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Sample records for surface force measurements

  1. Casimir force measurements from silicon carbide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, M.; Svetovoy, V. B.; Palasantzas, G.

    2016-02-01

    Using an atomic force microscope we performed measurements of the Casimir force between a gold- coated (Au) microsphere and doped silicon carbide (SiC) samples. The last of these is a promising material for devices operating under severe environments. The roughness of the interacting surfaces was measured to obtain information for the minimum separation distance upon contact. Ellipsometry data for both systems were used to extract optical properties needed for the calculation of the Casimir force via the Lifshitz theory and for comparison to the experiment. Special attention is devoted to the separation of the electrostatic contribution to the measured total force. Our measurements demonstrate large contact potential V0(≈0.67 V ) , and a relatively small density of charges trapped in SiC. Knowledge of both Casimir and electrostatic forces between interacting materials is not only important from the fundamental point of view, but also for device applications involving actuating components at separations of less than 200 nm where surface forces play dominant role.

  2. Surface force measurement of ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Jun; Hasegawa, Masayuki; Amemiya, Hironao; Kobayashi, Hayato

    2016-02-01

    Ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) has advantages such as room-temperature operation, high through-put, and high resolution. In the UV-NIL process, the mold needs a release coating material to prevent adhesion of the transfer resin. Usually, fluorinated silane coupling agents are used as release coating materials. To evaluate the release property, surface force analyzer equipment was used. This equipment can measure the surface forces between release-coated or noncoated mold material surfaces and UV-cured resin surfaces in the solid state. Lower surface forces were measured when a release coating was used on the mold material surface.

  3. Measurement of the Casimir force between parallel metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Bressi, G; Carugno, G; Onofrio, R; Ruoso, G

    2002-01-28

    We report on the measurement of the Casimir force between conducting surfaces in a parallel configuration. The force is exerted between a silicon cantilever coated with chromium and a similar rigid surface and is detected by looking at the shifts induced in the cantilever frequency when the latter is approached. The scaling of the force with the distance between the surfaces was tested in the 0.5-3.0 microm range, and the related force coefficient was determined at the 15% precision level. PMID:11801108

  4. Casimir force and in situ surface potential measurements on nanomembranes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Sanchez, Daniel; Fong, King Yan; Bhaskaran, Harish; Lamoreaux, Steve; Tang, Hong X

    2012-07-13

    We present Casimir force measurements in a sphere-plate configuration that consists of a high quality nanomembrane resonator and a millimeter sized gold coated sphere. The nanomembrane is fabricated from stoichiometric silicon nitride metallized with gold. A Kelvin probe method is used in situ to image the surface potentials to minimize the distance-dependent residual force. Resonance-enhanced frequency-domain measurements of the nanomembrane motion allow for very high resolution measurements of the Casimir force gradient (down to a force gradient sensitivity of 3  μN/m). Using this technique, the Casimir force in the range of 100 nm to 2  μm is accurately measured. Experimental data thus obtained indicate that the device system in the measured range is best described with the Drude model. PMID:23030202

  5. Capillary-force measurement on SiC surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, M.; Svetovoy, V. B.; Palasantzas, G.

    2016-06-01

    Capillary forces have been measured by atomic force microscopy in the sphere-plate geometry, in a controlled humidity environment, between smooth silicon carbide and borosilicate glass spheres. The force measurements were performed as a function of the rms surface roughness ˜4-14 nm mainly due to sphere morphology, the relative humidity (RH) ˜0%-40%, the applied load on the cantilever, and the contact time. The pull-off force was found to decrease by nearly two orders of magnitude with increasing rms roughness from 8 to 14 nm due to formation of a few capillary menisci for the roughest surfaces, while it remained unchanged for rms roughness <8 nm implying fully wetted surface features leading to a single meniscus. The latter reached a steady state in less than 5 s for the smoothest surfaces, as force measurements versus contact time indicated for increased RH˜40%. Finally, the pull-off force increases and reaches a maximum with applied load, which is associated with plastic deformation of surface asperities, and decreases at higher loads.

  6. Capillary-force measurement on SiC surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, M; Svetovoy, V B; Palasantzas, G

    2016-06-01

    Capillary forces have been measured by atomic force microscopy in the sphere-plate geometry, in a controlled humidity environment, between smooth silicon carbide and borosilicate glass spheres. The force measurements were performed as a function of the rms surface roughness ∼4-14 nm mainly due to sphere morphology, the relative humidity (RH) ∼0%-40%, the applied load on the cantilever, and the contact time. The pull-off force was found to decrease by nearly two orders of magnitude with increasing rms roughness from 8 to 14 nm due to formation of a few capillary menisci for the roughest surfaces, while it remained unchanged for rms roughness <8 nm implying fully wetted surface features leading to a single meniscus. The latter reached a steady state in less than 5 s for the smoothest surfaces, as force measurements versus contact time indicated for increased RH∼40%. Finally, the pull-off force increases and reaches a maximum with applied load, which is associated with plastic deformation of surface asperities, and decreases at higher loads. PMID:27415337

  7. Theoretical Models for Surface Forces and Adhesion and Their Measurement Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fabio L.; Bueno, Carolina C.; Da Róz, Alessandra L.; Ziemath, Ervino C.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing importance of studies on soft matter and their impact on new technologies, including those associated with nanotechnology, has brought intermolecular and surface forces to the forefront of physics and materials science, for these are the prevailing forces in micro and nanosystems. With experimental methods such as the atomic force spectroscopy (AFS), it is now possible to measure these forces accurately, in addition to providing information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness and adhesion. This review provides the theoretical and experimental background of AFS, adhesion forces, intermolecular interactions and surface forces in air, vacuum and in solution. PMID:23202925

  8. A Simple Instrument for Measuring Surface Forces in Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannon, James; Tromp, Rudolf; Haight, Richard; Ellis, Arthur

    2015-03-01

    We have constructed a simple instrument to measure the interaction force between two surfaces in solution, or in vacuum. Specifically, we measure the interaction between a lens and a thin silicon cantilever. Either the lens, or the cantilever (or both) can be coated with the species of interest. When the lens is brought close to the cantilever surface, the force of interaction causes the cantilever to bend. By measuring the deflection as a function of the distance between the lens and cantilever, the long-range interactions between the two surfaces can be determined. Our approach includes three important innovations. First, a commercial lens with a radius of ~ 1 cm is used for one surface. The relatively large radius of curvature enhances force sensitivity of the method. Second, we use optical interference (Newton's Rings) to determine the distance between lens and cantilever with ~ 1 nm accuracy. Third, we make use of thin crystalline cantilevers (100 μm thick) whose elastic properties can be easily measured. We have achieved a force sensitivity F / R better than 0.001 mN/m. I will discuss the theory of operation of the new instrument and describe measurements made on SiO2 and metal oxide surfaces in water.

