mechanism for stick-slip motion when a drop is forced strongly: the contact line depins and slides down the wetting ridge, forming a new one after a transient. We anticipate that our theory will have implications in problems such as self-organization of cell tissues or the design of capillarity-based microrheometers.

  10. Droplets move over viscoelastic substrates by surfing a ridge.

    PubMed

    Karpitschka, S; Das, S; van Gorcum, M; Perrin, H; Andreotti, B; Snoeijer, J H

    2015-01-01

    Liquid drops on soft solids generate strong deformations below the contact line, resulting from a balance of capillary and elastic forces. The movement of these drops may cause strong, potentially singular dissipation in the soft solid. Here we show that a drop on a soft substrate moves by surfing a ridge: the initially flat solid surface is deformed into a sharp ridge whose orientation angle depends on the contact line velocity. We measure this angle for water on a silicone gel and develop a theory based on the substrate rheology. We quantitatively recover the dynamic contact angle and provide a mechanism for stick-slip motion when a drop is forced strongly: the contact line depins and slides down the wetting ridge, forming a new one after a transient. We anticipate that our theory will have implications in problems such as self-organization of cell tissues or the design of capillarity-based microrheometers. PMID:26238436

  11. Droplets move over viscoelastic substrates by surfing a ridge

    PubMed Central

    Karpitschka, S.; Das, S.; van Gorcum, M.; Perrin, H.; Andreotti, B.; Snoeijer, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid drops on soft solids generate strong deformations below the contact line, resulting from a balance of capillary and elastic forces. The movement of these drops may cause strong, potentially singular dissipation in the soft solid. Here we show that a drop on a soft substrate moves by surfing a ridge: the initially flat solid surface is deformed into a sharp ridge whose orientation angle depends on the contact line velocity. We measure this angle for water on a silicone gel and develop a theory based on the substrate rheology. We quantitatively recover the dynamic contact angle and provide a mechanism for stick–slip motion when a drop is forced strongly: the contact line depins and slides down the wetting ridge, forming a new one after a transient. We anticipate that our theory will have implications in problems such as self-organization of cell tissues or the design of capillarity-based microrheometers. PMID:26238436

  12. Image characterization and target recognition in the surf zone environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevis, Andrew J.

    1996-05-01

    The surf zone environment represents a very difficult challenge for electro-optic surveillance programs. Data from these programs have been shown to contain dense clutter from vegetation, biological factors (fish), and man-made objects, and is further complicated by the water to land transition which has a significant impact on target signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). Also, targets can be geometrically warped from the sea surface and by occlusion from sand and breaking waves. The Program Executive Office Mine Warfare (PMO-210) recently sponsored a test under the Magic Lantern Adaptation (MLA) program to collect surf zone data. Analysis of the data revealed a dilemma for automatic target recognition algorithms; threshold target features high enough to reduce high false alarm rates from land clutter or low enough to detect and classify underwater targets. Land image typically have high SNR clutter with crisp edges while underwater images have lower SNR clutter with blurred edges. In an attempt to help distinguish between land and underwater images, target feature thresholds were made to vary as a function of the SNR of image features within images and as a function of a measure of the edge crispness of the image features. The feasibility of varying target feature thresholds to reduce false alarm rates was demonstrated on a target recognition program using a small set of MLA data. Four features were developed based on expected target shape and resolution: a contrast difference measure between circular targets and their local backgrounds, a signal-to-noise ratio, a normalized correlation, and a target circularity measure. Results showed a target probability of detection and classification (Pdc) of 50 - 78% with false alarms per frame of less than 4%.

  13. Surfing through Hyperspace - Understanding Higher Universes in Six Easy Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    2001-05-01

    Do a little armchair time-travel, rub elbows with a four-dimensional intelligent life form, or stretch your mind to the furthest corner of an uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, Surfing Through Hyperspace , you need not be a mathematician or an astrophysicist to explore the all-but-unfathomable concepts of hyperspace and higher-dimensional geometry.No subject in mathematics has intrigued both children and adults as much as the idea of a fourth dimension. Philosophers and parapsychologists have meditated on this mysterious space that no one can point to but may be all around us. Yet this extra dimension has a very real, practical value to mathematicians and physicists who use it every day in their calculations. In the tradition of Flatland , and with an infectious enthusiasm, Clifford Pickover tackles the problems inherent in our 3-D brains trying to visualize a 4-D world, muses on the religious implications of the existence of higher-dimensional consciousness, and urges all curious readers to venture into "the unexplored territory lying beyond the prison of the obvious." Pickover alternates sections that explain the science of hyperspace with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialogue between two futuristic FBI agents who dabble in the fourth dimension as a matter of national security. This highly accessible and entertaining approach turns an intimidating subject into a scientific game open to all dreamers.Surfing Through Hyperspace concludes with a number of puzzles, computer experiments and formulas for further exploration, inviting readers to extend their minds across this inexhaustibly intriguing scientific terrain.

  14. Surfing through Hyperspace - Understanding Higher Universes in Six Easy Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1999-09-01

    Do a little armchair time-travel, rub elbows with a four-dimensional intelligent life form, or stretch your mind to the furthest corner of an uncharted universe. With this astonishing guidebook, Surfing Through Hyperspace , you need not be a mathematician or an astrophysicist to explore the all-but-unfathomable concepts of hyperspace and higher-dimensional geometry.No subject in mathematics has intrigued both children and adults as much as the idea of a fourth dimension. Philosophers and parapsychologists have meditated on this mysterious space that no one can point to but may be all around us. Yet this extra dimension has a very real, practical value to mathematicians and physicists who use it every day in their calculations. In the tradtion of Flatland , and with an infectious enthusiasm, Clifford Pickover tackles the problems inherent in our 3-D brains trying to visualize a 4-D world, muses on the religious implications of the existence of higher-dimensional consciousness, and urges all curious readers to venture into "the unexplored territory lying beyond the prison of the obvious." Pickover alternates sections that explain the science of hyperspace with sections that dramatize mind-expanding concepts through a fictional dialogue between two futuristic FBI agents who dabble in the fourth dimension as a matter of national security. This highly accessible and entertaining approach turns an intimidating subject into a scientific game open to all dreamers.Surfing Through Hyperspace concludes with a number of puzzles, computer experiments and formulas for further exploration, inviting readers to extend their minds across this inexhaustibly intriguing scientific terrain.

  15. Military personnel recognition system using texture, colour, and SURF features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irhebhude, Martins E.; Edirisinghe, Eran A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents an automatic, machine vision based, military personnel identification and classification system. Classification is done using a Support Vector Machine (SVM) on sets of Army, Air Force and Navy camouflage uniform personnel datasets. In the proposed system, the arm of service of personnel is recognised by the camouflage of a persons uniform, type of cap and the type of badge/logo. The detailed analysis done include; camouflage cap and plain cap differentiation using gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture feature; classification on Army, Air Force and Navy camouflaged uniforms using GLCM texture and colour histogram bin features; plain cap badge classification into Army, Air Force and Navy using Speed Up Robust Feature (SURF). The proposed method recognised camouflage personnel arm of service on sets of data retrieved from google images and selected military websites. Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) was used to improve recognition and reduce dimensionality, thereby speeding the classification process. With this method success rates recorded during the analysis include 93.8% for camouflage appearance category, 100%, 90% and 100% rates of plain cap and camouflage cap categories for Army, Air Force and Navy categories, respectively. Accurate recognition was recorded using SURF for the plain cap badge category. Substantial analysis has been carried out and results prove that the proposed method can correctly classify military personnel into various arms of service. We show that the proposed method can be integrated into a face recognition system, which will recognise personnel in addition to determining the arm of service which the personnel belong. Such a system can be used to enhance the security of a military base or facility.

  16. Thailand resorts to nanotech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, Adarsh

    2008-08-01

    Its economy might be dominated by agriculture and tourism, but Thailand is investing heavily in nanotechnology, although a shortage of scientists and engineers remains a problem, as Adarsh Sandhu reports.

  17. An Asilomar for nanotech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumey, Chris

    2014-07-01

    Although numerous statements on ethics in nanotechnology have been published, they exist as seemingly disparate, stand-alone works. Inspired by a process that the field of genetic engineering went through in the 1970s, Chris Toumey suggests one way in which some clarity could be brought to the topic.

  18. 76 FR 65180 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application to Shuck Surf Clams/Ocean Quahogs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application to Shuck Surf Clams/Ocean Quahogs at Sea AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  19. The effects of surfing and the natural environment on the well-being of combat veterans.

    PubMed

    Caddick, Nick; Smith, Brett; Phoenix, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have identified the benefits of physical activity on well-being, there is little evidence concerning the effects of nature-based physical activity. We investigated the effect of one nature-based activity-surfing-on the well-being of combat veterans experiencing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted interviews and participant observations with a group of combat veterans belonging to a United Kingdom-based veterans' surfing charity. Our primary analytical approach was dialogical narrative analysis. Based on our rigorous analysis and findings, we suggest that surfing facilitated a sense of respite from PTSD. Respite was a fully embodied feeling of release from suffering that was cultivated through surfing and shaped by the stories veterans told of their experiences. We significantly extend previous knowledge on physical activity, combat veterans, and PTSD by highlighting how nature-based physical activity, encapsulated in the conceptual notion of the "blue gym," can promote well-being among combat veterans. PMID:25189537

  20. SCI Hazard Report Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

  1. Sandy beach surf zones: An alternative nursery habitat for 0-age Chinook salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Miller, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The role of each habitat fish use is of great importance to the dynamics of populations. During their early marine residence, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), an anadromous fish species, mostly inhabit estuaries but also use sandy beach surf zones and the coastal ocean. However, the role of surf zones in the early life history of Chinook salmon is unclear. We hypothesized that surf zones serve as an alternative nursery habitat, defined as a habitat that consistently provides a proportion of a population with foraging and growth rates similar to those experienced in the primary nursery. First, we confirmed that juvenile Chinook salmon cohorts are simultaneously using both habitats by combining field collections with otolith chemical and structural analysis to directly compare size and migration patterns of juveniles collected in two Oregon (USA) estuaries and surf zones during three years. We then compared juvenile catch, diet and growth in estuaries and surf zones. Juveniles were consistently caught in both habitats throughout summer. Catches were significantly higher in estuaries (average ± SD = 34.3 ± 19.7 ind. 100 m-2) than surf zones (1.0 ± 1.5 ind. 100 m-2) and were positively correlated (r = 0.92). Size at capture (103 ± 15 mm fork length, FL), size at marine entry (76 ± 13 mm FL), stomach fullness (2 ± 2% body weight) and growth rates (0.4 ± 0.0 mm day-1) were similar between habitats. Our results suggest that when large numbers of 0-age Chinook salmon inhabit estuaries, juveniles concurrently use surf zones, which serve as an alternative nursery habitat. Therefore, surf zones expand the available rearing habitat for Chinook salmon during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history.

  2. The Rate of Beneficial Mutations Surfing on the Wave of a Range Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Lehe, Rémi; Hallatschek, Oskar; Peliti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Many theoretical and experimental studies suggest that range expansions can have severe consequences for the gene pool of the expanding population. Due to strongly enhanced genetic drift at the advancing frontier, neutral and weakly deleterious mutations can reach large frequencies in the newly colonized regions, as if they were surfing the front of the range expansion. These findings raise the question of how frequently beneficial mutations successfully surf at shifting range margins, thereby promoting adaptation towards a range-expansion phenotype. Here, we use individual-based simulations to study the surfing statistics of recurrent beneficial mutations on wave-like range expansions in linear habitats. We show that the rate of surfing depends on two strongly antagonistic factors, the probability of surfing given the spatial location of a novel mutation and the rate of occurrence of mutations at that location. The surfing probability strongly increases towards the tip of the wave. Novel mutations are unlikely to surf unless they enjoy a spatial head start compared to the bulk of the population. The needed head start is shown to be proportional to the inverse fitness of the mutant type, and only weakly dependent on the carrying capacity. The precise location dependence of surfing probabilities is derived from the non-extinction probability of a branching process within a moving field of growth rates. The second factor is the mutation occurrence which strongly decreases towards the tip of the wave. Thus, most successful mutations arise at an intermediate position in the front of the wave. We present an analytic theory for the tradeoff between these factors that allows to predict how frequently substitutions by beneficial mutations occur at invasion fronts. We find that small amounts of genetic drift increase the fixation rate of beneficial mutations at the advancing front, and thus could be important for adaptation during species invasions. PMID:22479175

  3. Surfing depth on a behaviour change website: predictors and effects on behaviour.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Nele; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Claes, Neree

    2010-03-01

    The primary objectives of the present study were to gain insight into website use and to predict the surfing depth on a behaviour change website and its effect on behaviour. Two hundred eight highly educated adults from the intervention condition of a randomised trial received access to a medical intervention, individual coaching (by e-mail, post, telephone or face-to-face) and a behaviour change website. Website use (e.g. surfing depth, page view duration) was registered. Online questionnaires for physical activity and fat intake were filled out at baseline and after 6 months. Hierarchical linear regression was used to predict surfing depth and its effect on behaviour. Seventy-five per cent of the participants visited the website. Fifty-one and fifty-six per cent consulted the physical activity and fat intake feedback, respectively. The median surfing depth was 2. The total duration of interventions by e-mail predicted deeper surfing (beta=0.36; p<0.001). Surfing depth did not predict changes in fat intake (beta=-0.07; p=0.45) or physical activity (beta=-0.03; p=0.72). Consulting the physical activity feedback led to more physical activity (beta=0.23; p=0.01). The findings from the present study can be used to guide future website development and improve the information architecture of behaviour change websites. PMID:20726734

  4. Qualitative Task Analysis to Enhance Sports Characterization: A Surfing Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Miguel; Peixoto, César

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Matrix of Analysis for Sports Tasks (MAST), regardless of the sports activity, based on practice classification and task analysis. Being this a qualitative research our main question was: in assessing sports’ structure is it possible to make the characterization of any discipline through context and individuals’ behaviours? The sample was within a surf discipline in a competition flowing having 5 of the top 16 Portuguese surfers training together. Based on a qualitative method, studying the surf as the main activity was an interpretative study case. The MAST was applied in four phases: taxonomy; tasks and context description; task analysis; teaching and performance strategies. Its application allowed the activities’ characterization through the observation, surfer’s opinions and bibliographical support. The triangulation of the data was used as an information data treatment. The elements were classified by the challenges proposed to the practitioners and the taxonomy was constituted by the sport activities, group, modality and discipline. Surf is a discipline of surfing which is a sliding sport modality, therefore, a nature sport. In the context description, we had the wave’s components and constraints and the surfboards’ qualities. Through task analysis we obtained a taxonomy of surf manoeuvres. The structural and functional analysis allowed finding solutions for learning of surf techniques with trampoline and skateboards because these fit in sliding sports. MAST makes possible the development of strategies that benefit teaching and performance intervention. PMID:25414757

  5. Photon surfing and magic speed revisited: Translucent effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Under the radiative environment of the intense radiation field around active phenomena such as black hole accretion disks, gaseous particles receive a strong radiative flux, which accelerates them, while they suffer from radiation drag by aberrated photons, which decelerates them. As a result, the acceleration of gaseous particles-photon surfing-would terminate at some magical speed ?m(=v/c); (4-?7)/3 ˜ 0.45 for acceleration above an infinite flat radiator (Icke 1989, A&A, 216, 294). In a realistic gaseous cloud, part of the radiation would be absorbed by the cloud, some would be reflected, and some transmitted. We examine these translucent effects for a geometrically thin gaseous cloud (stratus). When the optical depth of the stratus is sufficiently large, the terminal speed is the well known magical speed ?m for a particle. When the optical depth is around or less than unity, on the other hand, the terminal magical speed becomes large, up to ˜ 0.7c. This is just the translucent effect; the aberrated photons from the top of the stratus transmit the stratus much more than the direct photons from the bottom of the stratus facing the source.

  6. Surf zone entrainment, along-shore transport, and human health implications of pollution from tidal outlets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, S. B.; Kim, J. H.; Jones, B. H.; Jenkins, S. A.; Wasyl, J.; Cudaback, C.

    2005-10-01

    Field experiments and modeling studies were carried out to characterize the surf zone entrainment and along-shore transport of pollution from two tidal outlets that drain into Huntington Beach and Newport Beach, popular public beaches in southern California. The surf zone entrainment and near-shore transport of pollutants from these tidal outlets appears to be controlled by prevailing wave conditions and coastal currents, and fine-scale features of the flow field around the outlets. An analysis of data from dye experiments and fecal indicator bacteria monitoring studies reveals that the along-shore flux of surf zone water is at least 50 to 300 times larger than the cross-shore flux of surf zone water. As a result, pollutants entrained in the surf zone hug the shore, where they travel significant distances parallel to the beach before diluting to extinction. Under the assumption that all surf zone pollution at Huntington Beach originates from two tidal outlets, the Santa Ana River and Talbert Marsh outlets, models of mass and momentum transport in the surf zone approximately capture the observed tidal phasing and magnitude of certain fecal indicator bacteria groups (total coliform) but not others (Escherichia coli and enterococci), implying the existence of multiple sources of, and/or multiple transport pathways for, fecal pollution at this site. The intersection of human recreation and near-shore pollution pathways implies that, from a human health perspective, special care should be taken to reduce the discharge of harmful pollutants from land-side sources of surface water runoff, such as tidal outlets and storm drains.

  7. Solar winds surfs waves in the Sun's atmosphere!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    The fact that this electrified plasma speeds up to almost 3 million kilometres per hour as it leaves the Sun - twice as fast as originally predicted - has been known for years. The interpretation of how it happens is the real and surprising novelty: "The waves in the Sun's atmosphere are produced by vibrating solar magnetic field lines, which give solar wind particles a push just like an ocean wave gives a surfer a ride" said Dr John Kohl, principal investigator for the Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) - the instrument among the 12 aboard SOHO which gathered the data - and for the Spartan 201 mission. The outermost solar atmosphere, or corona, is only seen from Earth during a total eclipse of the Sun, when it appears as a shimmering, white veil surrounding the black lunar disc. The corona is an extremely tenuous, electrically charged gas, known as plasma, that flows throughout the solar system as the solar wind. The waves are formed by rapidly vibrating magnetic fields in the coronal plasma. They are called magneto - hydro - dynamic (MHD) waves and are believed to accelerate the solar wind. The solar wind is made up of electrons and ions, electrically charged atoms that have lost electrons. The electric charge of the solar wind particles forces them to travel along invisible lines of magnetic force in the corona. The particles spiral around the magnetic field lines as they rush into space. "The magnetic field acts like a violin string: when it's touched, it vibrates. When the Sun's magnetic field vibrates with a frequency equal to that of the particle spiraling around the magnetic field, it heats it up, producing a force that accelerates the particle upward and away from the Sun," says Dr. Ester Antonucci, an astronomer at the observatory of Turin, Italy, and co-investigator for SOHO's UVCS an instrument developed with considerable financial support by the Italian Space Agency, ASI. In a way this is similar to what happens if two people hold a string at opposite ends after threading it through an object, like a ring. If one person wiggles the string rapidly up and down, waves form in the string that move toward the person at the other end. The ring will "surf" these waves and move toward the other person as well. Try it! "Even with this major discovery, there are questions left to answer. The observations have made it abundantly clear that heavy particles like oxygen 'surf' on the waves, and there is also mounting evidence that waves are responsible for accelerating the hydrogen atoms, the most common constituent of the solar wind. Future observations are needed to establish this fact. Many other kinds of particles, such as helium (second most common) have never been observed in the accelerating part of the corona, and new observations are also needed to refine our understanding of how the waves interact with the solar wind as a whole," said Dr. Steven Cranmer of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, lead author of the research to be published in the Astrophysical Journal*. Nevertheless, SOHO has again been able to reveal another of the Sun's mysteries: "This is another triumph for SOHO, stealing a long-held secret from our Sun", said Dr Martin Huber, Head of ESA Space Science Department and co-investigator for UVCS. *Ref. Article by S.Cranmer, G.B. Field and J.L. Kohl on Astrophysical Journal ( June 20, Vol 518, p. 937-947) available on the web at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/journal/issues/ApJ/v518n2/39802/sc0.html

  8. Solar winds surfs waves in the Sun's atmosphere!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The fact that this electrified plasma speeds up to almost 3 million kilometres per hour as it leaves the Sun - twice as fast as originally predicted - has been known for years. The interpretation of how it happens is the real and surprising novelty: "The waves in the Sun's atmosphere are produced by vibrating solar magnetic field lines, which give solar wind particles a push just like an ocean wave gives a surfer a ride" said Dr John Kohl, principal investigator for the Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) - the instrument among the 12 aboard SOHO which gathered the data - and for the Spartan 201 mission. The outermost solar atmosphere, or corona, is only seen from Earth during a total eclipse of the Sun, when it appears as a shimmering, white veil surrounding the black lunar disc. The corona is an extremely tenuous, electrically charged gas, known as plasma, that flows throughout the solar system as the solar wind. The waves are formed by rapidly vibrating magnetic fields in the coronal plasma. They are called magneto - hydro - dynamic (MHD) waves and are believed to accelerate the solar wind. The solar wind is made up of electrons and ions, electrically charged atoms that have lost electrons. The electric charge of the solar wind particles forces them to travel along invisible lines of magnetic force in the corona. The particles spiral around the magnetic field lines as they rush into space. "The magnetic field acts like a violin string: when it's touched, it vibrates. When the Sun's magnetic field vibrates with a frequency equal to that of the particle spiraling around the magnetic field, it heats it up, producing a force that accelerates the particle upward and away from the Sun," says Dr. Ester Antonucci, an astronomer at the observatory of Turin, Italy, and co-investigator for SOHO's UVCS an instrument developed with considerable financial support by the Italian Space Agency, ASI. In a way this is similar to what happens if two people hold a string at opposite ends after threading it through an object, like a ring. If one person wiggles the string rapidly up and down, waves form in the string that move toward the person at the other end. The ring will "surf" these waves and move toward the other person as well. Try it! "Even with this major discovery, there are questions left to answer. The observations have made it abundantly clear that heavy particles like oxygen 'surf' on the waves, and there is also mounting evidence that waves are responsible for accelerating the hydrogen atoms, the most common constituent of the solar wind. Future observations are needed to establish this fact. Many other kinds of particles, such as helium (second most common) have never been observed in the accelerating part of the corona, and new observations are also needed to refine our understanding of how the waves interact with the solar wind as a whole," said Dr. Steven Cranmer of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, lead author of the research to be published in the Astrophysical Journal*. Nevertheless, SOHO has again been able to reveal another of the Sun's mysteries: "This is another triumph for SOHO, stealing a long-held secret from our Sun", said Dr Martin Huber, Head of ESA Space Science Department and co-investigator for UVCS. *Ref. Article by S.Cranmer, G.B. Field and J.L. Kohl on Astrophysical Journal ( June 20, Vol 518, p. 937-947) available on the web at: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ApJ/journal/issues/ApJ/v518n2/39802/sc0.html

  9. Cluster of Leptospirosis Acquired Through River Surfing in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Peter W; Aceto, Leonardo; Korach, Raphael; Marreros, Nelson; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Günthard, Huldrych F

    2015-09-01

    Background.  In Switzerland, leptospirosis is still considered as a travel-associated disease. After the surprising diagnosis of leptospirosis in a patient who was initially suspected as having primary human immunodeficiency virus infection, we recognized that acquisition of leptospirosis occurred through recreational activities and we identified additional affected individuals. Methods.  Detailed anamnesis, excluding occupational exposure, acquisition abroad, and pet contacts, enabled us to detect the source of infection and identify a cluster of leptospirosis. Convalescent sera testing was performed to confirm Leptospira infection. Microscopic agglutination tests were used to determine the infecting serovar. Results.  We identified a cluster of leptospirosis in young, previously healthy persons. Acquisition of leptospirosis was traced back to a surfing spot on a river in Switzerland (Reuss, Aargau). Clinical presentation was indistinct. Two of the 3 reported cases required hospitalization, and 1 case even suffered from meningitis. Serologic tests indicated infection with the serovar Grippotyphosa in all cases. With the exception of the case with meningitis, no antibiotics were administered, because leptospirosis was diagnosed after spontaneous resolution of most symptoms. Despite a prolonged period of convalescence in 2 cases, full recovery was achieved. Recent reports on beavers suffering from leptospirosis in this region underline the possible water-borne infection of the 3 cases and raise the question of potential wildlife reservoirs. Conclusions.  Insufficient awareness of caregivers, which may be promoted by the missing obligation to report human leptospirosis, combined with the multifaceted presentation of the disease result in significant underdiagnosis. More frequent consideration of leptospirosis as differential diagnosis is inevitable, particularly as veterinary data suggest re-emergence of the disease. PMID:26269796

  10. Cluster of Leptospirosis Acquired Through River Surfing in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Peter W.; Aceto, Leonardo; Korach, Raphael; Marreros, Nelson; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre; Günthard, Huldrych F.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In Switzerland, leptospirosis is still considered as a travel-associated disease. After the surprising diagnosis of leptospirosis in a patient who was initially suspected as having primary human immunodeficiency virus infection, we recognized that acquisition of leptospirosis occurred through recreational activities and we identified additional affected individuals. Methods. Detailed anamnesis, excluding occupational exposure, acquisition abroad, and pet contacts, enabled us to detect the source of infection and identify a cluster of leptospirosis. Convalescent sera testing was performed to confirm Leptospira infection. Microscopic agglutination tests were used to determine the infecting serovar. Results. We identified a cluster of leptospirosis in young, previously healthy persons. Acquisition of leptospirosis was traced back to a surfing spot on a river in Switzerland (Reuss, Aargau). Clinical presentation was indistinct. Two of the 3 reported cases required hospitalization, and 1 case even suffered from meningitis. Serologic tests indicated infection with the serovar Grippotyphosa in all cases. With the exception of the case with meningitis, no antibiotics were administered, because leptospirosis was diagnosed after spontaneous resolution of most symptoms. Despite a prolonged period of convalescence in 2 cases, full recovery was achieved. Recent reports on beavers suffering from leptospirosis in this region underline the possible water-borne infection of the 3 cases and raise the question of potential wildlife reservoirs. Conclusions. Insufficient awareness of caregivers, which may be promoted by the missing obligation to report human leptospirosis, combined with the multifaceted presentation of the disease result in significant underdiagnosis. More frequent consideration of leptospirosis as differential diagnosis is inevitable, particularly as veterinary data suggest re-emergence of the disease. PMID:26269796

  11. An improved image matching algorithm based on SURF and Delaunay TIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuan-ming; Cheng, Peng-gen; Chen, Xiao-yong; Zheng, Shou-zhu

    2015-12-01

    Image matching is one of the key technologies in the image processing. In order to increase its efficiency and precision, a new method for image matching which based on the improved SURF and Delaunay-TIN is proposed in this paper. Based on the original SURF algorithm, three constraint conditions, color invariant model, Delaunay-TIN, triangle similarity function and photography invariant are added into the original SURF model. With the proposed algorithm, the image color information is effectively retained and the erroneous matching rate of features is largely reduced. The experimental results shows that this proposed method has the characteristics of higher matching speed, uniform distribution of feature points to be matched, and higher correct matching rate than the original algorithm does.

  12. Surfing in tortoises? Empirical signs of genetic structuring owing to range expansion

    PubMed Central

    Graciá, Eva; Botella, Francisco; Anadón, José Daniel; Edelaar, Pim; Harris, D. James; Giménez, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Much of our current knowledge about the genetic dynamics in range expansions originates from models, simulations and microcosm experiments that need to be corroborated by field data. Here, we report a neutral genetic pattern that matches the predictions of the genetic surfing theory. Genetic surfing occurs when repeated founding events and genetic drift act on the wave of advance of an expanding population, promoting strong spatial structure. In the range expansion of the tortoise Testudo graeca from North Africa to southeastern Spain, we found several genetic signatures consistent with surfing: a decrease of genetic diversity with distance from the initial founder area, clinal patterns in allele frequencies, rare African alleles which have become common at distal sites in the Spanish range, and stronger spatial differentiation in the expanded range than in the original one. Our results provide support for the theory that genetic drift can be an important force in shaping the genetic structure of expanding populations. PMID:23554278

  13. Registration of cardiac magnetic resonance images using SURF points and matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Braian; Atehortúa, Angélica; Corredor, Germán.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of the heartbeat is an useful tool to detect and diagnose some pathologies. However, this process represents a challenge because the heart is a moving organ inside a moving body, so that, either similar regions are hard to identify or some regions appear and disappear constantly. This article presents a reconstruction method of the right ventricle using SURF points in irregular regions. The SURF points, invariant to image scale and rotation, provide robust features of a right ventricle slice that can then be traced to the other slices. By using such points and then, using a nonrigid registration, it possible to perform a volumetrical reconstruction of these images.

  14. SURF: Taking Sustainable Remediation from Concept to Standard Operating Procedure (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. M.; Wice, R. B.; Torrens, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, many sectors of industrialized society have been rethinking behavior and re-engineering practices to reduce consumption of energy and natural resources. During this time, green and sustainable remediation (GSR) has evolved from conceptual discussions to standard operating procedure for many environmental remediation practitioners. Government agencies and private sector entities have incorporated GSR metrics into their performance criteria and contracting documents. One of the early think tanks for the development of GSR was the Sustainable Remediation Forum (SURF). SURF brings together representatives of government, industry, consultancy, and academia to parse the means and ends of incorporating societal and economic considerations into environmental cleanup projects. Faced with decades-old treatment programs with high energy outputs and no endpoints in sight, a small group of individuals published the institutional knowledge gathered in two years of ad hoc meetings into a 2009 White Paper on sustainable remediation drivers, practices, objectives, and case studies. Since then, SURF has expanded on those introductory topics, publishing its Framework for Integrating Sustainability into Remediation Projects, Guidance for Performing Footprint Analyses and Life-Cycle Assessments for the Remediation Industry, a compendium of metrics, and a call to improve the integration of land remediation and reuse. SURF's research and members have also been instrumental in the development of additional guidance through ASTM International and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council. SURF's current efforts focus on water reuse, the international perspective on GSR (continuing the conversations that were the basis of SURF's December 2012 meeting at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC), and ways to capture and evaluate the societal benefits of site remediation. SURF also promotes and supports student chapters at universities across the US, encouraging the incorporation of sustainability concepts into environmental science and engineering in undergraduate curricula and graduate research, and student participation at professional conferences. This presentation will provide an overview of the evolution of GSR to-date and a history of SURF's technical and outreach work. Examples will be provided--using both qualitative and quantitative metrics--that document and support the benefits of GSR.

  15. SPINAL CORD INJURY (SCI) DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Spinal Cord Injury Database has been in existence since 1973 and captures data from SCI cases in the United States. Since its inception, 24 federally funded Model SCI Care Systems have contributed data to the National SCI Database. Statistics are derived from this da...

  16. Pressure Gradients in the Inner Surf and Outer Swash Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, A.; Puleo, J. A.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.

    2010-12-01

    The swash zone is a highly dynamic region of the beach profile. Although there has been significant progression in understanding the complex hydrodynamics of the swash zone, an improvement in the understanding of the sediment transport mechanisms deserves further investigation. Prior studies have demonstrated that the existing formulations derived from the energetics-type formulation do not accurately and consistently predict sediment transport. Thus, measurements and numerical modeling can contribute in the improvement of the current predictive capability of sediment transport. A potential enhancement to nearshore sediment transport is the horizontal pressure gradient. However, measuring the dynamic pressure gradient in nearshore flows is a difficult task. For instance, standard pressure sensors are generally ill-suited for this type of measurement in shallow swash flows due to the obstructing size of the sensor and the potential for flow interference. With improved measurement apparati and techniques, it is possible to obtain measurements of the horizontal pressure gradient. Our current research includes laboratory and numerical model investigation of the horizontal pressure gradient in the inner surf and outer swash zone. An inexpensive differential pressure gauge is employed allowing for a pressure port on the order of 2 mm diameter. Four pressure sensor pairs are installed 1 cm above the bed with a cross-shore spacing of 8 cm. The sensors are deployed just outside of and at various locations within the outer swash zone to determine spatio-temporal pressure variations. The measurement of total pressure coupled with the corresponding free surface measurements from co-located capacitance wave gauges yields time series of the hydrostatic and dynamic pressure and pressure gradients. A VOF-type RANS model is employed in this investigation. Firstly, the numerical model is validated with swash measurements. Then, model simulations will be performed in order to complement the measured data. Initial investigations (lab and model) focus on the pressure gradients under solitary-wave-forced swash flows on a 1:12 sloping beach and will be extended to include the pressure gradient on a barred beach and for irregular waves.

  17. Validation of accuracy and repeatability of UltraSurf metrology on common optical shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFisher, Scott; Matthews, Greg; Fess, Edward

    2015-10-01

    Advancements in optical manufacturing technology allow optical designers to implement steep aspheric or high departure surfaces into their systems. Accurate metrology during the grinding and polishing stages of asphere manufacturing will reduce time and cost. Measuring these surfaces with common interferometers or profilometers can be difficult due to large surface slopes or unpolished surface texture. OptiPro has developed UltraSurf to qualify the form, figure, and thickness of steep aspheric and freeform optics. UltraSurf is a computer controlled, non-contact coordinate measuring machine. It incorporates five air-bearing axes, linear motors, high-resolution feedback, and a non-contact probe. The measuring probe is scanned over the optical surface while maintaining perpendicularity and a constant focal offset. There are multiple probe technologies available on UltraSurf, and each probe has strengths and weaknesses relative to the material properties, surface finish, and figure error of an optical component. Validation of the system accuracy, repeatability, and methodology must be performed to trust the measurement data. Form and figure maps of a flat, a sphere, and an asphere using UltraSurf will be presented with comparisons to interferometry. In addition, accuracy, repeatability, and machine qualification will be discussed.

  18. "Making Waves" with Burke: Surf Nazi Culture and the Rhetoric of Localism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibel, Dean

    1995-01-01

    Describes the historical, cultural, and mythic contexts that infuse the territorial exclusionary practices of surfers. Analyzes surfers' rhetorical responses in letters published in surfing magazines, describing how rhetors use economic and religious metaphors to position ideologies that both reproduce and mediate cultural myths of perfection…

  19. Infragravity-wave modulation of short-wave celerity in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissier, M.; Bonneton, P.; Michallet, H.; Ruessink, B. G.

    2015-10-01

    The cross-shore evolution of individual wave celerity is investigated using two high-resolution laboratory experiments on bichromatic waves. Individual waves are tracked during their onshore propagation and their characteristics, including celerity, are estimated. The intrawave variability in celerity is low in the shoaling zone but increases strongly after breaking. It is maximum when the infragravity-wave height to water depth ratio is the largest, that is to say close to the shoreline. There the observed range of individual wave celerity can be as large as the mean celerity value. This variability can be largely explained by the variations in water depth and velocity induced by the infragravity waves. The differences in celerity are such that they lead to the merging of the waves in the inner surf zone for most of the wave conditions considered. Again, the location at which the first waves start merging strongly correlates with the infragravity-wave height to water depth ratio. The consequences of these findings for celerity-based depth-inversion techniques are finally discussed. Surprisingly, accounting for the infragravity-wave modulation of the velocity field in the celerity estimate does not significantly improve depth estimation in the surf zone. However, it is shown that the occurrence of bore merging decreases significantly the coherence of the wavefield in the surf zone. This loss of coherence could hamper celerity estimation from pixel intensity time series and explain, at least partly, the relatively poor performance of depth-inversion techniques in the inner surf zone.

  20. Access Without Authentication: How and Why We Let Anyone Surf Our Wireless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Donna

    2006-01-01

    Wireless hotspots are popping up in local coffee shops everywhere. Anyone with a wireless-ready laptop or PDA can surf the Internet at one of these hotspots. The same is now true for all 32 branches of the Orange County Public Library (OCPL) in California. Though many public library systems are moving toward wireless access, most require patrons…

  1. Access Without Authentication: How and Why We Let Anyone Surf Our Wireless

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Donna

    2006-01-01

    Wireless hotspots are popping up in local coffee shops everywhere. Anyone with a wireless-ready laptop or PDA can surf the Internet at one of these hotspots. The same is now true for all 32 branches of the Orange County Public Library (OCPL) in California. Though many public library systems are moving toward wireless access, most require patrons…

  2. The Web Surfer: What (Literacy) Skills Does It Take to Surf Anyway?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Jessie

    2010-01-01

    This article looks closely at some of the lingering stereotypes that Composition Studies holds toward Web surfing and queries the resulting literacy hierarchy against our students' reading and writing practices that take place online. This article claims that while good progress has been made in the way of revising twenty-first century definitions…

  3. The Ocean as a Unique Therapeutic Environment: Developing a Surfing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapham, Emily D.; Armitano, Cortney N.; Lamont, Linda S.; Audette, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Educational aquatic programming offers necessary physical activity opportunities to children with disabilities and the benefits of aquatic activities are more pronounced for children with disabilities than for their able-bodied peers. Similar benefits could potentially be derived from surfing in the ocean. This article describes an adapted surfing…

  4. Drones at the Beach - Surf Zone Monitoring Using Rotary Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynne, P.; Brouwer, R.; de Schipper, M. A.; Graham, F.; Reniers, A.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the potential of rotary wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to monitor the surf zone. In recent years, the arrival of lightweight, high-capacity batteries, low-power electronics and compact high-definition cameras has driven the development of commercially available UAVs for hobbyists. Moreover, the low operation costs have increased their potential for scientific research as these UAVs are extremely flexible surveying platforms. The UAVs can fly for ~12 min with a mean loiter radius of 1 - 3.5 m and a mean loiter error of 0.75 - 4.5 m, depending on the environmental conditions, flying style, battery type and vehicle type. Our experiments using multiple, alternating UAVs show that it is possible to have near continuous imagery data with similar Fields Of View. The images obtained from the UAVs (Fig. 1a), and in combination with surveyed Ground Control Points (GCPs) (Fig. 1b, red squares and white circles), can be geo-rectified (Fig. 1c) to pixel resolution between 0.01 - 1 m and a reprojection error, i.e. the difference between the surveyed GPS location of a GCP and the location of the GCP obtained from the geo-rectified image, of O(1 m). These geo-rectified images provide data on a variety of coastal aspects, such as beach width (Wb(x,t)), surf zone width (Wsf(x,t)), wave breaking location (rectangle B), beach usage (circle C) and location of dune vegegation (rectangle D), amongst others. Additionally, the possibility to have consecutive, high frequency (up to 2 Hz) rectified images makes the UAVs a great data instrument for spatially and temporally variable systems, such as the surf zone. Our first observations with the UAVs reveal the potential to quickly obtain surf zone and beach characteristics in response to storms or for day to day beach information, as well as the scientific pursuits of surf zone kinematics on different spatial and temporal scales, and dispersion and advection estimates of pollutants/dye. A selection of findings from several field experiments and using multiple optical instruments will be showed at the meeting, discussing the new possibilities rotary wing UAVs can offer for surf zone research.

  5. Influence of atmospheric parameters on vertical profiles and horizontal transport of aerosols generated in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Tedeschi, G.; Van Eijk, A. M. J.; Piazzola, J.

    2013-10-01

    The vertical and horizontal transport of aerosols generated over the surf zone is discussed. Experimental data were collected during the second campaign of the Surf Zone Aerosol Experiment that took place in Duck NC (USA) in November 2007. The Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) method was used to analyze the vertical concentration gradients, and allowed separating the surf aerosols from aerosols advected from elsewhere. The numerical Marine Aerosol Concentration Model (MACMod) supported the analysis by confirming that the concentration gradients are more pronounced under stable conditions and that aerosol plumes are then more confined to the surface. The model also confirmed the experimental observations made during two boat runs along the offshore wind vector that surf-generated aerosols are efficiently advected out to sea over several tens of kilometers.

  6. Composition, shell strength, and metabolizable energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as food for wintering surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berlin, Alicia; Perry, Matthew; Kohn, R.A.; Paynter, K.T., Jr.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey.

  7. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata)

    PubMed Central

    Wells-Berlin, Alicia M.; Perry, Matthew C.; Kohn, Richard A.; Paynter, Kennedy T.; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6–12 mm for M. lateralis and 18–24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum’s higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey. PMID:25978636

  8. Composition, Shell Strength, and Metabolizable Energy of Mulinia lateralis and Ischadium recurvum as Food for Wintering Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata).

    PubMed

    Wells-Berlin, Alicia M; Perry, Matthew C; Kohn, Richard A; Paynter, Kennedy T; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Decline in surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) waterfowl populations wintering in the Chesapeake Bay has been associated with changes in the availability of benthic bivalves. The Bay has become more eutrophic, causing changes in the benthos available to surf scoters. The subsequent decline in oyster beds (Crassostrea virginica) has reduced the hard substrate needed by the hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum), one of the primary prey items for surf scoters, causing the surf scoter to switch to a more opportune species, the dwarf surfclam (Mulinia lateralis). The composition (macronutrients, minerals, and amino acids), shell strength (N), and metabolizable energy (kJ) of these prey items were quantified to determine the relative foraging values for wintering scoters. Pooled samples of each prey item were analyzed to determine composition. Shell strength (N) was measured using a shell crack compression test. Total collection digestibility trials were conducted on eight captive surf scoters. For the prey size range commonly consumed by surf scoters (6-12 mm for M. lateralis and 18-24 mm for I. recurvum), I. recurvum contained higher ash, protein, lipid, and energy per individual organism than M. lateralis. I. recurvum required significantly greater force to crack the shell relative to M. lateralis. No difference in metabolized energy was observed for these prey items in wintering surf scoters, despite I. recurvum's higher ash content and harder shell than M. lateralis. Therefore, wintering surf scoters were able to obtain the same amount of energy from each prey item, implying that they can sustain themselves if forced to switch prey. PMID:25978636

  9. Characterization of breeding habitats for black and surf scoters in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells, A.M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Osenton, P.C.; Altmann, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed characteristics of wetland habitats used by breeding black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (M. perspicillata) in the eastern boreal forest and subarctic regions of Canada based on satellite telemetry data collected in the spring and summer. During 2002 and 2004, nine black scoters (four males, five females) were tracked to breeding areas in Quebec, Manitoba, and Northwest Territories. In addition, in 2001?04, seven surf scoters (three males, four females) were tracked to breeding areas in Labrador, Quebec, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. Based on satellite telemetry data, locations of black and surf scoters in breeding areas were not significantly different in regard to latitude and longitude. Presumed breeding areas were manually plotted on topographic maps and percent cover type and water were estimated. Breeding habitat of black scoters was significantly different than that for surf scoters, with black scoters mainly using open (tundra) areas (44%) and surf scoters using mainly forest areas (66%). Surf scoters presumed breeding areas were at significantly higher elevations than areas used by black scoters. Some breeding areas were associated with islands, but the role of islands for breeding areas is equivocal. These results aid in the identification of potentially critical breeding areas and provide a baseline classification of breeding habitats used by these two species.

  10. SurfKin: an ab initio kinetic code for modeling surface reactions.

    PubMed

    Le, Thong Nguyen-Minh; Liu, Bin; Huynh, Lam K

    2014-10-01

    In this article, we describe a C/C++ program called SurfKin (Surface Kinetics) to construct microkinetic mechanisms for modeling gas-surface reactions. Thermodynamic properties of reaction species are estimated based on density functional theory calculations and statistical mechanics. Rate constants for elementary steps (including adsorption, desorption, and chemical reactions on surfaces) are calculated using the classical collision theory and transition state theory. Methane decomposition and water-gas shift reaction on Ni(111) surface were chosen as test cases to validate the code implementations. The good agreement with literature data suggests this is a powerful tool to facilitate the analysis of complex reactions on surfaces, and thus it helps to effectively construct detailed microkinetic mechanisms for such surface reactions. SurfKin also opens a possibility for designing nanoscale model catalysts. PMID:25111729

  11. NBS-SURF calibrations: Use in NASA stratosphere and climate programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Bruce; Williams, Donald

    1980-05-01

    In 1976 a rocket measurement series was begun by NASA/GSFC to determine the variation of the solar ultraviolet spectrum between 140 and 350 nm. This is the spectral region which controls the oxygen photochemistry in the stratosphere and mesosphere. This wavelength region was identified in 1977 as an important spectral region to monitor at least once a year for climate studies by a World Meteorological Organization Panel of Experts for the Monitoring of Trace Gases in the Atmosphere. The measuring devices used for the rocket experiments are single Ebert grating monochromators which have been calibrated at the NBS/ SURF to achieve the best available calibration accuracies for this measurement program. Fair agreement is shown between the SURF absolute calibration and a Johns Hopkins University CTE relative calibration.

  12. "Sub-Surf Rocks"! An A-Level Resource Developed through an Industry-Education Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    A free internet resource called "Sub-Surf Rocks"! was launched in 2010. Its aim is to use seismic data obtained by the oil industry for enhancing the teaching of structural and economic geology at A-level (ages 16-18) in the UK. Seismic data gives a unique insight into the sub-surface and the many high-quality images coupled with ready-made (but…

  13. Immediate Surgical Skills Feedback in the Operating Room Using “SurF” Cards

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, AnnaMarie; Hansen, Darci; Schuler, Kevin; Galvin, Shelley L.; Wolfe, Honor

    2014-01-01

    Background Ensuring residents develop operative skills requires application of the principles of guided learning, deliberate practice, and directed feedback. Objective We sought to create and implement a tool to promote procedural “key” step review and immediate feedback on surgical skills, and examined faculty and resident satisfaction with surgical skills feedback. Methods We created surgical skills feedback (SurF) cards for 8 gynecologic procedures. Faculty/fellows and residents completed prestudy surveys querying frequency of preoperative key step review and satisfaction with surgical skill feedback, a SurF card each time 1 of 8 procedures was performed, and poststudy surveys to evaluate for changes. Results Prestudy surveys were completed by 31 faculty/fellows and 20 residents, with 55% (17 of 31) of the faculty/fellows and 5% (1 of 20) of the residents reporting key step review before surgery. All reported low satisfaction rates with feedback frequency, quality, and timeliness. After implementation of SurF cards, preoperative key step review occurred in 78% (82 of 105) of the procedures. Twenty-one faculty/fellows (68%) and 16 residents (80%) completed our poststudy survey. Faculty/fellows reported statistically similar key step review (n??=??15 [71%], P??=??.23), while residents reported that key step review had significantly improved (n??=??6 [38%], P??=??.01). Resident satisfaction with feedback frequency (5% to 50%, P??=??.002) and quality (15% to 50%, P??=??.02) increased significantly. Conclusions The SurF cards we developed facilitated procedural key step review, were associated with significantly improved resident satisfaction with surgical feedback, and could prove helpful with outcomes assessments, such as Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education–required documentation of Milestone attainment. PMID:25512804

  14. Accumulation of trace elements and organochlorines by surf scoters wintering in the Pacific northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Blus, L.J.; Grove, R.A.; Thompson, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Selenium, cadmium, mercury, copper, manganese, zinc, aluminum, lead, PCBs and DDE were accumulated by segments of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) population that winters in the Pacific Northwest, but whether the uptake occurred on breeding and/or wintering grounds was uncertain for some contaminants. Surf scoters collected in Puget Sound and San Francisco Bay (in another study) during the same period (January 1985) contained similar concentrations of cadmium, but Alsea Bay scoters contained more. Cadmium was inversely related to both liver and body weights of Northwest scoters in January; similar weight losses were reported in experimental laboratory studies. Northwest and north San Francisco Bay scoters contained similar mercury concentrations, but those in south San Francisco Bay contained higher concentrations. San Francisco Bay scoters contained higher arsenic and selenium concentrations than those in the Northwest; however, the 43.4 ppm (geometric mean, dry wt) selenium in livers at Commencement Bay in January was above levels associated with the reproductive problems in aquatic birds at Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge. Even higher concentrations of some elements may be found in surf scoters in March, because a later collection (March) at San Francisco Bay yielded higher concentrations than found there in January. Trace element concentrations in birds at a given wintering location are variable among species and may be influenced by diet, breeding grounds, and physiology (e.g., at Commencement Bay surf scoters with a sediment-associated diet contained 50X more cadmium in their kidneys than did fish-eating western grebes [Aechmophorus occidentalis]). The numerous wildlife species that live on estuaries require further attention.

  15. "Sub-Surf Rocks"! An A-Level Resource Developed through an Industry-Education Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    A free internet resource called "Sub-Surf Rocks"! was launched in 2010. Its aim is to use seismic data obtained by the oil industry for enhancing the teaching of structural and economic geology at A-level (ages 16-18) in the UK. Seismic data gives a unique insight into the sub-surface and the many high-quality images coupled with ready-made (but…

  16. Pedestrian detection in far-infrared daytime images using a hierarchical codebook of SURF.

    PubMed

    Besbes, Bassem; Rogozan, Alexandrina; Rus, Adela-Maria; Bensrhair, Abdelaziz; Broggi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges in intelligent vehicles concerns pedestrian detection for driving assistance. Recent experiments have showed that state-of-the-art descriptors provide better performances on the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum than on the visible one, even in daytime conditions, for pedestrian classification. In this paper, we propose a pedestrian detector with on-board FIR camera. Our main contribution is the exploitation of the specific characteristics of FIR images to design a fast, scale-invariant and robust pedestrian detector. Our system consists of three modules, each based on speeded-up robust feature (SURF) matching. The first module allows generating regions-of-interest (ROI), since in FIR images of the pedestrian shapes may vary in large scales, but heads appear usually as light regions. ROI are detected with a high recall rate with the hierarchical codebook of SURF features located in head regions. The second module consists of pedestrian full-body classification by using SVM. This module allows one to enhance the precision with low computational cost. In the third module, we combine the mean shift algorithm with inter-frame scale-invariant SURF feature tracking to enhance the robustness of our system. The experimental evaluation shows that our system outperforms, in the FIR domain, the state-of-the-art Haar-like Adaboost-cascade, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG)/linear SVM (linSVM) and MultiFtrpedestrian detectors, trained on the FIR images. PMID:25871724

  17. Human Action Poselets Estimation via Color G-Surf in Still Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favorskaya, M.; Novikov, D.; Savitskaya, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Human activity is a persistent subject of interest in the last decade. On the one hand, video sequences provide a huge volume of motion information in order to recognize the human active actions. On the other hand, the spatial information about static human poses is valuable for human action recognition. Poselets were introduced as latent variables representing a configuration for mutual locations of body parts and allowing different views of description. In current research, some modifications of Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) invariant to affine geometrical transforms and illumination changes were tested. First, a grid of rectangles is imposed on object of interest in a still image. Second, sparse descriptor based on Gauge-SURF (G-SURF) invariant to color/lighting changes is constructed for each rectangle separately. A common Spatial POselet Descriptor (SPOD) aggregates the SPODs of rectangles with following random forest classification in order to receive fast classification results. The proposed approach was tested on samples from PASCAL Visual Object Classes (VOC) Dataset and Challenge 2010 providing accuracy 61-68% for all possible 3D poses locations and 82-86% for front poses locations regarding to nine action categories.

  18. Rehabilitation and long-term course of nontraumatic myelopathy associated with surfing.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Masahiro; Moriizumi, Shigehiro; Toki, Megumi; Murakami, Takanori; Ishiai, Sumio

    2013-09-01

    A nontraumatic spinal cord injury related to surfing is called surfer's myelopathy. The case of a 26-yr-old man who became paraplegic after surfing without apparent traumatic events is described. Physical examination revealed a spinal cord injury at T12 according to the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A. The initial magnetic resonance image revealed a fusiform swelling of the spinal cord from T7-8 to the conus, which was hyperintense on T2-weighted images. After 6 mos of rehabilitation, the patient was followed for more than 1 yr after onset. He became able to walk with knee-ankle-foot-orthoses without assistance. A magnetic resonance image obtained 1 yr after the onset of paraplegia showed an atrophic spinal cord from T7-8 to the conus. The course of the neurologic findings and the imaging studies suggest that the pathogenesis of surfer's myelopathy may be ischemia of the anterior spinal artery territory induced by the abnormal trunk posture while surfing. PMID:22019977

  19. Surf-zone Chlorophyll aVariability at Cassino Beach, Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odebrecht, C.; Segatto, A. Z.; Freitas, C. A.

    1995-07-01

    Chlorophyll a, water temperature, salinity, seston weight and dissolved inorganic nutrients (silicate, phosphate, nitrite+nitrate) were measured every other day between 30 April and 31 July 1987, in the surf-zone at a fixed point of the exposed sandy beach Cassino (32°10'S, 52°10'W). Chlorophyll avariability showed two phases: (1) from 30 April to mid-May chlorophyll aconcentration was variable but high, with concentrations up to 1647 ?g l -1, and brown coloured patches of the surf-zone diatom Asterionellopsis glacialiswere conspicuous with cell concentration up to 7·09 10 8cells l -1; (2) from mid-May to the end of July chlorophyll aconcentration was low and brown coloured patches were not observed. The results of this study indicate that the mesoscale variability of chlorophyll aand accumulation of patches is primarily controlled by exogenous meteorological factors such as wind direction and velocity, where southerly onshore winds act as the main factor accumulating cells in the surf-zone at Cassino Beach.

  20. Pedestrian Detection in Far-Infrared Daytime Images Using a Hierarchical Codebook of SURF

    PubMed Central

    Besbes, Bassem; Rogozan, Alexandrina; Rus, Adela-Maria; Bensrhair, Abdelaziz; Broggi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges in intelligent vehicles concerns pedestrian detection for driving assistance. Recent experiments have showed that state-of-the-art descriptors provide better performances on the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum than on the visible one, even in daytime conditions, for pedestrian classification. In this paper, we propose a pedestrian detector with on-board FIR camera. Our main contribution is the exploitation of the specific characteristics of FIR images to design a fast, scale-invariant and robust pedestrian detector. Our system consists of three modules, each based on speeded-up robust feature (SURF) matching. The first module allows generating regions-of-interest (ROI), since in FIR images of the pedestrian shapes may vary in large scales, but heads appear usually as light regions. ROI are detected with a high recall rate with the hierarchical codebook of SURF features located in head regions. The second module consists of pedestrian full-body classification by using SVM. This module allows one to enhance the precision with low computational cost. In the third module, we combine the mean shift algorithm with inter-frame scale-invariant SURF feature tracking to enhance the robustness of our system. The experimental evaluation shows that our system outperforms, in the FIR domain, the state-of-the-art Haar-like Adaboost-cascade, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG)/linear SVM (linSVM) and MultiFtrpedestrian detectors, trained on the FIR images. PMID:25871724

  1. Preventing Shoulder-Surfing Attack with the Concept of Concealing the Password Objects' Information

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Peng Foong; Kam, Yvonne Hwei-Syn; Wee, Mee Chin

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, picture-based password systems employ password objects (pictures/icons/symbols) as input during an authentication session, thus making them vulnerable to “shoulder-surfing” attack because the visual interface by function is easily observed by others. Recent software-based approaches attempt to minimize this threat by requiring users to enter their passwords indirectly by performing certain mental tasks to derive the indirect password, thus concealing the user's actual password. However, weaknesses in the positioning of distracter and password objects introduce usability and security issues. In this paper, a new method, which conceals information about the password objects as much as possible, is proposed. Besides concealing the password objects and the number of password objects, the proposed method allows both password and distracter objects to be used as the challenge set's input. The correctly entered password appears to be random and can only be derived with the knowledge of the full set of password objects. Therefore, it would be difficult for a shoulder-surfing adversary to identify the user's actual password. Simulation results indicate that the correct input object and its location are random for each challenge set, thus preventing frequency of occurrence analysis attack. User study results show that the proposed method is able to prevent shoulder-surfing attack. PMID:24991649

  2. Estimating wave energy dissipation in the surf zone using thermal infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, Roxanne J.; Chickadel, C. Chris; Jessup, Andrew T.; Thomson, Jim

    2015-06-01

    Thermal infrared (IR) imagery is used to quantify the high spatial and temporal variability of dissipation due to wave breaking in the surf zone. The foam produced in an actively breaking crest, or wave roller, has a distinct signature in IR imagery. A retrieval algorithm is developed to detect breaking waves and extract wave roller length using measurements taken during the Surf Zone Optics 2010 experiment at Duck, NC. The remotely derived roller length and an in situ estimate of wave slope are used to estimate dissipation due to wave breaking by means of the wave-resolving model by Duncan (1981). The wave energy dissipation rate estimates show a pattern of increased breaking during low tide over a sand bar, consistent with in situ turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate estimates from fixed and drifting instruments over the bar. When integrated over the surf zone width, these dissipation rate estimates account for 40-69% of the incoming wave energy flux. The Duncan (1981) estimates agree with those from a dissipation parameterization by Janssen and Battjes (2007), a wave energy dissipation model commonly applied within nearshore circulation models.

