Science.gov

Sample records for surface finishes team

  1. NCMS PWB Surface Finishes Team project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Kokas, J.; DeSantis, C.; Wenger, G.

    1996-04-01

    The NCMS PWB Surface Finishes Consortium is just about at the end of the five year program. Dozens of projects related to surface finishes and PWB solder-ability were performed by the team throughout the program, and many of them are listed in this paper. They are listed with a cross reference to where and when a technical paper was presented describing the results of the research. However, due to time and space constraints, this paper can summarize the details of only three of the major research projects accomplished by the team. The first project described is an ``Evaluation of PWB Surface Finishes.`` It describes the solderability, reliability, and wire bondability of numerous surface finishes. The second project outlined is an ``Evaluation of PWB Solderability Test Methods.`` The third project outlined is the ``Development and Evaluation of Organic Solderability Preservatives.``

  2. Surface finishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzler, J. A.; Hefferman, J. T.; Fehrenkamp, L. G.; Lee, W. S. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A surface of an article adapted for relative motion with a fluid environment is finished by coating the surface with a fluid adhesive, covering the adhesive with a sheet of flexible film material under tension on the film material whereby the tensioned film material is bonded to the surface by the adhesive.

  3. Surface Finishing for Biomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Masayoshi; Komotori, Jun; Nagata, Jin; Katahira, Kazutoshi; Ohmori, Hitoshi

    Conventional biomaterials, such as titanium alloys, require enhanced chemical stability and wear resistance, which are dependent on the quality of the surficial oxide layer. However, it is very difficult to produce a sufficiently homogenous oxide layer by polishing using isolation abrasive alone. In our previous study, we proposed a new electrical grinding method (ELID grinding). The process improves oxide formation on the finished surface, resulting in finished surfaces with very thick and potentially stable oxide layers. In this study, to ensure the fabrication of surface with desirable characteristics for biomaterials, three types of specimens, which were processed with different surface finishing methods were prepared. Processed surfaces were analyzed by using an Energy Dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). To measure the thickness of surface oxide layers, detailed observation were performed by using a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Although the ELID ground surface shows a higher value of surface roughness, excellent corrosion resistance was observed as compared with the samples finished by polishing. This is because of the formation of a thick oxide layer on the finished surface by ELID grinding. Consequently, ELID grinding appears to offer significant future promise for use in biomaterials and other engineering components subjected to the corrosion process.

  4. Surface finishing. [for aircraft wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzler, J. A.; Heffernan, J. T.; Fehrenkamp, L. G.; Lee, W. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A surface of an article adapted for relative motion with a fluid environment is finished by coating the surface with a fluid adhesive. The adhesive is covered with a sheet of flexible film material under tension, and the adhesive is set while maintaining tension on the film material.

  5. NCMS PWB program report surface finishes team task WBS No. 3.1.1: Phase 1, Etching Studies: Chemical etching of copper for improved solderability

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.O.; Guilinger, T.R.; Hosking, F.M.; Yost, F.G.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1995-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with consortium members of the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) to develop fundamental generic technology in the area of printed wiring board materials and surface finishes. Improved solderability of copper substrates is an important component of the Sandia-NCMS program. We are investigating the effects of surface roughness on the wettability and solderability behavior of several different types of copper board finishes. In this paper, we present roughness and solderability characterizations for a variety of chemically-etched copper substrates. Initial testing on six chemical etches demonstrate that surface roughness can be greatly enhanced through chemical etching. Noticeable improvements in solder wettability were observed to accompany increases in roughness. A number of different algorithms and measures of roughness were used to gain insight into surface morphologies that lead to improved solderability.

  6. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  7. Effect of Burnishing Parameters on Surface Finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirsat, Uddhav; Ahuja, Basant; Dhuttargaon, Mukund

    2016-06-01

    Burnishing is cold working process in which hard balls are pressed against the surface, resulting in improved surface finish. The surface gets compressed and then plasticized. This is a highly finishing process which is becoming more popular. Surface quality of the product improves its aesthetic appearance. The product made up of aluminum material is subjected to burnishing process during which kerosene is used as a lubricant. In this study factors affecting burnishing process such as burnishing force, speed, feed, work piece diameter and ball diameter are considered as input parameters while surface finish is considered as an output parameter In this study, experiments are designed using 25 factorial design in order to analyze the relationship between input and output parameters. The ANOVA technique and F-test are used for further analysis.

  8. APPROACHING ZERO DISCHARGE IN SURFACE FINISHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides guidance to surface finishing manufacturers on control technologies and process changes for approaching zero discharge (AZD). AZD is a key theme underlying the Strategic Goals Program (SGP). The SGP is a cooperative effort between the EPA nd the American El...

  9. Lathe Attachment Finishes Inner Surface of Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancki, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Extremely smooth finishes are machined on inside surfaces of tubes by new attachment for a lathe. The relatively inexpensive accessory, called a "microhone," holds a honing stone against workpiece by rigid tangs instead of springs as in conventional honing tools. Inner rod permits adjustment of microhoning stone, while outer tube supports assembly. Outer tube is held between split blocks on lathe toolpost. Microhoning can be done with either microhone or workpiece moving and other member stationary.

  10. Densified carbonaceous bodies with improved surface finishes

    SciTech Connect

    Hucke, E.E.

    1988-08-02

    A method is described of producing a densified carbonaceous body with a superior surface finish, the method comprising the steps of: impregnating a permeable body composed essentially of a fine grained, isotropic graphite with a liquid impregnant containing furfural or furfural alcohol or a mixture thereof, an acid catalyst, and a pore-forming agent comprising a polyalkylene oxide adduct nonionic surfactant; heating the impregnated, permeable body to a temperature which is sufficiently high to polymerize the impregnant; and then heating the body to a temperature which is sufficiently high to pyrolyze the carbon in the polymerized impregnant.

  11. Review of Capabilities of the ENEPIG Surface Finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratzker, Menahem; Pearl, Adam; Osterman, Michael; Pecht, Michael; Milad, George

    2014-11-01

    Surface finishes are used to protect exposed copper metallization in printed circuit boards from oxidation and to provide a solderable surface on which to mount electronic components. While it is true that some people have called electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG) a "universal finish" for a wide range of applications from wire bonding to solder interconnects, this paper provides a review of the current literature on ENEPIG and assesses its overall capabilities compared to other surface finishes. Gaps in understanding the performance of ENEPIG as a printed wiring board surface finish are identified and further testing is recommended.

  12. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Finish of surface joints. 18.33 Section 18.33 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... Requirements § 18.33 Finish of surface joints. Flat surfaces between bolt holes that form any part of a...

  13. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Finish of surface joints. 18.33 Section 18.33 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... Requirements § 18.33 Finish of surface joints. Flat surfaces between bolt holes that form any part of a...

  14. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Finish of surface joints. 18.33 Section 18.33 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... Requirements § 18.33 Finish of surface joints. Flat surfaces between bolt holes that form any part of a...

  15. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Finish of surface joints. 18.33 Section 18.33 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... Requirements § 18.33 Finish of surface joints. Flat surfaces between bolt holes that form any part of a...

  16. Optimizing parameters for magnetorheological finishing supersmooth surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Zhijing; Wang, Yingwei

    2005-02-01

    This paper presents a reasonable approach to this issue, i.e., computer controlled magnetorheological finishing (MRF). In MRF, magnetically stiffened magnetorheological (MR) abrasive fluid flows through a preset converging gap that is formed by a workpiece surface and a moving rigid wall, to create precise material removal and polishing. Tsinghua University recently completed a project with MRF technology, in which a 66 mm diameter, f/5 parabolic mirror was polished to the shape accuracy of λ/17 RMS (λ=632.8nm) and the surface roughness of 1.22 nm Ra. This was done on a home made novel aspheric computer controlled manufacturing system. It is a three-axis, self-rotating wheel machine, the polishing tool is driven with one motor through a belt. This paper presents the manufacturing and testing processes, including establish the mathematics model of MRF optics on the basis of Preston equation, profiler test and relative coefficients, i.e., pressure between workpiece and tool, velocity of MR fluid in polishing spot, tolerance control of geometrical parameters such as radius of curvature and conic constant also been analyzed in the paper. Experiments were carried out on the features of MRF. The results indicated that the required convergent speed, surface roughness could be achieved with high efficiency.

  17. 30 CFR 18.33 - Finish of surface joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Finish of surface joints. 18.33 Section 18.33 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Construction and Design Requirements § 18.33 Finish of...

  18. Large planer for finishing smooth, flat surfaces of large pieces ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Large planer for finishing smooth, flat surfaces of large pieces of metal; in operating condition and used for public demonstrations. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  19. Solder flow over fine line PWB surface finishes

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.

    1998-08-01

    The rapid advancement of interconnect technology has stimulated the development of alternative printed wiring board (PWB) surface finishes to enhance the solderability of standard copper and solder-coated surfaces. These new finishes are based on either metallic or organic chemistries. As part of an ongoing solderability study, Sandia National Laboratories has investigated the solder flow behavior of two azole-based organic solderability preservations, immersion Au, immersion Ag, electroless Pd, and electroless Pd/Ni on fine line copper features. The coated substrates were solder tested in the as-fabricated and environmentally-stressed conditions. Samples were processed through an inerted reflow machine. The azole-based coatings generally provided the most effective protection after aging. Thin Pd over Cu yielded the best wetting results of the metallic coatings, with complete dissolution of the Pd overcoat and wetting of the underlying Cu by the flowing solder. Limited wetting was measured on the thicker Pd and Pd over Ni finishes, which were not completely dissolved by the molten solder. The immersion Au and Ag finishes yielded the lowest wetted lengths, respectively. These general differences in solderability were directly attributed to the type of surface finish which the solder came in contact with. The effects of circuit geometry, surface finish, stressing, and solder processing conditions are discussed.

  20. Analytical methods for the characterization of surface finishing in bricks.

    PubMed

    Nardini, I; Zendri, E; Biscontin, G; Brunetin, A

    2006-09-01

    The recent restoration works of Santo Stefano Church Façade (XV century) in Venice have shown traces variously saved of different kind of surface finishes. These finishes were found on the brick's surface both in the masonry and in the decorative elements. Different brick's surface and decorative tile samples were investigated using several techniques: optical microscopy, scanning electron-microscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and reflectance Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The evaluation of the reached results was used to understand the decorative techniques and to recognize the material employed. PMID:17723684

  1. Reflective fiber optic probe for surface finish survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzyniuk, Leszek

    1995-06-01

    The Report relates to verification of the design of refractive fiber optic probes designed for checking surface finish condition and provides a description of tests on the models of such probes. Presented in the paper are the results of performance tests of a bifurcated probe to the concept of application of a non-random bundle of light guides for identification of surfaces representing different CLA values (0.32, 0.63, 1.25, 2.50 micrometers).

  2. Improvement of figure and finish of diamond turned surfaces with magneto-rheological finishing (MRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, Paul; Golini, Don; Tricard, Marc

    2005-05-01

    Single Point Diamond Turning (SPDT) has been a cost effective technique to achieve the required figure and roughness specification on a wide range of infrared (IR) optics. SPDT is one of the few technologies that can efficiently generate aspherical surfaces, and as recent developments such as fast-tool servos mature, "free-form" surfaces are becoming feasible as well. Optical end-user requirements for a wide range of industries are continuing to tighten, driven, for example by multi-spectral systems that require good performance at shorter wavelengths in addition to IR. In many cases, specified shape tolerances can exceed SPDT capabilities. Additionally, SPDT typically leaves "turning marks" (affecting micro-roughness) that can be detrimental to performance. In some cases, surface integrity (e.g. sub-surface damage) can also be of concern. Magneto-Rheological Finishing (MRF®) has the proven ability to simultaneously improve roughness, figure, and surface integrity in a fast and cost effective manner. MRF is a deterministic, sub-aperture polishing technology, and is typically employed as the last manufacturing step. MRF can deterministically remove from tens of nanometers to microns worth of material, while efficiently "converging" to the specified requirements. Conversely, SPDT has proven to be very effective in removing the hundreds of microns (if not mm) sometimes required to "pre-shape" an aspheric surface before its final polish. After a brief introduction of MRF, this paper will discuss how SPDT and MRF processes can complement one another very effectively. Examples of MRF results on a wide range of IR materials will be presented.

  3. Polymer micromolds with near optical quality surface finishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiu, Pun-Pang; Knopf, George K.; Nikumb, Suwas

    2012-03-01

    Disposable microfluidic systems are used to avoid sample contamination in a variety of medical and environmental monitoring applications. A contactless hot intrusion (HI) process for fabricating reusable polymer micromolds with near "optical quality" surface finishes is described in this paper. A metallic hot intrusion mask with the desired microchannels and related passive components is first machined using a tightly focused beam from a diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) laser. The polymer mold master is then created by pressing the 2D metallic mask onto a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate. Since it is a contactless fabrication process the resultant 3D micro-reliefs have near optical quality surface finishes. Unfortunately, the desired micro-relief dimensions (height and width) are not easily related to the hot intrusion process parameters of pressure, temperature, and time exposure profile. A finite element model is introduced to assist the manufacturing engineer in predicting the behavior of the PMMA substrate material as it deforms under heat and pressure during micromold manufacture. The FEM model assumes that thermo-plastics like PMMA become "rubber like" when heated to a temperature slightly above the glass transition temperature. By controlling the material temperature and maintaining its malleable state, it is possible to use the stress-strain relationship to predict the profile dimensions of the imprinted microfeature. Examples of curved microchannels fabricated using PMMA mold masters are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology and verify the finite element model. In addition, the non-contact formation of the micro-reliefs simplifies the demolding process and helps to preserve the high quality surface finishes.

  4. Adaptive control of surface finish in automated turning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Plaza, E.; Núñez, P. J.; Martín, A. R.; Sanz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to design and develop an on-line control system of finished surfaces in automated machining process by CNC turning. The control system consisted of two basic phases: during the first phase, surface roughness was monitored through cutting force signals; the second phase involved a closed-loop adaptive control system based on data obtained during the monitoring of the cutting process. The system ensures that surfaces roughness is maintained at optimum values by adjusting the feed rate through communication with the PLC of the CNC machine. A monitoring and adaptive control system has been developed that enables the real-time monitoring of surface roughness during CNC turning operations. The system detects and prevents faults in automated turning processes, and applies corrective measures during the cutting process that raise quality and reliability reducing the need for quality control.

  5. Influence of Finishing/Polishing Procedures on the Surface Texture of Two Resin Composites

    PubMed Central

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Nakazawa, Taeko; Haruyama, Akiko; Haruyama, Chikahiro; Hosaka, Makoto; Hirai, Yoshito

    2008-01-01

    This study compared surface roughness and gloss produced by different finishing/polishing procedures for two resin composites, Clearfil AP-X (AP-X) and Estelite Σ (ES). A total of 70 composite discs (n=35 for each resin composite) were prepared and divided at random into seven finishing/polishing groups (n=5): glass-pressed control; using a super-fine-grit diamond bur (SF); using CompoMaster (CM) after SF-finishing (SF+CM); using White Point (WP) after SF-finishing (SF+WP); using CM after SF+WP-finishing (SF+WP+CM); using Stainbuster (SB) after SF-finishing (SF+SB); and using CM after SF+SB-finishing (SF+SB+CM). After the finishing/polishing procedures, average surface roughness (Ra) and surface gloss (Gs(60°)) of all specimens were assessed with a surface profilometer and specimen gloss meter, respectively. Glass-pressed controls for both AP-X and ES composites showed the best surface finish in terms of both Ra and Gs(60°). SF-finishing produced the roughest surface and led to almost complete loss of gloss. While additional polishing with CM reduced Ra and increased Gs(60°), the additional finishing effect of WP or SB between SF-finishing and CM-polishing was not found for either AP-X or ES. PMID:19088883

  6. Specification And Control Of Surface Finish: Empiricism Versus Dogmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, K. J.; Obray, C.; Jungles, J.

    1985-06-01

    This paper reviews the development of the analysis of surface finish from the early attempts in the 1930s to the present day. The development of parameters used in surface analysis is shown in context with the instrumental techniques available at the time, and it is argued that characterization based on graphical and experimental convenience has influenced industrial practice. As the requirements of manufacture and functional performance have been stretched by advancing technology, many industrialists have been forced to accept the fact that existing specification practices are limited and have sought alternative descriptions based on well-established techniques; but these techniques themselves are limited, their suitability to in-process measurement being practically nonexistent. It is shown that attempts have been made recently to develop optical methods of assessing surface finish using traditional parameters such as Ra. This paper suggests that it may be time to look toward a new form of specification that is more suited to assessment by optical transducers, and some methods of assessment are proposed. To support this view, a simple low-cost device is discussed that can be calibrated to give Ra but that also presents information in a more relevant empirical way that may be more valid than the existing parameter specification.

  7. Influence of finishing by burnishing on surface characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saï, W. Bouzid; Lebrun, J. L.

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution of residual stresses, microhardness, and roughness in relation to the finishing process. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to determine the residual stresses, which were measured from the surface to the bottom of the machined workpiece. Processes that were studied included turning, grinding, and burnishing. Burnishing was done on a surface that was initially turned, or turned and then ground. A duplex stainless steel was used in this study. This material belongs to a high-strength stainless steel family with high corrosion resistance properties. We noted that the burnishing process produces the best quality of the surface when compared with turning or grinding.

  8. Deburring and surface finishing: The past ten years and projections for the next ten years

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1990-09-01

    The 1970s were a decade of significant growth in deburring and surface finishing. In the 1980s progress was made in robotic finishing, burr formation models, surface finish measurement, new processes, equipment and tooling. The centers of burr and surface related research changed. The decade of the 1990s will bring greater competition, environmental restrictions, more processes, more automation, and better characterization and simulation of processes.

  9. Computer Simulation Of An In-Process Surface Finish Sensor.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakels, Jan H.

    1987-01-01

    It is generally accepted, that optical methods are the most promising for the in-process measurement of surface finish. These methods have the advantages of being non-contacting and fast data acquisition. Furthermore, these optical instruments can be easily retrofitted on existing machine-tools. In the Micro-Engineering Centre at the University of Warwick, an optical sensor has been developed which can measure the rms roughness, slope and wavelength of turned and precision ground surfaces during machining. The operation of this device is based upon the Kirchhoff-Fresnel diffraction integral. Application of this theory to ideal turned and ground surfaces is straightforward, and indeed the calculated diffraction patterns are in close agreement with patterns produced by an actual optical instrument. Since it is mathematically difficult to introduce real machine-tool behaviour into the diffraction integral, a computer program has been devised, which simulates the operation of the optical sensor. The program produces a diffraction pattern as a graphical output. Comparison between computer generated and actual diffraction patterns of the same surfaces show a high correlation. The main aim of this program is to construct an atlas, which maps known machine-tool errors versus optical diffraction patterns. This atlas can then be used for machine-tool condition diagnostics. It has been found that optical monitoring is very sensitive to minor defects. Therefore machine-tool detoriation can be detected before it is detrimental.

  10. The topographic development and areal parametric characterization of a stratified surface polished by mass finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Karl; Blunt, Liam; Fleming, Leigh

    2015-09-01

    Mass finishing is amongst the most widely used finishing processes in modern manufacturing, in applications from deburring to edge radiusing and polishing. Processing objectives are varied, ranging from the cosmetic to the functionally critical. One such critical application is the hydraulically smooth polishing of aero engine component gas-washed surfaces. In this, and many other applications the drive to improve process control and finish tolerance is ever present. Considering its widespread use mass finishing has seen limited research activity, particularly with respect to surface characterization. The objectives of the current paper are to; characterise the mass finished stratified surface and its development process using areal surface parameters, provide guidance on the optimal parameters and sampling method to characterise this surface type for a given application, and detail the spatial variation in surface topography due to coupon edge shadowing. Blasted and peened square plate coupons in titanium alloy are wet (vibro) mass finished iteratively with increasing duration. Measurement fields are precisely relocated between iterations by fixturing and an image superimposition alignment technique. Surface topography development is detailed with ‘log of process duration’ plots of the ‘areal parameters for scale-limited stratified functional surfaces’, (the Sk family). Characteristic features of the Smr2 plot are seen to map out the processing of peak, core and dale regions in turn. These surface process regions also become apparent in the ‘log of process duration’ plot for Sq, where lower core and dale regions are well modelled by logarithmic functions. Surface finish (Ra or Sa) with mass finishing duration is currently predicted with an exponential model. This model is shown to be limited for the current surface type at a critical range of surface finishes. Statistical analysis provides a group of areal parameters including; Vvc, Sq, and Sdq

  11. An ultra-low surface finish process for 6061-Al mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian; Crifasi, Joseph; Stephens, Shane; Hanninen, Derek; Woodard, Kenneth; Felock, Robert; Cunha-Vasconcelos, Sofia; Polczwartek, Stephen; Parenteau, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    An ultra-low surface finishing process for 6061 T6 type aluminum has been developed by Corning Incorporated, Specialty Materials Division, and has been successfully applied to mirrors up to 13 inches in diameter. This paper presents finish and figure data achieved from the mirror finishing process. Mirror stability is demonstrated through Pre and post thermal cycle surface figure measurements; temperature range of cycle -55°C to +70°C. As an added benefit, the process enables the use of deterministic finishing and enhances the reflective optics resistance to corrosion. Survivability of the reflective optic is evaluated through extended humidity testing.

  12. Surface Fatigue Lives of Case-Carburized Gears With an Improved Surface Finish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Alanou, M. P.; Evans, H. P.; Snidle, R. W.; Krantz, T. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Previous research provides qualitative evidence that an improved surface finish can increase the surface fatigue lives of gears. To quantify the influence of surface roughness on life, a set of AISI 93 10 steel gears was provided with a nearmirror finish by superfinishing. The effects of the superfinishing on the quality of the gear tooth surfaces were determined using data from metrology, profilometry, and interferometric microscope inspections. The superfinishing reduced the roughness average by about a factor of 5. The superfinished gears were subjected to surface fatigue testing at 1.71 -GPa (248-ksi) Hertz contact stress, and the data were compared with the NASA Glenn gear fatigue data base. The lives of gears with superfinished teeth were about four times greater compared with the lives of gears with ground teeth but with otherwise similar quality.

  13. Hydrophilic modification of polyester fabric by applying nanocrystalline cellulose containing surface finish.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Masuduz; Liu, Hongbin; Xiao, Huning; Chibante, Felipe; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-01-16

    In this study, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabric was modified by applying a hydrophilic surface finishing agent that contains nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). To impart superior hydrophilicity, NCC was further cationically modified through quaternization by grafting glycidyl tri-methyl ammonium chloride (GTMAC). A textile binder, PrintRite595(®), was added to the finishing system. The surface finish was applied on the fabric using a rolling-drying-curing process. The modified fabric was characterized in terms of coating durability, moisture regain, and wettability. The durability of the surface finish was tested by six repeated washing steps. The surface properties of the fabric changed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic after heat treatment with the NCC-containing surface finishing agent. The results from the washing fastness, SEM, FTIR, and EDX analyses confirmed that the cationic NCC-containing textile surface finish showed superior adhesion onto the cationic dyeable (anionic) PET surface over the un-modified NCC. Furthermore, the cationic textile surface finish was capable of withstanding multiple washing cycles. PMID:23121945

  14. 77 FR 12227 - Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule: Uncovered Finished Water Reservoirs; Public Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of public..., concerning information that may inform the regulatory review of the uncovered finished water...

  15. Surface contamination analysis technology team overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, H. Dewitt, Jr.

    1996-11-01

    The surface contamination analysis technology (SCAT) team was originated as a working roup of NASA civil service, Space Shuttle contractor, and university groups. Participating members of the SCAT Team have included personnel from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory and Langley Research Center's Instrument Development Group; contractors-Thiokol Corporation's Inspection Technology Group, AC Engineering support contractor, Aerojet, SAIC, and Lockheed MArtin/Oak Ridge Y-12 support contractor and Shuttle External Tank prime contractor; and the University of Alabama in Huntsville's Center for Robotics and Automation. The goal of the SCAT team as originally defined was to develop and integrate a multi-purpose inspection head for robotic application to in-process inspection of contamination sensitive surfaces. One area of interest was replacement of ozone depleting solvents currently used for surface cleanliness verification. The team approach brought together the appropriate personnel to determine what surface inspection techniques were applicable to multi-program surface cleanliness inspection. Major substrates of interest were chosen to simulate space shuttle critical bonding surface or surfaces sensitive to contamination such as fuel system component surfaces. Inspection techniques evaluated include optically stimulated electron emission or photoelectron emission; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; near infrared fiber optic spectroscopy; and, ultraviolet fluorescence. Current plans are to demonstrate an integrated system in MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex within five years from initiation of this effort in 1992. Instrumentation specifications and designs developed under this effort include a portable diffuse reflectance FTIR system built by Surface Optics Corporation and a third generation optically stimulated electron emission system built by LaRC. This paper will discuss the evaluation of the various techniques on a

  16. The Tiger Team Process in the Rebaselining of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    BAILEY, R.W.

    2000-02-01

    This paper will describe the integrated, teaming approach and planning process utilized by the Tiger Team in the development of the IPMP. This paper will also serve to document the benefits derived from this implementation process.

  17. Analysis of the influence of electrolyte on surface finish in electropolished stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernando, M.; Núñez, P. J.; García, E.; Trujillo, R.

    2012-04-01

    Electropolishing is a surface finishing process of metals and alloys that enhances brilliant surface finishes with low surface roughness values. The most widely used electrolytes for the electropolishing of stainless steel are varying concentrations of phosphoric and sulphuric acid, and occasionally additives such as chromic acid. The objective of this study was to assess the performance of three commonly used industrial electrolytes in terms of the surface finish of electropolished stainless steel AISI 316L. Each electrolyte had varying sulphuric-phosphoric acid combinations with or without chromic acid. The following electropolishing conditions were assessed: current density, bath temperature, electropolishing time, and initial surface texture. The results revealed that adding chromic acid to the electrolyte did not significantly enhance surface finish, and electropolishing ranges were quite similar for all three electrolytes.

  18. Effect of interior surface finish on the break-up of commercial shaped charge liners

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E L; Schwartz, A J

    1999-08-11

    A series of experiments aimed at understanding the influence of the liner interior surface finish on the break-up of shaped charge jets has been completed. The experiments used a standard 81-mm shaped charge design, loaded with LX-14 high explosive; incorporating high-precision copper shaped charged liners. The results indicate that a significant reduction of jet break-up time occurs between a surface finish of 99.30 microinches and 375.65 microinches. Surface finishes of 4.78, 44.54 and 99.30 microinches produced significantly better ductility and associated break-up times than the 375.65-microinch finish. The baseline production process high-precision liners were measured to have an average surface finish of 44.54 microinches. The results show that for the shaped charge warhead geometry and explosive combination investigated, some care must be taken in respect to surface finish, but that very fine surface finishes do not significantly improve the jet ductility and associated break-up times.