  9. Surface force measurements at kaolinite edge surfaces using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Sandaklie-Nikolova, Linda; Wang, Xuming; Miller, Jan D

    2014-04-15

    Fundamental results obtained from research on the properties of the edge surfaces of kaolinite particles (~500 nm) are reported. Of particular significance was the development of the experimental protocol. Well-ordered kaolinite edge surfaces were prepared as an epoxy resin sandwich structure having layered kaolinite particles in the center of the epoxy resin sandwich. Images of the sectioned kaolinite edge surfaces were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the average thickness of kaolinite particles in this study was determined to be 38.3 nm±11.7 nm. Furthermore, the surface charge of the kaolinite edge surfaces was evaluated with a super sharp Si tip. The point of zero charge (PZC) of the kaolinite edge surface was determined to be below pH 4, in contrast to the traditional view that the edge surfaces of kaolinite particles may carry a positive charge at pH 4. This lower PZC of the kaolinite edge surface was attributed to the lack of isomorphous substitution in the silica tetrahedral layer when compared to the PZC for the muscovite edge surface. Our results are consistent with the particle aggregation and flotation behavior of kaolinite, and should provide the basis for improved flotation strategies leading to the efficient recovery and utilization of mineral and energy resources. PMID:24559697

  10. Long range constant force profiling for measurement of engineering surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, L. P.; Smith, S. T.

    1992-10-01

    A new instrument bridging the gap between atomic force microscopes (AFMs) and stylus profiling instruments is described. The constant force profiler is capable of subnanometer resolution over a 15-μm vertical range with a horizontal traverse length of 50 mm. This long traverse length, coupled with the possibilities of utilizing standard radius, diamond measurement styli, make the force profiler more compatible with existing profiling instrument standards. The forces between the specimen and a diamond stylus tipped cantilever spring are sensed as displacements using a capacitance bridge. This displacement signal is then fed through a proportional plus integral controller to a high stability piezoelectric actuator to maintain a constant tip-to-sample force of approximately 100 nN. Much of the sensor head and traverse mechanism is made of Zerodur glass-ceramic to provide the thermal stability needed for long travel measurements. Profiles of a 30-nm silica step height standard and an 8.5-μm step etched on Zerodur are presented.

  11. Kelvin probe force microscopy of metallic surfaces used in Casimir force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behunin, R. O.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Decca, R. S.; Genet, C.; Jung, I. W.; Lambrecht, A.; Liscio, A.; López, D.; Reynaud, S.; Schnoering, G.; Voisin, G.; Zeng, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy at normal pressure was performed by two different groups on the same Au-coated planar sample used to measure the Casimir interaction in a sphere-plane geometry. The obtained voltage distribution was used to calculate the separation dependence of the electrostatic pressure Pres(D ) in the configuration of the Casimir experiments. In the calculation it was assumed that the potential distribution in the sphere has the same statistical properties as the measured one, and that there are no correlation effects on the potential distributions due to the presence of the other surface. The result of this calculation, using the currently available knowledge, is that Pres(D ) does not explain the magnitude or the separation dependence of the difference Δ P (D ) between the measured Casimir pressure and the one calculated using a Drude model for the electromagnetic response of Au. We discuss in the conclusions the points which have to be checked out by future work, including the influence of pressure and a more accurate determination of the patch distribution, in order to confirm these results.

  12. Surface force measurements and simulations of mussel-derived peptide adhesives on wet organic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Levine, Zachary A; Rapp, Michael V; Wei, Wei; Mullen, Ryan Gotchy; Wu, Chun; Zerze, Gül H; Mittal, Jeetain; Waite, J Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Shea, Joan-Emma

    2016-04-19

    Translating sticky biological molecules-such as mussel foot proteins (MFPs)-into synthetic, cost-effective underwater adhesives with adjustable nano- and macroscale characteristics requires an intimate understanding of the glue's molecular interactions. To help facilitate the next generation of aqueous adhesives, we performed a combination of surface forces apparatus (SFA) measurements and replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations on a synthetic, easy to prepare, Dopa-containing peptide (MFP-3s peptide), which adheres to organic surfaces just as effectively as its wild-type protein analog. Experiments and simulations both show significant differences in peptide adsorption on CH3-terminated (hydrophobic) and OH-terminated (hydrophilic) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), where adsorption is strongest on hydrophobic SAMs because of orientationally specific interactions with Dopa. Additional umbrella-sampling simulations yield free-energy profiles that quantitatively agree with SFA measurements and are used to extract the adhesive properties of individual amino acids within the context of MFP-3s peptide adhesion, revealing a delicate balance between van der Waals, hydrophobic, and electrostatic forces. PMID:27036002

  13. A relationship between three-dimensional surface hydration structures and force distribution measured by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Naritaka; Watkins, Matthew; Shluger, Alexander L.; Amano, Ken-Ichi; Fukuma, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    Hydration plays important roles in various solid-liquid interfacial phenomena. Very recently, three-dimensional scanning force microscopy (3D-SFM) has been proposed as a tool to visualise solvated surfaces and their hydration structures with lateral and vertical (sub) molecular resolution. However, the relationship between the 3D force map obtained and the equilibrium water density, ρ(r), distribution above the surface remains an open question. Here, we investigate this relationship at an interface of an inorganic mineral, fluorite, and water. The force maps measured in pure water are directly compared to force maps generated using the solvent tip approximation (STA) model and from explicit molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the simulated STA force map describes the major features of the experimentally obtained force image. The agreement between the STA data and the experiment establishes the correspondence between the water density used as an input to the STA model and the experimental hydration structure and thus provides a tool to bridge the experimental force data and atomistic solvation structures. Further applications of this method should improve the accuracy and reliability of both interpretation of 3D-SFM force maps and atomistic simulations in a wide range of solid-liquid interfacial phenomena.Hydration plays important roles in various solid-liquid interfacial phenomena. Very recently, three-dimensional scanning force microscopy (3D-SFM) has been proposed as a tool to visualise solvated surfaces and their hydration structures with lateral and vertical (sub) molecular resolution. However, the relationship between the 3D force map obtained and the equilibrium water density, ρ(r), distribution above the surface remains an open question. Here, we investigate this relationship at an interface of an inorganic mineral, fluorite, and water. The force maps measured in pure water are directly compared to force maps generated using the solvent

  14. Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and Forcing Efficiencies at Surface from the shortwave Irradiance Measurements in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegum S, N.; Ben Romdhane, H.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are known to affect the radiation balance of the Earth-Atmospheric system directly by scattering and absorbing the solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly by affecting the lifetime and albedo of the clouds. Continuous and simultaneous measurements of short wave global irradiance in combination with synchronous spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements (from 340 nm to 1640 nm in 8 channels), for a period of 1 year from June 2012 to May 2013, were used for the determination of the surface direct aerosol radiative forcing and forcing efficiencies under cloud free conditions in Abu Dhabi (24.42°N, 54.61o E, 7m MSL), a coastal location in United Arab Emirates (UAE) in the Arabian Peninsula. The Rotating Shadow band Pyranometer (RSP, LI-COR) was used for the irradiance measurements (in the spectral region 400-1100 nm), whereas the AOD measurements were carried out using CIMEL Sunphotometer (CE 318-2, under AERONET program). The differential method, which is neither sensitive to calibration uncertainties nor model assumptions, has been employed for estimating forcing efficiencies from the changes in the measured fluxes. The forcing efficiency, which quantifies the net change in irradiance per unit change in AOD, is an appropriate parameter for the characterization of the aerosol radiative effects even if the microphysical and optical properties of the aerosols are not completely understood. The corresponding forcing values were estimated from the forcing efficiencies. The estimated radiative forcing and forcing efficiencies exhibited strong monthly variations. The forcing efficiencies (absolute magnitudes) were highest during March, and showed continuous decrease thereafter to reach the lowest value during September. In contrast, the forcing followed a slightly different pattern of variability, with the highest solar dimming during April ( -60 W m-2) and the minimum during February ( -20 W m-2). The results indicate that the aerosol