  3. Alongshore momentum in the outer surf zone under hurricane wind and wave forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, R. P.; Hanson, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Wave breaking is the dominant physical process acting along beaches and coasts exposed to surface waves during storms, causing large gradients in wave momentum that generate strong currents in the nearshore zone. At the outer edge of the wave breaking region, strong horizontal current shear between the alongshore currents and alongshelf flows can develop and drive strong shear and mixing between these regions. Wave and current observations from a cross-shore array of six acoustic sensors in water depths of 2-11 m at Duck, NC, are used to elucidate the balance of momentum under storm wave conditions with wide surf zones, corresponding to offshore hurricanes. Offshore hurricanes that are distal (calm local wind) and proximal (local wind up to 25 m/s) generate large wave heights (3-5 m) and very strong alongshore currents (up to 2 m/s). We find that horizontal shear contributes strongly to momentum at the seaward limit of the surf zone and that radiation stress gradients, bottom stress, wind stress, mixing and advection play important roles at different times and locations in the cross-shore integrated momentum balance. The results provide insight into the cross-shore distribution of the alongshore current and the connection between alongshore flows inside the surf zone and outside it during major storms.

  4. Transformation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in UK surf clams (Spisula solida) for targeted production of reference materials.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; O'Neil, Alison; Hatfield, Robert G

    2013-04-01

    The periodic occurrence of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) toxins in UK surf clams and the recent move away from biological assays for PSP testing resulted in the need to determine method performance characteristics for the replacement analytical method in this species. With the requirement for laboratory reference materials to aid this validation together with known issues relating to toxin transformation in live clams and homogenised tissue, there was the need to assess the toxin transformation characteristics of PSP toxins in surf clam tissue. Initial work examined the rates of toxin transformation in UK surf clam tissue incubated with toxin standards, showing rapid transformation of N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins with slower transformation of carbamate toxins. Full transformational pathways were determined using a combination of three different analytical methods and confirmed the major expected transformations involving decarbamoylation, with some evidence for additional reaction pathways. Results obtained from the analysis of surf clam and oyster tissues incubated with varying concentrations of toxic Alexandrium algae highlighted expected transformation reactions, although significant differences were observed in the extent of the transformations amongst the range of toxins studied, with less efficient transformation of N-hydroxylated toxins as compared with other carbamate and N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins. Analysis of PSP-toxic incurred oyster, scallop and mussel tissues incubated with variable proportions of surf clam tissue showed large differences in the extent of the transformations. Total conversion of N-sulfocarbamoyl toxins was confirmed at low relative proportions of surf clam tissue in all three species, whereas transformation of carbamate toxins was found to occur only in the presence of higher proportions of surf clam tissue in oysters and mussels in comparison with scallops. Results enabled the production of three laboratory reference materials prepared following incubation of incurred homogenates with optimum proportions of surf clam tissue, resulting in materials containing a large number of PSP toxins. Stability experiments provided good preliminary evidence for the stability of these targeted materials under storage conditions. The work therefore provides both additional information relating to the transformational activity in UK surf clams and highlights a good potential method for the targeted production of reference materials which include a wider range of toxins than normally present in naturally incurred shellfish. PMID:23369833

  5. Ichthyoplankton in a southern african surf zone: Nursery area for the postlarvae of estuarine associated fish species?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, A. K.

    1989-12-01

    The surf zone ichthyoplankton of Swartvlei Bay was studied between February 1986 and June 1987, with particular emphasis on its potential role as a nursery area for estuarine associated marine fish species. Larvae and/or postlarvae of 16 families were identified from the surf zone, with the Gobiidae, Soleidae, Sparidae and Mugilidae comprising 85·7% of all teleosts sampled. The postlarvae of several taxa (including the six most common species), which utilize the Swartvlei estuary as a juvenile nursery area, were abundant in the surf zone. Conversely, species which are common in nearshore marine waters as juveniles and adults, but seldom enter estuaries, totalled less than 8% of the surf zone ichthyoplankton assemblage. Larval and postlarval densities peaked during summer when water temperatures exceeded 19°C and the estuary mouth was open. Concentrations of ichthyoplankton were highest at those sampling stations closest to the estuary mouth during the summer period. Diel changes in total catches revealed no significant difference between day and night densities; but of the four major taxa, the Mugilidae and Sparidae tended to be more abundant during the day, the Gobiidae at night and the Soleidae showed no distinct pattern. Results from a 24 h sampling session indicated that tidal phase may also be important in governing ichthyoplankton abundance in the surf zone.

  6. Quick lessons on environmental nanotech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumey, Chris

    2015-07-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles to clean clothes and the use of magnetite nanoparticles to clean water provide contrasting illustrations of the potential environmental consequences of nanotechnology, as Chris Toumey explains.

  7. The imbalanced surfing-life of humanity to survival in the global changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontar, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    We have written many times about the imbalance of Nature as the cause of the global change. Here, we offer some method for the humanity survival in the face of global change of the imbalanced anisotropic real Nature. There are two logics of understanding the real Nature: the traditional balanced, and the new imbalanced. The balanced logic presupposes that Nature is balanced, isotropic, etc. The imbalanced logic presupposes opposite that Nature is imbalanced, anisotropic, etc. Respectively can be two styles of the people life: balanced and imbalanced. The image of the flat earth corresponds well with the balanced lifestyle of people. On the balanced life people spend activities to achieve the balance by reducing the change, stabilization, leveling any level changes, etc. If there is a mountain on the road, it must be align the track or make the tunnel. If there is a ravine on the road, then it need backfilled or to build a bridge. If someone is in restless, it must be calm, etc. As example of the happiness in the balanced life is the stability, balance, and therefore the global changes of Nature are perceived as a catastrophe. In the balanced lifestyle people can easily decide to use force, especially if there is not enough knowledge. But Nature has power which in billions times greater than the forces of humanity. Therefore, humanity will beaten in struggle with Nature and disappear. The imbalanced lifestyle is the fundamentally different. The imbalanced lifestyle complies with the surface of the ocean, which always changes, but sometimes can be and flat. But the flat calm ocean surface is inconvenient for the imbalanced life. You need to pull boat yourself because is no wind in the sails. The anisotropic imbalanced Nature has gradients in all parameters. At a certain level of knowledge and experience, people can use this multi-dimensional gradient essence of the real Nature for human's discretion. The imbalanced life is like a surfing. If properly understood Nature, you can find a route slip through the waves of Nature, which will bring closer the person to the desired goals. Of course, the changeable ocean is much more complicated than a flat surface. The imbalanced logic also is much more complex than the simplified balanced logic. As the calm ocean is like the flat surface, so same the balanced logic solutions are sometimes looks like as the truth, but only in the calm weather. At the normal ocean weather the balanced solutions are incorrect and mislead people. The river can be as image of the imbalanced surfing life. The river starts as small stream and running through all the obstacles to ocean. The water of river is flowing at the bottom of the potential trench of the Earth gravity and the Coriolis acceleration. For the imbalanced surfing life is most important not a steamroller of force, but the knowledge and perseverance in the search for the best path to the desirable goals. The example of happiness in the surfing imbalanced life can be joy from successfully usage the suitable trends of the anisotropic imbalanced real Nature. At the imbalanced surfing life should be the main guide: Nature doesn't have the bad weather. The global changes it is not catastrophe, but the normal state of the real anisotropic imbalanced Nature. Just everybody has to choose the weather which will be good for their personal surfing.

  8. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part I: Forward models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    Prediction of coastal processes, including waves, currents, and sediment transport, can be obtained from a variety of detailed geophysical-process models with many simulations showing significant skill. This capability supports a wide range of research and applied efforts that can benefit from accurate numerical predictions. However, the predictions are only as accurate as the data used to drive the models and, given the large temporal and spatial variability of the surf zone, inaccuracies in data are unavoidable such that useful predictions require corresponding estimates of uncertainty. We demonstrate how a Bayesian-network model can be used to provide accurate predictions of wave-height evolution in the surf zone given very sparse and/or inaccurate boundary-condition data. The approach is based on a formal treatment of a data-assimilation problem that takes advantage of significant reduction of the dimensionality of the model system. We demonstrate that predictions of a detailed geophysical model of the wave evolution are reproduced accurately using a Bayesian approach. In this surf-zone application, forward prediction skill was 83%, and uncertainties in the model inputs were accurately transferred to uncertainty in output variables. We also demonstrate that if modeling uncertainties were not conveyed to the Bayesian network (i.e., perfect data or model were assumed), then overly optimistic prediction uncertainties were computed. More consistent predictions and uncertainties were obtained by including model-parameter errors as a source of input uncertainty. Improved predictions (skill of 90%) were achieved because the Bayesian network simultaneously estimated optimal parameters while predicting wave heights.

  9. Fish Communities in the Surf Zone of a Protected Sandy Beach at Doigahama, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Y.; Inoue, T.; Uchida, H.

    2002-07-01

    Fish communities comprising postlarval to early adult stages were studied in the surf zone of a protected sandy beach, with runnels and a low tide terrace, at Doigahama, Yamaguchi Prefecture, western Japan. One elasmobranch and 100 teleost species, represented by a total of 17 608 individuals (1·85-785 mm in TL), were collected by fine and coarse meshed beach seines from May 1994 to April 1999. Species richness, abundance and biomass were greater during the evenings as well as in the warmer seasons (May to October). Larval and smaller juvenile ichthyofauna (collected mainly by fine-mesh seine) was relatively poor compared to larger juvenile ichthyofauna (coarse-mesh seine). Tidal effect was observed in the fine-mesh seine samples, whereas no tide-related trends were evident in the coarse-mesh seine samples. Effects of time of the day and tide on the species diversities were not so evident in both seines. Dominant species were classified according to the developmental stages occurring in the surf zone, as follows: Type-I: Postlarval (transformation) stage (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis,Sardinops melanostictus , Enneapterygius etheostomus, Tripterygion bapturum, Luciogobius sp.). Type-II: Juvenile stage (Lateolabrax latus, Trachurus japonicus, Gerres oyena, Acanthopagrus schlegeli, Sparus sarba, Girella punctata, Mugil cephalus cephalus, Paralichthys olivaceus, Tarphops oligolepis, Heteromycteris japonica). Type-III: Postlarval and juvenile stages (Spratelloides gracilis, Engraulis japonicus, Gobiidae sp.1). Type-IV: Juvenile and early adult stages (Sillago japonica, Paraplagusia japonica). Type V: Postlarval to early adult stages (Takifugu niphobles). It is considered that the surf zone at Doigahama functions as a nursery area, particularly as a feeding place for larger juveniles than as a shelter for larvae and smaller juveniles.

  10. Modeling surf zone hydrodynamics and sediment transport - toward an integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, T.; Raubenheimer, B.; Trowbridge, J.; Cox, D.; Hanes, D.

    2006-12-01

    The pioneering work on surf zone processes conducted by E. B. Thornton and his collaborators in the early 80s has inspired numerous subsequent field, laboratory and modeling studies. In this paper, we evaluate wave- phase resolving models for surf zone hydrodynamics and sediment transport by comparing the predictions with field and prototype-scale wave flume data. In particular, a model based on the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the volume of fluid method for free-surface tracking (COBRAS, Lin and Liu 1998, J. Fluid Mech. 359, p239-264) is extended with a higher-order time-integration numerical scheme. The extended model is numerically stable, and simulates the surf zone wave heights, undertow, and mean water levels measured during the SwashX field experiment (conducted in fall 2000 near La Jolla, CA) reasonably well when driven with the measured offshore random wave time series. A two-phase model (Hsu et al. 2004, Proc. Royal Soc. Lond. A, 460, p2223-2250) for massive particles that has been extended to calculate sand transport is shown to simulate sand concentrations in both the concentrated and dilute regimes measured under non-breaking wave groups during the SISTEX99 prototype flume experiment (Dohmen- Janssen and Hanes 2005, Cont. Shelf Res., 25, 333-347). By driving the two-phase model with near-bed flow velocities and turbulent kinetic energies (due to surface-generated turbulence in breaking waves) measured during the CROSSTEX prototype flume experiment (conducted in summer 2005 at the O. H. Hinsdale laboratory, Oregon State University), it is shown that the bottom boundary layer sediment transport can be influenced significantly by breaking wave generated turbulence, consistent with measured data.

  11. On the importance of nearbed sediment flux measurements for estimating sediment transport in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogston, Andrea S.; Sternberg, Richard W.

    1995-11-01

    Previous sediment studies in the surf zone typically have computed suspended sediment flux profiles by pairing a single current meter measurement at an elevation of 20 cm or more with measurements of suspended sediment concentration from sensor arrays located at 4-50 cm elevation. This note reports the results of a field experiment in which small impellor current meters were paired with OBS sensors at common elevations of 4, 9 and 19 cm from the bed and across the inner surf zone to obtain concurrent velocity and concentration profiles. The objectives of this experiment were to measure suspended sediment flux profiles within 20 cm of the seabed to determine the magnitude of flux very close to the seabed in comparison to measurements at higher elevation; and to evaluate the errors associated with estimating sediment flux using current meter measurements at only one elevation compared to flux estimates based on velocity profile measurements. Results show that the total sediment flux at z = 4 cm was greater than the flux higher in the water column ( z = 9 and 19 cm) by a factor of at least 2. The flux profiles computed using a single impellor current meter at z = 19 cm and OBS sensors at z = 4, 9 and 19 cm typically were between 0.5 and 2.0 times the flux profiles computed using paired instruments. In one case the estimate of flux direction from the single current meter data predicted transport in the wrong cross shore direction. These results highlight the importance of nearbed measurements of concentration and velocity in estimating sediment transport in the surf zone.

  12. Gyrosolitons and helical surfing diffusion of impurity atoms in reactor fuel materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovsky, O. A.; Semenov, V. A.; Orlov, A. V.

    2015-08-01

    Fundamentally new gyrosolitons with helical trajectories of motion have been revealed in UO2 and PuO2 reactor fuel materials by the computer simulation of the microdynamics of high-amplitude atomic vibrations. The phonon spectra of nanostructures, as well as of gyrotropic materials, include quasioptical branches with different-sign linear dispersion. The corresponding branches of gyrosolitons have been revealed on the phase plane in the spectral density of vibrations. The main dynamic event of the kinetic process of helical surfing diffusion of impurity atoms on gyrosolitons has been observed.

  13. Internal waves and surf zone water quality at Huntington Beach, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, H.; Santoro, A.; Nidzieko, N. J.; Hench, J. L.; Boehm, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    This study characterized diurnal, semi-diurnal, and high-frequency internal wave field at Huntington Beach, California, USA and the connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality. An array of oceanographic moorings was deployed in the summer of 2005 and 2006 at 10-20 meter depths offshore of the beach to observe internal waves and cross-shore exchange. Concurrently, surf zone water quality was assessed twice daily at an adjacent station (Huntington State Beach) with measurements of phosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, silicate, chlorophyll a, fecal indicator bacteria, and the human-specific fecal DNA marker in Bacteroidales. Spectral analysis of water temperature shows well-defined spectral peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies. Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of observed currents reveals that the baroclinic component (summation of second to fifth principal components) accounted for 30% of the total variance in the currents in both years, indicating the importance of density-driven flow during the summer when the water column was stratified. The major axis of the first principal component was oriented alongshore, whereas that of the second and third principal components made an angle of 25 to 55 degree with the cross-shore direction. Arrival of cold subthermocline water in the very near shore (within 1 km of the surf zone) was characterized by strong onshore flow near the bottom of the water column. The near bottom, baroclinic, cross-shore current was significantly lag-correlated with the near bottom temperature data along a cross-shore transect towards shore, indicative of shoreward transport of cold subthermocline water. Wavelet analysis of temperature data showed that non-stationary temperature fluctuations were correlated with buoyancy frequency and the near bottom cross-shore baroclinic current. During periods of large temperature fluctuations, the majority of the variance was within the semi-diurnal band; however, the diurnal and high frequency bands also contained a substantial fraction of total variance. The bottom cross-shore baroclinic current served as a proxy for shoreward internal wave propagation and was positively correlated with phosphate concentration in both years, silicate in 2005, and fecal indicator bacteria measurements in 2006. The results suggest internal waves are an important transport mechanism of nutrient-rich sub-thermocline water to the very near shore in the Southern California Bight, and may facilitate the transport of FIB into the surf zone or enhance persistence of land-derived FIB.

  14. Light and electron microscopy characteristics of the muscle of patients with SURF1 gene mutations associated with Leigh disease

    PubMed Central

    Pronicki, M; Matyja, E; Piekutowska-Abramczuk, D; Szyma?ska-D?bi?ska, T; Karkuci?ska-Wi?ckowska, A; Karczmarewicz, E; Grajkowska, W; Kmie?, T; Popowska, E; Sykut-Cegielska, J

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Leigh syndrome (LS) is characterised by almost identical brain changes despite considerable causal heterogeneity. SURF1 gene mutations are among the most frequent causes of LS. Although deficiency of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a typical feature of the muscle in SURF1-deficient LS, other abnormalities have been rarely described. The aim of the present work is to assess the skeletal muscle morphology coexisting with SURF1 mutations from our own research and in the literature. Methods: Muscle samples from 21 patients who fulfilled the criteria of LS and SURF1 mutations (14 homozygotes and 7 heterozygotes of c.841delCT) were examined by light and electron microscopy. Results: Diffuse decreased activity or total deficit of COX was revealed histochemically in all examined muscles. No ragged red fibres (RRFs) were seen. Lipid accumulation and fibre size variability were found in 14 and 9 specimens, respectively. Ultrastructural assessment showed several mitochondrial abnormalities, lipid deposits, myofibrillar disorganisation and other minor changes. In five cases no ultrastructural changes were found. Apart from slight correlation between lipid accumulation shown by histochemical and ultrastructural techniques, no other correlations were revealed between parameters investigated, especially between severity of morphological changes and the patient’s age at the biopsy. Conclusion: Histological and histochemical features of muscle of genetically homogenous SURF1-deficient LS were reproducible in detection of COX deficit. Minor muscle changes were not commonly present. Also, ultrastructural abnormalities were not a consistent feature. It should be emphasised that SURF1-deficient muscle assessed in the light and electron microscopy panel may be interpreted as normal if COX staining is not employed. PMID:17908801

  15. Habitats used by black and surf scoters in eastern North America as determined by satellite radio telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.; Kidwell, D.M.; Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Lohnes, E.J.R.; Olsen, G.H.; Osenton, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Satellite radio telemetry was used to determine the movements and habitats of black scoters (Melanitta nigra) and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) in eastern North America. A total of 21 surf scoters were instrumented during five years (2001-05) and 32 black scoters were instrumented during three years (2002-04) with implanted PTT 100 satellite transmitters (39 g) with external antenna. Nesting habitat of black scoters was more open than surf scoters (44% vs. 11%), whereas nesting habitat for surf scoters was located in more forested areas (66% vs. 20%). Locations of black scoters in breeding areas on average were at significantly higher latitude and lower elevations than sites used by surf scoters. Satellite telemetry determined that James Bay was the major molting area for male black and surf scoters, although some males molted along the coast of Labrador-Newfoundland. Black scoters instrumented on the Restigouche River, which is a major staging area, were widely distributed along the Atlantic Coast from Cape Cod to Georgia during winter. Major wintering areas for black scoters were Cape Cod (Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Island), Long Island, and New Jersey. In these northern marine wintering areas, black scoters were located farther from shore (4.2 km) and in deeper water (8.3 m) than black scoters in more southern estuarine areas, where distance from shore was 3.1 km and water depth was 5.2 m. Surf scoters instrumented in Chesapeake Bay in late winter showed a strong tendency to return to the Bay the following winter after they had migrated to and from breeding areas. In Chesapeake Bay, black scoters and surf scoters were located mostly in mesohaline areas that had similar water depths (5.1 m vs. 7.5 m) and distances from shore (3.0 km vs. 2.9 km). Distance from shore and depth of water increased over time during the winter for both species. Updated information from the ARGOS Systems aboard the NOAA satellites on scoter movements was made accessible on the Patuxent Website.

  16. Comparison of impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in surfing-related landing tasks.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in five different landing tasks that are used in training and testing for competitive surfing athletes, to assist coaches in the prescription of landing task progression and monitoring training load. Eleven competitive surfing athletes aged 24 ± 7 years participated, and inertial motion sensors were fixed to the anterior aspect of the feet, mid-tibial shafts, sacrum and eighth thoracic vertebrae on these athletes. Three tasks were performed landing on force plates and two tasks in a modified gymnastics set-up used for land-based aerial training. Peak landing force, resultant peak acceleration and front and rear side ankle dorsiflexion ranges of motion during landing were determined. The peak acceleration was approximately 50% higher when performing aerial training using a mini-trampoline and landing on a soft-density foam board, compared to a similar landing off a 50 cm box. Furthermore, the ankle ranges of motion during the gymnastic type landings were significantly lower than the other landing types (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001), for front and rear sides, respectively. Conclusively, increased task complexity and specificity of the sport increased the tibial peak acceleration, indicating greater training load. PMID:26383823

  17. SURF imaging: in vivo demonstration of an ultrasound contrast agent detection technique.

    PubMed

    Masoy, S E; Standal, O; Nasholm, P; Johansen, T F; Angelsen, Bjorn; Hansen, Rune

    2008-05-01

    A dual-band method for ultrasound contrast agent detection is demonstrated in vivo in an animal experiment using pigs. The method is named Second -order UltRasound Field Imaging, abbreviated SURF Imaging. It relies on simultaneously transmitting two ultrasound pulses with a large separation in frequency. Here, a low-frequency pulse of 0.9 MHz is combined with a high-frequency pulse of 7.5 MHz. The low-frequency pulse is used to manipulate the properties of the contrast agent, and the high frequency pulse is used for high-resolution contrast detection and imaging. An annular array capable of transmitting the low- and high-frequency pulses simultaneously was constructed and fitted to a mechanically scanned probe used in a GE Vingmed System 5 ultrasound scanner. The scanner was modified and adapted for the dual-band transmit technique. In-house software was written for post-processing of recorded IQ-data. Contrast-processed B-mode images of pig kidneys after bolus injections of 1 mL of Sonovuer are presented. The images display contrast detection with contrast-to-tissue ratios ranging from 15-40 dB. The results demonstrate the potential of SURF Imaging as an ultrasound contrast detection technique for clinically high ultrasound frequencies. This may allow ultrasound contrast imaging to be available for a wide range of applications. PMID:18519219

  18. Longitudinal instability studies at the SURF II storage ring at NIST.

    SciTech Connect

    Harkay, K.C.; Sereno, N.S.

    1998-08-27

    Measurements of the longitudinal instability observed in the storage ring at the Synchrotrons Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF II) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NET) were performed to understand the mechanism driving the instability. The instability, studied in depth by Ralcowsky and others, manifests itself in broad resonance features in the horizontal and vertical motion spectrum of the synchrotrons light from DC to a few kHz. Also observed are multiple synchrotrons harmonics that modulate the revolution harmonics; these are characteristic of longitudinal phase oscillations. These spectral features of the motion are found to be correlated with the periodic lengthening and shortening of the bunch length on time scales from {approximately}0.1 ms to 20 ms, depending on machine and radio-frequency (rf) system parameters. In this report, the growth rate of the instability is determined from measurements using an rf pickup electrode. The measured growth rates are compared to computed growth rates from an analytical model. Recommendations are made regarding options to control or mitigate the instability. In light of upgrade plans for SURF III, a few comments are presented about the beam lifetime.

  19. Overview of research at NBS using synchrotron radiation at SURF-II

    SciTech Connect

    Ederer, D. L.; Madden, R. P.; Parr, A. C.; Rakowsky, G.; Saloman, E. B.; Copper, J.; Stockbauer, Roger; Madey, T. E.; Dehmer, Joseph L.

    1982-11-01

    The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF-II) is used in conjunction with several high throughput monochromators to study the interaction of vacuum ultraviolet photons with solids and gases. Recent work has been concerned with the photon stimulated desorption of atomic and molecular ions from surfaces, with the effect of electric fields on molecular photoabsorption and with the study of molecular photoionization by angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. These research programs yield new information about molecular bonding at surfaces, molecular dynamics near ionization thresholds, and the coupling of the electronic and nuclear motion near resonances in molecules. In addition to these programs in basic research SURF-II is used for the calibration of transfer standard detectors over a photon energy range 20 to 250 eV. Calibration of monochromator systems is achieved over the photon energy range 5 to 250 eV by using the now calculable spectral intensity radiated by the electrons, which are confined in a nearly circular orbit.

  20. On the impact of an offshore bathymetric anomaly on surf zone rip channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelle, B.; Marieu, V.; Coco, G.; Bonneton, P.; Bruneau, N.; Ruessink, B. G.

    2012-03-01

    We use a nonlinear morphodynamic model to demonstrate that the presence of a single persistent offshore bathymetric anomaly strongly affects the formation, nonlinear evolution and saturation of surf zone rip channels. In the case of an offshore bump or trough and waves with oblique incidence, a rip channel shoreward of the anomaly is enforced by the more seaward alongshore variability in depth. The degree of rip channel enforcement is controlled by the strength of the rotational nature of surf zone rip current circulations, which is, in turn, driven by differential broken wave energy dissipation induced by wave refraction across the offshore bathymetric anomaly. The alongshore location of this forced rip channel is more stable with increasing offshore anomaly amplitude, decreasing offshore wave obliquity and decreasing bathymetric anomaly distance to the shore. Simulations show that rip channel behavior downdrift and updrift of the offshore perturbation are different. In our numerical experiments, downdrift rip channels have systematically larger alongshore scales, smaller alongshore migration rates and more erosive megacusps than those updrift. Rip channels therefore self-organize into patterns of different alongshore scales and migration rates as a result of an alongshore perturbation in the wave forcing enforced by wave refraction across an offshore bathymetric anomaly. These simulations are qualitatively corroborated by video observations of sandbar behavior during a down-state sequence at a site with a persistent offshore trough.

  1. Modeling and analyzing observed transverse sand bars in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, F.; de Swart, H. E.; Calvete, D.; Falqués, A.

    2012-06-01

    A morphodynamic model has been applied to explain the characteristics of transverse sandbars observed in the inner surf zone of open beaches. The model describes the feedback between waves, rollers, depth-averaged currents and bed evolution, so that self-organized processes can develop. The modeled bar characteristics, i.e. wavelength (30-70 m), crest orientation (up-current) and the e-folding growth time (about 12 hr) are in good agreement with those of observed transverse bars at Noordwijk beach, the Netherlands, but modeled migration speeds (tens of meters per day), turn out to be a factor 2 larger than those observed. The wavelength increases with the distance between the shoreline and the peak of the longshore current and the migration speed is correlated with the maximum longshore current. The model also explains why transverse bar formation at Noordwijk occurs for obliquely incident waves of intermediate heights. Realistic positive feedback leading to formation of up-current oriented bars like those observed is only obtained if a term related to the turbulence sediment resuspension created by the rollers is included in the transport formula. In that case, the depth-averaged sediment concentration decreases seaward across the inner surf zone, enhancing the convergence of sediment transport in the offshore directed flow perturbations that occur over the up-current bars. This offshore current deflection is mainly caused by frictional torques, but the roller radiation stresses also play an important role.

  2. The Web-Surf Task: A translational model of human decision-making.

    PubMed

    Abram, Samantha V; Breton, Yannick-André; Schmidt, Brandy; Redish, A David; MacDonald, Angus W

    2016-02-01

    Animal models of decision-making are some of the most highly regarded psychological process models; however, there remains a disconnection between how these models are used for pre-clinical applications and the resulting treatment outcomes. This may be due to untested assumptions that different species recruit the same neural or psychological mechanisms. We propose a novel human foraging paradigm (Web-Surf Task) that we translated from a rat foraging paradigm (Restaurant Row) to evaluate cross-species decision-making similarities. We examined behavioral parallels in human and non-human animals using the respective tasks. We also compared two variants of the human task, one using videos and the other using photos as rewards, by correlating revealed and stated preferences. We demonstrate similarities in choice behaviors and decision reaction times in human and rat subjects. Findings also indicate that videos yielded more reliable and valid results. The joint use of the Web-Surf Task and Restaurant Row is therefore a promising approach for functional translational research, aiming to bridge pre-clinical and clinical lines of research using analogous tasks. PMID:26377334

  3. MOD_FreeSurf2D: A MATLAB surface fluid flow model for rivers and streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Nick; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2005-08-01

    MOD_FreeSurf2D is an open source MATLAB code that simulates fluid velocities and depths in rivers and streams. Although this model was designed for a specific purpose, MOD_FreeSurf2D can be employed in general scenarios when the depth-averaged, shallow water equations apply. The model approximates the depth-averaged, shallow water equations with a finite volume, semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian representation. This numerical solution method provides accuracy and stability when using model time steps that exceed the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) restriction. An additional benefit of the numerical representation is the ability to simulate moving land/water boundaries. Model results were shown to be accurate when compared to published data from a dam-break experiment in a 21 m flume and from velocity and depth measurements along a 400 m river reach in Idaho. Results from the dam-break experiment simulations demonstrate the model's ability to simulate wetting and drying. Additionally, sensitivity analyses conducted on the two scenarios show model convergence and demonstrate that the model can employ time steps that exceed the CFL restriction.

  4. Robust and Effective Component-based Banknote Recognition by SURF Features

    PubMed Central

    Hasanuzzaman, Faiz M.; Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, YingLi

    2013-01-01

    Camera-based computer vision technology is able to assist visually impaired people to automatically recognize banknotes. A good banknote recognition algorithm for blind or visually impaired people should have the following features: 1) 100% accuracy, and 2) robustness to various conditions in different environments and occlusions. Most existing algorithms of banknote recognition are limited to work for restricted conditions. In this paper we propose a component-based framework for banknote recognition by using Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF). The component-based framework is effective in collecting more class-specific information and robust in dealing with partial occlusion and viewpoint changes. Furthermore, the evaluation of SURF demonstrates its effectiveness in handling background noise, image rotation, scale, and illumination changes. To authenticate the robustness and generalizability of the proposed approach, we have collected a large dataset of banknotes from a variety of conditions including occlusion, cluttered background, rotation, and changes of illumination, scaling, and viewpoints. The proposed algorithm achieves 100% recognition rate on our challenging dataset. PMID:25531008

  5. A model for the generation of two-dimensional surf beat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    List, Jeffrey H.

    1992-01-01

    A finite difference model predicting group-forced long waves in the nearshore is constructed with two interacting parts: an incident wave model providing time-varying radiation stress gradients across the nearshore, and a long-wave model which solves the equations of motion for the forcing imposed by the incident waves. Both shallow water group-bound long waves and long waves generated by a time-varying breakpoint are simulated. Model-generated time series are used to calculate the cross correlation between wave groups and long waves through the surf zone. The cross-correlation signal first observed by Tucker (1950) is well predicted. For the first time, this signal is decomposed into the contributions from the two mechanisms of leaky mode forcing. Results show that the cross-correlation signal can be explained by bound long waves which are amplified, though strongly modified, through the surf zone before reflection from the shoreline. The breakpoint-forced long waves are added to the bound long waves at a phase of pi/2 and are a secondary contribution owing to their relatively small size.

  6. MOD_FreeSurf2D: a Surface Fluid Flow Simulation Model for Rivers, Streams, and Shallow Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, N.; Gorelick, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    The MOD_FreeSurf2D, Modular Free Surface Flow in Two-Dimensions, computer model simulates free surface fluid flow in streams, rivers, and shallow estuaries under the assumptions of a well-mixed water column, a small water depth to width ratio, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The dependent variables in the model are free surface elevation, which provides total water depth, and fluid velocity. Primary advantages of MOD_FreeSurf2D relative to other two-dimensional models are a stable and computationally efficient numerical representation and a transparent representation of wetting and drying of the simulation domain. MOD_FreeSurf2D approximates the depth-averaged, shallow water equations with a finite volume, semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian numerical representation similar to the TRIM method (Casulli, 1990; Casulli and Cheng, 1992; Casulli, 1999). The semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian approach is computationally efficient because time steps can exceed the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) stability criterion without significant accuracy degradation (Robert, 1982; Casulli, 1990). The rectangular, Arakawa C-grid, finite-volume layout allows flooding and drying in response to changing flow conditions without prior channel specification or closed boundary specification. Open boundary conditions available in MOD_FreeSurf2D are specified flux, specified total water depth, specified velocity, radiation free surface, and radiation velocity. MOD_FreeSurf2D requires initial topography, undisturbed water depth, and Manning's roughness coefficient. MOD_FreeSurf2D simulated results are shown to converge to the semi-empirical solution for a simple straight channel case. Two applications demonstrate the accuracy of MOD_FreeSurf2D. The first application is the evolution of water depth in the dambreak-style flume experiment of Bellos et al. (1992). In this case, MOD_FreeSurf2D accurately simulates the changing water depth in the flume during the experiment and models the wetting of the flume below the dam and the drying of the flume above the dam. The second application is simulation of a reach of the Kootenai River, ID studied by Lipscomb et al. (1998). Detailed 3D spatial measurements of water depth and velocity were numerically integrated and compared to the 2D values produced by MOD_FreeSurf2D. Results indicate that MOD_FreeSurf2D accurately simulates depth-averaged velocity and total water depth on the reach scale. Currently, MOD_FreeSurf2D is a fully vectorized set of custom Matlab functions. References: Bellos, C.V., Soulis, J.V., and Sakkas, J.G., 1992, Experimental Investigation of Two-dimensional Dam-break Induced Flows, Journal of Hydraulic Research, v. 20, p. 47-63. Casulli, V., 1999, A Semi-Implicit Finite Difference Method for Non-Hydrostatic, Free-Surface Flows, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, v. 30, p. 425-440. Casulli, V., 1990, Semi-implicit Finite Difference Methods for the Two-Dimensional Shallow Water Equations, Journal of Computational Physics, v. 86, p. 56-74. Casulli, V. and Cheng, R.T., 1992, Semi-implicit Finite Difference Methods for Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Flow, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, v. 15, p. 629-648. Lipscomb, S.W., Berenbrock, C., and Doyle, J.D., 1997, Spatial Distribution of Stream Velocities for the Kootenai River Near Bonners Ferry, ID, June 1997. U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 97-830, 174 p. Robert, A., 1982, A Semi-Lagrangian and Semi-Implicit Numerical Integration Scheme for the Primitive Meteorological Equations, Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, v.60, n. 1. p. 319-325.

  7. Preface: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Horst

    2009-07-01

    By almost any measure, the SciDAC community has come a long way since DOE launched the SciDAC program back in 2001. At the time, we were grappling with how to efficiently run applications on terascale systems (the November 2001 TOP500 list was led by DOE's ASCI White IBM system at Lawrence Livermore achieving 7.2 teraflop/s). And the results stemming from the first round of SciDAC projects were summed up in two-page reports. The scientific results were presented at annual meetings, which were by invitation only and typically were attended by about 75 researchers. Fast forward to 2009 and we now have SciDAC Review, a quarterly magazine showcasing the scientific computing contributions of SciDAC projects and related programs, all focused on presenting a comprehensive look at Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing. That is also the motivation behind the annual SciDAC conference that in 2009 was held from June 14-18 in San Diego. The annual conference, which can also be described as a celebration of all things SciDAC, grew out those meetings organized in the early days of the program. In 2005, the meeting was held in San Francisco and attendance was opened up to all members of the SciDAC community. The schedule was also expanded to include a keynote address, plenary speakers and other features found in a conference format. This year marks the fifth such SciDAC conference, which now comprises four days of computational science presentations, multiple poster sessions and, since last year, an evening event showcasing simulations and modeling runs resulting from SciDAC projects. The fifth annual SciDAC conference was remarkable on several levels. The primary purpose, of course, is to showcase the research accomplishments resulting from SciDAC programs in particular and computational science in general. It is these accomplishments, represented in 38 papers and 52 posters, that comprise this set of conference proceedings. These proceedings can stand alone as evidence of the success of DOE's innovative SciDAC efforts. But from the outset, a critical driver for the program was to foster increased collaboration among researchers across disciplines and organizations. In particular, SciDAC wanted to engage scientists at universities in the projects, both to expand the community and to develop the next generation of computational scientists. At the meeting in San Diego, the fruits of this emphasis were clearly visible, from the special poster session highlighting the work of the DOE Computational Science Graduate Fellows, to the informal discussions in hotel hallways, to focused side meetings apart from the main presentations. A highlight of the meeting was the keynote address by Dr Ray Orbach, until recently the DOE Under Secretary for Science and head of the Office of Science. It was during his tenure that the first round of projects matured and the second set of SciDAC projects were launched. And complementing these research projects was Dr Orbach's vision for INCITE, DOE's Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment program, inaugurated in 2003. This program allocated significant HPC resources to scientists tackling high-impact problems, including some of those addressed by SciDAC teams. Together, SciDAC and INCITE are dramatically accelerating the field of computational science. As has been noted before, the SciDAC conference celebrates progress in advancing science through large-scale modeling and simulation. Over 400 people registered to attend this year's talks, poster sessions and tutorials, all spanning the disciplines supported by DOE. While the principal focus was on SciDAC accomplishments, this year's conference also included invited presentations and posters from colleagues whose research is supported by other agencies. At the 2009 meeting we also formalized a developing synergy with the Department of Defense's HPC Users Group Meeting, which has occasionally met in parallel with the SciDAC meeting. But in San Diego, we took the additional steps of organizing a joint poster session and a joint plenary session, further advancing opportunities for broader networking. Throughout the four-day program, attendees at both meetings had the option of sitting in on sessions at either conference. We also included several of the NSF Petascale applications in the program, and have also extended invitations to our computational colleagues in other federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation, NASA, and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, as well as international collaborators to join us in San Diego. In 2009 we also reprised one of the more popular sessions from Seattle in 2008, the Electronic Visualization and Poster Night, during which 29 scientific visualizations were presented on high-resolution large-format displays. The best entries were awarded one of the coveted 'OASCR Awards.' The conference also featured a session about breakthroughs in computational science, based on the 'Breakthrough Report' that was published in 2008, led by Tony Mezzacappa (ORNL). Tony was also the chair of the SciDAC 2005 conference. For the third consecutive year, the conference was followed by a day of tutorials organized by the SciDAC Outreach Center and aimed primarily at students interested in scientific computing. This year, nearly 100 participants attended the tutorials, hosted by the San Diego Supercomputer Center and General Atomics. This outreach to the broader community is really what SciDAC is all about - Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing. Such discoveries are not confined by organizational lines, but rather are often the result of researchers reaching out and collaborating with others, using their combined expertise to push our boundaries of knowledge. I am happy to see that this vision is shared by so many researchers in computational science, who all decided to join SciDAC 2009. While credit for the excellent presentations and posters goes to the teams of researchers, the success of this year's conference is due to the strong efforts and support from members of the 2009 SciDAC Program Committee and Organizing Committee, and I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks to them for helping to make the 2009 meeting the largest and most successful to date. Program Committee members were: David Bader, LLNL; Pete Beckman, ANL; John Bell, LBNL; John Boisseau, University of Texas; Paul Bonoli, MIT; Hank Childs, LBNL; Bill Collins, LBNL; Jim Davenport, BNL; David Dean, ORNL; Thom Dunning, NCSA; Peg Folta, LLNL; Glenn Hammond, PNNL; Maciej Haranczyk, LBNL; Robert Harrison, ORNL; Paul Hovland, ANL; Paul Kent, ORNL; Aram Kevorkian, SPAWAR; David Keyes, Columbia University; Kwok Ko, SLAC; Felice Lightstone, LLNL; Bob Lucas, ISI/USC; Paul Mackenzie, Fermilab; Tony Mezzacappa, ORNL; John Negele, MIT; Jeff Nichols, ORNL; Mike Norman, UCSD; Joe Oefelein, SNL; Jeanie Osburn, NRL; Peter Ostroumov, ANL; Valerio Pascucci, University of Utah; Ruth Pordes, Fermilab; Rob Ross, ANL; Nagiza Samatova, ORNL; Martin Savage, University of Washington; Tim Scheibe, PNNL; Ed Seidel, NSF; Arie Shoshani, LBNL; Rick Stevens, ANL; Bob Sugar, UCSB; Bill Tang, PPPL; Bob Wilhelmson, NCSA; Kathy Yelick, NERSC/LBNL; Dave Zachmann, Vista Computational Technology LLC. Organizing Committee members were: Communications: Jon Bashor, LBNL. Contracts/Logistics: Mary Spada and Cheryl Zidel, ANL. Posters: David Bailey, LBNL. Proceedings: John Hules, LBNL. Proceedings Database Developer: Beth Cerny Patino, ANL. Program Committee Liaison/Conference Web Site: Yeen Mankin, LBNL. Tutorials: David Skinner, NERSC/LBNL. Visualization Night: Hank Childs, LBNL; Valerio Pascucci, Chems Touati, Nathan Galli, and Erik Jorgensen, University of Utah. Again, my thanks to all. Horst Simon San Diego, California June 18, 2009

  8. 76 FR 55566 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays and Surfing Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY...) Long Island Sound Zone for a surfing event and fireworks displays. This action is necessary to provide... anchoring within this zone is prohibited unless authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island Sound. DATES:...

  9. Mixing and bottom friction: parametrization and application to the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennis, A.-C.; Dumas, F.; Ardhuin, F.; Blanke, B.; Lepesqueur, J.

    2012-04-01

    Wave breaking has been observed to impact the bottom boundary layer in surf zones, with potential impacts on bottom friction. Observations in the inner surf zone have also shown a tendency to an underestimation of the wave-induced set-up when using usual model parameterizations. The present study investigates the possible impact of wave breaking on bottom friction and set-up using a recently proposed parameterization of the wave-induced turbulent kinetic energy in the vertical mixing parameterization of the wave-averaged flow. This parametrization proposed by Mellor (2002) allows us to take account the oscillations of the bottom boundary layer with the wave phases thanks to some additional turbulent source terms. First, the behavior of this parameterization, is investigated by comparing phase-resolving and phase-averaged solutions. The hydrodynamical model MARS (Lazure et Dumas, 2008) is used for this, using a modified k-epsilon model to take account the Mellor (2002) parametrization. It is shown that the phase averaged solution strongly overestimates the turbulent kinetic energy, which is similar to the situation of the air flow over waves (Miles 1996). The waves inhibits the turbulence and the wave-averaged parametrization is not able to reproduce correctly this phenomenom. Cases with wave breaking at the surface are simulated in order to study the influence of surface wave breaking on the bottom boundary layer. This parametrization is applied in the surf zone for two differents cases, one for a planar beach and one other for a barred beach with rip currents. The coupled model MARS-WAVEWATCH III is used for this (Bennis et al, 2011) and for a realistic planar beach, the mixing parameterization has only a limited impact on the bottom friction and the wave set-up, unless the bottom roughness is greatly enhanced in very shallow water, or for a spatially varying roughness. The use of the mixing parametrization requires an adjustement of the bottom roughness to fit the observations probably due to the expression of the additional source of turbulent kinetic energy. For an idealized barred beach, the results given by the mixing parametrization are compared with others from parametrizations that take account the wave effects on the bottom friction via the wave orbital velocity, and no via the turbulent kinetic energy as in Mellor (2002). The vertical profile of the rip current is significantly modified by the bottom friction parametrization, while the feedback of the waves on the flow (ie. two-way mode) changes the pattern of the rip currents in comparison with the one-way mode.

  10. Estimating Energy Dissipation Due to Wave Breaking in the Surf Zone Using Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carini, Roxanne J.

    Wave breaking is the largest forcing mechanism in the surf zone. Therefore, quantifying energy dissipation due to wave breaking is important for improving models that seek to predict nearshore circulation, wave-current interactions, air-sea gas exchange, erosion and accretion of sediment, and storm surge. Wave energy dissipation is difficult to measure with in situ instruments, and even the most reliable estimates are limited to point measurements. Using remote sensing technologies, specifically infrared (IR) imagery, the high spatial and temporal variability of wave breaking may be sampled. Duncan (1981) proposed a model (D81) for dissipation on a wave-by-wave basis, based on wave slope and roller length, the crest-perpendicular length of the aerated region of a breaking wave. The wave roller is composed of active foam, which, in thermal IR images, appears brighter than the surrounding water and the residual foam, the foam left behind in the wake of a breaking wave. Using IR imagery taken during the Surf Zone Optics 2010 experiment at Duck, NC, and exploiting the distinct signature of active foam, a retrieval algorithm was developed to identify and extract breaking wave roller length. Roller length was then used to estimate dissipation rate via the D81 formulation. The D81 dissipation rate estimates compare reasonably to in situ dissipation estimates at a point. When the D81 estimates are compared to the bulk energy flux into the surf zone, it is found that wave breaking dissipates approximately 25-36% of the incoming wave energy. The D81 dissipation rate estimates also agree closely with those from a dissipation parameterization proposed by Janssen and Battjes (2007) (JB07) and commonly applied within larger nearshore circulation models. The JB07 formulation, however, requires additional physical parameters (wave height and water depth) that are often sparsely sampled and are difficult to attain from remote sensing alone. The power of the D81 formulation lies in its dependence on surface signatures alone, and with the methods developed here and those proposed for future work, wave energy dissipation rate maps could be produced for any imageable coastline.

  11. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). Surf Clam

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, C.W.; Neves, R.J.; Pardue, G.B.

    1983-10-01

    The surf clam (Spisula solidissima) is a dominant clam species in the mid-Atlantic region, and contributed 71.8% of all clam meats consumed in the United States between 1970 and 1974; total landings in 1981 were 20.9 thousand metric tons (46.1 million lb). Surf clams live in the coastal zone from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina; they are most common in the breaker zone, but occur to depths of 70 m (230 ft). They reach sexual maturity in 2 years and spawn in the mid-Atlantic region from mid-July through mid-October, often with two spawning peaks per year. Larval stages are planktonic; upon settlement, they metamorphose into juvenile clams. Adults live buried in sandy or gravel substrates, with siphons extended above the bottom for feeding and respiration. Surf clams may live up to 25 years and reach a size of 225 mm (8.9 inches). Larvae tolerate water temperatures of 14/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/F (57/sup 0/) to 86/sup 0/F), and salinities as low as 16 ppt. Adults tolerate 0/sup 0/ to 28/sup 0/C (32/sup 0/ to 82/sup 0/F) and 12.5 ppt salinity or higher. Depletion of dissolved oxygen in ocean bottom waters was the major cause for large-scale surf clam mortalities off New York and New Jersey over the last two decades. Sewage, sludge, and heavy metals often cause accumulation of toxic materials in surf clam meats and force closure of beds to fishing to prevent human consumption of these toxic materials. 98 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  12. The calibration of photographic and spectroscopic films. The utilization of the digital image processor in the determination of aging of the surf clam (Spisula solidissima)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Kevin A.; Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The age of the surf clam (Spisula solidissima) can be determined with the use of the Digital Image Processor. This technique is used in conjunction with a modified method for aging, refined by John Ropes of the Woods Hole Laboratory, Massachusetts. This method utilizes a thinned sectioned chondrophore of the surf clam which contains annual rings. The rings of the chondrophore are then counted to determine age. By digitizing the chondrophore, the Digital Image Processor is clearly able to separate these annual rings more accurately. This technique produces an easier and more efficient way to count annual rings to determine the age of the surf clam.

  13. Wave-Induced Sediment Motion Beyond the Surf Zone: Case Study of Lubiatowo (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerkowniak, Grzegorz R.; Ostrowski, Rafa?; Stella, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents results of field and theoretical investigations of a natural sandy shore located near the IBW PAN Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (Poland, the south Baltic Sea). The study site displays multi-bar cross-shore profiles that intensively dissipate wave energy, mostly by breaking. The main field data comprise offshore wave parameters and three cross-shore bathymetric profiles. Waveinduced nearbed velocities and bed shear stresses are theoretically modelled for weak, moderate, strong and extreme storm conditions to determine sediment motion regimes at various locations on the seaward boundary of the surf zone. The paper contains a discussion on the depth of closure concept, according to which the offshore range of sea bottom changes can be determined by the extreme seasonal deep-water wave parameters.

  14. Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone.

    PubMed

    Dalyander, P Soupy; Long, Joseph W; Plant, Nathaniel G; Thompson, David M

    2014-03-15

    Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these "surface residual balls" (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results. PMID:24503377

  15. "Couch surfing" of Latino foster care alumni: reliance on peers as social capital.

    PubMed

    Perez, Beatrix F; Romo, Harriett D

    2011-04-01

    Youth exiting foster care often experience difficulties transitioning into adulthood. This paper focuses on Latino foster care youth in a major southwestern U.S. city and addresses the importance of peer networks as a crucial form of social capital as youth leave foster care. Case studies illustrate experiences of foster care alumni ranging in age from 18 to 26. Findings suggest that lack of housing forces youth into residential mobility or "couch surfing" and episodes of homelessness. Familial connections continue to be important to Latino youth. When Latino youth are unsuccessful in re-establishing family relationships, survival is dependent upon peer social capital as youth move between extended family and friends, eventually relying upon peers for support. Recommendations are included. PMID:20570341

  16. Surf zone bathymetry and circulation predictions via data assimilation of remote sensing observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, G. W.; Özkan-Haller, H. T.; Holman, R. A.; Haller, M. C.; Honegger, D. A.; Chickadel, C. C.

    2014-03-01

    Bathymetry is a major factor in determining nearshore and surf zone wave transformation and currents, yet is often poorly known. This can lead to inaccuracy in numerical model predictions. Here bathymetry is estimated as an uncertain parameter in a data assimilation system, using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). The system is tested by assimilating several remote sensing data products, which were collected in September 2010 as part of a field experiment at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility (FRF) in Duck, NC. The results show that by assimilating remote sensing data alone, nearshore bathymetry can be estimated with good accuracy, and nearshore forecasts (e.g., the prediction of a rip current) can be improved. This suggests an application where a nearshore forecasting model could be implemented using only remote sensing data, without the explicit need for in situ data collection.

  17. How much velocity information is necessary to predict sediment suspension in the surf zone?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce E.; Rubin, David M.; Sallenger, Asbury, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Instantaneous horizontal water velocity, or velocity to a power, does not contain enough information to predict suspension in the surf zone. Unlike steady uniform flow, more one than one velocity is necessary to parameterize pick-up and mixing of sediment into the water column. Using a velocity history improves predictions of suspension by more carefully specifying flow conditions (including accelerations and changes in accelerations) responsible for suspension. Suspension in the future is better predicted than suspension at the same instant as velocity measurements. Incorporating such a lag between velocity and concentration improved predictions, with optimum lag time increasing with elevation above the sea bed. These lags are largely due to the time for an observed flow event to effect the bed and mix sediment upward.

  18. 3D reconstruction of a human heart fascicle using SurfDriver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rader, Robert J.; Phillips, Steven J.; LaFollette, Paul S., Jr.

    2000-06-01

    The Temple University Medical School has a sequence of over 400 serial sections of adult normal ventricular human heart tissue, cut at 25 micrometer thickness. We used a Zeiss Ultraphot with a 4x planapo objective and a Pixera digital camera to make a series of 45 sequential montages to use in the 3D reconstruction of a fascicle (muscle bundle). We wrote custom software to merge 4 smaller image fields from each section into one composite image. We used SurfDriver software, developed by Scott Lozanoff of the University of Hawaii and David Moody of the University of Alberta, for registration, object boundary identification, and 3D surface reconstruction. We used an Epson Stylus Color 900 printer to get photo-quality prints. We describe the challenge and our solution to the following problems: image acquisition and digitization, image merge, alignment and registration, boundary identification, 3D surface reconstruction, 3D visualization and orientation, snapshot, and photo-quality prints.

  19. General Multivariate Linear Modeling of Surface Shapes Using SurfStat

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Moo K.; Worsley, Keith J.; Nacewicz, Brendon, M.; Dalton, Kim M.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Although there are many imaging studies on traditional ROI-based amygdala volumetry, there are very few studies on modeling amygdala shape variations. This paper present a unified computational and statistical framework for modeling amygdala shape variations in a clinical population. The weighted spherical harmonic representation is used as to parameterize, to smooth out, and to normalize amygdala surfaces. The representation is subsequently used as an input for multivariate linear models accounting for nuisance covariates such as age and brain size difference using SurfStat package that completely avoids the complexity of specifying design matrices. The methodology has been applied for quantifying abnormal local amygdala shape variations in 22 high functioning autistic subjects. PMID:20620211

  20. A Comparison between XBeach and Terrestrial Laser Measurements of Surf-Zone Hydrodynamics and Beach Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, K. L.; Long, J. W.; Slocum, R.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate predictions of beach evolution and coastal inundation during both storms and quiescent times require numerical models which correctly handle wave runup and inner surf-zone processes, the principle drivers of sediment exchange between the beach and surf-zone. Field validation of models is often restricted to analyzing elevation change between surveys conducted "pre" and "post" storm, but lack the hydrodynamic and morphologic data throughout the duration of the storm event needed to assess the modeled physical processes. Even fewer data sets exist that provide continuous observations during quiescent time periods (weeks-months) when much of the beach is re-built after storms. Using an automated terrestrial laser scanner mounted in the dune at the Field Research Facility (FRF) in Duck, NC, we collected hourly 20-minute measurements of the elevation of the beach and inner surf-zone free-surface profile. These data enable simultaneous analysis of foreshore morphologic evolution, wave runup, and inner-surf zone wave and water level characteristics. The laser data is collected along a narrow profile in line with the FRF's cross-shore array of wave gauges which provide observations in 2-23m of water depth. Roughly 700 hours of semi-continuous laser observations from 26 Aug through 29 Sep 2011 (including the landfall of Hurricane Irene and offshore swell from Hurricane Katia and Tropical Storm Maria), and from 26 Oct through 13 Nov 2011 (during the arrival of multiple Nor'Easters), are used to analyze wave runup statistics and beach morphology change and are compared to model predictions from XBeach. Initial analysis of observational data revealed a strong tidal signal in de-tided runup statistics, such that the 2% exceedence runup elevation and mean swash elevation is higher at high tide than at low tide for a given wave condition. This was similar to the significant incident band wave height (HsIN) at the base of the foreshore (defined as the 98% exceedence elevation), which also showed a strong tidal dependence. Our results suggest that particularly during quiescent time periods, mean swash elevation (setup) and incident band swash scale best with HsIN, though correlations are slightly improved when beach foreshore slope is included (r^2 = 0.74 vs 0.71). These data suggest that increased or decreased breaking over the sandbar at low and high tides respectively may filter the amount of energy left in the incident band to be transferred to runup at the shoreline. Observed incident and infragravity band swash and wave statistics from the laser and nearshore wave gauges will be compared to modeled hydrodynamics from XBeach. Assessments of the modeled physics are performed during quiescent and storm time periods and we focus on the role that under/overpredicting these hydrodynamic quantities has in making accurate predictions of profile change.

  1. Assessing mobility and redistribution patterns of sand and oil agglomerates in the surf zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalyander, P. Soupy; Long, Joesph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates that formed in the surf zone following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill continued to cause beach re-oiling 3 years after initial stranding. To understand this phenomena and inform operational response now and for future spills, a numerical method to assess the mobility and alongshore movement of these “surface residual balls” (SRBs) was developed and applied to the Alabama and western Florida coasts. Alongshore flow and SRB mobility and potential flux were used to identify likely patterns of transport and deposition. Results indicate that under typical calm conditions, cm-size SRBs are unlikely to move alongshore, whereas mobility and transport is likely during storms. The greater mobility of sand compared to SRBs makes burial and exhumation of SRBs likely, and inlets were identified as probable SRB traps. Analysis of field data supports these model results.