  19. Minimum 10-year Survival of Kerboull Cemented Stems According to Surface Finish

    PubMed Central

    Baqué, François; Lefevre, Nicolas; Kerboull, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    The optimal surface finish for a cemented THA stem is still debated. We hypothesized surface finish would influence survival of Kerboull cemented hip arthroplasties and a matte finish would have lower survival. We reviewed survival of 433 total hip arthroplasties in 395 patients: 284 consecutive patients (310 hips) were enrolled in a prospective, randomized study of polished (165 hips) or matte finish stems (145 hips) and compared to a historical series of satin stems (123 hips) in 111 patients. The satin and matte finish implants had similar geometry but the polished was quadrangular rather than oval. Finish roughnesses were: polished (radius, 0.04 μm), satin (radius, 0.9 μm), and matte (radius, 1.7 μm). The mean age of the patients at the time of the index arthroplasty was 63.6 years. The survival rate at 13 years, using radiographic loosening as the end point, was 97.3% ± 2.6% for polished stems, 97.1% ± 2.1% for satin stems, and 78.9% ± 5.8% for matte stems. The data suggest survival of Kerboull stems was higher with a polished or satin surface finish than with a matte finish. Level of Evidence: Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18196414

  20. Effects of Tooth Coating Material and Finishing Agent on Bleached Enamel Surfaces by KTP Laser

    PubMed Central

    Kameda, Ayumi; Masuda, Yoshiko Murakami; Teruo, Toko; Yamada, Yoshishige; Kimura, Yuichi; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth coating material and finishing agent on bleached enamel surfaces after using KTP laser with 27% hydrogen peroxide. Background data: There have been few reports on the effects of tooth coating materials and finishing agents after bleaching. Methods: After 40 crowns of human extracted maxillary incisors were bleached by KTP laser, bleached enamels were finished with fluoride only or both of fluoride and nano-hydroxyapatite as a finishing agent. After application(s) of fluoride and/or finishing agent, the enamel surfaces were divided into 2 groups, which were covered with the coating material or without coating material. After application of coating materials, all specimens were kept for 2 weeks at 37°C of 100% humidity. After removing the coating material, color changing was measured and enamel surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: SEM observation of enamel surfaces treated the fluoride gel, finishing agent and coating material showed the most flattered surface compared to other groups. By measuring the color changing, few color changing was observed on the enamel surfaces treated the fluoride gel, finishing agents and coating material. Conclusion: These results suggested that applications of fluoride gel, finishing agent and coating material made the enamel-surfaces flattered and kept effects of bleaching, could prevent the re-coloration. After applications of fluoride gel and finishing agent, covering the bleached-enamel surfaces with the coating material enhanced the keeping whiteness. It would give the patients satisfaction of whiteness. PMID:24155557

  1. Study of microstructure of surface layers of low-carbon steel after turning and ultrasonic finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevskaya, Zh. G.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Perevalova, O. B.; Klimenov, V. A.; Uvarkin, P. V.

    2013-01-01

    Profilometry and optical and transmission electron microscopy are used to examine the microstructure of surface layers of a low-carbon ferrite-pearlite steel subjected to turning and ultrasonic finishing. It is shown that turning peaks and valleys have different microstructures, which stipulates manifestation of technological hereditary when processing surfaces of machined parts. Ultrasonic finishing causes the severe plastic deformation of the surface layer, which favors the elimination of a technological heredity that is acquired during turning.

  2. CONTROL OF CHELATOR-BASED UPSETS IN SURFACE FINISHING SHOP WASTE WATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Actual surface finishing shop examples are used to illustrate the use of process chemistry understanding and analyses to identify immediate, interim and permanent response options for industrial waste water treatment plant (IWTP) upset problems caused by chelating agents. There i...

  3. Surface contamination analysis technology team overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, H. Dewitt

    1995-01-01

    A team was established which consisted of representatives from NASA (Marshall Space Flight Center and Langley Research Center), Thiokol Corporation, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, AC Engineering, SAIC, Martin Marietta, and Aerojet. The team's purpose was to bring together the appropriate personnel to determine what surface inspection techniques were applicable to multiprogram bonding surface cleanliness inspection. In order to identify appropriate techniques and their sensitivity to various contaminant families, calibration standards were developed. Producing standards included development of consistent low level contamination application techniques. Oxidation was also considered for effect on inspection equipment response. Ellipsometry was used for oxidation characterization. Verification testing was then accomplished to show that selected inspection techniques could detect subject contaminants at levels found to be detrimental to critical bond systems of interest. Once feasibility of identified techniques was shown, selected techniques and instrumentation could then be incorporated into a multipurpose inspection head and integrated with a robot for critical surface inspection. Inspection techniques currently being evaluated include optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE); near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy utilizing fiber optics; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy; and ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence. Current plans are to demonstrate an integrated system in MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex within five years from initiation of this effort in 1992 assuming appropriate funding levels are maintained. This paper gives an overview of work accomplished by the team and future plans.

  4. An improved evaluation of surface finish with a three dimensional tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    GRANDADAM; PREBET; RIOUT

    1980-01-01

    The design and programming of an automated three dimensional surface finish tester is described. The device produces a three dimensional image of the microscopic texture of the examined surface. The surface finish tester presents the following advantages over conventional profilometry: (1) more complete exploration of surface texture by successive probe sweeps; (2) automation of measuring and calculating; (3) more accurate representation of the derived parameters; (4) analysis of the degree of homogeneity of the surface; (5) three dimensional graphic representation accurately depicting the state of the surface; (6) detection of local imperfections; and (7) detection of scoring that occurred during machining.

  5. SURFACE FINISHES ON STAINLESS STEEL REDUCE BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT AND EARLY BIOFILM FORMATION: SCANNING ELECTRON AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three common finishing treatments of stainless steel that are used for equipment during poultry processing were tested for resistance to bacterial contamination. Methods were developed to measure attached bacteria and to identify factors that make surface finishes susceptible or ...

  6. Effects of surface finish and mechanical training on Ni-Ti sheets for elastocaloric cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Tušek, Jaka; Sanna, Simone; Eriksen, Dan; Mishin, Oleg V.; Bahl, Christian R. H.; Pryds, Nini

    2016-06-01

    Elastocaloric cooling has emerged as a promising alternative to vapor compression in recent years. Although the technology has the potential to be more efficient than current technologies, there are many technical challenges that must be overcome to realize devices with high performance and acceptable durability. We study the effects of surface finish and training techniques on dog bone shaped polycrystalline samples of NiTi. The fatigue life of several samples with four different surface finishes was measured and it was shown that a smooth surface, especially at the edges, greatly improved fatigue life. The effects of training both on the structure of the materials and the thermal response to an applied strain was studied. The load profile for the first few cycles was shown to change the thermal response to strain, the structure of the material at failure while the final structure of the material was weakly influenced by the surface finish.

  7. Improving surface figure and microroughness of IR materials and diamond turned surfaces with magnetorheological finishing (MRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supranowitz, Christopher; Hall, Christopher; Dumas, Paul; Hallock, Bob

    2007-04-01

    Optics manufactured for infrared (IR) applications are commonly produced using single point diamond turning (SPDT). SPDT can efficiently produce spherical and aspheric surfaces with microroughness and figure error that is often acceptable for use in this region of the spectrum. The tool marks left by the diamond turning process cause high surface microroughness that can degrade performance when used in the visible region of the spectrum. For multispectral and high precision IR applications, surface figure may also need to be improved beyond the capabilities of the SPDT process. Magnetorheological finishing (MRF®) is a deterministic, subaperture polishing technology that has proven to be very successful at simultaneously improving both surface microroughness and surface figure on spherical, aspheric, and most recently, freeform surfaces. MRF has been used on many diamond turned IR materials to significantly reduce surface microroughness from tens of nanometers to below 1 nm. MRF has also been used to successfully correct figure error on several IR materials that are not diamond turnable. This paper will show that the combination of SPDT and MRF technologies enable the manufacture of high precision surfaces on a variety of materials including calcium fluoride, silicon, and nickel-plated aluminum. Results will be presented for microroughness reduction and surface figure improvement, as well as for smoothing of diamond turning marks on an off-axis part. Figure correction results using MRF will also be presented for several other IR materials including sapphire, germanium, AMTIR, zinc sulfide, and polycrystalline alumina (PCA).

  8. A comparison of several surface finish measurement methods as applied to ground ceramic and metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.J.; Martin, R.L.; Riester, L.

    1996-01-01

    Surface finish is one of the most common measures of surface quality of ground ceramics and metal parts and a wide variety of methods and parameters have been developed to measure it. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the surface roughness parameters obtained on the same two specimens from three different types of measuring instruments: a traditional mechanical stylus system, a non-contact laser scanning system, and the atomic force microscope (two different AFM systems were compared). The same surface-ground silicon nitride and Inconel 625 alloy specimens were used for all measurements in this investigation. Significant differences in arithmetic average roughness, root-mean-square roughness, and peak-to-valley roughness were obtained when comparing data from the various topography measuring instruments. Non-contact methods agreed better with the others on the metal specimen than on the ceramic specimen. Reasons for these differences include the effective dimensions and geometry of the probe with respect to the surface topography; the reflectivity of the surface, and the type of filtering scheme Results of this investigation emphasize the importance of rigorously specifying the manner of surface roughness measurement when either reporting roughness data or when requesting that roughness data be provided.

  9. Study of the influence of reference system in surface finishing parameters evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, A.; Fernández, R.; Pindado, S.; Núñez, P.

    2012-04-01

    In the present paper the influence of the reference system with regard to the characterization of the surface finishing is analyzed. The effect of the reference system's choice on the most representative surface finishing parameters (e.g. roughness average Ra and root mean square values Rq) is studied. The study can also be applied to their equivalent parameters in waviness and primary profiles. Based on ISO and ASME standards, three different types of regression lines (central, mean and orthogonal) are theoretically and experimentally analyzed, identifying the validity and applicability fields of each one depending on profile's geometry.

  10. Effect of Blade-surface Finish on Performance of a Single-stage Axial-flow Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Jason J; Serovy, George, K

    1951-01-01

    A set of modified NACA 5509-34 rotor and stator blades was investigated with rough-machine, hand-filed, and highly polished surface finishes over a range of weight flows at six equivalent tip speeds from 672 to 1092 feet per second to determine the effect of blade-surface finish on the performance of a single-stage axial-flow compressor. Surface-finish effects decreased with increasing compressor speed and with decreasing flow at a given speed. In general, finishing blade surfaces below the roughness that may be considered aerodynamically smooth on the basis of an admissible-roughness formula will have no effect on compressor performance.

  11. Surface-finish effects on the high-cycle fatigue of Alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Korth, G.E.

    1981-06-01

    Alloy 718 us a precipitation-hardening nickel-base superalloy that is being specified for various components for liquid-meal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). This alloy maintains high strength at elevated temperatures making it a desirable structural material. But the property that justifies most LMFBR applications is the alloy's resistance to thermal striping damage due to its high fatigue endurance strength. Thermal striping is a high-cycle fatigue phenomenon caused by thermal stresses from the fluctuating mixing action of sodium streams of differing temperatures impinging on the metal surfaces. Most of the design data is generated from laboratory fatigue specimens with carefully controlled surface finishes prepared with a low-stress grind and buffed to a surface finish 8--12 in. Since Alloy 718 has been shown to be quite notch sensitive under cyclic loading, the detrimental effect on the high-cycle fatigue properties caused by shop surface finishes of actual components has been questioned. This report examines some of the surface finishes that could be produced in a commercial shop on an actual component.

  12. Mathematical modeling of surface roughness in magnetic abrasive finishing of BK7 optical glass.

    PubMed

    Pashmforoush, Farzad; Rahimi, Abdolreza; Kazemi, Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) is one of the advanced machining processes efficiently used to finish hard-to-machine materials. Simulation and modeling of the process is of particular importance to understand the mechanics of material removal and consequently achieve a high-quality surface with a minimum of surface defects. Hence, in this paper, we performed a numerical-experimental study to mathematically model the surface roughness during the MAF of BK7 optical glass. For this purpose, the initial roughness profile was estimated using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and a Gaussian filter. We obtained the final surface profile based on the material removal mechanisms and the corresponding chipping depth values evaluated by finite element analysis. We then validated experimentally the simulation results in terms of the arithmetic average surface roughness (R(a ). The comparison between the obtained results demonstrates that the theoretical and experimental findings are in good agreement when predicting the parameters' effect on surface roughness behavior. PMID:26479596

  13. Chemical milling solution produces smooth surface finish on aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzen, H. C.

    1966-01-01

    Elementary sulfur mixed into a solution of caustic soda and salts produces an etchant which will chemically mill end-grain surfaces on aluminum plate. This composition results in the least amount of thickness variation and pitting.

  14. Impact of surface finishes on the flexural strength and fracture toughness of In-Ceram Zirconia.

    PubMed

    Manawi, Manal; Ozcan, Mutlu; Madina, Manal; Cura, Cenk; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Dental restorations made of zirconia are usually selectively adjusted chairside to eliminate occlusal or internal interferences that can impair the mechanical properties of ceramic framework material. Effects of polishing procedures on zirconia after chipping or simply glazing the monolithic zirconia restorations are not known. This study evaluated the effects of different surface treatment procedures--namely, glazing or grinding, finishing, and polishing regimens--on the flexural strength and fracture toughness of a zirconia core material. Forty zirconia specimens were prepared and divided into two main groups (n = 20) according to the type of surface treatment (glazed or ground, finished, and polished). Each group was further divided into two subgroups (n = 10) according to type of mechanical test (flexural strength and fracture toughness). The roughness measurements were performed before mechanical testing. Qualitative evaluation of representative specimens of each subgroup was performed using SEM. The surface roughness mean (μm; ± standard deviations) recorded for the glazed specimens (0.94 ± 0.2) was significantly lower than that of the finished and polished group (3.01 ± 0.1) (P < 0.05). The glazed zirconia showed significantly higher flexural strength (385.4 ± 45.4 MPa) and fracture toughness (6.07 ± 1 MPa.m½) values than the ground, finished, polished zirconia (302.4 ± 47.6 MPa and 2.14 ± 0.5 MPa.m½) (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001 for flexural strength and fracture toughness, respectively). A smooth topographic pattern after glazing could not be obtained after finishing and polishing. Grinding, finishing, and polishing markedly decreased the flexural strength and fracture toughness of zirconia compared to the glazed groups. PMID:22414507

  15. EFFECTS OF CORROSIVE TREATMENT ON STAINLESS STEEL SURFACE FINISHES AND BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corrosion, an important factor for the durability of a metal finish after exposure to water and chemicals during processing, is a real concern for many wet process industries. The effects of rouging, corrosion, and biofouling are costly problems on the surface of stainless steel, the most common mat...

  16. Effect of processing parameters on surface finish for fused deposition machinable wax patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, F. E., III

    1995-01-01

    This report presents a study on the effect of material processing parameters used in layer-by-layer material construction on the surface finish of a model to be used as an investment casting pattern. The data presented relate specifically to fused deposition modeling using a machinable wax.

  17. Evaluation of ENEPIG and Immersion Silver Surface Finishes Under Drop Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearl, Adam; Osterman, Michael; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The effect of printed circuit board surface finish on the drop loading reliability of ball grid array (BGA) solder interconnects has been examined. The finishes examined include electroless nickel/electroless palladium/immersion gold (ENEPIG) and immersion silver (ImAg). For the ENEPIG finish, the effect of the Pd plating layer thickness was evaluated by testing two different thicknesses: 0.05 μm and 0.15 μm. BGA components were assembled onto the boards using either eutectic Sn-Pb or Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC305) solder. Prior to testing, the assembled boards were aged at 100°C for 24 h or 500 h. The boards were then subjected to multiple 1500-g drop tests. Failure analysis indicated the primary failure site for the BGAs to be the solder balls at the board-side solder interface. Cratering of the board laminate under the solder-attached pads was also observed. In all cases, isothermal aging reduced the number of drops to failure. The components soldered onto the boards with the 0.15- μm-Pd ENEPIG finish with the SAC305 solder had the highest characteristic life, at 234 drops to failure, compared with the other finish-solder combinations.

  18. Effect finishing and polishing procedures on the surface roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Rodrigo; Elossais, André Afif; Lima, Darlon Martins; Reis, José Mauricio Santos Nunes; Campos, Edson Alves; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the surface roughness of IPS Empress 2 ceramic when treated with different finishing/polishing protocols. Materials and methods. Sixteen specimens of IPS Empress 2 ceramic were made from wax patterns obtained using a stainless steel split mold. The specimens were glazed (Stage 0–S0, control) and divided into two groups. The specimens in Group 1 (G1) were finished/polished with a KG Sorensen diamond point (S1), followed by KG Sorensen siliconized points (S2) and final polishing with diamond polish paste (S3). In Group 2 (G2), the specimens were finished/polished using a Shofu diamond point (S1), as well as Shofu siliconized points (S2) and final polishing was performed using Porcelize paste (S3). After glazing (S0) and following each polishing procedure (S1, S2 or S3), the surface roughness was measured using TALYSURF Series 2. The average surface roughness results were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc tests (α = 0.01) Results. All of the polishing procedures yielded higher surface roughness values when compared to the control group (S0). S3 yielded lower surface roughness values when compared to S1 and S2. Conclusions. The proposed treatments negatively affected the surface roughness of the glazed IPS Empress 2 ceramic. PMID:22724660

  19. Surface finish produced on three resin composites by new polishing systems.

    PubMed

    St-Georges, Annie J; Bolla, Marc; Fortin, Daniel; Muller-Bolla, Michelle; Thompson, Jeffrey Y; Stamatiades, Perry J

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the surface finish of three direct resin composites polished with three different systems. Disk-shaped specimens (n=16 per material; phi=8.0 mm x h=2.0 mm) were formed in a stainless steel mold by packing uncured material, either a hybrid composite (Z250, 3M ESPE) or two micro-hybrid composites (Point 4, Kerr; Esthet-X, Dentsply), and light-cured from the top and the bottom surfaces with a light-emitting diode (LED) curing unit (NRG, Dentsply). After storing the specimens in deionized water at 37 degrees C for seven days, one side of each specimen was finished through 1200-grit SiC abrasive (Buehler). Five specimens of each resin composite were randomly assigned to one of the three polishing systems (Identoflex, Kerr; Pogo, Dentsply; Sof-Lex, 3M ESPE). Manufacturers' instructions were followed during the polishing procedures. The average surface roughness (Ra) was determined by generating tracings across the polished surface of each disk using a scanning profilometer (Surfanalyzer System 5000, Federal Products Co). The results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann and Whitney tests (p < or = 0.05). The smoothest surfaces were produced with the celluloid strip (control group) on all the resin composites tested. The aluminum oxide disks (Sof-Lex) produced a statistically equivalent surface finish (Ra) on the three resin composites. The lowest mean roughness values were recorded with diamond micropolisher disks (PoGo) on the hybrid composite (Z250). Overall, the two new polishing systems, Identoflex and PoGo, created a comparable surface finish to that produced by the Sof-Lex system on all three resin composites. PMID:16268393

  20. Pb-free surface-finishing on electronic components' terminals for Pb-free soldering assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tanimoto, Morimasa; Matsuda, Akira; Uno, Takeo; Kurihara, Masaaki; Shiga, Shoji

    1999-11-01

    Pb-free solderable surface finishing is essential to implement Pb-free solder assembly in order to meet with the growing demand of environmental consciousness to eliminate Pb from electronic products. Two types of widely applicable Pb-free surface finishing technologies are developed. One is the multilayer-system including Pd with Ni undercoat. Heat-resistance of Pd enables whole-surface-plating on to leadframe before IC-assembling process. The other is the double-layer-system with low-melting-point-materials, for example, thicker Sn underlayer and thinner Sn-Bi alloy overlayer, dilutes Sn-Bi alloy's defects of harmful reactivity along with substrate metal and mechanical brittleness with keeping its advantages of solder-wettability and no whisker.

  1. Influence law of structural characteristics on the surface roughness of a magnetorheological-finished KDP crystal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoshan; Li, Shengyi; Hu, Hao; Li, Qi; Tie, Guipeng

    2014-11-01

    A new nonaqueous and abrasive-free magnetorheological finishing (MRF) method is adopted for processing potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystal due to its low hardness, high brittleness, temperature sensitivity, and water solubility. This paper researches the influence of structural characteristics on the surface roughness of MRF-finished KDP crystal. The material removal by dissolution is uniform layer by layer when the polishing parameters are stable. The angle between the direction of the polishing wheel's linear velocity and the initial turning lines will affect the surface roughness. If the direction is perpendicular to the initial turning lines, the polishing can remove the lines. If the direction is parallel to the initial turning lines, the polishing can achieve better surface roughness. The structural characteristic of KDP crystal is related to its internal chemical bonds due to its anisotropy. During the MRF finishing process, surface roughness will be improved if the structural characteristics of the KDP crystal are the same on both sides of the wheel. The processing results of (001) plane crystal show we can get the best surface roughness (RMS of 0.809 nm) if the directions of cutting and MRF polishing are along the (110) direction. PMID:25402879

  2. Evaluation of the surface roughness in dental ceramics submitted to different finishing and polishing methods.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Alex C; Oliveira, Mario C S; Lima, Emilena M C X; Rambob, Isabel; Leite, Mariana

    2013-09-01

    Ceramic restorations have been widely used in dentistry. These restorations often require intraoral adjustment with diamond burs after their cementation causing increasing roughness of the ceramic surface. Consequently some finishing and polishing methods have been used to minimize this occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the roughness of the ceramic surfaces submitted to different finishing and polishing methods. 144 specimens of VITAVM(®)7, VM(®)9 and VM(®)13 (VITA Zahnfabrik) ceramics were fabricated and submitted to grinding using diamond burs. They were then divided into 15 groups (five of each ceramic type). Groups 1, 6 and 11-positive control (Glaze); Groups 2, 7 and 12-negative control (no polishing); Groups 3, 8 and 13-polished with abrasive rubbers (Edenta), felt disc and diamond polishing past; Groups 4, 9 and 14-polished with abrasive rubbers (Shofu), felt disc and diamond polishing past; Groups 5, 10 and 15-polished with aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M-ESPE), felt disc and diamond polishing paste. The roughness of the samples surfaces were measured using the rugosimeter Surfcorder SE 1700 and the data were submitted to statistical analysis using ANOVA and Tukey test at a level of significance of 5 %. There was statistically significance difference between the positive control groups and the other groups in all the ceramic types. Mechanical finishing and polishing methods were not able to provide a surface as smooth as the glazed surface for the tested ceramics. To assist dental practitioners to select the best finishing and polishing methods for the final adjustment of the ceramic restorations. PMID:24431749

  3. Finished surface texture, abrasion resistance, and porosity of Aspa glass-ionomer cement.

    PubMed

    Smales, R; Joyce, K

    1978-11-01

    1. With the finishing agents tested Concise had a smoother surface texture than Aspa. 2. The smoothest surface was on Concise polymerized against a Mylar matrix strip. The smoothest surface for Aspa was obtained with a silicon carbide disk. 3. Aspa abraded about three times as rapidly by volume as Concise when tested by a two-body abrasion method. 4. Significantly more air bubbles were entrapped by hand mixing within Aspa than within Concise. 5. Controlled clinical studies of the glass-ionomer cements are needed before they can be fully evaluated as restorative materials. PMID:281506

  4. Surface finish in ultra-precision diamond turning of single-crystal silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayomoh, M.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.

    2015-10-01

    Silicon is an optical material widely used in the production of infrared optics. However, silicon as a brittle material exhibits some difficulties when ultra-precision machined by mono-crystalline single point diamond. Finish turning of silicon with mono- crystalline diamond inserts results in accelerated tool wear rates if the right combination of the machining parameters is not properly selected. In this study, we conducted a series of machining tests on an ultra-high precision machine tool using finish turning conditions when using mono-crystalline diamond inserts with negative rake angle and relatively big nose radius. The study yields some recommendations on the best combination of machining parameters that will result in maximum material removal rates with smallest possible surface finish. In this work, standard non-controlled waviness diamond inserts having nose radius of about 1.5 mm, rake angle of negative 25°, and clearance angle of 5° were used to produce flat surfaces on silicon disk. From the results, it has been established that feed rate has the most influential effect followed by the depth of cut and cutting speed.

  5. The effect of rotor blade thickness and surface finish on the performance of a small axial flow turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelke, R. J.; Haas, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of blade profile inaccuracies and surface finish on the aerodynamic performance of a 11.13 cm tip diameter turbine. The as-received cast rotor blades had a significantly thicker profile than the design intent and a fairly rough surface finish. Stage test results showed an increase of one point in efficieny by smoothing the surface finish and another three points by thinning the blade profiles to near the design profile. Most of the performance gain between the as-cast thick and the thinned rotor blades both with the same surface finish, was attributed to reduced trailing edge losses of the recontoured blades.

  6. Effects of PCB Substrate Surface Finish, Flux, and Phosphorus Content on Ionic Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacior, M.; Sobczak, N.; Siewiorek, A.; Kudyba, A.; Homa, M.; Nowak, R.; Dziula, M.; Masłoń, S.

    2015-02-01

    The ionic contamination on printed circuit boards (PCB) having different surface finishes was examined using ionograph. The study was performed at the RT on three types of PCBs covered with: (i) hot air solder leveling (HASL LF), (ii) electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG), and (iii) organic surface protectant (OSP), all on Cu substrates, as well as two types of fluxes, namely EF2202 and RF800. In the group of boards without soldered components, the lowest average value of contamination was for the ENIG 18 µm surface (0.01 μg NaCl/cm2). Boards with soldered components were more contaminated (from 0.29 μg NaCl/cm2 for the HASL LF 18 µm surface). After spraying boards with fluxing agents, the values of contaminants were the highest. The influence of phosphorus content in Ni-P layer of ENIG finish on ionic contamination was examined. In the group of PCBs with Au coating, the smallest amount of surface contaminants (0.32 μg NaCl/cm2) was for Ni-2-5%P layer. PCBs with Ni-11%P layer were higher contaminated (0.47 μg NaCl/cm2), and another with Ni-8%P layer had 0.81 μg NaCl/cm2. PCBs without Au coating, had the lowest contamination (0.48 μg NaCl/cm2) at phosphorous content equal 11%P. Higher contamination (0.67 μg NaCl/cm2) was at 2-5%P, up to 1.98 μg NaCl/cm2 for 8% of P. Boards with Au finish have lower value of contamination than identical boards without Au layer thus contributing to better reliability of electronic assemblies, since its failures due to current leakage and corrosion can be caused by contaminants.

  7. Role of surface finishing on pitting corrosion of a duplex stainless steel in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salah-Rousset, N. Ben; Chaouachi, M. A.; Chellouf, A.

    1996-04-01

    Localized corrosion of duplex UNS S32550 stainless steel in seawater was investigated in the laboratory and in field trials for several surface finish conditions: polished, ground, and sandblasted. Electrochemical data obtained by polarization curves showed that the smoother, polished surface had better characteristics (higher pitting and protection potentials) than the ground or sandblasted surfaces. However, despite its high degree of roughness, the sandblasted surface was the most resistant in field conditions, exhibiting the lowest number of sites attacked. Internal compressive stresses created by sandblasting seem also to have an “unsensitizing” effect on sensitized zones that exist in cast steel (due to repairs of mold defects), reducing its susceptibility to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Such stresses are not generated in polished or ground surfaces, and localized MIC attack can occur.