  15. Temperature-dependent intermolecular force measurement of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafted surface with protein.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Chul; Kim, Yong Deuk; Cho, Kilwon

    2005-06-15

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the intermolecular force between poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM) grafted surface and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using atomic force microscopy at the nanonewton scale. These observations show that the interaction force is nearly zero below the phase transition temperature of PNiPAM and that it increases steeply during the phase transition. Since the PNiPAM chains are grafted onto the aminosilane (gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane)-treated silicon wafer, we measured the force-distance curve of BSA-immobilized tips for the bare and the aminosilane-treated silicon wafer. These surfaces show no temperature dependence and their values are different from those of the PNiPAM-grafted surfaces at 30 degrees C. The results indicate that the measured adhesion force is between the PNiPAM-grafted surface and the BSA-immobilized tip. Our studies on the intermolecular force between other surfaces (CH(3)- and COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayers) and the BSA-immobilized tip indicate that the variation in the intermolecular force between the PNiPAM surface and BSA with temperature can be attributed to the changes in the properties of the PNiPAM chains. From consideration of the PNiPAM phase transition mechanism, it is speculated that the intermolecular force between the PNiPAM-grafted surface and BSA would be affected by changes in the arrangement of the bound water molecules around the PNiPAM chain and by changes in the conformation (i.e., in the chain mobility) of the PNiPAM chain during the phase transition. PMID:15897061

  16. Dynamic adhesive force measurements under vertical and horizontal motions of interacting rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Chang-Dong; Lee, Sung-Chang; Polycarpou, Andreas A

    2008-01-01

    An instrument to measure dynamic adhesive forces between interacting rough surfaces has been developed. It consists of four parts, namely, main instrument body, vertical positioning system with both micrometer and nanometer positioning accuracies, horizontal positioning system with nanometer positioning accuracy, and custom-built high-resolution, and high dynamic bandwidth capacitive force transducer. The vertical piezoelectric actuator (PZT) controls the vertical (approaching and retracting) motion of the upper specimen, while the horizontal PZT controls the horizontal (reciprocal) motion of the lower specimen. The force transducer is placed in line with the upper specimen and vertical PZT, and directly measures the adhesive forces with a root-mean-square load resolution of 1.7 microN and a dynamic bandwidth of 1.7 kHz. The newly developed instrument enables reliable measurements of near-contact and contact adhesive forces for microscale devices under different dynamic conditions. Using the developed instrument, dynamic pull-in and pull-off force measurements were performed between an aluminum-titanium-carbide sphere and a 10 nm thick carbon film disk sample. Three different levels of contact force were investigated; where for each contact force level the vertical velocity of the upper sample was varied from 0.074 to 5.922 microms, while the lower sample was stationary. It was found that slower approaching and retracting velocities result in higher pull-in and pull-off forces. The noncontact attractive force was also measured during horizontal movement of the lower sample, and it was found that the periodic movements of the lower disk sample also affect the noncontact surface interactions. PMID:18248070

  17. A study of compatibility between cells and biopolymeric surfaces through quantitative measurements of adhesive forces.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jick; Shin, Jung-Woog; Park, Ki Dong; Lee, Jin Woo; Yui, Nobuhiko; Park, Su-A; Jee, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Jeong Koo

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism of cell adhesion to biomaterials or components of the extracellular matrix is an important topic in the field of tissue engineering and related biotechnological processes. Many factors affect cell adhesion, and many biochemical and biological studies have attempted to identify their roles in the adhesion mechanism. Systematic studies of this nature require quantification of the adhesive force of a cell to identify the effect of a specific factor. However, most studies of cell adhesive force have used qualitative approaches. We propose a new technique for quantifying the force by which cells adhere to various biomaterial surfaces, which utilizes the relationship between the deflection of a cantilever beam and the required force. A micropipette was used as the cantilever beam. This technique was used to measure the attachment forces of chondrocytes seeded on three different biodegradable polymers commonly used in tissue engineering and medicine: poly epsilon-carprolactone (PCL), poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PGLA, L/G = 75:25). The bond between the cells and the three polymers was evaluated using the quantified adhesive forces. The adhesive forces were also measured 8, 12, 24 h and 5 days after seeding the chondrocytes on the polymer surfaces. Results of statistical analysis showed that the cells attached to the PLLA had the strongest average attachment force for up to 24 h after seeding (P < 0.05). PMID:14870936

  18. Interactions of biopolymers with silica surfaces: Force measurements and electronic structure calculation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Kideok D.; Vadillo-Rodriguez, Virginia; Logan, Bruce E.; Kubicki, James D.

    2006-08-01

    Pull-off forces were measured between a silica colloid attached to an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever and three homopolymer surfaces representing constituents of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The pull-off forces were -0.84 (±0.16), -0.68 (±0.15), and -2.37 (±0.31) nN as measured in water for dextran, phosphorylated dextran, and poly- L-lysine, respectively. Molecular orbital and density functional theory methods (DFT) were applied to analyze the measured pull-off forces using dimer clusters representing interactions between the three polymers and silica surfaces. Binding energies for each dimer were calculated with basis set superposition error (BSSE) and interpolated using corrections for silica surface hydroxyl density and silica charge density. The binding energies were compared with the normalized pull-off forces with the effective silica surface area contacting the polymer surfaces. The predicted binding energies at a -0.064 C/m 2 silica surface charge density corresponding to circum-neutral pH were -0.055, -0.029, and -0.338 × 10 -18 J/nm 2 for the dimers corresponding to the silica surface with dextran, phosphorylated dextran, and poly- L-lysine, respectively. Polarizable continuum model (PCM) calculations with different solvents, silanol vibrational frequency calculations, and orbital interaction analysis based on natural bonding orbital (NBO) showed that phosphate groups formed stronger H-bonds with neutral silanols than hydroxyl and amino functional groups of polymers, implying that phosphate containing polymers would play important roles in EPS binding to silica surfaces.

  19. Surface summertime radiative forcing by shallow cumuli at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Larry K.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Long, Charles N.; Mills Jr., David L.

    2011-01-08

    Although shallow cumuli are common over large areas of the globe, their impact on the surface radiative forcing has not been carefully evaluated. This study addresses this shortcoming by analyzing data from days with shallow cumuli collected over eight summers (2000-2007) at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (collectively ACRF) Southern Great Plains site. During periods with clouds, the average shortwave and longwave radiative forcings are 45.5 W m-2 and +11.6 W m-2, respectively. The forcing has been defined so that a negative (positive) forcing indicates a surface cooling (warming). On average, the shortwave forcing is negative, however, instances with positive shortwave forcing are observed approximately 20% of the time. These positive values of shortwave forcing are associated with three-dimensional radiative effects of the clouds. The three-dimensional effects are shown to be largest for intermediate cloud amounts. The magnitude of the three-dimensional effects decreased with averaging time, but it is not negligibly small even for large averaging times as long as four hours.