  2. SURFING: A Program for Precise Determination of Sample Position in Stress Measurements Via Neutron Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.-Q.

    2000-08-08

    Precise determination of the specimen position relative to the sampling volume for texture and stress measurements by neutron diffraction is difficult or sometimes impossible using only optical devices due to large or irregular sample dimensions and/or complicated shape of the sampling volume. The knowledge of the shape and size of the sampling volume allows development of a general mathematical model for the intensity variation with a parallelogram-shape sampling volume moving from outside to inside the specimen for both transmission and reflection geometric set-ups. Both fixed slits and radial collimators are options in defining the geometrical setup. The attenuation by the sample also has been taken into account in this model. Experimental results agree well with the model calculations. The program SURFING is based on the model calculation and was written in Labwindows/CVI{copyright}.

  3. Chemolithotrophy in the continental deep subsurface: Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), USA

    PubMed Central

    Osburn, Magdalena R.; LaRowe, Douglas E.; Momper, Lily M.; Amend, Jan P.

    2014-01-01

    The deep subsurface is an enormous repository of microbial life. However, the metabolic capabilities of these microorganisms and the degree to which they are dependent on surface processes are largely unknown. Due to the logistical difficulty of sampling and inherent heterogeneity, the microbial populations of the terrestrial subsurface are poorly characterized. In an effort to better understand the biogeochemistry of deep terrestrial habitats, we evaluate the energetic yield of chemolithotrophic metabolisms and microbial diversity in the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the former Homestake Gold Mine, SD, USA. Geochemical data, energetic modeling, and DNA sequencing were combined with principle component analysis to describe this deep (down to 8100 ft below surface), terrestrial environment. SURF provides access into an iron-rich Paleoproterozoic metasedimentary deposit that contains deeply circulating groundwater. Geochemical analyses of subsurface fluids reveal enormous geochemical diversity ranging widely in salinity, oxidation state (ORP 330 to −328 mV), and concentrations of redox sensitive species (e.g., Fe2+ from near 0 to 6.2 mg/L and Σ S2- from 7 to 2778μg/L). As a direct result of this compositional buffet, Gibbs energy calculations reveal an abundance of energy for microorganisms from the oxidation of sulfur, iron, nitrogen, methane, and manganese. Pyrotag DNA sequencing reveals diverse communities of chemolithoautotrophs, thermophiles, aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs, and numerous uncultivated clades. Extrapolated across the mine footprint, these data suggest a complex spatial mosaic of subsurface primary productivity that is in good agreement with predicted energy yields. Notably, we report Gibbs energy normalized both per mole of reaction and per kg fluid (energy density) and find the later to be more consistent with observed physiologies and environmental conditions. Further application of this approach will significantly expand our understanding of the deep terrestrial biosphere. PMID:25429287

  4. Numerical modeling of surf zone dynamics under weakly plunging breakers with SPH method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makris, Christos V.; Memos, Constantine D.; Krestenitis, Yannis N.

    2016-02-01

    The wave breaking of weak plungers over a relatively mild slope is investigated in this paper. Numerical modeling aspects are studied, concerning the propagation and breaking of shore-normal, nonlinear and regular waves. The two-dimensional (2-D) kinematics and dynamics (fluctuating flow features and large 2-D eddies) of the wave-induced flow on a vertical cross-section over the entire surf zone are simulated with the use of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The academic 'open source' code SPHysics v.2 is employed and the viscosity treatment is based on a Sub-Particle Scale (SPS) approach, similarly to the Large Eddy Simulations (LES) concept. Thorough analysis of the turbulent flow scales determines the necessary refinement of the spatial resolution. The initial particle discretization reaches down to the demarcation point between integral turbulence length scales and Taylor micro-scales. A convolution-type integration method is implemented for the transformation of scattered Lagrangian particle data to Eulerian values at fixed gauges. A heuristic technique of ensemble-averaging is used for the discrimination of the fluctuating flow components from coherent structures and ordered wave motion. Comparisons between numerical and experimental data give encouraging results for several wave features. The wave-induced mean flows are simulated plausibly, and even the 'streaming' effect near the bed is reproduced. The recurring vorticity patterns are derived, and coherent 2-D structures inside the surf zone are identified. Fourier spectral analysis of velocities reveals isotropy of 2-D fluctuating dynamics up to rather high frequencies in shear intensified regions. The simulated Reynolds stresses follow patterns that define the characteristic mechanism of wave breaking for weak plungers. Persisting discrepancies at the incipient breaking region confirm the need for fine, massively 'parallel' 3-D SPS-SPH simulations.

  5. Preface: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, David E.

    2007-09-01

    It takes a village to perform a petascale computation—domain scientists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, computer system vendors, program managers, and support staff—and the village was assembled during 24-28 June 2007 in Boston's Westin Copley Place for the third annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) 2007 Conference. Over 300 registered participants networked around 76 posters, focused on achievements and challenges in 36 plenary talks, and brainstormed in two panels. In addition, with an eye to spreading the vision for simulation at the petascale and to growing the workforce, 115 participants—mostly doctoral students and post-docs complementary to the conferees—were gathered on 29 June 2007 in classrooms of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for a full day of tutorials on the use of SciDAC software. Eleven SciDAC-sponsored research groups presented their software at an introductory level, in both lecture and hands-on formats that included live runs on a local BlueGene/L. Computation has always been about garnering insight into the behavior of systems too complex to explore satisfactorily by theoretical means alone. Today, however, computation is about much more: scientists and decision makers expect quantitatively reliable predictions from simulations ranging in scale from that of the Earth's climate, down to quarks, and out to colliding black holes. Predictive simulation lies at the heart of policy choices in energy and environment affecting billions of lives and expenditures of trillions of dollars. It is also at the heart of scientific debates on the nature of matter and the origin of the universe. The petascale is barely adequate for such demands and we are barely established at the levels of resolution and throughput that this new scale of computation affords. However, no scientific agenda worldwide is pushing the petascale frontier on all its fronts as vigorously as SciDAC. The breadth of this conference archive reflects the philosophy of the SciDAC program, which was introduced as a collaboration of all of the program offices in the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in Fall 2001 and was renewed for a second period of five years in Fall 2006, with additional support in certain areas from the DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). All of the projects in the SciDAC portfolio were represented at the conference and most are captured in this volume. In addition, the Organizing Committee incorporated into the technical program a number of computational science highlights from outside of SciDAC, and, indeed, from outside of the United States. As implied by the title, scientific discovery is the driving deliverable of the SciDAC program, spanning the full range of the DOE Office of Science: accelerator design, astrophysics, chemistry and materials science, climate science, combustion, life science, nuclear physics, plasma physics, and subsurface physics. As articulated in the eponymous report that launched SciDAC, the computational challenges of these diverse areas are remarkably common. Each is profoundly multiscale in space and time and therefore continues to benefit at any margin from access to the largest and fastest computers available. Optimality of representation and execution requires adaptive, scalable mathematical algorithms in both continuous (geometrically complex domain) and discrete (mesh and graph) aspects. Programmability and performance optimality require software environments that both manage the intricate details of the underlying hardware and abstract them for scientific users. Running effectively on remote specialized hardware requires transparent workflow systems. Comprehending the petascale data sets generated in such simulations requires automated tools for data exploration and visualization. Archiving and sharing access to this data within the inevitably distributed community of leading scientists requires networked collaborative environments. Each of these elements is a research and development project in its own right. SciDAC does not replace theoretical programs oriented towards long-term basic research, but harvests them for contemporary, complementary state-of-the-art computational campaigns. By clustering researchers from applications and enabling technologies into coordinated, mission-driven projects, SciDAC accomplishes two ends with remarkable effectiveness: (1) it enriches the scientific perspective of both applications and enabling communities through mutual interaction and (2) it leverages between applications solutions and effort encapsulated in software. Though SciDAC is unique, its objective of multiscale science at extreme computational scale is shared and approached through different programmatic mechanisms, notably NNSA's ASC program, NSF's Cyberinfrastructure program, and DoD's CREATE program in the U.S., and RIKEN's computational simulation programs in Japan. Representatives of each of these programs were given the podium at SciDAC 2007 and communication occurred that will be valuable towards the ends of complementarity, leverage, and promulgation of best practices. The 2007 conference was graced with additional welcome program announcements. Michael Strayer announced a new program of postdoctoral research fellowships in the enabling technologies. (The computer science post-docs will be named after the late Professor Ken Kennedy, who briefly led the SciDAC project Center for Scalable Application Development Software (CScADS) until his untimely death in February 2007.) IBM announced its petascale BlueGene/P system on June 26. Meanwhile, at ISC07 in Dresden, the semi-annual posting of a revised Top 500 list on June 27 showed several new Top 10 systems accessible to various SciDAC participants. While SciDAC is dominated in 2007 by the classical scientific pursuit of understanding through reduction to components and isolation of causes and effects, simulation at scale is beginning to offer something even more tantalizing: synthesis and integration of multiple interacting phenomena in complex systems. Indeed, the design-oriented elements of SciDAC, such as accelerator and tokamak modeling, area already emphasizing multiphysics coupling, and climate science has been doing so for years in the coupling of models of the ocean, atmosphere, ice, and land. In one of the panels at SciDAC 2007, leaders of a three-stage `progressive workshop' on exascale simulation for energy and environment (E3), considered prospects for whole-system modeling in a variety of scientific areas within the domain of DOE related to energy, environmental, and global security. Computer vendors were invited to comment on the prospects for delivering exascale computing systems in another panel. The daunting nature of this challenge is summarized with the observation that the peak processing power of the entire Top 500 list of June 2007 is only 0.0052 exaflop/s. It takes the combined power of most of the computers on the internet today worldwide to reach 1 exaflop/s or 1018 floating point operations per second. The program of SciDAC 2007 followed a template honed by its predecessor meetings in San Francisco in 2005 and Denver in 2006. The Boston venue permitted outreach to a number of universities in the immediate region and throughout southern New England, including SciDAC campuses of Boston University, Harvard, and MIT, and a dozen others including most of the Ivy League. Altogether 55 universities, 20 laboratories, 14 private companies, 5 agencies, and 4 countries were represented among the conference and tutorial workshop participants. Approximately 47% of the conference participants were from government laboratories, 37% from universities, 9% from federal program offices, and 7% from industry. Keys to the success of SciDAC 2007 were the informal poster receptions, coffee breaks, working breakfasts and lunches, and even the `Right-brain Night' featuring artistic statements, both reverent and irreverent, by computational scientists, inspired by their work. The organizers thank the sponsors for their generosity in attracting participants to these informal occasions with sumptuous snacks and beverages: AMD, Cray, DataDirect, IBM, SGI, SiCortex, and the Institute of Physics. A conference as logistically complex as SciDAC 2007 cannot possibly and should not be executed primarily by the scientists, themselves. It is a great pleasure to acknowledge the many talented staff that contributed to a productive time for all participants and nearperfect adherence to schedule. Chief among them is Betsy Riley, currently detailed from ORNL to the program office in Germantown, with degrees in mathematics and computer science, but a passion for organizing interdisciplinary scientific programs. Betsy staffed the organizing committee during the year of telecon meetings leading up to the conference and masterminded sponsorship, invitations, and the compilation of the proceedings. Assisting her from ORNL in managing the program were Daniel Pack, Angela Beach, and Angela Fincher. Cynthia Latham of ORNL performed admirably in website and graphic design for all aspects of the online and printed materials of the meeting. John Bui, John Smith, and Missy Smith of ORNL ran their customary tight ship with respect to audio-visual execution and capture, assisted by Eric Ecklund and Keith Quinn of the Westin. Pamelia Nixon-Hartje of Ambassador Services was personally invaluable in getting the most out of the hotel and its staff. We thank Jeff Nichols of ORNL for managing the primary subcontract for the meeting. The SciDAC tutorial program was a joint effort of Professor John Negele of MIT, David Skinner, PI of the SciDAC Outreach Center, and the SciDAC 2007 Chair. Sponsorship from the Outreach Center in the form of travel scholarships for students, and of the local area SciDAC university delegation of BU, Harvard, and MIT for food and facilities is gratefully acknowledged. Of course, the archival success of a scientific meeting rests with the willingness of the presenters to make the extra effort to package their field-leading science in a form suitable for interaction with colleagues from other disciplines rather than fellow specialists. This goal, oft-stated in the run up to the meeting, was achieved to an admirable degree, both in the live presentations and in these proceedings. This effort is its own reward, since it leads to enhanced communication and accelerated scientific progress. Our greatest thanks are reserved for Michael Strayer, Associate Director for OASCR and the Director of SciDAC, for envisioning this celebratory meeting three years ago, and sustaining it with his own enthusiasm, in order to provide a highly visible manifestation of the fruits of SciDAC. He and the other Office of Science program managers in attendance and working in Washington, DC to communicate the opportunities afforded by SciDAC deserve the gratitude of a new virtual scientific village created and cemented under the vision of scientific discovery through advanced computing. David E Keyes Fu Foundation Professor of Applied Mathematics

  6. Preface: SciDAC 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, William M., Dr.

    2006-01-01

    The second annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held from June 25-29, 2006 at the new Hyatt Regency Hotel in Denver, Colorado. This conference showcased outstanding SciDAC-sponsored computational science results achieved during the past year across many scientific domains, with an emphasis on science at scale. Exciting computational science that has been accomplished outside of the SciDAC program both nationally and internationally was also featured to help foster communication between SciDAC computational scientists and those funded by other agencies. This was illustrated by many compelling examples of how domain scientists collaborated productively with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to effectively take advantage of terascale computers (capable of performing trillions of calculations per second) not only to accelerate progress in scientific discovery in a variety of fields but also to show great promise for being able to utilize the exciting petascale capabilities in the near future. The SciDAC program was originally conceived as an interdisciplinary computational science program based on the guiding principle that strong collaborative alliances between domain scientists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists are vital to accelerated progress and associated discovery on the world's most challenging scientific problems. Associated verification and validation are essential in this successful program, which was funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE OS) five years ago. As is made clear in many of the papers in these proceedings, SciDAC has fundamentally changed the way that computational science is now carried out in response to the exciting challenge of making the best use of the rapid progress in the emergence of more and more powerful computational platforms. In this regard, Dr. Raymond Orbach, Energy Undersecretary for Science at the DOE and Director of the OS has stated: `SciDAC has strengthened the role of high-end computing in furthering science. It is defining whole new fields for discovery.' (SciDAC Review, Spring 2006, p8). Application domains within the SciDAC 2006 conference agenda encompassed a broad range of science including: (i) the DOE core mission of energy research involving combustion studies relevant to fuel efficiency and pollution issues faced today and magnetic fusion investigations impacting prospects for future energy sources; (ii) fundamental explorations into the building blocks of matter, ranging from quantum chromodynamics - the basic theory that describes how quarks make up the protons and neutrons of all matter - to the design of modern high-energy accelerators; (iii) the formidable challenges of predicting and controlling the behavior of molecules in quantum chemistry and the complex biomolecules determining the evolution of biological systems; (iv) studies of exploding stars for insights into the nature of the universe; and (v) integrated climate modeling to enable realistic analysis of earth's changing climate. Associated research has made it quite clear that advanced computation is often the only means by which timely progress is feasible when dealing with these complex, multi-component physical, chemical, and biological systems operating over huge ranges of temporal and spatial scales. Working with the domain scientists, applied mathematicians and computer scientists have continued to develop the discretizations of the underlying equations and the complementary algorithms to enable improvements in solutions on modern parallel computing platforms as they evolve from the terascale toward the petascale regime. Moreover, the associated tremendous growth of data generated from the terabyte to the petabyte range demands not only the advanced data analysis and visualization methods to harvest the scientific information but also the development of efficient workflow strategies which can deal with the data input/output, management, movement, and storage challenges. If scientific discovery is expected to keep apace with the continuing progression from tera- to petascale platforms, the vital alliance between domain scientists, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists will be even more crucial. During the SciDAC 2006 Conference, some of the future challenges and opportunities in interdisciplinary computational science were emphasized in the Advanced Architectures Panel and by Dr. Victor Reis, Senior Advisor to the Secretary of Energy, who gave a featured presentation on `Simulation, Computation, and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership.' Overall, the conference provided an excellent opportunity to highlight the rising importance of computational science in the scientific enterprise and to motivate future investment in this area. As Michael Strayer, SciDAC Program Director, has noted: `While SciDAC may have started out as a specific program, Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing has become a powerful concept for addressing some of the biggest challenges facing our nation and our world.' Looking forward to next year, the SciDAC 2007 Conference will be held from June 24-28 at the Westin Copley Plaza in Boston, Massachusetts. Chairman: David Keyes, Columbia University. The Organizing Committee for the SciDAC 2006 Conference would like to acknowledge the individuals whose talents and efforts were essential to the success of the meeting. Special thanks go to Betsy Riley for her leadership in building the infrastructure support for the conference, for identifying and then obtaining contributions from our corporate sponsors, for coordinating all media communications, and for her efforts in organizing and preparing the conference proceedings for publication; to Tim Jones for handling the hotel scouting, subcontracts, and exhibits and stage production; to Angela Harris for handling supplies, shipping, and tracking, poster sessions set-up, and for her efforts in coordinating and scheduling the promotional activities that took place during the conference; to John Bui and John Smith for their superb wireless networking and A/V set-up and support; to Cindy Latham for Web site design, graphic design, and quality control of proceedings submissions; and to Pamelia Nixon-Hartje of Ambassador for budget and quality control of catering. We are grateful for the highly professional dedicated efforts of all of these individuals, who were the cornerstones of the SciDAC 2006 Conference. Thanks also go to Angela Beach of the ORNL Conference Center for her efforts in executing the contracts with the hotel, Carolyn James of Colorado State for on-site registration supervision, Lora Wolfe and Brittany Hagen for administrative support at ORNL, and Dami Rich and Andrew Sproles for graphic design and production. We are also most grateful to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, especially Jeff Nichols, and to our corporate sponsors, Data Direct Networks, Cray, IBM, SGI, and Institute of Physics Publishing for their support. We especially express our gratitude to the featured speakers, invited oral speakers, invited poster presenters, session chairs, and advanced architecture panelists and chair for their excellent contributions on behalf of SciDAC 2006. We would like to express our deep appreciation to Lali Chatterjee, Graham Douglas, Margaret Smith, and the production team of Institute of Physics Publishing, who worked tirelessly to publish the final conference proceedings in a timely manner. Finally, heartfelt thanks are extended to Michael Strayer, Associate Director for OASCR and SciDAC Director, and to the DOE program managers associated with SciDAC for their continuing enthusiasm and strong support for the annual SciDAC Conferences as a special venue to showcase the exciting scientific discovery achievements enabled by the interdisciplinary collaborations championed by the SciDAC program.

  7. Non-destructive detection of methionine sulfoxide in the resilium of a surf clam by solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Y; Tamiya, N; Nozawa, T; Hatano, M

    1982-07-01

    Methionine sulfoxide was detected in the resilium (internal hinge ligament) of a surf clam by high-resolution solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy involving cross-polarization and magic angle spinning, using no chemical procedure. The results support the previous report [Kikuchi, Y. and Tamiya, N. (1981) J. Biochem. (Tokyo) 89, 1975-1976] on a high content of methionine sulfoxide observed by chemical methods in the resilium protein of surf clam species. PMID:7117255

  8. Cross-shore and Vertical Distribution of Turbulence Kinetic Energy in the Surf Zone Generated by Plunging Breakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, J.; Wang, P.

    2012-12-01

    Breaking waves, especially plunging breakers, generate intense turbulence and is crucial in dissipating incident wave energy, and suspending and transporting sediment in the surf zone. Therefore quantifying breaking-induced turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) is essential in understanding surf zone processes. Surf zone experiment data collected at the Large-scale Sediment Transport Facility (LSTF) at the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center were used here. Two LSTF cases, one regular (3 s period) and one irregular (3 s peak period) waves over a movable bed, are examined here. Both cases resulted in dominantly plunging type of breakers. Waves and 3-D currents were measured simultaneously at 10 cross-shore locations and throughout the water column, with a sampling rate of 20 Hz. In order to separate orbital wave motion from turbulent motion, ensemble averaging and moving averaging were conducted for regular and irregular wave cases, respectively. A 5-point moving average, with 3-point averaging at the crest and trough, provided an optimal method to resolve turbulence, while approximately 95% of the incident wave energy being accounted for. The TKE was calculated after removing the averaged motion from the raw data. Large TKE was generated at the surface associated with wave breaking and dissipated rapidly downward. The TKE decreased nearly 2 orders of magnitude downward within 15 cm. The TKE researched a minimum value at approximately 50%-80% of the water depth, and increased thereafter toward the bottom due to the generation of bed-induced turbulence.

  9. Seasonal and diel variation in the standing crop of fishes and macroinvertebrates from a Gulf of Mexico surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Stephen T.; McMichael, Robert H.; Ruple, David L.

    1987-10-01

    To determine the relative importance of surf zones as habitats for fishes and macroinvertebrates, compared to other inshore marine environments, seasonal and diel abundance patterns were studied for one year. Both study sites were located on the south shore of Horn Island, a barrier in the northern Gulf of Mexico. At each site a 300 m 2 area was sampled, using a 50-m seine set around steel poles. Capture efficiency of the seine, determined from escapement tests, averaged 82%. While 59 species were captured during the study, only six species, Harengula jaguana, Anchoa hepsetus, A. mitchilli, Callinectes sapidus, A. lyolepis and Menticirrhus littoralis, comprised 90% of the total catch by number. Summer macrofaunal standing crop (mean = 9·8 gm -2, wet weight) was significantly greater than other seasons. The lowest values for both density and standing crop were those obtained in the winter. Both standing crop and average weight of the fishes increased significantly in night samples; a similar pattern did not occur for blue carbs. This primarily reflects the movement of larger, but generally rarer, fish species into the shallow surf zone after dark. Principal components analysis indicated that the standing crop of fishes was lowest during periods of reduced water volume and wave activity. However, seasonal factors appear, overall, to be more important in influencing fish abundance. Compared to a wide range of inshore marine habitats, surf zones appear intermediate in standing crop. Thus, at least during the summer, such habitats are important contributors to inshore standing crops of fishes.

  10. Decadal and shorter period variability of surf zone water quality at Huntington Beach, California.

    PubMed

    Boehm, A B; Grant, S B; Kim, J H; Mowbray, S L; McGee, C D; Clark, C D; Foley, D M; Wellman, D E

    2002-09-15

    The concentration of fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone at Huntington Beach, CA, varies over time scales that span at least 7 orders of magnitude, from minutes to decades. Sources of this variability include historical changes in the treatment and disposal of wastewater and dry weather runoff, El Niño events, seasonal variations in rainfall, spring-neap tidal cycles, sunlight-induced mortality of bacteria, and nearshore mixing. On average, total coliform concentrations have decreased over the past 43 years, although point sources of shoreline contamination (storm drains, river outlets, and submarine outfalls) continue to cause transiently poor water quality. These transient point sources typically persist for 5-8 yr and are modulated by the phase of the moon, reflecting the influence of tides on the sourcing and transport of pollutants in the coastal ocean. Indicator bacteria are very sensitive to sunlight therefore, the time of day when samples are collected can influence the outcome of water quality testing. These results demonstrate that coastal water quality is forced by a complex combination of local and external processes and raise questions about the efficacy of existing marine bathing water monitoring and reporting programs. PMID:12269739

  11. Spring migration routes and chronology of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): a synthesis of Pacific coast studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz, S.E.W.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Wilson, M.T.; Nysewander, D.R.; Evenson, J.R.; Esler, Daniel; Boyd, W.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding interconnectivity among wintering, stopover, and breeding areas of migratory birds is pivotal to discerning how events occurring in each might have a cross-seasonal effect on another. Such information can guide the location and timing of conservation efforts. Thus, we examined spring migration routes, chronology, and stopover use of 85 surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) marked with satellite transmitters at four Pacific Flyway wintering sites: San Quintin Bay, Baja California; San Francisco Bay, California; Puget Sound, Washington; and Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Eighty-three percent of marked scoters followed two main routes to the breeding area: a Southern Inland route involving staging in Puget Sound and Strait of Georgia and protracted inland migration, or a Northern Coastal route characterized by short movements along the Pacific coast of British Columbia and southeast Alaska with inland migration initiating from Lynn Canal and surrounding areas. Route choice was related to nesting site latitude in the Canadian Northern Boreal Forest. Data from birds tracked over 2 years indicated strong migration route fidelity, but altered chronology and stopover locations between years. Departure date varied by wintering site, but arrival and apparent settling dates were synchronous, suggesting individuals adjusted migration timing to meet an optimized reproductive schedule.

  12. Probing the conformational behavior of a monoclonal antibody with surfactant affinity capillary electrophoresis (SurfACE).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Brian T; Sanzgiri, Rohan D; Maxey, Sarah B

    2012-12-21

    Multiple peaks are observed for a monoclonal antibody (mAb) when analyzed by "protein MEKC" (micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography) using SDS-containing run buffers. We present our efforts to understand the mechanism of peak formation and the factors that affect the distribution of the mAb between these peaks. We used "intrinsic" charge ladders of the mAb to determine that peak-to-peak differences in the amount of bound surfactant are comparable to the aggregation numbers of protein-bound micelles. This suggests that the peaks represent sequential unfolding intermediates formed after collisions with micelles. Since this mechanism differs from that of small-molecule MEKC, we prefer to view this technique as a variant of affinity capillary electrophoresis and call it "SurfACE." We also find that the peak distribution is highly sensitive to pH. Lower pH favors the formation of more highly bound complexes, probably through an electrostatic effect on the kinetics. If the run buffer pH is high enough, the peak distribution appears to be set during the post-injection mixing process, as the mAb encounters surfactant during its transition from the lower-pH sample environment. Analysts who wish to interpret "protein MEKC" electropherograms should take note of these effects. PMID:23096023

  13. Impacts of beach wrack removal via grooming on surf zone water quality.

    PubMed

    Russell, Todd L; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Zhou, Christina; French-Owen, Darien; Hassaballah, Abdulrahman; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2014-02-18

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are used to assess the microbial water quality of recreational waters. Increasingly, nonfecal sources of FIB have been implicated as causes of poor microbial water quality in the coastal environment. These sources are challenging to quantify and difficult to remediate. The present study investigates one nonfecal FIB source, beach wrack (decaying aquatic plants), and its impacts on water quality along the Central California coast. The prevalence of FIB on wrack was studied using a multibeach survey, collecting wrack throughout Central California. The impacts of beach grooming, to remove wrack, were investigated at Cowell Beach in Santa Cruz, California using a long-term survey (two summers, one with and one without grooming) and a 48 h survey during the first ever intensive grooming event. FIB were prevalent on wrack but highly variable spatially and temporally along the nine beaches sampled in Central California. Beach grooming was generally associated with either no change or a slight increase in coastal FIB concentrations and increases in surf zone turbidity and silicate, phosphate, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations. The findings suggest that beach grooming for wrack removal is not justified as a microbial pollution remediation strategy. PMID:24437501

  14. Destructive tsunami-like wave generated by surf beat over a coral reef during Typhoon Haiyan.

    PubMed

    Roeber, Volker; Bricker, Jeremy D

    2015-01-01

    Storm surges cause coastal inundation due to setup of the water surface resulting from atmospheric pressure, surface winds and breaking waves. Here we show that during Typhoon Haiyan, the setup generated by breaking waves near the fringing-reef-protected town of Hernani, the Philippines, oscillated with the incidence of large and small wave groups, and steepened into a tsunami-like wave that caused extensive damage and casualties. Though fringing reefs usually protect coastal communities from moderate storms, they can exacerbate flooding during strong events with energetic waves. Typical for reef-type bathymetries, a very short wave-breaking zone over the steep reef face facilitates the freeing of infragravity-period fluctuations (surf beat) with little energy loss. Since coastal flood planning relies on phase-averaged wave modelling, infragravity surges are not being accounted for. This highlights the necessity for a policy change and the adoption of phase-resolving wave models for hazard assessment in regions with fringing reefs. PMID:26245839

  15. Interspecific X-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA introgression in the Iberian hare: selection or allele surfing?

    PubMed

    Melo-Ferreira, José; Alves, Paulo C; Rocha, Jorge; Ferrand, Nuno; Boursot, Pierre

    2011-07-01

    Introgression from a resident species into an invading one is predicted to occur through the demographic process of "allele surfing," and to particularly affect genomic regions transmitted by the lower migrating sex, such as mtDNA. This could explain that northern Iberian populations of Lepus granatensis harbor high frequencies of mtDNA from L. timidus, an arctic hare it replaced there after deglaciation. We report that variation of introgressed timidus-like mtDNA reflects several predicted effects of this process: increasing frequency and diversity in the direction of expansion, strong perpendicular phylogeographic structure and signs of postglacial demographic growth. However, demographic inferences for the granatensis and timidus-like mtDNA lineages suggest the latter may have outcompeted the former in northern Iberia. Autosomal introgression occurs at low frequencies and species-wide rather than only in the north. If this difference with mtDNA resulted from sex-biased migration, an intermediate pattern should prevail for the X-chromosome, but we report species-wide and high-frequency introgression of an X-fragment. Either selection favored this ubiquitous X-introgression, or more complex postglacial expansion patterns prevailed, with different consequences depending on the genomic and geographic region. This illustrates the difficulty of distinguishing demographic and selective effects and the need for genome and species-wide based demographic models. PMID:21729051

  16. BioSurfDB: knowledge and algorithms to support biosurfactants and biodegradation studies.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jorge S; Araújo, Wydemberg; Lopes Sales, Ana Isabela; Brito Guerra, Alaine de; Silva Araújo, Sinara Carla da; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F; Freitas, Ana Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil extraction, transportation and use provoke the contamination of countless ecosystems. Therefore, bioremediation through surfactants mobilization or biodegradation is an important subject, both economically and environmentally. Bioremediation research had a great boost with the recent advances in Metagenomics, as it enabled the sequencing of uncultured microorganisms providing new insights on surfactant-producing and/or oil-degrading bacteria. Many research studies are making available genomic data from unknown organisms obtained from metagenomics analysis of oil-contaminated environmental samples. These new datasets are presently demanding the development of new tools and data repositories tailored for the biological analysis in a context of bioremediation data analysis. This work presents BioSurfDB, www.biosurfdb.org, a curated relational information system integrating data from: (i) metagenomes; (ii) organisms; (iii) biodegradation relevant genes; proteins and their metabolic pathways; (iv) bioremediation experiments results, with specific pollutants treatment efficiencies by surfactant producing organisms; and (v) a biosurfactant-curated list, grouped by producing organism, surfactant name, class and reference. The main goal of this repository is to gather information on the characterization of biological compounds and mechanisms involved in biosurfactant production and/or biodegradation and make it available in a curated way and associated with a number of computational tools to support studies of genomic and metagenomic data. PMID:25833955

  17. Analytical Solutions for the Vertical Structure of Mean Flow in the Surf Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, T. C.; Thornton, E. B.

    2006-12-01

    Solutions to the forced horizontal momentum equations including the presence of a bottom boundary layer are compared with field observations to examine the local vertical structure of mean and slowly varying flows in the surf zone. Similar to the theoretical development of flows within the wave bottom boundary layer driven by arbitrary free stream wave motions (Foster, et al., Ocean. Eng, 26, 1999), the oscillating surface boundary condition is distributed through the water column allowing for local analytical solutions of the vertical structure of time-averaged currents to be found without explicitly defining wave trough levels or surface mass fluxes. The solutions have the attractive attribute that they allow estimation of sub-surface flow from remotely observed surface currents (obtained from airborne or land-based instrumentation) in a variety of shallow marine environments in which water depths are known. The observations utilized in this work were obtained as part of the Duck94, SandyDuck, and NCEX field experiments. This research was supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  18. Carbon Budget and Network Analysis of a High-energy Beach/Surf-zone Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heymans, J. J.; McLachlan, A.

    1996-10-01

    A carbon budget, compiled for a high-energy beach/surf-zone ecosystem in South Africa, consists of 14 living and two non-living compartments, namely dissolved organic carbon and suspended particulate organic carbon. The living compartments constitute three trophic assemblages; the microbial loop, the interstitial system and the macrofauna. The food web budget was subjected to network analysis to assess the status of the system. Input-output analysis indicated that the microbial loop is the most important trophic assemblage in this system, with the interstitial assemblage second in importance. Lindeman trophic analysis estimated that detritivory amounts to 868 mgC m -2day -1and the detritivory:herbivory ratio is 13:1. Biogeochemical cycle analysis concluded that this system is not under any anthropogenic stress, having a nexus with 48 cycles, three 24-cycle nexuses, a single cycle including 11 compartments, and only seven single-cycle nexuses. Based on global systems' properties, this ecosystem has a high normalized internal ascendency (A i:C i) which suggests that it is well organized and stable. The system possesses significant internal stability and resistance, a feature that is expected from a physically controlled environment. The relative ascendency (A:C) of this system falls well within the range of relative ascendencies for other systems, being higher than most estuaries but lower than upwelling systems, bays and seas. Overall, this ecosystem is perceived to be unstressed and mature, with the physical control exerted on it providing significant internal stability.

  19. Surfing along Filopodia: A Particle Transport Revealed by Molecular-Scale Fluctuation Analyses.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Felix; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Filopodia perform cellular functions such as environmental sensing or cell motility, but they also grab for particles and withdraw them leading to an increased efficiency of phagocytic uptake. Remarkably, withdrawal of micron-sized particles is also possible without noticeable movements of the filopodia. Here, we demonstrate that polystyrene beads connected by optical tweezers to the ends of adherent filopodia of J774 macrophages, are transported discontinuously toward the cell body. After a typical resting time of 1-2 min, the cargo is moved with alternating velocities, force constants, and friction constants along the surface of the filopodia. This surfing-like behavior along the filopodium is recorded by feedback-controlled interferometric three-dimensional tracking of the bead motions at 10-100 kHz. We measured transport velocities of up to 120 nm/s and transport forces of ? 70 pN. Small changes in position, fluctuation width, and temporal correlation, which are invisible in conventional microscopy, indicate molecular reorganization of transport-relevant proteins in different phases of the entire transport process. A detailed analysis implicates a controlled particle transport with fingerprints of a nanoscale unbinding/binding behavior. The manipulation and analysis methods presented in our study may also be helpful in other fields of cellular biophysics. PMID:25954870

  20. Variation in Surf-zone Fish Community Structure Across a Wave-exposure Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. M.

    1997-06-01

    Fluctuations in various attributes of a surf-zone fish community were examined by beach seining at a series of sites spanning a wave-exposure gradient in the Saldanha Bay-Langebaan Lagoon system, on the South African west coast. During April 1994, 24 species, totalling 25 676 individuals and 434 kg, were captured. Three teleosts,Atherina breviceps, Liza richardsoniiandPsammogobius knysnaensis, dominated numerically, while three elasmobranchs,Rhinobatos annulatus, Mustelus mustelusandMyliobatis aquila, dominated the biomass. Elasmobranchs displayed no discernible distribution patterns. Two important trends were, however, evident in the teleost catches: overall teleost abundance (mean density) increased markedly as wave exposure decreased; and highest species richness and diversity, and lowest dominance were both recorded at intermediate levels of exposure. A positive relationship between fish size and exposure was also evident for at least two of the species. These trends were attributed primarily to the availability and abundance of suitable food resources, and to physical disturbance introduced by breaking waves.

  1. Temporal and spatial variability of fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfeld, L.K.; McGee, C.D.; Robertson, G.L.; Noble, M.A.; Jones, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations measured in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA from July 1998-December 2001 were analyzed with respect to their spatial patterns along 23 km of beach, and temporal variability on time scales from hourly to fortnightly. The majority of samples had bacterial concentrations less than, or equal to, the minimum detection limit, but a small percentage exceeded the California recreational water standards. Areas where coliform bacteria exceeded standards were more prevalent north of the Santa Ana River, whereas enterococci exceedances covered a broad area both north and south of the river. Higher concentrations of bacteria were associated with spring tides. No temporal correspondence was found between these bacterial events and either the timing of cold water pulses near shore due to internal tides, or the presence of southerly swell in the surface wave field. All three fecal indicator bacteria exhibited a diel cycle, but enterococci rebounded to high nighttime values almost as soon as the sun went down, whereas coliform levels were highest near the nighttime low tide, which was also the lower low tide. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Turbulence dissipation under breaking waves and bores in a natural surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, F.; Castelle, B.; Ruessink, B. G.

    2012-07-01

    Wave breaking is the primary driver of beach erosion, injecting breaking-induced turbulence at the sea surface and diffusing bed boundary layer turbulence at the sea bed. The limited understanding of the vertical turbulence structure under natural breaking waves, and hence sand entrainment, is one of the reasons that coastal-evolution models produce inadequate estimates of storm response. Here we use a recently collected field dataset to analyze turbulence dissipation under breaking waves and bores on the intertidal beach at Truc Vert, France. The vertical structure of the turbulent dissipation rate indicates that wave breaking is the dominant source of turbulence dissipation. The current-induced turbulence represents no more than 50% of the turbulent dissipation rate close to the bed (at 10% of the water column), even when alongshore currents reach 1 m/s. The data further illustrate that the turbulent dissipation rate is almost depth-uniform under breaking waves, whereas it decreases profoundly toward the bed under bores. Moreover, we found that the fraction of wave energy flux decay dissipated below wave-trough level is about 1% under breaking waves and about 10% under bores. These results imply that the turbulent dissipation rate in the surf zone is severely underestimated by coastal-evolution models that do not consider breaking-induced turbulence as a surface boundary condition. Consequently, they will underestimate sand stirring and transport by mean currents during severe storms.

  3. BioSurfDB: knowledge and algorithms to support biosurfactants and biodegradation studies

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Jorge S.; Araújo, Wydemberg; Lopes Sales, Ana Isabela; de Brito Guerra, Alaine; da Silva Araújo, Sinara Carla; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara F.; Freitas, Ana Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil extraction, transportation and use provoke the contamination of countless ecosystems. Therefore, bioremediation through surfactants mobilization or biodegradation is an important subject, both economically and environmentally. Bioremediation research had a great boost with the recent advances in Metagenomics, as it enabled the sequencing of uncultured microorganisms providing new insights on surfactant-producing and/or oil-degrading bacteria. Many research studies are making available genomic data from unknown organisms obtained from metagenomics analysis of oil-contaminated environmental samples. These new datasets are presently demanding the development of new tools and data repositories tailored for the biological analysis in a context of bioremediation data analysis. This work presents BioSurfDB, www.biosurfdb.org, a curated relational information system integrating data from: (i) metagenomes; (ii) organisms; (iii) biodegradation relevant genes; proteins and their metabolic pathways; (iv) bioremediation experiments results, with specific pollutants treatment efficiencies by surfactant producing organisms; and (v) a biosurfactant-curated list, grouped by producing organism, surfactant name, class and reference. The main goal of this repository is to gather information on the characterization of biological compounds and mechanisms involved in biosurfactant production and/or biodegradation and make it available in a curated way and associated with a number of computational tools to support studies of genomic and metagenomic data. Database URL: www.biosurfdb.org PMID:25833955

  4. Corrigendum to "Commissioning of surface chemistry end-station in BL23SU of SPring-8" [Appl. Surf. Sci. 169-170 (2001) 738-741

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraoka, Y.; Yoshigoe, A.

    2015-06-01

    We have performed experiments on surface chemical reactions using a supersonic O2 molecular beam. Translational kinetic energy values of the O2 molecules have been estimated by calculations. We had made a mistake in the calculations. In this article, the translational kinetic energy of the supersonic O2 molecular beam had been calculated by the following equation,

  5. Corrigendum to "Photoemission spectroscopic study on influence of O2 translational kinetic energy for Si(001) initial oxidation" [Surf. Sci. 507-510, 797-802 (2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the authors have performed experiments on surface chemical reactions using a supersonic O2 molecular beam. Translational kinetic energy values of the supersonic O2 molecular beams have been estimated by calculations. The authors have made a mistake in the calculations. In the article, the translational kinetic energy of the supersonic O2 molecular beam had been calculated by the following equation,

  6. Comment on "Adsorption of hydrogen and hydrocarbon molecules on SiC(001)" by Pollmann et al. (Surf. Sci. Rep. 69 (2014) 55-104)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, E.; Celasco, E.; Vattuone, L.; Savio, L.; Tejeda, A.; Silly, M.; D'angelo, M.; Sirotti, F.; Rocca, M.; Catellani, A.; Galli, G.; Douillard, L.; Semond, F.; Aristov, V. Yu.; Soukiassian, P.

    2016-02-01

    This comment clarifies two issues related to the (001) surface reconstructions of cubic SiC, namely: (i) The failure of the bridge-bond model for H atoms interacting with the 3C-SiC(001) 3 × 2 reconstruction to explain all the experimental data based on different techniques, while a recent model has reconciled theory and experimental results. This model has not been discussed or even mentioned in the review by Pollmann et al.; and (ii) In their review, two models of the Si-terminated c(4 × 2) 3C-SiC(001) surface reconstruction are presented as equally probable. This is clearly not the case and the reasons are explained in this comment.

  7. Preface: SciDAC 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    On 26-30 June 2005 at the Grand Hyatt on Union Square in San Francisco several hundred computational scientists from around the world came together for what can certainly be described as a celebration of computational science. Scientists from the SciDAC Program and scientists from other agencies and nations were joined by applied mathematicians and computer scientists to highlight the many successes in the past year where computation has led to scientific discovery in a variety of fields: lattice quantum chromodynamics, accelerator modeling, chemistry, biology, materials science, Earth and climate science, astrophysics, and combustion and fusion energy science. Also highlighted were the advances in numerical methods and computer science, and the multidisciplinary collaboration cutting across science, mathematics, and computer science that enabled these discoveries. The SciDAC Program was conceived and funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Science. It is the Office of Science's premier computational science program founded on what is arguably the perfect formula: the priority and focus is science and scientific discovery, with the understanding that the full arsenal of `enabling technologies' in applied mathematics and computer science must be brought to bear if we are to have any hope of attacking and ultimately solving today's computational Grand Challenge problems. The SciDAC Program has been in existence for four years, and many of the computational scientists funded by this program will tell you that the program has given them the hope of addressing their scientific problems in full realism for the very first time. Many of these scientists will also tell you that SciDAC has also fundamentally changed the way they do computational science. We begin this volume with one of DOE's great traditions, and core missions: energy research. As we will see, computation has been seminal to the critical advances that have been made in this arena. Of course, to understand our world, whether it is to understand its very nature or to understand it so as to control it for practical application, will require explorations on all of its scales. Computational science has been no less an important tool in this arena than it has been in the arena of energy research. From explorations of quantum chromodynamics, the fundamental theory that describes how quarks make up the protons and neutrons of which we are composed, to explorations of the complex biomolecules that are the building blocks of life, to explorations of some of the most violent phenomena in our universe and of the Universe itself, computation has provided not only significant insight, but often the only means by which we have been able to explore these complex, multicomponent systems and by which we have been able to achieve scientific discovery and understanding. While our ultimate target remains scientific discovery, it certainly can be said that at a fundamental level the world is mathematical. Equations ultimately govern the evolution of the systems of interest to us, be they physical, chemical, or biological systems. The development and choice of discretizations of these underlying equations is often a critical deciding factor in whether or not one is able to model such systems stably, faithfully, and practically, and in turn, the algorithms to solve the resultant discrete equations are the complementary, critical ingredient in the recipe to model the natural world. The use of parallel computing platforms, especially at the TeraScale, and the trend toward even larger numbers of processors, continue to present significant challenges in the development and implementation of these algorithms. Computational scientists often speak of their `workflows'. A workflow, as the name suggests, is the sum total of all complex and interlocking tasks, from simulation set up, execution, and I/O, to visualization and scientific discovery, through which the advancement in our understanding of the natural world is realized. For the computational scientist, enabling such workflows presents myriad, signiflcant challenges, and it is computer scientists that are called upon at such times to address these challenges. Simulations are currently generating data at the staggering rate of tens of TeraBytes per simulation, over the course of days. In the next few years, these data generation rates are expected to climb exponentially to hundreds of TeraBytes per simulation, performed over the course of months. The output, management, movement, analysis, and visualization of these data will be our key to unlocking the scientific discoveries buried within the data. And there is no hope of generating such data to begin with, or of scientific discovery, without stable computing platforms and a sufficiently high and sustained performance of scientific applications codes on them. Thus, scientific discovery in the realm of computational science at the TeraScale and beyond will occur at the intersection of science, applied mathematics, and computer science. The SciDAC Program was constructed to mirror this reality, and the pages that follow are a testament to the efficacy of such an approach. We would like to acknowledge the individuals on whose talents and efforts the success of SciDAC 2005 was based. Special thanks go to Betsy Riley for her work on the SciDAC 2005 Web site and meeting agenda, for lining up our corporate sponsors, for coordinating all media communications, and for her efforts in processing the proceedings contributions, to Sherry Hempfling for coordinating the overall SciDAC 2005 meeting planning, for handling a significant share of its associated communications, and for coordinating with the ORNL Conference Center and Grand Hyatt, to Angela Harris for producing many of the documents and records on which our meeting planning was based and for her efforts in coordinating with ORNL Graphics Services, to Angie Beach of the ORNL Conference Center for her efforts in procurement and setting up and executing the contracts with the hotel, and to John Bui and John Smith for their superb wireless networking and A/V set up and support. We are grateful for the relentless efforts of all of these individuals, their remarkable talents, and for the joy of working with them during this past year. They were the cornerstones of SciDAC 2005. Thanks also go to Kymba A'Hearn and Patty Boyd for on-site registration, Brittany Hagen for administrative support, Bruce Johnston for netcast support, Tim Jones for help with the proceedings and Web site, Sherry Lamb for housing and registration, Cindy Lathum for Web site design, Carolyn Peters for on-site registration, and Dami Rich for graphic design. And we would like to express our appreciation to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, especially Jeff Nichols, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and to our corporate sponsors, Cray, IBM, Intel, and SGI, for their support. We would like to extend special thanks also to our plenary speakers, technical speakers, poster presenters, and panelists for all of their efforts on behalf of SciDAC 2005 and for their remarkable achievements and contributions. We would like to express our deep appreciation to Lali Chatterjee, Graham Douglas and Margaret Smith of Institute of Physics Publishing, who worked tirelessly in order to provide us with this finished volume within two months, which is nothing short of miraculous. Finally, we wish to express our heartfelt thanks to Michael Strayer, SciDAC Director, whose vision it was to focus SciDAC 2005 on scientific discovery, around which all of the excitement we experienced revolved, and to our DOE SciDAC program managers, especially Fred Johnson, for their support, input, and help throughout.

  8. surf3d: A 3-D finite-element program for the analysis of surface and corner cracks in solids subjected to mode-1 loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, I. S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A computer program, surf3d, that uses the 3D finite-element method to calculate the stress-intensity factors for surface, corner, and embedded cracks in finite-thickness plates with and without circular holes, was developed. The cracks are assumed to be either elliptic or part eliptic in shape. The computer program uses eight-noded hexahedral elements to model the solid. The program uses a skyline storage and solver. The stress-intensity factors are evaluated using the force method, the crack-opening displacement method, and the 3-D virtual crack closure methods. In the manual the input to and the output of the surf3d program are described. This manual also demonstrates the use of the program and describes the calculation of the stress-intensity factors. Several examples with sample data files are included with the manual. To facilitate modeling of the user's crack configuration and loading, a companion program (a preprocessor program) that generates the data for the surf3d called gensurf was also developed. The gensurf program is a three dimensional mesh generator program that requires minimal input and that builds a complete data file for surf3d. The program surf3d is operational on Unix machines such as CRAY Y-MP, CRAY-2, and Convex C-220.

  9. Prediction and assimilation of surf-zone processes using a Bayesian network: Part II: Inverse models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Holland, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    A Bayesian network model has been developed to simulate a relatively simple problem of wave propagation in the surf zone (detailed in Part I). Here, we demonstrate that this Bayesian model can provide both inverse modeling and data-assimilation solutions for predicting offshore wave heights and depth estimates given limited wave-height and depth information from an onshore location. The inverse method is extended to allow data assimilation using observational inputs that are not compatible with deterministic solutions of the problem. These inputs include sand bar positions (instead of bathymetry) and estimates of the intensity of wave breaking (instead of wave-height observations). Our results indicate that wave breaking information is essential to reduce prediction errors. In many practical situations, this information could be provided from a shore-based observer or from remote-sensing systems. We show that various combinations of the assimilated inputs significantly reduce the uncertainty in the estimates of water depths and wave heights in the model domain. Application of the Bayesian network model to new field data demonstrated significant predictive skill (R2 = 0.7) for the inverse estimate of a month-long time series of offshore wave heights. The Bayesian inverse results include uncertainty estimates that were shown to be most accurate when given uncertainty in the inputs (e.g., depth and tuning parameters). Furthermore, the inverse modeling was extended to directly estimate tuning parameters associated with the underlying wave-process model. The inverse estimates of the model parameters not only showed an offshore wave height dependence consistent with results of previous studies but the uncertainty estimates of the tuning parameters also explain previously reported variations in the model parameters.

  10. MEASURING THE STELLAR MASSES OF z ? 7 GALAXIES WITH THE SPITZER ULTRAFAINT SURVEY PROGRAM (SURFS UP)

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Casertano, S.; Stiavelli, M.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Lemaux, B. C.; Brada?, M.; Cain, B.; Hall, N.; Huang, K.-H.; Lubin, L.; Allen, S.; Von der Linden, A.; Gladders, M.; Hildebradt, H.; Schrabback, T.; Hinz, J.; Zaritsky, D.; Treu, T.

    2014-05-01

    We present Spitzer/IRAC observations of nine z'-band dropouts highly magnified (2 ? ? ? 12) by the Bullet Cluster. We combine archival imaging with our Exploratory program (SURFS UP), which results in a total integration time of ?30 hr per Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) band. We detect (? 3?) in both IRAC bands the brightest of these high-redshift galaxies, with [3.6] = 23.80 ± 0.28 mag, [4.5] = 23.78 ± 0.25 mag, and (H – [3.6]) = 1.17 ± 0.32 mag. The remaining eight galaxies are undetected to [3.6] ? 26.4 mag and [4.5] ? 26.0 mag with stellar masses of ?5 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ?}. The detected galaxy has an estimated magnification of ? = 12 ± 4, which implies this galaxy has an ultraviolet luminosity of L{sub 1500}?0.3 L{sub z=7}{sup ?}—the lowest-luminosity individual source detected in IRAC at z ? 7. By modeling the broadband photometry, we estimate the galaxy has an intrinsic star formation rate (SFR) of SFR ? 1.3 M {sub ?} yr{sup –1} and stellar mass of M ? 2.0 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ?}, which gives a specific star formation rate of sSFR ? 0.7 Gyr{sup –1}. If this galaxy had sustained this SFR since z ? 20, it could have formed the observed stellar mass (to within a factor of ?2). We also discuss alternate star formation histories and argue that the exponentially increasing model is unlikely. Finally, based on the intrinsic SFR, we estimate that this galaxy has a likely [C II] flux of (f {sub [C} {sub II]}) = 1.6 mJy.

  11. Three-dimensional Numerical Study of Wave-induced Coherent Structures in the Surf Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali Farahani, R.; Dalrymple, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    Turbulent coherent structures under plunging waves are investigated using a three-dimensional numerical method called Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). When a plunging wave breaks, it begins as a plunging jet that hits the water surface ahead. Then another jet splashes up in front and this sequence of plunging and splash-up jets continue until their scales are gradually diminished. When these plunging jets hit the water surface, they produce horizontal rollers that travel in the wave direction. Coherent vortex structures (obliquely descending eddies) subsequently evolve and travel toward the shoreline and have an important role in the sediment mixing and transportation. The coherent structures are studied using two approaches: (1) the Eulerian approaches of Q criterion and ?_2 criterion, where the velocity gradient tensor is used to illustrate the vortex structures, and (2) the Lagrangian approach of finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE), where the trajectory of fluid particles are tracked and the amount of stretching experienced by a volume element of each particle is illustrated. In this study, FTLE definition is modified to be compatible with SPH interpolation nature. The fluid particles that are in the neighborhood of the particle of interest are tracked over time to detect particles separation after a given interval of time. The Lagrangian nature of SPH makes it very compatible with FTLE, which is a Lagrangian vortex detection method. In this study, both Eulerian and Lagrangian three-dimensional coherent structures are investigated. The results are illustrated on two cases. The first is a sequence of plunging waves and attendant splash-ups. The second is coherent structure detection in a rip current system. In these two cases the study of vortex structures lead to a better understanding of flow in the surf zone area and its effect on mixing and sediment transportation.

  12. Field testing model predictions of foam coverage and bubble content in the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, F.; Kirby, J. T.; Ma, G.; Holman, R. A.; Chickadel, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    Field-scale modeling of surfzone bubbles and foam coverage is challenging in terms of the computational intensity of multi-phase bubble models based on Navier-Stokes/VOF formulation. In this study, we developed the NHWAVE-bubble package, which includes a 3D non-hydrostatic wave model NHWAVE (Ma et al., 2012), a multi-phase bubble model and a foam model. NHWAVE uses a surface and bottom following sigma coordinate system, making it more applicable to 3D modeling of nearshore waves and circulation in a large-scale field domain. It has been extended to include a multiphase description of polydisperse bubble populations following the approach applied in a 3D VOF model by Ma et al. (2012). A model of a foam layer on the water surface is specified in the model package using a shallow water formulation based on a balance of drag forces due to wind and water column motion. Foam mass conservation includes source and sink terms representing outgassing of the water column, direct foam generation due to surface agitation, and erosion due to bubble bursting. The model is applied in a field scale domain at FRF, Duck, NC where optical data in either visible band (ARGUS) or infrared band were collected during 2010 Surf Zone Optics experiments. The decay of image brightness or intensity following the passage of wave crests is presumably tied to both decay of bubble populations and foam coverage after passage of a broken wave crest. Infrared imagery is likely to provide more detailed information which could separate active breaking from passive foam decay on the surface. Model results will be compared with the measurements with an attention to distinguishing between active generation and passive decay of the foam signature on the water surface.

  13. Observations of wave-driven surf-zone dynamics on a high-energy beach, Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, I. S.; Janssen, T. T.; Hansen, J. E.; Barnard, P.

    2010-12-01

    Alongshore variations in wave energy, currents and water depth affect wave-driven surf-zone hydrodynamics and are important for near-shore transport processes and beach evolution. These processes are not that well understood, in part because most earlier field studies were conducted in areas characterized by alongshore-uniform conditions and moderate incident wave energy. In this study, we present observations of the surf zone circulation at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, an area characterized by energetic wave conditions (near-shore wave heights can exceed 10 m), strong tidal currents (> 1 m/s alongshore), refractive wave focusing, and alongshore inhomogeneity of the incident wave field. The experiment was specifically designed to capture the effects of spatially inhomogeneous wave fields and to quantify the contribution of the pressure gradient to the alongshore momentum balance. The data set includes detailed pressure, current, and wave measurements from a two-week long experiment at Ocean Beach, including a wide range of wave (significant wave heights of 1-5 m) and wind conditions. In the analysis, the various terms of the mean-flow momentum balance have been extracted from observations. The momentum balance will be evaluated to determine the comparative role of wave-induced set-up and radiation stress gradients in driving circulation. We will present the field experiment set-up, time series of the bulk wave statistics over the duration of the experiment and a surf-zone momentum analysis to identify the role of wave inhomogeneity on the near-shore circulation. This experiment and research is funded by the U. S. Geological Survey.