  8. The effects of surface finish and grain size on the strength of sintered silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    You, Y. H.; Kim, Y. W.; Lee, J. G.; Kim, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of surface treatment and microstructure, especially abnormal grain growth, on the strength of sintered SiC were studied. The surfaces of sintered SiC were treated with 400, 800 and 1200 grit diamond wheels. Grain growth was induced by increasing the sintering times at 2050 C. The beta to alpha transformation occurred during the sintering of beta-phase starting materials and was often accompanied by abnormal grain growth. The overall strength distributions were established using Weibull statistics. The strength of the sintered SiC is limited by extrinsic surface flaws in normal-sintered specimens. The finer the surface finish and grain size, the higher the strength. But the strength of abnormal sintering specimens is limited by the abnormally grown large tabular grains. The Weibull modulus increases with decreasing grain size and decreasing grit size for grinding.

  9. New vibration-assisted magnetic abrasive polishing (VAMAP) method for microstructured surface finishing.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiang; Kum, Chun Wai; Au, Ka Hing; Tan, Zhi'En Eddie; Wu, Hu; Liu, Kui

    2016-06-13

    In order to polish microstructured surface without deteriorating its profile, we propose a new vibration-assisted magnetic abrasive polishing (VAMAP) method. In this method, magnetic force guarantees that the magnetic abrasives can well contact the microstructured surface and access the corners of microstructures while vibration produces a relative movement between microstructures and magnetic abrasives. As the vibration direction is parallel to the microstructures, the profile of the microstructures will not be deteriorated. The relation between vibration and magnetic force was analyzed and the feasibility of this method was experimentally verified. The results show that after polishing, the surface finish around microstructures was significantly improved while the profile of microstructures was well maintained. PMID:27410370

  10. Finish ion beam treatment of the longrange cylindrical products outer surface in automatic mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalin, B. A.; Volkov, N. V.; Valikov, R. A.; Yashin, A. S.; Krivobokov, V. P.; Yanin, S. N.; Asainov, O. Kh; Yurev, Yu N.

    2016-04-01

    The results of using of ion-beam technologies methods for finish treatment of metal products are presented. The experiments were performed at the installation ILUR-03, which allows the operation of cleaning, polishing and surface layers doping of the material of unlimited length cylindrical samples by radial Ar+ ions beam with energy up to 5 keV. The tubes from zirconium alloy E110 up to 500 mm length were used as samples for investigation. It is shown that selected automatic treatment modes reduce the surface roughness over the entire length of the samples and increase uniformity of the surface layer without observable effect on the bulk properties of material. Treatment promotes the formation of oxide films with improved defensive properties.

  11. The Effect of Composition on the Surface Finish of PS400: A New High Temperature Solid Lubricant Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Stanford, malcolm K.; Thomas, Fransua; Edmonds, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    A new composite, multi-constituent, solid lubricant coating, NASA PS400, developed for high temperature tribological applications, exhibits a smoother surface finish after grinding and polishing than its predecessors PS200 and PS300. In this paper, the baseline composition of PS400 is modified to investigate each individual constituent s role on the achievable surface finish through a series of coating deposition, grinding, and polishing experiments. Furthermore, to explore the limits of compositional tailoring for improved tribological performance, several PS400 coatings were doped with additional solid lubricants (graphite, MoS2 and BN) and tribologically tested. The test results clearly showed that, compared to PS300 coatings, PS400 achieves a smoother surface finish via a reduced lubricant content. Coatings prepared with higher than the baseline level (10 wt%) of lubricants exhibited higher final surface roughness than the earlier generation PS300 coatings. Reducing or eliminating the one or both lubricants (fluorides or silver) did not further improve the surface finish suggesting that the current composition of PS400 is near optimal with respect to surface finish. Lastly, attempts to improve the poor initial room temperature tribological behavior of PS400 via the addition of traditional solid lubricants were unsuccessful. Based upon this work and earlier results it is expected that future research will concentrate on developing methods to produce a lubricious glaze on the rubbing surface during break in to ensure that low friction and wear are rapidly achieved.

  12. Evaluation of the Bondability of the Epoxy-Enhanced Sn-58Bi Solder with ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Woo-Ram; Kim, Yongil; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2015-11-01

    The effect of different surface finishes, electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG), on the mechanical properties of Sn-58Bi bumps made with solder paste enhanced with epoxy were investigated. The microstructure and fracture surfaces were observed with scanning electron microscopy, and the compositions of the IMC and solder were measured using energy dispersive spectrometry and an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA). To evaluate the mechanical properties, low-speed shear tests and board-level drop tests were performed. The result of the shear tests showed that the bonding strength of the epoxy-enhanced Sn-58Bi solder bumps was higher than that of Sn-58Bi solder for all surface finishes, because of the epoxy surrounding the solder, and the fracture surfaces of epoxy-enhanced Sn-58Bi indicated ductile fracture in the solder joint. However, the result of the drop tests showed that samples with the ENIG and ENEPIG surface finishes had lower drop numbers compared to the sample without these surface finishes. The lower performance resulted from insufficient ejection of epoxy from the ENIG and ENEPIG surface finishes during reflow, which reduced the interfacial bonding area.

  13. The Specification And Control Of Surface Finish-Empiricism Versus Dogmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, K. J.; Obray, C.; Jungles, J.

    1985-09-01

    This paper reviews the development of the analysis of surface finish from the early attempts in the nineteen thirties to the present day. The development of parameters is put in context with the techniques available and it is demonstrated that characterization based on graphical and experimental convenience has influenced industrial practice. As the requirements of manufacture and functional performance have been stretched by advancing technology many industrialists have been forced to accept that existing practices are limited, and have sought other descriptions still based on well established techniques; but these existing techniques are limited, their suitability to inprocess measurement practically non existent. It is shown that recently attempts have been made to develop optical methods of assessing surface finish using traditional parameters such as Ra. This paper suggests that it may be time to look towards a new form of specification, more suited to assessment by optical transducers, and some methods of assessment are proposed. To support this view a simple low cost device is discussed which can be calibrated to give Ra but which also presents information in a more relevant empirical way which may be more valid than the existing parameter specification.

  14. Laser engineered net shaping (LENS{trademark}) process: Optimization of surface finish and microstructural properties

    SciTech Connect

    Smugeresky, J.E.; Keicher, D.M.; Romero, J.A.; Griffith, M.L.; Harwell, L.D.

    1997-11-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) has revolutionized the approach to fabricating geometrically complex hardware from a CAD solid model. The various RP techniques allow component designers to directly fabricate conceptual models in plastics and polymer coated metals; however, each of the techniques requires additional processes, e.g. investment casting, to allow the fabrication of functional metallic hardware. This limitation has provided the impetus for further development of solid freeform fabrication technologies which enable fabrication of functional metallic hardware directly from the CAD solid model. The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS{trademark}) process holds promise in satisfying this need. This newly emerging technology possesses the capability to fabricate fully dense components with good dimensional accuracy and with unique materials properties. Relatively complex geometrical shapes have been fabricated using this technology. In continuing to develop the LENS{trademark} process, further advancements are required. The functional dependence of the component surface finish and microstructural characteristics on process parameters including power size and size distribution are being evaluated. A set of statistically designed experiments is being used to sort through the various process parameters and identify significant process variables for improving surface finish and achieving optimum material microstructural properties.

  15. Methodology for optimizing the electropolishing of stainless steel AISI 316L combining criteria of surface finish and dimensional precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, P. J.; García-Plaza, E.; Martín, A. R.; Trujillo, R.; De la Cruz, C.

    2009-11-01

    This work examines a methodology for optimizing electrochemical polishing conditions bearing in mind the criteria that enhance minimum surface roughness and dimensional precision (minimum loss of thickness). The study consisted in electrochemically polishing stainless steel AISI 316L (ISO 4954 X2CrNiMo17133E) under a combination of different temperatures (T) baths and current densities (J), and application times (t). The surface finish (ΔRa) and dimensional variations (Δh) of the electrochemically polished workpieces were assessed, and the experimental data of the variables was correlated as can be seen by the response surfaces. This methodology enables optimum working areas to be specified using the sole criteria of surface finish, or by using a combination of both criteria (minimum roughness and maximum precision). The methodology has proven to be an optimum method for selecting electrochemical polishing conditions using the combined criteria of surface finish and dimensional precision in accordance with design requirements.

  16. An evaluation of wear of human enamel opposed by ceramics of different surface finishes

    PubMed Central

    Mulay, Gauri; Dugal, Ramandeep; Buhranpurwala, Murtuza

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Surface of porcelain restoration is a matter of clinical concern because of its abrasive action on the opposing enamel. Purpose: This study comparatively evaluated wear of enamel when opposed by three different surface finishes of ceramic. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 metal-ceramic discs (10 mm × 2 mm) with different surface finishes were fabricated. They were divided into four groups of autoglazed ceramic surface, over glazed ceramic surface, ceramic surface polished with Shofu polishing kit and ceramic surface polished with DFS polishing wheels and paste. Each group comprised of 15 discs. Sixty human teeth samples were prepared from freshly extracted, unrestored, caries free, nonattrited maxillary first premolars. Each tooth sample was weighed before wear testing using AT200 Mettler Toledo electronic analytical balance of 0.0001 g accuracy. Occlusal surfaces of these teeth were then abraded against the substrates in a wear machine for a total of 10,000 cycles. Each tooth sample was weighed after 5000 cycles and after the total of 10,000 cycles, respectively, using the same balance. Differences in weight of tooth samples before and after wear testing were evaluated statistically using one-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni's correction for multiple group comparisons. Results: The values obtained for percentage weight loss after 10,000 cycles for over glazed ceramic surface were marginally higher than values obtained for autoglazed surface. It was observed that values obtained for percentage weight loss by polished ceramic after 10,000 cycles were statistically less as compared to the values obtained with autoglazed and over glazed ceramic surface (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference between the values obtained by polished ceramic surfaces of two different groups. Conclusion: Enamel wear produced by polished porcelain is substantially less than autoglazed and over glazed porcelain. No significant

  17. Surface Roughness, Microhardness, and Microleakage of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin after Immediate or Delayed Finishing/Polishing.

    PubMed

    Lins, Fernanda Carvalho Rezende; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Silveira, Rodrigo Richard; Pereira, Carolina Nemésio Barros; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira; Magalhães, Claudia Silami

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated the effect of immediate or delayed finishing/polishing using different systems on the surface roughness, hardness, and microleakage of a silorane-based composite. Material and Methods. Specimens were made with silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) and assigned to the treatments: control (light-cured); aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M ESPE); diamond-impregnated silicone tips (Astropol, Ivoclar Vivadent); aluminum oxide-impregnated silicone tips (Enhance, Dentsply). Half of the specimens were finished/polished immediately and the rest after 7 days. Surface roughness (Ra, μm; n = 20) and Vickers microhardness (50 g; 45 s; n = 10) were measured. Cavities were prepared in bovine incisors and filled with Filtek P90. The fillings received immediate or delayed finishing/polishing (n = 10) and were subjected to dye penetration test (0.5% basic fuchsin, 24 h). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests (p < 0.05). Results. The finishing/polishing system significantly influenced roughness and microhardness (p < 0.0001). For enamel, microleakage was not affected by the finishing/polishing system (p = 0.309). For dentin, Sof-Lex discs and Astropol points promoted greater microleakage than Enhance points (p = 0.033). Conclusion. Considering roughness, microhardness, and microleakage together, immediate finishing/polishing of a silorane-based composite using aluminum oxide discs may be recommended. PMID:26977150

  18. Surface Roughness, Microhardness, and Microleakage of a Silorane-Based Composite Resin after Immediate or Delayed Finishing/Polishing

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Fernanda Carvalho Rezende; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Silveira, Rodrigo Richard; Pereira, Carolina Nemésio Barros; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira; Magalhães, Claudia Silami

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated the effect of immediate or delayed finishing/polishing using different systems on the surface roughness, hardness, and microleakage of a silorane-based composite. Material and Methods. Specimens were made with silorane-based composite (Filtek P90, 3M ESPE) and assigned to the treatments: control (light-cured); aluminum oxide discs (Sof-Lex, 3M ESPE); diamond-impregnated silicone tips (Astropol, Ivoclar Vivadent); aluminum oxide-impregnated silicone tips (Enhance, Dentsply). Half of the specimens were finished/polished immediately and the rest after 7 days. Surface roughness (Ra, μm; n = 20) and Vickers microhardness (50 g; 45 s; n = 10) were measured. Cavities were prepared in bovine incisors and filled with Filtek P90. The fillings received immediate or delayed finishing/polishing (n = 10) and were subjected to dye penetration test (0.5% basic fuchsin, 24 h). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests (p < 0.05). Results. The finishing/polishing system significantly influenced roughness and microhardness (p < 0.0001). For enamel, microleakage was not affected by the finishing/polishing system (p = 0.309). For dentin, Sof-Lex discs and Astropol points promoted greater microleakage than Enhance points (p = 0.033). Conclusion. Considering roughness, microhardness, and microleakage together, immediate finishing/polishing of a silorane-based composite using aluminum oxide discs may be recommended. PMID:26977150

  19. Interferometric And Microscopic Measurements Of Surface Finish Appearance Evaluations Of Ophthalmic Lens Edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, M.; Mezghani, S.; El Mansori, M.; Divo, F.

    2011-01-01

    Surface appearance and product material integrity are important features that will affect product functionality, reliability and customer confidence. Yet despite this, and perhaps surprisingly, lens surface inspection is still undertaken visually with undefined criteria, varying levels of quality expertise, and differing moods of inspectors. In this paper, an objective quality inspection method for the polished edge of ophthalmic lenses is developed. Four defect categorizes have been indentified on the machined edge of non-acceptable lenses: chatter marks, linear, creep and cracks. Chatter matters have an irregular surface with waviness. The linear defect has a linear defect along the lens' edge surface. Creep has deformation of the surface due to the material removal process. Cracks have cracks along the surface of the lens. The developed technique was applied to several ophthalmic lens materials (Polycarbonate, CR39, high index materials) that contain defects of diverse shapes and sizes in different locations. Results show the effectiveness of the developed inspection technique for ophthalmic lens quality assurance and defect identification. It was also found that there is a correlation between the scale-sensitive fractal dimension parameter and surface finish appearance.

  20. Toward a production-line classification of metallic satin-finished surfaces using coherent light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez de Meneses, Yuri; Meylan, Gregoire; Monay, Florent; Jacot, Jacques

    2002-10-01

    Some manufacturing processes, such as satin finish on stainless steel parts for the watchmaking and biomedical industries, apply purely aesthetic, global criteria for their quality control. This control is currently performed by human operators, and is found to be subjective, due to variability in operator judgement. This project aims to develop a device for automatic, production-line classification of satin finish according to the aesthetic criteria currently applied in the watchmaking industry. We exploit two coherent light phenomena to produce features to classify the parts into the same classes indicated by human operators. The analysis of the optical Fourier transform and the scattering pattern are used to generate high-dimensional feature vectors for their subsequent classification. The vectors, corresponding to different regions of the part surface, are classified using Principal Component Analysis and Kohonen networks. Experimental results show that both optical phenomena provide features capable of discriminating between conforming and nonconforming parts. Classification is simple enough to afford an inspection in under 1 s and its robustness has also been verified. We have thus completed a first step towards a simple, production-line device capable of providing an automatic, objective evaluation based on aesthetic quality criteria.

  1. Structural and Electronic Properties of Gold Contacts on CdZnTe with Different Surface Finishes for Radiation Detector Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tari, S.; Aqariden, F.; Chang, Y.; Ciani, A.; Grein, C.; Li, Jin; Kioussis, N.

    2014-08-01

    State-of-the-art room-temperature, high-resolution x-ray and gamma-ray semiconductor detectors can be fabricated from CdZnTe (CZT) crystals. The structural and electronic properties of the CZT surface, especially the contact interfaces, can have a substantial effect on radiation detector performance, for example leakage current, signal-to-noise ratio, and energy resolution, especially for soft x-rays and large pixilated arrays. Atomically smooth and defect-free surfaces are desirable for high-performance CZT-based detectors; chemo-mechanical polishing (CMP) is typically performed to produce such surfaces. The electrical behavior of the metal/CZT interface varies substantially with surface preparation before contact deposition, and with choice of metal and deposition technique. We report a systematic study of the structural and electronic properties of gold (Au) contacts on CZT prepared with different surface finishes. We observed subsurface damage under Au contacts on CMP-finished CZT and abrupt interfaces for Au on chemically-polished (CP) CZT. Schottky barrier formation was observed for Au contacts, irrespective of surface finish, and less charge trapping and low surface resistance were observed for CP-finished surfaces. Pre-deposition surface treatment produced interfaces free from oxide layers.

  2. Three-dimensional evaluation of surface roughness of resin composites after finishing and polishing

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Veena S; Sainudeen, Shan; Padmanabhan, Prabeesh; Vijayashankar, L V; Sujathan, Unu; Pillai, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to investigate the effects of finishing and polishing procedures on four novel resin composites using three-dimensional optical profilometer. Materials and Methods: Four composites classified according to their filler size, were selected: Filtek™ Z350 XT/Nanofill (3M™ ESPE™), Esthet-X HD/Hybrid (Dentsply Caulk), Te Econom/Microfill (Ivoclar Vivadent®), Tetric EvoCeram® /Nanohybrid (Ivoclar Vivadent®). Composite specimens were made in Plexiglass mold and polished with Soflex (3M ESPE), Enhance + Pogo (Dentsply Caulk). Both the systems were used according to the manufacturers’ instructions, and the polished surfaces were assessed with an optical profilometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal-Wallis test and further pairwise comparison were performed by Mann-Whitney test. Results: The smoothest surfaces for all the resin composites tested were obtained from the Mylar strip; statistically significant differences were observed among them (P = 0.001). The order of composites was ranked from the lowest to highest surface roughness; Filtek Z350 XT < Te Econom < Tetric EvoCeram < Esthet XHD. Pairwise multiple comparison with Mann-Whitney test showed Filtek Z350 to have the smoothest surface and the least with Teric EvoCeram. Among the polishing systems, Soflex showed the smoothest surface and was significantly different from Pogo (P = 0.046). Conclusions: The effectiveness of the polishing systems seems to be dependent on the material used, treatment modality and also on the filler particle size. PMID:26957802

  3. Effect of surface roughness and stainless steel finish on Listeria monocytogenes attachment and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Andres; Autio, Wesley R; McLandsborough, Lynne A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface roughness (Ra) and finish of mechanically polished stainless steel (Ra = 0.26 +/- 0.05, 0.49 +/- 0.10, and 0.69 +/- 0.05 microm) and electropolished stainless steel (Ra = 0.16 +/- 0.06, 0.40 +/- 0.003, and 0.67 +/- 0.02 microm) on Listeria adhesion and biofilm formation. A four-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes was used. Each strain (0.1%) was added to 200 ml of tryptic soy broth (TSB), and coupons were inserted to the mixture for 5 min. For biofilm formation, coupons with adhesive cells were incubated in 1:20 diluted TSB at 32 degrees C for 48 h. The experiment was performed by a randomized block design. Our results show that the level of Listeria present after 48 h of incubation (mean = 7 log CFU/cm2) was significantly higher than after 5 min (mean = 6.0 log CFU/cm2) (P < 0.01). No differences in initial adhesion were seen in mechanically finished (mean = 6.7 log CFU/cm2) when compared with electropolished stainless steel (mean = 6.7 log CFU/cm2) (P > 0.05). Listeria initial adhesion (values ranged from 5.9 to 6.1 log CFU/cm2) or biofilm formation (values ranged from 6.9 to 7.2 log CFU/cm2) was not significantly correlated with Ra values (P > 0.05). Image analysis with an atomic force microscope showed that bacteria did not colonize the complete surface after 48 h but were individual cells or grouped in microcolonies that ranged from 5 to 10 microm in diameter and one to three cell layers in thickness. Exopolymeric substances were observed to be associated with the colonies. According to our results, electropolishing stainless steel does not pose a significant advantage for food sanitation over mechanically finished stainless steel. PMID:18236679

  4. Choice of crystal surface finishing for a dual-ended readout depth-of-interaction (DOI) detector.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peng; Ma, Tianyu; Wei, Qingyang; Yao, Rutao; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to choose the crystal surface finishing for a dual-ended readout (DER) DOI detector. Through Monte Carlo simulations and experimental studies, we evaluated 4 crystal surface finishing options as combinations of crystal surface polishing (diffuse or specular) and reflector (diffuse or specular) options on a DER detector. We also tested one linear and one logarithm DOI calculation algorithm. The figures of merit used were DOI resolution, DOI positioning error, and energy resolution. Both the simulation and experimental results show that (1) choosing a diffuse type in either surface polishing or reflector would improve DOI resolution but degrade energy resolution; (2) crystal surface finishing with a diffuse polishing combined with a specular reflector appears a favorable candidate with a good balance of DOI and energy resolution; and (3) the linear and logarithm DOI calculation algorithms show overall comparable DOI error, and the linear algorithm was better for photon interactions near the ends of the crystal while the logarithm algorithm was better near the center. These results provide useful guidance in DER DOI detector design in choosing the crystal surface finishing and DOI calculation methods. PMID:26757857

  5. Control of formaldehyde and TVOC emission from wood-based flooring composites at various manufacturing processes by surface finishing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sumin

    2010-04-15

    This paper assesses the reproducibility of testing formaldehyde and TVOC emission behavior from wood flooring composites bonded by urea-formaldehyde resin at various manufacturing steps for surface finishing materials. The surface adhesion step of laminate flooring for this research was divided into two steps; HDF only and HDF with LPMs. In the case of engineered flooring, the manufacturing steps were divided into three steps; plywood only, fancy veneer bonded on plywood and UV coated on fancy veneer with plywood. Formaldehyde and VOCs emission decreased at the process of final surface finishing materials; LPMs were applied on the surface of HDF for laminate flooring. Although emissions increased when fancy veneer was bonded onto plywood in the case of engineered flooring, emission was dramatically reduced up to similar level with plywood only when final surface finishing; UV-curable coating was applied on fancy veneer. This study suggests that formaldehyde and VOCs emission from floorings can be controlled at manufacturing steps for surface finishing. PMID:19467783

  6. The Surface Finish of Thermally Aged Carbon Fibre Reinforced Composites Using E-glass as a Surface Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, M. L.; Fox, B. L.

    2015-10-01

    This work investigated the effect of woven E-glass mass (25 g/m2, 50 g/m2, 85 g/m2, 135 g/m2) on the painted surface finish of various thermoset (EPIKOTETM RIM935, EPIKOTETM 04434, Ultratec LpTM ES300, Ultratec LpTM SPV6035) carbon fibre composite laminates, before and after aging at 95 °C for 168 h. The as-moulded laminate surfaces were evaluated using surface profilometry techniques and the painted and aged surfaces were evaluated using a wave-scan distinctness of image (DOI) instrument. It was found that the 25 g/m2 E-glass surface layer assisted with reducing the roughness of the as-moulded surfaces and the long-term waviness of the painted surfaces due to the increase in resin-richness at the surface. The EPIKOTETM 04434 resin system that contained diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) epoxy had the least change in long-term waviness with thermal aging due to the rigid fluorene-based backbone in comparison to the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) systems.

  7. Corrosion Behavior of Titanate Ceramics in Short-Term MCC-1 Tests: The Effects of Surface Finish

    SciTech Connect

    Bakel, A.J.; Basco, J.K.; Nole, M.K.; Chamberlain, D.B.

    2000-07-28

    Two series of MCC-1 tests were designed and conducted to describe the effects of surface finish on the corrosion behavior of titanate ceramics. These effects are important for the comparison of short-term test results from different laboratories. Test samples were prepared with 240- and 600-grit finishes. Tests, conducted for 1, 3, 7, and 14 days at 90 C, were carried out in Teflon{reg_sign} vessels. Two different ceramics were used in this study: a Hf-Ce-Ce ceramic containing pyrochlore, perovskite, rutile and a small amount of a silicate phase, and a Hf-Ce-U ceramic containing pyrochlore and rutile. This study shows no detectable difference in the results of tests with ceramics finished to 240-grit and 600-grit; therefore, tests conducted at these two surface finishes can be directly compared. Due to its broader use, we recommend that short-term tests be conducted with monoliths finished to 600-grit. Comparison of data from blank tests in Teflon{reg_sign} and stainless steel vessels shows that the background associated with Teflon{reg_sign} vessels is lower. Therefore, we recommend that short-term tests be conducted in Teflon{reg_sign} vessels.

  8. Coating and surface finishing definition for the Solar Orbiter/METIS inverted external occulter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landini, Federico; Romoli, Marco; Vives, Sebastien; Baccani, Cristian; Escolle, Clement; Pancrazzi, Maurizio; Focardi, Mauro; Da Deppo, Vania; Moses, John D.; Fineschi, Silvano

    2014-07-01

    The METIS coronagraph aboard the Solar Orbiter mission will undergo extreme environmental conditions (e.g., a thermal excursion of about 350 degrees throughout the various mission phases), due to the peculiar spacecraft trajectory that will reach a perihelion of 0.28 AUs. METIS is characterized by an innovative design for the occultation system that allows to halve the thermal load inside the instrument while guaranteeing the stray light reduction that is required for a solar coronagraph. The Inverted External Occulter (IEO) concept revolutionizes the classical scheme, by exchanging the usual positions of the entrance aperture (that is now the outermost element of the instrument facing the Sun) with the actual occulter (that is a spherical mirror inside the coronagraph boom). The chosen material for the IEO manufacturing is Titanium, as a trade o_ between light weight, strength and low thermal expansion coefficient. A 2 years long test campaign has been run to define the IEO geometry, and its results are addressed in previous dedicated papers. This work describes the results of a further campaign aimed at defining the IEO surface and edge finishing, the support flange geometry and the Titanium coating. Various edge finishing were installed on a prototype of the instrument occulting system and their performance in stray light reduction were compared. The support flange geometry was designed in order to reduce the overall weight, to control the thermal load and to accentuate its stray light suppression performance. The coating is a particularly delicate issue. A black coating is necessary in order to assess the stray light issues, typically critical for visible coronagraphs. Black coating of Titanium is not a standard process, thus several space qualified black coatings were experimented on Titanium and characterized. The impact of the IEO coatings was evaluated, the reflectivity and the BRDFs were measured and are addressed in the paper.