  20. Interaction force measurement between E. coli cells and nanoparticles immobilized surfaces by using AFM.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Stack, Andrew G; Chen, Yongsheng

    2011-02-01

    To better understand environmental behaviors of nanoparticles (NPs), we used the atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure interaction forces between E. coli cells and NPs immobilized on surfaces in an aqueous environment. The results showed that adhesion force strength was significantly influenced by particle size for both hematite (α-Fe(2)O(3)) and corundum (α-Al(2)O(3)) NPs whereas the effect on the repulsive force was not observed. The adhesion force decreased from 6.3±0.7nN to 0.8±0.4nN as hematite NPs increased from 26nm to 98nm in diameter. Corundum NPs exhibited a similar dependence of adhesion force on particle size. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model was employed to estimate the contact area between E. coli cells and NPs, and based on the JKR model a new model that considers local effective contact area was developed. The prediction of the new model matched the size dependence of adhesion force in experimental results. Size effects on adhesion forces may originate from the difference in local effective contact areas as supported by our model. These findings provide fundamental information for interpreting the environmental behaviors and biological interactions of NPs, which barely have been addressed. PMID:20932723

  1. Interaction force measurement between E. coli cells and nanoparticles immobilized surfaces by using AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wen; Chen, Yongsheng

    2011-01-01

    To better understand environmental behaviors of nanoparticles (NPs), we used the atomic force microscopy (AFM) to measure interaction forces between E. coli cells and NPs immobilized on surfaces in an aqueous environment. The results showed that adhesion force strength was significantly influenced by particle size for both hematite ( -Fe2 O3 ) and corundum ( -Al2 O3 ) NPs whereas the effect on the repulsive force was not observed. The adhesion force decreased from 6.3 0.7 nN to 0.8 0.4 nN as hematite NPs increased from 26 nm to 98 nm in diameter. Corundum NPs exhibited a similar dependence of adhesion force on particle size. The Johnson Kendall Roberts (JKR) model was employed to estimate the contact area between E. coli cells and NPs, and based on the JKR model a new model that considers local effective contact area was developed. The prediction of the new model matched the size dependence of adhesion force in experimental results. Size effects on adhesion forces may originate from the difference in local effective contact areas as supported by our model. These findings provide fundamental information for interpreting the environmental behaviors and biological interactions of NPs, which barely have been addressed.

  2. Constraints on axion-nucleon coupling constants from measuring the Casimir force between corrugated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, V. B.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.; Romero, C.

    2014-09-01

    We obtain stronger laboratory constraints on the coupling constants of axion-like particles to nucleons from measurements of the normal and lateral Casimir forces between sinusoidally corrugated surfaces of a sphere and a plate. For this purpose, the normal and lateral additional forces arising in the experimental configurations due to the two-axion exchange between protons and neutrons are calculated. Our constraints following from measurements of the normal and lateral Casimir forces are stronger than the laboratory constraints reported so far for masses of axion-like particles larger than 11 and 8 eV, respectively. A comparison between various laboratory constraints on the coupling constants of axion-like particles to nucleons obtained from the magnetometer measurements, Eötvos- and Cavendish-type experiments, and from the Casimir effect is performed over the wide range of masses of axion-like particles from 10-10 to 20 eV.

  3. Direct surface force measurements of polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing nanocrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Emily D; Gray, Derek G; Rutland, Mark W

    2010-11-16

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) make up a new class of nanostructured composite with applications ranging from coatings to biomedical devices. Moreover, these materials are amenable to surface force studies using colloid-probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). For electrostatically assembled films with either NCC or PAH as the outermost layer, surface morphology was investigated by AFM and wettability was examined by contact angle measurements. By varying the surrounding ionic strength and pH, the relative contributions from electrostatic, van der Waals, steric, and polymer bridging interactions were evaluated. The ionic cross-linking in these films rendered them stable under all solution conditions studied although swelling at low pH and high ionic strength was inferred. The underlying polymer layer in the multilayered film was found to dictate the dominant surface forces when polymer migration and chain extension were facilitated. The precontact normal forces between a silica probe and an NCC-capped multilayer film were monotonically repulsive at pH values where the material surfaces were similarly and fully charged. In contrast, at pH 3.5, the anionic surfaces were weakly charged but the underlying layer of cationic PAH was fully charged and attractive forces dominated due to polymer bridging from extended PAH chains. The interaction with an anionic carboxylic acid probe showed similar behavior to the silica probe; however, for a cationic amine probe with an anionic NCC-capped film, electrostatic double-layer attraction at low pH, and electrostatic double-layer repulsion at high pH, were observed. Finally, the effect of the capping layer was studied with an anionic probe, which indicated that NCC-capped films exhibited purely repulsive forces which were larger in magnitude than the combination of electrostatic double-layer attraction and steric repulsion, measured for PAH

  4. Probing three-dimensional surface force fields with atomic resolution: Measurement strategies, limitations, and artifact reduction

    PubMed Central

    Dagdeviren, Omur E; Schwendemann, Todd C; Mönig, Harry; Altman, Eric I

    2012-01-01

    Summary Noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) is being increasingly used to measure the interaction force between an atomically sharp probe tip and surfaces of interest, as a function of the three spatial dimensions, with picometer and piconewton accuracy. Since the results of such measurements may be affected by piezo nonlinearities, thermal and electronic drift, tip asymmetries, and elastic deformation of the tip apex, these effects need to be considered during image interpretation. In this paper, we analyze their impact on the acquired data, compare different methods to record atomic-resolution surface force fields, and determine the approaches that suffer the least from the associated artifacts. The related discussion underscores the idea that since force fields recorded by using NC-AFM always reflect the properties of both the sample and the probe tip, efforts to reduce unwanted effects of the tip on recorded data are indispensable for the extraction of detailed information about the atomic-scale properties of the surface. PMID:23019560

  5. Reconstruction of Energy Surfaces from Friction Force Microscopy Measurements with the Jarzynski Equality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Ronen; Klafter, Joseph; Urbakh, Michael

    Free energy is one of the most fundamental thermodynamic functions, determining relative phase stability and serving as a generating function for other thermodynamic quantities. The calculation of free energies is a challenging enterprise. In equilibrium statistical mechanics, the free energy is related to the canonical partition function. The partition function itself involves integrations over all degrees of freedom in the system and, in most cases, cannot be easily calculated directly. In 1997, Jarzynski proved a remarkable equality that allows computing the equilibrium free-energy difference between two states from the probability distribution of the nonequilibrium work done on the system to switch between the two states. The Jarzynski equality provides a powerful free-energy difference estimator from a set of irreversible experiments. This method is closely related to free-energy perturbation approach, which is also a computational technique for estimating free-energy differences. The ability to map potential profiles and topologies is of major significance to areas as diverse as biological recognition and nanoscale friction. This capability has been demonstrated for frictional studies where a force between the tip of the scanning force microscope and the surface is probed. The surface free-energy corrugation produces a detectable friction forces. Thus, friction force microscopy (FFM) should be able to discriminate between energetically different areas on the probed surface. Here, we apply the Jarzynski equality for the analysis of FFM measurements and thus obtain a variation of the free energy along a surface.