  14. Preface: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2008-07-01

    The fourth annual Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Conference was held June 13-18, 2008, in Seattle, Washington. The SciDAC conference series is the premier communitywide venue for presentation of results from the DOE Office of Science's interdisciplinary computational science program. Started in 2001 and renewed in 2006, the DOE SciDAC program is the country's - and arguably the world's - most significant interdisciplinary research program supporting the development of advanced scientific computing methods and their application to fundamental and applied areas of science. SciDAC supports computational science across many disciplines, including astrophysics, biology, chemistry, fusion sciences, and nuclear physics. Moreover, the program actively encourages the creation of long-term partnerships among scientists focused on challenging problems and computer scientists and applied mathematicians developing the technology and tools needed to address those problems. The SciDAC program has played an increasingly important role in scientific research by allowing scientists to create more accurate models of complex processes, simulate problems once thought to be impossible, and analyze the growing amount of data generated by experiments. To help further the research community's ability to tap into the capabilities of current and future supercomputers, Under Secretary for Science, Raymond Orbach, launched the Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment (INCITE) program in 2003. The INCITE program was conceived specifically to seek out computationally intensive, large-scale research projects with the potential to significantly advance key areas in science and engineering. The program encourages proposals from universities, other research institutions, and industry. During the first two years of the INCITE program, 10 percent of the resources at NERSC were allocated to INCITE awardees. However, demand for supercomputing resources far exceeded available systems; and in 2003, the Office of Science identified increasing computing capability by a factor of 100 as the second priority on its Facilities of the Future list. The goal was to establish leadership-class computing resources to support open science. As a result of a peer reviewed competition, the first leadership computing facility was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004. A second leadership computing facility was established at Argonne National Laboratory in 2006. This expansion of computational resources led to a corresponding expansion of the INCITE program. In 2008, Argonne, Lawrence Berkeley, Oak Ridge, and Pacific Northwest national laboratories all provided resources for INCITE. By awarding large blocks of computer time on the DOE leadership computing facilities, the INCITE program enables the largest-scale computations to be pursued. In 2009, INCITE will award over half a billion node-hours of time. The SciDAC conference celebrates progress in advancing science through large-scale modeling and simulation. Over 350 participants attended this year's talks, poster sessions, and tutorials, spanning the disciplines supported by DOE. While the principal focus was on SciDAC accomplishments, this year's conference also included invited presentations and posters from DOE INCITE awardees. Another new feature in the SciDAC conference series was an electronic theater and video poster session, which provided an opportunity for the community to see over 50 scientific visualizations in a venue equipped with many high-resolution large-format displays. To highlight the growing international interest in petascale computing, this year's SciDAC conference included a keynote presentation by Herman Lederer from the Max Planck Institut, one of the leaders of DEISA (Distributed European Infrastructure for Supercomputing Applications) project and a member of the PRACE consortium, Europe's main petascale project. We also heard excellent talks from several European groups, including Laurent Gicquel of CERFACS, who spoke on `Large-Eddy Simulations of Turbulent Reacting Flows of Real Burners: Status and Challenges', and Jean-Francois Hamelin from EDF, who presented a talk on `Getting Ready for Petaflop Capacities and Beyond: A Utility Perspective'. Two other compelling addresses gave attendees a glimpse into the future. Tomas Diaz de la Rubia of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory spoke on a vision for a fusion/fission hybrid reactor known as the `LIFE Engine' and discussed some of the materials and modeling challenges that need to be overcome to realize the vision for a 1000-year greenhouse-gas-free power source. Dan Reed from Microsoft gave a capstone talk on the convergence of technology, architecture, and infrastructure for cloud computing, data-intensive computing, and exascale computing (1018 flops/sec). High-performance computing is making rapid strides. The SciDAC community's computational resources are expanding dramatically. In the summer of 2008 the first general purpose petascale system (IBM Cell-based RoadRunner at Los Alamos National Laboratory) was recognized in the top 500 list of fastest machines heralding in the dawning of the petascale era. The DOE's leadership computing facility at Argonne reached number three on the Top 500 and is at the moment the most capable open science machine based on an IBM BG/P system with a peak performance of over 550 teraflops/sec. Later this year Oak Ridge is expected to deploy a 1 petaflops/sec Cray XT system. And even before the scientific community has had an opportunity to make significant use of petascale systems, the computer science research community is forging ahead with ideas and strategies for development of systems that may by the end of the next decade sustain exascale performance. Several talks addressed barriers to, and strategies for, achieving exascale capabilities. The last day of the conference was devoted to tutorials hosted by Microsoft Research at a new conference facility in Redmond, Washington. Over 90 people attended the tutorials, which covered topics ranging from an introduction to BG/P programming to advanced numerical libraries. The SciDAC and INCITE programs and the DOE Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research core program investments in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational and networking facilities provide a nearly optimum framework for advancing computational science for DOE's Office of Science. At a broader level this framework also is benefiting the entire American scientific enterprise. As we look forward, it is clear that computational approaches will play an increasingly significant role in addressing challenging problems in basic science, energy, and environmental research. It takes many people to organize and support the SciDAC conference, and I would like to thank as many of them as possible. The backbone of the conference is the technical program; and the task of selecting, vetting, and recruiting speakers is the job of the organizing committee. I thank the members of this committee for all the hard work and the many tens of conference calls that enabled a wonderful program to be assembled. This year the following people served on the organizing committee: Jim Ahrens, LANL; David Bader, LLNL; Bryan Barnett, Microsoft; Peter Beckman, ANL; Vincent Chan, GA; Jackie Chen, SNL; Lori Diachin, LLNL; Dan Fay, Microsoft; Ian Foster, ANL; Mark Gordon, Ames; Mohammad Khaleel, PNNL; David Keyes, Columbia University; Bob Lucas, University of Southern California; Tony Mezzacappa, ORNL; Jeff Nichols, ORNL; David Nowak, ANL; Michael Papka, ANL; Thomas Schultess, ORNL; Horst Simon, LBNL; David Skinner, LBNL; Panagiotis Spentzouris, Fermilab; Bob Sugar, UCSB; and Kathy Yelick, LBNL. I owe a special thanks to Mike Papka and Jim Ahrens for handling the electronic theater. I also thank all those who submitted videos. It was a highly successful experiment. Behind the scenes an enormous amount of work is required to make a large conference go smoothly. First I thank Cheryl Zidel for her tireless efforts as organizing committee liaison and posters chair and, in general, handling all of my end of the program and keeping me calm. I also thank Gail Pieper for her work in editing the proceedings, Beth Cerny Patino for her work on the Organizing Committee website and electronic theater, and Ken Raffenetti for his work in keeping that website working. Jon Bashor and John Hules did an excellent job in handling conference communications. I thank Caitlin Youngquist for the striking graphic design; Dan Fay for tutorials arrangements; and Lynn Dory, Suzanne Stevenson, Sarah Pebelske and Sarah Zidel for on-site registration and conference support. We all owe Yeen Mankin an extra-special thanks for choosing the hotel, handling contracts, arranging menus, securing venues, and reassuring the chair that everything was under control. We are pleased to have obtained corporate sponsorship from Cray, IBM, Intel, HP, and SiCortex. I thank all the speakers and panel presenters. I also thank the former conference chairs Tony Metzzacappa, Bill Tang, and David Keyes, who were never far away for advice and encouragement. Finally, I offer my thanks to Michael Strayer, without whose leadership, vision, and persistence the SciDAC program would not have come into being and flourished. I am honored to be part of his program and his friend. Rick Stevens Seattle, Washington July 18, 2008

  15. Synchrotron radiation calibration of the EUVE variable line-spaced diffraction gratings at the NBS SURF II facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelinsky, P.; Jelinsky, S. R.; Miller, A.; Vallerga, J.; Malina, R. F.

    1988-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) has a spectrometer which utilizes variable line-spaced, plane diffraction gratings in the converging beam of a Wolter-Schwarzschild type II mirror. The gratings, microchannel plate detector, and thin film filters have been calibrated with continuum radiation provided by the NBS SURF II facility. These were calibrated in a continuum beam to find edges or other sharp spectral features in the transmission of the filters, quantum efficiency of the microchannel plate detector, and efficiency of the gratings. The details of the calibration procedure and the results of the calibration are presented.

  16. Accelerating Scientific Analysis with SciDB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardt, L.; Faham, C. H.; Yao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    SciDB is an open-source analytical database for scalable complex analytics on very large array or multi-structured data from a variety of sources, programmable from Python and R. It runs on HPC, commodity hardware grids, or in a cloud and can manage and analyze terabytes of array-structured data and do complex analytics in-database. We present an overall description of the SciDB framework and describe its implementation at NERSC at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. A case study using SciDB to analyze data from the LUX dark matter detector is described and future plans for a large SciDB array at NERSC are described.

  17. Simulation of sediment motions using a discrete particle model in the inner surf and swash-zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calantoni, Joseph; Puleo, Jack A.; Todd Holland, K.

    2006-04-01

    A volume-of-fluid Navier-Stokes solver (RIPPLE) was used to simulate inner surf and swash zone flow with a 3 s wave period and wave height of 0.14 m on a planar, 1:10 sloping beach (Iribarren number of 1.0). In addition to other hydrodynamic information, RIPPLE was used to provide high-resolution predictions of the pressure gradient and fluid velocity in the horizontal and vertical dimensions that served as forcing to a discrete particle model (DPM). Sediment transport processes in the inner surf and swash zones were simulated for a thin veneer of sediment particles over a 5 m test section in the DPM. Coupling between RIPPLE and the DPM was one-way such that particle-particle and fluid-particle interactions in the DPM did not provide feedback to alter the flow predicted by RIPPLE. The numerical simulation showed strong sediment suspension localized under vortices that reach the bed. Interestingly, the bulk of the sediment located in the small-scale vortex originated from locations nearly 0.2 m landward. These findings suggest that (1) sediment motion for a single swash event can be significant, (2) that sediment measured in suspension likely originates from locations other than the bed directly below the suspension plume suggesting the importance of sediment advection and (3) that sparse cross-shore measurements in the field will only sporadically capture localized suspension events.

  18. Interacting effects of latitude, mass, age, and sex on winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): Implications for differential migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Esler, Daniel N.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Ward, David; Boyd, Sean; Kirk, Molly; Lewis, Tyler L.; VanStratt, Corey S.; Brodhead, Katherine M.; Hupp, Jerry; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified variation in winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) across nearly 30° of latitude on the Pacific coast of North America to evaluate potential effects on winter distributions, including observed differential distributions of age and sex classes. We monitored fates of 297 radio-marked Surf Scoters at three study sites: (1) near the northern periphery of their wintering range in southeast Alaska, USA, (2) the range core in British Columbia, Canada, and (3) the southern periphery in Baja California, Mexico. We detected 34 mortalities and determined that survival averaged lower at the range peripheries than in the range core, was lower during mid-winter than during late winter at all sites, and was positively correlated with body mass within locations. Although neither age nor sex class had direct effects, mass effects led to differential survival patterns among classes. When simultaneously incorporating these interacting influences, adult males of mean mass for their location had highest survival at the northern range periphery in Alaska, whereas adult females and juveniles had higher survival at the range core and the southern periphery. Our observations help to explain patterns of differential migration and distribution reported for this species and highlight seasonal periods (mid-winter) and locations (range peripheries) of elevated levels of mortality for demographically important age–sex classes (adult females).

  19. Rapid overt airborne reconnaissance (ROAR) for mines and obstacles in very shallow water, surf zone, and beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Steven E.; Austin, William L.; Murray, James T.; Roddier, Nicolas A.; Bridges, Robert; Vercillo, Richard; Stettner, Roger; Phillips, Dave; Bisbee, Al; Witherspoon, Ned H.

    2003-09-01

    Under the Office of Naval Research's Organic Mine Countermeasures Future Naval Capabilities (OMCM FNC) program, Lite Cycles, Inc. is developing an innovative and highly compact airborne active sensor system for mine and obstacle detection in very shallow water (VSW), through the surf-zone (SZ) and onto the beach. The system uses an innovative LCI proprietary integrated scanner, detector, and telescope (ISDT) receiver architecture. The ISD tightly couples all receiver components and LIDAR electronics to achieve the system compaction required for tactical UAVintegration while providing a large aperture. It also includes an advanced compact multifunction laser transmitter; an industry-first high-resolution, compact 3-D camera, a scanning function for wide area search, and temporally displaced multiple looks on the fly over the ocean surface for clutter reduction. Additionally, the laser will provide time-multiplexed multi-color output to perform day/night multispectral imaging for beach surveillance. New processing algorithms for mine detection in the very challenging surf-zone clutter environment are under development, which offer the potential for significant processing gains in comparison to the legacy approaches. This paper reviews the legacy system approaches, describes the mission challenges, and provides an overview of the ROAR system architecture.

  20. Population structure, growth and production of the surf clam Donax serra (Bivalvia, Donacidae) on two Namibian sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laudien, J.; Brey, T.; Arntz, W. E.

    2003-10-01

    Population structure, growth and production of the surf clam Donax serra (Bivalvia, Donacidae), inhabiting highly exposed sandy beaches of Namibia, were investigated between November 1997 and December 1999. From length-frequency distribution and tagging-recapture data, a von Bertalanffy growth function with an asymptotic length ( L ?) of 82 mm and a growth constant ( K) of 0.274 yr -1 was established. Regarding growth performance of Donacidae, D. serra fits in a group of species inhabiting cold temperate and upwelling regions. The intertidal biomass of the studied population ranged between 141 and 546 g ash-free dry mass (AFDM) m -2 yr -1. Individual production was maximal at 56.5 mm shell length (0.83 g AFDM ind. -1 yr -1), and annual production ranged between 167 and 637 g AFDM m -2 yr -1, resulting in productivity values (P/ B¯) between 1.167 and 1.589 yr -1. These data underline the importance of D. serra for the beach/surf ecosystem. Further, the findings of this study are crucial to support future aquaculture or exploitation activities and management.

  1. Surfing effect in the interaction of electromagnetic and gravitational waves: Limits on the speed of gravitational waves

    SciTech Connect

    Polnarev, A. G.; Baskaran, D.

    2008-06-15

    In the current work we investigate the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the field of gravitational waves. Starting with the simple case of an electromagnetic wave traveling in the field of a plane monochromatic gravitational wave, we introduce the concept of the surfing effect and analyze its physical consequences. We then generalize these results to an arbitrary gravitational wave field. We show that, due to the transverse nature of gravitational waves, the surfing effect leads to significant observable consequences only if the velocity of gravitational waves deviates from the speed of light. This fact can help to place an upper limit on the deviation of gravitational wave velocity from the speed of light. The microarcsecond resolution promised by the upcoming precision interferometry experiments allow one to place stringent upper limits on {epsilon}=(v{sub gw}-c)/c as a function of the energy density parameter for gravitational waves {omega}{sub gw}. For {omega}{sub gw}{approx_equal}10{sup -10} this limit amounts to {epsilon} < or approx. 2{center_dot}10{sup -2}.

  2. Onshore sandbar migration in the surf zone: New insights into the wave-induced sediment transport mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Mora, A.; Calvete, D.; Falqués, A.; Swart, H. E.

    2015-04-01

    We present a novel process-based morphodynamic model, which includes transport processes due to both velocity and acceleration skewness and a new formulation for intrawave motions, that successfully simulates observations of onshore sandbar migration. Results confirm findings of previous studies, in which each process was considered separately and in which sediment transport was computed from the observed water motion. However, our results indicate that accounting for the joint action of both velocity and acceleration skewnesses causes major improvement of the modeled onshore bar migration and is essential to accurately model the evolution of the entire cross-shore bottom profile, when compared with observations. We also demonstrate that the morphodynamics in the shoaling zone are dominated by velocity skewness (bed shear stresses), while sediment transport induced by acceleration skewness (pressure gradients) controls the morphodynamics in the inner surf zone.

  3. Implementation and modification of a three-dimensional radiation stress formulation for surf zone and rip-current applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, N.; Voulgaris, G.; Warner, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS v 3.0), a three-dimensional numerical ocean model, was previously enhanced for shallow water applications by including wave-induced radiation stress forcing provided through coupling to wave propagation models (SWAN, REF/DIF). This enhancement made it suitable for surf zone applications as demonstrated using examples of obliquely incident waves on a planar beach and rip current formation in longshore bar trough morphology (Haas and Warner, 2009). In this contribution, we present an update to the coupled model which implements a wave roller model and also a modified method of the radiation stress term based on Mellor (2008, 2011a,b,in press) that includes a vertical distribution which better simulates non-conservative (i.e., wave breaking) processes and appears to be more appropriate for sigma coordinates in very shallow waters where wave breaking conditions dominate. The improvements of the modified model are shown through simulations of several cases that include: (a) obliquely incident spectral waves on a planar beach; (b) obliquely incident spectral waves on a natural barred beach (DUCK'94 experiment); (c) alongshore variable offshore wave forcing on a planar beach; (d) alongshore varying bathymetry with constant offshore wave forcing; and (e) nearshore barred morphology with rip-channels. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons to previous analytical, numerical, laboratory studies and field measurements show that the modified model replicates surf zone recirculation patterns (onshore drift at the surface and undertow at the bottom) more accurately than previous formulations based on radiation stress (Haas and Warner, 2009). The results of the model and test cases are further explored for identifying the forces operating in rip current development and the potential implication for sediment transport and rip channel development. Also, model analysis showed that rip current strength is higher when waves approach at angles of 5?? to 10?? in comparison to normally incident waves. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Surf, sand, scrapes and stings: First aid incidents involving children at New Zealand beaches, 2007–2012.

    PubMed

    Moran, Kevin; Webber, Jonathon

    2014-03-01

    Aims: In spite of the popularity of beaches for family recreation, little is known about childhood injuries sustained at beaches. It is the purpose of this study to analyse data from incidents necessitating first aid treatment from reports compiled by surf lifeguards on New Zealand beaches.Method: A retrospective analysis of first aid incidents involving children (<16 years) was conducted using data obtained from Surf Life Saving New Zealand incident report forms during five summer seasons from 2007 to 2012. In addition to demographic data, the incident reports included such detail as the type of injury, the activity and location prior to injury, the injury outcome, and the first aid equipment used.Results: Children (n = 4407) accounted for one-half (52%) of all injuries; of these, 55% were male, and incidence peaked in the 11- to 15-year age group (24%). Most incidents (90%) required minor treatment, with lacerations (44%) the most common injury. Marine stings accounted for one-quarter (24%) of injuries and were most frequent among younger children (<10 years). Injuries to the extremities were frequently noted in the incident reports, the feet (33%) and hands (8%) being common sites.Conclusions: Although most (90%) injury incidents were minor in nature, their frequency (880 cases per season) suggests that greater emphasis on prevention rather than cure would be efficacious. Ways of promoting child beach safety via greater care giver awareness, the use of protective clothing and footwear, and child safety promotion via health professionals and safety organisations are discussed. PMID:25493302

  5. Nanotech's History: An Interesting, Interdisciplinary, Ideological Split

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shew, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology is viewed by those in favor of its development in two different ways, and the divide is not recent. This article describes the origins of the differing visions of nanotechnology and examines their broader impacts. The typical history of the field tells nothing about these differing visions, which perhaps misleads. At least two…

  6. Lessons from before and after nanotech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumey, Chris

    2012-10-01

    Ethical questions arising from biotechnology first, then nanotechnology, and synthetic biology now, present common features, but as Chris Toumey explains, the scientific and ethical issues arising in each case should be treated individually.

  7. Nanotech: propensity in foods and bioactives.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Chiu-Yin; Yee-Fung, Wai; Yuen, Kah-Hay; Liong, Min-Tze

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is seeing higher propensity in various industries, including food and bioactives. New nanomaterials are constantly being developed from both natural biodegradable polymers of plant and animal origins such as polysaccharides and derivatives, peptides and proteins, lipids and fats, and biocompatible synthetic biopolyester polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxyalkonoates (PHA), and polycaprolactone (PCL). Applications in food industries include molecular synthesis of new functional food compounds, innovative food packaging, food safety, and security monitoring. The relevance of bioactives includes targeted delivery systems with improved bioavailability using nanostructure vehicles such as association colloids, lipid based nanoencapsulator, nanoemulsions, biopolymeric nanoparticles, nanolaminates, and nanofibers. The extensive use of nanotechnology has led to the need for parallel safety assessment and regulations to protect public health and adverse effects to the environment. This review covers the use of biopolymers in the production of nanomaterials and the propensity of nanotechnology in food and bioactives. The exposure routes of nanoparticles, safety challenges, and measures undertaken to ensure optimal benefits that outweigh detriments are also discussed. PMID:21991990

  8. Nanotech's History: An Interesting, Interdisciplinary, Ideological Split

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shew, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology is viewed by those in favor of its development in two different ways, and the divide is not recent. This article describes the origins of the differing visions of nanotechnology and examines their broader impacts. The typical history of the field tells nothing about these differing visions, which perhaps misleads. At least two…

  9. Astronomy Popularization via Sci-fi Movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingkang

    2015-08-01

    It is astronomers’ duty to let more and more young people know a bit astronomy and be interested in astronomy and appreciate the beauty and great achievements in astronomy. One of the most effective methods to popularize astronomy to young people nowadays might be via enjoying some brilliant sci-fi movies related to astronomy with some guidance from astronomers. Firstly, we will introduce the basic information of our selective course “Appreciation of Sci-fi Movies in Astronomy” for the non-major astronomy students in our University, which is surely unique in China, then we will show its effect on astronomy popularization based on several rounds of teaching.

  10. 75 FR 24747 - SCI, LLC/Zener-Rectifier Operations Division A Wholly Owned Subsidiary of SCI, LLC/ON...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration SCI, LLC/Zener-Rectifier Operations Division A Wholly Owned Subsidiary..., 2009, applicable to workers of SCI LLC/Zener-Rectifier, Operations Division, a wholly owned subsidiary... issued as follows: All workers of SCI LLC/Zener-Rectifier, Operations Division, a wholly owned...

  11. Using SciDB to Support Photon Science Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Becla, Jack; Wang, Daniel; lim, Kian-Tat; /SLAC

    2012-02-15

    Array data analytic systems like SciDB hold great potential to accelerate processing data from SLAC's Linac Coherent Light Source and other experiments. SciDB is unique in its ability to integrate storage and processing of array data efficiently, providing both space-efficient storage and out-of-memory efficient parallel array processing. We describe a recent effort to leverage SciDB to store and process LCLS data. The work includes development of software to import data into SciDB, subsequent benchmarks, and interactive manipulation of data in SciDB.

  12. How Is Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Diagnosed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2012). Spinal cord injury: Hope through research . Retrieved June 26, 2012, from ... sci.htm [top] University Specialty Clinics. (n.d.). Spinal cord injury . Retrieved June 26, 2012, from http://neurosurgery.med. ...

  13. EC Detector at SciBooNE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Camillo

    2009-04-01

    SciBooNE is an experiment to measure neutrino and anti-neutrino cross-sections on the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. The EC is an extruded lead sheets and scintillating fibers "spaghetti calorimeter" to provide longitudinal containment and energy measurement for electrons and photons.

  14. Using nonlinear forecasting to learn the magnitude and phasing of time-varying sediment suspension in the surf zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, B.E.; Rubin, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The time-dependent response of sediment suspension to flow velocity was explored by modeling field measurements collected in the surf zone during a large storm. Linear and nonlinear models were created and tested using flow velocity as input and suspended-sediment concentration as output. A sequence of past velocities (velocity history), as well as velocity from the same instant as the suspended-sediment concentration, was used as input; this velocity history length was allowed to vary. The models also allowed for a lag between input (instantaneous velocity or end of velocity sequence) and output (suspended-sediment concentration). Predictions of concentration from instantaneous velocity or instantaneous velocity raised to a power (up to 8) using linear models were poor (correlation coefficients between predicted and observed concentrations were less than 0.10). Allowing a lag between velocity and concentration improved linear models (correlation coefficient of 0.30), with optimum lag time increasing with elevation above the seabed (from 1.5 s at 13 cm to 8.5 s at 60 cm). These lags are largely due to the time for an observed flow event to effect the bed and mix sediment upward. Using a velocity history further improved linear models (correlation coefficient of 0.43). The best linear model used 12.5 s of velocity history (approximately one wave period) to predict concentration. Nonlinear models gave better predictions than linear models, and, as with linear models, nonlinear models using a velocity history performed better than models using only instantaneous velocity as input. Including a lag time between the velocity and concentration also improved the predictions. The best model (correlation coefficient of 0.58) used 3 s (approximately a quarter wave period) of the cross-shore velocity squared, starting at 4.5 s before the observed concentration, to predict concentration. Using a velocity history increases the performance of the models by specifying a more complete description of the dynamical forcing of the flow (including accelerations and wave phase and shape) responsible for sediment suspension. Incorporating such a velocity history and a lag time into the formulation of the forcing for time-dependent models for sediment suspension in the surf zone will greatly increase our ability to predict suspended-sediment transport.

  15. Phenology and duration of remigial moult in Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) and White-winged Scoters (Melanitta fusca) on the Pacific coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickson, Rian D.; Esler, Daniel; Hupp, Jerry W.; Anderson, E.M.; Evenson, J.R.; Barrett, J.

    2012-01-01

    By quantifying phenology and duration of remigial moult in Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) and White-winged Scoters (Melanitta fusca (L., 1758)), we tested whether timing of moult is dictated by temporal optima or constraints. Scoters (n = 3481) were captured during moult in Alaska, British Columbia, and Washington, and remigial emergence dates were determined. We provide evidence for a pre-emergence interval of 7.3 days that occurs after old primaries are shed and before new ones become visible. All age and sex classes of both scoter species exhibited a wide range of emergence dates (Surf Scoters: 26 June to 22 September; White-winged Scoters: 6 July to 21 September) suggestive of a lack of strong temporal optima for remigial moult. For both species, timing of moult was influenced by site, year, age, and sex. Relative to other waterfowl species, scoters have typical remigial growth rates (Surf Scoters: 3.9 mm·day–1; White-winged Scoters: 4.3 mm·day–1) but a long flightless period (34–49 days), in part because their relatively high wing-loading requires a greater proportion of feather regrowth to regain flight. Our data suggest that moulting scoters are not under strong selective pressure to complete moult quickly.

  16. Human nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factor UPF2 interacts directly with eRF3 and the SURF complex.

    PubMed

    López-Perrote, Andrés; Castaño, Raquel; Melero, Roberto; Zamarro, Teresa; Kurosawa, Hitomi; Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Uchiyama, Akiko; Aoyagi, Kyoko; Buchwald, Gretel; Kataoka, Naoyuki; Yamashita, Akio; Llorca, Oscar

    2016-02-29

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is an mRNA degradation pathway that regulates gene expression and mRNA quality. A complex network of macromolecular interactions regulates NMD initiation, which is only partially understood. According to prevailing models, NMD begins by the assembly of the SURF (SMG1-UPF1-eRF1-eRF3) complex at the ribosome, followed by UPF1 activation by additional factors such as UPF2 and UPF3. Elucidating the interactions between NMD factors is essential to comprehend NMD, and here we demonstrate biochemically and structurally the interaction between human UPF2 and eukaryotic release factor 3 (eRF3). In addition, we find that UPF2 associates with SURF and ribosomes in cells, in an UPF3-independent manner. Binding assays using a collection of UPF2 truncated variants reveal that eRF3 binds to the C-terminal part of UPF2. This region of UPF2 is partially coincident with the UPF3-binding site as revealed by electron microscopy of the UPF2-eRF3 complex. Accordingly, we find that the interaction of UPF2 with UPF3b interferes with the assembly of the UPF2-eRF3 complex, and that UPF2 binds UPF3b more strongly than eRF3. Together, our results highlight the role of UPF2 as a platform for the transient interactions of several NMD factors, including several components of SURF. PMID:26740584

  17. Coupled physical, chemical, and microbiological measurements suggest a connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality in the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Simon H. C.; Santoro, Alyson E.; Nidzieko, Nicholas J.; Hench, James L.; Boehm, Alexandria B.

    2012-02-01

    Internal waves have been implicated in the cross-shore transport of scalars such as larvae, nutrients, and pollutants at locations around the world. The present study combines physical measurements with a comprehensive set of surf zone water quality measurements to evaluate the possible impact of cross-shore internal wave transport on surf zone water quality during two study periods. An array of oceanographic moorings was deployed in the summer of 2005 and 2006 at 10-20 m depth offshore of the beach to observe internal waves. Concurrently, surf zone water quality was assessed twice daily at night at an adjacent station (Huntington State Beach) by measuring concentration of phosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), silicate, chlorophyll a, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and the human-specific fecal DNA marker in Bacteroidales. The baroclinic component accounted for about 30% of the total variance in water column velocity, indicating the importance of density-driven flow during the summer when the water column was stratified. Arrival of cold subthermocline water in the very nearshore (within 1 km of the surf zone) was characterized by strong baroclinic onshore flow near the bottom of the water column. The near bottom, baroclinic, cross-shore current was significantly lag-correlated with the near bottom temperature data along a cross-shore transect towards shore, demonstrating shoreward transport of cold subthermocline water. Wavelet analysis of temperature data showed that non-stationary temperature fluctuations were correlated with buoyancy frequency and the near bottom cross-shore baroclinic current. During periods of large temperature fluctuations, the majority of the variance was within the semi-diurnal band; however, the diurnal and high frequency bands also contained a substantial fraction of total variance. The bottom cross-shore baroclinic current was proposed as a proxy for shoreward transport potential by internal waves and was positively correlated with phosphate concentration in both years, silicate in 2005, and fecal indicator bacteria measurements in 2006. The results suggest internal waves are an important transport mechanism of nutrient-rich subthermocline water to the very nearshore in the Southern California Bight, and may facilitate the transport of FIB into the surf zone or enhance persistence of land-derived FIB.

  18. Identification and expression of antioxidant and immune defense genes in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium challenged with Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Aguayo, W; Lafarga-De la Cruz, F; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2015-02-01

    The immune system in marine invertebrates is mediated through cellular and humoral components, which act together to address the action of potential pathogenic microorganisms. In bivalve mollusks biomolecules implicated in oxidative stress and recognition of pathogens have been involved in the innate immune response. To better understand the molecular basis of the immune response of surf clam Mesodesma donacium, qPCR approaches were used to identify genes related to its immune response against Vibrio anguillarum infection. Genes related to oxidative stress response and recognition of pathogens like superoxide dismutase (MdSOD), catalase (MdCAT), ferritin (MdFER) and filamin (MdFLMN) were identified from 454-pyrosequencing cDNA library of M. donacium and were evaluated in mantle, adductor muscle and gills. The results for transcripts expression indicated that MdSOD, MdFLMN and MdFER were primarily expressed in the muscle, while MdCAT was more expressed in gills. Challenge experiments with the pathogen V. anguillarum had showed that levels of transcript expression for MdSOD, MdCAT, MdFER, and MdFLMN were positively regulated by pathogen, following a time-dependent expression pattern with significant statistical differences between control and challenge group responses (p<0.05). These results suggest that superoxide dismutase, catalase, ferritin and filamin, could be contributing to the innate immune response of M. donacium against the pathogen V. anguillarum. PMID:25481276

  19. Feature description with SIFT, SURF, BRIEF, BRISK, or FREAK? A general question answered for bone age assessment.

    PubMed

    Kashif, Muhammad; Deserno, Thomas M; Haak, Daniel; Jonas, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Solving problems in medical image processing is either generic (being applicable to many problems) or specific (optimized for a certain task). For example, bone age assessment (BAA) on hand radiographs is a frequent but cumbersome task for radiologists. For this problem, many specific solutions have been proposed. However, general-purpose feature descriptors are used in many computer vision applications. Hence, the aim of this study is (i) to compare the five leading keypoint descriptors on BAA, and, in doing so, (ii) presenting a generic approach for a specific task. Two methods for keypoint selection were applied: sparse and dense feature points. For each type, SIFT, SURF, BRIEF, BRISK, and FREAK feature descriptors were extracted within the epiphyseal regions of interest (eROI). Classification was performed using a support vector machine. Reference data (1101 radiographs) of the University of Southern California was used for 5-fold cross-validation. The data was grouped into 30 classes representing the bone age range of 0-18 years. With a mean error of 0.605 years, dense SIFT gave best results and outperforms all published methods. The accuracy was 98.36% within the range of 2 years. Dense SIFT represents a generic method for a specific question. PMID:26623943

  20. Measuring Temperature-Dependent Propagating Disturbances in Coronal Fan Loops Using Multiple SDO-AIA Channels and Surfing Transform Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uritskiy, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.; Viall, Nicholeen M.; Ofman, Leon

    2013-01-01

    A set of co-aligned high resolution images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is used to investigate propagating disturbances (PDs) in warm fan loops at the periphery of a non-flaring active region NOAA AR 11082. To measure PD speeds at multiple coronal temperatures, a new data analysis methodology is proposed enabling quantitative description of sub visual coronal motions with low signal-to-noise ratios of the order of 0.1. The technique operates with a set of one-dimensional surfing signals extracted from position-timeplots of several AIA channels through a modified version of Radon transform. The signals are used to evaluate a two-dimensional power spectral density distribution in the frequency - velocity space which exhibits a resonance in the presence of quasi-periodic PDs. By applying this analysis to the same fan loop structures observed in several AIA channels, we found that the traveling velocity of PDs increases with the temperature of the coronal plasma following the square root dependence predicted for the slow mode magneto-acoustic wave which seems to be the dominating wave mode in the studied loop structures. This result extends recent observations by Kiddie et al. (2012) to a more general class of fan loop systems not associated with sunspots and demonstrating consistent slow mode activity in up to four AIA channels.

  1. Post-release survival of surf scoters following an oil spill: an experimental approach to evaluating rehabilitation success.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Susan E W; Takekawa, John Y; Spragens, Kyle A; Yee, Julie; Golightly, Richard T; Massey, Greg; Henkel, Laird A; Scott Larsen, R; Ziccardi, Michael

    2013-02-15

    Birds are often the most numerous vertebrates damaged and rehabilitated in marine oil spills; however, the efficacy of avian rehabilitation is frequently debated and rarely examined experimentally. We compared survival of three radio-marked treatment groups, oiled, rehabilitated (ORHB), un-oiled, rehabilitated (RHB), and un-oiled, non-rehabilitated (CON), in an experimental approach to examine post-release survival of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) following the 2007 M/V Cosco Busan spill in San Francisco Bay. Live encounter-dead recovery modeling indicated that survival differed among treatment groups and over time since release. The survival estimate (±SE) for ORHB was 0.143±0.107 compared to CON (0.498±0.168) and RHB groups (0.772±0.229), suggesting scoters tolerated the rehabilitation process itself well, but oiling resulted in markedly lower survival. Future efforts to understand the physiological effects of oil type and severity on scoters are needed to improve post-release survival of this species. PMID:23273616

  2. Identification of functional genes involved in Cd(2+) response of Chinese surf clam (Mactra chinensis) through transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingjing; Li, Hongjun; Qin, Yanjie; Ye, Sheng; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese surf clam Mactra chinensis is an economically important bivalve species in the coastal waters of Liaoning and Shandong Province, China. In this study, we carried out transcriptome sequencing to develop molecular resources for M. chinensis and conducted an acute test of Cd(2+) stimulation through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to analyze the relative expression of six functional genes. A total of 100,839 transcripts and 56,712 unigenes were obtained from 39.9 million filtered reads and 21,305 unigenes were annotated by hitting against NCBI database. According to the results of qRT-PCR, heat shock protein 22 (Hsp22) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450(2C31)) were inhibited in the low concentration, and induced in the high concentration of Cd(2+); thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx-A) was at normal level in low concentration, but induced in high concentration of Cd(2+); glutathione peroxidase A (GPA), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPA1) and Mn superoxide dismutase gene (MnSOD) were down-regulated when exposed to any treatment groups. Expression levels of the six functional genes following Cd(2+) exposure indicated that these genes were linked to environmental stress. Moreover, the present work enriched the molecule genetic data of M. chinensis. PMID:26674114

  3. Post-release survival of surf scoters following an oil spill: an experimental approach to evaluating rehabilitation success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Takekawa, John Y.; Spragens, Kyle A.; Yee, Julie; Golightly, Richard T.; Massey, Greg; Henkel, Laird A.; Larsen, Scott; Ziccardi, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Birds are often the most numerous vertebrates damaged and rehabilitated in marine oil spills; however, the efficacy of avian rehabilitation is frequently debated and rarely examined experimentally. We compared survival of three radio-marked treatment groups, oiled, rehabilitated (ORHB), un-oiled, rehabilitated (RHB), and un-oiled, non-rehabilitated (CON), in an experimental approach to examine post-release survival of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) following the 2007 M/V Cosco Busan spill in San Francisco Bay. Live encounter-dead recovery modeling indicated that survival differed among treatment groups and over time since release. The survival estimate (±SE) for ORHB was 0.143 ± 0.107 compared to CON (0.498 ± 0.168) and RHB groups (0.772 ± 0.229), suggesting scoters tolerated the rehabilitation process itself well, but oiling resulted in markedly lower survival. Future efforts to understand the physiological effects of oil type and severity on scoters are needed to improve post-release survival of this species.

  4. Cellular Events and Pathophysiology of SCI.

    PubMed

    Mohit, A Alex

    2016-04-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) has occurred in 2.5 million people worldwide, and 130,000 new cases are reported each year. SCI most commonly consists of a compression injury with hemorrhage into gray matter and loss of neurons, oligodendroglia, and astrocytes, followed by invasion of lymphocytes and macrophages; cavitation of the cord follows, then Wallerian degeneration of ascending and descending tracts and loss of neuronal circuitry, culminating in glial scar perpendicular to the direction of the axon. Onset of necrosis occurs within 24 hours. Spontaneous repair is incomplete and involves limited sprouting of axons and new spinal circuits that bypass the lesion and move into descending tracts, resulting in indirect connections with lumbar motor neurons. PMID:27015068

  5. Simulated behaviour of large scale SCI rings and tori

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Hojung; Knowles, A.; Daniel, R. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    SCI(Scalable Coherent Interface) is a new IEEE standard for a high speed interconnect in parallel processors. It is attracting interest because of its high bandwidth (1 GB/sec/link) and low latency. The default SCI topology is a ring, which does not scale well to large numbers of processors. This paper uses stochastic and trace-driven simulations to compare the performance of SCI-based parallel computers with a ring topology to those based on a torus topology. We also look at the effects of varying some of the internals of the SCI components.

  6. Home-loving boreal hare mitochondria survived several invasions in Iberia: the relative roles of recurrent hybridisation and allele surfing.

    PubMed

    Melo-Ferreira, J; Farelo, L; Freitas, H; Suchentrunk, F; Boursot, P; Alves, P C

    2014-03-01

    Genetic introgression from a resident species into an invading close relative can result from repeated hybridisation along the invasion front and/or allele surfing on the expansion wave. Cases where the phenomenon is massive and systematic, such as for hares (genus Lepus) in Iberia, would be best explained by recurrent hybridisation but this is difficult to prove because the donor populations are generally extinct. In the Pyrenean foothills, Lepus europaeus presumably replaced Lepus granatensis recently and the present species border is parallel to the direction of invasion, so that populations of L. granatensis in the contact zone represent proxies of existing variation before the invasion. Among three pairs of populations sampled across this border, we find less differentiation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) across than along it, as predicted under recurrent hybridisation at the invasion front. Using autosomal microsatellite loci and X- and Y-linked diagnostic loci, we show that admixture across the border is quasi-absent, making it unlikely that lack of interspecific mtDNA differentiation results from ongoing gene flow. Furthermore, we find that the local species ranges are climatically contrasted, making it also unlikely that ongoing ecology-driven movement of the contact account for mtDNA introgression. The lack of mtDNA differentiation across the boundary is mostly due to sharing of mtDNA from a boreal species currently extinct in Iberia (Lepus timidus) whose mitochondria have thus remained in place since the last deglaciation despite successive invasions by two other species. Home-loving mitochondria thus witness past species distribution rather than ongoing exchanges across stabilised contact zones. PMID:24149657

  7. Home-loving boreal hare mitochondria survived several invasions in Iberia: the relative roles of recurrent hybridisation and allele surfing

    PubMed Central

    Melo-Ferreira, J; Farelo, L; Freitas, H; Suchentrunk, F; Boursot, P; Alves, P C

    2014-01-01

    Genetic introgression from a resident species into an invading close relative can result from repeated hybridisation along the invasion front and/or allele surfing on the expansion wave. Cases where the phenomenon is massive and systematic, such as for hares (genus Lepus) in Iberia, would be best explained by recurrent hybridisation but this is difficult to prove because the donor populations are generally extinct. In the Pyrenean foothills, Lepus europaeus presumably replaced Lepus granatensis recently and the present species border is parallel to the direction of invasion, so that populations of L. granatensis in the contact zone represent proxies of existing variation before the invasion. Among three pairs of populations sampled across this border, we find less differentiation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) across than along it, as predicted under recurrent hybridisation at the invasion front. Using autosomal microsatellite loci and X- and Y-linked diagnostic loci, we show that admixture across the border is quasi-absent, making it unlikely that lack of interspecific mtDNA differentiation results from ongoing gene flow. Furthermore, we find that the local species ranges are climatically contrasted, making it also unlikely that ongoing ecology-driven movement of the contact account for mtDNA introgression. The lack of mtDNA differentiation across the boundary is mostly due to sharing of mtDNA from a boreal species currently extinct in Iberia (Lepus timidus) whose mitochondria have thus remained in place since the last deglaciation despite successive invasions by two other species. Home-loving mitochondria thus witness past species distribution rather than ongoing exchanges across stabilised contact zones. PMID:24149657

  8. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Welcome to Seattle and the 2008 SciDAC Conference. This conference, the fourth in the series, is a continuation of the PI meetings we first began under SciDAC-1. I would like to start by thanking the organizing committee, and Rick Stevens in particular, for organizing this year's meeting. This morning I would like to look briefly at SciDAC, to give you a brief history of SciDAC and also look ahead to see where we plan to go over the next few years. I think the best description of SciDAC, at least the simulation part, comes from a quote from Dr Ray Orbach, DOE's Under Secretary for Science and Director of the Office of Science. In an interview that appeared in the SciDAC Review magazine, Dr Orbach said, `SciDAC is unique in the world. There isn't any other program like it anywhere else, and it has the remarkable ability to do science by bringing together physical scientists, mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists who recognize that computation is not something you do at the end, but rather it needs to be built into the solution of the very problem that one is addressing'. Of course, that is extended not just to physical scientists, but also to biological scientists. This is a theme of computational science, this partnership among disciplines, which goes all the way back to the early 1980s and Ken Wilson. It's a unique thread within the Department of Energy. SciDAC-1, launched around the turn of the millennium, created a new generation of scientific simulation codes. It advocated building out mathematical and computing system software in support of science and a new collaboratory software environment for data. The original concept for SciDAC-1 had topical centers for the execution of the various science codes, but several corrections and adjustments were needed. The ASCR scientific computing infrastructure was also upgraded, providing the hardware facilities for the program. The computing facility that we had at that time was the big 3 teraflop/s center at NERSC and that had to be shared with the programmatic side supporting research across DOE. At the time, ESnet was just slightly over half a gig per sec of bandwidth; and the science being addressed was accelerator science, climate, chemistry, fusion, astrophysics, materials science, and QCD. We built out the national collaboratories from the ASCR office, and in addition we built Integrated Software Infrastructure Centers (ISICs). Of these, three were in applied mathematics, four in computer science (including a performance evaluation research center), and four were collaboratories or Grid projects having to do with data management. For science, there were remarkable breakthroughs in simulation, such as full 3D laboratory scale flame simulation. There were also significant improvements in application codes - from factors of almost 3 to more than 100 - and code improvement as people began to realize they had to integrate mathematics tools and computer science tools into their codes to take advantage of the parallelism of the day. The SciDAC data-mining tool, Sapphire, received a 2006 R&D 100 award. And the community as a whole worked well together and began building a publication record that was substantial. In 2006, we recompeted the program with similar goals - SciDAC-1 was very successful, and we wanted to continue that success and extend what was happening under SciDAC to the broader science community. We opened up the partnership to all of the Offices of Science and the NSF and the NNSA. The goal was to create comprehensive scientific computing software and the infrastructure for the software to enable scientific discovery in the physical, biological, and environmental sciences and take the simulations to an extreme scale, in this case petascale. We would also build out a new generation of data management tools. What we observed during SciDAC-1 was that the data and the data communities - both experimental data from large experimental facilities and observational data, along with simulation data - were expanding at a rate significantly faster than Moore's law. In the past few weeks, the FastBit indexing technology software tool for data analyses and data mining developed under SciDAC's Scientific Data Management project was recognized with an R&D 100 Award, selected by an independent judging panel and editors of R&D Magazine as one of the 100 most technologically significant products introduced into the marketplace over the past year. For SciDAC-2 we had nearly 250 proposals requesting a total of slightly over 1 billion in funding. Of course, we had nowhere near 1 billion. The facilities and the science we ended up with were not significantly different from what we had in SciDAC-1. But we had put in place substantially increased facilities for science. When SciDAC-1 was originally executed with the facilities at NERSC, there was significant impact on the resources at NERSC, because not only did we have an expanding portfolio of programmatic science, but we had the SciDAC projects that also needed to run at NERSC. Suddenly, NERSC was incredibly oversubscribed. With SciDAC-2, we had in place leadership-class computing facilities at Argonne with slightly more than half a petaflop and at Oak Ridge with slightly more than a quarter petaflop with an upgrade planned at the end of this year for a petaflop. And we increased the production computing capacity at NERSC to 104 teraflop/s just so that we would not impact the programmatic research and so that we would have a startup facility for SciDAC. At the end of the summer, NERSC will be at 360 teraflop/s. Both the Oak Ridge system and the principal resource at NERSC are Cray systems; Argonne has a different architecture, an IBM Blue Gene/P. At the same time, ESnet has been built out, and we are on a path where we will have dual rings around the country, from 10 to 40 gigabits per second - a factor of 20 to 80 over what was available during SciDAC-1. The science areas include accelerator science and simulation, astrophysics, climate modeling and simulation, computational biology, fusion science, high-energy physics, petabyte high-energy/ nuclear physics, materials science and chemistry, nuclear physics, QCD, radiation transport, turbulence, and groundwater reactive transport modeling and simulation. They were supported by new enabling technology centers and university-based institutes to develop an educational thread for the SciDAC program. There were four mathematics projects and four computer science projects; and under data management, we see a significant difference in that we are bringing up new visualization projects to support and sustain data-intensive science. When we look at the budgets, we see growth in the budget from just under 60 million for SciDAC-1 to just over 80 for SciDAC-2. Part of the growth is due to bringing in NSF and NNSA as new partners, and some of the growth is due to some program offices increasing their investment in SciDAC, while other program offices are constant or have decreased their investment. This is not a reflection of their priorities per se but, rather, a reflection of the budget process and the difficult times in Washington during the past two years. New activities are under way in SciDAC - the annual PI meeting has turned into what I would describe as the premier interdisciplinary computational science meeting, one of the best in the world. Doing interdisciplinary meetings is difficult because people tend to develop a focus for their particular subject area. But this is the fourth in the series; and since the first meeting in San Francisco, these conferences have been remarkably successful. For SciDAC-2 we also created an outreach magazine, SciDAC Review, which highlights scientific discovery as well as high-performance computing. It's been very successful in telling the non-practitioners what SciDAC and computational science are all about. The other new instrument in SciDAC-2 is an outreach center. As we go from computing at the terascale to computing at the petascale, we face the problem of narrowing our research community. The number of people who are `literate' enough to compute at the terascale is more than the number of those who can compute at the petascale. To address this problem, we established the SciDAC Outreach Center to bring people into the fold and educate them as to how we do SciDAC, how the teams are composed, and what it really means to compute at scale. The resources I have mentioned don't come for free. As part of the HECRTF law of 2005, Congress mandated that the Secretary would ensure that leadership-class facilities would be open to everyone across all agencies. So we took Congress at its word, and INCITE is our instrument for making allocations at the leadership-class facilities at Argonne and Oak Ridge, as well as smaller allocations at NERSC. Therefore, the selected proposals are very large projects that are computationally intensive, that compute at scale, and that have a high science impact. An important feature is that INCITE is completely open to anyone - there is no requirement of DOE Office of Science funding, and proposals are rigorously reviewed for both the science and the computational readiness. In 2008, more than 100 proposals were received, requesting about 600 million processor-hours. We allocated just over a quarter of a billion processor-hours. Astrophysics, materials science, lattice gauge theory, and high energy and nuclear physics were the major areas. These were the teams that were computationally ready for the big machines and that had significant science they could identify. In 2009, there will be a significant increase amount of time to be allocated, over half a billion processor-hours. The deadline is August 11 for new proposals and September 12 for renewals. We anticipate a significant increase in the number of requests this year. We expect you - as successful SciDAC centers, institutes, or partnerships - to compete for and win INCITE program allocation awards. If you have a successful SciDAC proposal, we believe it will make you successful in the INCITE review. We have the expectation that you will among those most prepared and most ready to use the machines and to compute at scale. Over the past 18 months, we have assembled a team to look across our computational science portfolio and to judge what are the 10 most significant science accomplishments. The ASCR office, as it goes forward with OMB, the new administration, and Congress, will be judged by the science we have accomplished. All of our proposals - such as for increasing SciDAC, increasing applied mathematics, and so on - are tied to what have we accomplished in science. And so these 10 big accomplishments are key to establishing credibility for new budget requests. Tony Mezzacappa, who chaired the committee, will also give a presentation on the ranking of these top 10, how they got there, and what the science is all about. Here is the list - numbers 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10 are all SciDAC projects. RankTitle 1Modeling the Molecular Basis of Parkinson's Disease (Tsigelny) 2Discovery of the Standing Accretion Shock Instability and Pulsar Birth Mechanism in a Core-Collapse Supernova Evolution and Explosion (Blondin) 3Prediction and Design of Macromolecular Structures and Functions (Baker) 4Understanding How Lifted Flame Stabilized in a Hot Coflow (Yoo) 5New Insights from LCF-enabled Advanced Kinetic Simulations of Global Turbulence in Fusion Systems (Tang) 6High Transition Temperature Superconductivity: A High-Temperature Superconductive State and a Pairing Mechanism in 2-D Hubbard Model (Scalapino) 7 PETsc: Providing the Solvers for DOE High-Performance Simulations (Smith) 8 Via Lactea II, A Billion Particle Simulation of the Dark Matter Halo of the Milky Way (Madau) 9Probing the Properties of Water through Advanced Computing (Galli) 10First Provably Scalable Maxwell Solver Enables Scalable Electromagnetic Simulations (Kovel) So, what's the future going to look like for us? The office is putting together an initiative with the community, which we call the E3 Initiative. We're looking for a 10-year horizon for what's going to happen. Through the series of town hall meetings, which many of you participated in, we have produced a document on `Transforming Energy, the Environment and Science through simulations at the eXtreme Scale'; it can be found at http://www.science.doe.gov/ascr/ProgramDocuments/TownHall.pdf . We sometimes call it the Exascale initiative. Exascale computing is the gold-ring level of computing that seems just out of reach; but if we work hard and stretch, we just might be able to reach it. We envision that there will be a SciDAC-X, working at the extreme scale, with SciDAC teams that will perform and carry out science in the areas that will have a great societal impact, such as alternative fuels and transportation, combustion, climate, fusion science, high-energy physics, advanced fuel cycles, carbon management, and groundwater. We envision institutes for applied mathematics and computer science that probably will segue into algorithms because, at the extreme scale, we see the distinction between the applied math and the algorithm per se and its implementation in computer science as being inseparable. We envision an INCITE-X with multi-petaflop platforms, perhaps even exaflop computing resources. ESnet will be best in class - our 10-year plan calls for having 400 terabits per second capacity available in dual rings around the country, an enormously fast data communications network for moving large amounts of data. In looking at where we've been and where we are going, we can see that the gigaflops and teraflops era was a regime where we were following Moore's law through advances in clock speed. In the current regime, we're introducing massive parallelism, which I think is exemplified by Intel's announcement of their teraflop chip, where they envision more than a thousand cores on a chip. But in order to reach exascale, extrapolations talk about machines that require 100 megawatts of power in terms of current architectures. It's clearly going to require novel architectures, things we have perhaps not yet envisioned. It is of course an era of challenge. There will be an unpredictable evolution of hardware if we are to reach the exascale; and there will clearly be multilevel heterogeneous parallelism, including multilevel memory hierarchies. We have no idea right now as to the programming models needed to execute at such an extreme scale. We have been incredibly successful at the petascale - we know that already. Managing data and just getting communications to scale is an enormous challenge. And it's not just the extreme scaling. It's the rapid increase in complexity that represents the challenge. Let me end with a metaphor. In previous meetings we have talked about the road to petascale. Indeed, we have seen in hindsight that it was a road well traveled. But perhaps the road to exascale is not a road at all. Perhaps the metaphor will be akin to scaling the south face of K2. That's clearly not something all of us will be able to do, and probably computing at the exascale is not something all of us will do. But if we achieve that goal, perhaps the words of Emily Dickinson will best summarize where we will be. Perhaps in her words, looking backward and down, you will say: I climb the `Hill of Science' I view the landscape o'er; Such transcendental prospect I ne'er beheld before!

  9. Observational Data Analysis and Numerical Model Assessment of the Seafloor Interaction and Mobility of Sand and Weathered Oil Agglomerates (Surface Residual Balls) in the Surf Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalyander, S.; Long, J.; Plant, N. G.; Penko, A.; Calantoni, J.; Thompson, D.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    When weathered oil is transported ashore, such as during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, it can mix with suspended sediment in the surf zone to create heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates in the form of mats several centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Broken off pieces of these mats and smaller agglomerates formed in situ (called Surface Residual Balls, SRBs) can cause beach re-oiling months to years after the initial spill. The physical dynamics of these SRBs in the nearshore, where they are larger (cm-scale) and less dense than natural sediment, are poorly understood. In the current study, SRB mobility and seafloor interaction is investigated through a combination of laboratory and field experiments with pseudo-SRBs developed to be physically stable proxies for genuine agglomerates. Formulations for mobility prediction based on comparing estimated shear stress to the critical Shields and modified Shields parameters developed for mixed sediment beds are assessed against observations. Processes such as burial, exhumation, and interaction with bedforms (e.g., migrating ripples) are also explored. The observations suggest that incipient motion estimates based on a modified Shields parameter have some skill in predicting SRB movement, but that other forcing mechanisms such as pressure gradients may be important under some conditions. Additionally, burial and exhumation due to the relatively high mobility of sand grains are confirmed as key processes controlling SRB dynamics in the surf zone. This work has broad implications for understanding surf zone sediment transport at the short timescale associated with mobilizing sand grains and SRBs as well as at the longer timescales associated with net transport patterns, sediment budgets, and bed elevation changes.