  9. Leg lesions and cleanliness of finishing bulls kept in housing systems with different lying area surfaces.

    PubMed

    Schulze Westerath, H; Gygax, L; Mayer, C; Wechsler, B

    2007-07-01

    The influence of the quality of different lying surfaces on lesions and swellings at the joints as well as on the cleanliness of finishing bulls throughout the fattening period was studied. On 17 farms (623 bulls), pens with fully slatted concrete floors (CONCRETE), with rubber coated slats (RUBBER), with cubicles (CUBICLES, provided with five different types of soft lying mat) and with a littered lying area (STRAW) were compared. Bulls kept on STRAW developed the smallest lesion scores at the joints. In CUBICLES, there was a huge variability in the lesion scores depending on the type of lying mat, ranging from values comparable to STRAW up to and greater than the values for CONCRETE. The highest lesion scores at the carpal joints were found on CONCRETE, with intermediate values on RUBBER and in CUBICLES. At the tarsal joints, lesion scores were similar on CONCRETE and RUBBER and in the same range or worse on most mats in the CUBICLES. Swelling scores were highest on CONCRETE and intermediate on RUBBER and in CUBICLES compared to STRAW. In general, there was a steady increase in the lesion scores of the leg joints throughout the fattening period on CONCRETE, RUBBER and STRAW, whereas on some of the mats in CUBICLES these scores were at a high level from early on in the fattening period. Animals in all the housing systems were clean over the whole fattening period. Littering the lying area in CUBICLES affected neither the lesion scores nor the swelling scores at the joints nor animal cleanliness. In conclusion, both rubber coated slats and cubicles provided with soft lying mats were favourable with regard to the levels of lesions and swellings of the leg joints of finishing bulls compared to concrete slats. However, these levels were even lower in pens with a straw bedded lying area. PMID:16843018

  10. Research of polishing process to control the iron contamination on the magnetorheological finished KDP crystal surface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoshan; Li, Shengyi; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Hao; Tie, Guipeng

    2015-02-20

    A new nonaqueous and abrasive-free magnetorheological finishing (MRF) method is adopted for processing a KDP crystal. MRF polishing is easy to result in the embedding of carbonyl iron (CI) powders; meanwhile, Fe contamination on the KDP crystal surface will affect the laser induced damage threshold seriously. This paper puts forward an appropriate MRF polishing process to avoid the embedding. Polishing results show that the embedding of CI powders can be avoided by controlling the polishing parameters. Furthermore, on the KDP crystal surface, magnetorheological fluids residua inevitably exist after polishing and in which the Fe contamination cannot be removed completely by initial ultrasonic cleaning. To solve this problem, a kind of ion beam figuring (IBF) polishing is introduced to remove the impurity layer. Then the content of Fe element contamination and the depth of impurity elements are measured by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The measurement results show that there are no CI powders embedding in the MRF polished surface and no Fe contamination after the IBF polishing process, respectively. That verifies the feasibility of MRF polishing-IBF polishing (cleaning) for processing a KDP crystal. PMID:25968216

  11. The influence of finishing/polishing time and cooling system on surface roughness and microhardness of two different types of composite resin restorations

    PubMed Central

    Kaminedi, Raja Rajeswari; Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Priya, Tulasi; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of finishing time and polishing time on surface roughness and microhardness of nanofilled and hybrid resin composites. Materials and Methods: Hundred disk composite specimens from micro hybrid composite and nanohybrid composite were prepared, 50 for each type of composite. The specimens were divided into five groups according to the time of finishing and polishing (immediate, 15 min, 24 h and dry). Composite under the Mylar strip without finishing and polishing was taken as the control group. Surface roughness was measured with environmental scanning electronic microscope (ESEM) and microhardness was determined using Vickers Microhardness Tester. Data collected were statistically analyzed by t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey's post hoc test. Results: Smooth surface with low hardness was obtained for the group under Mylar strip without finishing and polishing. The highest roughness was recorded for delayed finishing and polishing for both composites. Immediate finishing and polishing increased the surface hardness more than that in the control group in both types of composites. Dry finishing reduced the hardness significantly for micro hybrid composite, but resulted in the highest surface hardness for nanofilled composite. Conclusion: Immediate finishing and polishing under coolant resulted in the best surface smoothness and hardness values in micro hybrid composite; however, immediate dry finishing and polishing gave the best smoothness and hardness values in nanohybrid composite. PMID:25558457

  12. Comparison of Roller Burnishing Method with Other Hole Surface Finishing Processes Applied on AISI 304 Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkurt, Adnan

    2011-08-01

    Component surface quality and selection of the optimum material are the main factors determining the performance of components used in machine manufacturing. The level of hole surface quality can be evaluated by the measurements regarding surface roughness, micro-hardness, and cylindricity. In this study, data had been obtained for different hole drilling methods. The characteristics of materials obtained after applications were compared for different hole-finishing processes to identify best hole drilling method. AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel material was used. Surface finishing of holes were performed using drilling, turning, reaming, grinding, honing, and roller burnishing methods. The results of the study show that the roller burnishing method gives the best results for mechanical, metallurgical properties, and hole surface quality of the material. On the other hand, the worst characteristics were obtained in the drilling method.

  13. Effect of substrate surface finish on the lubrication and failure mechanisms of molybdenum disulfide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    An optical microscope was used to study the lubrication and failure mechanisms of rubbed (burnished) MoS2 films applied to three substrate surface finishes - polished, sanded, and sandblasted - as a function of sliding distance. The lubrication mechanism was the plastic flow of thin films of MoS2 between flat plateaus on the rider and on the metallic substrate. If the substrate was rough, flat plateaus were created during 'run-in' and the MoS2 flowed across them. Wear life was extended by increasing surface roughness since valleys in the roughened substrate served as reservoirs for MoS2 and a deposit site for wear debris. In moist air, the failure mechanism was the transformation of metallic-colored MoS2 films to a black, powdery material that was found by X-ray diffraction to consist primarily of alpha-iron and MoO3 powders. In dry argon, the failure mechanism was the gradual depletion of the MoS2 film from the contact region by transverse flow. Analysis of the wear debris on the wear track at failure showed it consisted mainly of alpha-iron and some residual MoS2. No molybdenum oxides were found.

  14. Effect of Substrate Surface Finish on the Lubrication and Failure Mechanisms of Molybdenum Disulfide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    An optical microscope was used to study the lubrication and failure mechanisms of rubbed (burnished) MoS2 films applied to three substrate surface finishes - polished, sanded, and sandblasted - as a function of sliding distance. The lubrication mechanism was the plastic flow of thin films of MoS2 between flat plateaus on the rider and on the metallic substrate. If the substrates were rough, flat plateaus were created during 'run in' and the MoS2 flowed across them. Wear life was extended by increasing surface roughness since valleys in the roughened substrate served as reservoirs for MoS2 and a deposit site for wear debris. In moist air, the failure mechanism was the transformation of metallic colored MoS2 films to a black, powdery material that was found by X ray diffraction to consist primarily of alpha iron and MoO3 powders. In dry argon, the failure mechanism was the gradual depletion of the MoS2 film from the contact region by transverse flow. Analysis of the wear debris on the wear track at failure showed it consisted mainly of alpha iron and some residual MoS2. No molybdenum oxides were found.

  15. The Effect of Surface Finish on Low-Temperature Acetylene-Based Carburization of 316L Austenitic Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yindong; Ernst, Frank; Kahn, Harold; Heuer, Arthur H.

    2014-12-01

    We observed a strong influence of surface finish on the efficacy of low-temperature acetylene-based carburization of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel. Steel coupons were prepared with different surface finishes prior to carburization, from P400 SiC grit paper to 1- µm-diameter-diamond-paste. The samples with the finer surface finish developed a thicker "case" (a carbon-rich hardened surface layer) and a larger surface carbon concentration. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the differences arose mainly from the nature of the deformation-induced disturbed layer on the steel surface. A thick (>400 nm) disturbed layer consisting of nano-crystalline grains (≈10 nm diameter) inhibits acetylene-based carburization. The experimental observations can be explained by assuming that during machining or coarse polishing, the surface oxide layer is broken up and becomes incorporated into the deformation-induced disturbed layer. The incorporated oxide-rich films retard or completely prevent the ingress of carbon into the stainless steel.

  16. 3D printed glass: surface finish and bulk properties as a function of the printing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Susanne; Avery, Michael P.; Richardson, Robert; Bartlett, Paul; Frei, Regina; Simske, Steven

    2015-03-01

    It is impossible to print glass directly from a melt, layer by layer. Glass is not only very sensitive to temperature gradients between different layers but also to the cooling process. To achieve a glass state the melt, has to be cooled rapidly to avoid crystallization of the material and then annealed to remove cooling induced stress. In 3D-printing of glass the objects are shaped at room temperature and then fired. The material properties of the final objects are crucially dependent on the frit size of the glass powder used during shaping, the chemical formula of the binder and the firing procedure. For frit sizes below 250 μm, we seem to find a constant volume of pores of less than 5%. Decreasing frit size leads to an increase in the number of pores which then leads to an increase of opacity. The two different binders, 2- hydroxyethyl cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt, generate very different porosities. The porosity of samples with 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose is similar to frit-only samples, whereas carboxymethylcellulose sodium salt creates a glass foam. The surface finish is determined by the material the glass comes into contact with during firing.

  17. Fatigue performance of metastable β titanium alloys: Effects of microstructure and surface finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocan, Marcin; Wagner, Lothar; Rack, H. J.

    2005-12-01

    This investigation examined the role of microstructure and surface finish on the high cycle fatigue (HCF) performance of TIMETAL LCB (Ti-6.8Mo-4.5Fe-1.5Al). The as-received microstructure of LCB consisted of elongated β grains with a semicontinuous grain boundary α layer. In contrast, a fine equiaxed β + spheroidized α LCB microstructure was achieved by hot swaging and solution (recrystallization) anneal. The latter modification of the prior β grain structure, together with the size, morphology, and distribution of the primary α phase, resulted in a significant enhancement in the tensile and HCF properties. Furthermore, prestraining (PS), as would be expected during the fabrication of an automotive coil spring, and prior to aging for 30 min at temperatures between 500 and 550 °C, led to additional increases in tensile strength. In contrast, the HCF performance was always reduced when PS prior to aging was included in the overall processing procedure. Finally, shot-peening and roller-burnishing both resulted in an increased fatigue life in the finite life regimen; however, significant reductions in the 107 cycle fatigue strengths were observed when these procedures were used. These observations have been explained by including the effect of process-induced residual tensile stresses in the fatigue analysis, resulting in subsurface fatigue crack nucleation.

  18. An Overview of Surface Finishes and Their Role in Printed Circuit Board Solderability and Solder Joint Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.

    1998-10-15

    A overview has been presented on the topic of alternative surface finishes for package I/Os and circuit board features. Aspects of processability and solder joint reliability were described for the following coatings: baseline hot-dipped, plated, and plated-and-fused 100Sn and Sn-Pb coatings; Ni/Au; Pd, Ni/Pd, and Ni/Pd/Au finishes; and the recently marketed immersion Ag coatings. The Ni/Au coatings appear to provide the all-around best option in terms of solderability protection and wire bondability. Nickel/Pal ftishes offer a slightly reduced level of performance in these areas that is most likely due to variable Pd surface conditions. It is necessmy to minimize dissolved Au or Pd contents in the solder material to prevent solder joint embrittlement. Ancillary aspects that included thickness measurement techniques; the importance of finish compatibility with conformal coatings and conductive adhesives; and the need for alternative finishes for the processing of non-Pb bearing solders were discussed.

  19. History of magnetorheological finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel C.

    2011-06-01

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a deterministic method for producing complex optics with figure accuracy <50 nm and surface roughness <1 nm. MRF was invented at the Luikov Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer in Minsk, Belarus in the late 1980s by a team led by William Kordonski. When the Soviet Union opened up, New York businessman Lowell Mintz was invited to Minsk in 1990 to explore possibilities for technology transfer. Mintz was told of the potential for MRF, but did not understand whether it had value. Mintz was referred to Harvey Pollicove at the Center for Optics Manufacturing of the University of Rochester. As a result of their conversation, they sent Prof. Steve Jacobs to visit Minsk and evaluate MRF. From Jacobs' positive findings, and with support from Lowell Mintz, Kordonski and his colleagues were invited in 1993 to work at the Center for Optics Manufacturing with Jacobs and Don Golini to refine MRF technology. A "preprototype" finishing machine was operating by 1994. Prof. Greg Forbes and doctoral student Paul Dumas developed algorithms for deterministic control of MRF. In 1996, Golini recognized the commercial potential of MRF, secured investment capital from Lowell Mintz, and founded QED Technologies. The first commercial MRF machine was unveiled in 1998. It was followed by more advanced models and by groundbreaking subaperture stitching interferometers for metrology. In 2006, QED was acquired by and became a division of Cabot Microelectronics. This paper recounts the history of the development of MRF and the founding of QED Technologies.

  20. Laser damage initiation and growth of antireflection coated S-FAP crystal surfaces prepared by pitch lap and magnetorheological finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Menapace, J A; Schaffers, K I; Bibeau, C; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2005-10-31

    Antireflection (AR) coatings typically damage at the interface between the substrate and coating. Therefore the substrate finishing technology can have an impact on the laser resistance of the coating. For this study, AR coatings were deposited on Yb:S-FAP [Yb{sup 3+}:Sr{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}F] crystals that received a final polish by both conventional pitch lap finishing as well as magnetorheological finishing (MRF). SEM images of the damage morphology reveals laser damage originates at scratches and at substrate coating interfacial absorbing defects. Previous damage stability tests on multilayer mirror coatings and bare surfaces revealed damage growth can occur at fluences below the initiation fluence. The results from this study suggest the opposite trend for AR coatings. Investigation of unstable HR and uncoated surface damage morphologies reveals significant radial cracking that is not apparent with AR damage due to AR delamination from the coated surface with few apparent cracks at the damage boundary. Damage stability tests show that coated Yb:S-FAP crystals can operate at 1057 nm at fluences around 20 J/cm{sup 2} at 10 ns; almost twice the initiation damage threshold.

  1. Effects of Aging Treatment on Mechanical Properties of Sn-58Bi Epoxy Solder on ENEPIG-Surface-Finished PCB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Myung, Woo-Ram; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2016-07-01

    The mechanical properties of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder were evaluated by low-speed shear testing as functions of aging time and temperature. To determine the effects of epoxy, the interfacial reaction and mechanical properties of both Sn-58Bi and Sn-58Bi epoxy solder were investigated after aging treatment. The chemical composition and growth kinetics of the intermetallic compound (IMC) formed at the interface between Sn-58Bi solder and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG) surface finish were analyzed. Sn-58Bi solder paste was applied by stencil-printing on flame retardant-4 substrate, then reflowed. Reflowed samples were aged at 85°C, 95°C, 105°C, and 115°C for up to 1000 h. (Ni,Pd)3Sn4 IMC formed between Sn-58Bi solder and ENEPIG surface finish after reflow. Ni3Sn4 and Ni3P IMCs formed at the interface between (Ni,Pd)3Sn4 IMC and ENEPIG surface finish after aging at 115°C for 300 h. The overall IMC growth rate of Sn-58Bi solder joint was higher than that of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder joint during aging. The shear strength of Sn-58Bi epoxy solder was about 2.4 times higher than that of Sn-58Bi solder due to the blocking effect of epoxy, and the shear strength decreased with increasing aging time.

  2. NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team: Lunar Surface Exploration Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob P.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s agency wide Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) to support the ongoing effort to characterize NASA s future human exploration strategy. The DRM design effort includes specific articulations of transportation and surface elements, technologies and operations required to enable future human exploration of various destinations including the moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars as well as interim cis-lunar targets. In prior architecture studies, transportation concerns have dominated the analysis. As a result, an effort was made to study the human utilization strategy at each specific destination and the resultant impacts on the overall architecture design. In particular, this paper considers various lunar surface strategies as representative scenarios that could occur in a human lunar return, and demonstrates their alignment with the internationally developed Global Exploration Roadmap (GER).

  3. Effects of different surface finishing procedures on the change in surface roughness and color of a polymer infiltrated ceramic network material

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Merve; Türker, Nurullah; Barutcigil, Kubilay

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) materials, also called hybrid ceramics, are new materials in dental market. The manufacturer of the PICN material VITA Enamic suggests 3 different finishing procedures for this new material. In the present study, surface roughness and color differences caused from different finishing procedures of VITA Enamic were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS 120 specimens were prepared in dimensions 2 × 10 × 12 mm from VITA Enamic hybrid ceramic blocks with 'high translucency' and 'translucency 2M2' shades. The specimens were divided into 8 groups. For each group, different finishing procedures suggested by the manufacturer were performed. Surface roughness values were determined by a tactile portable profilometer. Color changes were evaluated using a clinical spectrophotometer. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc comparison. The significance level was set at α=0.05. RESULTS The roughest surfaces were observed in Glaze Groups. Their surface roughness values were similar to that of the control group. Clinical Kit and Technical Kit groups did not show a statistically significant difference regarding surface roughness (P>.05). The largest color difference regarding ΔE00 was observed in Clinical Kit finishing groups. There were also statistically significant color changes between the groups (P<.05). However, all the groups showed clinically acceptable color change (ΔE00<2.25) except Clinical Kit Groups (ΔE00>2.25). CONCLUSION Within the limitations of the present study, it may be suggested that finishing the VITA Enamic restorations by Technical Kit instead of Glaze and Clinical Kit gives better clinical performance in regard to surface roughness and shade matching. PMID:26949483

  4. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.

    2000-01-01

    The Western Earth Surfaces Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey, Geologic Division (USGS, GD), conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth- science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis currently include southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, and the Pacific Northwest. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 1999 as well as additional 1997 and 1998 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-file Report 99-302). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects.

  5. An experimental investigation on the influence of machining parameters on surface finish in diamond turning of silicon optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Neha; Sharma, Rohit; Mishra, Vinod; Kumar, Mukesh; Karar, Vinod; Sarepaka, RamaGopal V.

    2015-06-01

    Silicon is widely used in IR optics, X-Ray optics and electronics applications. These applications require Silicon of optical quality surface as well as good form accuracy. To get the desired finish and dimensional accuracy, diamond turning is preferable. Taylor-Hobson Nanoform-250 diamond turning equipment is used to machine flat Silicon mirror. Negative rake diamond tool is used with a tool nose radius of 1.5 mm. A series of SPDT machining operations are performed in the sequential combinations of tool feed rate, Spindle Speed and depth of cut. In order to find out the effect of machining parameters on the Surface Roughness during turning, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used and a prediction model is developed related to average Surface Roughness (Ra) using experimental data. The surface quality is analyzed in terms of arithmetic roughness (Ra) and Power Spectral Density for uniform evaluation. In addition, a good agreement between the predicted and measured Surface Roughness is observed.

  6. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles, II,(compiler); Graymer, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2002 as well as additional 1998 and 2001 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00-215, USGS Open-File Report 01-198, and USGS Open-File Report 02-269). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information. Information on ordering USGS publications can be found on the World Wide Web or by calling 1-888-ASK-USGS. The U.S. Geological Survey’s web server for geologic information in the western United States is located at http

  7. Publications of the Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Stone, Paul

    2001-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth science studies in the western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues such as ground-water quality, potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2000 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, the Las Vegas urban corridor, and selected National Park lands. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2000 as well as additional 1999 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-file Report 00-215). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these Web publications are USGS open-file reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

  8. Publications of Western Earth Surface Processes Team 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, II, Charles,(compiler); Graymer, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The Western Earth Surface Processes Team (WESPT) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts geologic mapping and related topical earth-science studies in the Western United States. This work is focused on areas where modern geologic maps and associated earth-science data are needed to address key societal and environmental issues, such as ground-water quality, landslides and other potential geologic hazards, and land-use decisions. Areas of primary emphasis in 2001 included southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, the Pacific Northwest, and the Las Vegas urban corridor. The team has its headquarters in Menlo Park, California, and maintains smaller field offices at several other locations in the Western United States. The results of research conducted by the WESPT are released to the public as a variety of databases, maps, text reports, and abstracts, both through the internal publication system of the USGS and in diverse external publications such as scientific journals and books. This report lists publications of the WESPT released in 2001, as well as additional 1999 and 2000 publications that were not included in the previous list (USGS Open-File Report 00–215 and USGS Open-File Report 01–198). Most of the publications listed were authored or coauthored by WESPT staff. The list also includes some publications authored by non-USGS cooperators with the WESPT, as well as some authored by USGS staff outside the WESPT in cooperation with WESPT projects. Several of the publications listed are available on the World Wide Web; for these, URL addresses are provided. Many of these web publications are USGS Open-File Reports that contain large digital databases of geologic map and related information.

  9. Experimental evaluation of inlet turbulence, wall boundary layer, surface finish, and fillet radius on small axial turbine state performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozak, A. A.; Brockett, W. D.; Haas, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation are presented which establish the effects of surface finish, fillet radius, inlet boundary layer thickness, and free-stream inlet turbulence level on the aerodynamic performance of a small axial flow turbine stator. The principal objective was to help understand why large turbine efficiency is not maintained when a large turbine is scaled to a smaller size and to provide the turbine designer with the performance compromises expected for a small scale design. A comprehensive test matrix was used to gain an understanding of the effects of each variable over the full range of all the other variables.

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Surface Finish on High-Cycle Fatigue of SLM-IN718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, D. M.

    2016-01-01

    The surface finish of parts produced by additive manufacturing processes is much rougher than the surface finish generated by machining processes, and a rougher surface can reduce the fatigue strength of a part. This paper discusses an effort to quantify that reduction of strength in high-cycle fatigue for selective laser melt (SLM) coupons. A high-cycle fatigue (HCF) knockdown factor was estimated for Inconel 718, manufactured with the SLM process. This factor is the percentage reduction from the maximum stress in fatigue for low-stress ground (LSG) specimens to the maximum stress of those left with the original surface condition at the same fatigue life. Specimens were provided by a number of vendors, free to use their "best practice"; only one heat treat condition was considered; and several test temperatures were characterized, including room temperature, 800F, 1000F, and 1200F. The 1000F data had a large variance, and was omitted from consideration in this document. A first method used linear approximations extracted from the graphs, and only where data was available for both. A recommended knockdown factor of the as-built surface condition (average roughness of approximately 245 micro-inches/inch) versus low-stress ground condition (roughness no more than 4 micro-inches/inch) was established at approximately 1/3 or 33%. This is to say that for the as-built surface condition, a maximum stress of 2/3 of the stress for LSG can be expected to produce a similar life in the as-built surface condition. In this first evaluation, the knockdown factor did not appear to be a function of temperature. A second approach, the "KP method", incorporated the surface finish measure into a new parameter termed the pseudo-stress intensity factor, Kp, which was formulated to be similar to the fracture mechanics stress intensity factor. Using Kp, the variance seemed to be reduced across all sources, and knockdown factors were estimated using Kp over the range where data occurred. A

  11. Characterization of load bearing metrological parameters in reptilian exuviae in comparison to precision-finished cylinder liner surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aal, H. A.; El Mansori, M.

    2014-10-01

    Design of precise functional surfaces is essential for many future applications. In the technological realm, the accumulated experience with construction of such surfaces is not sufficient. Nature provides many examples of dynamic surfaces worthy of study and adoption, at least in concept, within human engineering. This work probes the load-bearing metrological features of the ventral skin in snakes. We examine the structure of two snake species that mainly move by rectilinear locomotion. These are Python regius (Pythonidae) and Bitis gabonica (Vipridae). To this end, we focus on the load-bearing characteristics of the ventral skin surface (i.e., the Sk family of parameters). Therefore, detailed comparison is drawn between the metrological structure of the reptilian surfaces and two sets of technological data. The first set pertains to an actual commercial cylinder liner, whereas the second set is a summary of recommended surface finish metrological values for several commercial cylinder liner manufacturers. The results highlight several similarities between the two types of surfaces. In particular, it is shown that there is a striking correspondence between the sense of texture morphology within both surfaces (although their construction evolved along entirely different paths). It is also shown that reptilian surfaces manifest a high degree of specialization with respect to habitat constraints on wear resistance and adhesive effects. In particular, their surface displays a high degree of pre-conditioning to functional requirements, which eliminates the need for a running-in period.

  12. Compatibility of lead-free solders with lead containing surface finishes as a reliability issue in electronic assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.; Rejent, J.; Artaki, I.; Ray, U.; Finley, D.; Jackson, A.

    1996-03-01

    Enhanced performance goals and environmental restrictions have heightened the consideration for use of alternative solders as replacements for the traditional tin-lead (Sn-Pb) eutectic and near-eutectic alloys. However, the implementation of non-Pb bearing surface finishes may lag behind solder alloy development. A study was performed which examined the effect(s) of Pb contamination on the performance of Sn-Ag-Bi and Sn-Ag-Cu-Sb lead-free solders by the controlled addition of 63Sn-37Pb solder at levels of 0.5 {minus} 8.0 wt.%. Thermal analysis and ring-in-plug shear strength studies were conducted on bulk solder properties. Circuit board prototype studies centered on the performance of 20I/O SOIC gull wing joints. Both alloys exhibited declines in their melting temperatures with greater Sn-Pb additions. The ring-in-plug shear strength of the Sn-Ag-Cu-Sb solder increased slightly with Sn-Pb levels while the Sn-Ag-Bi alloy experienced a strength loss. The mechanical behavior of the SOIC (Small Outline Integrated Circuit) Sn-Ag-Bi solder joints reproduced the strength levels were insensitive to 10,106 thermal cycles. The Sn-Ag-Cu-Sb solder showed a slight decrease in the gull wing joint strengths that was sensitive to the Pb content of the surface finish.

  13. Nanometric Finishing on Biomedical Implants by Abrasive Flow Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Kavithaa Thirumalai; Balashanmugam, Natchimuthu; Shashi Kumar, Panaghra Veeraiah

    2016-01-01

    Abrasive flow finishing (AFF) is a non-conventional finishing technique that offers better accuracy, efficiency, consistency, economy in finishing of complex/difficult to machine materials/components and provides the possibility of effective automation as aspired by the manufacturing sector. The present study describes the finishing of a hip joint made of ASTM grade Co-Cr alloy by Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM) process. The major input parameters of the AFF process were optimized for achieving nanometric finishing of the component. The roughness average (Ra) values were recorded during experimentation using surface roughness tester and the results are discussed in detail. The surface finished hip joints were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and residual stress analysis using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The discussion lays emphasis on the significance, efficacy and versatile nature of the AFF process in finishing of bio-medical implants.

  14. Specification of the surface figure and finish of optical elements in terms of system performance

    SciTech Connect

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1992-09-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is the site of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); an electron synchrotron which is an intense source of hard and soft x-rays. Since there are no effective refracting elements for x rays, this radiation must be manipulated and focused by mirrors configured to give high reflectivity. This paper describes methods of predicting the degradation of the performance of a simple imaging system in terms of the statistics of the shape errors of the focusing element, and conversely, of specifying those statistics in terms of requirements on image quality. Results are illustrated for a normal-incidence x-ray mirrors having figure errors plus conventional and/or fractal finish errors.