  6. Near-field Light Scattering Techniques for Measuring Nanoparticle-Surface Interaction Energies and Forces

    PubMed Central

    O'Dell, Dakota; Adam, Ian S.; DiPaolo, Brian; Sabharwal, Manit; Shi, Ce; Hart, Robert; Earhart, Christopher; Erickson, David

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are quickly becoming commonplace in many commercial and industrial products, ranging from cosmetics to pharmaceuticals to medical diagnostics. Predicting the stability of the engineered nanoparticles within these products a priori remains an important and difficult challenge. Here we describe our techniques for measuring the mechanical interactions between nanoparticles and surfaces using near-field light scattering. Particle-surface interfacial forces are measured by optically “pushing” a particle against a reference surface and observing its motion using scattered near-field light. Unlike atomic force microscopy, this technique is not limited by thermal noise, but instead takes advantage of it. The integrated waveguide and microfluidic architecture allow for high-throughput measurements of about 1000 particles per hour. We characterize the reproducibility of and experimental uncertainty in the measurements made using the NanoTweezer surface instrument. We report surface interaction studies on gold nanoparticles with 50 nm diameters, smaller than previously reported in the literature using similar techniques. PMID:26855473

  7. Lubrication and wear properties of grafted polyelectrolytes, hyaluronan and hylan, measured in the surface forces apparatus.

    PubMed

    Benz, Marcel; Chen, Nianhuan; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2004-10-01

    Hyaluronan is believed to have an important function in the boundary biolubrication of articular cartilage. Using a Surface Forces Apparatus, we tested the tribological properties of surface bound, rather than "free" hyaluronan. The grafting process of the polyelectrolyte included either a biological route via an HA-binding protein or a chemical reaction to covalently bind the polymer to a lipid bilayer coated surface. In another reaction, we constructed a surface with covalently grafted hylan (crosslinked hyaluronan). We studied the normal and shear forces between these surfaces. None of the systems demonstrated comparable lubrication to that found between cartilage surfaces except at very low loads. Both grafted hyaluronan and hylan generated coefficients of friction between 0.15 and 0.3. Thus, the polysaccharide, which is a constituent of the lamina splendens (outermost cartilage layer), is not expected to be the responsible molecule for the great lubricity of cartilage; however, it may contribute to the load bearing and wear protection of these surfaces. This was concluded from the results with hylan, where a thin gel layer was sufficient to shield the underlying surfaces from damage even at applied pressures of over 200 atmospheres during shear. Our study shows that a low coefficient of friction is not a requirement for, or necessarily a measure of, wear protection. PMID:15368250

  8. The Effect of Surface Contamination on Adhesive Forces as Measured by Contact Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    EMERSON,JOHN A.; GIUNTA,RACHEL K.; MILLER,GREGORY V.; SORENSEN,CHRISTOPHER R.; PEARSON,RAYMOND A.

    2000-12-18

    The contact adhesive forces between two surfaces, one being a soft hemisphere and the other being a hard plate, can readily be determined by applying an external compressive load to mate the two surfaces and subsequently applying a tensile load to peel the surfaces apart. The contact region is assumed the superposition of elastic Hertzian pressure and of the attractive surface forces that act only over the contact area. What are the effects of the degree of surface contamination on adhesive forces? Clean aluminum surfaces were coated with hexadecane as a controlled contaminant. The force required to pull an elastomeric hemisphere from a surface was determined by contact mechanics, via the JKR model, using a model siloxane network for the elastomeric contact sphere. Due to the dispersive nature of the elastomer surface, larger forces were required to pull the sphere from a contaminated surface than a clean aluminum oxide surface.

  9. Non-additivity of molecule-surface van der Waals potentials from force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian; Fournier, Norman; Ruiz, Victor G.; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Rohlfing, Michael; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) forces act ubiquitously in condensed matter. Despite being weak on an atomic level, they substantially influence molecular and biological systems due to their long range and system-size scaling. The difficulty to isolate and measure vdW forces on a single-molecule level causes our present understanding to be strongly theory based. Here we show measurements of the attractive potential between differently sized organic molecules and a metal surface using an atomic force microscope. Our choice of molecules and the large molecule-surface separation cause this attraction to be purely of vdW type. The experiment allows testing the asymptotic vdW force law and its validity range. We find a superlinear growth of the vdW attraction with molecular size, originating from the increased deconfinement of electrons in the molecules. Because such non-additive vdW contributions are not accounted for in most first-principles or empirical calculations, we suggest further development in that direction.

  10. Non-additivity of molecule-surface van der Waals potentials from force measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Christian; Fournier, Norman; Ruiz, Victor G.; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Rohlfing, Michael; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) forces act ubiquitously in condensed matter. Despite being weak on an atomic level, they substantially influence molecular and biological systems due to their long range and system-size scaling. The difficulty to isolate and measure vdW forces on a single-molecule level causes our present understanding to be strongly theory based. Here we show measurements of the attractive potential between differently sized organic molecules and a metal surface using an atomic force microscope. Our choice of molecules and the large molecule-surface separation cause this attraction to be purely of vdW type. The experiment allows testing the asymptotic vdW force law and its validity range. We find a superlinear growth of the vdW attraction with molecular size, originating from the increased deconfinement of electrons in the molecules. Because such non-additive vdW contributions are not accounted for in most first-principles or empirical calculations, we suggest further development in that direction. PMID:25424490

  11. Excluding Contact Electrification in Surface Potential Measurement Using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengming; Zhou, Yusheng; Zi, Yunlong; Zhang, Gong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-02-23

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), a characterization method that could image surface potentials of materials at the nanoscale, has extensive applications in characterizing the electric and electronic properties of metal, semiconductor, and insulator materials. However, it requires deep understanding of the physics of the measuring process and being able to rule out factors that may cause artifacts to obtain accurate results. In the most commonly used dual-pass KPFM, the probe works in tapping mode to obtain surface topography information in a first pass before lifting to a certain height to measure the surface potential. In this paper, we have demonstrated that the tapping-mode topography scan pass during the typical dual-pass KPFM measurement may trigger contact electrification between the probe and the sample, which leads to a charged sample surface and thus can introduce a significant error to the surface potential measurement. Contact electrification will happen when the probe enters into the repulsive force regime of a tip-sample interaction, and this can be detected by the phase shift of the probe vibration. In addition, the influences of scanning parameters, sample properties, and the probe's attributes have also been examined, in which lower free cantilever vibration amplitude, larger adhesion between the probe tip and the sample, and lower cantilever spring constant of the probe are less likely to trigger contact electrification. Finally, we have put forward a guideline to rationally decouple contact electrification from the surface potential measurement. They are decreasing the free amplitude, increasing the set-point amplitude, and using probes with a lower spring constant. PMID:26824304

  12. Measurement of Surface Photovoltage by Atomic Force Microscopy under Pulsed Illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Zeno; Miyahara, Yoichi; Spielhofer, Andreas; Grutter, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Measuring the structure-function relation in photovoltaic materials has been a major drive for atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin-probe force microscopy (KPFM). The local surface photovoltage (SPV) is measured as the change in contact potential difference (CPD) between the tip and sample upon illumination. The quantities of interest that one will like to correlate with the structure are the decay times of SPV and/or its wavelength dependence. KPFM depends on the tip and sample potential; therefore, SPV is prone to tip changes, rendering an accurate measurement of SPV challenging. We present a measurement technique which allows us to directly measure the difference in the CPD between illuminated and dark states and, thus, SPV as well as the capacitance derivative by using pulsed illumination. The variation of the measured SPV can be minimized due to the time-domain measurement, allowing accurate measurements of the SPV. The increased accuracy enables the systematic comparison of SPV across different measurement setups and excitation conditions (e.g., wavelength dependence and decay time of SPV).