  10. Human nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factor UPF2 interacts directly with eRF3 and the SURF complex

    PubMed Central

    López-Perrote, Andrés; Castaño, Raquel; Melero, Roberto; Zamarro, Teresa; Kurosawa, Hitomi; Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Uchiyama, Akiko; Aoyagi, Kyoko; Buchwald, Gretel; Kataoka, Naoyuki; Yamashita, Akio; Llorca, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is an mRNA degradation pathway that regulates gene expression and mRNA quality. A complex network of macromolecular interactions regulates NMD initiation, which is only partially understood. According to prevailing models, NMD begins by the assembly of the SURF (SMG1–UPF1–eRF1–eRF3) complex at the ribosome, followed by UPF1 activation by additional factors such as UPF2 and UPF3. Elucidating the interactions between NMD factors is essential to comprehend NMD, and here we demonstrate biochemically and structurally the interaction between human UPF2 and eukaryotic release factor 3 (eRF3). In addition, we find that UPF2 associates with SURF and ribosomes in cells, in an UPF3-independent manner. Binding assays using a collection of UPF2 truncated variants reveal that eRF3 binds to the C-terminal part of UPF2. This region of UPF2 is partially coincident with the UPF3-binding site as revealed by electron microscopy of the UPF2–eRF3 complex. Accordingly, we find that the interaction of UPF2 with UPF3b interferes with the assembly of the UPF2–eRF3 complex, and that UPF2 binds UPF3b more strongly than eRF3. Together, our results highlight the role of UPF2 as a platform for the transient interactions of several NMD factors, including several components of SURF. PMID:26740584

  11. Experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. The universality of Python, the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development, interface with databases, manipulate graph structures. render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB, Octave, and R. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  12. Opening Remarks: SciDAC 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2007-09-01

    Good morning. Welcome to Boston, the home of the Red Sox, Celtics and Bruins, baked beans, tea parties, Robert Parker, and SciDAC 2007. A year ago I stood before you to share the legacy of the first SciDAC program and identify the challenges that we must address on the road to petascale computing—a road E E Cummins described as `. . . never traveled, gladly beyond any experience.' Today, I want to explore the preparations for the rapidly approaching extreme scale (X-scale) generation. These preparations are the first step propelling us along the road of burgeoning scientific discovery enabled by the application of X- scale computing. We look to petascale computing and beyond to open up a world of discovery that cuts across scientific fields and leads us to a greater understanding of not only our world, but our universe. As part of the President's America Competitiveness Initiative, the ASCR Office has been preparing a ten year vision for computing. As part of this planning the LBNL together with ORNL and ANL hosted three town hall meetings on Simulation and Modeling at the Exascale for Energy, Ecological Sustainability and Global Security (E3). The proposed E3 initiative is organized around four programmatic themes: Engaging our top scientists, engineers, computer scientists and applied mathematicians; investing in pioneering large-scale science; developing scalable analysis algorithms, and storage architectures to accelerate discovery; and accelerating the build-out and future development of the DOE open computing facilities. It is clear that we have only just started down the path to extreme scale computing. Plan to attend Thursday's session on the out-briefing and discussion of these meetings. The road to the petascale has been at best rocky. In FY07, the continuing resolution provided 12% less money for Advanced Scientific Computing than either the President, the Senate, or the House. As a consequence, many of you had to absorb a no cost extension for your SciDAC work. I am pleased that the President's FY08 budget restores the funding for SciDAC. Quoting from Advanced Scientific Computing Research description in the House Energy and Water Development Appropriations Bill for FY08, "Perhaps no other area of research at the Department is so critical to sustaining U.S. leadership in science and technology, revolutionizing the way science is done and improving research productivity." As a society we need to revolutionize our approaches to energy, environmental and global security challenges. As we go forward along the road to the X-scale generation, the use of computation will continue to be a critical tool along with theory and experiment in understanding the behavior of the fundamental components of nature as well as for fundamental discovery and exploration of the behavior of complex systems. The foundation to overcome these societal challenges will build from the experiences and knowledge gained as you, members of our SciDAC research teams, work together to attack problems at the tera- and peta- scale. If SciDAC is viewed as an experiment for revolutionizing scientific methodology, then a strategic goal of ASCR program must be to broaden the intellectual base prepared to address the challenges of the new X-scale generation of computing. We must focus our computational science experiences gained over the past five years on the opportunities introduced with extreme scale computing. Our facilities are on a path to provide the resources needed to undertake the first part of our journey. Using the newly upgraded 119 teraflop Cray XT system at the Leadership Computing Facility, SciDAC research teams have in three days performed a 100-year study of the time evolution of the atmospheric CO2 concentration originating from the land surface. The simulation of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation which was part of this study has been characterized as `the most impressive new result in ten years' gained new insight into the behavior of superheated ionic gas in the ITER reactor as a result of an AORSA run on 22,500 processors that achieved over 87 trillion calculations per second (87 teraflops) which is 74% of the system's theoretical peak. Tomorrow, Argonne and IBM will announce that the first IBM Blue Gene/P, a 100 teraflop system, will be shipped to the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility later this fiscal year. By the end of FY2007 ASCR high performance and leadership computing resources will include the 114 teraflop IBM Blue Gene/P; a 102 teraflop Cray XT4 at NERSC and a 119 teraflop Cray XT system at Oak Ridge. Before ringing in the New Year, Oak Ridge will upgrade to 250 teraflops with the replacement of the dual core processors with quad core processors and Argonne will upgrade to between 250-500 teraflops, and next year, a petascale Cray Baker system is scheduled for delivery at Oak Ridge. The multidisciplinary teams in our SciDAC Centers for Enabling Technologies and our SciDAC Institutes must continue to work with our Scientific Application teams to overcome the barriers that prevent effective use of these new systems. These challenges include: the need for new algorithms as well as operating system and runtime software and tools which scale to parallel systems composed of hundreds of thousands processors; program development environments and tools which scale effectively and provide ease of use for developers and scientific end users; and visualization and data management systems that support moving, storing, analyzing, manipulating and visualizing multi-petabytes of scientific data and objects. The SciDAC Centers, located primarily at our DOE national laboratories will take the lead in ensuring that critical computer science and applied mathematics issues are addressed in a timely and comprehensive fashion and to address issues associated with research software lifecycle. In contrast, the SciDAC Institutes, which are university-led centers of excellence, will have more flexibility to pursue new research topics through a range of research collaborations. The Institutes will also work to broaden the intellectual and researcher base—conducting short courses and summer schools to take advantage of new high performance computing capabilities. The SciDAC Outreach Center at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory complements the outreach efforts of the SciDAC Institutes. The Outreach Center is our clearinghouse for SciDAC activities and resources and will communicate with the high performance computing community in part to understand their needs for workshops, summer schools and institutes. SciDAC is not ASCR's only effort to broaden the computational science community needed to meet the challenges of the new X-scale generation. I hope that you were able to attend the Computational Science Graduate Fellowship poster session last night. ASCR developed the fellowship in 1991 to meet the nation's growing need for scientists and technology professionals with advanced computer skills. CSGF, now jointly funded between ASCR and NNSA, is more than a traditional academic fellowship. It has provided more than 200 of the best and brightest graduate students with guidance, support and community in preparing them as computational scientists. Today CSGF alumni are bringing their diverse top-level skills and knowledge to research teams at DOE laboratories and in industries such as Proctor and Gamble, Lockheed Martin and Intel. At universities they are working to train the next generation of computational scientists. To build on this success, we intend to develop a wholly new Early Career Principal Investigator's (ECPI) program. Our objective is to stimulate academic research in scientific areas within ASCR's purview especially among faculty in early stages of their academic careers. Last February, we lost Ken Kennedy, one of the leading lights of our community. As we move forward into the extreme computing generation, his vision and insight will be greatly missed. In memorial to Ken Kennedy, we shall designate the ECPI grants to beginning faculty in Computer Science as the Ken Kennedy Fellowship. Watch the ASCR website for more information about ECPI and other early career programs in the computational sciences. We look to you, our scientists, researchers, and visionaries to take X-scale computing and use it to explode scientific discovery in your fields. We at SciDAC will work to ensure that this tool is the sharpest and most precise and efficient instrument to carve away the unknown and reveal the most exciting secrets and stimulating scientific discoveries of our time. The partnership between research and computing is the marriage that will spur greater discovery, and as Spencer said to Susan in Robert Parker's novel, `Sudden Mischief', `We stick together long enough, and we may get as smart as hell'. Michael Strayer

  13. Measuring the Stellar Masses of z ~ 7 Galaxies with the Spitzer UltRaFaint SUrvey Program (SURFS UP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Lemaux, B. C.; Brada?, M.; Casertano, S.; Allen, S.; Cain, B.; Gladders, M.; Hall, N.; Hildebradt, H.; Hinz, J.; Huang, K.-H.; Lubin, L.; Schrabback, T.; Stiavelli, M.; Treu, T.; von der Linden, A.; Zaritsky, D.

    2014-05-01

    We present Spitzer/IRAC observations of nine z'-band dropouts highly magnified (2 <~ ? <~ 12) by the Bullet Cluster. We combine archival imaging with our Exploratory program (SURFS UP), which results in a total integration time of ~30 hr per Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) band. We detect (gsim 3?) in both IRAC bands the brightest of these high-redshift galaxies, with [3.6] = 23.80 ± 0.28 mag, [4.5] = 23.78 ± 0.25 mag, and (H - [3.6]) = 1.17 ± 0.32 mag. The remaining eight galaxies are undetected to [3.6] ~ 26.4 mag and [4.5] ~ 26.0 mag with stellar masses of ~5 × 107 M ?. The detected galaxy has an estimated magnification of ? = 12 ± 4, which implies this galaxy has an ultraviolet luminosity of L_{1500}\\sim 0.3\\L^*_{z=7}—the lowest-luminosity individual source detected in IRAC at z >~ 7. By modeling the broadband photometry, we estimate the galaxy has an intrinsic star formation rate (SFR) of SFR ~ 1.3 M ? yr-1 and stellar mass of M ~ 2.0 × 109 M ?, which gives a specific star formation rate of sSFR ~ 0.7 Gyr-1. If this galaxy had sustained this SFR since z ~ 20, it could have formed the observed stellar mass (to within a factor of ~2). We also discuss alternate star formation histories and argue that the exponentially increasing model is unlikely. Finally, based on the intrinsic SFR, we estimate that this galaxy has a likely [C II] flux of langf [C II]rang = 1.6 mJy. Observations were carried out using the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. This research is also based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 and NNX08AD79G. These observations are associated with programs Spitzer 3550, 60034, 90009, HST GO 10200, GO 10863, 11099, and 11591, and ESO Large Program 181.A-0485.

  14. Properties of Blood, Porphyrins, and Exposure to Legacy and Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) Overwintering on the South Coast of British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L. K.; Harris, M. L.; Trudeau, S.; Ikonomou, M. G.

    2010-01-01

    The surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) is a little-studied species of North American sea duck. Estimates suggest it has experienced a precipitous decline in breeding numbers over the latter half of the past century. To investigate the potential role of contaminant uptake and toxicity in the population decline, this study undertook to measure blood chemistry, porphyrin concentrations, EROD, and organic contaminants in mature surf scoters wintering in the Strait of Georgia, BC, Canada. Hepatic organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether, and nonylphenol concentrations were relatively low; for example, ΣTEQs (toxic equivalents) for PCBs, dioxins, and furans combined ranged from 4.7 ng/kg wet weight in reference-site (Baynes Sound) birds to 11.4 ng/kg wet weight in birds from Vancouver Harbour. Nonetheless, elevated EROD activity indicated that birds in Howe Sound were responding to an Ah-receptor-mediated stressor, which was also affecting hematocrit values and possibly vitamin A status. In addition, a low proportion of lymphocytes in individuals across locations in early spring samples was associated with poor body condition. The apparent loss of fitness just prior to the onset of northerly migrations to breeding grounds is of particular concern. Compromised health of mature birds at this point in the season might impact negatively on the productivity and survival of some individuals, particularly those overwintering in Howe Sound. PMID:20204344

  15. Chronic neuropathic pain in SCI: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Felix, Elizabeth Roy

    2014-08-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain develops in approximately 40% of people after a spinal cord injury (SCI) and is notoriously difficult to treat. Because of the frequent presence of more than one pain type and the complex mechanisms and symptoms associated with pain in individuals with SCI, a thorough evaluation is important. This review includes an overview of the most recent guidelines for evaluating and classifying pain, suggestions for standardizing outcome measures for clinical use, and a review of the positive and negative evidence for pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions to consider when treating individuals with SCI and chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:25064788

  16. Surfing the solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milstein, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Recent spaceborne observations suggest the existence of water, most of which is ice, on the moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, on many moons of those planets, in comets and meteors, in the sun and perhaps on Mercury, all over the interstellar space, and, most likely, on planets circling other stars. Photographs of Europa taken by the Galileo spacecraft over the past two years show cracked ice plates that almost surely have slid apart, suggesting that the surface that is seen is probably no more than a frozen shell floating atop a massive global sea. Other moons too show signs of liquid interiors. The possible sources of the water and the planets and moons and implications for extraterrestrial life are examined.

  17. Surfing a Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way . PR Photo 23b/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way (close-up) . PR Photo 23c/02 : Orbit of the star "S2" around the central Black Hole. PR Video Clip 02/02 : Motion of "S2" and other stars around the central Black Hole. Quasars and Black Holes Ever since the discovery of the quasars (quasi-stellar radio sources) in 1963, astrophysicists have searched for an explanation of the energy production in these most luminous objects in the Universe. Quasars reside at the centres of galaxies, and it is believed that the enormous energy emitted by these objects is due to matter falling onto a supermassive Black Hole, releasing gravitational energy through intense radiation before that material disappears forever into the hole (in physics terminology: "passes beyond the event horizon" [4]). To explain the prodigious energy production of quasars and other active galaxies, one needs to conjecture the presence of black holes with masses of one million to several billion times the mass of the Sun. Much evidence has been accumulating during the past years in support of the above "accreting black hole" model for quasars and other galaxies, including the detection of dark mass concentrations in their central regions. However, an unambiguous proof requires excluding all possible other, non-black hole configurations of the central mass concentration. For this, it is imperative to determine the shape of the gravitational field very close to the central object - and this is not possible for the distant quasars due to technological limitations of the currently available telescopes. The centre of the Milky Way ESO PR Photo 23a/02 ESO PR Photo 23a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 427 pix - 95k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 853 pix - 488k] Caption : PR Photo 23a/02 is a reproduction of an image of the innermost area of the Milky Way, only a few light-years across, obtained in mid-2002 with the NACO instrument [3] at the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope. It combines frames in three infrared wavebands between 1.6 and 3.5 µ

  18. surf_cg

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-06-01

    Purpose of the program is to perform a tomographic inversion of surface wave dispersion measurements for group velocity. Seismic tomography is a basic technique to get lateral variations in earth parameters (such as velocities) from a suite of path measurements.

  19. SciDAC Institute for Ultrascale Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, Grigori R.

    2008-09-30

    The Institute for Ultrascale Visualization aims to address visualization needs of SciDAC science domains, including research topics in advanced scientific visualization architectures, algorithms, and interfaces for understanding large, complex datasets. During the current project period, the focus of the team at the University of Virginia has been interactive remote rendering for scientific visualization. With high-performance computing resources enabling increasingly complex simulations, scientists may desire to interactively visualize huge 3D datasets. Traditional large-scale 3D visualization systems are often located very close to the processing clusters, and are linked to them with specialized connections for high-speed rendering. However, this tight coupling of processing and display limits possibilities for remote collaboration, and prohibits scientists from using their desktop workstations for data exploration. In this project, we are developing a client/server system for interactive remote 3D visualization on desktop computers.

  20. [Spinal cord injury (SCI) - Aspects of intensive medical care].

    PubMed

    Leyk, Gesa; Hirschfeld, Sven; Böthig, Ralf; Willenbrock, Ute; Thietje, Roland; Lönnecker, Stefan; Stuhr, Markus

    2014-09-01

    With 2000 new cases/year in Germany spinal cord injury (SCI) is quantitatively less important for intensive care medicine than, e.g., sepsis. But, due to the consequences for the patient, the intricacy of treatment and the enormous costs, it is a significant clinical picture. Outside of specialized centers, routine experience with SCI is largely lacking, particularly in cases of tetraplegia. Dependent on the level of the paralysis, complications in the acute situation, the hospitalization and the rehabilitation are common and need intensive medical care. Lifelong mechanical ventilation is needed in some cases of cervical SCI, for which experience has since grown. New therapeutic options have become implemented (e.g., electrophrenic/diaphragm pacing), have a need to be examined, and extend lifespan in cases of SCI. As a result more patients have a chance for rehabilitation today than in previous decades." PMID:25238008

  1. What Are the Treatments for Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources and Publications What are the treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI)? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2012). Spinal cord injury: Hope through research . Retrieved May 22, 2012, from ...

  2. People Interview: Using sci-fi to promote physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    INTERVIEW Using sci-fi to promote physics Robert Flack, a research fellow at University College London, talks to David Smith about science writing and the consequences for physicists of books like Angels and Demons.

  3. SciDAC Advances and Applications in Computational Beam Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, R.; Abell, D.; Adelmann, A.; Amundson, J.; Bohn, C.; Cary, J.; Colella, P.; Dechow, D.; Decyk, V.; Dragt, A.; Gerber, R.; Habib, S.; Higdon, D.; Katsouleas, T.; Ma, K.-L.; McCorquodale, P.; Mihalcea, D.; Mitchell, C.; Mori, W.; Mottershead, C.T.; Neri, F.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Samulyak, R.; Serafini, D.; Shalf, J.; Siegerist, C.; Spentzouris, P.; Stoltz, P.; Terzic, B.; Venturini, M.; Walstrom, P.

    2005-06-26

    SciDAC has had a major impact on computational beam dynamics and the design of particle accelerators. Particle accelerators--which account for half of the facilities in the DOE Office of Science Facilities for the Future of Science 20 Year Outlook--are crucial for US scientific, industrial, and economic competitiveness. Thanks to SciDAC, accelerator design calculations that were once thought impossible are now carried routinely, and new challenging and important calculations are within reach. SciDAC accelerator modeling codes are being used to get the most science out of existing facilities, to produce optimal designs for future facilities, and to explore advanced accelerator concepts that may hold the key to qualitatively new ways of accelerating charged particle beams. In this poster we present highlights from the SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology (AST) project Beam Dynamics focus area in regard to algorithm development, software development, and applications.

  4. Opening Comments: SciDAC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Welcome to San Diego and the 2009 SciDAC conference. Over the next four days, I would like to present an assessment of the SciDAC program. We will look at where we've been, how we got to where we are and where we are going in the future. Our vision is to be first in computational science, to be best in class in modeling and simulation. When Ray Orbach asked me what I would do, in my job interview for the SciDAC Director position, I said we would achieve that vision. And with our collective dedicated efforts, we have managed to achieve this vision. In the last year, we have now the most powerful supercomputer for open science, Jaguar, the Cray XT system at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). We also have NERSC, probably the best-in-the-world program for productivity in science that the Office of Science so depends on. And the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility offers architectural diversity with its IBM Blue Gene/P system as a counterbalance to Oak Ridge. There is also ESnet, which is often understated—the 40 gigabit per second dual backbone ring that connects all the labs and many DOE sites. In the President's Recovery Act funding, there is exciting news that ESnet is going to build out to a 100 gigabit per second network using new optical technologies. This is very exciting news for simulations and large-scale scientific facilities. But as one noted SciDAC luminary said, it's not all about the computers—it's also about the science—and we are also achieving our vision in this area. Together with having the fastest supercomputer for science, at the SC08 conference, SciDAC researchers won two ACM Gordon Bell Prizes for the outstanding performance of their applications. The DCA++ code, which solves some very interesting problems in materials, achieved a sustained performance of 1.3 petaflops, an astounding result and a mark I suspect will last for some time. The LS3DF application for studying nanomaterials also required the development of a new and novel algorithm to produce results up to 400 times faster than a similar application, and was recognized with a prize for algorithm innovation—a remarkable achievement. Day one of our conference will include examples of petascale science enabled at the OLCF. Although Jaguar has not been officially commissioned, it has gone through its acceptance tests, and during its shakedown phase there have been pioneer applications used for the acceptance tests, and they are running at scale. These include applications in the areas of astrophysics, biology, chemistry, combustion, fusion, geosciences, materials science, nuclear energy and nuclear physics. We also have a whole compendium of science we do at our facilities; these have been documented and reviewed at our last SciDAC conference. Many of these were highlighted in our Breakthroughs Report. One session at this week's conference will feature a cross-section of these breakthroughs. In the area of scalable electromagnetic simulations, the Auxiliary-space Maxwell Solver (AMS) uses specialized finite element discretizations and multigrid-based techniques, which decompose the original problem into easier-to-solve subproblems. Congratulations to the mathematicians on this. Another application on the list of breakthroughs was the authentication of PETSc, which provides scalable solvers used in many DOE applications and has solved problems with over 3 billion unknowns and scaled to over 16,000 processors on DOE leadership-class computers. This is becoming a very versatile and useful toolkit to achieve performance at scale. With the announcement of SIAM's first class of Fellows, we are remarkably well represented. Of the group of 191, more than 40 of these Fellows are in the 'DOE space.' We are so delighted that SIAM has recognized them for their many achievements. In the coming months, we will illustrate our leadership in applied math and computer science by looking at our contributions in the areas of programming models, development and performance tools, math libraries, system software, collaboration, and visualization and data analytics. This is a large and diverse list of libraries. We have asked for two panels, one chaired by David Keyes and composed of many of the nation's leading mathematicians, to produce a report on the most significant accomplishments in applied mathematics over the last eight years, taking us back to the start of the SciDAC program. In addition, we have a similar panel in computer science to be chaired by Kathy Yelick. They are going to identify the computer science accomplishments of the past eight years. These accomplishments are difficult to get a handle on, and I'm looking forward to this report. We will also have a follow-on to our report on breakthroughs in computational science and this will also go back eight years, looking at the many accomplishments under the SciDAC and INCITE programs. This will be chaired by Tony Mezzacappa. So, where are we going in the SciDAC program? It might help to take a look at computational science and how it got started. I go back to Ken Wilson, who made the model and has written on computational science and computational science education. His model was thus: The computational scientist plays the role of the experimentalist, and the math and CS researchers play the role of theorists, and the computers themselves are the experimental apparatus. And that in simulation science, we are carrying out numerical experiments as to the nature of physical and biological sciences. Peter Lax, in the same time frame, developed a report on large-scale computing in science and engineering. Peter remarked, 'Perhaps the most important applications of scientific computing come not in the solution of old problems, but in the discovery of new phenomena through numerical experimentation.' And in the early years, I think the person who provided the most guidance, the most innovation and the most vision for where the future might lie was Ed Oliver. Ed Oliver died last year. Ed did a number of things in science. He had this personality where he knew exactly what to do, but he preferred to stay out of the limelight so that others could enjoy the fruits of his vision. We in the SciDAC program and ASCR Facilities are still enjoying the benefits of his vision. We will miss him. Twenty years after Ken Wilson, Ray Orbach laid out the fundamental premise for SciDAC in an interview that appeared in SciDAC Review: 'SciDAC is unique in the world. There isn't any other program like it anywhere else, and it has the remarkable ability to do science by bringing together physical scientists, mathematicians, applied mathematicians, and computer scientists who recognize that computation is not something you do at the end, but rather it needs to be built into the solution of the very problem that one is addressing. ' As you look at the Lax report from 1982, it talks about how 'Future significant improvements may have to come from architectures embodying parallel processing elements—perhaps several thousands of processors.' And it continues, 'esearch in languages, algorithms and numerical analysis will be crucial in learning to exploit these new architectures fully.' In the early '90s, Sterling, Messina and Smith developed a workshop report on petascale computing and concluded, 'A petaflops computer system will be feasible in two decades, or less, and rely in part on the continual advancement of the semiconductor industry both in speed enhancement and cost reduction through improved fabrication processes.' So they were not wrong, and today we are embarking on a forward look that is at a different scale, the exascale, going to 1018 flops. In 2007, Stevens, Simon and Zacharia chaired a series of town hall meetings looking at exascale computing, and in their report wrote, 'Exascale computer systems are expected to be technologically feasible within the next 15 years, or perhaps sooner. These systems will push the envelope in a number of important technologies: processor architecture, scale of multicore integration, power management and packaging.' The concept of computing on the Jaguar computer involves hundreds of thousands of cores, as do the IBM systems that are currently out there. So the scale of computing with systems with billions of processors is staggering to me, and I don't know how the software and math folks feel about it. We have now embarked on a road toward extreme scale computing. We have created a series of town hall meetings and we are now in the process of holding workshops that address what I call within the DOE speak 'the mission need,' or what is the scientific justification for computing at that scale. We are going to have a total of 13 workshops. The workshops on climate, high energy physics, nuclear physics, fusion, and nuclear energy have been held. The report from the workshop on climate is actually out and available, and the other reports are being completed. The upcoming workshops are on biology, materials, and chemistry; and workshops that engage science for nuclear security are a partnership between NNSA and ASCR. There are additional workshops on applied math, computer science, and architecture that are needed for computing at the exascale. These extreme scale workshops will provide the foundation in our office, the Office of Science, the NNSA and DOE, and we will engage the National Science Foundation and the Department of Defense as partners. We envision a 10-year program for an exascale initiative. It will be an integrated R&D program initially—you can think about five years for research and development—that would be in hardware, operating systems, file systems, networking and so on, as well as software for applications. Application software and the operating system and the hardware all need to be bundled in this period so that at the end the system will execute the science applications at scale. We also believe that this process will have to have considerable investment from the manufacturers and vendors to be successful. We have formed laboratory, university and industry working groups to start this process and formed a panel to look at where SciDAC needs to go to compute at the extreme scale, and we have formed an executive committee within the Office of Science and the NNSA to focus on these activities. We will have outreach to DoD in the next few months. We are anticipating a solicitation within the next two years in which we will compete this bundled R&D process. We don't know how we will incorporate SciDAC into extreme scale computing, but we do know there will be many challenges. And as we have shown over the years, we have the expertise and determination to surmount these challenges.

  5. Implementation of the vortex force formalism in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system for inner shelf and surf zone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nirnimesh; Voulgaris, George; Warner, John C.; Olabarrieta, Maitane

    The coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport modeling system (COAWST) enables simulations that integrate oceanic, atmospheric, wave and morphological processes in the coastal ocean. Within the modeling system, the three-dimensional ocean circulation module (ROMS) is coupled with the wave generation and propagation model (SWAN) to allow full integration of the effect of waves on circulation and vice versa. The existing wave-current coupling component utilizes a depth dependent radiation stress approach. In here we present a new approach that uses the vortex force formalism. The formulation adopted and the various parameterizations used in the model as well as their numerical implementation are presented in detail. The performance of the new system is examined through the presentation of four test cases. These include obliquely incident waves on a synthetic planar beach and a natural barred beach (DUCK' 94); normal incident waves on a nearshore barred morphology with rip channels; and wave-induced mean flows outside the surf zone at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO). Model results from the planar beach case show good agreement with depth-averaged analytical solutions and with theoretical flow structures. Simulation results for the DUCK' 94 experiment agree closely with measured profiles of cross-shore and longshore velocity data from Garcez Faria et al. (1998, 2000). Diagnostic simulations showed that the nonlinear processes of wave roller generation and wave-induced mixing are important for the accurate simulation of surf zone flows. It is further recommended that a more realistic approach for determining the contribution of wave rollers and breaking induced turbulent mixing can be formulated using non-dimensional parameters which are functions of local wave parameters and the beach slope. Dominant terms in the cross-shore momentum balance are found to be the quasi-static pressure gradient and breaking acceleration. In the alongshore direction, bottom stress, breaking acceleration, horizontal advection and horizontal vortex forces dominate the momentum balance. The simulation results for the bar/rip channel morphology case clearly show the ability of the modeling system to reproduce horizontal and vertical circulation patterns similar to those found in laboratory studies and to numerical simulations using the radiation stress representation. The vortex force term is found to be more important at locations where strong flow vorticity interacts with the wave-induced Stokes flow field. Outside the surf zone, the three-dimensional model simulations of wave-induced flows for non-breaking waves closely agree with flow observations from MVCO, with the vertical structure of the simulated flow varying as a function of the vertical viscosity as demonstrated by Lentz et al. (2008).

  6. Corrigendum to "Si 2p and O 1s photoemission from oxidized Si(0 0 1) surfaces depending on translational kinetic energy of incident O2 molecules" [Appl. Surf. Sci. 190 (2002) 75-79

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

    2015-07-01

    We have performed experiments on surface chemical reactions using a supersonic O2 molecular beam and O2 gas. Translational kinetic energy values of the O2 molecules have been estimated by calculations. We had made a mistake in the calculations. In this article, the translational kinetic energy of the O2 molecules had been calculated by the following equation,

  7. Corrigendum to "Coexistence of passive and active oxidation for O2/Si(0 0 1) system observed by SiO mass spectrometry and synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy" [Appl. Surf. Sci. 216 (2003) 8-14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Moritani, Kousuke; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

    2015-07-01

    We have performed experiments on surface chemical reactions using a supersonic O2 molecular beam. Translational kinetic energy values of the O2 molecules have been estimated by calculations. We had made a mistake in the calculations. In this article, the translational kinetic energy of the supersonic O2 molecular beam had been calculated by the following equation,

  8. Corrigendum to "Time resolved photoemission spectroscopy on Si(001)-2 × 1 surface during oxidation controlled by translational kinetic energy of O2 at room temperature" [Surf. Sci. 532-535, 690-697 (2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the authors have performed experiments on surface chemical reactions using a supersonic O2 molecular beam. Translational kinetic energy values of the supersonic O2 molecular beams have been estimated by calculations. The authors have made a mistake in the calculations. In the article, the translational kinetic energy of the supersonic O2 molecular beam had been calculated by the following equation,

  9. Implementation of the vortex force formalism in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system for inner shelf and surf zone applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, Nirnimesh; Voulgaris, George; Warner, John C.; Olabarrieta, Maitane

    2012-01-01

    Model results from the planar beach case show good agreement with depth-averaged analytical solutions and with theoretical flow structures. Simulation results for the DUCK' 94 experiment agree closely with measured profiles of cross-shore and longshore velocity data from and . Diagnostic simulations showed that the nonlinear processes of wave roller generation and wave-induced mixing are important for the accurate simulation of surf zone flows. It is further recommended that a more realistic approach for determining the contribution of wave rollers and breaking induced turbulent mixing can be formulated using non-dimensional parameters which are functions of local wave parameters and the beach slope. Dominant terms in the cross-shore momentum balance are found to be the quasi-static pressure gradient and breaking acceleration. In the alongshore direction, bottom stress, breaking acceleration, horizontal advection and horizontal vortex forces dominate the momentum balance. The simulation results for the bar/rip channel morphology case clearly show the ability of the modeling system to reproduce horizontal and vertical circulation patterns similar to those found in laboratory studies and to numerical simulations using the radiation stress representation. The vortex force term is found to be more important at locations where strong flow vorticity interacts with the wave-induced Stokes flow field. Outside the surf zone, the three-dimensional model simulations of wave-induced flows for non-breaking waves closely agree with flow observations from MVCO, with the vertical structure of the simulated flow varying as a function of the vertical viscosity as demonstrated by Lentz et al. (2008).

  10. The GeoSciML Logical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, J.; Wyborn, L.

    2007-12-01

    GeoSciML is being developed as an interchange language for geoscience. The initial scope has been designed to include the information generally shown on geological maps, and some observations, in particular using boreholes. The logical model has been built in UML and the model includes packages for mapped features, geologic units, earth material and geologic structures. The model inherits from GML, for spatial information, and observations and measurements (O&M) in particular. At present the scope of the model is largely interpreted information, but the intention is to extend it to include more observational data. A 'mapped feature' can be considered an occurrence, such as a polygon on a geologic map, of a real-world geologic feature the full extent of which is unknown. Geologic features are associated with geologic events for recording their age, process and environment of formation. The two main types of geologic feature modelled are geologic units and geologic structures. Geologic units have specialisations for lithostratigraphic units, lithodemic units, chronostratigraphic units and deformation units, but more will be added in the future as required. The model allows for composite geologic units, made up of other geologic units, to be described. Geologic structures include fractures, shear displacement structures, contacts, fold and foliation. The earth material package allows for the description of both individual components such as minerals and compound materials such as rocks or unconsolidated material. The model incorporates a structure for controlled concepts which can be defined in terms of normative descriptions of geologic units or earth materials. These can be built into geologic vocabularies, such as stratigraphic lexicons. Two data types of particular use in describing geologic properties have been defined: one allows properties to be recorded with term, number and range values along with a qualifier property for handling the 'fuzziness' of much geologic data; another, 'geometric description' data type, allows for the recording of linear and planar structural measurements along with a code for the recording convention used eg 'right hand rule'. The GeoSciML data model has been developed by the CGI Interoperability Working Group

  11. SciDB and Geoinformatics Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The SciDB project took as its design goals a list of features identified as being critical to scientific data management in a survey of working scientists (Stonebraker et al 2009). Earth scientists working with remote sensing data were well represented among those polled so it should come as no surprise that the platform has been embraced by that community. In this talk we focus on work done by researchers at NASA and INPE, and on applications created by commercial data providers in Korea and the United States. For each use-case, we will review the project team's objectives, the nature and quantity of the data involved, the their workload queries. As we discuss each use-case we will describe what is emerging as "best practice" for data management and analysis in this space. M. Stonebraker, J. Becla, D. J. DeWitt, K. T. Lim, D. Maier, O. Ratzesberger, and S. B. Zdonik. Requirements for science data bases and scidb. In CIDR 2009, Fourth Biennial Conference on Innovative Data Systems Research, Asilomar, CA, USA, January 4-7, 2009, Online Proceedings, 2009.

  12. The impact of SciDAC on US climate change research and the IPCC AR4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Michael

    2005-01-01

    SciDAC has invested heavily in climate change research. We offer a candid opinion as to the impact of the DOE laboratories' SciDAC projects on the upcoming Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

  13. Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

  14. Solving Large-scale Eigenvalue Problems in SciDACApplications

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Chao

    2005-06-29

    Large-scale eigenvalue problems arise in a number of DOE applications. This paper provides an overview of the recent development of eigenvalue computation in the context of two SciDAC applications. We emphasize the importance of Krylov subspace methods, and point out its limitations. We discuss the value of alternative approaches that are more amenable to the use of preconditioners, and report the progression using the multi-level algebraic sub-structuring techniques to speed up eigenvalue calculation. In addition to methods for linear eigenvalue problems, we also examine new approaches to solving two types of non-linear eigenvalue problems arising from SciDAC applications.

  15. Psychometric evaluation of the Spanish version of the MPI-SCI

    PubMed Central

    Soler, MD; Cruz-Almeida, Y; Saurí, J; Widerström-Noga, EG

    2013-01-01

    Study design Postal surveys. Objectives To confirm the factor structure of the Spanish version of the MPI-SCI (MPI-SCI-S, Multidimensional Pain Inventory in the SCI population) and to test its internal consistency and construct validity in a Spanish population. Setting Guttmann Institute, Barcelona, Spain. Methods The MPI-SCI-S along with Spanish measures of pain intensity (Numerical Rating Scale), pain interference (Brief Pain Inventory), functional independence (Functional Independence Measure), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), locus of control (Multidimensional health Locus of Control), support (Functional Social Support Questionnaire (Duke-UNC)), psychological well-being (Psychological Global Well-Being Index) and demographic/injury characteristics were assessed in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and chronic pain (n = 126). Results Confirmatory factor analysis suggested an adequate factor structure for the MPI-SCI-S. The internal consistency of the MPI-SCI-S subscales ranged from acceptable (r = 0.66, Life Control) to excellent (r = 0.94, Life Interference). All MPI-SCI-S subscales showed adequate construct validity, with the exception of the Negative and Solicitous Responses subscales. Conclusions The Spanish version of the MPI-SCI is adequate for evaluating chronic pain impact following SCI in a Spanish-speaking population. Future studies should include additional measures of pain-related support in the Spanish-speaking SCI population. PMID:23608807

  16. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Annual] technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogal, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    Since January 1992, 9 exhibits have been constructed by the SciTech Clubs for Girls, which involved 63 girls, ages 10 to 14. These exhibits are: Bubble Shapes by the St. Charles Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 109. Density Games by the South Elgin Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 132. Electric Fleas by the Warrenville Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 305. Energy vs. Power by the Aurora Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 242. The Organ Pipe by the Bartlett Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 107. Ohm`s Law by the Geneva Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 401. What is Gravity by the Pilsen YMCA girls. Insulation at Work by the Algonquin Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 303. Series vs. Parallel by the Leland Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 50. The report is a description of each exhibit and the group that built the exhibit. Each group had a minimum of 10 hours of contact time at SciTech with the SciTech Clubs for Girls Program Coordinator. All mentors are female. Each exhibit building experience includes a trip to the hardware store to purchase supplies. After the exhibit is complete, the girls receive certificates of achievement and a SciTech Club Patch.

  17. Population subdivision of the surf clam Mactra chinensis in the East China Sea: Changjiang River outflow is not the sole driver.

    PubMed

    Ni, Gang; Li, Qi; Ni, Lehai; Kong, Lingfeng; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The northwestern Pacific, characterized by unique tectonic and hydrological settings, has greatly intrigued marine phylogeographers. However, current studies mostly focus on the influence of Pleistocene isolation of sea basins in population structure of species in the region, leaving the contribution of other factors (such as freshwater outflow and environmental gradients) largely unexploited. Here we shed light on the question by investigating phylogeography of the surf clam Mactra chinensis in the East China Sea (ECS). Genetic information was acquired from 501 specimens collected from its main distribution in the region, represented by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. A shallow and star-like phylogeny was revealed for all COI haplotypes, indicating the origin of populations from a single refugium. Although no divergent lineages existed, population subdivision was detected in both data sets. The most striking pattern was the significant differentiation between populations north and south of a biogeographic boundary-the Changjiang Estuary, suggesting a barrier effect of the freshwater outflow to gene flow. For the northern group, substructure was revealed by COI result as one southernmost population was significant different from other ones. Clear latitude gradations in allele frequencies were revealed by microsatellite analyses, likely influenced by environmental gradient factors such as temperature. Our results demonstrate that genetic subdivision can arise for populations within the ECS despite they have a single origin, and multiple mechanisms including Changjiang River outflow, environmental gradient factors and life-history traits may act in combination in the process. PMID:26468432

  18. Measuring temperature-dependent propagating disturbances in coronal fan loops using multiple SDO/AIA channels and the surfing transform technique

    SciTech Connect

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M.; Viall, Nicholeen M.

    2013-11-20

    A set of co-aligned high-resolution images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory is used to investigate propagating disturbances (PDs) in warm fan loops at the periphery of a non-flaring active region NOAA AR 11082. To measure PD speeds at multiple coronal temperatures, a new data analysis methodology is proposed enabling a quantitative description of subvisual coronal motions with low signal-to-noise ratios of the order of 0.1%. The technique operates with a set of one-dimensional 'surfing' signals extracted from position-time plots of several AIA channels through a modified version of Radon transform. The signals are used to evaluate a two-dimensional power spectral density distribution in the frequency-velocity space that exhibits a resonance in the presence of quasi-periodic PDs. By applying this analysis to the same fan loop structures observed in several AIA channels, we found that the traveling velocity of PDs increases with the temperature of the coronal plasma following the square-root dependence predicted for slow mode magneto-acoustic waves which seem to be the dominating wave mode in the loop structures studied. This result extends recent observations by Kiddie et al. to a more general class of fan loop system not associated with sunspots and demonstrating consistent slow mode activity in up to four AIA channels.

  19. Population subdivision of the surf clam Mactra chinensis in the East China Sea: Changjiang River outflow is not the sole driver

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Gang; Ni, Lehai; Kong, Lingfeng; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The northwestern Pacific, characterized by unique tectonic and hydrological settings, has greatly intrigued marine phylogeographers. However, current studies mostly focus on the influence of Pleistocene isolation of sea basins in population structure of species in the region, leaving the contribution of other factors (such as freshwater outflow and environmental gradients) largely unexploited. Here we shed light on the question by investigating phylogeography of the surf clam Mactra chinensis in the East China Sea (ECS). Genetic information was acquired from 501 specimens collected from its main distribution in the region, represented by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. A shallow and star-like phylogeny was revealed for all COI haplotypes, indicating the origin of populations from a single refugium. Although no divergent lineages existed, population subdivision was detected in both data sets. The most striking pattern was the significant differentiation between populations north and south of a biogeographic boundary—the Changjiang Estuary, suggesting a barrier effect of the freshwater outflow to gene flow. For the northern group, substructure was revealed by COI result as one southernmost population was significant different from other ones. Clear latitude gradations in allele frequencies were revealed by microsatellite analyses, likely influenced by environmental gradient factors such as temperature. Our results demonstrate that genetic subdivision can arise for populations within the ECS despite they have a single origin, and multiple mechanisms including Changjiang River outflow, environmental gradient factors and life-history traits may act in combination in the process. PMID:26468432

  20. How can ab initio simulations address risks in nanotech?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Amanda S.

    2009-06-01

    Discussions of the potential risks and hazards associated with nanomaterials and nanoparticles tend to focus on the need for further experiments. However, theoretical and computational nanoscientists could also contribute by making their calculations more relevant to research into this area.

  1. Green nanotech can reduce risks to poor nations

    EPA Science Inventory

    There have been major breakthroughs in nanomaterials for use in healthcare situations and some of these have already moved beyond the laboratory into the 'real world'. Now we need to pay serious attention to their potential risk to health and to the environment, both of which are...

  2. Overview of the Scalable Coherent Interface, IEEE STD 1596 (SCI)

    SciTech Connect

    Gustavson, D.B.; James, D.V.; Wiggers, H.A.

    1992-10-01

    The Scalable Coherent Interface standard defines a new generation of interconnection that spans the full range from supercomputer memory `bus` to campus-wide network. SCI provides bus-like services and a shared-memory software model while using an underlying, packet protocol on many independent communication links. Initially these links are 1 GByte/s (wires) and 1 GBit/s (fiber), but the protocol scales well to future faster or lower-cost technologies. The interconnect may use switches, meshes, and rings. The SCI distributed-shared-memory model is simple and versatile, enabling for the first time a smooth integration of highly parallel multiprocessors, workstations, personal computers, I/O, networking and data acquisition.

  3. Molecular characterization of two kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor genes in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium exposed to Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Aguayo, Waleska; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2013-06-01

    This study reports two kazal-type serine protease inhibitors (KPI) identified in a cDNA library from the surf clam Mesodesma donacium, and characterized through Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The KPIs, denoted as MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2, presented full sequences of 1139 bp and 781 bp respectively. MdSPI-1 had a 5'untranslated region (UTR) of 175 bp, a 3'UTR of 283 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 681 pb that encodes for 227 amino acids. MdSPI-2 showed a 5'UTR of 70 bp, a 3'UTR of 279 bp and an ORF of 432 bp that encodes for 144 amino acids. Both sequences presented two kazal-type tandem domains. Phylogenetic analysis of MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2 shows a main clade composed by other bivalve species and closely related crustaceans. Real time PCR analysis showed that MdSPI-1 is mainly up-regulated in mantle, foot, gills and muscle tissues, while MdSPI-2 is expressed principally in foot tissue. Moreover, to evaluate the immune response of MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2, infections with Vibrio anguillarum were performed. Herein, MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2 transcription expression were significantly up-regulated at 2 and 8 h post-challenge. Our results suggest that MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2 are important humoral factors of innate immunity in M. donacium. PMID:23528874

  4. Implementation and validation of a 3D wave-induced current model from the surf zone to the inner-shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, H.; Marsaleix, P.; Leredde, Y.; Estournel, C.; Bourrin, F.; Lyard, F.; Mayet, C.; Ardhuin, F.

    2012-04-01

    We implement the new set of equations of Bennis et al. (2011) which use the glm2z-RANS theory (Ardhuin et al., 2008) to take into account the impact of waves into the 3D circulation model SYMPHONIE (Marsaleix et al., 2008, 2009). These adiabatic equations are completed by additional parameterizations of wave breaking, bottom friction and wave-enhanced vertical mixing, making the forcing valid from the surf zone through to the open ocean. The wave forcing is performed by WAVEWATCH III® (Tolman 2008; Ardhuin et al., 2010) for the realistic cases and SWAN (Booij et al., 1999) for the academic cases. Firstly, the model is tested in two academic cases. In the first case, it is compared with other models for a plane beach test case, previously tested by Haas and Warner (2009) and Uchiyama et al. (2010). Then, a comparison is made with the laboratory measurements of Haller et al. (2002) of a barred beach with channels. Results fit with previous simulations performed by other models or with available observational data: the littoral drift and the vertical profiles of current or in the second case, the rip current are well reproduced. Finally, a realistic case of a winter storm over a coast of the Gulf of Lion (NW of the Mediterranean Sea) for which currents are available at different depths as well as an accurate bathymetric database of the 0-10m depth range, is simulated. A grid nesting approach is used to account for the different forcing acting at the different spatial scales. We use at the smaller scale a grid with a variable resolution. The model is successful to reproduce the powerful northward littoral drift in the 0-15m depth zone. More precisely, two distinct cases are identified: when waves have a normal angle of incidence with the coast, they are responsible for complex circulation cells and rip currents in the surf zone, and when they travel obliquely, they generate a northward littoral drift. These features are more complicated than in the test cases, due to the complex bathymetry and the consideration of wind and non-stationary processes. In the inner shelf, wave impacts are less visible since wind and regional circulation seem to be the predominant forcing. Besides, a discrepancy between model and observations is noted at that scale, possibly linked to an underestimation of the wind stress. Lastly, this three-dimensional method allows a good representation of vertical current profiles and permits to calculate the shear stress associated with wave and current. Future work will focus on the combination with a sediment transport model. Ardhuin, F., Rascle, N. & Belibassakis, K.A., Explicit wave-averaged primitive equations using a generalized Lagrangian mean. Ocean Modelling 20, 35-60, 2008. Ardhuin, F. et al., Semiempirical Dissipation Source Functions for Ocean Waves. Part I: Definition, Calibration, and Validation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 40, 1917-194, 2010. Bennis, A.-C., Ardhuin, F. & Dumas, F., On the coupling of wave and three-dimensional circulation models: Choice of theoretical framework, practical implementation and adiabatic tests. Ocean Modelling 40, 260-272, 2011. Booij, N., R. C. Ris, and L. H. Holthuijsen, A third generation wave model for coastal regions, part I, model description and validation, Journal of Geophysical Research, 104 , 7649-7666, 1999. Haas, K. A., and J. C. Warner, Comparing a quasi-3d to a full 3d nearshore circulation model: Shorecirc and roms, Ocean Modelling, 26 , 91-103, 2009. Haller, M. C., R. A. Dalrymple, and I. A. Svendsen, Experimental study of nearshore dynamics on a barred beach with rip channels, Journal of Geophysical Research, 107 (C6-3061), 2002. Marsaleix, P. et al., Energy conservation issues in sigma-coordinate free-surface ocean models. Ocean Modelling 20, 61-89, 2008. Marsaleix, P., Auclair, F. & Estournel, C., Low-order pressure gradient schemes in sigma coordinate models: The seamount test revisited. Ocean Modelling 30, 169-177, 2009. Tolman, H., A mosaic approach to wind wave modeling. Ocean Modelling 25, 35-47, 2008. Uchiyama, Y., J. McWilliams, and A. F. Shschepetkin, Wave-current interaction in an oceanic circulation model with a vortex-force formalism: Application to the surf zone, Ocean Modelling, 34 , 16-35, 2010.

  5. SCI: Present and Future Therapeutic Devices and Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Giszter, Simon F.

    2008-01-01

    Summary A range of passive and active devices are under development, or are already in clinical use, to partially restore function after SCI (SCI). Prosthetic devices to promote host tissue regeneration and plasticity and reconnection are under development, comprising bioengineered bridging materials free of cells. Alternatively, artificial electrical stimulation and robotic bridges may be used, upon which we focus here. A range of neuroprostheses interfacing either with CNS or PNS both above and below the lesion are under investigation and are at different stages of development or translation to the clinic. In addition, there are orthotic and robotic devices which are being developed and tested in laboratory and clinic that can provide mechanical assistance, training or substitution after SCI. The range of different approaches employed draw on many different aspects of our current but limited understanding of neural regeneration and plasticity, and spinal cord function and interactions with cortex. The best therapeutic practice will ultimately likely depend on combinations of these approaches and technologies and on balancing the combined effects of these on the biological mechanisms and their interactions after injury. An increased understanding of plasticity of brain and spinal cord, and of the behavior of innate modular mechanisms in intact and injured systems, will likely assist future developments. We review the range of device designs under development and in use, the basic understanding of spinal cord organization and plasticity, the problems and design issues in device interactions with the nervous system, and the possible benefits of active motor devices. PMID:18164494

  6. Performance of the SciBar cosmic ray telescope (SciCRT) toward the detection of high-energy solar neutrons in solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasai, Yoshinori; Nagai, Yuya; Itow, Yoshitaka; Matsubara, Yutaka; Sako, Takashi; Lopez, Diego; Itow, Tsukasa; Munakata, Kazuoki; Kato, Chihiro; Kozai, Masayoshi; Miyazaki, Takahiro; Shibata, Shoichi; Oshima, Akitoshi; Kojima, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Harufumi; Watanabe, Kyoko; Koi, Tatsumi; Valdés-Galicia, Jose Francisco; González, Luis Xavier; Ortiz, Ernesto; Musalem, Octavio; Hurtado, Alejandro; Garcia, Rocio; Anzorena, Marcos

    2014-12-01

    We plan to observe solar neutrons at Mt. Sierra Negra (4,600 m above sea level) in Mexico using the SciBar detector. This project is named the SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT). The main aims of the SciCRT project are to observe solar neutrons to study the mechanism of ion acceleration on the surface of the sun and to monitor the anisotropy of galactic cosmic-ray muons. The SciBar detector, a fully active tracker, is composed of 14,848 scintillator bars, whose dimension is 300 cm × 2.5 cm × 1.3 cm. The structure of the detector enables us to obtain the particle trajectory and its total deposited energy. This information is useful for the energy reconstruction of primary neutrons and particle identification. The total volume of the detector is 3.0 m × 3.0 m × 1.7 m. Since this volume is much larger than the solar neutron telescope (SNT) in Mexico, the detection efficiency of the SciCRT for neutrons is highly enhanced. We performed the calibration of the SciCRT at Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE) located at 2,150 m above sea level in Mexico in 2012. We installed the SciCRT at Mt. Sierra Negra in April 2013 and calibrated this detector in May and August 2013. We started continuous observation in March 2014. In this paper, we report the detector performance as a solar neutron telescope and the current status of the SciCRT.

  7. OPENING REMARKS: SciDAC: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strayer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Good morning. Welcome to SciDAC 2005 and San Francisco. SciDAC is all about computational science and scientific discovery. In a large sense, computational science characterizes SciDAC and its intent is change. It transforms both our approach and our understanding of science. It opens new doors and crosses traditional boundaries while seeking discovery. In terms of twentieth century methodologies, computational science may be said to be transformational. There are a number of examples to this point. First are the sciences that encompass climate modeling. The application of computational science has in essence created the field of climate modeling. This community is now international in scope and has provided precision results that are challenging our understanding of our environment. A second example is that of lattice quantum chromodynamics. Lattice QCD, while adding precision and insight to our fundamental understanding of strong interaction dynamics, has transformed our approach to particle and nuclear science. The individual investigator approach has evolved to teams of scientists from different disciplines working side-by-side towards a common goal. SciDAC is also undergoing a transformation. This meeting is a prime example. Last year it was a small programmatic meeting tracking progress in SciDAC. This year, we have a major computational science meeting with a variety of disciplines and enabling technologies represented. SciDAC 2005 should position itself as a new corner stone for Computational Science and its impact on science. As we look to the immediate future, FY2006 will bring a new cycle to SciDAC. Most of the program elements of SciDAC will be re-competed in FY2006. The re-competition will involve new instruments for computational science, new approaches for collaboration, as well as new disciplines. There will be new opportunities for virtual experiments in carbon sequestration, fusion, and nuclear power and nuclear waste, as well as collaborations with industry and virtual prototyping. New instruments of collaboration will include institutes and centers while summer schools, workshops and outreach will invite new talent and expertise. Computational science adds new dimensions to science and its practice. Disciplines of fusion, accelerator science, and combustion are poised to blur the boundaries between pure and applied science. As we open the door into FY2006 we shall see a landscape of new scientific challenges: in biology, chemistry, materials, and astrophysics to name a few. The enabling technologies of SciDAC have been transformational as drivers of change. Planning for major new software systems assumes a base line employing Common Component Architectures and this has become a household word for new software projects. While grid algorithms and mesh refinement software have transformed applications software, data management and visualization have transformed our understanding of science from data. The Gordon Bell prize now seems to be dominated by computational science and solvers developed by TOPS ISIC. The priorities of the Office of Science in the Department of Energy are clear. The 20 year facilities plan is driven by new science. High performance computing is placed amongst the two highest priorities. Moore's law says that by the end of the next cycle of SciDAC we shall have peta-flop computers. The challenges of petascale computing are enormous. These and the associated computational science are the highest priorities for computing within the Office of Science. Our effort in Leadership Class computing is just a first step towards this goal. Clearly, computational science at this scale will face enormous challenges and possibilities. Performance evaluation and prediction will be critical to unraveling the needed software technologies. We must not lose sight of our overarching goal—that of scientific discovery. Science does not stand still and the landscape of science discovery and computing holds immense promise. In this environment, I believe it is necessary to institute a system of science based performance metrics to help quantify our progress towards science goals and scientific computing. As a final comment I would like to reaffirm that the shifting landscapes of science will force changes to our computational sciences, and leave you with the quote from Richard Hamming, 'The purpose of computing is insight, not numbers'.

  8. Detection of Abnormal Muscle Activations during Walking Following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ping; Low, K. H.; McGregor, Alison H.; Tow, Adela

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify optimal rehabilitation strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI) participants, assessment of impaired walking is required to detect, monitor and quantify movement disorders. In the proposed assessment, ten healthy and seven SCI participants were recruited to perform an over-ground walking test at slow walking speeds. SCI…

  9. What is Matter? Study Guide. Unit C1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a two-part unit…

  10. 76 FR 10395 - BreconRidge Manufacturing Solutions, Now Known as Sanmina-SCI Corporation, Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Corporation, Division Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Design and Manufacturing, a Subsidiary of Sanmina-SCI... Corporation, Division Optoelectronic and Microelectronic Design and Manufacturing, a subsidiary of Sanmina-SCI... published in the Federal Register on October 15, 2010 (75 FR 63511). At the request of the State agency,...

  11. Looking at Life. Study Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  12. Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  13. Close Encounters of the Best Kind: The Latest Sci-Fi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzel, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Not only is science fiction alive and well--it's flourishing. From the big screen (howdy, Wall-E) to the big books (like Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games, which has attracted loads of prepublication praise), 2008 has been a great year for sci-fi. Publishers have released truckloads of new sci-fi titles this year, but what's particularly…

  14. What Makes Things Happen? Study Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  15. Close Encounters of the Best Kind: The Latest Sci-Fi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunzel, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    Not only is science fiction alive and well--it's flourishing. From the big screen (howdy, Wall-E) to the big books (like Suzanne Collins's The Hunger Games, which has attracted loads of prepublication praise), 2008 has been a great year for sci-fi. Publishers have released truckloads of new sci-fi titles this year, but what's particularly…

  16. Particles in Action. Study Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  17. First time experiences using SciPy for computer vision research

    SciTech Connect

    Eads, Damian R; Rosten, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    SciPy is an effective tool suite for prototyping new algorithms. We share some of our experiences using it for the first time to support our research in object detection. SciPy makes it easy to integrate C code, which is essential when algorithms operating on large data sets cannot be vectorized. Python's extensive support for operator overloading makes SciPy's syntax as succinct as its competitors, MATLAB. Octave. and R. The universality of Python. the language in which SciPy was written, gives the researcher access to a broader set of non-numerical libraries to support GUI development. interface with databases, manipulate graph structures, render 3D graphics, unpack binary files, etc. More profoundly, we found it easy to rework research code written with SciPy into a production application, deployable on numerous platforms.

  18. Orthostatic Responses to Anticholinesterase Inhibition in Persons with SCI

    PubMed Central

    Wecht, Jill M.; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Azarelo, Frank; Bauman, William A.; Kirshblum, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine (Ach) is the pre-synaptic neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system. Increased pre-synaptic Ach may augment post-synaptic release of norepinephrine thereby increasing systemic blood pressure (BP). The primary objective of this investigation was to determine the hemodynamic effect of pyridostigmine bromide (PYRIDO: 60 mg), an Ach inhibitor (AchI), compared to no-drug (NO-D) during head-up tilt (HUT) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Secondarily we aimed to determine the effects of PYRIDO compared to NO-D on symptoms of orthostatic intolerance (OI) and adverse event reporting (AE). Ten individuals with SCI (C4–C7) were studied on 2 occasions: visit 1) NO-D and visit 2) PYRIDO. On each visit subjects underwent a progressive HUT maneuver to 15°, 25°, 35° for 5 minutes at each angle and 45 minutes at 45°. Supine and orthostatic heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic BP (SBP & DBP) were monitored and symptoms of OI and AE recorded. Supine hemodynamics did not differ between the trials. The significant fall in SBP during the NO-D trial was diminished with PYRIDO and five subjects had an increased DBP during HUT with PYRIDO compared to the NO-D trial. Individuals that responded to PYRIDO with an increase in orthostatic BP had significantly lower resting HR than non-responders (p<0.01), which suggests increased levels of pre-synaptic Ach. Subjective symptoms of OI and AE reporting did not differ between the two trials. These preliminary data suggest that PYRIDO is safe and may be effective at ameliorating the orthostatic fall in BP in select individuals with SCI. PMID:25916633

  19. Nuclear Physics in the SciDAC Era

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Edwards

    2009-08-01

    Lattice QCD currently provides our only means of solving QCD (Quantum Chromo Dynamics) -- the theory of the strong nuclear force -- in the low-energy regime, and thus of crucial importance for theoretical and experimental research programs in High Energy and Nuclear Physics. Under the SciDAC program, a software infrastructure has been developed for lattice QCD that effectively utilize the capabilities of the INCITE facilities. These developments have enabled a new generation of Nuclear Physics calculations investigating the spectrum and structure of matter, such as the origin of mass and spin. This software infrastructure is described and recent results are reviewed.