  15. Drop Reliability of Epoxy-contained Sn-58 wt.%Bi Solder Joint with ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finish Under Temperature and Humidity Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Woo-Ram; Kim, Yongil; Kim, Kyung-Yeol; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2016-04-01

    The influence of two kinds of surface finish, namely electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG), on the interfacial reactions and drop reliability of epoxy-enhanced Sn-58 wt.%Bi solder has been investigated after temperature-humidity storage tests. The chemical composition and morphology of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Also, the mechanical reliability of solder joints was evaluated using board-level drop tests. The Sn-Bi epoxy solder/ENEPIG joint exhibited higher IMC growth rate than the Sn-Bi epoxy solder/ENIG joint. After 500 h at 85°C/85% RH storage condition, new IMCs were formed on the Ni3Sn4 layer in samples with both surface finishes. The results of board-level drop tests showed that the number of drops was higher for the ENIG than the ENEPIG surface finish. Solder joint fracture occurred along the interface between the solder and IMC layer for the ENIG surface finish. However, with the ENEPIG surface finish, the crack propagated between the IMCs.

  16. Drop Reliability of Epoxy-contained Sn-58 wt.%Bi Solder Joint with ENIG and ENEPIG Surface Finish Under Temperature and Humidity Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Woo-Ram; Kim, Yongil; Kim, Kyung-Yeol; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2016-07-01

    The influence of two kinds of surface finish, namely electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) and electroless nickel electroless palladium immersion gold (ENEPIG), on the interfacial reactions and drop reliability of epoxy-enhanced Sn-58 wt.%Bi solder has been investigated after temperature-humidity storage tests. The chemical composition and morphology of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Also, the mechanical reliability of solder joints was evaluated using board-level drop tests. The Sn-Bi epoxy solder/ENEPIG joint exhibited higher IMC growth rate than the Sn-Bi epoxy solder/ENIG joint. After 500 h at 85°C/85% RH storage condition, new IMCs were formed on the Ni3Sn4 layer in samples with both surface finishes. The results of board-level drop tests showed that the number of drops was higher for the ENIG than the ENEPIG surface finish. Solder joint fracture occurred along the interface between the solder and IMC layer for the ENIG surface finish. However, with the ENEPIG surface finish, the crack propagated between the IMCs.

  17. Surface integrity evolution from main cut mode to finish trim cut mode in W-EDM of shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. F.; Li, L.; Guo, Y. B.

    2014-07-01

    Shape memory alloys such as Nitinol are widely used in medical, aerospace, actuator, and machine tool industries. However, Nitinol is a very difficult-to-machine material due to the superelasticity, high ductility, and severe strain-hardening. The machined surface should have tailored micro texture to enhance cell adhesion. This study explores the process capability of W-EDM (DI-water based dielectric) in machining Ni50.8Ti49.2 by one main cut (MC) mode followed by four trim cut (TC) modes. Experimental results show that the 6-sigma distributions of Ra are very different between MC mode and finish TC mode. Thick white layers (2-8 μm) with microcracks in MC mode and very thin white layers (0-2 μm) free of those defects in finish TC mode can be observed. However, microcracks would not propagate into the heat affected zone (HAZ) below the white layer. The microhardness of white layer by TC mode is about 50% higher than that by MC mode. In addition, Ni is the dominant element for the measured microhardness.

  18. NON-POLLUTING METAL SURFACE FINISHING PRETREATMENT AND PRETREATMENT/CONVERSION COATING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Picklex, a proprietary formulation, is an alterantive to conventional metal surface pretreatments and is claimed not to produce waste or lower production or lower performance. A laboratory program was designed to evaluate Picklex in common, large scale, polluting surface finishin...

  19. Effect of surface finishing on early-stage corrosion of a carbon steel studied by electrochemical and atomic force microscope characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan; Cheng, Y. Frank

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the early-stage corrosion of a carbon steel with various surface roughness, which was created by different levels of surface finishing treatment, was characterized by an atomic force microscope and electrochemical measurements. It is found that the resulting surface roughness is at nano-meter scale. As the surface roughness increases, the corrosion activity of the steel is increased. The early-stage corrosion of the steel is featured with two stages of dissolution. While the first stage involves a rapid dissolution and increasing surface roughness of the steel, stage two is in an equilibrium state to have an approximately constant corrosion rate and surface roughness. Generally, the corrosion rate of the steel decreases when the surface finish of the specimen becomes finer. Local preferential corrosion occurs at surface irregularities, resulting in the deepening and widening of the features such as scratches with time.

  20. Facet personality and surface-level diversity as team mental model antecedents: implications for implicit coordination.

    PubMed

    Fisher, David M; Bell, Suzanne T; Dierdorff, Erich C; Belohlav, James A

    2012-07-01

    Team mental models (TMMs) have received much attention as important drivers of effective team processes and performance. Less is known about the factors that give rise to these shared cognitive structures. We examined potential antecedents of TMMs, with a specific focus on team composition variables, including various facets of personality and surface-level diversity. Further, we examined implicit coordination as an important outcome of TMMs. Results suggest that team composition in terms of the cooperation facet of agreeableness and racial diversity were significantly related to team-focused TMM similarity. TMM similarity was also positively predictive of implicit coordination, which mediated the relationship between TMM similarity and team performance. Post hoc analyses revealed a significant interaction between the trust facet of agreeableness and racial diversity in predicting TMM similarity. Results are discussed in terms of facilitating the emergence of TMMs and corresponding implications for team-related human resource practices. PMID:22468847

  1. Effect of Pd Interlayer on Electrochemical Properties of ENIG Surface Finish in 3.5 wt.% NaCl Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, N. D.; Bui, Q. V.; Nhan, H. T.; Phuong, D. V.; Bian, M. Z.

    2014-09-01

    The corrosion resistance of a multilayered (NiP-Pd-Au) coating with various thicknesses of palladium (Pd) interlayer deposited on copper by an electroless method was investigated using electrochemical techniques including potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the surface finish was examined by x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy, and the contact angle of the liquid-solid interface was recorded. The corrosion resistance of the copper substrate was considerably improved by Pd interlayer addition. Increase of the thickness of the Pd interlayer enhanced the performance of the Cu-NiP-Pd-Au coating due to low porosity, high protective efficiency, high charge-transfer resistance, and contact angle. These are attributed to the diffusion of layers in the Cu-NiP-Pd-Au coating acting as a physical barrier layer, leading to the protection provided by the coating.

  2. Quantitative evaluation of the surface finish of high gloss polished tool steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebeggiani, S.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2014-01-01

    Standardized procedures to measure and estimate surface qualities of moulds for injection moulding of plastic components do not exist. Instead, steel producers as well as polishers and mould-users need to rely on master plaques for tactile comparisons and/or their own visual estimations for surface quality controls. This paper presents an overview of various surface evaluation methods of steels, including existing standards and available surface metrology. A new method to evaluate high gloss polished tool steel surfaces, based on a three-dimensional non-contacting measurement technique, is presented. The suggested method is based on defect extraction, and should be useful for both specifications and quality controls. Included defects were found to be quality criteria for polished tool steel surfaces. The surface acceptance levels and defect classification are based on interviews and questionnaires, as well as literature studies and visual estimations of test samples made by experienced polishers.

  3. Effect of Surface Finish on Fatigue Properties at Elevated Temperatures I : Low-carbon N-155 with Grain Size of A.S.T.M. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Robert R

    1951-01-01

    Effect of three surface finishes of roughness 4 to 5, 20 to 25, and 70 to 80 micro inches rms on fatigue properties were determined for low-carbon N-155 alloy of grain size A.S.T.M. 1 at temperatures of 80 , 1000, 1350, and 1500 F. The fatigue properties for the various finishes differed appreciably at room temperature; however, after short periods at 1000 F and for all periods investigated at temperatures above 1000 F, the specimen finishes had the same fatigue strength. It was concluded that the primary cause of the difference in room-temperature strength was due to compressive stresses set up in the surface and that at elevated temperatures these compressive stresses were relieved by annealing. Apparently, roughness alone did not significantly affect fatigue strength.

  4. Surface Layer Formation When Finish-Hardening Processing of the Parts by Smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. N.; Tatarkin, E. Ju

    2016-04-01

    Problems of surface layer formation of the parts, when hydraulic smoothing, are considered in this work. The results of theoretical and pilot studies of smoothing in case of nanocarbons and copper salts introduction into the process liquid are given. The influence dependences of the processing modes on roughness and microhardness of surface layer are defined.

  5. Relevance of roughness parameters of surface finish in precision hard turning.

    PubMed

    Jouini, Nabil; Revel, Philippe; Bigerelle, Maxence

    2014-01-01

    Precision hard turning is a process to improve the surface integrity of functional surfaces. Machining experiments are carried out on hardened AISI 52100 bearing steel under dry condition using c-BN cutting tools. A full factorial experimental design is used to characterize the effect of cutting parameters. As surface topography is characterized by numerous roughness parameters, their relative relevance is investigated by statistical indices of performance computed by combining the analysis of variance, discriminant analysis and the bootstrap method. The analysis shows that the profile Length ratio (Lr) and the Roughness average (Ra) are the relevant pair of roughness parameters which best discriminates the effect of cutting parameters and enable the classification of surfaces which cannot be distinguished by one parameter: low profile length ratio Lr (Lr = 100.23%) is clearly distinguished from an irregular surface corresponding to a profile length ratio Lr (Lr = 100.42%), whereas the roughness average Ra values are nearly identical. PMID:23868394

  6. Drywall Finishing Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengert, Gerald

    This manual, a self-study guide for apprentices in the drywall finishing trade in British Columbia, attempts to establish standards for the trade. It tells how to produce a properly taped and filled drywall surface and describes what that surface should look like. The standards emphasize quality work that can be realistically achieved on the job.…

  7. 36 CFR 13.460 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transportation in accordance with 43 CFR 36.11(c), (d), (e), and (g). ..., motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally employed by local rural... of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

  8. 36 CFR 13.460 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transportation in accordance with 43 CFR 36.11(c), (d), (e), and (g). ..., motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally employed by local rural... of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

  9. 36 CFR 13.460 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transportation in accordance with 43 CFR 36.11(c), (d), (e), and (g). ..., motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally employed by local rural... of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

  10. 36 CFR 13.460 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation in accordance with 43 CFR 36.11(c), (d), (e), and (g). ..., motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally employed by local rural... of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

  11. 36 CFR 13.460 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transportation in accordance with 43 CFR 36.11(c), (d), (e), and (g). ..., motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation traditionally employed by local rural... of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams, and other means of surface transportation...

  12. Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon polymer films on titanium for preventing cell adhesion: a surface finishing for temporarily used orthopaedic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, B.; Testrich, H.; Rebl, H.; Walschus, U.; Schlosser, M.; Zietz, C.; Staehlke, S.; Nebe, J. B.; Weltmann, K. D.; Meichsner, J.; Polak, M.

    2016-06-01

    The design of a titanium implant surface should ideally support its later application in clinical use. Temporarily used implants have to fulfil requirements different from permanent implants: they should ensure the mechanical stabilization of the bone stock but in trauma surgery they should not be integrated into the bone because they will be removed after fracture healing. Finishing of the implant surface by a plasma-fluorocarbon-polymer (PFP) coating is a possible approach for preventing cell adhesion of osteoblasts. Two different low pressure gas-discharge plasma processes, microwave (MW 2.45 GHz) and capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF 13.56 MHz) plasma, were applied for the deposition of the PFP film using a mixture of the precursor octafluoropropane (C3F8) and hydrogen (H2). The thin films were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurements. Cell culture experiments show that cell adhesion and spreading of MG-63 osteoblasts were clearly reduced or nonexistent on these surfaces, also after 24 h of storage in the cell culture medium. In vivo data demonstrated that the local inflammatory tissue response for the PFP films deposited in MW and RF plasma were comparable to uncoated controls.

  13. Influence of femoral stem surface finish on the apparent static shear strength at the stem-cement interface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Brown, L T; Blunt, L A; Barrans, S M

    2008-01-01

    The stem-cement interface has long been implicated in failure of cemented total hip replacement. Much research has been performed to study the factors affecting the bond strength between the femoral stem and the bone cement. The present study aims to further investigate the influence of femoral stem surface finish on the apparent static shear strength at the stem-cement interface through a series of pull out tests, where stainless steel rods are employed to represent the femoral stem. The results demonstrated that there was a general tendency for the apparent static shear strength to be increased with the rise of surface roughness. The polished and glass bead-blasted rods illustrated a slip-stick-slip failure whereas the shot-blasted and grit-blasted rods displayed gross interface failure. Following pull out test, cement transfer films were detected on the polished rods, and there was cement debris adhered to the surface of the grit-blasted rods. Micropores, typically 120 mum in diameter, were prevalent in the cement surface interfaced with the polished rods, and the cement surfaces in contact with the shot-blasted and grit-blasted rods were greatly damaged. There was also evidence of metal debris embedding within the cement mantle originating from the tests of the grit-blasted rods, indicating an extremely strong mechanical interlocking at the interface. In summary, this present research demonstrated that the grit-blasted rods with the highest surface roughness were the best in terms of apparent static shear strength. However, it seemed to be most applicable only to the stem designs in which mechanical interlocking of the stem in the initial fixed position was essential. PMID:19627775

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Surface Finish on High-Cycle Fatigue for SLM-IN718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    A high-cycle fatigue (HCF) knockdown factor was estimated for Inconel 718, manufactured with the selective laser melt (SLM) process. This factor is the reduction at a common fatigue life from the maximum stress in fatigue for low-stress ground (LSG) specimens to the maximum stress of those left with the original surface condition. Various vendors provided specimens. To reduce the number of degrees-of-freedom, only one heat treat condition was evaluated. Testing temperatures included room temperature, 800F, 1000F, and 1200F. The two surface conditions were compared at constant lives, where data was available. The recommended knockdown factor of the as-built surface condition (average roughness of approximately 245 micro-inches/inch) versus low-stress ground condition (roughness <= 4 micro-inches/inch) is approximately 1/3 or 33%. This is to say that for the as-built surface condition, a maximum stress of 2/3 of the stress for LSG can be expected to produce the same life in the as built surface condition. As an alternative method, the surface finish was incorporated into a new parameter with the maximum stress. The new parameter was formulated to be similar to the fracture mechanics stress intensity factor, and it was named the pseudo stress intensity factor, Kp. Using Kp, the variance seemed acceptable across all sources, and the knockdown factor was estimated over the range of data identified by Kp where data occurred. A plot of the results suggests that the knockdown factor is a function of temperature, and that for low lives the knockdown is greater than the knockdown observed above about one million cycles, where it stabilizes. One data point at room temperature was clearly different, and the sparsity of data in the higher life region reduces the value of these results. The method does appear to provide useful results, and further characterization of the method is suggested.

  15. NREL Team Creates High-Activity, Durable Platinum Extended Surface Catalyst for Fuel Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    Researchers with NREL's Fuel Cell team showed that platinum can replace copper nanowires in such a way that high-surface-area and high-specific-activity catalysts are produced, potentially allowing for lower-cost catalysts.

  16. Surface Mobility Technology (SMT) Team members and Students and Faculty from Case Western Reserve Un

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Surface Mobility Technology (SMT) Team members and Students and Faculty from Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) with the Modular Mobility Technology Demonstrator (MMTD) in the Simulated Lunar Operations (SLOPE) Laboratory

  17. Surface Mobility Technology (SMT) Team member with Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) Students a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Surface Mobility Technology (SMT) Team member with Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) Students and Faculty in the Control Room of the Simulated Lunar Operations (SLOPE) Laboratory for the Modular Mobility Technology Demonstrator (MMTD)

  18. Finishing Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riendeau, Diane

    2011-05-01

    As we finish this publishing cycle, I'd like to thank all the readers who sent in video clips. If you have a YouTube clip that you use in class, please send the link and a brief description to driendeau@dist113.org.

  19. Surface finish quality of the outer AXAF mirror pair based on X-ray measurements of the VETA-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John P.; Schwartz, Daniel; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Van Speybroeck, Leon; Zhao, Ping

    1993-01-01

    We employ the X-ray measurements of the VETA-I taken at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to extract information about the surface finish quality of the outermost pair of AXAF mirrors. The particular measurements we consider are 1D scans of the core of the point response function (PRF) (FWHM scans), the encircled energy as a function of radius, and 1D scans of the wings of the PRF. We discuss briefly our raytrace model which incorporates the numerous effects present in the VETA-I test, such as the finite source distance, the size and shape of the X-ray source, the residual gravitational distortions of the optic, the despace of the VETA-I, and particulate contamination. We show how the data constrain the amplitude of mirror surface deviations for spatial frequencies greater than about 0.1/mm. Constraints on the average amplitude of circumferential slope errors are derived as well.

  20. Surface finish quality of the outer AXAF mirror pair based on x ray measurements of the VETA-I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John P.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Vanspeybroeck, Leon; Zhao, Ping

    1992-01-01

    We employ the X-ray measurements of the VETA-I taken at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to extract information about the surface finish quality of the outermost pair of AXAF mirrors. The particular measurements we consider are one dimensional scans of the core of the point response function (PRF) (full width half maximum (FWHM) scans), the encircled energy as a function of radius, and one dimensional scans of the wings of the PRF. We discuss briefly our ray trace model which incorporates the numerous effects present in the VETA-I test, such as the finite source distance, the size and shape of the X-ray source, the residual gravitational distortions of the optic, the despace of the VETA-I, and particulate contamination. We show how the data constrain the amplitude of mirror surface deviations for spatial frequencies greater than about 0.1 mm(exp -1). Constraints on the average amplitude of circumferential slope errors are derived as well.

  1. The pH effect on black spots in surface finish: Electroless nickel immersion gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Yong Sun; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Jinuk; Kim, Jong-Yun; Lee, Seong-Jae

    2010-10-01

    In order to understand the black spot generation after electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) plating, we investigated the pH effect with a combined approach of experiments and computer aided engineering (CAE). As the pH is increased in IG plating solution, the deprotonation of citric acid as chelating agent is enhanced to stabilize the solution by producing Ni-citrate complex ion. For the substitution reaction between nickel and gold, excess citrate ions (deprotonated citric acids) are adsorbed along nodal boundaries of Ni-P layer to decrease the surface reactivity. Since the low reactivity decreases the overall growth rate, the resulting homogeneous Au layer growth avoids the unfavorable galvanic cell corrosion to control black spot. Based on molecular orbital method and kinetic Monte Carlo calculation, our computational approach well explained the capability of citric acid as chelating agent and the Au growth rate along the nodal boundaries of Ni-P layer depending on the surface reactivity.

  2. Space processing applications of ion beam technology. [surface finishing, welding, milling and film deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.

    1977-01-01

    Ion thruster engines for spacecraft propulsion can serve as ion beam sources for potential space processing applications. The advantages of space vacuum environments and the possible gravity effects on thruster ion beam materials operations such as thin film growth, ion milling, and surface texturing were investigated. The direct gravity effect on sputter deposition and vapor deposition processes are discussed as well as techniques for cold and warm welding.

  3. Optimizing surface finishing processes through the use of novel solvents and systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quillen, M.; Holbrook, P.; Moore, J.

    2007-03-01

    As the semiconductor industry continues to implement the ITRS (International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors) node targets that go beyond 45nm [1], the need for improved cleanliness between repeated process steps continues to grow. Wafer cleaning challenges cover many applications such as Cu/low-K integration, where trade-offs must be made between dielectric damage and residue by plasma etching and CMP or moisture uptake by aqueous cleaning products. [2-5] Some surface sensitive processes use the Marangoni tool design [6] where a conventional solvent such as IPA (isopropanol), combines with water to provide improved physical properties such as reduced contact angle and surface tension. This paper introduces the use of alternative solvents and their mixtures compared to pure IPA in removing ionics, moisture, and particles using immersion bench-chemistry models of various processes. A novel Eastman proprietary solvent, Eastman methyl acetate is observed to provide improvement in ionic, moisture capture, and particle removal, as compared to conventional IPA. [7] These benefits may be improved relative to pure IPA, simply by the addition of various additives. Some physical properties of the mixtures were found to be relatively unchanged even as measured performance improved. This report presents our attempts to cite and optimize these benefits through the use of laboratory models.

  4. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  5. Theoretical bases of the surface layer formation in the finishing and hardening treatment of details by SPD in flexible granular environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamarkin, M. A.; Tishchenko, E. E.; Fedorov, V. P.

    2016-04-01

    The article presents results of theoretical studies of the surface layer formation during finishing and hardening treatment of details by SPD in flexible granular environment. The dependencies are fixed for determining the surface roughness, processing time, the depth of the hardened layer and the degree of hardening for different methods of treatment by SPD in flexible granular environment. The process of residual stresses formation is researched.

  6. Solar absorption characteristics of several coatings and surface finishes. [for solar energy collectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Solar absorption characteristics are established for several films potentially favorable for use as receiving surfaces in solar energy collectors. Included in the investigation were chemically produced black films, black electrodeposits, and anodized coatings. It was found that black nickel exhibited the best combination of selective optical properties of any of the coatings studied. A serious drawback to black nickel was its high susceptibility to degradation in the presence of high moisture environments. Electroplated black chrome generally exhibited high solar absorptivities, but the emissivity varied considerably and was also relatively high under some conditions. The black chrome had the greatest moisture resistance of any of the coatings tested. Black oxide coatings on copper and steel substrates showed the best combination of selective optical properties of any of the chemical conversion films studied.

  7. Ion beam technology applications study. [ion impact, implantation, and surface finishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.; Zafran, S.; Komatsu, G. K.

    1978-01-01

    Specific perceptions and possible ion beam technology applications were obtained as a result of a literature search and contact interviews with various institutions and individuals which took place over a 5-month period. The use of broad beam electron bombardment ion sources is assessed for materials deposition, removal, and alteration. Special techniques examined include: (1) cleaning, cutting, and texturing for surface treatment; (2) crosslinking of polymers, stress relief in deposited layers, and the creation of defect states in crystalline material by ion impact; and (3) ion implantation during epitaxial growth and the deposition of neutral materials sputtered by the ion beam. The aspects, advantages, and disadvantages of ion beam technology and the competitive role of alternative technologies are discussed.

  8. Comparative Study of ENIG and ENEPIG as Surface Finishes for a Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jeong-Won; Noh, Bo-In; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2011-09-01

    Interfacial reactions and joint reliability of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu solder with two different surface finishes, electroless nickel-immersion gold (ENIG) and electroless nickel-electroless palladium-immersion gold (ENEPIG), were evaluated during a reflow process. We first compared the interfacial reactions of the two solder joints and also successfully revealed a connection between the interfacial reaction behavior and mechanical reliability. The Sn-Ag-Cu/ENIG joint exhibited a higher intermetallic compound (IMC) growth rate and a higher consumption rate of the Ni(P) layer than the Sn-Ag-Cu/ENEPIG joint. The presence of the Pd layer in the ENEPIG suppressed the growth of the interfacial IMC layer and the consumption of the Ni(P) layer, resulting in the superior interfacial stability of the solder joint. The shear test results show that the ENIG joint fractured along the interface, exhibiting indications of brittle failure possibly due to the brittle IMC layer. In contrast, the failure of the ENEPIG joint only went through the bulk solder, supporting the idea that the interface is mechanically reliable. The results from this study confirm that the Sn-Ag-Cu/ENEPIG solder joint is mechanically robust and, thus, the combination is a viable option for a Pb-free package system.

  9. Experimental Investigation of the Heat-Transfer Rate to a Series of 20 deg Cones of Various Surface Finishes at a Mach Number of 4.95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jim J.

    1959-01-01

    The heat-transfer rates were measured on a series of cones of various surface finishes at a Mach number of 4.95 and Reynolds numbers per foot varying from 20 x 10(exp 6) to 100 x 10(exp 6). The range of surface finish was from a very smooth polish to smooth machining with no polish (65 micro inches rms). Some laminar boundary-layer data were obtained, since transition was not artificially tripped. Emphasis, however, is centered on the turbulent boundary layer. The results indicated that the turbulent heat-transfer rate for the highest roughness tested was only slightly greater than that for the smoothest surface. The laminar-sublayer thickness was calculated to be about half the roughness height for the roughest model at the highest value of unit Reynolds number tested.

  10. Effects of a range of machined and ground surface finishes on the simulated reactor helium corrosion of several candidate structural materials. [Inconel MA 754

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.D.

    1981-02-01

    This report discusses the corrosion behavior of several candidate reactor structural alloys in a simulated advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) environment over a range of lathe-machined and centerless-ground surface finishes. The helium environment contained 50 Pa H/sub 2//5 Pa CO/5 Pa CH/sub 4//<0.05 Pa H/sub 2/O (500 ..mu..atm H/sub 2//50 ..mu..atm CO/50 ..mu..atm CH/sub 4//<0.5 ..mu..atm H/sub 2/O) at 900/sup 0/C for a total exposure of 3000 h. The test alloys included two vacuum-cast superalloys (IN 100 and IN 713LC); a centrifugally cast austenitic alloy (HK 40); three wrought high-temperature alloys (Alloy 800H, Hastelloy X, and Inconel 617); and a nickel-base oxide-dispersion-strengthened alloy (Inconel MA 754). Surface finish variations did not affect the simulated advanced-HTGR corrosion behavior of these materials. Under these conditions, the availability of reactant gaseous impurities controls the kinetics of the observed gas-metal interactions. Variations in the near-surface activities and mobilities of reactive solute elements, such as chromium, which might be expected to be affected by changes in surface finish, do not seem to greatly influence corrosion in this simulated advanced HTGR environment. 18 figures, 4 tables.

  11. 7 CFR 29.2518 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.2518 Section 29.2518 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2518 Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen or shine of the surface of a tobacco leaf. (See chart, § 29.2601.)...

  12. 7 CFR 29.2268 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.2268 Section 29.2268 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2268 Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen or shine of the surface of...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3022 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.3022 Section 29.3022 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen or shine of the surface...

  14. POLLUTION PREVENTION IN THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A broad overview of the metal finishing processes in pollution prevention. The volume of hazardous/toxic waste streams produced from metal finishing operations is significant. It is common for product surfaces to undergo more than 10 finishing steps. The elimination of any of ...

  15. Concentration Data for Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Ground Water, Surface Water, and Finished Water of Selected Community Water Systems in the United States, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems (CWSs) in the United States. As used for SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well prior to water treatment (for ground water) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that is treated and ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished water is collected before entering the distribution system. SWQA studies are conducted in two phases, and the objectives of SWQA studies are twofold: (1) to determine the occurrence and, for rivers, seasonal changes in concentrations of a broad list of anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) in aquifers and rivers that have some of the largest withdrawals for drinking-water supply (phase 1), and (2) for those AOCs found to occur most frequently in source water, characterize the extent to which these compounds are present in finished water (phase 2). These objectives were met for SWQA studies by collecting ground-water and surface-water (source) samples and analyzing these samples for 258 AOCs during phase 1. Samples from a subset of wells and surface-water sites located in areas with substantial agricultural production in the watershed were analyzed for 19 additional AOCs, for a total of 277 compounds analyzed for SWQA studies. The 277 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and

  16. Study of the effect of tribo-materials and surface finish on the lubricant performance of new halogen-free room temperature ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurín, N.; Minami, I.; Sanes, J.; Bermúdez, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    The present work evaluates different materials and surface finish in the presence of newly designed, hydrophobic halogen-free room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) as lubricants. A reciprocating tribo-tester was employed with steel-ceramic and steel-thermosetting epoxy resin contacts under boundary lubrication conditions. Four different tetraalkylphosphonium organosilanesulfonate RTILs provided excellent lubricating performance, with friction coefficients as low as 0.057, and non-measurable wear for the higher roughness machine-finish stainless steel flat against sapphire balls, in the case of the lubricants containing the 2-trimethylsilylethanesulfonate anion. Higher friction coefficients of the order of 0.1 and wear volumes of the order of 10-4 mm3 were observed for the lower roughness fine-finished flat stainless steel surface. All RTILs prevent wear of epoxy resin against stainless steel balls, with friction coefficients in the range of 0.03-0.06. EDX analysis shows the presence of RTILs on the stainless steel surfaces after the tribological tests. Under the experimental conditions, no corrosive processes were observed.