  13. Drift reduction in a scanning electrostatic force microscope for surface profile measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhigang; Ito, So; Goto, Shigeaki; Hosobuchi, Keiichiro; Shimizu, Yuki; Gao, Wei

    2014-09-01

    The influence of drifts on the measurement results of an electrostatic force microscope (EFM) based on a dual-height method for surface profile measurement is analyzed. Two types of drifts and their influence on the EFM measurement are discussed by computer simulation. It is figured out that the mechanical drift has a larger impact compared to the resonance frequency drift for the specific EFM with the conventional round-trip scan mode. It is also verified that the profile reconstruction algorithm of the dual-height method for separating the electric property distribution and the surface profile of the surface has an effect of magnifying the drift error in the result of surface profile measurement, which is a much more significant measurement of uncertainty sources for the developed EFM compared with an ordinary scanning probe microscope (SPM). A new vertical reciprocating scan (VRS) mode is then employed to reduce the influences of the drifts. The feasibility of the VRS mode is demonstrated by computer simulation and measurement experiments with a diffraction grating.

  14. Non-additivity of molecule-surface van der Waals potentials from force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tautz, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) forces act ubiquitously in condensed matter. Their description as an inherently quantum mechanical phenomenon was developed for single atoms and homogeneous macroscopic bodies by London, Casimir, and Lifshitz. For intermediate-sized objects like organic molecules an atomistic description is required, but explicit first principles calculations are very difficult since correlations between many interacting electrons have to be considered. Hence, semi-empirical correction schemes are often used that simplify the vdW interaction to a sum over atom-pair potentials. A similar gap exists between successful measurements of vdW and Casimir forces for single atoms on the one hand and macroscopic bodies on the other, as comparable experiments for molecules are absent. I will present experiments in which long-range vdW potentials between a series of related molecules and a metal surface have been determined experimentally. The experiments rely on the extremely sensitive force detection of an atomic force microscope in combination with its molecular manipulation capabilities. The results allow us to confirm the asymptotic force law and to quantify the non-additive part of the vdW interaction which is particularly challenging for theory. In the present case, cooperative effects account for 10% of the total interaction. This effect is of general validity in molecules and thus relevant at the intersection of chemistry, physics, biology, and materials science.

  15. Statistical analysis of long- and short-range forces involved in bacterial adhesion to substratum surfaces as measured using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Norde, Willem

    2011-08-01

    Surface thermodynamic analyses of microbial adhesion using measured contact angles on solid substrata and microbial cell surfaces are widely employed to determine the nature of the adhesion forces, i.e., the interplay between Lifshitz-van der Waals and acid-base forces. While surface thermodynamic analyses are often viewed critically, atomic force microscopy (AFM) can also provide information on the nature of the adhesion forces by means of Poisson analysis of the measured forces. This review first presents a description of Poisson analysis and its underlying assumptions. The data available from the literature for different combinations of bacterial strains and substrata are then summarized, leading to the conclusion that bacterial adhesion to surfaces is generally dominated by short-range, attractive acid-base interactions, in combination with long-range, weaker Lifshitz-van der Waals forces. This is in line with the findings of surface thermodynamic analyses of bacterial adhesion. Comparison with single-molecule ligand-receptor forces from the literature suggests that the short-range-force contribution from Poisson analysis involves a discrete adhesive bacterial cell surface site rather than a single molecular force. The adhesion force arising from these cell surface sites and the number of sites available may differ from strain to strain. Force spectroscopy, however, involves the tedious task of identifying the minor peaks in the AFM retraction force-distance curve. This step can be avoided by carrying out Poisson analysis on the work of adhesion, which can also be derived from retraction force-distance curves. This newly proposed way of performing Poisson analysis confirms that multiple molecular bonds, rather than a single molecular bond, contribute to a discrete adhesive bacterial cell surface site. PMID:21642399

  16. Time-dependent surface adhesive force and morphology of RBC measured by AFM.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yangzhe; Hu, Yi; Cai, Jiye; Ma, Shuyuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Yong; Pan, Yunlong

    2009-04-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a rapidly developing tool recently introduced into the evaluation of the age of bloodstains, potentially providing legal medical experts useful information for forensic investigation. In this study, the time-dependent, morphological changes of red blood cells (RBC) under three different conditions (including controlled, room-temperature condition, uncontrolled, outdoor-environmental condition, and controlled, low-temperature condition) were observed by AFM, as well as the cellular viscoelasticity via force-vs-distance curve measurements. Firstly, the data indicate that substrate types have different effects on cellular morphology of RBC. RBC presented the typical biconcave shape on mica, whereas either the biconcave shape or flattened shape was evident on glass. The mean volume of RBCs on mica was significantly larger than that of cells on glass. Surprisingly, the adhesive property of RBC membrane surfaces was substrate type-independent (the adhesive forces were statistically similar on glass and mica). With time lapse, the changes in cell volume and adhesive force of RBC under the controlled room-temperature condition were similar to those under the uncontrolled outdoor-environmental condition. Under the controlled low-temperature condition, however, the changes in cell volume occurred mainly due to the collapse of RBCs, and the curves of adhesive force showed the dramatic alternations in viscoelasticity of RBC. Taken together, the AFM detections on the time-dependent, substrate type-dependent, environment (temperature/humidity)-dependent changes in morphology and surface viscoelasticity of RBC imply a potential application of AFM in forensic medicine or investigations, e.g., estimating age of bloodstain or death time. PMID:19019689

  17. Fast, high-resolution surface potential measurements in air with heterodyne Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Joseph L.; Munday, Jeremy N.

    2016-06-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) adapts an atomic force microscope to measure electric potential on surfaces at nanometer length scales. Here we demonstrate that Heterodyne-KPFM enables scan rates of several frames per minute in air, and concurrently maintains spatial resolution and voltage sensitivity comparable to frequency-modulation KPFM, the current spatial resolution standard. Two common classes of topography-coupled artifacts are shown to be avoidable with H-KPFM. A second implementation of H-KPFM is also introduced, in which the voltage signal is amplified by the first cantilever resonance for enhanced sensitivity. The enhanced temporal resolution of H-KPFM can enable the imaging of many dynamic processes, such as such as electrochromic switching, phase transitions, and device degredation (battery, solar, etc), which take place over seconds to minutes and involve changes in electric potential at nanometer lengths.

  18. Fast, high-resolution surface potential measurements in air with heterodyne Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Joseph L; Munday, Jeremy N

    2016-06-17

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) adapts an atomic force microscope to measure electric potential on surfaces at nanometer length scales. Here we demonstrate that Heterodyne-KPFM enables scan rates of several frames per minute in air, and concurrently maintains spatial resolution and voltage sensitivity comparable to frequency-modulation KPFM, the current spatial resolution standard. Two common classes of topography-coupled artifacts are shown to be avoidable with H-KPFM. A second implementation of H-KPFM is also introduced, in which the voltage signal is amplified by the first cantilever resonance for enhanced sensitivity. The enhanced temporal resolution of H-KPFM can enable the imaging of many dynamic processes, such as such as electrochromic switching, phase transitions, and device degredation (battery, solar, etc), which take place over seconds to minutes and involve changes in electric potential at nanometer lengths. PMID:27159082

  19. Defect localization in fibre-reinforced composites by computing external volume forces from surface sensor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, F.; Schöpfer, F.; Schuster, T.