  20. Surfing the High Density Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The central theme of the proposed research is to link what we know about galaxy clusters and large-scale structure in the local Universe at z less than 0.1 to what we know about the original fluctuations that led to this structure as observed in the cosmic microwave background. The simple-minded approach to this question (the kind I always take) is to took at structure in the regime 0.1 less than z less than 1000. We have a unique resource to help us in this task in the form of the VLA FIRST radio survey in which, to date, we have completed mapping nearly 5000 deg2 of the northern sky to a 20 cm flux density limit of 1.0 mJy. The 435,000 radio sources detected all have positions accurate to better than 1. As this report is written, we are obtaining the next - 1000 deg 2 of data; the goal of the survey is to complete the full 10,000 deg 2 to be covered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  1. Photo Surfing in Blade Runner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2005-01-01

    This month's "Mining Movies" looks at Blade Runner, Ridley Scott's film set in the year 2019. It is a sad time for Earth, which is in the midst of environmental degradation so severe that other planets are being prepared for colonization. The main source of labor for this preparation work are "replicants," organic robots that look and behave like…

  2. Cycle Surfing in the Paleozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, J. A.; Eros, J. M.; Montanez, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    Cyclic successions in the geologic record have great potential for improved chronostratigraphy (astrochronometer) and for determining resonance periods in planetary orbits including in deep-time intervals not covered by valid orbital solutions. Spectral analysis of decompacted stratigraphic records converted to time series using average sedimentation rates is a commonly applied method for assessing the presence and nature of orbital forcing recorded by cyclic successions. Uncertainty due to natural variation in sedimentation rate within facies, compaction rates and magnitude, and missing time in the rock record are not typically accounted for in spectral analysis of ancient rock successions. This study explores the impact of this uncertainty due to natural variability in the parameters that control the signature of cyclicity in the sedimentary record on spectral analysis results through evaluation of both artificially generated data and geologic data. Artificially generated data permits a detailed investigation of the sensitivity of the method under controlled parameterization using a Monte Carlo method. This approach is then applied to the Carboniferous (340 to 300 Ma) cyclothemic succession from the Donets Basin, Ukraine that has been recently calibrated high-precision (ID-TIMS), U-Pb dating of zircons. The cyclicity of the Carboniferous sedimentary record worldwide has long been recognized as a likely record of eccentricity-forcing. Recent work (Peterson, 2011) analyzing the stratigraphy in the basin indicates a 440-450-ka period for the long-eccentricity period. These results better constrain sedimentation rates for the Donets Basin succession, which in turn provide better resolution for use in spectral analysis. This work establishes limitations in the application of the decompaction method in deep time and allows quantifiable uncertainty to be propagated through calculations of orbital frequencies. Peterson, J.A. (2011), Better mathematical constraints on ages of Carboniferous stage boundaries using radiometric tuff dates and cyclostratigraphy, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 12, Q0AA15

  3. SciTil Detector for the PANDA experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ken; Gruber, Lukas; Brunner, Stefan; Marton, Johann; Orth, Herbert; Schwarz, Carsten; Scitil/Panda Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The PANDA experiment at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is a fixed-target experiment installed in a antiproton storage ring (HESR) in the energy range of 1 GeV to 15 GeV. FAIR is being build on the area of the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. The universal PANDA detector together with the HESR enables to study fundamental questions of hadron and nuclear physics, e.g. gluonic excitations, the physics of strange and charm quarks and nucleon structure. The SciTil detector is a barrel time-of-flight detector and is a relatively new subcomponent to the system. The demand arose in order to provide a securer event tagging at the event rates of 20-100 MHz instantaneous event rate, to improve a particle identification capability of relatively low momentum particles, and to allow a faster track finding with pattern recognition. The beam test of the SciTil prototype detector in January 2014 showed a promising result. We report the status and outlook of the project.

  4. Performance Characteristics of AOAC Method 2005.06 for the Determination of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Manila Clams, European Otter Clams, Grooved Carpet Shell Clams, Surf Clams, and Processed King Scallops.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Alison; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    An approach was developed for the verification of method performance of the AOAC 2005.06 LC-fluorescence detector (FLD) method for determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve shellfish. This was developed following advice published by the Analytical Laboratory Accreditation Criteria Committee and applied to shellfish species that had not been previously subjected to a full single-laboratory validation scheme. The refined approach was developed following the need to assess performance in a number of shellfish species infrequently monitored through the UK statutory monitoring program, while reducing the impact and cost of the studies, most notably in terms of the use of valuable reference standards. The species assessed were manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), European otter clams (Lutraria lutraria), grooved carpet shell clams (R. decussatus), surf clams (Spisula solida), and king scallops (Pecten maximus) presented as adductor only or adductor plus roe. The method was assessed for sensitivity in terms of LOD and LOQ, toxin recovery, and method precision in each species. It incorporated the PSP toxins deemed toxic and/or prevalent in UK samples and commercially available as certified reference standards. The toxins studied included GTX1-5, dcSTX, STX, C1&2, and NEO. The toxins dcGTX2&3 were included for surf clams due to the prevalence of these toxins in this species as a result of toxin decarbamoylation. Method performance targets were met for each of the characteristics investigated. Consequently, the method was deemed fit for purpose for the screening and quantification of these clam and scallop species for PSP toxins by AOAC Method 2005.06 LC-FLD. PMID:26024751

  5. Complementary use of the SciSearch database for improved biomedical information searching.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, C M

    1998-01-01

    The use of at least two complementary online biomedical databases is generally considered critical for biomedical scientists seeking to keep fully abreast of recent research developments as well as to retrieve the highest number of relevant citations possible. Although the National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE is usually the database of choice, this paper illustrates the benefits of using another database, the Institute for Scientific Information's SciSearch, when conducting a biomedical information search. When a simple query about red wine consumption and coronary artery disease was posed simultaneously in both MEDLINE and SciSearch, a greater number of relevant citations were retrieved through SciSearch. This paper also provides suggestions for carrying out a comprehensive biomedical literature search in a rapid and efficient manner by using SciSearch in conjunction with MEDLINE. PMID:9549014

  6. Construction of, and Component Testing for, the SciBooNE Muon Range Detector Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienaber, Paul

    2008-04-01

    The Muon Range Detector (MRD) is one of three subsystems comprising the SciBooNE detector currently running in the Booster Neutrino Beamline at Fermilab. The MRD was constructed from recycled plastic scintillator panels and photomultiplier tubes between June 2006 and March 2007. This paper describes the selection, testing, and characterization of the photomultipliers, the testing of the completed counters, the assembly of the MRD itself, and its deployment in the SciBooNE detector enclosure and subsequent operation.

  7. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML Update, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Commissionthe Management; Application Inte, I.

    2012-12-01

    CGI Interoperability Working Group activities during 2012 include deployment of services using the GeoSciML-Portrayal schema, addition of new vocabularies to support properties added in version 3.0, improvements to server software for deploying services, introduction of EarthResourceML v.2 for mineral resources, and collaboration with the IUSS on a markup language for soils information. GeoSciML and EarthResourceML have been used as the basis for the INSPIRE Geology and Mineral Resources specifications respectively. GeoSciML-Portrayal is an OGC GML simple-feature application schema for presentation of geologic map unit, contact, and shear displacement structure (fault and ductile shear zone) descriptions in web map services. Use of standard vocabularies for geologic age and lithology enables map services using shared legends to achieve visual harmonization of maps provided by different services. New vocabularies have been added to the collection of CGI vocabularies provided to support interoperable GeoSciML services, and can be accessed through http://resource.geosciml.org. Concept URIs can be dereferenced to obtain SKOS rdf or html representations using the SISSVoc vocabulary service. New releases of the FOSS GeoServer application greatly improve support for complex XML feature schemas like GeoSciML, and the ArcGIS for INSPIRE extension implements similar complex feature support for ArcGIS Server. These improved server implementations greatly facilitate deploying GeoSciML services. EarthResourceML v2 adds features for information related to mining activities. SoilML provides an interchange format for soil material, soil profile, and terrain information. Work is underway to add GeoSciML to the portfolio of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) specifications.

  8. "Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it !"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Launch of a Major European Outreach Programme Seven of Europe's leading Research Organizations [1] launch joint outreach programme for the European Science and Technology Week at the Technopolis Museum in Brussels on 22 March. Their aim is to show Europeans how today's society couldn't be without fundamental research . Could you imagine life without mobile phones, cars, CD players, TV, refrigerators, computers, the internet and the World Wide Web, antibiotics, vitamins, anaesthetics, vaccination, heating, pampers, nylon stockings, glue, bar codes, metal detectors, contact lenses, modems, laser printers, digital cameras, gameboys, play stations...? Technology is everywhere and used by everyone in today's society, but how many Europeans suspect that without studies on the structure of the atom, lasers would not exist, and neither would CD players? Most do not realise that most things they couldn't be without have required years of fundamental research . To fill this knowledge gap, the leading Research Organizations in Europe [1], with the support of the research directorate of the European Commission, have joined forces to inform Europeans how technology couldn't be without science, and how science can no longer progress without technology. The project is called...... Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it! Sci-Tech - Couldn't be without it! invites Europeans to vote online in a survey to identify the top ten technologies they can't live without. It will show them through a dynamic and entertaining Web space where these top technologies really come from, and it will reveal their intimate links with research. Teaching kits will be developed to explain to students how their favourite gadgets actually work, and how a career in science can contribute to inventions that future generations couldn't be without. The results of the survey will be presented as a series of quiz shows live on the Internet during the Science Week, from 4 to 10 November. Sci-tech - Couldn't be without it! will be launched on Friday 22 March at 18:30 at the Technopolis Science Museum in Brussels , coinciding with the official inauguration of CERN's travelling exhibition "E=mc 2 - When energy becomes matter". The exhibition will stay at Technopolis until 21 July. CERN Director General, Luciano Maiani , and European Commissioner for Research, Philippe Busquin , will open the event with speeches underlining the importance of joining efforts for science education and outreach in Europe. A tour of the exhibition and a demonstration of the project's hot site for cool science will follow, and the event will be brought to a close with a "Science in the Pub" discussion on the subject of modern physics and philosophy, complete with musical intermezzo and buffet. * Access the Couldn't be without it! online voting and web resources at: www.cern.ch/sci-tech * Confirm your presence at the Technopolis event before Wed. March 20 by fax to: +32-(0)15-34 20 10 * To reach Technopolis take exit 10 (Mechelen-Zuid) on motorway E19 (Bruxelles-Anvers). * For more information on the exhibition, contact Veronique de Man: veronique@technopolis.be; Tel. +32-15-34 2020 * For more information on Couldn't be without it! contact the executive coordinator: monica.de.pasquale@cern.ch; Tel. +41 22 767 3586 Note [1] CERN , the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, ESA , the European Space Agency, ESO , the European Southern Observatory, EMBL , the European Molecular Biology Laboratory, EFDA , the European Fusion Development Agreement, ESRF , the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility and ILL , Institut Laue-Langevin. These organizations have recently teamed up to form EIROFORUM (cf. ESO PR 12/01 ), whose Working Group on Outreach and Education is working with the European Union to provide a bridge between the organisations, the European Union and the citizens of Europe. The activities of the Working Group also contribute to the creation of the European Research Area.

  9. SciDAC-Center for Plasma Edge Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Choong Seock

    2012-06-04

    The SciDAC ProtoFSP Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (CPES) [http://www.cims.nyu.edu/cpes/] was awarded to New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences in FY 2006. C.S. Chang was the institutional and national project PI. It’s mission was 1) to build kinetic simulation code applicable to tokamak edge region including magnetic divertor geometry, 2) to build a computer science framework which can integrate the kinetic code with MHD/fluid codes in multiscale, 3) to conduct scientific research using the developed tools. CPES has built two such edge kinetic codes XGC0 and XGC1, which are still the only working kinetic edge plasma codes capable of including the diverted magnetic field geometry. CPES has also built the code coupling framework EFFIS (End-to-end Framework for Fusion Integrated Simulation), which incubated and used the Adios (www.olcf.ornl.gov/center-projects/adios/) and eSiMon (http://www.olcf.ornl.gov/center-projects/esimmon/) technologies, together with the Kepler technology.

  10. STARtorialist: Astronomy Outreach via Fashion, Sci-Fi, & Pop Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Emily L.; Ash, Summer

    2015-01-01

    Astronomical images in the public domain have increasingly been used as inspiration and patterns for clothing, accessories, and home decor. These 'AstroFashion' items are as diverse as DIY projects, handmade and boutique products, mass-produced commercial items, and haute couture. STARtorialist is a Tumblr-based blog that curates the proliferation of these products with the goal of celebrating the beauty of the universe and highlighting the science behind the images. The blog also includes sci-fi, space, and science-related aspects of popular culture. Each post features images and descriptions of the products, and often where/how we found them and/or the people wearing them, with links to the original astronomical images or other relevant science content. The popularity of each post is evident in the number of 'notes', including 'faves' (personal bookmarks) and 'reblogs' (shares with other users). Since launching the blog in December 2013, with an average of one post per day, we've attracted hundreds of followers on Tumblr and Twitter and thousands of notes on Tumblr. We will present our most popular posts and recommend how education, outreach, and press offices can add Tumblr to their social media repertoire.

  11. Local delivery of FTY720 in PCL membrane improves SCI functional recovery by reducing reactive astrogliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Jiaqiu; Lu, Ping; Cai, Youzhi; Wang, Yafei; Hong, Lan; Ren, Hao; Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Jing; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    FTY720 has recently been approved as an oral drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, and exerts its therapeutic effect by acting as an immunological inhibitor targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype (S1P1) of T cells. Recently studies demonstrated positive efficacy of this drug on spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models after systemic administration, albeit with significant adverse side effects. We hereby hypothesize that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by reducing pathological astrogliosis. The mechanistic functions of FTY720 were investigated in vitro and in vivo utilizing immunofluorescence, histology, MRI and behavioral analysis. The in vitro study showed that FTY720 can reduce astrocyte migration and proliferation activated by S1P. FTY720 can prolong internalization of S1P1 and exert antagonistic effects on S1P1. In vivo study of SCI animal models demonstrated that local delivery of FTY720 with polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane significantly decreased S1P1 expression and glial scarring compared with the control group. Furthermore, FTY720-treated groups exhibited less cavitation volume and neuron loss, which significantly improved recovery of motor function. These findings demonstrated that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by targeting the S1P1 receptor of astrocytes, provide a new therapeutic strategy for SCI treatment. PMID:26036174

  12. The design of color spectrophotometer based on diffuse illumination and compatible SCE/SCI geometric condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Kun; Yan, Hui-min; Jin, Shang-zhong

    2013-12-01

    The geometric conditions of diffuse illumination, 8 degree observation, specular light include (SCI) and specular light exclude (SCE) often be employed to measure the surface color of material with different gloss value. The SCE condition is usually realized by setting light trap on the integrating sphere. However, the structure of light trap has its negative influence on the light intensity uniformity, and can led to the inaccuracy of the test results under SCE or SCI condition. Due to the different sizes of the light trap, structures of the measurement instrument will led to inter instrument agreement among the measurement of sample with different gloss. This paper designs a measuring structure to measure the SCE and SCI results simultaneously; proposes a method to calculate the 8 degree gloss value based on the SCE and SCI test result; proposes a computing modal to modify the SCI and SCE measure result based on the 8 degree gloss value, experimental verifying is also carried out. The experimental results demonstrate the structure and modified model effectively reduce the negative influence of light trap. The inter instrument disagreement caused by the geometric dimension of different light trap is significantly decreased.

  13. Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

  14. Life, Beginning and Growing. Study Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  15. Atoms and Molecules. Study Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a four-part unit…

  16. Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  17. Sense from Senses. Study Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  18. The Chemicals of the Earth. Study Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  19. Ranking Business and Economics Journals in South America Using the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer K.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor; Scherer, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Access to published research for knowledge creation and education in the administrative science disciplines in South America has been enhanced since the introduction of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Although SciELO has been available as an online journal indexing and publication service since 1998, there have been no…

  20. Life, Beginning and Growing. Study Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  1. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of…

  2. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  3. Forces in Living Things. Study Guide. Unit H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty; Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  4. Forces in Action. Study Guide. Unit H1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  5. Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  6. Sense from Senses. Study Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  7. Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities and…

  8. The Chemicals of the Earth. Study Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  9. Understanding Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  10. What Do You Know about Water? Study Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide is a three-part unit…

  11. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Study Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and environmental laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide consists of…

  12. Using Electricity. Study Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  13. Ranking Business and Economics Journals in South America Using the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer K.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor; Scherer, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Access to published research for knowledge creation and education in the administrative science disciplines in South America has been enhanced since the introduction of the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO). Although SciELO has been available as an online journal indexing and publication service since 1998, there have been no…

  14. Living Things and Their Food. Study Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities…

  15. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  16. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  17. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  18. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  19. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  20. Energy for Living. Study Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide includes activities and…

  1. Learning to be a Scientist. Study Guide. Unit A1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide introduces students to…

  2. Our Planet Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This ZIM-SCI study guide presents activities,…

  3. Biomaterial scaffolds used for the regeneration of spinal cord injury (SCI).

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonhang; Park, So Ra; Choi, Byung Hyune

    2014-11-01

    This review presents a summary of various types of scaffold biomaterials used alone or together with therapeutic drugs and cells to regenerate spinal cord injury (SCI). The inhibitory environment and loss of axonal connections after SCI give rise to critical obstacles to regeneration of lost tissues and neuronal functions. Biomaterial scaffolds can provide a bridge to connect lost tissues, an adhesion site for implanted or host cells, and sustained release of therapeutic drugs in the injured spinal cord. In addition, they not only provide a structural platform, but can play active roles by inhibiting apoptosis of cells, inflammation and scar formation, and inducing neurogenesis, axonal growth and angiogenesis. Many synthetic and natural biomaterial scaffolds have been extensively investigated and tested in vitro and in animal SCI models for these purposes. We summarized the literature on the biomaterials commonly used for spinal cord regeneration in terms of historical backgrounds and current approaches. PMID:24831814

  4. Data Sharing and Publication Using the SciDrive Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, D.; Medvedev, D.; Szalay, A. S.; Plante, R.; Graham, M.

    2014-05-01

    Despite all the progress made during the last years in the field of cloud data storage, the problem of fast and reliable data storage for the scientific community still remains open. The SciDrive project meets the need for a free open-source scientific data publishing platform. Having the primary target audience of astronomers as the largest data producers, the platform however is not bound to any scientific domain and can be used by different communities. Our current installation provides a free and safe storage platform for scientists to publish their data and share it with the community with the simplicity of Dropbox. The system allows service providers to harvest from the files and derive their broader context in a fairly automated fashion. Collecting various scientific data files in a single location or multiple connected sites allows building an intelligent system of metadata extractors. Our system is aimed at simplifying the cataloging and processing of large file collections for the long tail of scientific data. We propose an extensible plugin architecture for automatic metadata extraction and storage. The current implementation targets some of the data formats commonly used by the astronomy communities, including FITS, ASCII and Excel tables, TIFF images, and YT simulations data archives. Along with generic metadata, format-specific metadata is also processed. For example, basic information about celestial objects is extracted from FITS files and TIFF images, if present. This approach makes the simple BLOB storage a smart system providing access to various data in its own representation, such as a database for files containing tables, or providing additional search and access features such as full-text search, image pyramids or thumbnails creation, simulation dataset id extractor for fast search. A 100TB implementation has just been put into production at Johns Hopkins University.

  5. SCI Hospital in Home Program: Bringing Hospital Care Home for Veterans With Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Madaris, Linda L; Onyebueke, Mirian; Liebman, Janet; Martin, Allyson

    2016-01-01

    The complex nature of spinal cord injury (SCI) and the level of care required for health maintenance frequently result in repeated hospital admissions for recurrent medical complications. Prolonged hospitalizations of persons with SCI have been linked to the increased risk of hospital-acquired infections and development or worsening pressure ulcers. An evidence-based alternative for providing hospital-level care to patients with specific diagnoses who are willing to receive that level of care in the comfort of their home is being implemented in a Department of Veterans Affairs SCI Home Care Program. The SCI Hospital in Home (HiH) model is similar to a patient-centered interdisciplinary care model that was first introduced in Europe and later tested as part of a National Demonstration and Evaluation Study through Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and School of Public Health. This was funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation and the Department of Veterans Affairs. The objectives of the program are to support veterans' choice and access to patient-centered care, reduce the reliance on inpatient medical care, allow for early discharge, and decrease medical costs. Veterans with SCI who are admitted to the HiH program receive daily oversight by a physician, daily visits by a registered nurse, access to laboratory services, oxygen, intravenous medications, and nursing care in the home setting. In this model, patients may typically access HiH services either as an "early discharge" from the hospital or as a direct admit to the program from the emergency department or SCI clinic. Similar programs providing acute hospital-equivalent care in the home have been previously implemented and are successfully demonstrating decreased length of stay, improved patient access, and increased patient satisfaction. PMID:26938182

  6. Bringing the SciBar detector to the booster neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Alcaraz, J.; Andringa, S.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Catala, J.; Cervera, A.; Conrad, J.M.; Couce, E.; Dore, U.; Espinal, X.; Finley, D.A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Hayato, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Ishii, T.; Jover, G.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kurimoto, Y.; Kurosawa, Y.; /Columbia U. /Fermilab /KEK, Tsukuba /Barcelona, IFAE /Tokyo U., ICRR /Valencia U., IFIC /Kyoto U. /Los Alamos /Louisiana State U. /Stratton Mountain Sch. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Colorado U.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents the physics case for bringing SciBar, the fully active, finely segmented tracking detector at KEK, to the FNAL Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) line. This unique opportunity arose with the termination of K2K beam operations in 2005. At that time, the SciBar detector became available for use in other neutrino beam lines, including the BNB, which has been providing neutrinos to the MiniBooNE experiment since late 2002. The physics that can be done with SciBar/BNB can be put into three categories, each involving several measurements. First are neutrino cross section measurements which are interesting in their own right, including analyses of multi-particle final states, with unprecedented statistics. Second are measurements of processes that represent the signal and primary background channels for the upcoming T2K experiment. Third are measurements which improve existing or planned MiniBooNE analyses and the understanding of the BNB, both in neutrino and antineutrino mode. For each of these proposed measurements, the SciBar/BNB combination presents a unique opportunity or will significantly improve upon current or near-future experiments for several reasons. First, the fine granularity of SciBar allows detailed reconstruction of final states not possible with the MiniBooNE detector. Additionally, the BNB neutrino energy spectrum is a close match to the expected T2K energy spectrum in a region where cross sections are expected to vary dramatically with energy. As a result, the SciBar/BNB combination will provide cross-section measurements in an energy range complementary to MINERvA and complete the knowledge of neutrino cross sections over the entire energy range of interest to the upcoming off-axis experiments.

  7. SciReader enables reading of medical content with instantaneous definitions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A major problem patients encounter when reading about health related issues is document interpretation, which limits reading comprehension and therefore negatively impacts health care. Currently, searching for medical definitions from an external source is time consuming, distracting, and negatively impacts reading comprehension and memory of the material. Methods SciReader was built as a Java application with a Flex-based front-end client. The dictionary used by SciReader was built by consolidating data from several sources and generating new definitions with a standardized syntax. The application was evaluated by measuring the percentage of words defined in different documents. A survey was used to test the perceived effect of SciReader on reading time and comprehension. Results We present SciReader, a web-application that simplifies document interpretation by allowing users to instantaneously view medical, English, and scientific definitions as they read any document. This tool reveals the definitions of any selected word in a small frame at the top of the application. SciReader relies on a dictionary of ~750,000 unique Biomedical and English word definitions. Evaluation of the application shows that it maps ~98% of words in several different types of documents and that most users tested in a survey indicate that the application decreases reading time and increases comprehension. Conclusions SciReader is a web application useful for reading medical and scientific documents. The program makes jargon-laden content more accessible to patients, educators, health care professionals, and the general public. PMID:21266060

  8. Spinal Cord Injury Community Survey: Understanding the Needs of Canadians with SCI

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Vanessa K.; Cobb, John; Leblond, Jean; Dumont, Frédéric S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of literature regarding service needs of people with SCI living in the community. Better assessment of expressed and met and unmet needs would help in the development of effective service delivery. Objective: From a national SCI Community Survey in Canada, the aim was to identify the most critical service needs of people living in the community at least 1 year post discharge from rehabilitation and the support they received to meet their needs. Method: Data were collected mainly through a secure Web site and encompassed demographics, personal and household income, an SCI severity measure, and an SCI community needs measure containing information on 13 SCI-related needs. Results: A total of 1,549 persons with SCI (traumatic lesion, n = 1,137; nontraumatic lesion, n = 412) across Canada completed the survey. Most critical needs for community integration were expressed by a substantial proportion of survey participants, but significantly more expressed and met needs were reported by persons with a traumatic than a nontraumatic lesion. Personal and environmental characteristics influenced the probability of expressing and meeting needs (eg, severity of injury and household income). Help and support to meet expressed needs were received from government agencies, community organizations, and friends or family. Conclusion: Better assessment of expressed and met or unmet needs for services remains a challenge but will serve as a tool to optimize service delivery in the community. Environmental barriers to services, particularly the process of getting needs met and associated costs, remain an issue that requires a reconsideration of some aspects of access to services. PMID:25477740

  9. GeoSciML version 3: A GML application for geologic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    International Union of Geological Sciences., I. C.; Richard, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    After 2 years of testing and development, XML schema for GeoSciML version 3 are now ready for application deployment. GeoSciML draws from many geoscience data modelling efforts to establish a common suite of feature types to represent information associated with geologic maps (materials, structures, and geologic units) and observations including structure data, samples, and chemical analyses. After extensive testing and use case analysis, in December 2008 the CGI Interoperability Working Group (IWG) released GeoSciML 2.0 as an application schema for basic geological information. GeoSciML 2.0 is in use to deliver geologic data by the OneGeology Europe portal, the Geological Survey of Canada Groundwater Information Network (wet GIN), and the Auscope Mineral Resources portal. GeoSciML to version 3.0 is updated to OGC Geography Markup Language v3.2, re-engineered patterns for association of element values with controlled vocabulary concepts, incorporation of ISO19156 Observation and Measurement constructs for representing numeric and categorical values and for representing analytical data, incorporation of EarthResourceML to represent mineral occurrences and mines, incorporation of the GeoTime model to represent GSSP and stratigraphic time scale, and refactoring of the GeoSciML namespace to follow emerging ISO practices for decoupling of dependencies between standardized namespaces. These changes will make it easier for data providers to link to standard vocabulary and registry services. The depth and breadth of GeoSciML remains largely unchanged, covering the representation of geologic units, earth materials and geologic structures. ISO19156 elements and patterns are used to represent sampling features such as boreholes and rock samples, as well as geochemical and geochronologic measurements. Geologic structures include shear displacement structures (brittle faults and ductile shears), contacts, folds, foliations, lineations and structures with no preferred orientation (e.g. 'miarolitic cavities'). The Earth material package allows for the description of both individual components, such as minerals, and compound materials, such as rocks or unconsolidated materials. Provision is made for alteration, weathering, metamorphism, particle geometry, fabric, and petrophysical descriptions. Mapped features describe the shape of the geological features using standard GML geometries, such as polygons, lines, points or 3D volumes. Geological events provide the age, process and environment of formation of geological features. The Earth Resource section includes features to represent mineral occurrences and mines and associated human activities independently. This addition allows description of resources and reserves that can comply with national and internationally accepted reporting codes. GeoSciML v3 is under consideration as the data model for INSPIRE annex 2 geologic reporting in Europe.

  10. Final Report for DOE Project: Portal Web Services: Support of DOE SciDAC Collaboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Mary Thomas, PI; Geoffrey Fox, Co-PI; D. Gannon; M. Pierce; R. Moore; D Schissel; J. Boisseau

    2007-10-01

    Grid portals provide the scientific community with familiar and simplified interfaces to the Grid and Grid services, and it is important to deploy grid portals onto the SciDAC grids and collaboratories. The goal of this project is the research, development and deployment of interoperable portal and web services that can be used on SciDAC National Collaboratory grids. This project has four primary task areas: development of portal systems; management of data collections; DOE science application integration; and development of web and grid services in support of the above activities.

  11. CitSci.org: A New Model for Managing, Documenting, and Sharing Citizen Science Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwei; Kaplan, Nicole; Newman, Greg; Scarpino, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Citizen science projects have the potential to advance science by increasing the volume and variety of data, as well as innovation. Yet this potential has not been fully realized, in part because citizen science data are typically not widely shared and reused. To address this and related challenges, we built CitSci.org (see www.citsci.org), a customizable platform that allows users to collect and generate diverse datasets. We hope that CitSci.org will ultimately increase discoverability and confidence in citizen science observations, encouraging scientists to use such data in their own scientific research. PMID:26492521

  12. CitSci.org: A New Model for Managing, Documenting, and Sharing Citizen Science Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwei; Kaplan, Nicole; Newman, Greg; Scarpino, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science projects have the potential to advance science by increasing the volume and variety of data, as well as innovation. Yet this potential has not been fully realized, in part because citizen science data are typically not widely shared and reused. To address this and related challenges, we built CitSci.org (see www.citsci.org), a customizable platform that allows users to collect and generate diverse datasets. We hope that CitSci.org will ultimately increase discoverability and confidence in citizen science observations, encouraging scientists to use such data in their own scientific research. PMID:26492521

  13. Data publication and sharing using the SciDrive service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, Dmitry; Medvedev, D.; Szalay, A. S.; Plante, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the last years progress in scientific data storage, still remains the problem of public data storage and sharing system for relatively small scientific datasets. These are collections forming the “long tail” of power log datasets distribution. The aggregated size of the long tail data is comparable to the size of all data collections from large archives, and the value of data is significant. The SciDrive project's main goal is providing the scientific community with a place to reliably and freely store such data and provide access to it to broad scientific community. The primary target audience of the project is astoromy community, and it will be extended to other fields. We're aiming to create a simple way of publishing a dataset, which can be then shared with other people. Data owner controls the permissions to modify and access the data and can assign a group of users or open the access to everyone. The data contained in the dataset will be automaticaly recognized by a background process. Known data formats will be extracted according to the user's settings. Currently tabular data can be automatically extracted to the user's MyDB table where user can make SQL queries to the dataset and merge it with other public CasJobs resources. Other data formats can be processed using a set of plugins that upload the data or metadata to user-defined side services. The current implementation targets some of the data formats commonly used by the astronomy communities, including FITS, ASCII and Excel tables, TIFF images, and YT simulations data archives. Along with generic metadata, format-specific metadata is also processed. For example, basic information about celestial objects is extracted from FITS files and TIFF images, if present. A 100TB implementation has just been put into production at Johns Hopkins University. The system features public data storage REST service supporting VOSpace 2.0 and Dropbox protocols, HTML5 web portal, command-line client and Java standalone client to synchronize a local folder with the remote storage. We use VAO SSO (Single Sign On) service from NCSA for users authentication that provides free registration for everyone.

  14. GeoSciML v3.0 - a significant upgrade of the CGI-IUGS geoscience data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, O.; Duclaux, G.; Boisvert, E.; Cipolloni, C.; Cox, S.; Laxton, J.; Letourneau, F.; Richard, S.; Ritchie, A.; Sen, M.; Serrano, J.-J.; Simons, B.; Vuollo, J.

    2012-04-01

    GeoSciML version 3.0 (http://www.geosciml.org), released in late 2011, is the latest version of the CGI-IUGS* Interoperability Working Group geoscience data interchange standard. The new version is a significant upgrade and refactoring of GeoSciML v2 which was released in 2008. GeoSciML v3 has already been adopted by several major international interoperability initiatives, including OneGeology, the EU INSPIRE program, and the US Geoscience Information Network, as their standard data exchange format for geoscience data. GeoSciML v3 makes use of recently upgraded versions of several Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and ISO data transfer standards, including GML v3.2, SWE Common v2.0, and Observations and Measurements v2 (ISO 19156). The GeoSciML v3 data model has been refactored from a single large application schema with many packages, into a number of smaller, but related, application schema modules with individual namespaces. This refactoring allows the use and future development of modules of GeoSciML (eg; GeologicUnit, GeologicStructure, GeologicAge, Borehole) in smaller, more manageable units. As a result of this refactoring and the integration with new OGC and ISO standards, GeoSciML v3 is not backwardly compatible with previous GeoSciML versions. The scope of GeoSciML has been extended in version 3.0 to include new models for geomorphological data (a Geomorphology application schema), and for geological specimens, geochronological interpretations, and metadata for geochemical and geochronological analyses (a LaboratoryAnalysis-Specimen application schema). In addition, there is better support for borehole data, and the PhysicalProperties model now supports a wider range of petrophysical measurements. The previously used CGI_Value data type has been superseded in favour of externally governed data types provided by OGC's SWE Common v2 and GML v3.2 data standards. The GeoSciML v3 release includes worked examples of best practice in delivering geochemical analytical data using the Observations and Measurements (ISO19156) and SWE Common v2 models. The GeoSciML v3 data model does not include vocabularies to support the data model. However, it does provide a standard pattern to reference controlled vocabulary concepts using HTTP-URIs. The international GeoSciML community has developed distributed RDF-based geoscience vocabularies that can be accessed by GeoSciML web services using the standard pattern recommended in GeoSciML v3. GeoSciML v3 is the first version of GeoSciML that will be accompanied by web service validation tools using Schematron rules. For example, these validation tools may check for compliance of a web service to a particular profile of GeoSciML, or for logical consistency of data content that cannot be enforced by the application schemas. This validation process will support accreditation of GeoSciML services and a higher degree of semantic interoperability. * International Union of Geological Sciences Commission for Management and Application of Geoscience Information (CGI-IUGS)

  15. Evaluating soil organic C sequestration in the Cotton Belt with the soil conditioning index (SCI)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simulation models that are sensitive to management, edaphic factors, and climate could provide insightful probes of how land owners and producers might be able to sequester soil organic C and engage in emerging carbon markets. We used the soil conditioning index (SCI) embedded in the RUSLE2 model t...

  16. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert

    2013-04-20

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems had high priority within DOE SC at the start of the second phase of the SciDAC program, SciDAC-2, as it continues to do so today. Achieving expected levels of performance on high-end computing (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing architectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, the University of Southern California?s Information Sciences Institute organized the Performance Engineering Research Institute (PERI). PERI implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineering of high profile applications. Within PERI, USC?s primary research activity was automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity was spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and was based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other recent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our other major component was application engagement, to which we devoted approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with SciDAC-2 applications. This report is a summary of the overall results of the USC PERI effort.

  17. 75 FR 19626 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License: SciTech Medical Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant a partially exclusive license to SciTech Medical Inc. The proposed license is a revocable, nonassignable, partially exclusive license to practice several inventions throughout the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and all other United States territories and possessions and throughout......

  18. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with spinal cord involvement (PRES-SCI): A case report

    PubMed Central

    Khokhar, Harsh Vardhan; Choudhary, Pradeep; Saxena, Sangeeta; Arif, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with spinal cord involvement (PRES-SCI) is a recently described entity with a handful of cases reported in literature. We describe a case of PRES in setting of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) with involvement of brain stem and spinal cord. PMID:27011648

  19. What Makes Things Happen? Teacher's Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  20. Cross section analyses in MiniBooNE and SciBooNE experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Teppei

    2015-05-15

    The MiniBooNE experiment (2002-2012) and the SciBooNE experiment (2007-2008) are modern high statistics neutrino experiments, and they developed many new ideas in neutrino cross section analyses. In this note, I discuss selected topics of these analyses.

  1. What Makes Things Happen? Teacher's Guide. Unit B. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  2. Looking at Life. Teacher's Guide. Unit A2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  3. DCCPS: BRP: HCIRB: PopSciGrid Community Health Data Portal

    Cancer.gov

    The PopSciGrid Community Health Data Portal is a proof of concept platform demonstrating how health behavior, policy, and demographic data can be integrated, visualized, and communicated to empower communities and support new avenues of research and policy for cancer prevention and control.

  4. SciJourn is magic: construction of a science journalism community of practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, Celeste R.

    2016-01-01

    This article is the first to describe the discoursal construction of an adolescent community of practice (CoP) in a non-school setting. CoPs can provide optimal learning environments. The adolescent community centered around science journalism and positioned itself dichotomously in relationship to school literacy practices. The analysis focuses on recordings from a panel-style research interview from an early implementation of the Science Literacy Through Science Journalism (SciJourn) project. Researchers trained high school students participating in a youth development program to write science news articles. Students engaged in the authentic practices of professional science journalists, received feedback from a professional editor, and submitted articles for publication. I used a fine-grained critical discourse analysis of genre, discourse, and style to analyze student responses about differences between writing in SciJourn and in school. Students described themselves as agentic in SciJourn and passive in school, using an academic writing discourse of deficit to describe schooling experiences. They affiliated with and defined a SciJourn CoP, constructing positive journalistic identities therein. Educators are encouraged to develop similar CoPs. The discursive features presented may be used to monitor the development of communities of practice in a variety of settings.

  5. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Final report], September 1, 1991--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, E.; Diaz, O.; Cox, J.

    1994-12-31

    The program of SciTech Clubs for Girls and its progress are described. This is a program that promotes the learning of science and mathematics by girls in the age range of 9 to 13 years through the process of building exhibits and learning from local professionals. A list of exhibits and a critique of the program are given.

  6. The SciELO Open Access: A Gold Way from the South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Abel L.

    2009-01-01

    Open access has long emphasized access to scholarly materials. However, open access can also mean access to the means of producing visible and recognized journals. This issue is particularly important in developing and emergent countries. The SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library On-line) project, first started in Brazil and, shortly afterward, in…

  7. Particles in Action. Teacher's Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  8. Transplantation of Glial Progenitors That Overexpress Glutamate Transporter GLT1 Preserves Diaphragm Function Following Cervical SCI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ke; Javed, Elham; Hala, Tamara J; Sannie, Daniel; Regan, Kathleen A; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Wright, Megan C; Poulsen, David J; Lepore, Angelo C

    2015-01-01

    Approximately half of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) cases affect cervical regions, resulting in chronic respiratory compromise. The majority of these injuries affect midcervical levels, the location of phrenic motor neurons (PMNs) that innervate the diaphragm. A valuable opportunity exists following SCI for preventing PMN loss that occurs during secondary degeneration. One of the primary causes of secondary injury is excitotoxicity due to dysregulation of extracellular glutamate homeostasis. Astrocytes express glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), which is responsible for the majority of CNS glutamate clearance. Given our observations of GLT1 dysfunction post-SCI, we evaluated intraspinal transplantation of Glial-Restricted Precursors (GRPs)—a class of lineage-restricted astrocyte progenitors—into ventral horn following cervical hemicontusion as a novel strategy for reconstituting GLT1 function, preventing excitotoxicity and protecting PMNs in the acutely injured spinal cord. We find that unmodified transplants express low levels of GLT1 in the injured spinal cord. To enhance their therapeutic properties, we engineered GRPs with AAV8 to overexpress GLT1 only in astrocytes using the GFA2 promoter, resulting in significantly increased GLT1 protein expression and functional glutamate uptake following astrocyte differentiation in vitro and after transplantation into C4 hemicontusion. Compared to medium-only control and unmodified GRPs, GLT1-overexpressing transplants reduced lesion size, diaphragm denervation and diaphragm dysfunction. Our findings demonstrate transplantation-based replacement of astrocyte GLT1 is a promising approach for SCI. PMID:25492561

  9. SciEthics Interactive: Science and Ethics Learning in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolny, Larysa; Woolfrey, Joan; Pierlott, Matthew; Kahn, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Learning in immersive 3D environments allows students to collaborate, build, and interact with difficult course concepts. This case study examines the design and development of the TransGen Island within the SciEthics Interactive project, a National Science Foundation-funded, 3D virtual world emphasizing learning science content in the context of…

  10. Transplantation of glial progenitors that overexpress glutamate transporter GLT1 preserves diaphragm function following cervical SCI.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Javed, Elham; Hala, Tamara J; Sannie, Daniel; Regan, Kathleen A; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Wright, Megan C; Poulsen, David J; Lepore, Angelo C

    2015-03-01

    Approximately half of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) cases affect cervical regions, resulting in chronic respiratory compromise. The majority of these injuries affect midcervical levels, the location of phrenic motor neurons (PMNs) that innervate the diaphragm. A valuable opportunity exists following SCI for preventing PMN loss that occurs during secondary degeneration. One of the primary causes of secondary injury is excitotoxicity due to dysregulation of extracellular glutamate homeostasis. Astrocytes express glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), which is responsible for the majority of CNS glutamate clearance. Given our observations of GLT1 dysfunction post-SCI, we evaluated intraspinal transplantation of Glial-Restricted Precursors (GRPs)--a class of lineage-restricted astrocyte progenitors--into ventral horn following cervical hemicontusion as a novel strategy for reconstituting GLT1 function, preventing excitotoxicity and protecting PMNs in the acutely injured spinal cord. We find that unmodified transplants express low levels of GLT1 in the injured spinal cord. To enhance their therapeutic properties, we engineered GRPs with AAV8 to overexpress GLT1 only in astrocytes using the GFA2 promoter, resulting in significantly increased GLT1 protein expression and functional glutamate uptake following astrocyte differentiation in vitro and after transplantation into C4 hemicontusion. Compared to medium-only control and unmodified GRPs, GLT1-overexpressing transplants reduced lesion size, diaphragm denervation and diaphragm dysfunction. Our findings demonstrate transplantation-based replacement of astrocyte GLT1 is a promising approach for SCI. PMID:25492561

  11. SciEthics Interactive: Science and Ethics Learning in a Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolny, Larysa; Woolfrey, Joan; Pierlott, Matthew; Kahn, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Learning in immersive 3D environments allows students to collaborate, build, and interact with difficult course concepts. This case study examines the design and development of the TransGen Island within the SciEthics Interactive project, a National Science Foundation-funded, 3D virtual world emphasizing learning science content in the context of…

  12. National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory SciDAC-2 Closeout Report Indiana University Component

    SciTech Connect

    Gottlieb, Steven Arthur; DeTar, Carleton; Tousaint, Doug

    2014-07-24

    This is the closeout report for the Indiana University portion of the National Computational Infrastructure for Lattice Gauge Theory project supported by the United States Department of Energy under the SciDAC program. It includes information about activities at Indian University, the University of Arizona, and the University of Utah, as those three universities coordinated their activities.

  13. Particles in Action. Teacher's Guide. Unit C2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  14. A Program Design To Motivate Individuals with SCI for Self-Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scotzin, Martha

    The report compares a skin care education program with a standard rehabilitation program to determine whether the program improved the self care motivations of spinal cord injury (SCI) paraplegic and quadriplegic inpatients (N=42). Study findings suggest that the skin care educational program was successful in changing patients' thinking about…

  15. Translational research in spinal cord injury: a survey of opinion from the SCI community.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Brian K; Hillyer, Jessica; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2010-01-01

    Much like our colleagues studying neuroprotection for acute stroke, we in the spinal cord injury (SCI) community have witnessed the preclinical emergence of numerous promising neuroprotective and neuro-regenerative treatments that have then disappointingly failed to demonstrate convincing efficacy in clinical trials. In contrast to the stroke field, the SCI community lacks guidelines to steer the preclinical development of therapies and maximize their chance of success prior to translation into expensive and laborious clinical trials. We conducted a survey of the SCI research community to garner perspectives on the question of what preclinical evidence was required before translating an experimental treatment into clinical trials. The opinions of the 324 respondents about what constitutes necessary preclinical evidence before moving to human SCI trials revealed strong support for the demonstration of efficacy in large-animal models, cervical injury models, and for independent replication of promising results. Marked differences exist between the sentiments of the respondents and the translational experience of our field. A framework for guiding the preclinical development of novel therapies prior to human translation would be helpful for ensuring clinical success. Greater dialogue on this issue is necessary to improve our chances of successfully bringing effective treatments to patients with this devastating injury. PMID:19751098

  16. Research Report for GeSci Meta-Review of ICT in Education: Phase Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBaron, John; McDonough, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This second phase of a comprehensive meta-review of educational ICT research and practice addresses global developments reflected in the research and development literature appearing since 2006. Completed in April 2009, the Phase One (P1) report comprised a synopsis of research related to GeSci's five thematic inquiry priorities. Preliminary…

  17. Increasing specialty care access through use of an innovative home telehealth-based spinal cord injury disease management protocol (SCI DMP).

    PubMed

    Woo, Christine; Seton, Jacinta M; Washington, Monique; Tomlinson, Suk C; Phrasavath, Douangmala; Farrell, Karen R; Goldstein, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Background A spinal cord injury disease management protocol (SCI DMP) was developed to address the unique medical, physical, functional, and psychosocial needs of those living with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). The SCI DMP was piloted to evaluate DMP clinical content and to identify issues for broader implementation across the Veterans Affairs (VA) SCI System of Care. Methods Thirty-three patients with SCI/D from four VA SCI centers participated in a 6-month pilot. Patients received customized SCI DMP questions through a data messaging device (DMD). Nurse home telehealth care coordinators (HTCC) monitored responses and addressed clinical alerts daily. One site administered the Duke Severity of Illness (DUSOI) Checklist and Short Form-8 (SF-8™) to evaluate the changes in comorbidity severity and health-related quality of life while on the SCI DMP. Results Patients remained enrolled an average of 116 days, with a mean response rate of 56%. The average distance between patient's home and their VA SCI center was 59 miles. Feedback on SCI DMP content and the DMD included requests for additional clinical topics, changes in administration frequency, and adapting the DMD for functional impairments. Improvement in clinical outcomes was seen in a subset of patients enrolled on the SCI DMP. Conclusion SCI HTCCs and patients reported that the program was most beneficial for newly injured patients recently discharged from acute rehabilitation that live far from specialty SCI care facilities. SCI DMP content changes and broader implementation strategies are currently being evaluated based on lessons learned from the pilot. PMID:24617497

  18. Methods to Quantify Pharmacologically Induced Alterations in Motor Function in Human Incomplete SCI

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Christopher K.; Jayaraman, Arun; Kinnaird, Catherine; Hornby, T. George

    2011-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a debilitating disorder, which produces profound deficits in volitional motor control. Following medical stabilization, recovery from SCI typically involves long term rehabilitation. While recovery of walking ability is a primary goal in many patients early after injury, those with a motor incomplete SCI, indicating partial preservation of volitional control, may have the sufficient residual descending pathways necessary to attain this goal. However, despite physical interventions, motor impairments including weakness, and the manifestation of abnormal involuntary reflex activity, called spasticity or spasms, are thought to contribute to reduced walking recovery. Doctrinaire thought suggests that remediation of this abnormal motor reflexes associated with SCI will produce functional benefits to the patient. For example, physicians and therapists will provide specific pharmacological or physical interventions directed towards reducing spasticity or spasms, although there continues to be little empirical data suggesting that these strategies improve walking ability. In the past few decades, accumulating data has suggested that specific neuromodulatory agents, including agents which mimic or facilitate the actions of the monoamines, including serotonin (5HT) and norepinephrine (NE), can initiate or augment walking behaviors in animal models of SCI. Interestingly, many of these agents, particularly 5HTergic agonists, can markedly increase spinal excitability, which in turn also increases reflex activity in these animals. Counterintuitive to traditional theories of recovery following human SCI, the empirical evidence from basic science experiments suggest that this reflex hyper excitability and generation of locomotor behaviors are driven in parallel by neuromodulatory inputs (5HT) and may be necessary for functional recovery following SCI. The application of this novel concept derived from basic scientific studies to promote recovery following human SCI would appear to be seamless, although the direct translation of the findings can be extremely challenging. Specifically, in the animal models, an implanted catheter facilitates delivery of very specific 5HT agonist compounds directly onto the spinal circuitry. The translation of this technique to humans is hindered by the lack of specific surgical techniques or available pharmacological agents directed towards 5HT receptor subtypes that are safe and effective for human clinical trials. However, oral administration of commonly available 5HTergic agents, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), may be a viable option to increase central 5HT concentrations in order to facilitate walking recovery in humans. Systematic quantification of how these SSRIs modulate human motor behaviors following SCI, with a specific focus on strength, reflexes, and the recovery of walking ability, are missing. This video demonstration is a progressive attempt to systematically and quantitatively assess the modulation of reflex activity, volitional strength and ambulation following the acute oral administration of an SSRI in human SCI. Agents are applied on single days to assess the immediate effects on motor function in this patient population, with long-term studies involving repeated drug administration combined with intensive physical interventions. PMID:21525848

  19. A new antimicrobial peptide SCY2 identified in Scylla Paramamosain exerting a potential role of reproductive immunity.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Kun; Xu, Wan-Fang; Chen, Hui-Yun; Peng, Hui; Zhang, Ya-Qun; Huang, Wen-Shu; Wang, Shu-Ping; An, Zhe; Shan, Zhong-Guo; Chen, Fang-Yi; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2016-04-01

    A new antimicrobial peptide named SCY2 with 65.08% identity in amino acid sequence to the known scygonadin (SCY1) was first characterized in Scylla paramamosain based on its cloned full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences. The SCY2 gene was dominantly expressed in the ejaculatory duct of male crabs and its mRNA transcripts were discerned mainly in the glandular epithelium of the inner wall and the secretion inside the ejaculatory duct. Although the SCY2 gene could not be induced with the challenge of the bacteria and fungi tested, its induction reached the highest level at the peak period of mating in mature male crabs either in June or November, suggesting its induction was likely related to seasonal reproduction changes. Moreover, it was interesting to note that, from analysis of its transcripts and protein, SCY2 was significantly expressed only in the ejaculatory duct of pre-copulatory males before mating, however it was clearly detected in the spermatheca of post-copulatory females after mating accompanied by the decreased level of SCY2 expression in the ejaculatory duct. These results suggested that the SCY2 was probably transferred from the male during mating action with the female for the purpose of protecting fertilization. The recombinant SCY2 was more active against the Gram-positive than the Gram-negative bacteria tested. It was further observed that the SCY2 transcripts were significantly increased with addition of exogenous progesterone in tissue cultures whereas the several other hormones tested had no any effect on SCY2 expression, indicating that there might be a relationship between the SCY2 expression and the induction of hormones in vivo. In summary, this study demonstrated that one role of SCY2 was likely to be involved in crab reproduction and it exerted its reproductive immune function through the mating action and the maintenance of inner sterility in the spermatheca of the female, thus leading to successful fertilization of S. paramamosain. PMID:26911409

  20. The High-resolution Stereo Color Imager (HiSCI) on ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Thomas, N.; Bridges, J.; Byrne, S.; Cremonese, G.; Delamere, W.; Hansen, C.; Hauber, E.; Ivanov, A.; Kestay, L.; Kirk, R.; Mangold, N.; Markiewicz, W.; Massironi, M.; Mattson, S.; Okubo, C.; Wray, J.

    2011-10-01

    HiSCI has been chosen for the payload of the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO), a joint ESA/NASA mission scheduled to arrive at Mars in 2016 [1]. There are 3 major HiSCI partners: (1) the telescope assembly will be built in Switzerland overseen by the University of Bern; (2) the overall design, electronics, and integration will be by Ball Aerospace in Colorado; and (3) operations will be joint with MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) [2] at the University of Arizona. HiSCI will acquire the best-ever colour and stereo images over significant areas of Mars.

  1. Antidepressants Are Effective in Decreasing Neuropathic Pain After SCI: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Stacey; Lam, Tracey; Teasell, Robert; Loh, Eldon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review and assess the effectiveness and safety of antidepressants for neuropathic pain among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: A systematic search was conducted using multiple databases for relevant articles published from 1980 to April 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving antidepressant treatment of neuropathic pain with ?3 individuals and ?50% of study population with SCI were included. Two independent reviewers selected studies based on inclusion criteria and then extracted data. Pooled analysis using Cohen’s d to calculate standardized mean difference, standard error, and 95% confidence interval for primary (pain) and other secondary outcomes was conducted. Results: Four RCTs met inclusion criteria. Of these, 2 studies assessed amitriptyline, 1 trazadone, and 1 duloxetine among individuals with neuropathic SCI pain. A small effect was seen in the effectiveness of antidepressants in decreasing pain among individuals with SCI (standardized mean difference = 0.34 ± 0.15; 95% CI, 0.05-0.62; P = .02). A number needed to treat of 3.4 for 30% or more pain relief was found by pooling 2 studies. Of these, significantly higher risk of experiencing constipation (risk ratio [RR] = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.09-2.78; P = .02) and dry mouth (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.04-1.85; P = .02) was found amongst individuals receiving antidepressant treatment compared to those in the control group. Conclusion: The current meta-analysis demonstrates that antidepressants are effective in reducing neuropathic SCI pain. However, this should be interpreted with caution due to the limited number of studies. Further evaluation of long-term therapeutic options may be required. PMID:26364286

  2. Science Classroom Inquiry (SCI) Simulations: A Novel Method to Scaffold Science Learning

    PubMed Central

    Peffer, Melanie E.; Beckler, Matthew L.; Schunn, Christian; Renken, Maggie; Revak, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Science education is progressively more focused on employing inquiry-based learning methods in the classroom and increasing scientific literacy among students. However, due to time and resource constraints, many classroom science activities and laboratory experiments focus on simple inquiry, with a step-by-step approach to reach predetermined outcomes. The science classroom inquiry (SCI) simulations were designed to give students real life, authentic science experiences within the confines of a typical classroom. The SCI simulations allow students to engage with a science problem in a meaningful, inquiry-based manner. Three discrete SCI simulations were created as website applications for use with middle school and high school students. For each simulation, students were tasked with solving a scientific problem through investigation and hypothesis testing. After completion of the simulation, 67% of students reported a change in how they perceived authentic science practices, specifically related to the complex and dynamic nature of scientific research and how scientists approach problems. Moreover, 80% of the students who did not report a change in how they viewed the practice of science indicated that the simulation confirmed or strengthened their prior understanding. Additionally, we found a statistically significant positive correlation between students’ self-reported changes in understanding of authentic science practices and the degree to which each simulation benefitted learning. Since SCI simulations were effective in promoting both student learning and student understanding of authentic science practices with both middle and high school students, we propose that SCI simulations are a valuable and versatile technology that can be used to educate and inspire a wide range of science students on the real-world complexities inherent in scientific study. PMID:25786245

  3. Corrigendum to "Initial oxidation states on Si(001) surface induced by translational kinetic energy of O2 at room temperature studied by Si-2p core-level spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation" [Surf. Sci. 482-485, 189-195 (2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraoka, Yuden; Yoshigoe, Akitaka

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the authors have performed experiments on surface chemical reactions using a supersonic O2 molecular beam. Translational kinetic energy values of the supersonic O2 molecular beams have been estimated by calculations. The authors have made a mistake in the calculations. In the article, the translational kinetic energy of the supersonic O2 molecular beam had been calculated by the following equation,

  4. Corrigendum to "SEM/EDX and XPS studies of niobium after electropolishing" by T. Hryniewicz, K. Rokosz, H.R. Zschommler Sandim [Appl. Surf. Sci., yyy (2012) xxx], http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2012.09.060

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryniewicz, Tadeusz; Rokosz, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    This corrigendum has been prepared as a response to the comment on our recent work [1] published in this journal "Applied Surface Science"; the comment was delivered by a team of authors from Germany [2]. The objections comprised in the comment [2], formulated in 6 points, are concerned generally on our XPS results obtained on niobium after electropolishing (EP). In this response we show that there is another way possible to follow after the XPS studies and calculations performed afterwards. The indicated by the team [2] error in our results on Nb2O5 (point 5 [2]) seems to be much overestimated. Similarly, under point 6 [2] the ratio O:S = 4:1 nominal ratio of 375% for SO42-, as indicated by the team [2], may be considered as possible only theoretically. Our proof of the re-calculated and corrected results will be presented below. It is worth adding that they are based on the recently available literature [3-8].