  17. Enamel and Dentin Surface Finishing Influence on the Roughness and Microshear Bond Strength of a Lithium Silicate Glass-Ceramic for Laminate Veneers

    PubMed Central

    Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Bravo, Ruth Peggy; Pavelski, Thiago Vinícius; Garcia, Paula Pontes; Correr, Gisele Maria; Leonardi, Denise Piotto; da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the influence of cavity surface finishing with diamond burs of different grit mounted on high-speed turbine and ultrasound on the roughness and microshear bond strength (MBS) of a lithium silicate glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Methods. Enamel and dentin specimens were divided into seven groups, according to the type of surface finishing: 1200-grit sandpaper (control), two different brands of medium-grit and fine-grit diamond burs in a high-speed turbine; medium-grit and fine-grit CVD (chemical vapor deposition) tips in an ultrasonic device. Roughness parameters (n = 5) and MSBS to a glass-ceramic (n = 10) were determined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 5%). Results. Control group showed lower mean roughness readings and groups that used medium-grit diamond burs showed the highest mean roughness values. Regarding MSBS, there was no statistical difference when comparing the groups gritted with the same brand of medium- and fine-grit burs and tips. Conclusions. Cavity surface finishing influenced the roughness parameters and MSBS of a glass-ceramic to enamel and dentin. Medium-grit diamond burs in high-speed turbine showed the highest mean roughness values. Fine-grit CVD tips in ultrasound presented the highest MSBS values for both enamel and dentin. PMID:27347507

  18. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in groundwater, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Delzer, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used in SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well before water treatment (for groundwater) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that has been treated and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished-water samples are collected before the water enters the distribution system. The primary objective of SWQAs is to determine the occurrence of more than 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water used by community water systems, many of which currently are unregulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A secondary objective is to understand recurrence patterns in source water and determine if these patterns also occur in finished water before distribution. SWQA studies were conducted in two phases for most studies completed by 2005, and in one phase for most studies completed since 2005. Analytical results are reported for a total of 295 different anthropogenic organic compounds monitored in source-water and finished-water samples collected during 2002-10. The 295 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and combustion-derived compounds; (10) personal-care and domestic-use products; (11) plant- or animal-derived biochemicals; (12) refrigerants and

  19. 50 CFR 36.12 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation traditionally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provision of subchapter C of title 50 CFR the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams... Subsistence Uses § 36.12 Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface...

  20. 50 CFR 36.12 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation traditionally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provision of subchapter C of title 50 CFR the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams... Subsistence Uses § 36.12 Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface...

  1. 50 CFR 36.12 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation traditionally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provision of subchapter C of title 50 CFR the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams... Subsistence Uses § 36.12 Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface...

  2. 50 CFR 36.12 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation traditionally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provision of subchapter C of title 50 CFR the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams... Subsistence Uses § 36.12 Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface...

  3. 50 CFR 36.12 - Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface transportation traditionally...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provision of subchapter C of title 50 CFR the use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams... Subsistence Uses § 36.12 Use of snowmobiles, motorboats, dog teams and other means of surface...

  4. Microstructural characterization of diamond-turned aluminum substrates of memory disks: effects of inclusions on the surface finish and tool wear

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C.K.

    1986-07-31

    Diamond-turned substrates of computer memory disks of Al-Mg alloys of 5086 and 5186 grades and a worn diamond tool usd in machining 5086 alloy were examined by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy. Detailed analysis of the examination results showed that the undesirable ''orange peel'' finish and accelerated tool wear that occurred in machining 5086 grade alloy disks could be traced to high inclusion content in the material. The iron-containing inclusion particles were shown to be detrimental to the tool life since they could chemically react with the tool material and induce machine tool chatter. The tool wear induced by the inclusion particles then contributed to the ''orange peel'' finish by creating an unevenly cut, rough surface on the disks.

  5. A novel magnetic field-assisted polishing method using magnetic compound slurry and its performance in mirror surface finishing of miniature V-grooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youliang; Wu, Yongbo; Mitsuyoshi, Nomura

    2016-05-01

    A novel magnetic field-assisted polishing technique was proposed for finishing 3D structured surface using a magnetic compound (MC) slurry. The MC slurry was prepared by blending carbonyl-iron-particles, abrasive grains and α-cellulose into a magnetic fluid which contains nano-scale magnetite particles. An experimental setup was constructed firstly by installing an oscillation worktable and a unit onto a polishing machine. Then, experimental investigations were conducted on oxygen-free copper workpiece with parallel distributed linear V-grooves to clarify the influence of the polishing time and abrasive impact angle on the grooves surface qualities. It was found that (1) the groove form accuracy, i.e. the form retention rate η varied with the polishing locations. Although the form retention rate η deteriorated during the polishing process, the final η was greater than 99.4%; (2) the effective impact angle θm affected the material removal and form accuracy seriously. An increase of the absolute value θm resulted with an increase of material removal rate and a decrease of the form accuracy; (3) the work-surface roughness decreased more than 6 times compared with the original surface after MC slurry polishing. These results confirmed the performance of the proposed new magnetic field-assisted polishing method in the finishing of 3D-structured surface.

  6. Synthetic rubber surface as an alternative to concrete to improve welfare and performance of finishing beef cattle reared on fully slatted flooring.

    PubMed

    Brscic, M; Ricci, R; Prevedello, P; Lonardi, C; De Nardi, R; Contiero, B; Gottardo, F; Cozzi, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a fully slatted concrete floor (concrete slatted (CS)) with the same floor on which synthetic rubber slats were placed on the concrete slats (rubber slatted (RS)) as housing solution for finishing beef cattle. The present study involved five commercial beef cattle farms in which the floor of at least three pens was kept as fully slatted, and in an equal number of pens a rubber cover was placed on the floor, tightly matching the gap profile of the concrete slats to allow the drainage of manure. A total of 326 finishing beef bulls were used (153 on CS and 173 on RS), and regardless of the floor treatment animals were housed in groups of 6 to 12 bulls/pen with a space allowance of 3.1 ± 0.2 m2/bull. Bulls had similar initial live weights (422.3 kg on CS and 425.0 kg on RS), but bulls on RS were heavier at the end of the finishing period with a higher average daily gain than bulls kept on CS (1.53 v. 1.46 kg/day; P<0.05). The proportion of bulls treated for locomotor problems was lower in RS pens compared with CS. Rubber covering prevented the occurrence of bursitis, but it increased the odds for hoof overgrowth at end of the finishing period. Hoof overgrowth detected in vivo in bulls on RS was confirmed at the slaughterhouse by the longer dorsal wall and diagonal lengths of the hoof as well as by a more acute toe angle. Compared with bulls on CS, bulls on RS showed less inactivity and resting time, increased social interactions, decreased abnormal lying down and unsuccessful attempts to lie down, as well as shortened the time for lying down. Bulls in RS pens were dirtier compared with those in CS pens, likely due to the draining gaps being reduced to 11.6 ± 1.2% of the total pen surface compared with the 16.9 ± 1.7% in CS pens. This study gave further evidence about the positive effects of the RS floor on growth performance and welfare of finishing beef cattle, although compromising cleanliness and hoof overgrowth. PMID:26190252

  7. Assessment of the influence of surface finishing and weld joints on the corrosion/oxidation behaviour of stainless steels in lead bismuth eutectic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Muñoz, F. J.; Soler-Crespo, L.; Gómez-Briceño, D.

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to gain some insight into the influence of the surface finishing in the oxidation/corrosion behaviour of 316L and T91 steels in lead bismuth eutectic (LBE). Specimens of both materials with different surface states were prepared (as-received, grinded, grinded and polished, and electrolitically polished) and oxidation tests were carried out at 775 and 825 K from 100 to 2000 h for two different oxygen concentrations and for H 2/H 2O molar ratios of 3 and 0.03. The general conclusion for these tests is that the effect of surface finishing on the corrosion/protection processes is not significant under the tested conditions. In addition the behaviour of weld joints, T91-T91 Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) and T91-316L have been also studied under similar conditions. The conclusions are that, whereas T91-T91 welded joint shows the same corrosion properties as the parent materials for the conditions tested, AISI 316L-T91 welded joint, present an important dissolution over seam area that it associated to the electrode 309S used for the fabrication process.

  8. Effect of two different finishing systems on surface roughness of feldspathic and fluorapatite porcelains in ceramo-metal restorations: Comparative in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Anmol, Cherry; Soni, Sumeet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate and compare the effect of two ceramic finishing systems and diamond polishing paste on surface texture of two ceramic materials. Methodology: The 40 test specimens were randomly divided into two main groups (Group I and Group II). Which were subsequently veneered with feldspathic porcelain and fluorapatite leucite porcelain systems respectively. The samples in Test group I and Test group II were subjected to different abrasion and finishing systems (Soft Lex and White silicon and grey rubber respectively). The surface roughness of all the four groups was assessed qualitatively using the scanning Electron Microscope and profilometer. Results: The surface roughness of Feldspathic and fluorapetite porcelain increased after abrasion and finishing as compared to auto-glazed porcelin. The surface roughness was more in grey rubber disc group (Gp Ib) as compared to the soft lex disc groups. After polishing with the diamond paste, there was reduction in the surface roughness of both the disc groups. The Mean Ra values of the Feldspathic porcelain at three intervals were 0.52 ± 0.06, 0.54 ± 0.06, 0.32 ± 0.06 and 0.50 ± 0.04, 1.25 ± 0.10, 0.45 ± 0.6 respectively for grey rubber disc and soft lex groups. The Mean Ra values of Fluorapetite porcelain at three intervals were 0.40 ± 0.06, 0.52 ± 0.06, 0.30 ± 0.03 and 0.41 ± 0.04, 1.17 ± 0.09, 0.39 ± 0.07 respectively for grey rubber disc and soft lex groups. Discussion and Conclusion: The surface roughness was less in the polished samples as compared to the auto-glazed porcelain. The findings were more reinforcing in the soft lex group as compared to the white/grey rubber disc group. Between the two porcelain systems, the Fluorapatite leucite porcelain specimens exhibited better surface smoothness than feldspathic porcelain. PMID:24818090

  9. Investigation of crystal surface finish and geometry on single LYSO scintillator detector performance for depth-of-interaction measurement with silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircher, Chad; Shao, Yiping

    2012-11-01

    Depth of Interaction (DOI) information can improve quality of reconstructed images acquired from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), especially in high resolution and compact scanners dedicated for breast, brain, or small animal imaging applications. Additionally, clinical scanners with time of flight capability can also benefit from DOI information. One of the most promising methods of determining DOI in a crystal involves reading the signal from two ends of a scintillation crystal, and calculating the signal ratio between the two detectors. This method is known to deliver a better DOI resolution with rough crystals compared to highly polished crystals. However, what is still not well studied is how much of a tradeoff is involved between spatial, energy, temporal, and DOI resolutions as a function of the crystal surface treatment and geometry with the use of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as the photo detectors. This study investigates the effects of different crystal surface finishes and geometries on energy, timing and DOI resolutions at different crystal depths. The results show that for LYSO scintillators of 1.5×1.5×20 mm3 and 2×2×20 mm3 with their surfaces finished from 0.5 to 30 μm roughness, almost the same energy and coincidence timing resolutions were maintained, around 15% and 2.4 ns, respectively across different crystal depths, while the DOI resolutions were steadily improved from worse than 5 mm to better than 2 mm. They demonstrate that crystal roughness, with proper surface preparing, does not have a significant effect on the energy and coincidence timing resolutions in the crystals examined, and there does not appear to be a tradeoff between improving DOI resolution and degrading other detector performances. These results will be valuable to guide the selection of crystal surface conditions for developing a DOI measurable PET detector with a full array of LYSO scintillators coupled to SiPM arrays.

  10. Investigation of Crystal Surface Finish and Geometry on Single LYSO Scintillator Detector Performance for Depth-of-Interaction Measurement with Silicon Photomultipliers

    PubMed Central

    Bircher, Chad

    2012-01-01

    Depth of Interaction (DOI) information can improve quality of reconstructed images acquired from Positron Emission Tomography (PET), especially in high resolution and compact scanners dedicated for breast, brain, or small animal imaging applications. Additionally, clinical scanners with time of flight capability can also benefit from DOI information. One of the most promising methods of determining DOI in a crystal involves reading the signal from two ends of a scintillation crystal, and calculating the signal ratio between the two detectors. This method is known to deliver a better DOI resolution with rough crystals compared to highly polished crystals. However, what is still not well studied is how much of a tradeoff is involved between spatial, energy, temporal, and DOI resolutions as a function of the crystal surface treatment and geometry with the use of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM) as the photo detectors. This study investigates the effects of different crystal surface finishes and geometries on energy, timing and DOI resolutions at different crystal depths. The results show that for LYSO scintillators of 1.5×1.5×20 mm3 and 2×2×20 mm3 with their surfaces finished from 0.5 to 30 micron roughness, almost the same energy and coincidence timing resolutions were maintained, around 15% and 2.4 ns respectively across different crystal depths, while the DOI resolutions were steadily improved from worse than 5 mm to better than 2 mm. They demonstrate that crystal roughness, with proper surface preparing, does not have a significant effect on the energy and coincidence timing resolutions in the crystals examined, and there does not appear to be a tradeoff between improving DOI resolution and degrading other detector performances. These results will be valuable to guide the selection of crystal surface conditions for developing a DOI measurable PET detector with a full array of LYSO scintillators coupled to SiPM arrays. PMID:23087497

  11. COMPARISON OF SCANNING ELECTRON AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY OF SURFACE FINISHES ON STAINLESS STEEL THAT REDUCE BACTERIAL ATTACHMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteria adhere to food products and processing surfaces that can cross-contaminate other products and work surfaces (Arnold, 1998). Using materials for food processing surfaces that are resistant to bacterial contamination could enhance food safety. Stainless steel, although sus...

  12. AESF/EPA (AMERICAN ELECTROPLATERS AND SURFACE FINISHERS/ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) CONFERENCE ON POLLUTION CONTROL FOR THE METAL FINISHING INDUSTRY (8TH) HELD AT SAN DIEGO, CALIFORNIA, FEBRUARY 9-11, 1987

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 8th Annual AESF/EPA Conference and Exhibit on Pollution Control for the Metal Finishing Industry was held in San Diego, California, February 9, 10, and 11, 1987. The primary objective of the 8th Conference was to continue the dialogue established by the first AESF/EPA Confere...

  13. Evaluation of interproximal finishing techniques for silver amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Bower, C F; Reinhardt, R A; DuBois, L M

    1986-09-01

    In spite of the incidence of recurrent caries and gingival inflammation surrounding the gingival margins of interproximal silver amalgam restorations, little information exists on the efficacy of finishing procedures in this location. This study was intended to evaluate surface smoothness of interproximal silver amalgams using four finishing techniques. Results indicated that surfaces finished using the carve, floss, and finishing strip polish consistently produced a measurably smoother surface (p less than 0.01) than did the other techniques. The use of finishing strips on the gingival margin of Class II silver amalgam restorations shows promise of improving interproximal surface smoothness. PMID:3462385

  14. Properties of M40J Carbon/PMR-II-50 Composites Fabricated with Desized and Surface Treated Fibers. Characterization of M40J Desized and Finished Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Gosau, Jan M.; Shin, E. Eugene; McCorkle, Linda S.; Sutter, James K.; OMalley, Michelle; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    To increase performance and durability of high temperature composites for potential rocket engine components, it is necessary to optimize wetting and interfacial bonding between high modulus carbon fibers and high temperature polyimide resins. It has been previously demonstrated that the electro-oxidative shear treatments used by fiber manufacturers are not effective on higher modulus fibers that have fewer edge and defect sites in the surface crystallites. In addition, sizings commercially supplied on most carbon fibers are not compatible with polyimides. This study was an extension of prior work characterizing the surface chemistry and energy of high modulus carbon fibers (M40J and M60J, Torray) with typical fluorinated polyimide resins, such as PMR-II-50. A continuous desizing system which utilizes environmentally friendly chemical- mechanical processes was developed for tow level fiber and the processes were optimized based on weight loss behavior, surface elemental composition (XPS) and morphology (FE-SEM) analyses, and residual tow strength of the fiber, and the similar approaches have been applied on carbon fabrics. Both desized and further treated with a reactive finish were investigated for the composite reinforcement. The effects of desizing and/or subsequent surface retreatment on carbon fiber on composite properties and performance including fiber-matrix interfacial mechanical properties, thermal properties and blistering onset behavior will be discussed in this presentation.

  15. Simulated studies of wear and friction in total hip prosthesis components with various ball sizes and surface finishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swikert, M. A.; Johnson, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a newly designed total hip joint simulator. The apparatus closely simulates the complex motions and loads of the human hip in normal walking. The wear and friction of presently used appliance configurations and materials were determined. A surface treatment of the metal femoral ball specimens was applied to influence wear. The results of the investigation indicate that wear can be reduced by mechanical treatment of metal femoral ball surfaces. A metallographic examination and surface roughness measurements were made.

  16. Agile robotic edge finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, M.

    1996-08-01

    Edge finishing processes have seemed like ideal candidates for automation. Most edge finishing processes are unpleasant, dangerous, tedious, expensive, not repeatable and labor intensive. Estimates place the cost of manual edge finishing processes at 12% of the total cost of fabricating precision parts. For small, high precision parts, the cost of hand finishing may be as high as 305 of the total part cost. Up to 50% of this cost could be saved through automation. This cost estimate includes the direct costs of edge finishing: the machining hours required and the 30% scrap and rework rate after manual finishing. Not included in these estimates are the indirect costs resulting from cumulative trauma disorders and retraining costs caused by the high turnover rate for finishing jobs.. Despite the apparent economic advantages, edge finishing has proven difficult to automate except in low precision and/or high volume production environments. Finishing automation systems have not been deployed successfully in Department of Energy defense programs (DOE/DP) production, A few systems have been attempted but have been subsequently abandoned for traditional edge finishing approaches: scraping, grinding, and filing the edges using modified dental tools and hand held power tools. Edge finishing automation has been an elusive but potentially lucrative production enhancement. The amount of time required for reconfiguring workcells for new parts, the time required to reprogram the workcells to finish new parts, and automation equipment to respond to fixturing errors and part tolerances are the most common reasons cited for eliminating automation as an option for DOE/DP edge finishing applications. Existing automated finishing systems have proven to be economically viable only where setup and reprogramming costs are a negligible fraction of overall production costs.

  17. Effects of Microstructure and Loading on Fracture of Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu Joints on Cu Substrates with ENIG Surface Finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Kumar, P.; Dutta, I.; Sidhu, R.; Renavikar, M.; Mahajan, R.

    2014-12-01

    When dropped, electronic packages often undergo failure by propagation of an interfacial crack in solder joints under a combination of tensile and shear loading. Hence, it is crucial to understand and predict the fracture behavior of solder joints under mixed-mode high-rate loading conditions. In this work, the effects of the loading conditions (strain rate and loading angle) and microstructure [interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) morphology and solder yield strength] on the mixed-mode fracture toughness of Sn-3.8 wt.%Ag-0.7 wt.%Cu solder joints sandwiched between two Cu substrates with electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) metallization have been studied, and compared with the fracture behavior of joints attached to bare Cu. Irrespective of the surface finish, the fracture toughness of the solder joints decreased monotonically with strain rate and mode-mixity, both resulting in increased fracture proportion through the interfacial IMC layer. Furthermore, the proportion of crack propagation through the interfacial IMC layer increased with increase in the thickness and the roughness of the interfacial IMC layer and the yield strength of the solder, resulting in a decrease in the fracture toughness of the joint. However, under most conditions, solder joints with ENIG finish showed higher resistance to fracture than joints attached directly to Cu substrates without ENIG metallization. Based on the experimental observations, a fracture mechanism map is constructed correlating the yield strength of the solder, the morphology and thickness of the interfacial IMC, and the fracture mechanisms as well as the fracture toughness values for different solder joints under mode I loading.

  18. Effects of pH, surface finish and thermal treatment on the corrosion of AlFeNi aluminum alloy. Characterization of oxide layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabhan, D.; Kapusta, B.; Billaud, P.; Colas, K.; Hamon, D.; Dacheux, N.

    2015-02-01

    The aluminum alloy AlFeNi used as fuel cladding for the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) may undergo corrosion in the reactor environment. In order to qualify the corrosion behavior of the fuel elements of the JHR in accidental conditions, several specimens of AlFeNi have been corroded at 250 °C for different durations (9-34 days) in distilled water at various pH (4.9, 5.2 and 5.6) chosen to simulate that currently considered for the JHR. On all specimens, the only crystalline corrosion product formed is boehmite (AlOOH). The corrosion film is composed of three oxide layers which show through thickness chemical composition variations. The iron-nickel precipitates pre-existing in the metal matrix are present in the inner and intermediate oxide layers though oxidized. For long corrosion times, some of the iron and nickel particles are released in the water and some precipitation is observed at the surface of the oxide layer. The effect of surface finish (as received or polished) and thermal treatment (annealed and not annealed) on the oxide growth rate has also been investigated. For durations over 25 days, pH = 5.6 appears to be more favorable than pH = 5.2 and 4.9 in terms of oxide thickness and weight gain limitation. This effect of pH is however reduced on unpolished specimens. The effect of surface finish on the corrosion behavior as measured by optical microscopy appears to be strong, especially for pH = 4.9 where polished samples exhibited an accelerated evolution of the oxide thickness and of the mass gain. This could be due to the combined effect of a strong acid solution (pH = 4.9) and of the local microstructural changes formed at the interface through polishing. The effect of thermal treatment on the behavior of unpolished AlFeNi specimens during corrosion tests in the conditions investigated was found to be small. In this study, microstructural and chemical analyses were performed on the corroded specimens in order to get a better understanding of the

  19. Fluorophosphonate-functionalised titanium via a pre-adsorbed alkane phosphonic acid: a novel dual action surface finish for bone regenerative applications.

    PubMed

    Ayre, Wayne Nishio; Scott, Tom; Hallam, Keith; Blom, Ashley W; Denyer, Stephen; Bone, Heather K; Mansell, Jason P

    2016-02-01

    Enhancing vitamin D-induced human osteoblast (hOB) maturation at bone biomaterial surfaces is likely to improve prosthesis integration with resultant reductions in the need for revision arthroplasty consequent to aseptic loosening. Biomaterials that are less appealing to microorganisms implicated in implant failures through infection are also highly desirable. However, finding surfaces that enhance hOB maturation to active vitamin D yet deter bacteria remain elusive. In addressing this, we have sought to bio-functionalise titanium (Ti) with lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and related, phosphatase-resistant, LPA analogues. The impetus for this follows our discovery that LPA co-operates with active vitamin D3 metabolites to secure hOB maturation in vitro including cells grown upon Ti. LPA has also been found, by others, to inhibit virulence factor production and biofilm formation of the human opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Collectively, selected LPA species might offer potential dual-action surface finishes for contemporary bone biomaterials. In attaching a phosphatase-resistant LPA analogue to Ti we took advantage of the affinity of alkane phosphonic acids for TiO2. Herein, we provide evidence for the facile development of a dual-action Ti surface for potential orthopaedic and dental applications. Successful conjugation of an LPA analogue (3S)1-fluoro-3-hydroxy-4-(oleoyloxy)butyl-1-phosphonate (FHBP) to the Ti surface was supported through physiochemical characterisation using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. hOB maturation to active vitamin D3 was enhanced for cells grown on FHBP-Ti whilst these same surfaces exhibited clear antiadherent properties towards a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:26704553

  20. Effect of Coating Surface Finishing on Fatigue Behavior of C450 Steel CAPVD Coated with (Ti,Cr)N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poursaiedi, E.; Salarvand, A.

    2016-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of the surface quality of a custom 450 stainless steel substrate coated with a (Ti,Cr)N nanolayer by cathodic arc physical vapor deposition on fatigue performance in air and in a 3.5% NaCl solution. Scanning electron microscopy was used to locate crack origin sites and characterize the coating. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the phase formation and measurement of residual stress in the coating. The results showed that the determined in plane residual stress is compressive, with amount of - 2.8 ± 0.4 GPa. Chemical mechanical polishing was used to decrease the coating surface roughness (R a from 0.35 to 0.07 µm). This significantly decreased the area having a high stress concentration and delayed the appearance of micro-cracks in the coating during fatigue testing. The results showed that when the material is tested under axial loading at a maximum alternating stress of 555 to 930 MPa, the fatigue strength of coated specimens with polished surfaces increased 10.6% in air and 26.7% in NaCl solution over the coated specimens with normal surfaces. Post-treatment of the coating increased the fatigue strength 3.5% in air and 10.1% in NaCl solution over the uncoated specimens and the weakness of CAPVD coating was eliminated in the field of fatigue.

  1. Digital map and situation surface: a team-oriented multidisplay workspace for network enabled situation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peinsipp-Byma, E.; Geisler, Jürgen; Bader, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    System concepts for network enabled image-based ISR (intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance) is the major mission of Fraunhofer IITB's applied research in the area of defence and security solutions. For the TechDemo08 as part of the NATO CNAD POW Defence against terrorism Fraunhofer IITB advanced a new multi display concept to handle the shear amount and high complexity of ISR data acquired by networked, distributed surveillance systems with the objective to support the generation of a common situation picture. Amount and Complexity of ISR data demands an innovative man-machine interface concept for humans to deal with it. The IITB's concept is the Digital Map & Situation Surface. This concept offers to the user a coherent multi display environment combining a horizontal surface for the situation overview from the bird's eye view, an attached vertical display for collateral information and so-called foveatablets as personalized magic lenses in order to obtain high resolved and role-specific information about a focused areaof- interest and to interact with it. In the context of TechDemo08 the Digital Map & Situation Surface served as workspace for team-based situation visualization and analysis. Multiple sea- and landside surveillance components were connected to the system.

  2. Imprinting high-gradient topographical structures onto optical surfaces using magnetorheological finishing: manufacturing corrective optical elements for high-power laser applications.