    2015-02-01

    We suggest a prospective method for detecting and visualizing defects in fibre-reinforced composites by computing external volume forces from measurements acquired by sensors that are integrated on the surface of the structure. Anisotropic materials like carbon fibre-reinforced composites are widely used in light weight construction which can exhibit damages that are not optically detectable. The key idea of our method is the interpretation of defects in such structures as if they were induced by an external volume force. This idea is based on the observation that a propagating elastic wave interferes with a damaged area by reflecting the wave. In that sense a damage can be seen as an additional source. Thus identifying the external volume force which has caused this wave is supposed to reveal the location of the defect. This approach leads to the inverse problem of determining the inhomogeneity of a hyperbolic initial-boundary value problem. We tackle this ill-posed problem by minimizing a Tikhonov functional which takes the oberservation points of our surface measurements into account. In the article we address the solvability of the direct problem, state and analyze the PDE-based optimization problem that aims for computing the external force and develop a numerical realization of its solution using the conjugate gradient method. First numerical results for a simple model case with different sensor adjustments show that the defects in fact are detectable. In that sense this article might be seen as starting point of future research which should comprehend deeper numerical studies and analysis of the problem.

  20. Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, S. A.; Kassianov, E. I.; Barnard, J.; Flynn, C.; Ackerman, T. P.

    2009-07-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed to Niamey, Niger, during 2006. Niamey, which is located in sub-Saharan Africa, is affected by both dust and biomass burning emissions. Column aerosol optical properties were derived from multifilter rotating shadowband radiometer, measurements and the vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from a micropulse lidar during the two observed dry seasons (January-April and October-December). Mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) at 500 nm during January-April were 0.53 ± 0.4 and 0.94 ± 0.05, while during October-December mean AOD and SSA were 0.33 ± 0.25 and 0.99 ± 0.01. Aerosol extinction profiles peaked near 500 m during the January-April period and near 100 m during the October-December period. Broadband shortwave surface fluxes and heating rate profiles were calculated using retrieved aerosol properties. Comparisons for noncloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the aerosol optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W m-2 and RMS differences less than 25 W m-2. Sensitivity tests showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of <10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. The calculated 24-h averaged SW instantaneous surface aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) was -21.1 ± 14.3 W m-2 and was estimated to account for 80% of the total radiative forcing at the surface. The ARF was larger during January-April (-28.5 ± 13.5 W m-2) than October-December (-11.9 ± 8.9 W m-2).

  1. A simple atomic force microscopy calibration method for direct measurement of surface energy on nanostructured surfaces covered with molecularly thin liquid films

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Ralf; Talke, Frank E.; Etsion, Izhak

    2009-05-15

    A simple calibration method is described for the determination of surface energy by atomic force microscopy (AFM) pull-off force measurements on nanostructured surfaces covered with molecularly thin liquid films. The method is based on correlating pull-off forces measured in arbitrary units on a nanostructured surface with pull-off forces measured on macroscopically smooth dip-coated gauge surfaces with known surface energy. The method avoids the need for complex calibration of the AFM cantilever stiffness and the determination of the radius of curvature of the AFM tip. Both of the latter measurements are associated with indirect and less accurate measurements of surface energy based on various contact mechanics adhesion models.

  2. Simultaneous normal and torsional force measurement by cantilever surface contour analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumanchik, Lee; Schmitz, Tony; Pratt, Jon

    2011-05-01

    This study presents an alternative to the current Hooke's law-based force relation between rectangular cantilever deflection and applied force. In the new approach, a transduction constant is presented that (1) includes no cross-talk between torsion and normal force components, (2) is independent of the load application point, and (3) does not depend on the cantilever beam length. Rather than measuring the cantilever deformation at a single point (such as the tip location), it is measured at multiple adjacent points using scanning white light interferometry to provide a three-dimensional description of the cantilever deformation during loading. This measurement, processed by a force relation based on a superposition of deflections derived from Euler-Bernoulli bending theory and St Venant's torsion theory, provides the vertical, axial, and torsional force components simultaneously. Experimental results are compared to force predictions for the vertical and torsional components using macro-scale cantilevers under mass loading. An uncertainty analysis is also provided.

  3. Accurate measurement of Atomic Force Microscope cantilever deflection excluding tip-surface contact with application to force calibration.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Ashley D; Blanch, Adam J; Quinton, Jamie S; Gibson, Christopher T

    2013-08-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the calibration of AFM cantilever spring constants in the last 20 years. Techniques that do not require tip-sample contact are considered advantageous since the imaging tip is not at risk of being damaged. Far less attention has been directed toward measuring the cantilever deflection or sensitivity, despite the fact that the primary means of determining this factor relies on the AFM tip being pressed against a hard surface, such as silicon or sapphire; which has the potential to significantly damage the tip. A recent method developed by Tourek et al. in 2010 involves deflecting the AFM cantilever a known distance from the imaging tip by pressing the cantilever against a sharpened tungsten wire. In this work a similar yet more precise method is described, whereby the deflection of the cantilever is achieved using an AFM probe with a spring constant much larger than the test cantilever, essentially a rigid cantilever. The exact position of loading on the test cantilever was determined by reverse AFM imaging small spatial markers that are milled into the test cantilever using a focussed ion beam. For V shaped cantilevers it is possible to reverse image the arm intersection in order to determine the exact loading point without necessarily requiring FIB milled spatial markers, albeit at the potential cost of additional uncertainty. The technique is applied to tip-less, beam shaped and V shaped cantilevers and compared to the hard surface contact technique with very good agreement (on average less than 5% difference). While the agreement with the hard surface contact technique was very good the error on the technique is dependent upon the assumptions inherent in the method, such as cantilever shape, loading point distance and ratio of test to rigid cantilever spring constants. The average error ranged between 2 to 5% for the majority of test cantilevers studied. The sensitivity derived with this technique can then be used to

  4. Measurement of the Casimir force between a gold sphere and a silicon surface with nanoscale trench arrays.

    PubMed

    Chan, H B; Bao, Y; Zou, J; Cirelli, R A; Klemens, F; Mansfield, W M; Pai, C S

    2008-07-18

    We report measurements of the Casimir force between a gold sphere and a silicon surface with an array of nanoscale, rectangular corrugations using a micromechanical torsional oscillator. At distances between 150 and 500 nm, the measured force shows significant deviations from the pairwise additive formulism, demonstrating the strong dependence of the Casimir force on the shape of the interacting bodies. The observed deviation, however, is smaller than the calculated values for perfectly conducting surfaces, possibly due to the interplay between finite conductivity and geometry effects. PMID:18764238