  5. GENESIS SciFlo: Enabling Multi-Instrument Atmospheric Science Using Grid Workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Tang, B.; Manipon, G.; Yunck, T.; Fetzer, E.; Braverman, A.; Dobinson, E.

    2004-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of web services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations will include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-strato-sphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we are developing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable web services and executable operators into a distributed computing flow (operator tree). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out an HTML form or directly authoring the underlying XML dataflow document, and results are returned directly to the scientist's desktop. Once an analysis has been specified for a chunk or day of data, it can be easily repeated with different control parameters or over months of data. We will discuss the design issues and solutions used in the implementation of SciFlo, including XML dataflow documents, heavy use of XML datatyping & semantic web concepts, parallel dataflow execution engines, data access simply by naming, and catalog lookup of operator bundles. To illustrate the SciFlo concepts, an example dataflow will be demonstrated in which atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles from the AIRS, GPS, and MODIS instruments are retrieved using SOAP (data access) services, co-registered, and visually & statistically compared on demand.

  6. Development and applications of single-cycle infectious influenza A virus (sciIAV).

    PubMed

    Nogales, Aitor; Baker, Steven F; Domm, William; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis

    2016-05-01

    The diverse host range, high transmissibility, and rapid evolution of influenza A viruses justify the importance of containing pathogenic viruses studied in the laboratory. Other than physically or mechanically changing influenza A virus containment procedures, modifying the virus to only replicate for a single round of infection similarly ensures safety and consequently decreases the level of biosafety containment required to study highly pathogenic members in the virus family. This biological containment is more ideal because it is less apt to computer, machine, or human error. With many necessary proteins that can be deleted, generation of single-cycle infectious influenza A viruses (sciIAV) can be achieved using a variety of approaches. Here, we review the recent burst in sciIAV generation and summarize the applications and findings on this important human pathogen using biocontained viral mimics. PMID:26220478

  7. Assembling Large, Multi-Sensor Climate Datasets Using the SciFlo Grid Workflow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Fetzer, E.

    2008-12-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is the world's most ambitious facility for studying global climate change. The mandate now is to combine measurements from the instruments on the A-Train platforms (AIRS, AMSR-E, MODIS, MISR, MLS, and CloudSat) and other Earth probes to enable large-scale studies of climate change over periods of years to decades. However, moving from predominantly single-instrument studies to a multi-sensor, measurement-based model for long-duration analysis of important climate variables presents serious challenges for large-scale data mining and data fusion. For example, one might want to compare temperature and water vapor retrievals from one instrument (AIRS) to another instrument (MODIS), and to a model (ECMWF), stratify the comparisons using a classification of the cloud scenes from CloudSat, and repeat the entire analysis over years of AIRS data. To perform such an analysis, one must discover & access multiple datasets from remote sites, find the space/time matchups between instruments swaths and model grids, understand the quality flags and uncertainties for retrieved physical variables, and assemble merged datasets for further scientific and statistical analysis. To meet these large-scale challenges, we are utilizing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data query, access, subsetting, co-registration, mining, fusion, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a semantically-enabled ("smart") Grid Workflow system that ties together a peer-to-peer network of computers into an efficient engine for distributed computation. The SciFlo workflow engine enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling remotely-invokable Web Services (SOAP or http GET URLs), native executables, command-line scripts, and Python codes into a distributed computing flow. A scientist visually authors the graph of operation in the VizFlow GUI, or uses a text editor to modify the simple XML workflow documents. The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed workflows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The engine transparently moves data to the operators, and moves operators to the data (on the dozen trusted SciFlo nodes). SciFlo also deploys a variety of Data Grid services to: query datasets in space and time, locate & retrieve on-line data granules, provide on-the-fly variable and spatial subsetting, and perform pairwise instrument matchups for A-Train datasets. These services are combined into efficient workflows to assemble the desired large-scale, merged climate datasets. SciFlo is currently being applied in several large climate studies: comparisons of aerosol optical depth between MODIS, MISR, AERONET ground network, and U. Michigan's IMPACT aerosol transport model; characterization of long-term biases in microwave and infrared instruments (AIRS, MLS) by comparisons to GPS temperature retrievals accurate to 0.1 degrees Kelvin; and construction of a decade-long, multi-sensor water vapor climatology stratified by classified cloud scene by bringing together datasets from AIRS/AMSU, AMSR-E, MLS, MODIS, and CloudSat (NASA MEASUREs grant, Fetzer PI). The presentation will discuss the SciFlo technologies, their application in these distributed workflows, and the many challenges encountered in assembling and analyzing these massive datasets.

  8. Simulations with SCI as a data carrier in data acquisition systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kristiansen, E.H. Univ. of Oslo . Dept. of Physics); Bothner, J.W.; Hulaas, T.I.; Skaali, T.B. ); Rongved, E. )

    1994-02-01

    Detailed simulations of processor networks based on the Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI) show that SCI is suitable as data carrier in data acquisition systems where the total bandwidth need is in the multi GBytes/s range and a low latency is required. The objective of these simulations was to find topologies with low latency and high bandwidth, but also with the cost of implementation in mind. A ring-to-ring bridge has been used as the building element for the networks. The simulations have been performed on regular k-ary n-cubes type topologies from a few tens of nodes and up to about 500 nodes under different load conditions. Among the parameters which has been manipulated in the simulations are the number of nodes, topology structure, number of outstanding requests and load in the system.

  9. Assembling Large, Multi-Sensor Climate Datasets Using the SciFlo Grid Workflow System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Fetzer, E.

    2009-04-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is an ambitious facility for studying global climate change. The mandate now is to combine measurements from the instruments on the "A-Train" platforms (AIRS, AMSR-E, MODIS, MISR, MLS, and CloudSat) and other Earth probes to enable large-scale studies of climate change over periods of years to decades. However, moving from predominantly single-instrument studies to a multi-sensor, measurement-based model for long-duration analysis of important climate variables presents serious challenges for large-scale data mining and data fusion. For example, one might want to compare temperature and water vapor retrievals from one instrument (AIRS) to another instrument (MODIS), and to a model (ECMWF), stratify the comparisons using a classification of the "cloud scenes" from CloudSat, and repeat the entire analysis over years of AIRS data. To perform such an analysis, one must discover & access multiple datasets from remote sites, find the space/time "matchups" between instruments swaths and model grids, understand the quality flags and uncertainties for retrieved physical variables, assemble merged datasets, and compute fused products for further scientific and statistical analysis. To meet these large-scale challenges, we are utilizing a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data query, access, subsetting, co-registration, mining, fusion, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a semantically-enabled ("smart") Grid Workflow system that ties together a peer-to-peer network of computers into an efficient engine for distributed computation. The SciFlo workflow engine enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling remotely-invokable Web Services (SOAP or http GET URLs), native executables, command-line scripts, and Python codes into a distributed computing flow. A scientist visually authors the graph of operation in the VizFlow GUI, or uses a text editor to modify the simple XML workflow documents. The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed workflows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The engine transparently moves data to the operators, and moves operators to the data (on the dozen trusted SciFlo nodes). SciFlo also deploys a variety of Data Grid services to: query datasets in space and time, locate & retrieve on-line data granules, provide on-the-fly variable and spatial subsetting, perform pairwise instrument matchups for A-Train datasets, and compute fused products. These services are combined into efficient workflows to assemble the desired large-scale, merged climate datasets. SciFlo is currently being applied in several large climate studies: comparisons of aerosol optical depth between MODIS, MISR, AERONET ground network, and U. Michigan's IMPACT aerosol transport model; characterization of long-term biases in microwave and infrared instruments (AIRS, MLS) by comparisons to GPS temperature retrievals accurate to 0.1 degrees Kelvin; and construction of a decade-long, multi-sensor water vapor climatology stratified by classified cloud scene by bringing together datasets from AIRS/AMSU, AMSR-E, MLS, MODIS, and CloudSat (NASA MEASUREs grant, Fetzer PI). The presentation will discuss the SciFlo technologies, their application in these distributed workflows, and the many challenges encountered in assembling and analyzing these massive datasets.

  10. SciFlo: Semantically-Enabled Grid Workflow for Collaborative Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunck, T.; Wilson, B. D.; Raskin, R.; Manipon, G.

    2005-12-01

    SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* standards and the Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable SOAP Services, native executables, local command-line scripts, and python codes into a distributed computing flow (a graph of operators). SciFlo's XML dataflow documents can be a mixture of concrete operators (fully bound operations) and abstract template operators (late binding via semantic lookup). All data objects and operators can be both simply typed (simple and complex types in XML schema) and semantically typed using controlled vocabularies (linked to OWL ontologies such as SWEET). By exploiting ontology-enhanced search and inference, one can discover (and automatically invoke) Web Services and operators that have been semantically labeled as performing the desired transformation, and adapt a particular invocation to the proper interface (number, types, and meaning of inputs and outputs). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out an HTML form or directly authoring the underlying XML dataflow document, and results are returned directly to the scientist's desktop. A Visual Programming tool is also being developed, but it is not required. Once an analysis has been specified for a granule or day of data, it can be easily repeated with different control parameters and over months or years of data. SciFlo uses and preserves semantics, and also generates and infers new semantic annotations. Specifically, the SciFlo engine uses semantic metadata to understand (infer) what it is doing and potentially improve the data flow; preserves semantics by saving links to the semantics of (metadata describing) the input datasets, related datasets, and the data transformations (algorithms) used to generate downstream products; generates new metadata by allowing the user to add semantic annotations to the generated data products (or simply accept automatically generated provenance annotations); and infers new semantic metadata by understanding and applying logic to the semantics of the data and the transformations performed. Much ontology development still needs to be done but, nevertheless, SciFlo documents provide a substrate for using and preserving more semantics as ontologies develop. We will give a live demonstration of the growing SciFlo network using an example dataflow in which atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles from three Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments are retrieved using SOAP (geo-location query & data access) services, co-registered, and visually & statistically compared on demand (see http://sciflo.jpl.nasa.gov for more information).

  11. SCiP at 35: an idiosyncratic history of the society for computers in psychology.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Christopher R

    2006-05-01

    SCiP history may be divided into three eras: the Paleozoic (1971-1982), the Mesozoic (1982-1994), and the Cenozoic (1994-present). Following a list of Secretary-Treasurers, a list of all SCiP Presidents is provided in Table 1. Next I present personal highlights, including the first symposium on psychology and the World-Wide Web; David Rumelhart's mathematical explanation of connectionism; and Stevan Hamad's discussion of "freeing" the journal literature. I observe that a small conference is becoming more intimate and that much of our mission involves figuring out how to conduct high-quality scientific research with consumer-grade electronics. I argue that we are an increasingly international organization, that graduate students are welcome, and that we should become more inclusive in the areas of gender and ethnicity and should make membership more meaningful I conclude by looking ahead and attempting to predict the future. PMID:16956101

  12. Improvement in student science proficiency through InSciEd out.

    PubMed

    Pierret, Chris; Sonju, James D; Leicester, Jean E; Hoody, Maggie; LaBounty, Thomas J; Frimannsdottir, Katrin R; Ekker, Stephen C

    2012-12-01

    Integrated Science Education Outreach (InSciEd Out) is a collaboration formed between Mayo Clinic, Winona State University, and Rochester Public Schools (MN) with the shared vision of achieving excellence in science education. InSciEd Out employs an equitable partnership model between scientists, teachers, education researchers, and the community. Teams of teachers from all disciplines within a single school experience cutting-edge science using the zebrafish model system, as well as current pedagogical methods, during a summer internship at the Mayo Clinic. Within the internship, the teachers produce new curriculum that directly addresses opportunities for science education improvement at their own school. Zebrafish are introduced within the new curriculum to support a living model of the practice of science. Following partnership with the InSciEd Out program and 2 years of implementation in the classroom, teacher-interns from a K-8 public school reported access to local scientific technology and expertise they had not previously recognized. Teachers also reported improved integration of other disciplines into the scientific curriculum and a flow of concepts vertically from K through 8. Students more than doubled selection of an Honors science track in high school to nearly 90%. 98% of students who took the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments in their 5(th) and 8(th) grade year (a span that includes 2 years of InSciEd Out) showed medium or high growth in science proficiency. These metrics indicate that cooperation between educators and scientists can result in positive change in student science proficiency and demonstrate that a higher expectation in science education can be achieved in US public schools. PMID:23244687

  13. Improvement in Student Science Proficiency Through InSciEd Out

    PubMed Central

    Sonju, James D.; Leicester, Jean E.; Hoody, Maggie; LaBounty, Thomas J.; Frimannsdottir, Katrin R.; Ekker, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Integrated Science Education Outreach (InSciEd Out) is a collaboration formed between Mayo Clinic, Winona State University, and Rochester Public Schools (MN) with the shared vision of achieving excellence in science education. InSciEd Out employs an equitable partnership model between scientists, teachers, education researchers, and the community. Teams of teachers from all disciplines within a single school experience cutting-edge science using the zebrafish model system, as well as current pedagogical methods, during a summer internship at the Mayo Clinic. Within the internship, the teachers produce new curriculum that directly addresses opportunities for science education improvement at their own school. Zebrafish are introduced within the new curriculum to support a living model of the practice of science. Following partnership with the InSciEd Out program and 2 years of implementation in the classroom, teacher-interns from a K–8 public school reported access to local scientific technology and expertise they had not previously recognized. Teachers also reported improved integration of other disciplines into the scientific curriculum and a flow of concepts vertically from K through 8. Students more than doubled selection of an Honors science track in high school to nearly 90%. 98% of students who took the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments in their 5th and 8th grade year (a span that includes 2 years of InSciEd Out) showed medium or high growth in science proficiency. These metrics indicate that cooperation between educators and scientists can result in positive change in student science proficiency and demonstrate that a higher expectation in science education can be achieved in US public schools. PMID:23244687

  14. SciDAC advances in beam dynamics simulation: from light sources to colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Qiang, J.; Borland, M.; Kabel, A.; Li, R.; Ryne, R.; Stern, E.; Wang, Y.; Wasserman, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2008-06-16

    In this paper, we report on progress that has been made in beam dynamics simulation, from light sources to colliders, during the first year of SciDAC-II accelerator project,"Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS)." Several parallel computational tools for beam dynamics simulation will be described. A number of applications in current and future accelerator facilities, e.g., LCLS, RHIC, Tevatron, LHC, ELIC, are presented.

  15. SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhihong

    2013-12-18

    During the first year of the SciDAC gyrokinetic particle simulation (GPS) project, the GPS team (Zhihong Lin, Liu Chen, Yasutaro Nishimura, and Igor Holod) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) studied the tokamak electron transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence, and by trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with kinetic electron effects, extended our studies of ITG turbulence spreading to core-edge coupling. We have developed and optimized an elliptic solver using finite element method (FEM), which enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models (split-weight scheme and hybrid model) in the SciDAC GPS production code GTC. The GTC code has been ported and optimized on both scalar and vector parallel computer architectures, and is being transformed into objected-oriented style to facilitate collaborative code development. During this period, the UCI team members presented 11 invited talks at major national and international conferences, published 22 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 10 papers in conference proceedings. The UCI hosted the annual SciDAC Workshop on Plasma Turbulence sponsored by the GPS Center, 2005-2007. The workshop was attended by about fifties US and foreign researchers and financially sponsored several gradual students from MIT, Princeton University, Germany, Switzerland, and Finland. A new SciDAC postdoc, Igor Holod, has arrived at UCI to initiate global particle simulation of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence driven by energetic particle modes. The PI, Z. Lin, has been promoted to the Associate Professor with tenure at UCI.

  16. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Johnson, Chris; Joy, Ken; Ahern, Sean; Pascucci,Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathan; Duchaineau, Mark; Hamann, Bernd; Hansen, Charles; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom, Peter; Meredith, Jeremy; Ostrouchov, George; Parker, Steven; Silva, Claudio; Sanderson, Allen; Tricoche, Xavier

    2006-11-28

    The SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) began operation on 10/1/2006. This document, dated11/27/2006, is the first version of the VACET project management plan. Itwas requested by and delivered to ASCR/DOE. It outlines the Center'saccomplishments in the first six weeks of operation along with broadobjectives for the upcoming future (12-24 months).

  17. T-1025 IU SciBath-768 detector tests in MI-12

    SciTech Connect

    Tayloe, Rex; Cooper, R.; Garrison, L.; Thornton, T.; Rebenitsch, L.; DeJongh, Fritz; Loer, Benjamin; Ramberg, Erik; Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2012-02-11

    This is a memorandum of understanding between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Department of Physics and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, who have committed to participate in detector tests to be carried out during the 2012 Fermilab Neutrino program. The memorandum is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. it reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this memorandum to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. The experimenters propsoe to test their prototype 'SciBat-768' detector in the MI-12 building for 3 months (February-April) in Spring 2012. The major goal of this effort is to measure or limit the flux of beam-induced neutrons in a far-off-axis (> 45{sup o}) location of the Booster Neutrino Beamline (BNB). This flux is of interest for a proposed coherent neutral-current neutrino-argon elastic scattering experiment. A second goal is to collect more test data for the SciBath-768 to enable better understanding and calibration of the device. The SciBath-768 detector successfully ran for 3 months in the MINOS Underground Area in Fall 2011 as testbeam experiment T-1014 and is currently running above ground in the MINOS service building. For the run proposed here, the experiments are requesting: space in MI-12 in which to run the SciBath detector during February-April 2012 while the BNB is operating; technical support to help with moving the equipment on site; access to power, internet, and accelerator signals; and a small office space from which to run and monitor the experiment.

  18. Medical informatics on the Internet: creating the sci.med. informatics newsgroup.

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, A M; Sittig, D F

    1995-01-01

    A Usenet newsgroup, sci.med.informatics, has been created to serve as an international electronic forum for discussion of issues related to medical informatics. The creation process follows a set of administrative rules set out by the Usenet administration on the Internet and consists of five steps: 1) informal discussion, 2) request for formal discussion, 3) formal discussion, 4) voting, and 5) posting of results. The newsgroup can be accessed using any news reader via the Internet. PMID:7583645

  19. Family dynamics and psychosocial functioning in children with SCI/D from Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Nicolais, Christina J; Perrin, Paul B; Panyavin, Ivan; Nicholls, Elizabeth G; Olivera Plaza, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the connections between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Participants were recruited from communities in Neiva, Colombia. Participants Thirty children with SCI/D and their primary caregiver participated. Children were between 8 and 17 years of age, and had sustained their injury at least six months prior to data collection. Interventions NA. Outcome measures Participating children completed measures assessing their own psychosocial functioning (Children's Depression Inventory, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-2, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory), and their primary caregiver completed measures of family dynamics (Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale- Fourth Edition, Family Communication Scale, Family Assessment Device- General Functioning, Family Satisfaction Scale, Relationship-Focused Coping Scale). Results A correlation matrix showed a number of significant bivariate correlations between child and family variables, and three multiple regressions showed that family satisfaction, empathy, and flexibility significantly explained 27% of the variance in child worry; family satisfaction and communication explained 18% of the variance in child social anxiety; and family cohesion and communication explained 23% of the variance in child emotional functioning. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of rehabilitation professionals considering the association between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with SCI/D when working with this population. PMID:25582185

  20. [SciELO: A cooperative project for the dissemination of science].

    PubMed

    Bojo Canales, C; Fraga Medín, C; Hernández Villegas, S; Primo Peña, E

    2009-10-01

    The article describes the SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) model for the electronic publication and dissemination of scientific journals, its origin and evolution, methodology, components, services and potential, and its implantation in Spain. It consists of thirteen participant countries with eight certified web portals, with another 5 under development and another two thematic ones. In February 2009 Scielo.org had 611 magazines and 195,789 articles of which 46% were about health sciences. Spain became a project member in 1999 and launched the SciELO web portal in 2001, as well as 4 magazines. It currently has 39 titles in the field of Health Sciences; one of which is the Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria, which joined the project in 2007 and which currently has 6 issues from 2007 and 2008 available. This makes it one of the most important open access initiatives existing. The report concludes by stating that the SciELO model contributes to the development of research and science by offering an effective and efficient method of promoting and increasing the dissemination of scientific publications in Latin America. PMID:23128432

  1. SciBox, an end-to-end automated science planning and commanding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Teck H.; Murchie, Scott L.; Bedini, Peter D.; Steele, R. Josh; Skura, Joseph P.; Nguyen, Lillian; Nair, Hari; Lucks, Michael; Berman, Alice F.; McGovern, James A.; Turner, F. Scott

    2014-01-01

    SciBox is a new technology for planning and commanding science operations for Earth-orbital and planetary space missions. It has been incrementally developed since 2001 and demonstrated on several spaceflight projects. The technology has matured to the point that it is now being used to plan and command all orbital science operations for the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission to Mercury. SciBox encompasses the derivation of observing sequences from science objectives, the scheduling of those sequences, the generation of spacecraft and instrument commands, and the validation of those commands prior to uploading to the spacecraft. Although the process is automated, science and observing requirements are incorporated at each step by a series of rules and parameters to optimize observing opportunities, which are tested and validated through simulation and review. Except for limited special operations and tests, there is no manual scheduling of observations or construction of command sequences. SciBox reduces the lead time for operations planning by shortening the time-consuming coordination process, reduces cost by automating the labor-intensive processes of human-in-the-loop adjudication of observing priorities, reduces operations risk by systematically checking constraints, and maximizes science return by fully evaluating the trade space of observing opportunities to meet MESSENGER science priorities within spacecraft recorder, downlink, scheduling, and orbital-geometry constraints.

  2. SciNews: Incorporating Science Current Events in 21st Century Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiMaggio, E.

    2011-12-01

    Middle school students are instructed with the aid of textbooks, lectures, and activities to teach topics that satisfy state standards. However, teaching materials created to convey standard-aligned science concepts often leave students asking how the content relates to their lives and why they should be learning it. Conveying relevance is important for student learning and retention, especially in science where abstract concepts can often be incorrectly perceived as irrelevant. One way to create an educational link between classroom content and everyday life is through the use of scientific current events. Students read, hear, and watch media coverage of natural events (such as the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan), but do not necessarily relate the scientific information from media sources to classroom studies. Taking advantage of these brief 'teachable moments'--when student interest is high--provides a valuable opportunity to make classroom-to-everyday life associations and to incorporate inquiry based learning. To address this need, I create pre-packaged current event materials for middle to high school teachers that align to state standards, and which are short, effective, and easy to implement in the classroom. Each lesson takes approximately 15-30 minutes to implement, allowing teachers time to facilitate brief but meaningful discussions. I assemble materials within approximately one week of the regional or global science event, consisting of short slide shows, maps, videos, pictures, and real-time data. I use a listserv to send biweekly emails to subscribed instructors containing the current event topic and a link to download the materials. All materials are hosted on the Arizona State University Education Outreach SciNews website (http://sese.asu.edu/teacher-resources) and are archived. Currently, 285 educators subscribe to the SciNews listserv, representing 36 states and 19 countries. In order to assess the effectiveness and usefulness of SciNews materials, each lesson links to a brief online survey. I ask educators for basic information (grade level, number of students) as well as feedback on lesson content, accessibility of media types used, agreement with standards, and general comments on how to improve SciNews. Survey results show that SciNews lessons have been implemented in elementary through college classrooms. Comments express an overall agreement that Scinews lessons facilitate classroom discussion, heighten student interest in the topic, and that lessons are easy to use and modify. Current events help demonstrate to students that, unlike fact-filled textbooks suggest, science is not static and scientists are actively investigating many 'textbook' concepts. Showing students the process and progressive nature of scientific information reinforces critical thinking rather than pure memorization.

  3. Publishing datasets with eSciDoc and panMetaDocs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbricht, D.; Klump, J.; Bertelmann, R.

    2012-04-01

    Currently serveral research institutions worldwide undertake considerable efforts to have their scientific datasets published and to syndicate them to data portals as extensively described objects identified by a persistent identifier. This is done to foster the reuse of data, to make scientific work more transparent, and to create a citable entity that can be referenced unambigously in written publications. GFZ Potsdam established a publishing workflow for file based research datasets. Key software components are an eSciDoc infrastructure [1] and multiple instances of the data curation tool panMetaDocs [2]. The eSciDoc repository holds data objects and their associated metadata in container objects, called eSciDoc items. A key metadata element in this context is the publication status of the referenced data set. PanMetaDocs, which is based on PanMetaWorks [3], is a PHP based web application that allows to describe data with any XML-based metadata schema. The metadata fields can be filled with static or dynamic content to reduce the number of fields that require manual entries to a minimum and make use of contextual information in a project setting. Access rights can be applied to set visibility of datasets to other project members and allow collaboration on and notifying about datasets (RSS) and interaction with the internal messaging system, that was inherited from panMetaWorks. When a dataset is to be published, panMetaDocs allows to change the publication status of the eSciDoc item from status "private" to "submitted" and prepare the dataset for verification by an external reviewer. After quality checks, the item publication status can be changed to "published". This makes the data and metadata available through the internet worldwide. PanMetaDocs is developed as an eSciDoc application. It is an easy to use graphical user interface to eSciDoc items, their data and metadata. It is also an application supporting a DOI publication agent during the process of publishing scientific datasets as electronic data supplements to research papers. Publication of research manuscripts has an already well established workflow that shares junctures with other processes and involves several parties in the process of dataset publication. Activities of the author, the reviewer, the print publisher and the data publisher have to be coordinated into a common data publication workflow. The case of data publication at GFZ Potsdam displays some specifics, e.g. the DOIDB webservice. The DOIDB is a proxy service at GFZ for the DataCite [4] DOI registration and its metadata store. DOIDB provides a local summary of the dataset DOIs registered through GFZ as a publication agent. An additional use case for the DOIDB is its function to enrich the datacite metadata with additional custom attributes, like a geographic reference in a DIF record. These attributes are at the moment not available in the datacite metadata schema but would be valuable elements for the compilation of data catalogues in the earth sciences and for dissemination of catalogue data via OAI-PMH. [1] http://www.escidoc.org , eSciDoc, FIZ Karlruhe, Germany [2] http://panmetadocs.sf.net , panMetaDocs, GFZ Potsdam, Germany [3] http://metaworks.pangaea.de , panMetaWorks, Dr. R. Huber, MARUM, Univ. Bremen, Germany [4] http://www.datacite.org

  4. A pilot study to evaluate the role of the Spinal Cord Impairment Pressure Ulcer Monitoring Tool (SCI-PUMT) in clinical decisions for pressure ulcer treatment.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Susan S; Graves, Barbara Ann; Madaris, Linda

    2014-12-01

    The Spinal Cord Impairment Pressure Ulcer Monitoring Tool (SCI-PUMT) was designed to assess pressure ulcer (PrU) healing in the spinal cord impaired (SCI) population. The tool contains 7 variables: wound surface area, depth, edges, tunneling, undermining, exudate type, and necrotic tissue amount. A 2-phased, quantitative pilot study based on the Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior was conducted at a large SCI/Disorders Center in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). In the first phase of the study, a convenience sample of 5 physicians, 3 advanced practice registered nurses, and 3 certified wound care nurses (CWCN) was surveyed using a 2-part questionnaire to assess use of the SCI-PUMT instrument, its anticipated improvement in PrU assessment, and intent to use the SCI-PUMT in clinical practice. Attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral controls, and barriers related to the intent to use the SCI-PUMT were evaluated using a 5-point Likert scale (range: 1= extremely likely, 5 = extremely unlikely). In the second phase of the study, the electronic health records (EHR) of 24 veterans (with 30 PrUs) who had at least 2 completed SCI-PUMT scores during a 4-week period were used to evaluate whether an association existed between magnitudes of change of total SCI-PUMT scores and ordered changes in PrU treatment. The overall mean score for intent to use SCI-PUMT was 1.80 (SD 0.75). The least favorable scores were for convenience and motivation to use the SCI-PUMT. Analysis of EHR data showed no significant difference in magnitudes of change in the SCI-PUMT score and changes in PrU treatment recommendations made by the CWCNs. The significance was not affected regardless of an increase or no change in the score (?2 with 1 degree of freedom = 1.158, P = 0.282) or for a decrease in the score (?2 with 1 degree of freedom = 0.5, P = 0.478). In this pilot study, the expressed intent to use the SCI-PUMT in making clinical decisions was generally positive but reservations remain. Additional research is being conducted to determine the barriers and facilitators to SCI-PUMT implementation. The SCI-PUMT was the first tool found to be valid, reliable, and sensitive to assess PrU healing in persons with SCI, and studies to examine the prospective validity of using this instrument on ulcer treatment decisions and outcomes are warranted. PMID:25485550

  5. A review of scales for assessing the risk of developing a pressure ulcer in individuals with SCI

    PubMed Central

    Mortenson, WB; Miller, WC

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pressure ulcers are a common secondary condition that occur post spinal cord injury (SCI). These ulcers come at tremendous personal and societal cost. There are a number of scales that can be used to identify those who are at risk. Objectives This review critically evaluates risk assessment scales designed for identifying and predicting skin ulcers. Specifically studies on the psychometric properties and utility for individuals with SCI were assessed. Setting n/a Methods The MedLine, CINHAL, Embase, HaPI, Psycinfo, Sportdiscus and Cochrane databases were searched to identify studies. To be included the scale needed to have at least one study, published in a peer reviewed journal, which examined the psychometric properties with a sample of individuals with SCI. Results Seven scales were included in this review: Abuzzese, Braden, Gosnell, Norton, SCIPUS, SCIPUS-A and Waterlow. None of the tools reported reliability data with this population. Validity evidence ranged from poor to adequate across scales. Most were readily available, quick to administer and had minimal respondent burden, however, the SCIPUS-A and SCIPUS, two scales developed specifically for individuals with SCI, require laboratory blood testing. Conclusion Although the SCIPUS-A and SCIPUS show promise, utility issues and limited psychometric testing suggest that these tools can not be recommended at this time. While the Braden scale has the best combined validity and utility evidence, more specific testing in a SCI population is required for it and all other scales included in the review. PMID:17909557

  6. All the World's Our Stage: MarSci, a Web-Journal to Showcase Undergraduate Marine Science Research Online

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, S. R.; Williams, D. F.; Morris, W.; Eddins, S. N.

    2001-05-01

    Publishing is an essential component of scientific research. MarSci is the first totally online journal, from submission to peer review to publication, for showcasing undergraduate research in the Marine Sciences. MarSci recognizes that undergraduate research transforms students into scientists, and that the opportunity to publish helps undergraduates to become better scientists. The ultimate mission in the development of this journal is to engage students in the process of publishing. Utilizing the power of the Internet, MarSci can be read by anyone, anywhere, at anytime. The sophisticated web-journal design allows the submission of manuscripts and review by a student peer-editorial board to operate completely online, in addition to making the published articles available to the world at no cost. The web-journal also contains many other features such as news, a discussion forum, events calendar, student resumé post, and information on research and graduate opportunities in the Marine Sciences. Because MarSci was created and is managed by undergraduates, the web-journal provides unique opportunities for students to become involved in the editing, reporting, and publishing aspect of the scientific process. MarSci encourages undergraduates to shine as scientists and leaders.

  7. Regulation of nitrite resistance of the cytochrome cbb3 oxidase by cytochrome c ScyA in Shewanella oneidensis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianhua; Jin, Miao; Zhang, Haiyan; Ju, Lili; Zhang, Lili; Gao, Haichun

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome c proteins, as enzymes to exchange electrons with substrates or as pure electron carriers to shuttle electrons, play vital roles in bacterial respiration and photosynthesis. In Shewanella oneidensis, a research model for the respiratory diversity, at least 42 c-type cytochromes are predicted to be encoded in the genome and are regarded to be the foundation of its highly branched electron transport pathways. However, only a small number of c-type cytochromes have been extensively studied. In this study, we identify soluble cytochrome c ScyA as an important factor influencing the nitrite resistance of a strain devoid of the bd oxidase by utilizing a newly developed transposon mutagenesis vector, which enables overexpression of the gene(s) downstream of the insertion site. We show that when in overabundance ScyA facilitates growth against nitrite inhibition by enhancing nitrite resistance of the cbb3 oxidase. Based on the data presented in this study, we suggest two possible mechanisms underlying the observed effect of ScyA: (1) ScyA increases electron flow to the cbb3 oxidase; (2) ScyA promotes nitrite resistance of the cbb3 oxidase, possibly by direct interaction. PMID:25417822

  8. Collective surfing of chemically active particles.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Hassan; Shelley, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    We study theoretically the collective dynamics of immotile particles bound to a 2D surface atop a 3D fluid layer. These particles are chemically active and produce a chemical concentration field that creates surface-tension gradients along the surface. The resultant Marangoni stresses create flows that carry the particles, possibly concentrating them. For a 3D diffusion-dominated concentration field and Stokesian fluid we show that the surface dynamics of active particle density can be determined using nonlocal 2D surface operators. Remarkably, we also show that for both deep or shallow fluid layers this surface dynamics reduces to the 2D Keller-Segel model for the collective chemotactic aggregation of slime mold colonies. Mathematical analysis has established that the Keller-Segel model can yield finite-time, finite-mass concentration singularities. We show that such singular behavior occurs in our finite-depth system, and study the associated 3D flow structures. PMID:24724685

  9. Collective Surfing of Chemically Active Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud, Hassan; Shelley, Michael J.

    2014-03-01

    We study theoretically the collective dynamics of immotile particles bound to a 2D surface atop a 3D fluid layer. These particles are chemically active and produce a chemical concentration field that creates surface-tension gradients along the surface. The resultant Marangoni stresses create flows that carry the particles, possibly concentrating them. For a 3D diffusion-dominated concentration field and Stokesian fluid we show that the surface dynamics of active particle density can be determined using nonlocal 2D surface operators. Remarkably, we also show that for both deep or shallow fluid layers this surface dynamics reduces to the 2D Keller-Segel model for the collective chemotactic aggregation of slime mold colonies. Mathematical analysis has established that the Keller-Segel model can yield finite-time, finite-mass concentration singularities. We show that such singular behavior occurs in our finite-depth system, and study the associated 3D flow structures.

  10. Surf's Up at JEA's Web Site.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Mary Lu

    1997-01-01

    Describes the purpose of the Journalism Education Association's (JEA) Web site and lists what is available there. Gives the background of the student-created Web site. Provides a quick guide to access various parts of the JEA Web site. (PA)

  11. Surf's Up! Broadcasting across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkhouse, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    A fourth-grade Nova Scotia class produced a weekly 1-hour radio show. Students decided the program format, show themes, topics, and group members. Each show was co-hosted by four students. All students got a chance to host, and all were successful. The project addressed most of the language arts standards and gave students experience in technology…

  12. Surfing Social Studies: The Internet Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Joseph A., Jr., Ed.; Risinger, C. Frederick, Ed.

    The Internet makes available an unparalleled, and seemingly unlimited, repository of resources and ideas for social studies teachers. This book provides guidance and explores how the Internet can become an essential element in a teacher's repertoire of tools for engaging students in social studies curriculum. Chapters in the book are: (1)…

  13. Shotgun metagenomic data streams: surfing without fear

    SciTech Connect

    Berendzen, Joel R

    2010-12-06

    Timely information about bio-threat prevalence, consequence, propagation, attribution, and mitigation is needed to support decision-making, both routinely and in a crisis. One DNA sequencer can stream 25 Gbp of information per day, but sampling strategies and analysis techniques are needed to turn raw sequencing power into actionable knowledge. Shotgun metagenomics can enable biosurveillance at the level of a single city, hospital, or airplane. Metagenomics characterizes viruses and bacteria from complex environments such as soil, air filters, or sewage. Unlike targeted-primer-based sequencing, shotgun methods are not blind to sequences that are truly novel, and they can measure absolute prevalence. Shotgun metagenomic sampling can be non-invasive, efficient, and inexpensive while being informative. We have developed analysis techniques for shotgun metagenomic sequencing that rely upon phylogenetic signature patterns. They work by indexing local sequence patterns in a manner similar to web search engines. Our methods are laptop-fast and favorable scaling properties ensure they will be sustainable as sequencing methods grow. We show examples of application to soil metagenomic samples.

  14. Accelerator physics: Surf's up at SLAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, Mike; Zgadzaj, Rafal

    2014-11-01

    A 'plasma afterburner' just 30 centimetres long accelerates electrons hundreds of times faster than giant conventional accelerators. The result may ultimately open up a low-cost technology for particle colliders. See Letter p.92

  15. Incipient motion of surf zone sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Donya; Foster, Diane; Sou, In Mei; Calantoni, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Incipient motion experiments were conducted with natural gravel, acetate beads, and coarse-gravel-sized electronic grains called Smart Sediment Grains in a Small-Oscillatory Flow Tunnel. Measurements of fluid velocity were made using Particle Image Velocimetry. The strength of the fluid shear stresses and the pressure gradients were examined for a range of oscillatory flow conditions at the onset of motion of the sediment particles to determine which mechanism had induced particle motion. The three sediment types utilized in these experiments facilitated an assessment of the effects of sediment grain size diameter, shape, and density on incipient motion. Results suggested that the onset of sediment motion was dominated by the pressure gradients for flows with small orbital excursion amplitudes, by the shear stresses for flows with large orbital excursion amplitudes and by the combined effects for intermediate flows. The denser, angular gravel required greater free-stream accelerations to trigger sediment motion than the spherical, less dense acetate beads, and Smart Sediment Grains. A combined parameter for incipient motion that accounts for the simultaneous effects of both shear stresses and pressure gradients while depending on the static coefficient of friction and the packing concentration of the mobile bed layer was evaluated for accuracy using a range of sediment types. The results suggested that the combined parameter may be a better indicator of sediment mobilization under oscillatory flows than the typically assumed shear stress criterion.

  16. Surf the Wave of the Future!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Harding, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Internet-based courses are rapidly expanding professional development opportunities for teachers. Today, a small but growing number of organizations offer hundreds of classes enabling teachers to fulfill state requirements, accumulate continuing education units or professional development points, and earn graduate credit. Internet-based courses…

  17. Collaborative Science Using Web Services and the SciFlo Grid Dataflow Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.; Yunck, T.

    2006-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo leverages remote Web Services, called via Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or REST (one-line) URLs, and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* &Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client &server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. In particular, SciFlo exploits the wealth of datasets accessible by OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Servers & Web Coverage Servers (WMS/WCS), and by Open Data Access Protocol (OpenDAP) servers. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out an HTML form or directly authoring the underlying XML dataflow document, and results are returned directly to the scientist's desktop. Once an analysis has been specified for a chunk or day of data, it can be easily repeated with different control parameters or over months of data. Recently, the Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Federation sponsored a collaborative activity in which several ESIP members advertised their respective WMS/WCS and SOAP services, developed some collaborative science scenarios for atmospheric and aerosol science, and then choreographed services from multiple groups into demonstration workflows using the SciFlo engine and a Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) workflow engine. For several scenarios, the same collaborative workflow was executed in three ways: using hand-coded scripts, by executing a SciFlo document, and by executing a BPEL workflow document. We will discuss the lessons learned from this activity, the need for standardized interfaces (like WMS/WCS), the difficulty in agreeing on even simple XML formats and interfaces, and further collaborations that are being pursued.

  18. Electron and Gamma Identification for the measurement of the neutral pion cross section in SciBooNE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurimoto, Yoshinori

    2008-04-01

    The SciBooNE experiment is designed to measure neutrino cross sections on carbon in the one GeV region using the Booster Neutrino beam at Fermilab. Neutral pion production is important for future neutrino oscillation experiments, as it is one of the main backgrounds in electron neutrino appearance searches. Because the gamma ray from the neutral pion could be misidentified as an electron and mimic an electron neutrino interaction. It is possible to identify the electron and gamma with the fully active scintillator detector (SciBar) and the spaghetti calorimeter (Electron Cathcher).In this talk, I would like to show the performance of the identification of gamma rays using dE/dx and the track shape information in SciBar.

  19. The molecular structure of ScI 3 and Sc 2I 6 determined by gas-phase electron diffraction and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Alexander V.; Shlykov, Sergei A.; Haaland, Arne; Galanin, Ilya E.; Girichev, Georgiy V.

    2005-10-01

    The structure of the ScI 3 molecule has been studied by synchronous gas-phase electron diffraction and mass spectrometric experiment combined with theoretical studies. The saturated vapour over ScI 3 at 896(10) K contained ˜96 and 4 mol% of monomeric and dimeric species, respectively. The following structural parameters of ScI 3 have been determined: rg(Sc-I)=2.650(5), rg(I⋯I)=4.530(10) Å, ? g(I-Sc-I)=117.6(4)°. Quantum chemical investigation of ScI 3 and Sc 2I 6 molecules using DFT and MP2 approaches has been carried out. According to the results of both experimental and theoretical studies the equilibrium geometry of scandium triiodide molecule is planar ( D3h symmetry) and the Sc 2I 6 molecule possesses a structure of D2h symmetry with four Sc-I bridge bonds.

  20. The Fulldome Curriculum for the Spitz SciDome Digital Planetarium: Volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, David H.; Sanders, S. J.; Huggins, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Spitz Fulldome Curriculum (FDC) for the SciDome digital planetarium ushered in a new and innovative way to present astronomical pedagogy via its use of the unique teaching attributes of the digital planetarium. In the case of the FDC, which uses the ubiquitous Starry Night planetarium software as its driving engine, these engaging and novel teaching techniques have also been made usable to desktop computers and flat-screen video projectors for classroom use. Volume 2 of the FDC introduces exciting new classes and mini-lessons to further enlighten and invigorate students as they struggle with often difficult three dimensional astronomical concepts. Additionally, other topics with related astronomical ties have been created to integrate history into planetarium presentations. One of the strongest advantages of the SciDome is its use of Starry Night as its astronomical engine. With it students can create their own astronomical configurations in the computer lab or at home, using the PC or Mac version. They can then simply load their creations onto the SciDome planetarium system and display them for their classmates on the dome. This poster will discuss and illustrate some of the new content that has been developed for Volume 2. Topics covered in Volume 2 include eclipses, plotting planet locations on a curtate orbit chart by observing their positions in the sky, time and timekeeping (including sidereal day, hour angles, sidereal time, LAST, LMST, time zones and the International Date Line), teaching to the Boy Scout Merit Badge requirements, plotting scale analemmas on the surface of planets and interpreting them, precession, astronomical events in revolutionary Boston, the Lincoln Almanac Trial, eclipsing binaries, lunar librations, a trip through the universe, watching the speed of light move in real time, stellar sizes and the Milky Way.

  1. Lower Extremity Strength Is Correlated with Walking Function After Incomplete SCI

    PubMed Central

    DiPiro, Nicole D.; Holthaus, Katy D.; Morgan, Patrick J.; Embry, Aaron E.; Perry, Lindsay A.; Bowden, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity strength has been reported to relate to walking ability, however, the relationship between voluntary lower extremity muscle function as measured by isokinetic dynamometry and walking have not been thoroughly examined in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Objective: To determine the extent to which measures of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and rate of torque development (RTD) in the knee extensor (KE) and plantar flexor (PF) muscle groups correlate with self-selected overground walking speed and spatiotemporal characteristics of walking. Methods: Twenty-two subjects with chronic (>6 months) iSCI participated in a cross-sectional study. Values for MVIC and RTD in the KE and PF muscle groups were determined by isokinetic dynamometry. Walking speed and spatiotemporal characteristics of walking were measured during overground walking. Results: MVIC in the KE and PF muscle groups correlated significantly with walking speed. RTD was significantly correlated with walking speed in both muscle groups, the more-involved PF muscle group showing the strongest correlation with walking speed (r = 0.728). RTD in the KE and PF muscle groups of the more-involved limb was significantly correlated with single support time of the more-involved limb. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that lower extremity strength is associated with walking ability after iSCI. Correlations for the muscle groups of the move-involved side were stronger compared to the less-involved limb. In addition, PF function is highlighted as a potential limiting factor to walking speed along with the importance of RTD. PMID:26364282

  2. A Characterization Of The GNAT SciTech STAR Class 0.5m Prototype Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barentine, J. C.; Culver, R. B.

    2002-05-01

    In 1995 the Global Network of Automated Telescopes (GNAT) acquired an option to purchase a 0.5m "STAR" class telescope, manufactured by SciTech Corporation of Forresthill, CA, contingent upon its attainment of performance specifications published by SciTech. In spite of a concerted, and protracted effort, the telescope has not yet approached the manufacturer's specifications, and has proven largely unusable for its intended purpose. In light of the difficult history of commercial development of true automated telescopes (see Sinnott 1996 and Henry 1994) it is important to understand the current state of such commercial systems. We present results of a characterization of this telescope and recommendations for how to proceed in light of its failure to attain specifications. Principle failings of the telescope can be summarized as follows: 1) the mechanical structure was inadequately designed and built, yielding large and unacceptable pointing and tracking errors, 2) the autoguider system was never successfully implemented, limiting the system to very short integrations, 3) the autofocus mechanism was never successfully implemented, resulting in periodic, unacceptable focus drifts during automatic operation, 4) the telescope control system as provided with the telescope did not work and ultimately had to be developed by an independent contractor recommended by GNAT and contracted through SciTech, and 5) the telescope optical system design did not adequately accommodate scattered light issues, yielding significant scattered light contributions to the images under certain conditions. Based on analyses of these issues, we present recommendations for improvements in this system. Support of this work has been provided by Colorado State University and GNAT. REFERENCES Sinnott, R.W. Sky And Telescope vol.91, no.6, p.38 (1996) Henry, G.W. IAPPP Communication No.57, Autumn 1994, p.57

  3. [Analysis on acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in science citation index (SCI) in 2008].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; He, Wen-Ju; Guo, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Acupuncture related articles published in periodicals in Science Citation Index (SCI) in 2008 were summarized and analyzed. About 583 articles were collected using "acupuncture" and "in 2008" as keywords in the Web of Science data base by information retrieval. These papers were summarized and analyzed from various aspects of country, language, subject category, literature type, publication sources, impact factor, research method, acupoints, disease category and needling methods by using Excel software combined with manual sorting of the literature, the aim is to provide a reference for domestic acupuncture research. PMID:20886797

  4. SciSpark: Highly Interactive and Scalable Model Evaluation and Climate Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Mattmann, C. A.; Waliser, D. E.; Kim, J.; Loikith, P.; Lee, H.; McGibbney, L. J.; Whitehall, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Remote sensing data and climate model output are multi-dimensional arrays of massive sizes locked away in heterogeneous file formats (HDF5/4, NetCDF 3/4) and metadata models (HDF-EOS, CF) making it difficult to perform multi-stage, iterative science processing since each stage requires writing and reading data to and from disk. We are developing a lightning fast Big Data technology called SciSpark based on ApacheTM Spark. Spark implements the map-reduce paradigm for parallel computing on a cluster, but emphasizes in-memory computation, "spilling" to disk only as needed, and so outperforms the disk-based ApacheTM Hadoop by 100x in memory and by 10x on disk, and makes iterative algorithms feasible. SciSpark will enable scalable model evaluation by executing large-scale comparisons of A-Train satellite observations to model grids on a cluster of 100 to 1000 compute nodes. This 2nd generation capability for NASA's Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES) will compute simple climate metrics at interactive speeds, and extend to quite sophisticated iterative algorithms such as machine-learning (ML) based clustering of temperature PDFs, and even graph-based algorithms for searching for Mesocale Convective Complexes. The goals of SciSpark are to: (1) Decrease the time to compute comparison statistics and plots from minutes to seconds; (2) Allow for interactive exploration of time-series properties over seasons and years; (3) Decrease the time for satellite data ingestion into RCMES to hours; (4) Allow for Level-2 comparisons with higher-order statistics or PDF's in minutes to hours; and (5) Move RCMES into a near real time decision-making platform. We will report on: the architecture and design of SciSpark, our efforts to integrate climate science algorithms in Python and Scala, parallel ingest and partitioning (sharding) of A-Train satellite observations from HDF files and model grids from netCDF files, first parallel runs to compute comparison statistics and PDF's, and first metrics quantifying parallel speedups and memory & disk usage.

  5. Measurement of Neutron and Muon Fluxes 100~m Underground with the SciBath Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, Lance

    2014-01-01

    The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also sensitive to fast neutrons (15-200 MeV). In fall of 2011 the apparatus performed a three month run to measure cosmic-induced muons and neutrons 100~meters underground in the FNAL MINOS near-detector area. Data from this run has been analyzed and resulted in measurements of the cosmic muon flux as \

  6. SciNOvA: A Measurement of Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering in a Narrow-Band Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Paley, J.; Djurcic, Z.; Harris, D.; Tesarek, R.; Feldman, G.; Corwin, L.; Messier, M.D.; Mayer, N.; Musser, J.; Paley, J.; Tayloe, R.; /Indiana U. /Iowa State U. /Minnesota U. /South Carolina U. /Wichita State U. /William-Mary Coll.

    2010-10-15

    We propose to construct and deploy a fine-grained detector in the Fermilab NOvA 2 GeV narrow-band neutrino beam. In this beam, the detector can make unique contributions to the measurement of quasi-elastic scattering, neutral-current elastic scattering, neutral-current {pi}{sup 0} production, and enhance the NOvA measurements of electron neutrino appearance. To minimize cost and risks, the proposed detector is a copy of the SciBar detector originally built for the K2K long baseline experiment and used recently in the SciBooNE experiment.

  7. Measurement of the nu(mu)-CCQE cross-section in the SciBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz-Aunion, Jose Luis; Walding, Joseph; /Imperial Coll., London

    2009-09-01

    SciBooNE is a neutrino and anti-neutrino cross-section experiment at Fermilab, USA. The SciBooNE experiment is summarized and two independent CCQE analyses are described. For one of the analyses, an absolute {nu}{sub {mu}}-CCQE cross section in the neutrino energy region (0.6-1.6) GeV is shown and the technique developed for such a purpose is also explained. The total cross section measured over this energy range agrees well with expectations, based on the NEUT event generator and using a value of 1.21 GeV for the CCQE axial mass.

  8. Reactivity of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI) from isoprene and monoterpene ozonolysis toward SO2 and organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipilä, M.; Jokinen, T.; Berndt, T.; Richters, S.; Makkonen, R.; Donahue, N. M.; Mauldin, R. L., III; Kurten, T.; Paasonen, P.; Sarnela, N.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Rissanen, M. P.; Thornton, J.; Stratmann, F.; Herrmann, H.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Petäjä, T.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation processes in Earth's atmosphere are tightly connected to many environmental and human health issues and are essential drivers for biogeochemistry. Until the recent discovery of the atmospheric relevance of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI), atmospheric oxidation processes were thought to be dominated by few main oxidants: ozone, hydroxyl radicals (OH), nitrate radicals and, e.g. over oceans, halogen atoms such as chlorine. Here, we report results from laboratory experiments at 293 K and atmospheric pressure focusing on sCI formation from the ozonolysis of isoprene and the most abundant monoterpenes (?-pinene and limonene), and subsequent reactions of the resulting sCIs with SO2 producing sulphuric acid (H2SO4). The measured sCI yields were (0.15 ± 0.07), (0.27 ± 0.12) and (0.58 ± 0.26) for the ozonolysis of ?-pinene, limonene and isoprene, respectively. The ratio between the rate coefficient for the sCI loss (including thermal decomposition and the reaction with water vapour) and the rate coefficient for the reaction of sCI with SO2, k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2), was determined at relative humidities of 10% and 50%. Observed values represent the average reactivity of all sCIs produced from the individual alkene used in the ozonolysis. For the monoterpene derived sCIs, the relative rate coefficients k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2) were in the range (2.0-2.4) × 1012 molecule cm-3 and nearly independent on the relative humidity. This fact points to a minor importance of the sCI + H2O reaction in the case of the sCI arising from ?-pinene and limonene. For the isoprene sCIs, however, the ratio k(loss) / k(sCI + SO2) was strongly dependent on the relative humidity. To explore whether sCIs could have a more general role in atmospheric oxidation, we investigated as an example the reactivity of acetone oxide (sCI from the ozonolysis of 2,3-dimethyl-2-butene) toward small organic acids, i.e. formic and acetic acid. Acetone oxide was found to react faster with the organic acids than with SO2; k(sCI + acid) / k(sCI + SO2) = (2.8 ± 0.3) for formic acid and k(sCI + acid) / k(sCI + SO2) = (3.4 ± 0.2) for acetic acid. This finding suggests that sCIs can play a role in the formation and loss of several atmospheric constituents besides SO2.

  9. Let's Get Small: An Introduction to Transitional Issues in Nanotech and Intellectual Property.

    PubMed

    Koepsell, David

    2009-08-01

    Much of the discussion regarding nanotechnology centers around perceived and prosphesied harms and risks. While there are real risks that could emerge from futuristic nanotechnology, there are other current risks involved with its development, not involving physical harms, that could prevent its full promise from being realized. Transitional forms of the technology, involving "microfab," or localized, sometimes desk-top, manufacture, pose a good opportunity for case study. How can we develop legal and regulatory institutions, specifically centered around the problems of intellectual property, that both stimulate innovation, and make the best possible use of what will eventually be a market in "types" rather than "tokens"? This paper argues that this is the most critical, current issues facing nanotechnology, and suggests a manner to approach it. PMID:20234881

  10. DNA nanotech: Expanding the repertoire of DNA for the assembly of nanoscale objects and electrical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahlman, Richard Peter

    Much recent interest has focused on DNA as a material for the construction of objects and the templating of other materials on the nanometer to micrometer scale. Such constructions have made use of the recognition of "complementary" nucleotide sequence by single-stranded stretches of DNA in the formation of double helices. The ability of DNA double helices to act as a semi-conductor for electron transfer has opened more opportunities for using DNA in nanoscale devices. This work describes several advancements involving structural and functional aspect of DNA based nanotechnologies. We have developed a new approach to assemble DNA nanostructures in a cation dependent manner. Association is via the formation of guanine quartets from two G-G mismatch domains within a duplex DNA framework. Association can be regulated by the addition or removal of cation species that promote guanine quartet formation (i.e. K+ or Sr2+). We have also demonstrated that these domains can be 'programmed' to be self-specific in mixed solutions by patterning the G·G mismatches into distinct domains. We have evaluated the process of charge transfer through immobile DNA junctions. This work compares anthraquinone- and rhodium-based methods to induce charge transfer through DNA and identifies some pitfalls in one of the prominently used systems. We have also demonstrated that the conformational transitions of folded DNA structures, more complex than simple double helical DNA, can be utilized in regulating charge transfer. We have successfully constructed 'electrical on/off switches' composed of DNA, which are modulated by the presence or absence of particular compounds in solution. Switches that are modulated by the small molecule adenosine and as well as ones modulated by short oligonucleotides have been assembled. The construction and demonstration of their operation now opens a new window of opportunity for the development of DNA detector systems, which could be directly coupled to microchips. Direct detection of molecules and nucleic acids in this fashion would result in techniques where target molecules can be immediately detected with very high sensitivity and specificity.

  11. New Nanotech from an Ancient Material: Chemistry Demonstrations Involving Carbon-Based Soot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Andrews, Mark J.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon soot has been known since antiquity, but has recently been finding new uses as a robust, inexpensive nanomaterial. This paper describes the superhydrophobic properties of carbon soot films prepared by combustion of candle wax or propane gas and introduces some of the optical absorption and fluorescence properties of carbon soot particles.…

  12. New Nanotech from an Ancient Material: Chemistry Demonstrations Involving Carbon-Based Soot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dean J.; Andrews, Mark J.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon soot has been known since antiquity, but has recently been finding new uses as a robust, inexpensive nanomaterial. This paper describes the superhydrophobic properties of carbon soot films prepared by combustion of candle wax or propane gas and introduces some of the optical absorption and fluorescence properties of carbon soot particles.…

  13. NREL Melds Nature with Nanotech for Solar-Powered Hydrogen Production (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    NREL researchers are finding ways to mimic photosynthesis by combining enzymes with nanoparticles - particles on the scale of a billionth of a meter - to produce hydrogen directly from water and sunlight. This breakthrough project began in 2008 with scientists and researchers asking how they might learn from nature and develop a synthetic process that is more efficient than plants at converting sunlight to hydrogen. The goal was to find a new way to produce hydrogen that could then be commercialized inexpensively for fuel cells and other uses. Among the various approaches to making hydrogen, the NREL researchers wondered about a hybrid molecular assembly that might pair the best natural molecule with a synthesized nanoparticle. Researchers looked at using hydrogenase enzymes as one part of the equation. These biological catalysts can convert electrons and protons into hydrogen gas, or convert hydrogen into electrons and protons. The choice seemed worthwhile because the hydrogenase enzyme has some intriguing properties: a high substrate selectivity, meaning a very high preference for catalyzing reactions with protons rather than with other atoms and molecules; and fast turnover, which enables it to produce a hydrogen molecule in milliseconds.