    PubMed

    Menapace, Joseph A; Ehrmann, Paul E; Bayramian, Andrew J; Bullington, Amber; Di Nicola, Jean-Michel G; Haefner, Constantin; Jarboe, Jeffrey; Marshall, Christopher; Schaffers, Kathleen I; Smith, Cal

    2016-07-01

    Corrective optical elements form an important part of high-precision optical systems. We have developed a method to manufacture high-gradient corrective optical elements for high-power laser systems using deterministic magnetorheological finishing (MRF) imprinting technology. Several process factors need to be considered for polishing ultraprecise topographical structures onto optical surfaces using MRF. They include proper selection of MRF removal function and wheel sizes, detailed MRF tool and interferometry alignment, and optimized MRF polishing schedules. Dependable interferometry also is a key factor in high-gradient component manufacture. A wavefront attenuating cell, which enables reliable measurement of gradients beyond what is attainable using conventional interferometry, is discussed. The results of MRF imprinting a 23 μm deep structure containing gradients over 1.6 μm / mm onto a fused-silica window are presented as an example of the technique's capabilities. This high-gradient element serves as a thermal correction plate in the high-repetition-rate advanced petawatt laser system currently being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. PMID:27409216

  3. Imprinting high-gradient topographical structures onto optical surfaces using magnetorheological finishing: Manufacturing corrective optical elements for high-power laser applications

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Menapace, Joseph A.; Ehrmann, Paul E.; Bayramian, Andrew J.; Bullington, Amber; Di Nicola, Jean -Michel G.; Haefner, Constantin; Jarboe, Jeffrey; Marshall, Christopher; Schaffers, Kathleen I.; Smith, Cal

    2016-03-15

    Corrective optical elements form an important part of high-precision optical systems. We have developed a method to manufacture high-gradient corrective optical elements for high-power laser systems using deterministic magnetorheological finishing (MRF) imprinting technology. Several process factors need to be considered for polishing ultraprecise topographical structures onto optical surfaces using MRF. They include proper selection of MRF removal function and wheel sizes, detailed MRF tool and interferometry alignment, and optimized MRF polishing schedules. Dependable interferometry also is a key factor in high-gradient component manufacture. A wavefront attenuating cell, which enables reliable measurement of gradients beyond what is attainable using conventional interferometry,more » is discussed. The results of MRF imprinting a 23 μm deep structure containing gradients over 1.6 μm / mm onto a fused-silica window are presented as an example of the technique’s capabilities. As a result, this high-gradient element serves as a thermal correction plate in the high-repetition-rate advanced petawatt laser system currently being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.« less

  4. The scalpel finishing technique: a tooth-friendly way to finish dental composites in anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Kup, Elaine; Tirlet, Gil; Attal, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Optimal results can be obtained on direct restorations by the application of layering procedures that combine the accurate morphological insertion of restorative materials with the knowledge of the optical and mechanical properties of both composite resin and natural hard dental tissue. Even if the finishing procedures on restorations, such as margination (the trimming of margins), are minimized by anatomical layering techniques, finishing can still be highly complicated due to a number of pre-finishing sequences using specific instruments proposed in the literature, which include finishing burs and abrasive discs. Finishing procedures performed with a scalpel on polymerized direct composite restorations can improve the quality of the final sculptured surface by developing natural contours and characteristics and by removing the excess restorative material at the tooth-structure margin. Enhanced movement control and fine fingertip perception of the surface texture while moving the scalpel blade allow the operator to detect and cut the excess composite material during the margination procedure and to refine the final anatomy. Avoiding the use of finishing burs during finishing procedures on direct composite restorations may save adjacent enamel surfaces from abrasive damage. The composite surface and margins may also benefit from using the scalpel finishing technique, considering the potential risk of excess removal and surface crazing that the improper use of finishing burs could cause to composite material. The purpose of this article is to propose and describe the scalpel finishing technique step by step, as well as to briefly discuss the advantages of its application within the limits of a clinical case report. PMID:25874271

  5. Wall Finishes; Carpentry: 901895.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline is designed to provide instruction in selecting, preparing, and installing wall finishing materials. Prerequisites for the course include mastery of building construction plans, foundations and walls, and basic mathematics. Intended for use in grades 11 and 12, the course contains five blocks of study totaling 135 hours of…

  6. Research on the use of particles coming from almond husk as fillers for vinyl plastisols to manufacture hollow pieces with similar surface finishing than wood by using a rotational moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo Amoros, Jose Enrique

    PVC pastes or plasticized PVC offer great possibilities in the industrial field in which this research work has been developed since they show great relevance in plastic processing. On one hand, it is important to study these materials from different points of view: quality improvement, wide range of performance, high versatility, low costs,.... On the other hand, most of the industrial fields that usually employ these polymeric materials are characterized by developing products on which aesthetic considerations and surface finishing acquire special relevance. These industrial fields include all those on which new designs require complex shapes and new and novelty surface finishing such as interior design (furniture, wood products,...) toys industry, houseware, shoe industry,.... The main aim of this work is to improve the use of PVC plastisols in these industrial fields by optimizing formulations with new additives (low toxicity plasticizers) and fillers (lignocellulosic wastes) to obtain new materials that minimize damages to environment. In this work, we have developed new plastisol formulations based on the use of low toxicity plasticizers to obtain more ecological plastisols. We have used a biodegradable plasticizer DINCH which is a derivative of a dicarboxilate as substitute of traditional plasticizers based on phthalates. As we are working with relatively new plasticizers (specially at industrial level) we have performed a whole study of its properties by using different experimental analysis techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamical-mechanical analysis (DMA) and espectrofotometric techniques (visible and infrared). Furthermore a complete mechanical characterization has been carried out to analyze the most important parameters that influence on materials properties such as processing parameters (temperature and time) and plastisol formulations (mainly plasticizer content). We have also performed a

  7. Improved Surface and Tropospheric Temperatures Determined Using Only Shortwave Channels: The AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard DISC has generated products derived from AIRS/AMSU-A observations, starting from September 2002 when the AIRS instrument became stable, using the AIRS Science Team Version-5 retrieval algorithm. The AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm will be finalized in September 2011. This paper describes some of the significant improvements contained in the Version-6 retrieval algorithm, compared to that used in Version-5, with an emphasis on the improvement of atmospheric temperature profiles, ocean and land surface skin temperatures, and ocean and land surface spectral emissivities. AIRS contains 2378 spectral channels covering portions of the spectral region 650 cm(sup -1) (15.38 micrometers) - 2665 cm(sup -1) (3.752 micrometers). These spectral regions contain significant absorption features from two CO2 absorption bands, the 15 micrometers (longwave) CO2 band, and the 4.3 micrometers (shortwave) CO2 absorption band. There are also two atmospheric window regions, the 12 micrometer - 8 micrometer (longwave) window, and the 4.17 micrometer - 3.75 micrometer (shortwave) window. Historically, determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures from satellite observations was performed using primarily observations in the longwave window and CO2 absorption regions. According to cloud clearing theory, more accurate soundings of both surface skin and atmospheric temperatures can be obtained under partial cloud cover conditions if one uses observations in longwave channels to determine coefficients which generate cloud cleared radiances R(sup ^)(sub i) for all channels, and uses R(sup ^)(sub i) only from shortwave channels in the determination of surface and atmospheric temperatures. This procedure is now being used in the AIRS Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm. Results are presented for both daytime and nighttime conditions showing improved Version-6 surface and atmospheric soundings under partial cloud cover.

  8. Structural Definition and Mass Estimation of Lunar Surface Habitats for the Lunar Architecture Team Phase 2 (LAT-2) Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorsey, John T.; Wu, K, Chauncey; Smith, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Architecture Team Phase 2 study defined and assessed architecture options for a Lunar Outpost at the Moon's South Pole. The Habitation Focus Element Team was responsible for developing concepts for all of the Habitats and pressurized logistics modules particular to each of the architectures, and defined the shapes, volumes and internal layouts considering human factors, surface operations and safety requirements, as well as Lander mass and volume constraints. The Structures Subsystem Team developed structural concepts, sizing estimates and mass estimates for the primary Habitat structure. In these studies, the primary structure was decomposed into a more detailed list of components to be sized to gain greater insight into concept mass contributors. Structural mass estimates were developed that captured the effect of major design parameters such as internal pressure load. Analytical and empirical equations were developed for each structural component identified. Over 20 different hard-shell, hybrid expandable and inflatable soft-shell Habitat and pressurized logistics module concepts were sized and compared to assess structural performance and efficiency during the study. Habitats were developed in three categories; Mini Habs that are removed from the Lander and placed on the Lunar surface, Monolithic habitats that remain on the Lander, and Habitats that are part of the Mobile Lander system. Each category of Habitat resulted in structural concepts with advantages and disadvantages. The same modular shell components could be used for the Mini Hab concept, maximizing commonality and minimizing development costs. Larger Habitats had higher volumetric mass efficiency and floor area than smaller Habitats (whose mass was dominated by fixed items such as domes and frames). Hybrid and pure expandable Habitat structures were very mass-efficient, but the structures technology is less mature, and the ability to efficiently package and deploy internal subsystems

  9. Characterization of the Martian surface deposits by the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner. Rover Team.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    Sojourner, the Mars Pathfinder rover, discovered pebbles on the surface and in rocks that may be sedimentary-not volcanic-in origin. Surface pebbles may have been rounded by Ares flood waters or liberated by weathering of sedimentary rocks called conglomerates. Conglomerates imply that water existed elsewhere and earlier than the Ares flood. Most soil-like deposits are similar to moderately dense soils on Earth. Small amounts of dust are currently settling from the atmosphere. PMID:9388171

  10. Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, M.W.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Allen, R.P.

    1980-10-01

    The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic disposal. Other benefits include exposure reduction for decontamination personnel and reduced risk of environmental contamination. Laboratory-scale studies showed that vibratory finishing can rapidly reduce the contamination level of transuranic-contaminated stainless steel and Plexiglas to well below the 10-nCi/g limit. The capability of vibratory finishing as a decontamination process was demonstrated on a large scale. The first decontamination demonstration was conducted at the Hanford N-Reactor, where a vibratory finisher was installed to reduce personnel exposure during the summer outage. Items decontaminated included fuel spacers, process-tube end caps, process-tube inserts, pump parts, ball-channel inspection tools and miscellaneous hand tools. A second demonstration is currently being conducted in the decontamination facility at the Hanford 231-Z Building. During this demonstration, transuranic-contaminated material from decommissioned plutonium facilities is being decontaminated to <10 nCi/g to minimize the volume of material that will require geologic disposal. Items that are being decontaminated include entire glove boxes, process-hood structural material and panels, process tanks, process-tank shields, pumps, valves and hand tools used during the decommissioning work.

  11. Episodic plate separation and fracture infill on the surface of Europa. Galileo Imaging Team.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, R; Greeley, R; Homan, K; Klemaszewski, J; Belton, M J; Carr, M H; Chapman, C R; Tufts, R; Head, J W; Pappalardo, R; Moore, J; Thomas, P

    1998-01-22

    Images obtained by the Voyager spacecraft revealed dark, wedge-shaped bands on Europa that were interpreted as evidence that surface plates, 50-100 km across, moved and rotated relative to each other. This implied that they may be mechanically decoupled from the interior by a layer of warm ice or liquid water. Here we report similar features seen in higher resolution images (420 metres per pixel) obtained by the Galileo spacecraft that reveal new details of wedge-band formation. In particular, the interior of one dark band shows bilateral symmetry of parallel lineaments and pit complexes which indicates that plate separation occurred in discrete episodes from a central axis. The images also show that this style of tectonic activity involved plates < 10 km across. Although this tectonic style superficially resembles aspects of similar activity on Earth, such as sea-floor spreading and the formation of ice leads in polar seas, there are significant differences in the underlying physical mechanisms: the wedge-shaped bands on Europa most probably formed when lower material (ice or water) rose to fill the fractures that widened in response to regional surface stresses. PMID:9450752

  12. Team Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, David C.

    1963-01-01

    A study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of principals in structuring teaching teams; to assess background and personality characteristics appearing essential to successful individual and team performance; and to select personality factor scores which would predict individual and team success. Subjects were 31 teaching teams (99…

  13. Team Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John; Bentley, Scott

    Chapter 6 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter defines and explains management teams and describes several successful examples of team management. Superintendents have come to rely on their management team's expertise to resolve increasingly complex policy, administrative, and instructional issues. Although team management has…

  14. A Gold Medal Finish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 1999, Darryl Mitchell of Goddard Space Flight Center's Technology Commercialization Office (TCO) met with the U.S. Olympic Committee at the official training facility in Colorado Springs, Colorado, to offer assistance in transferring NASA technologies applicable to Olympic sports. Following the meeting with the Olympic committee, Mitchell was approached by U.S. Speedskating Long Track Program Director Finn Halvorsen, who eagerly voiced his interest in working with NASA to identify a means of improving performance for his team. According to Halvorsen, 'If (NASA) can put a man on the moon, surely they can help our skaters.' Mitchell and Halvorsen went to work uncovering NASA technologies that could boost the U.S. team's skating capabilities. Mitchell received a crash course in speedskating, and as a result, generated a lengthy list of promising NASA developments that could benefit the sport. From this list, he and his Goddard TCO partner, Joe Famiglietti, deliberated over whether a NASA mirror-polishing technique could possibly be adapted to the athletes speedskates. The polishing technique, developed by Jim Lyons, a 16-year optical engineering veteran of Goddard, was derived from the same principles used to create the optics for NASA's science observatories, such as the Hubble Space Telescope (highly polished optics are required by NASA to obtain sharp, clear images in space).

  15. NICE3 Textile Finishing Process

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, S.

    1999-01-29

    This new energy-saving approach to fabric finishing can help our domestic textile industry compete in an increasingly competitive global market. Learn how this new technology can lower your maintenance costs and increase your productivity.

  16. Buffered Electropolishing – A New Way for Achieving Extremely Smooth Surface Finish on Nb SRF Cavities to be Used in Particle Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hui Tian, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley

    2009-05-01

    Future accelerators require unprecedented cavity performance, which is strongly influenced by interior surface nano-smoothness. Electropolishing (EP) is the technique of choice to be developed for high-field superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and related techniques point to the electropolishing mechanism of Nb in a sulphuric and hydrofluoric acid electrolyte controlled by a compact surface salt film under F- diffusion-limited mass transport control. These and other findings are guiding a systematic characterization to form the basis for cavities process optimization.

  17. Curriculum change: the importance of team role.

    PubMed

    Broomfield, D; Bligh, J

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes a study examining aspects of team role in the management of curriculum change. The Belbin Team Role Self-Perception Inventory was completed by 25 members (83%) of a faculty curriculum development team. Overall the group showed a preference for the implementer and shaper roles, whilst the completer-finisher role was relatively weakly represented, ranking fifth out of eight possible roles. Older and more senior team members favoured the co-ordinator role, whilst younger and more junior members favoured the team-worker and completer-finisher roles. Some implications of these findings are discussed in the light of the current trend for widespread change in undergraduate medical curricula and the challenges faced by medical schools in a resource constrained environment. PMID:9231114

  18. The effect of three finishing systems on four esthetic restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Hoelscher, D C; Neme, A M; Pink, F E; Hughes, P J

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the finishing and smoothness of composite and traditional glass-ionomer restorations, but few have included resin-modified glass-ionomer cements or more recent finishing systems. The results of using three different finishing systems (Sof-Lex, Enhance, finishing burs) on two composites (Silux, Prisma TPH), a traditional glass ionomer (Ketac-Fil), and a resin-modified glass ionomer (Fuji II LC) were studied. Sixty samples were condensed into sectioned acrylic tubes, covered with a Mylar matrix plus a glass slide at each surface, then cured as per the manufacturers' instructions. Samples were randomized to three groups of five for each material and testing with a Surfanalyzer 4000 of unfinished samples (cured with Mylar matrix) was done to obtain baseline average surface roughness (Ra). Samples were then finished as per the manufacturers' instructions using polishing disks, abrasive impregnated disks, and finishing burs before further surface testing. Samples finished with burs and with abrasive impregnated disks were further polished using polishing paste (Prisma Gloss) and again tested. Data were analyzed with ANOVA testing and Tukey's HSD pairwise comparison. Initial testing after randomization to groups showed no significant difference in surface roughness (P = 0.24). Two-factor analysis revealed no significant difference between materials (P = 0.34), a significant difference in method of finish (P < or = 0.00), with no significant interaction between type of material and method of finish (P = 0.11). Aluminum oxide disk and impregnated disk systems provided the best finish for microfilled composite and both glass-ionomer materials (P < or = 0.00). No significant difference in method of finish existed with the hybrid composite (P = 0.07). Overall, esthetic restorative material finishing is best accomplished using abrasive impregnated disks or aluminum oxide disks. Finishing burs gave a significantly rougher surface than the

  19. Deterministic precision finishing of domes and conformal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorey, Aric; Kordonski, William; Tricard, Marc

    2005-05-01

    In order to enhance missile performance, future window and dome designs will incorporate shapes with improved aerodynamic performance compared with the more traditional flats and spheres. Due to their constantly changing curvature and steep slopes, these shapes are incompatible with most conventional polishing and metrology solutions. Two types of a novel polishing technology, Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF®) and Magnetorheological (MR) Jet, could enable cost-effective manufacturing of free-form optical surfaces. MRF, a deterministic sub-aperture magnetically assisted polishing method, has been developed to overcome many of the fundamental limitations of traditional finishing. MRF has demonstrated the ability to produce complex optical surfaces with accuracies better than 30 nm peak-to-valley (PV) and surface micro-roughness less than 1 nm rms on a wide variety of optical glasses, single crystals, and glass-ceramics. The polishing tool in MRF perfectly conforms to the optical surface making it well suited for finishing this class of optics. A newly developed magnetically assisted finishing method MR JetTM, addresses the challenge of finishing the inside of steep concave domes and other irregular shapes. An applied magnetic field coupled with the properties of the MR fluid allow for stable removal rate with stand-off distances of tens of centimeters. Surface figure and roughness values similar to traditional MRF have been demonstrated. Combining these technologies with metrology techniques, such as Sub-aperture Stitching Interferometer (SSI®) and Asphere Stitching Interferometer (ASI®), enable higher precision finishing of the windows and domes today, as well as the finishing of future conformal designs.

  20. Effect of Pd Thickness on the Interfacial Reaction and Shear Strength in Solder Joints Between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu Solder and Electroless Nickel/Electroless Palladium/Immersion Gold (ENEPIG) Surface Finish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Min; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Young-Ho

    2012-04-01

    Intermetallic compound formation at the interface between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC) solders and electroless nickel/electroless palladium/immersion gold (ENEPIG) surface finish and the mechanical strength of the solder joints were investigated at various Pd thicknesses (0 μm to 0.5 μm). The solder joints were fabricated on the ENEPIG surface finish with SAC solder via reflow soldering under various conditions. The (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 phase formed at the SAC/ENEPIG interface after reflow in all samples. When samples were reflowed at 260°C for 5 s, only (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 was observed at the solder interfaces in samples with Pd thicknesses of 0.05 μm or less. However, the (Pd,Ni)Sn4 phase formed on (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 when the Pd thickness increased to 0.1 μm or greater. A thick and continuous (Pd,Ni)Sn4 layer formed over the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 layer, especially when the Pd thickness was 0.3 μm or greater. High-speed ball shear test results showed that the interfacial strengths of the SAC/ENEPIG solder joints decreased under high strain rate due to weak interfacial fracture between (Pd,Ni)Sn4 and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 interfaces when the Pd thickness was greater than 0.3 μm. In the samples reflowed at 260°C for 20 s, only (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 formed at the solder interfaces and the (Pd,Ni)Sn4 phase was not observed in the solder interfaces, regardless of Pd thickness. The shear strength of the SAC/ENIG solder joints was the lowest of the joints, and the mechanical strength of the SAC/ENEPIG solder joints was enhanced as the Pd thickness increased to 0.1 μm and maintained a nearly constant value when the Pd thickness was greater than 0.1 μm. No adverse effect on the shear strength values was observed due to the interfacial fracture between (Pd,Ni)Sn4 and (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 since the (Pd,Ni)Sn4 phase was already separated from the (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 interface. These results indicate that the interfacial microstructures and mechanical strength of solder joints strongly depend on the Pd thickness and reflow conditions.

  1. Environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textiles finished with siloxane sulfopropylbetaine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Shaojun; Jiang, Song; Xiong, Meiling; Luo, Junxuan; Tang, Jiaoning; Ge, Zaochuan

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports a novel environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textile finished with reactive siloxane sulfopropylbetaine(SSPB). The results show that SSPB can be covalently bound onto the cotton textile surface, imparting perdurable antibacterial activity. The textiles finished with SSPB have been investigated systematically from the mechanical properties, thermal stability, hydrophilic properties and antibacterial properties. It is found that the hydrophilicity and breaking strength are improved greatly after the cotton textiles are finished with SSPB. Additionally, the cotton textiles finished with SSPB exhibit good antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus, ATCC 6538), gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E.coli, 8099) and fungi Candida albicans (C.albicans, ATCC 10231). Moreover, SSPB is nonleachable from the textiles, and it does not induce skin stimulation and is nontoxic to animals. Thus, SSPB is ideal candidate for environmentally friendly antibacterial textile applications. PMID:21417413

  2. Comparative Evaluation of the Efficiency of Four Ceramic Finishing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Aravind, Prasad; Razak, P Abdul; Francis, P G; Issac, Johnson K; Shanoj, R P; Sasikumar, T P

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of four different finishing systems and diamond paste on ceramic roughness with the objectives of evaluating the roughness of ceramic surface of prepared specimens after abrasion, finishing and polishing. Materials & Methods: A total of 50 test specimens were fabricated in the form of discs of diameter 13mm and 0.6mm thickness. Test specimens were then randomly distributed into five groups of 10 and coded. All the test specimens were then abraded with 125μm diamond in unidirectional motion to create surface roughness that will simulate occlusal or incisal correction. The values were recorded and the specimens were then finished using the various finishing systems. multiple range tests by Duncan's procedure. One way Anova was used to calculate the p-value Results:After fini shing, the Ra,Rq,Rz and Rt values showed a tendency to decline to levels much inferior to the values obtained after the preparation of the specimens. Ra values of group III specimens were slightly higher and the increase was significant. The highest Rt value [5.29] obtained after polishing is below the lowest roughness values [7.42] obtained after finishing the specimens. Conclusions: Finishing and polishing procedures have a significant role in reducing the roughness of ceramics.Following abrasion with diamond point to simulate clinical adjustment the roughness values doubled when compared to the initial reading.Ra, Rq,Rz and Rt values suggest that Sof lex is the most efficient of all the systems tested followed by auto glazing.After the final diamond paste polishing, sof lex group specimens showed the best finish and auto glazed specimens showed a value almost as equal to the so flex group. How to cite this article: Aravind P, Razak PA, Francis PG, Issac JK, Shanoj RP, Sasikumar TP. Comparative Evaluation of the Efficiency of Four Ceramics Finishing Systems. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):59-64. PMID:24324306

  3. Efficient dielectric fluid approach in electrodischarge finish machining on the material surface roughness of titanium alloy Ti-621/0.8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihai, N. V.; Brabie, G.

    2015-11-01

    This study was developed to reveal the correlation between current intensity and pulse off time with surface roughness of Ti-621/0.8 in fine EDM machining, in a unique manner of dielectric fluid approach. Depth of cut was taken in consideration to be not as high 1 gm due to the fact that good results were taken for more less heights before. In the case of Ti alloy (Ti-621/0.8) bar, EDM machining with low parameters (limited 110 V) is a delicate process, in which reaching SR under 1 gm is a challenge. Cooper and Graphite electrodes were used, die sinker oil dielectric from machine manufacture was used, without thermal modification to workpiece or electrode, just active dielectric compensatory fluid pumping solution with 0.5 MPa.

  4. Team Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    Chapter 5 of a volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews the literature to define and explain management teams and to describe several successful management team arrangements. The author begins by noting that team management has recently enjoyed a resurgence as a response to collective negotiations, but beyond this function can have value…

  5. Team Development of Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyoung

    2004-01-01

    Advanced technologies, globalization, the competitiveness of business, flexible working practices, and other rapid changes in the nature of work have all led to the booming of "virtual teams." This paper will provide an overview of virtual teams, including a description of their emergence, a definition and typology of the term "virtual team," an…

  6. Simulation of Magnetic Field Assisted Finishing (MFAF) Process Utilizing Smart MR Polishing Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barman, Anwesa; Das, Manas

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic field assisted finishing process is an advanced finishing process. This process is capable of producing nanometer level surface finish. In this process magnetic field is applied to control the finishing forces using magnetorheological polishing medium. In the current study, permanent magnet is used to provide the required magnetic field in the finishing zone. The working gap between the workpiece and the magnet is filled with MR fluid which is used as the polishing brush to remove surface undulations from the top surface of the workpiece. In this paper, the distribution of magnetic flux density on the workpiece surface and behaviour of MR polishing medium during finishing are analyzed using commercial finite element packages (Ansys Maxwell® and Comsol®). The role of magnetic force in the indentation of abrasive particles on the workpiece surface is studied. A two-dimensional simulation study of the steady, laminar, and incompressible MR fluid flow behaviour during finishing process is carried out. The material removal and surface roughness modelling of the finishing process are also presented. The indentation force by a single active abrasive particle on the workpiece surface is modelled during simulation. The velocity profile of MR fluid with and without application of magnetic field is plotted. It shows non-Newtonian property without application of magnetic field. After that the total material displacement due to one abrasive particle is plotted. The simulated roughness profile is in a good agreement with the experimental results. The conducted study will help in understanding the fluid behavior and the mechanism of finishing during finishing process. Also, the modelling and simulation of the process will help in achieving better finishing performance.

  7. Concrete Finisher Program. Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the concrete finishing program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee structure; local…

  8. Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) in commercial precision optics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golini, Donald; Kordonski, William I.; Dumas, Paul; Hogan, Stephen J.

    1999-11-01

    Finish polishing of highly precise optical surfaces is one of the most promising uses of magnetic fluids. We have taken the concept of magnetorheological finishing (MRF) from the laboratory to the optical fabrication shop floor. A commercial, computer numerically controlled (CNC) MRF machine, the Q22, has recently come on-line in optics companies to produce precision flat, spherical and aspheric optical components. MRF is a sub-aperture lap process that requires no specialized tooling, because the magnetically-stiffened abrasive fluid conforms to the local curvature of any arbitrarily shaped workpiece. MRF eliminates subsurface damage, smoothes rms microroughness to less than 1 nm, and corrects p-v surface figure errors to (lambda) /20 in minutes. Here the basic details of the MRF process are reviewed. MR fluid performance for soft and hard materials, the removal of asymmetric grinding errors and diamond turning marks, and examples of batch finishing of glass aspheres are also described.

  9. Finishes and furnishings: considerations for critical care environments.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Misty; Bowman, Ken L

    2011-01-01

    When selecting finishes and furnishings within a critical care unit, multiple factors can ultimately affect patient outcomes, impact costs, and contribute to operational efficiencies. First, consider the culture of the regional location, operations of the specific facility, and the recent focus on patient-centered care. The intention is to create an appropriate familiarity and comfort level with the environment for the patient and family. Second, safety and infection control are of utmost concern, particularly for the critical care patient with limited mobility. The planning and design team must be acutely aware of the regulations and guidelines of various governing agencies, local codes, and best design practices that can directly affect choices of finishes and furnishings. Flooring, wall, and window finishes, lighting, art and color, as well as furniture and fabric selection should be considered. Issues to address include maintenance, durability, sustainability, infection control, aesthetics, safety, wayfinding, and acoustics. Balancing these issues with comfort, patient and staff satisfaction, accommodations for an aging population, increasing bariatric needs, efficient operations, and avoidance of "never events" requires team collaboration and communication, knowledge of product advancements, a keen awareness of how environmental stimuli are perceived, and utilization of the best available evidence to make informed design decisions. PMID:21921717

  10. Analysis of science team activities during the 1999 Marsokhod Rover Field Experiment: Implications for automated planetary surface exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Geb; Cabrol, Nathalie; Rathe, April

    2001-04-01

    This work analyzes the behavior and effectiveness of a science team using the Marsokhod mobile robot to explore the Silver Lake region in the Mojave Desert near Baker, California. The work addresses the manner in which the geologists organized themselves, how they allocated their time in different activities, how they formed and communicated scientific hypotheses, and the frequency with which they requested different types of data from the mission archive during the first 3 days of the mission. Eleven scientists from the NASA Ames Research Center and three of the five scientists who participated from their home institutions were videotaped as they worked throughout the 3-day experiment. The videotape record indicates that 46% of available person-hours were consumed in semistructured or formal meetings and that only 1% of their time was spent studying immersive, three-dimensional virtual reality models of the robot's surroundings. The remainder of their time was spent in unstructured work sessions in groups of two or three. Hypothesis formation and evolution patterns show a meager flow of information from the distributed science team to the on-site team and a bias against reporting speculative hypotheses. Analysis of the visual imagery received from the robot indicates that acquisition of the large panoramic information leads to high levels of redundancy in the data acquired. The scientists' archive requests indicate that small, specifically requested image targets were the most frequently accessed information. The work suggests alternative organizational structures that would expedite the flow of information within the geologic team. It also advocates emphasizing specific science targets over high-resolution, stereoscopic, panoramic imaging when programming a mobile robot's onboard cameras.

  11. Yea, Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinn, Fauneil J.; Weir, Sybil B.

    1984-01-01

    Four problems in higher education are identified: hardening curriculum, graying faculty, shrinking budget, and disappearing students. Team teaching is suggested as one solution. A conceptual framework for types of team teaching is presented and practical suggestions to those who want to work within that framework are provided. (Author/MLW)

  12. 7 CFR 29.1017 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.1017 Section 29.1017 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1017 Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen...

  13. 7 CFR 29.3517 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finish. 29.3517 Section 29.3517 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3517 Finish. The reflectance factor in color perception. Finish indicates the sheen...

  14. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  15. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  16. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  17. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  18. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  19. 16 CFR 1509.8 - Construction and finishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS § 1509.8 Construction and finishing. (a) All wood surfaces of non-full-size baby cribs shall be smooth and free from splinters. (b) All wood parts of non-full-size baby cribs shall be free from splits, cracks, or other defects that might lead to...

  20. Manipulating Mechanics and Chemistry in Precision Optics Finishing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, S.D.

    2007-05-30

    Deterministic processing is critical to modern precision optics finishing. Put simply, determinism is the ability to predict an outcome before carrying out an activity. With the availability of computer numerically controlled (CNC) equipment and sophisticated software algorithms, it is now possible to grind and polish optics from a variety of materials to surface shape accuracies of ~20 nm peak-to-valley (p-v), with surface roughness values (measured on white light interferometers over 250 um x 350 um areas) to sub-nm root-mean-square (rms) levels. In the grinding phase the capability now exists to estimate removal rates, surface roughness, and the depth of subsurface damage (SSD) for a previously unprocessed material, knowing its Young's modulus, hardness, and fracture toughness. An understanding of how chemistry aids in the abrasive-driven removal of material from the surface during polishing is also critical, Recent polishing process research reveals the importance of chemistry, specifically slurry pH, for preventing particle agglomeration in order to achieve smooth surface finishes with conventional pad or pitch laps. New sub-aperture polishing processes like magnetorheoogical finishing (MRF) can smooth and shape flat, spherical, aspheric and free-form surfaces within a few process iterations. Difficult to finish optical materials like soft polymer polymethyl methacrylate, microstructured polycrystalline zinc sulfide, and water soluble single-crystal potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) can be finished with MRF. The key is the systematic alteration of MR fluid chemistry and mechanics (i.e. the abrasive) to match the unique physical properties of each workpiece.

  1. The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, C.S.; Selleck, C.B.

    1990-08-01

    The Robotic Edge Finishing Laboratory at Sandia National Laboratories is developing four areas of technology required for automated deburring, chamfering, and blending of machined edges: (1) the automatic programming of robot trajectories and deburring processes using information derived from a CAD database, (2) the use of machine vision for locating the workpiece coupled with force control to ensure proper tool contact, (3) robotic deburring, blending, and machining of precision chamfered edges, and (4) in-process automated inspection of the formed edge. The Laboratory, its components, integration, and results from edge finishing experiments to date are described here. Also included is a discussion of the issues regarding implementation of the technology in a production environment. 24 refs., 17 figs.

  2. Exploring the Integration of Field Portable Instrumentation into Real-Time Surface Science Operations with the RIS4E SSERVI Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Rogers, D.; Garry, W. B.; McAdam, A.; Scheidt, S. P.; Carter, L. M.; Glotch, T. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Remote, In Situ, and Synchrotron Studies for Science (RIS4E) team represents one node of the Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI) program. While the RIS4E team consists of four themes, each dedicated to a different aspect of airless body exploration, this submission details the RIS4E work underway to maximize an astronaut's effectiveness while conducting surface science. The next generation of surface science operations will look quite different than the EVAs (extravehicular activities) conducted during Apollo. Astronauts will possess data of much higher resolution than the Apollo reconnaissance data, and the EVAs will thus be designed to answer targeted science questions. Additionally, technological advancements over the last several decades have made it possible to conduct in situ analyses of a caliber much greater than was achievable during Apollo. For example, lab techniques such as x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and multi-spectral imaging are now available in field portable formats, meaning that astronauts can gain real-time geochemical awareness during sample collection. The integration of these instruments into EVA operations, however, has not been widely tested. While these instruments will provide the astronaut with a high-resolution look at regional geochemistry and structure, their implementation could prove costly to the already constrained astronaut EVA timeline. The RIS4E team, through fieldwork at the December 1974 lava flow at Kilauea Volcano, HI, investigates the incorporation of portable technologies into planetary surface exploration and explores the relationship between science value added from these instruments and the cost associated with integrating them into an EVA timeline. We also consider what an appropriate instrumentation suite would be for the exploration of a volcanic terrain using this ideal terrestrial analog (see Rogers et al., Young et al., Bleacher et al., and Yant et al., this meeting).

  3. Virtuoso teams.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Bill; Boynton, Andy

    2005-01-01

    Managing a traditional team seems pretty straightforward: Gather up whoever's available, give them time and space to do their jobs, and make sure they all play nicely together. But these teams produce results that are often as unremarkable as the teams themselves. When big change and high performance are required, a virtuoso team is far more likely to deliver outstanding and innovative results. Virtuoso teams are fundamentally different from the garden-variety work groups that most organizations form to pursue more modest goals. They comprise the top experts in their particular fields, are specially convened for ambitious projects, work with frenetic rhythm, and emanate a discernible energy. Not surprisingly, however, the superstars who make up these teams are renowned for being elitist, temperamental, egocentric, and difficult to work with. As a result, many managers fear that if they force such people to interact on a high-stakes project, the group just might implode. In this article, Bill Fischer and Andy Boynton put the inner workings of highly successful virtuoso teams on full display through three examples: the creative group behind West Side Story, the team of writers for Sid Caesar's 1950s-era television hit Your Show of Shows, and the high-powered technologists who averted an investor-relations crisis for Norsk Hydro, the Norwegian energy giant. Each of these teams accomplished enormous goals and changed their businesses, their customers, even their industries. And they did so by breaking all the conventional rules of collaboration--from the way they recruited the best members to the way they enforced their unusual processes, and from the high expectations they held to the exceptional results they produced. PMID:16028822

  4. Improved methodology for surface and atmospheric soundings, error estimates, and quality control procedures: the atmospheric infrared sounder science team version-6 retrieval algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John M.; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) science team version-6 AIRS/advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU) retrieval algorithm is now operational at the Goddard Data and Information Services Center (DISC). AIRS version-6 level-2 products are generated near real time at the Goddard DISC and all level-2 and level-3 products are available starting from September 2002. Some of the significant improvements in retrieval methodology contained in the version-6 retrieval algorithm compared to that previously used in version-5 are described. In particular, the AIRS science team made major improvements with regard to the algorithms used to (1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; (2) generate the initial state used to start the cloud clearing and retrieval procedures; and (3) derive error estimates and use them for quality control. Significant improvements have also been made in the generation of cloud parameters. In addition to the basic AIRS/AMSU mode, version-6 also operates in an AIRS only (AO) mode, which produces results almost as good as those of the full AIRS/AMSU mode. The improvements of some AIRS version-6 and version-6 AO products compared to those obtained using version-5 are also demonstrated.

  5. Improved Methodology for Surface and Atmospheric Soundings, Error Estimates, and Quality Control Procedures: the AIRS Science Team Version-6 Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Blaisdell, John; Iredell, Lena

    2014-01-01

    The AIRS Science Team Version-6 AIRS/AMSU retrieval algorithm is now operational at the Goddard DISC. AIRS Version-6 level-2 products are generated near real-time at the Goddard DISC and all level-2 and level-3 products are available starting from September 2002. This paper describes some of the significant improvements in retrieval methodology contained in the Version-6 retrieval algorithm compared to that previously used in Version-5. In particular, the AIRS Science Team made major improvements with regard to the algorithms used to 1) derive surface skin temperature and surface spectral emissivity; 2) generate the initial state used to start the cloud clearing and retrieval procedures; and 3) derive error estimates and use them for Quality Control. Significant improvements have also been made in the generation of cloud parameters. In addition to the basic AIRS/AMSU mode, Version-6 also operates in an AIRS Only (AO) mode which produces results almost as good as those of the full AIRS/AMSU mode. This paper also demonstrates the improvements of some AIRS Version-6 and Version-6 AO products compared to those obtained using Version-5.

  6. Functional finishes of stretch cotton fabrics.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N A; Amr, A; Eid, B M; Almetwally, A A; Mourad, M M

    2013-11-01

    Functionalized cotton cellulose/spandex woven fabrics with different structures namely plain (1/1), twill (2/2) and satin were produced. Factors affecting the imparted functional properties such as weave structure and constituents of the finishing formulations including ether or ester cross-linker and catalyst type, silicone-micro-emulsion, water/oil repellent, Ag-NP(,)s and TiO2-NP(,)s were studied. The treated fabrics were found to have easy care property together with one or more of the imparted functional properties such as soft-handle, water/oil repellence, antibacterial, UV-protection and self cleaning. The effectiveness of the imparted properties is not seriously affected even after 10 washing cycles. Surface modifications as well as the composition of certain samples were confirmed by SEM images and EDX spectra. Mode of interactions was also suggested. PMID:24053846

  7. Comparative evaluation of different thermally modified wood samples finishing with UV-curable and waterborne coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, René; Muszyńska, Monika; Krystofiak, Tomasz; Labidi, Jalel

    2015-12-01

    Thermally modified wood has been developed as an industrial method to improve durability and dimensional stability of wood and thus extends the range of uses and service life of wood-based products. Despite the improvements gained by treatment, surface finishing using coatings prevents esthetical changes such as color degradation or occasional growth of mold adding protection in outdoor use and extending the service life of products. The wood finishing process was carried out with commercially available waterborne and UV-curable coatings on industrially modified at 192, 200, 212 °C and unmodified European ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) wood, using an industrial rollers system and a laboratory brushing system. Changes caused by thermal treatment which could affect the surface finish were measured and compared with control samples, such as water uptake, wettability and acidity. Following the wood finishing, surface properties and esthetic changes were evaluated; as well as the coatings performance. Thermally modified wood presented improved adherence compared with unmodified wood with a significant improvement in samples modified at 212 °C, which also present the highest hardness when UV-cured. Finishes with UV-curing maintain the hydrophobic effect of thermally modified wood, whereas waterborne finishes increase the surface wettability. Thermal modification did not negatively influence on the elastic properties of the coated substrate and thus allows this material to be finished with different coating systems in the same conditions as unmodified wood.

  8. Laser-assisted pre-finishing of optical ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozzi, Jay C.; Clavier, Odile H.; Barton, Michael D.

    2007-04-01

    At Creare, we are developing a laser-assisted, pre-finishing system that enables the single-point diamond turning of super-hard ceramics into hemispheres, ogives, and other shapes that are ready for final optical finishing. Currently, super-hard ceramic materials cannot be affordably processed due to the low material removal rates and the high amount of sub-surface damage associated with current processes. Our innovation uses a low-power, far-infrared laser to heat, but not ablate, a thin layer of material prior to its removal. By heating the ceramic material, plastic-like deformation at the cutting edge is fostered by high-temperature dislocation motion. In doing so, the cutting forces are reduced which enables attendant reductions in tool wear, surface and sub-surface damage, and processing time. Our paper will summarize the development of our innovation, describe the process, discuss the machine tool, and review the latest results.

  9. Team Learning and Team Composition in Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmermans, Olaf; Van Linge, Roland; Van Petegem, Peter; Elseviers, Monique; Denekens, Joke

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore team learning activities in nursing teams and to test the effect of team composition on team learning to extend conceptually an initial model of team learning and to examine empirically a new model of ambidextrous team learning in nursing. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative research utilising exploratory…

  10. Team building

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, C.

    1993-04-01

    Power plants are particularly complicated projects with abundant opportunities for disputes. Efforts are beginning in the power industry to change the way the industry does business. Key elements of a comprehensive team-building approach include partnering, constructability, use of incentives, and the disputes review board.

  11. Team Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begg, Roddy

    2005-01-01

    A personal reminiscence of the events surrounding the establishment of Tertiary Education and Management (TEAM), the journal of the European Association for Institutional Research EAIR, the European Higher Education Society--and its development over its first decade, by the founding Editor, at the time of his retirement from the post.

  12. Roughness Analysis on Composite Materials (Microfilled, Nanofilled and Silorane) After Different Finishing and Polishing Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Pettini, Francesco; Corsalini, Massimo; Savino, Maria Grazia; Stefanachi, Gianluca; Venere, Daniela Di; Pappalettere, Carmine; Monno, Giuseppe; Boccaccio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The finishing and polishing of composite materials affect the restoration lifespan. The market shows a variety of finishing and polishing procedures and the choice among them is conditioned by different factors such as the resulting surface roughness. In the present study, 156 samples were realized with three composite materials, -microfilled, nanofilled and silorane-, and treated with different finishing and polishing procedures. Profilometric analyses were carried out on the samples’ surface, the measured roughness values were submitted to statistical analysis. A complete factorial plan was drawn up and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to investigate whether the following factors affect the values of roughness: (i) material; (ii) polishing/finishing procedure. Tukey post-hoc test was also conducted to evaluate any statistically significant differences between the material/procedure combinations. The results show that the tested materials do not affect the resulting surface quality but roughness values depend on the finishing/polishing procedure adopted. The procedures that involve: (a) the finishing with medium Sof-Lex discs and (b) the finishing with two tungsten carbide multi-blade milling cutters Q series and UF series are those that allow the lowest values of roughness to be obtained. PMID:26734113

  13. Roughness Analysis on Composite Materials (Microfilled, Nanofilled and Silorane) After Different Finishing and Polishing Procedures.

    PubMed

    Pettini, Francesco; Corsalini, Massimo; Savino, Maria Grazia; Stefanachi, Gianluca; Venere, Daniela Di; Pappalettere, Carmine; Monno, Giuseppe; Boccaccio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The finishing and polishing of composite materials affect the restoration lifespan. The market shows a variety of finishing and polishing procedures and the choice among them is conditioned by different factors such as the resulting surface roughness. In the present study, 156 samples were realized with three composite materials, -microfilled, nanofilled and silorane-, and treated with different finishing and polishing procedures. Profilometric analyses were carried out on the samples' surface, the measured roughness values were submitted to statistical analysis. A complete factorial plan was drawn up and two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to investigate whether the following factors affect the values of roughness: (i) material; (ii) polishing/finishing procedure. Tukey post-hoc test was also conducted to evaluate any statistically significant differences between the material/procedure combinations. The results show that the tested materials do not affect the resulting surface quality but roughness values depend on the finishing/polishing procedure adopted. The procedures that involve: (a) the finishing with medium Sof-Lex discs and (b) the finishing with two tungsten carbide multi-blade milling cutters Q series and UF series are those that allow the lowest values of roughness to be obtained. PMID:26734113

  14. Study on ultra-precision magnetic abrasive finishing process using low frequency alternating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinzhong; Zou, Yanhua; Sugiyama, Hitoshi

    2015-07-01

    We proposed a new ultra-precision magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) process using low frequency alternating magnetic field in this paper. Magnetic cluster themselves may produce the up and down movement change under alternating magnetic force. The movement may not only promote the dispersion of micro-magnetic particles, but also improve stirring effect and cross-cutting effects of the abrasives, achieving circulation and update to ensure the stability of grinding tools. This process is considered to be able to efficiently apply in ultra-precision finishing of plane and complicated micro-surfaces. In this study, we investigated the effects of alternating magnetic field on magnetic field distribution, finishing force and abrasive behavior. Furthermore, a set of experimental devices have been designed for finishing SUS304 stainless steel plate. The present work is aimed at understanding finishing particularity of this process and studying impacts of important process parameters namely grinding fluid, rotational speed of magnetic pole, current frequency on change in finish surface and material removal. Experimental results indicate that the process can realize ultra-precision finishing of plane by using oily grinding fluid. In the present research, the surface roughness of SUS304 stainless steel plate was improved from 240.24 nm to 4.38 nm by this process.

  15. New finishing possibilities for producing durable multifunctional cotton/wool and viscose/wool blended fabrics.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N A; El-Zairy, M R; Eid, B M; El-Zairy, E M R; Emam, E M

    2015-03-30

    This research work focuses on the development of a one-bath functional finishing procedure for imparting durable multifunctional properties such as easy care, soft-hand, antibacterial and/or ultra violet (UV) protection to cotton/wool and viscose/wool blends using diverse finishing combinations and formulations. In this study finishing agents such as reactant resin, silicon softeners, 4-hydroxybenzophenone, triclosan, and pigment colorant were selected using magnesium chloride/citric acid as a mixed catalyst and the pad-dry microwave fixation technique. The results reveal that enhancement in the imparted functional properties are governed by type of the finished substrate as well as nature and concentration of finishing formulation components. The finished fabrics still retained high level of functionalities even after 15 consecutive laundering. Surface morphology and composition of selected samples were investigated using scan electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The mode of interactions was also investigated. Practical applications for multifunctionlization of cellulose/wool blended fabrics are possible using these sorts of proper finishing formulations and unique finishing application method. PMID:25563959

  16. Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool (Mffrst)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metal Finishing Facility Risk Screening Tool (MFFRST) is a user-friendly pc-based computer tool which allows an individual to evaluate the potential exposures and health risks to workers and nearby residents from emissions from individual metal finishing facilities. Emission...

  17. METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFPPT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Tool (MFFPPT) is being developed to allow the metal finishing industry an easy method to evaluate potential pollution prevention options. In order to reduce the quantity of pollutants generated by a process, the sources of pollutants within ...

  18. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand...

  19. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand...

  20. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand...

  1. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand...

  2. 25 CFR 301.8 - Finish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finish. 301.8 Section 301.8 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.8 Finish. All silver is to be hand...

  3. JSC Metal Finishing Waste Minimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Erica

    2003-01-01

    THe paper discusses the following: Johnson Space Center (JSC) has achieved VPP Star status and is ISO 9001 compliant. The Structural Engineering Division in the Engineering Directorate is responsible for operating the metal finishing facility at JSC. The Engineering Directorate is responsible for $71.4 million of space flight hardware design, fabrication and testing. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility processes flight hardware to support the programs in particular schedule and mission critical flight hardware. The JSC Metal Finishing Facility is operated by Rothe Joint Venture. The Facility provides following processes: anodizing, alodining, passivation, and pickling. JSC Metal Finishing Facility completely rebuilt in 1998. Total cost of $366,000. All new tanks, electrical, plumbing, and ventilation installed. Designed to meet modern safety, environmental, and quality requirements. Designed to minimize contamination and provide the highest quality finishes.

  4. Shear Stress in Magnetorheological FInishing for Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, C.; Shafrir, S.N.; Lambropoulos, J.C.; Mici, J.; Jacobs, S.D.

    2009-04-28

    We report in situ, simultaneous measurements of both drag and normal forces in magnetorheological finishing (MRF) for what is believed to be the first time, using a spot taking machine (STM) as a test bed to take MRF spots on stationary parts. The measurements are carried out over the entire area where material is being removed, i.e., the projected area of the MRF removal function/spot on the part surface, using a dual force sensor. This approach experimentally addresses the mechanisms governing material removal in MRF for optical glasses in terms of the hydrodynamic pressure and shear stress, applied by the hydrodynamic flow of magnetorheological fluid at the gap between the part surface and the STM wheel. This work demonstrates that the volumetric removal rate shows a positive linear dependence on shear stress. Shear stress exhibits a positive linear dependence on a material figure of merit that depends upon Young’s modulus, fracture toughness, and hardness. A modified Preston’s equation is proposed that better estimates MRF material removal rate for optical glasses by incorporating mechanical properties, shear stress, and velocity.

  5. Shear stress in magnetorheological finishing for glasses.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chunlin; Shafrir, Shai N; Lambropoulos, John C; Mici, Joni; Jacobs, Stephen D

    2009-05-01

    We report in situ, simultaneous measurements of both drag and normal forces in magnetorheological finishing (MRF) for what is believed to be the first time, using a spot taking machine (STM) as a test bed to take MRF spots on stationary parts. The measurements are carried out over the entire area where material is being removed, i.e., the projected area of the MRF removal function/spot on the part surface, using a dual force sensor. This approach experimentally addresses the mechanisms governing material removal in MRF for optical glasses in terms of the hydrodynamic pressure and shear stress, applied by the hydrodynamic flow of magnetorheological fluid at the gap between the part surface and the STM wheel. This work demonstrates that the volumetric removal rate shows a positive linear dependence on shear stress. Shear stress exhibits a positive linear dependence on a material figure of merit that depends upon Young's modulus, fracture toughness, and hardness. A modified Preston's equation is proposed that better estimates MRF material removal rate for optical glasses by incorporating mechanical properties, shear stress, and velocity. PMID:19412219

  6. SU-C-BRD-02: A Team Focused Clinical Implementation and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis of HDR Skin Brachytherapy Using Valencia and Leipzig Surface Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Sayler, E; Harrison, A; Eldredge-Hindy, H; Dinome, J; Munro, S; Anne, R; Comber, E; Lockamy, V

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: and Leipzig applicators (VLAs) are single-channel brachytherapy surface applicators used to treat skin lesions up to 2cm diameter. Source dwell times can be calculated and entered manually after clinical set-up or ultrasound. This procedure differs dramatically from CT-based planning; the novelty and unfamiliarity could lead to severe errors. To build layers of safety and ensure quality, a multidisciplinary team created a protocol and applied Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) to the clinical procedure for HDR VLA skin treatments. Methods: team including physicists, physicians, nurses, therapists, residents, and administration developed a clinical procedure for VLA treatment. The procedure was evaluated using FMEA. Failure modes were identified and scored by severity, occurrence, and detection. The clinical procedure was revised to address high-scoring process nodes. Results: Several key components were added to the clinical procedure to minimize risk probability numbers (RPN): -Treatments are reviewed at weekly QA rounds, where physicians discuss diagnosis, prescription, applicator selection, and set-up. Peer review reduces the likelihood of an inappropriate treatment regime. -A template for HDR skin treatments was established in the clinical EMR system to standardize treatment instructions. This reduces the chances of miscommunication between the physician and planning physicist, and increases the detectability of an error during the physics second check. -A screen check was implemented during the second check to increase detectability of an error. -To reduce error probability, the treatment plan worksheet was designed to display plan parameters in a format visually similar to the treatment console display. This facilitates data entry and verification. -VLAs are color-coded and labeled to match the EMR prescriptions, which simplifies in-room selection and verification. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary planning and FMEA increased delectability and

  7. Team-Building Strategies for Multimedia Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugg, Joan Canby

    1996-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of strong teams, lists problems that can destroy them, and presents basic steps in creating strong ones. Describes roles for an effective multimedia team, raises specific multimedia issues, and makes recommendations for team organization. (PEN)

  8. Asteroid team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matson, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to support asteroid research and the operation of an Asteroid Team within the Earth and Space Sciences Division at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Asteroid Team carries out original research on asteroids in order to discover, better characterize and define asteroid properties. This information is needed for the planning and design of NASA asteroid flyby and rendezvous missions. The asteroid Team also provides scientific and technical advice to NASA and JPL on asteroid related programs. Work on asteroid classification continued and the discovery of two Earth-approaching M asteroids was published. In the asteroid photometry program researchers obtained N or Q photometry for more than 50 asteroids, including the two M-earth-crossers. Compositional analysis of infrared spectra (0.8 to 2.6 micrometer) of asteroids is continuing. Over the next year the work on asteroid classification and composition will continue with the analysis of the 60 reduced infrared spectra which we now have at hand. The radiometry program will continue with the reduction of the N and Q bandpass data for the 57 asteroids in order to obtain albedos and diameters. This year the emphasis will shift to IRAS follow-up observations; which includes objects not observed by IRAS and objects with poor or peculiar IRAS data. As in previous year, we plan to give top priority to any opportunities for observing near-Earth asteroids and the support (through radiometric lightcurve observations from the IRTF) of any stellar occultations by asteroids for which occultation observation expeditions are fielded. Support of preparing of IRAS data for publication and of D. Matson for his participation in the NASA Planetary Astronomy Management and Operations Working Group will continue.

  9. Critical Care Team

    MedlinePlus

    ... Please enable scripts and reload this page. About Critical Care Currently selected Team Questions During the ICU Chronic ... Team Currently selected Questions Patients and Families > About Critical Care > Team Tweet Team Page Content ​The critical care ...

  10. Automatic tool path generation for finish machining

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Kwan S.; Loucks, C.S.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-03-01

    A system for automatic tool path generation was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for finish machining operations. The system consists of a commercially available 5-axis milling machine controlled by Sandia developed software. This system was used to remove overspray on cast turbine blades. A laser-based, structured-light sensor, mounted on a tool holder, is used to collect 3D data points around the surface of the turbine blade. Using the digitized model of the blade, a tool path is generated which will drive a 0.375 inch diameter CBN grinding pin around the tip of the blade. A fuzzified digital filter was developed to properly eliminate false sensor readings caused by burrs, holes and overspray. The digital filter was found to successfully generate the correct tool path for a blade with intentionally scanned holes and defects. The fuzzified filter improved the computation efficiency by a factor of 25. For application to general parts, an adaptive scanning algorithm was developed and presented with simulation results. A right pyramid and an ellipsoid were scanned successfully with the adaptive algorithm.