  14. Rolled-Up Nanotech: Illumination-Controlled Hydrofluoric Acid Etching of AlAs Sacrificial Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costescu, Ruxandra M.; Deneke, Christoph; Thurmer, Dominic J.; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2009-12-01

    The effect of illumination on the hydrofluoric acid etching of AlAs sacrificial layers with systematically varied thicknesses in order to release and roll up InGaAs/GaAs bilayers was studied. For thicknesses of AlAs below 10 nm, there were two etching regimes for the area under illumination: one at low illumination intensities, in which the etching and releasing proceeds as expected and one at higher intensities in which the etching and any releasing are completely suppressed. The “etch suppression” area is well defined by the illumination spot, a feature that can be used to create heterogeneously etched regions with a high degree of control, shown here on patterned samples. Together with the studied self-limitation effect, the technique offers a way to determine the position of rolled-up micro- and nanotubes independently from the predefined lithographic pattern.

  15. Nanodiamonds coupled with plant bioactive metabolites: a nanotech approach for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Angelo; Reina, Giacomo; Orlanducci, Silvia; Mizzoni, Francesca; Gay, Stefano; Terranova, Maria L; Canini, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Nanodiamond application in biotechnological and medical fields is nowadays in continuous progress. In fact, biocompatibility, reduced dimensions and high surface chemical interaction are specific features that make nanodiamonds perfect intracellular carriers of bioactive compounds. By confocal microscopy, we confirmed that nanodiamonds were able to penetrate in cell cytoplasm but we also demonstrated how they remained embedded in nuclear membrane just exposing some little portions into nuclear area, definitively clarifying this topic. In this work, for the first time, nanodiamonds were conjugated with plant secondary metabolites, ciproten and quercetin. Moreover, since drug-loading on nanoparticles was strongly conditioned by their chemical surface, different types of nanodiamonds (oxidized, wet chemical reduced and plasma reduced) were synthesized in this work and then functionalized with plant compounds. We found that ciproten and quercetin antiproliferative effects, on human (HeLa) and murine (B16F10) tumor cells, were improved after nanodiamond conjugation. Moreover, plant molecules highly reduced their in vitro pro-oxidant, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activity when associated with nanodiamond. We are led to suppose that natural drug-nanodiamond adducts would act at cellular level by different molecular mechanisms with respect to plant metabolite pure forms. Finally, our results showed that chemical and structural modifications of nanodiamond surfaces influenced the bioactivity of transported drugs. According to all these evidences, this work can be considered as a promotional research to favor the use of bioactive plant molecules associated with nanodiamonds for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25457980

  16. Nanoscale control of energy and matter in plasma-surface interactions: towards energy-efficient nanotech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrikov, Kostya

    2010-11-01

    This presentation focuses on the plasma issues related to the solution of the grand challenge of directing energy and matter at nanoscales. This ability is critical for the renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies for sustainable future development. It will be discussed how to use environmentally and human health benign non-equilibrium plasma-solid systems and control the elementary processes of plasma-surface interactions to direct the fluxes of energy and matter at multiple temporal and spatial scales. In turn, this makes it possible to achieve the deterministic synthesis of self- organised arrays of metastable nanostructures in the size range beyond the reach of the present-day nanofabrication. Such structures have tantalising prospects to enhance performance of nanomaterials in virtually any area of human activity yet remain almost inaccessible because the Nature's energy minimisation rules allow only a small number of stable equilibrium states. By using precisely controlled and kinetically fast nanoscale transfer of energy and matter under non-equilibrium conditions and harnessing numerous plasma- specific controls of species creation, delivery to the surface, nucleation and large-scale self-organisation of nuclei and nanostructures, the arrays of metastable nanostructures can be created, arranged, stabilised, and further processed to meet the specific requirements of the envisaged applications. These approaches will eventually lead to faster, unprecedentedly- clean, human-health-friendly, and energy-efficient nanoscale synthesis and processing technologies for the next-generation renewable energy and light sources, biomedical devices, information and communication systems, as well as advanced functional materials for applications ranging from basic food, water, health and clean environment needs to national security and space missions.

  17. Validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for Depersonalization–Derealization Spectrum (SCI-DER)

    PubMed Central

    Mula, Marco; Pini, Stefano; Calugi, Simona; Preve, Matteo; Masini, Matteo; Giovannini, Ilaria; Conversano, Ciro; Rucci, Paola; Cassano, Giovanni B

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity and reliability of a new instrument developed to assess symptoms of depersonalization: the Structured Clinical Interview for the Depersonalization-Derealization Spectrum (SCI-DER). The instrument is based on a spectrum model that emphasizes soft-signs, sub-threshold syndromes as well as clinical and subsyndromal manifestations. Items of the interview include, in addition to DSM-IV criteria for depersonalization, a number of features derived from clinical experience and from a review of phenomenological descriptions. Study participants included 258 consecutive patients with mood and anxiety disorders, 16.7% bipolar I disorder, 18.6% bipolar II disorder, 32.9% major depression, 22.1% panic disorder, 4.7% obsessive compulsive disorder, and 1.5% generalized anxiety disorder; 2.7% patients were also diagnosed with depersonalization disorder. A comparison group of 42 unselected controls was enrolled at the same site. The SCI-DER showed excellent reliability and good concurrent validity with the Dissociative Experiences Scale. It significantly discriminated subjects with any diagnosis of mood and anxiety disorders from controls and subjects with depersonalization disorder from controls. The hypothesized structure of the instrument was confirmed empirically. PMID:19183789

  18. SciDAC - The Scientific Data Management Center (http://sdmcenter.lbl.gov)

    SciTech Connect

    Ling Liu Calton Pu

    2005-06-20

    In SciDAC SDM project, the main assignment to the Georgia Institute of Technology team (according to the proposed work) is to develop advanced information extraction and information integration technologies on top of the XWRAP technology originated from Georgia Tech [LPH01]. We have developed XWRAPComposer technology to enable the XWRAP code generator to generate Java information wrappers that are capable of extraction of data from multiple linked pages. These information wrappers are used as gateways or adaptors for scientific information mediators to access and fuse interesting data and answering complex queries over a large collection of heterogeneous scientific information sources. Our accomplishments over the SciDAC sponsored years (July 2001 to July 2004) can be summarized along two dimensions. Technically, we have produced a number of major software releases and published over 30 research papers in both international conferences and international journals. The planned software releases include 1. Five Java wrappers and five WDSL-enabled wrappers for SDM Pilot scenarios, which were released in early 2003, 2. The XWRAPComposer toolkit (command line version) which was first released in late 2003 and then released in Summer 2004, 3. Five Ptolemy wrapper actors which were released first in Summer 2003, and then released again in Fall 2005. 4. The decomposable XWRAPComposer actor in Ptolemy, which we have made it available as open source in end of 2004 and tested it in early 2005.

  19. Performance Engineering Research Institute SciDAC-2 Enabling Technologies Institute Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Mary

    2014-09-19

    Enhancing the performance of SciDAC applications on petascale systems has high priority within DOE SC. As we look to the future, achieving expected levels of performance on high-end com-puting (HEC) systems is growing ever more challenging due to enormous scale, increasing archi-tectural complexity, and increasing application complexity. To address these challenges, PERI has implemented a unified, tripartite research plan encompassing: (1) performance modeling and prediction; (2) automatic performance tuning; and (3) performance engineering of high profile applications. The PERI performance modeling and prediction activity is developing and refining performance models, significantly reducing the cost of collecting the data upon which the models are based, and increasing model fidelity, speed and generality. Our primary research activity is automatic tuning (autotuning) of scientific software. This activity is spurred by the strong user preference for automatic tools and is based on previous successful activities such as ATLAS, which has automatically tuned components of the LAPACK linear algebra library, and other re-cent work on autotuning domain-specific libraries. Our third major component is application en-gagement, to which we are devoting approximately 30% of our effort to work directly with Sci-DAC-2 applications. This last activity not only helps DOE scientists meet their near-term per-formance goals, but also helps keep PERI research focused on the real challenges facing DOE computational scientists as they enter the Petascale Era.

  20. Building a Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional (UNEDF). SciDAC-2 Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vary, James P.; Carlson, Joe; Furnstahl, Dick; Horoi, Mihai; Lusk, Rusty; Nazarewicz, Witek; Ng, Esmond; Thompson, Ian

    2012-09-29

    An understanding of the properties of atomic nuclei is crucial for a complete nuclear theory, for element formation, for properties of stars, and for present and future energy and defense applications. During the period of Dec. 1 2006 – Jun. 30, 2012, the UNEDF collaboration carried out a comprehensive study of all nuclei, based on the most accurate knowledge of the strong nuclear interaction, the most reliable theoretical approaches, the most advanced algorithms, and extensive computational resources, with a view towards scaling to the petaflop platforms and beyond. Until recently such an undertaking was hard to imagine, and even at the present time such an ambitious endeavor would be far beyond what a single researcher or a traditional research group could carry out. The UNEDF SciDAC project has developed several key computational codes and algorithms for reaching the goal of solving the nuclear quantum many-body problem throughout the chart of nuclei. Without such developments, scientific progress would not be possible. In addition the UNEDF SciDAC successfully applied these developments to solve many forefront research problems.

  1. Scientific support of SciTech museum exhibits and outreach programs

    SciTech Connect

    Peshkin, M.

    1995-08-01

    SciTech (Science and Technology Interactive Center) is a small hands-on science museum located in Aurora, Illinois, not far from Argonne National Laboratory. Its constituency includes prosperous suburbs and economically disadvantaged minority communities in Aurora and Chicago. Its mission is to contribute to the country`s scientific literacy initiative by offering hands-on experiences on the museum floor and through outreach programs extended to school children, their teachers, and other groups. Argonne`s participation is focused mainly on the development of exhibits to carry the ideas of modern science and technology to the public. This is an area in which traditional museums are weak, but in which SciTech has become a nationally recognized leader with the assistance of Argonne, Fermilab, nearby technological companies, and many volunteer scientists and engineers. We also participate in development and improvement of the museum`s general exhibits and outreach programs. Argonne`s Director, Alan Schriesheim, serves as a member of the museum`s Board of Directors. Murray Peshkin serves part-time as the museum`s Senior Scientist. Dale Henderson serves part-time as an exhibit developer. That work is supported by the Laboratory Director`s discretionary funds. In addition, several members of the Physics Division voluntarily assist with exhibit development and the Division makes facilities available for that effort.

  2. SCI1, the first member of the tissue-specific inhibitors of CDK (TIC) class, is probably connected to the auxin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    DePaoli, Henrique; Goldman, Gustavo; Goldman, Maria-Helena

    2012-01-01

    The recent finding of a tissue-specific cell cycle regulator (SCI1) that inhibits cell proliferation/differentiation in the upper pistil points to an unanticipated way of controlling plant morphogenesis. The similarity between the SCI1 RNAi-silenced plants and some auxin-related phenotypes suggested that SCI1 could be involved in the auxin signaling pathway. To address this hypothesis, we analyzed the expression of three auxin-related genes in transgenic plants in which SCI1 was silenced and overexpressed. The results showed that the expression levels of the auxin-related genes largely correlated with the SCI1 expression level. Additionally, we analyzed the Arabidopsis SCI1 upstream regulatory region and found putative cis-acting elements also present in the AtCYCB1;1 AtYUC1, AtYUC2 and AtYUC4 URRs, suggesting a cell cycle- and auxin-related transcriptional regulation. Based on our previous and the current studies, we propose SCI1 as a signal transducer engaging auxin signaling and cell division/differentiation. PMID:22301969

  3. Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  4. Observing Some Life Cycles. Teacher's Guide. Unit E3. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitepo, Thoko; And Others

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide contains instructional…

  5. Understanding Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  6. Sense from Senses. Teacher's Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  7. Forces. Teacher's Guide. Units H1 and H2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dock, Alan; Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  8. The Chemicals of the Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  9. Life, Beginning and Growing. Teacher's Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  10. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Teacher's Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  11. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  12. A Comprehensive Evaluation of H2SO4 formation from OH and sCI pathways in high BVOC environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Seco, R.; Park, J. H.; Guenther, A. B.; Smith, J. N.; Kuang, C.; Bustillos, J. O. V.; Tota, J.; Souza, R. A. F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The recently highlighted importance of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI) as an oxidant for atmospheric SO2 triggered a number of studies to assess the atmospheric implications of H2SO4 formation from the sCI reaction pathway. In addition, it has not been clear why new particle formation events are not observed in the Amazon rain forest. The mostly widely speculated reason has been a very low H2SO4 level. We will present quantitative assessments of SO2 oxidation by sCI leading to the H2SO4 production using a comprehensive observational dataset from a tropical rainforest study during the GOAmazon field campaign at the T3 site in Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brazil. To our best knowledge, this is the first observation of H2SO4 and OH in Amazon and is unique for all tropical sites due to the accompanying comprehensive gas and aerosol observations such as CO, NOX, SO2, VOCs, and physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols. We will discuss observed H2SO4 levels during the GOAmazon field campaigns to demonstrate 1) H2SO4 formation potential from OH and sCI oxidation pathways by contrasting extremely clean and relatively polluted air masses and 2) the Implications of the observed H2SO4 levels in new particle formation and particle growth events.

  13. Life, Beginning and Growing. Teacher's Guide. Unit E1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  14. Observing Some Life Cycles. Teacher's Guide. Unit E3. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitepo, Thoko; And Others

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide contains instructional…

  15. Using Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  16. Sense from Senses. Teacher's Guide. Unit J. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simango, Sam

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  17. Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  18. The Chemicals of the Earth. Teacher's Guide. Unit F2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  19. Atoms and Molecules. 'O' Level. Teacher's Guide. Unit 2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandizha, George

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the third year of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  20. Evaluation of Programmatic Interventions to Improve Postsecondary STEM Education for Students with Disabilities: Findings from SciTrain University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Nathan W.; Utschig, Tristan T.; Todd, Robert L.; Bozzorg, Ariyana

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the evaluation of programmatic interventions to enhance postsecondary STEM education for students with disabilities. SciTrain University, a federally funded project to provide instructor training on accessible teaching according to universal design principles, is presented here as a case study on evaluation for similar…

  1. Understanding Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  2. Reproducing by Flowers and Seeds. Teacher's Guide. Unit E2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesaguli, Josie

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  3. What Do You Know about Water? Teacher's Guide. Unit D. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Peter

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  4. Using Electricity. Teacher's Guide. Unit I2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidume, Kwashira

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be used in…

  5. Living Things and Their Food. Teacher's Guide. Unit G2. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  6. Energy for Living. Teacher's Guide. Unit G1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosking, Bunty

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  7. Our Planet Earth. Study Guide. Unit F1. ZIM-SCI, Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project. Year 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocklmayer, Sue

    The Zimbabwe Secondary School Science Project (ZIM-SCI) developed student study guides, corresponding teaching guides, and science kits for a low-cost science course which could be taught during the first 2 years of secondary school without the aid of qualified teachers and conventional laboratories. This teaching guide, designed to be read in…

  8. An exploration of SciDB in the context of emerging technologies for data stores in particle physics and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malon, D.; van Gemmeren, P.; Weinstein, J.

    2012-06-01

    Traditional relational databases have not always been well matched to the needs of data-intensive sciences, but efforts are underway within the database community to attempt to address many of the requirements of large-scale scientific data management. One such effort is the open-source project SciDB. Since its earliest incarnations, SciDB has been designed for scalability in parallel and distributed environments, with a particular emphasis upon native support for array constructs and operations. Such scalability is of course a requirement of any strategy for large-scale scientific data handling, and array constructs are certainly useful in many contexts, but these features alone do not suffice to qualify a database product as an appropriate technology for hosting particle physics or cosmology data. In what constitutes its 1.0 release in June 2011, SciDB has extended its feature set to address additional requirements of scientific data, with support for user-defined types and functions, for data versioning, and more. This paper describes an evaluation of the capabilities of SciDB for two very different kinds of physics data: event-level metadata records from proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the output of cosmological simulations run on very-large-scale supercomputers. This evaluation exercises the spectrum of SciDB capabilities in a suite of tests that aim to be representative and realistic, including, for example, definition of four-vector data types and natural operations thereon, and computational queries that match the natural use cases for these data.

  9. ScyFlow: An Environment for the Visual Specification and Execution of Scientific Workflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Karen M.; Yarrow, Maurice; DeVivo, Adrian; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of grid technologies, scientists and engineers are building more and more complex applications to utilize distributed grid resources. The core grid services provide a path for accessing and utilizing these resources in a secure and seamless fashion. However what the scientists need is an environment that will allow them to specify their application runs at a high organizational level, and then support efficient execution across any given set or sets of resources. We have been designing and implementing ScyFlow, a dual-interface architecture (both GUT and APT) that addresses this problem. The scientist/user specifies the application tasks along with the necessary control and data flow, and monitors and manages the execution of the resulting workflow across the distributed resources. In this paper, we utilize two scenarios to provide the details of the two modules of the project, the visual editor and the runtime workflow engine.

  10. Toward Sci-?: A Lightweight Cloud PaaS for Developing Embarrassingly Parallel Applications Based on Jini

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Embarrassingly parallel problems are characterised by a very small amount of information to be exchanged among the parts they are split in, during their parallel execution. As a consequence they do not require sophisticated, low-latency, high-bandwidth interconnection networks but can be efficiently computed in parallel by exploiting commodity hardware. Basically, this means cheap clusters, networks of workstations and desktops, and Computational Clouds. This computational model can be exploited to compute a quite large range of problems. This paper describes Sci-?, an almost complete redesign of a previous tool of ours aimed at developing task parallel applications based on Java and Jini that were shown to be an effective and efficient solution in environments like clusters and networks of workstations and desktops. PMID:24701174

  11. VACET: Proposed SciDAC2 Visualization and Analytics Center forEnabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, W.; Johnson, Chris; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steve; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Cohen, Jonathon; Duchaineau, Mark; Laney, Dan; Lindstrom,Peter; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremy; Ostrouchov, George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd

    2006-06-19

    This paper accompanies a poster that is being presented atthe SciDAC 2006 meeting in Denver, CO. This project focuses on leveragingscientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enablingtechnology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advancesincomputational technology have resultedin an "information big bang,"which in turn has createda significant data understanding challenge. Thischallenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks incontemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly tothat challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary anddeploying visualization and data understanding technologies for ourscience stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualizationand Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are wellpositioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientificstakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization,mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and datamanagement technologies.

  12. The impact of SciDAC on US climate change research and the IPCCAR4

    SciTech Connect

    Wehner, Michael

    2005-07-08

    SciDAC has invested heavily in climate change research. We offer a candid opinion as to the impact of the DOE laboratories' SciDAC projects on the upcoming Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. As a result of the direct importance of climate change to society, climate change research is highly coordinated at the international level. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is charged with providing regular reports on the state of climate change research to government policymakers. These reports are the product of thousands of scientists efforts. A series of reviews involving both scientists and policymakers make them among the most reviewed documents produced in any scientific field. The high profile of these reports acts a driver to many researchers in the climate sciences. The Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) is scheduled to be released in 2007. SciDAC sponsored research has enabled the United States climate modeling community to make significant contributions to this report. Two large multi-Laboratory SciDAC projects are directly relevant to the activities of the IPCC. The first, entitled ''Collaborative Design and Development of the Community Climate System Model for Terascale Computers'', has made important software contributions to the recently released third version of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM3.0) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. This is a multi-institutional project involving Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The original principal investigators were Robert Malone and John B. Drake. The current principal investigators are Phil Jones and John B. Drake. The second project, entitled ''Earth System Grid II: Turning Climate Datasets into Community Resources'' aims to facilitate the distribution of the copious amounts of data produced by coupled climate model integrations to the general scientific community. This is also a multi-institutional project involving Argonne National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The principal investigators are Ian Foster, Don Middleton and Dean Williams. Perhaps most significant among the activities of the ''Collaborative Design'', project was the development of an efficient multi-processor coupling package. CCSM3.0 is an extraordinarily complicated physics code. The fully coupled model consists of separate submodels of the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and land. In addition, comprehensive biogeochemistry and atmospheric chemistry submodels are under intensive current development. Each of these submodels is a large and sophisticated program in its own right. Furthermore, in the coupled model, each of the submodels, including the coupler, is a separate multiprocessor executable program. The coupler package must efficiently coordinate the communication as well as interpolate or aggregate information between these programs. This regridding function is necessary because each major subsystem (air, water or surface) is allowed to have its own independent grid.

  13. Extraordinary Tools for Extraordinary Science: The Impact ofSciDAC on Accelerator Science&Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ryne, Robert D.

    2006-08-10

    Particle accelerators are among the most complex and versatile instruments of scientific exploration. They have enabled remarkable scientific discoveries and important technological advances that span all programs within the DOE Office of Science (DOE/SC). The importance of accelerators to the DOE/SC mission is evident from an examination of the DOE document, ''Facilities for the Future of Science: A Twenty-Year Outlook''. Of the 28 facilities listed, 13 involve accelerators. Thanks to SciDAC, a powerful suite of parallel simulation tools has been developed that represent a paradigm shift in computational accelerator science. Simulations that used to take weeks or more now take hours, and simulations that were once thought impossible are now performed routinely. These codes have been applied to many important projects of DOE/SC including existing facilities (the Tevatron complex, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider), facilities under construction (the Large Hadron Collider, the Spallation Neutron Source, the Linac Coherent Light Source), and to future facilities (the International Linear Collider, the Rare Isotope Accelerator). The new codes have also been used to explore innovative approaches to charged particle acceleration. These approaches, based on the extremely intense fields that can be present in lasers and plasmas, may one day provide a path to the outermost reaches of the energy frontier. Furthermore, they could lead to compact, high-gradient accelerators that would have huge consequences for US science and technology, industry, and medicine. In this talk I will describe the new accelerator modeling capabilities developed under SciDAC, the essential role of multi-disciplinary collaboration with applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and other IT experts in developing these capabilities, and provide examples of how the codes have been used to support DOE/SC accelerator projects.

  14. PACIFIC: the readout ASIC for the SciFi Tracker of the upgraded LHCb detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazorra, J.; Chanal, H.; Comerma, A.; Gascón, D.; Gómez, S.; Han, X.; Pillet, N.; Vandaele, R.

    2016-02-01

    The LHCb detector will be upgraded during the Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) of the LHC in order to cope with higher instantaneous luminosities and will switch to a 40 MHz readout rate using a trigger-less software based system. All front-end electronics will be replaced and several sub-detectors must be redesigned to cope with the higher detector occupancy and radiation damage. The current tracking detectors downstream of the LHCb dipole magnet will be replaced by the Scintillating Fibre (SciFi) Tracker. The SciFi Tracker will use scintillating fibres read out by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). State-of-the-art multi-channel SiPM arrays are being developed and a custom ASIC, called the low-Power ASIC for the sCIntillating FIbres traCker (PACIFIC), will be used to digitise the signals from the SiPMs. This article presents an overview of the R&D for the PACIFIC. It is a 64-channel ASIC implemented in 130 nm CMOS technology, aiming at a radiation tolerant design with a power consumption below 10 mW per channel. It interfaces directly with the SiPM anode through a current mode input, and provides a configurable non-linear 2-bit per channel digital output. The SiPM signal is acquired by a current conveyor and processed with a fast shaper and a gated integrator. The digitization is performed using a three threshold non-linear flash ADC operating at 40 MHz. Simulation and test results show the PACIFIC chip prototypes functioning well.

  15. Comments on: “Synchronization of N-coupled fractional-order chaotic systems with ring connection” [Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 2010;15:401-12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asheghan, Mohammad Mostafa; Delshad, Saleh Sayyad

    2010-11-01

    In this note, we present some points to paper [Tang Yang, Fang Jian-an, Synchronization of N-coupled fractional-order chaotic systems with ring connection. Commun Nonlinear Sci Numer Simulat 2010;15:401-12].

  16. Measuring mood spectrum: comparison of interview (SCI-MOODS) and self-report (MOODS-SR) instruments.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, Liliana; Armani, Antonella; Rucci, Paola; Frank, Ellen; Fagiolini, Andrea; Corretti, Giorgio; Shear, M Katherine; Grochocinski, Victoria J; Maser, Jack D; Endicott, Jean; Cassano, Giovanni B

    2002-01-01

    Spectrum phenomena include, in addition to the typical DSM core symptoms, isolated or atypical symptoms, often of low severity, as well as trait-like behavioral features that arise as a result of coping with the psychopathology. We have demonstrated the psychometric properties of five Structured Clinical Interviews for the assessment of specific mood and anxiety spectrum conditions, including the Structured Clinical Interview for Mood Spectrum (SCI-MOODS). The present report describes the reliability of the self-report version (MOODS-SR) of the SCI-MOODS in a sample of 21 patients with a mood disorder and 20 control subjects. Agreement between the self-report and the interview formats was substantial. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) ranged from 0.88 to 0.97. Our findings provide support for the reliability of the MOODS-SR questionnaire. PMID:11788923

  17. Exploring Earth and the Solar System: Educational Outreach Through NASA's Space Place, SciJinks, and Climate Kids Websites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneses, Joseph Chistopher

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Place team publishes engaging content and creates an effective environment to inspire a young audience to dare mighty things. NASA uses the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks websites to cultivate interest among elementary-school-aged children in both science and technology. During my summer internship at Jet Propulsion Laboratory I used Adobe Flash and ActionScript 3 to develop content for the Space Place, Climate Kids, and SciJinks sites. In addition, I was involved in the development process for ongoing and new projects during my internship. My involvement allowed me to follow a project from concept to design, implementation, and release. I personally worked on three projects this summer, two of which are currently in deployment. The first is a scrambled letter-tile guessing game titled Solar System Scramble. The second, Butterfrog Mix-Up, is a rotating-tile puzzle game. The third project is a unfinished prototype for a maze game.

  18. Validity and reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Trauma and Loss Spectrum (SCI-TALS)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background DSM-IV identifies three stress response disorders (acute stress (ASD), post-traumatic stress (PTSD) and adjustment disorders (AD)) that derive from specific life events. An additional condition of complicated grief (CG), well described in the literature, is triggered by bereavement. Methods This paper reports on the reliability and validity of the Structured Clinical Interview for Trauma and Loss Spectrum (SCI-TALS) developed to assess the spectrum of stress response. The instrument is based on a spectrum model that emphasizes soft signs, low-grade symptoms, subthreshold syndromes, as well as temperamental and personality traits comprising clinical and subsyndromal manifestations. Study participants, enrolled at 6 Italian Departments of Psychiatry, included consecutive patients with PTSD (N = 48), CG (N = 44), and controls (N = 48). Results We showed good reliability and validity of the SCI-TALS. Domain scores were significantly higher in participants with PTSD or CG compared to controls. There were high correlations between specific SCI-TALS domains and corresponding scores on established measures of similar constructs. Participants endorsing grief and loss events reported similar scores on all instruments, except those with CG who scored significantly higher on the domain of grief reactions. Conclusion These results support the existence of a specific grief-related condition and the proposal that different forms of stress response have similar manifestations. PMID:18226228

  19. The Palomar Observatory - ST ScI Digital Sky Survey. II. The Scanning Process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasker, B. M.; Djorgovski, S.; Postman, M.; Laidler, V. G.; Weir, W. N.; Reid, I. N.; Sturch, C.

    1992-05-01

    The program to digitize the second Palomar sky survey (POSS-II) is based on scans done with the same modified PDS microdensitometers that were used for the Guide Star Catalog. An approximately Gaussian aperture with a nominal size of 30 microns\\ (FW at e(-2) ) is used with a sampling interval of 15 microns. The full rasters, 23,040 pixels square, occupy 1.06 Gbytes. A number of quality control steps following scanning are used to verify proper electronic performance of the system, as well as the photometric and astrometric integrity of the scans, e.g., extensive visual inspection, bit and pixel statistics, sky modeling, and calibrations against reference objects; representative data from these controls, as well as near-term plans for their enhancement, are presented. The accepted scans, together with supporting files, are archived four times on 8-mm tape, with two of each being sent to separate off-site locations. The selection of an archival optical disk procedure for the scans is also in progress, with actual transfer from the 8-mm tapes to begin within a year. The community distribution, most likely on CD ROM, will use the same low-loss compression techniques already in use (White, Postman, and Lattanzi, in Dig. Opt. Sky Surveys -- II, ed. H. MacGillivray). Samples of such compressed images will be displayed, together with a discussion of their photometric and astrometric properties. With a nominal compression of 15 and present CD storage densities, the collection of J, F, and N plates would be a 300 volume set. The POSS-II is funded by grants to Caltech from the Eastman Kodak Co., the National Geographic Society, the Samuel Oschin Foundation, the NSF grants AST 84-08225 and AST 87-19465, and the NASA grants NGL 05002140 and NAGW 1710. ST ScI is operated by AURA, Inc., under contract to NASA; image compression algorithms at the ST ScI were developed under NASA grant NAGW 2166.

  20. Hydrogen and the First Stars: First Results from the SCI-HI 21-cm all-sky spectrum experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, Tabitha; Peterson, Jeffrey; Lopez-Cruz, Omar; Jauregui-Garcia, Jose-Miguel; SCI-HI Experiment Team

    2015-01-01

    The 'Sonda Cosmologica de las Islas para la Deteccion de Hidrogeno Neutro' (SCI-HI) experiment is an all-sky 21-cm brightness temperature spectrum experiment studying the cosmic dawn (z~15-35). The experiment is a collaboration between Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE) in Mexico. Initial deployment of the SCI-HI experiment occurred in June 2013 on Guadalupe; a small island about 250 km off of the Pacific coast of Baja California in Mexico. Preliminary measurements from this deployment have placed the first observational constraints on the 21-cm all-sky spectrum around 70 MHz (z~20), see Voytek et al (2014).Neutral Hydrogen (HI) is found throughout the universe in the cold gas that makes up the intergalactic medium (IGM). HI can be observed through the spectral line at 21 cm (1.4 GHz) due to hyperfine structure. Expansion of the universe causes the wavelength of this spectral line to stretch at a rate defined by the redshift z, leading to a signal which can be followed through time.Now the strength of the 21-cm signal in the IGM is dependent only on a small number of variables; the temperature and density of the IGM, the amount of HI in the IGM, the UV energy density in the IGM, and the redshift. This means that 21-cm measurements teach us about the history and structure of the IGM. The SCI-HI experiment focuses on the spatially averaged 21-cm spectrum, looking at the temporal evolution of the IGM during the cosmic dawn before reionization.Although the SCI-HI experiment placed first constraints with preliminary data, this data was limited to a narrow frequency regime around 60-85 MHz. This limitation was caused by instrumental difficulties and the presence of residual radio frequency interference (RFI) in the FM radio band (~88-108 MHz). The SCI-HI experiment is currently undergoing improvements and we plan to have another deployment soon. This deployment would be to Socorro and Clarion, two islands further from mainland Mexico than Guadalupe. With the new data, we anticipate being able to place tighter constraints over a wider range of redshifts than our current results.

  1. Challenges of animal models in SCI research: Effects of pre-injury task-specific training in adult rats before lesion.

    PubMed

    May, Zacnicte; Fouad, Karim; Shum-Siu, Alice; Magnuson, David S K

    2015-09-15

    A rarely explored subject in animal research is the effect of pre-injury variables on behavioral outcome post-SCI. Low reporting of such variables may underlie some discrepancies in findings between laboratories. Particularly, intensive task-specific training before a SCI might be important, considering that sports injuries are one of the leading causes of SCI. Thus, individuals with SCI often underwent rigorous training before their injuries. In the present study, we asked whether training before SCI on a grasping task or a swimming task would influence motor recovery in rats. Swim pre-training impaired recovery of swimming 2 and 4 weeks post-injury. This result fits with the idea of motor learning interference, which posits that learning something new may disrupt learning of a new task; in this case, learning strategies to compensate for functional loss after SCI. In contrast to swimming, grasp pre-training did not influence grasping ability after SCI at any time point. However, grasp pre-trained rats attempted to grasp more times than untrained rats in the first 4 weeks post-injury. Also, lesion volume of grasp pre-trained rats was greater than that of untrained rats, a finding which may be related to stress or activity. The increased participation in rehabilitative training of the pre-trained rats in the early weeks post-injury may have potentiated spontaneous plasticity in the spinal cord and counteracted the deleterious effect of interference and bigger lesions. Thus, our findings suggest that pre-training plays a significant role in recovery after CNS damage and needs to be carefully controlled for. PMID:25975172

  2. SciClone: Inferring Clonal Architecture and Tracking the Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Tumor Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Dees, Nathan D.; Griffith, Malachi; Welch, John S.; Griffith, Obi L.; Vij, Ravi; Tomasson, Michael H.; Graubert, Timothy A.; Walter, Matthew J.; Ellis, Matthew J.; Schierding, William; DiPersio, John F.; Ley, Timothy J.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Ding, Li

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of massively-parallel sequencing has confirmed that most cancers are oligoclonal, with subpopulations of neoplastic cells harboring distinct mutations. A fine resolution view of this clonal architecture provides insight into tumor heterogeneity, evolution, and treatment response, all of which may have clinical implications. Single tumor analysis already contributes to understanding these phenomena. However, cryptic subclones are frequently revealed by additional patient samples (e.g., collected at relapse or following treatment), indicating that accurately characterizing a tumor requires analyzing multiple samples from the same patient. To address this need, we present SciClone, a computational method that identifies the number and genetic composition of subclones by analyzing the variant allele frequencies of somatic mutations. We use it to detect subclones in acute myeloid leukemia and breast cancer samples that, though present at disease onset, are not evident from a single primary tumor sample. By doing so, we can track tumor evolution and identify the spatial origins of cells resisting therapy. PMID:25102416

  3. Assessing ComSciCon 2013: A science communication workshop for STEM graduate students (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, S.; Ranjan, S.; Sanders, N.; Morey, S.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the efficacy of Communicating Science 2013, a science communication workshop for graduate students. Effective science communication is imperative for the sharing of scientific ideas, continued funding and support from policy makers, and education of the public. Science graduate students are a prime group to target for communication training, as they will be our future scientists, educators, and EPO professionals. To this end, Communicating Science 2013 (ComSciCon), a workshop organized by and for STEM graduate students, was held in June of this year. This workshop taught graduate students from around the nation to effectively communicate science to both their peers and the public. To learn about grad students' attitudes toward science communication and establish the workshop's efficacy, we surveyed the participants both before and after the workshop. This assessment probed topics such as communication preparation the participants have already received, how science communication is perceived in their home department, and what participants gained from the workshop. We report the results here.

  4. Lambda Station: Alternate network path forwarding for production SciDAC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; DeMar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Don; Newman, Harvey; Steenberg, Conrad; Thomas, Michael; /Caltech

    2007-09-01

    The LHC era will start very soon, creating immense data volumes capable of demanding allocation of an entire network circuit for task-driven applications. Circuit-based alternate network paths are one solution to meeting the LHC high bandwidth network requirements. The Lambda Station project is aimed at addressing growing requirements for dynamic allocation of alternate network paths. Lambda Station facilitates the rerouting of designated traffic through site LAN infrastructure onto so-called 'high-impact' wide-area networks. The prototype Lambda Station developed with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach in mind will be presented. Lambda Station has been successfully integrated into the production version of the Storage Resource Manager (SRM), and deployed at US CMS Tier1 center at Fermilab, as well as at US-CMS Tier-2 site at Caltech. This paper will discuss experiences using the prototype system with production SciDAC applications for data movement between Fermilab and Caltech. The architecture and design principles of the production version Lambda Station software, currently being implemented as Java based web services, will also be presented in this paper.

  5. A fiber optic probe for measurement of an autonomic dysreflexia event on SCI patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella-Roman, J. C.; Hidler, J. M.

    2008-02-01

    Autonomic Dysreflexia (AD) is an inappropriate response of the sympathetic nervous system that often occurs in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI ) at or above the sixth thoracic vertebrae (T6) level when a noxius stimulus is applied below the level of injury. An AD event can be put into motion by something as simple as an ingrown toenail or a full bladder, with symptoms such as headache, elevated blood pressure, reduced heart rate, decreases in blood flow below the level of injury, and in extreme cases, stroke. We have developed a quantitative method of measuring skin oxygen levels during AD using a fiber optics based probe. Two such probes were located above and below the injury level (on the patient forearm and thigh respectively) and were connected to a dual channel spectrophotometer. Oxygen saturation was calculated using the reflectance spectra and an algorithm based on melanin and hemoglobin absorption. We found that during an AD event, the amount of oxygen in the skin below the injury level drops by as much as 40%, while above the injury level skin oxygenation remains constant. Additionally, we observed elevated persperation levels below the injury level. We hypothesize that the combination of AD-related ischemia with pressure related ischemia and increased perspiration places individuals with injury level at T6 or above at significant risk for developing a pressure sore below the injury site.

  6. What Is Required In Uganda? The 2007 Report Of The Japan Sci-edu. Support Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Tatsuhiro

    2010-07-01

    The development of ability for technology and invention is required as self-sustaining growth of science and technology in Asian and African developing countries. Science education that connects to the real world is the required education for the self-sustaining growth. But in fact, it is very common to study for the entrance examination. According to C. Camilla, S. and Sjo/berg, [The Re-emergence of Values in the Science Curriculum. Rotterdam, 2007, Sense Publishers], Ugandan students are the most interested ones in science and technology (I would like to be a scientist, I would like to get a job in technology) in the world. Science education should mortgages future of youth. Especially science education of developing countries should be directly connected to the real world. Because they need a lot of engineers as skilled worker, we implemented physics education that was directly connected with manufacturing by the sci-edu. support project in Uganda. The best results were achieved by contrivance in spite of poverty area. Our education method gave one form of New Science Education in Asia and Africa.

  7. Final Technical Report - SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    2012-07-01

    Final technical report for research performed by Dr. Thomas G. Jenkins in collaboration with Professor Dalton D. Schnack on SciDAC Cooperative Agreement: Center for Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodyanics, DE-FC02-06ER54899, for the period of 8/15/06 - 8/14/11. This report centers on the Slow MHD physics campaign work performed by Dr. Jenkins while at UW-Madison and then at Tech-X Corporation. To make progress on the problem of RF induced currents affect magnetic island evolution in toroidal plasmas, a set of research approaches are outlined. Three approaches can be addressed in parallel. These are: (1) Analytically prescribed additional term in Ohm's law to model the effect of localized ECCD current drive; (2) Introduce an additional evolution equation for the Ohm's law source term. Establish a RF source 'box' where information from the RF code couples to the fluid evolution; and (3) Carry out a more rigorous analytic calculation treating the additional RF terms in a closure problem. These approaches rely on the necessity of reinvigorating the computation modeling efforts of resistive and neoclassical tearing modes with present day versions of the numerical tools. For the RF community, the relevant action item is - RF ray tracing codes need to be modified so that general three-dimensional spatial information can be obtained. Further, interface efforts between the two codes require work as well as an assessment as to the numerical stability properties of the procedures to be used.

  8. Standardizing geologic data interchange: GeoSciML from the IUGS/CGI datamodel collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Boisvert, E.; Brodaric, B.; Duffy, T. R.; Johnson, B. R.; Laxton, J. L.; Richard, S. H.; Simons, B.

    2005-12-01

    GeoSciML is a harmonised information model and XML encoding for the exchange of geologic data. It is unique in its breadth of inputs and content, drawing from precursory national geoscience data model efforts in North America, Europe, Australia and Japan. The common suite of feature types is based on geological criteria (units, structures) artefacts of geological investigations (specimens, sections, boreholes, observations), along with supporting elements required as classifiers for the primary objects (material description, timescale, lexicons, etc). The data model design accommodates the short-term goal of representing information associated with geologic maps and boreholes, as well as being extensible in the long-term to other feature types. The initial version does not include portrayal and cartographic elements associated with a map itself. The model uses patterns designed for implementation as a GML Application Schema, which ensures compatibility with standard web-service interfaces from the Open Geospatial Consortium. The meta-model is based on features and properties, and leads to a rich information-oriented transfer encoding. The availability of standard patterns for mapping from UML provides a convenient bridge to existing conceptual models available from several sources. The project is being undertaken under the auspices of the IUGS Commission for Geoscience Information. As the development team is geographically scattered, a web-based collaborative environment has been essential to progress. The results are intended for widespread use, so project documentation, including the current state of the model and schema, is openly accessible.

  9. First-principles edge physics simulation in diverted tokamak geometry at SciDAC CPES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. S.; the CPES Team

    2011-10-01

    Primary mission of the SciDAC Proto-FSP CPES (Center for Plasma Edge Simulation) is (a) to build a new kinetic code applicable to realistic diverted edge geometry, (b) to create a new code integration framework to couple the multi scale edge physics including MHD and neutrals, and (c) to make scientific discoveries in the edge physics and the edge effect on the core confinement. Absence of a kinetic code applicable to realistic diverted edge geometry has been a critical missing element in the world fusion program. The insurmountable difficulties in building such a kinetic code has been in the requirement of the full-f approach instead of the popular delta-f approach, the complicated edge geometry, existence of the X-point, and the necessity of extreme scale computing. We have succeeded in building two such kinetic HPC codes XGC0 and XGC1, and in creating a state-of-the-art code integration framework EFFIS. The current capability of the XGC codes, including the kinetic ion-electron turbulence physics and 3D magnetic perturbation physics, will be described. Scientific discoveries on the edge neoclassical and turbulence physics, the non-local core-edge interaction, 3D RMP physics, pedestal physics, wall load, plasma rotation physics, and other edge physics will be reported. Work supported primarily by US DOE OFES and ASCR.

  10. GENESIS SciFlo: Choreographing Interoperable Web Services on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Xing, Z.

    2007-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo leverages remote Web Services, called via Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) or REST (one-line) URLs, and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* & Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi- instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. In particular, SciFlo exploits the wealth of datasets accessible by OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) Web Mapping Servers & Web Coverage Servers (WMS/WCS), and by Open Data Access Protocol (OpenDAP) servers. SciFlo also publishes its own SOAP services for space/time query and subsetting of Earth Science datasets, and automated access to large datasets via lists of (FTP, HTTP, or DAP) URLs which point to on-line HDF or netCDF files. Typical distributed workflows obtain datasets by calling standard WMS/WCS servers or discovering and fetching data granules from ftp sites; invoke remote analysis operators available as SOAP services (interface described by a WSDL document); and merge results into binary containers (netCDF or HDF files) for further analysis using local executable operators. Naming conventions (HDFEOS and CF-1.0 for netCDF) are exploited to automatically understand and read on-line datasets. More interoperable conventions, and broader adoption of existing converntions, are vital if we are to "scale up" automated choreography of Web Services beyond toy applications. Recently, the ESIP Federation sponsored a collaborative activity in which several ESIP members developed some collaborative science scenarios for atmospheric and aerosol science, and then choreographed services from multiple groups into demonstration workflows using the SciFlo engine and a Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) workflow engine. We will discuss the lessons learned from this activity, the need for standardized interfaces (like WMS/WCS), the difficulty in agreeing on even simple XML formats and interfaces, the benefits of doing collaborative science analysis at the "touch of a button" once services are connected, and further collaborations that are being pursued.

  11. GENESIS SciFlo: Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid Using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, B. D.; Manipon, G.; Tang, B.; Mazzoni, D.; Fetzer, E.; Dobinson, E.; Yunck, T.

    2005-12-01

    The General Earth Science Investigation Suite (GENESIS) project is a NASA-sponsored partnership between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, academia, and NASA data centers to develop a new suite of Web Services tools to facilitate multi-sensor investigations in Earth System Science. The goal of GENESIS is to enable large-scale, multi-instrument atmospheric science using combined datasets from the AIRS, MODIS, MISR, and GPS sensors. Investigations include cross-comparison of spaceborne climate sensors, cloud spectral analysis, study of upper troposphere-stratosphere water transport, study of the aerosol indirect cloud effect, and global climate model validation. The challenges are to bring together very large datasets, reformat and understand the individual instrument retrievals, co-register or re-grid the retrieved physical parameters, perform computationally-intensive data fusion and data mining operations, and accumulate complex statistics over months to years of data. To meet these challenges, we have developed a Grid computing and dataflow framework, named SciFlo, in which we are deploying a set of versatile and reusable operators for data access, subsetting, registration, mining, fusion, compression, and advanced statistical analysis. SciFlo is a system for Scientific Knowledge Creation on the Grid using a Semantically-Enabled Dataflow Execution Environment. SciFlo leverages Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) Web Services and the Grid Computing standards (WS-* & Globus Alliance toolkits), and enables scientists to do multi-instrument Earth Science by assembling reusable Web Services and native executables into a distributed computing flow (tree of operators). The SciFlo client & server engines optimize the execution of such distributed data flows and allow the user to transparently find and use datasets and operators without worrying about the actual location of the Grid resources. The scientist injects a distributed computation into the Grid by simply filling out an HTML form or directly authoring the underlying XML dataflow document, and results are returned directly to the scientist's desktop. Once an analysis has been specified for a chunk or day of data, it can be easily repeated with different control parameters or over months of data. We will discuss the design issues and solutions used in the implementation of SciFlo, including XML dataflow documents, heavy use of XML datatyping & semantic web ontologies, parallel dataflow execution engines, data access simply by naming objects, and distributed catalog lookup of operator bundles. To illustrate the SciFlo concepts, an example dataflow will be demonstrated in which atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles from the AIRS, GPS, and MODIS instruments are retrieved using SOAP (data query & access) services, co-registered, and visually & statistically compared on demand. Such cross-validation analyses have already been run for years of GPS and AIRS retrievals (see http://sciflo.jpl.nasa.gov for more information).

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 27: Knowledge diffusion and US government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal involvement in simulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

  13. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXVII - Knowledge diffusion and U.S. government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal involvement in stimulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

  14. The Fulldome Curriculum for the Spitz SciDome Digital Planetarium: A New Age for Planetarium Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, David H.; Huggins, S. L.

    2010-01-01

    Astronomy education received a huge boost from the Space Program in the 1960's and early 1970's as evidenced by a large increase in school planetariums built nationwide at that time. But with the waning of manned explorations so also went the push for astronomy in the schools, and many school planetariums are underutilized or not used at all. This poster will discuss and illustrate some of the new Fulldome Curriculum that has been developed specifically for the Spitz SciDome digital planetarium powered by Starry Night. It is now possible to teach astronomical concepts in new and exciting ways and present topics that were extremely difficult to convey to lay audiences in the past. One of the strongest advantages of the SciDome is that, since it uses Starry Night as its astronomical engine, students can create their own astronomical configurations in the computer lab or at home using the PC or Mac version and then simply load them onto the SciDome planetarium system and display them for the class on the dome. Additionally, the instructor can create artificial bodies to pose "What if” scenarios, for example, "What would the Moon look like if it didn't rotate synchronously?", or "What would the analemma look like if the Earth's orbit were circular and not an ellipse?" Topics covered in the series include The Moon, Seasons, Coordinate Systems, Roemer's Method of Measuring the Speed of Light, Analemmas in the Solar System, Precession, Mimas and the Cassini Division, Halley's Comet in 1910, Dog Days, Galactic Distributions of Celestial Bodies, Retrograde Paths of Mars, Mercury's Orbit and the Length of the Mercurian Day, Altitude of the North Celestial Pole, Why Polaris Appears Mostly Stationary, Circumpolar Contellations, Planet Definition, Scale of the Solar System, Stonehenge, The Changing Aspect of Saturn's Appearance and Scorpio's Claws.

  15. An exploration of the sensitivity of the UV Aerosol Indices, AAI and SCI, from SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, T.; Penning de Vries, M. J.; Tuinder, O.; Tilstra, G.; Stammes, P.

    2010-12-01

    Since many years, the Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) has been used to study UV-absorbing aerosols, such as mineral dust and biomass burning smoke, from space. Much less known is the fact that AAI’s negative counterpart, the SCattering Index (SCI) can be used to study scattering aerosols - aerosols that do not or hardly absorb UV radiation, such as sulfate and secondary organic aerosols. In addition to their sensitivity to aerosol extinction, the two UV Aerosol Indices (UVAI) are sensitive to aerosol absorption and aerosol layer altitude, which makes them very suitable tools for studying aerosol optical properties. Three big advantages of UVAI are (1) that they are not very sensitive to nearly all surface types, (2) that they are determined without a priori assumptions on aerosol type, and (3) that they can be (and are) determined in the presence of clouds. Clouds do, however, have a significant impact on UVAI - on the order of 1 UVAI unit - and a cloud correction needs to be applied for quantitative use of UVAI. Due to their complex dependence on aerosol parameters, calculations with a radiative transfer model are indispensible to obtain information on aerosol characteristics from UVAI. We have performed a detailed study of the sensitivity of the UVAI to several aerosol and cloud optical parameters, with the aim of making more quantitative use of both AAI and SCI. We also present a simple cloud correction procedure based on radiative transfer modeling of clouds. Finally, we show a study of scattering aerosols that were observed over the Southeastern USA in summer by the SCI from three satellite instruments: SCIAMACHY, OMI, and GOME-2.

  16. Patient-cooperative control increases active participation of individuals with SCI during robot-aided gait training

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Manual body weight supported treadmill training and robot-aided treadmill training are frequently used techniques for the gait rehabilitation of individuals after stroke and spinal cord injury. Current evidence suggests that robot-aided gait training may be improved by making robotic behavior more patient-cooperative. In this study, we have investigated the immediate effects of patient-cooperative versus non-cooperative robot-aided gait training on individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). Methods Eleven patients with iSCI participated in a single training session with the gait rehabilitation robot Lokomat. The patients were exposed to four different training modes in random order: During both non-cooperative position control and compliant impedance control, fixed timing of movements was provided. During two variants of the patient-cooperative path control approach, free timing of movements was enabled and the robot provided only spatial guidance. The two variants of the path control approach differed in the amount of additional support, which was either individually adjusted or exaggerated. Joint angles and torques of the robot as well as muscle activity and heart rate of the patients were recorded. Kinematic variability, interaction torques, heart rate and muscle activity were compared between the different conditions. Results Patients showed more spatial and temporal kinematic variability, reduced interaction torques, a higher increase of heart rate and more muscle activity in the patient-cooperative path control mode with individually adjusted support than in the non-cooperative position control mode. In the compliant impedance control mode, spatial kinematic variability was increased and interaction torques were reduced, but temporal kinematic variability, heart rate and muscle activity were not significantly higher than in the position control mode. Conclusions Patient-cooperative robot-aided gait training with free timing of movements made individuals with iSCI participate more actively and with larger kinematic variability than non-cooperative, position-controlled robot-aided gait training. PMID:20828422

  17. Towards flash flood disaster prevention: the SciNetNat Haz proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinos, Papatheodorou; Elena, Tzanou; Carmen, Maftei; Ozgur, Kirca; Hafzullah, Aksoy

    2015-04-01

    Floods occur with a continuously increasing frequency due to climatic changes and cause serious damage in the wider Black Sea area, endangering human life and property. As societies continuously expand, these phenomena are expected to play an increasingly important role, blocking sustainable development unless properly tackled. Flash flood prevention seems at this point, to be the target of effectively mitigating the potential threat. Since in many cases, there is a cross-border character of the problem, collaborative efforts have to be made involving cooperation between countries. To this end, a variety of problems exist, including the "information gap" related to the unavailability of data and the multitude of methodologies used to assess flood hazard; a fact that renders comparison of hazard assessment results and cross border cooperation ineffective. An effort made within the context of the SciNetNatHaz project, suggests a two step approach to produce reliable the results which can lead to decision making regarding designing preventive measures. The first step aims at defining the flood prone areas on a regional scale, using geomorphometric models and readily available topographic data; thus overcoming the problem of data availability for any region of interest. The second step follows a vulnerability and risk assessment of the flood prone areas of interest and focuses on the calculation of flood parameters on a local scale using hydraulic models. Implementation of the full process is based on Open Source software tools so that it can be implemented with minimal costs by anyone interested. Implementation of the proposed procedure in three different cases in Greece and in Romania shows that it can provide accurate and reliable results to support decision making regarding the design of preventive measures. Keywords: Flash floods, hazard assessment, flood disaster prevention, HEC-RAS, SAGA GIS . Acknowledgements: This work is partially funded by the EU through the Black Sea Basin Joint Operational programme 2007-13 and national funds.

  18. NQR experiments on Sc-Y alloys at very low temperatures. [Absolute thermometry below 500[mu]K

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, L.; Smith, E.N.; Richardson, R.C. )

    1992-10-01

    The authors performed Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) experiments on an alloy of scandium and yttrium. They find that the characteristic resonance frequencies in zero external field are 50% larger than in pure scandium. This increase in frequency makes the Sc-Y alloy a better candidate for absolute thermometry below 500 [mu]K. However, the spin-lattice relaxation time of this alloy is more than an order of magnitude longer than in the pure scandium. In addition, an abrupt increase in the Korringa constant was observed for temperatures below 5mK.

  19. DOE's SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies -- Strategy for Petascale Visual Data Analysis Success

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E Wes; Johnson, Chris; Aragon, Cecilia; Rubel, Oliver; Weber, Gunther; Pascucci, Valerio; Childs, Hank; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Whitlock, Brad; Ahern, Sean; Meredith, Jeremey; Ostrouchov, George; Joy, Ken; Hamann, Bernd; Garth, Christoph; Cole, Martin; Hansen, Charles; Parker, Steven; Sanderson, Allen; Silva, Claudio; Tricoche, Xavier

    2007-10-01

    The focus of this article is on how one group of researchersthe DOE SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for EnablingTechnologies (VACET) is tackling the daunting task of enabling knowledgediscovery through visualization and analytics on some of the world slargest and most complex datasets and on some of the world's largestcomputational platforms. As a Center for Enabling Technology, VACET smission is the creation of usable, production-quality visualization andknowledge discovery software infrastructure that runs on large, parallelcomputer systems at DOE's Open Computing facilities and that providessolutions to challenging visual data exploration and knowledge discoveryneeds of modern science, particularly the DOE sciencecommunity.

  20. Metabolic demand and muscle activation during different forms of bodyweight supported locomotion in men with incomplete SCI.

    PubMed

    Fenuta, Alyssa M; Hicks, Audrey L

    2014-01-01

    Body weight supported locomotor training uses neuroplasticity principles to improve recovery following a spinal cord injury (SCI). Steady state locomotion using the same body weight support (BWS) percent was compared in 7 males (42.6 ± 4.29 years) with incomplete SCI and matched (gender, age) noninjured controls (42.7 ± 5.4 years) using the Lokomat, Manual Treadmill, and ZeroG. The VO2000, Polar Heart Rate (HR) Monitor, and lower limb electromyography (EMG) electrodes were worn during the 2-minute sessions. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and HR were expressed as percentage of peak values obtained using progressive arm ergometry; VO2 was also expressed relative to resting metabolic equivalents (METS). Filtered EMG signals from tibialis anterior (TA), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) were normalized to ZeroG stepping. The Lokomat required 30% of VO2 peak (2METS) compared to ~54% (3METS) for Manual Treadmill and ZeroG sessions. HR was 67% of peak during Lokomat sessions compared to ~83% for Manual Treadmill and ZeroG. Muscle activation was higher in treadmill conditions compared to the ZeroG primarily due to increased BF activity. At the same level of BWS, locomotion using the Manual Treadmill or the ZeroG is more aerobically demanding than the Lokomat. Treadmill modalities encourage greater hip extensor activation compared to overground locomotion. PMID:24971340