  5. Evading surface and detector frequency noise in harmonic oscillator measurements of force gradients

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Eric W.; Lee, SangGap; Hickman, Steven A.; Harrell, Lee E.; Marohn, John A.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate a method of measuring small force gradients acting on a harmonic oscillator in which the force-gradient signal of interest is used to parametrically up-convert a forced oscillation below resonance into an amplitude signal at the oscillator’s resonance frequency. The approach, which we demonstrate in a mechanically detected electron spin resonance experiment, allows the force-gradient signal to evade detector frequency noise by converting a slowly modulated frequency signal into an amplitude signal. PMID:20733934

  6. Surface EMG and intra-socket force measurement to control a prosthetic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Joe; Patterson, Rita; Popa, Dan

    2015-06-01

    Surface electromyography (SEMG) has been shown to be a robust and reliable interaction method allowing for basic control of powered prosthetic devices. Research has shown a marked decrease in EMG-classification efficiency throughout activities of daily life due to socket shift and movement and fatigue as well as changes in degree of fit of the socket throughout the subject's lifetime. Users with the most severe levels of amputation require the most complex devices with the greatest number of degrees of freedom. Controlling complex dexterous devices with limited available inputs requires the addition of sensing and interaction modalities. However, the larger the amputation severity, the fewer viable SEMG sites are available as control inputs. Previous work reported the use of intra-socket pressure, as measured during wrist flexion and extension, and has shown that it is possible to control a powered prosthetic device with pressure sensors. In this paper, we present data correlations of SEMG data with intra-socket pressure data. Surface EMG sensors and force sensors were housed within a simulated prosthetic cuff fit to a healthy-limbed subject. EMG and intra-socket force data was collected from inside the cuff as a subject performed pre-defined grip motions with their dominant hand. Data fusion algorithms were explored and allowed a subject to use both intra-socket pressure and SEMG data as control inputs for a powered prosthetic device. This additional input modality allows for an improvement in input classification as well as information regarding socket fit through out activities of daily life.

  7. Surface force measurements between titanium dioxide surfaces prepared by atomic layer deposition in electrolyte solutions reveal non-DLVO interactions: influence of water and argon plasma cleaning.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Rick B; Evans, Drew; Craig, Vincent S J

    2014-03-01

    Surface force measurements between titania surfaces in electrolyte solutions have previously revealed an unexplained long-range repulsive force at high pH, not described by Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Here, the surface forces between titania surfaces produced by atomic layer deposition (ALD) and cleaned using a variety of methods have been measured to determine the influence of the cleaning protocol on the measured forces and test the hypothesis that water plasma cleaning of the surface results in non-DLVO forces at high pH. For argon plasma and water plasma cleaned surfaces, a diffuse double layer repulsion and van der Waals attraction is observed near the isoelectric point. At high pH, the force remained repulsive up until contact, and no van der Waals attraction or adhesion was observed. Differences in the measured forces are explained by modification of the surface chemistry during cleaning, which alters the density of charged groups on the surface, but this cannot explain the observed disagreement with DLVO theory at high pH. PMID:24548170

  8. Fabrication and measurement of nanostructures on the micro ball surface using a modified atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X S; Geng, Y Q; Li, W B; Yan, Y D; Hu, Z J; Sun, T; Liang, Y C; Dong, S

    2012-11-01

    In order to machine and measure nanostructures on the micro ball surface, a modified atomic force microscope (AFM) combining a commercial AFM system with a home built precision air bearing spindle is established. Based on this system, motions of both the AFM scanner and the air bearing spindle are controlled to machine nanostructures on the micro ball based on the AFM tip-based nano mechanical machining approach. The eccentric error between the axis of the micro ball and the axis of the spindle is reduced to 3-4 μm by the provided fine adjusting method. A 1000 nano lines array, 36 square pits structure, 10 square pits structure, and a zig-zag structure on the circumference of the micro ball with the diameter of 1.5 mm are machined successfully. The measurement results achieved by the same system reveal that the profiles and mode-power spectra curves of the micro ball are influenced by the artificially machined nanostructures significantly according to their distributions. This work is an useful attempt for modifying the micro ball profile and manufacture of the spherical modulation targets to study the experimental performance of the micro ball in implosion. PMID:23206095

  9. Nanoscale spatially resolved simultaneous measurement of in-plane and out-of-plane force components on surfaces: a novel operational mode in atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Gregory S.; Dinte, Bradley P.; Blach, Jolanta A.; Myhra, Sverre

    2002-11-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) allows investigation of the properties of surfaces and interfaces at atomic scale resolution. However, several different operational modes, (imaging, force versus distance and lateral force modes), need to be deployed in order to gain insight into the structure, tribological and mechanical properties. A new method, based on a variation of the force versus distance mode, has been developed. In essence, a coupling of the deformational modes of the probe is exploited whereby the tip is induced to undergo lateral travel in response to application of an out-of-plane force (and thus normal bending of the force-sensing lever). The lateral travel induces in-plane forces that are then measurable as a consequence of stimulation of the 'buckling' deformational mode of the lever. Due to the lever geometry, the technique offers an increase in resolution of an order of magnitude over existing AFM methods for measurement of atomic scale stick-slip events. In addition, the method allows measurement of the lateral deformation of the sample as well as scanner calibration. Outcomes will be demonstrated for atomically flat surfaces such as WTe2 and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  10. Simultaneous measurements of molecular forces and electro-optical properties of a confined 5CB liquid crystal film using a surface forces apparatus.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Kai; Zeng, Hongbo; Zappone, Bruno; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2015-04-01

    Using a surface forces apparatus (SFA), we studied the forces associated with the reorientation of molecules of a common nematic thermotropic liquid crystal, 4'-n-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), confined between two conducting (silver) surfaces and its optical behavior under the influence of electric fields with varying magnitudes and field directions. A transient attractive force was observed due to partial reorientations of the liquid crystal molecules and the flow of free ions, in addition to a stronger constant capacitance attraction between the silver surfaces. At the same time, the optical properties of the liquid crystals were observed perpendicular to the silver surfaces. Observations of shifts and fluctuations of the extraordinary wave of the (multiple beam) interference fringes measure the refractive index of the director component parallel to the surface, which is sensitive to tilt motion (or reorientation) of the liquid crystal molecules that provided details of the anisotropic orientations of the molecules and domains. Any lateral differential refractive index change is easily observed by optical microscopy. The optical microscope imaging showed that the changes in the optical properties are due to convective flow at domain boundaries of the liquid crystal molecules (and possible free ions) between the two charged surfaces. At low electric fields, propagation of domain boundaries was observed, while at higher electric fields, hexagonal patterns of flowing molecules were observed. The interplay of the force measurements and optical observations reveal a complex dynamic behavior of liquid crystals subjected to varying electric fields in confined spaces. PMID:25774432

  11. Measuring forces and spatiotemporal evolution of thin water films between an air bubble and solid surfaces of different hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chen; Cui, Xin; Xie, Lei; Liu, Qingxia; Chan, Derek Y C; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-01-27

    A combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) was used to measure simultaneously the interaction force and the spatiotemporal evolution of the thin water film between a bubble in water and mica surfaces with varying degrees of hydrophobicity. Stable films, supported by the repulsive van der Waals-Casimir-Lifshitz force were always observed between air bubble and hydrophilic mica surfaces (water contact angle, θ(w) < 5°) whereas bubble attachment occurred on hydrophobized mica surfaces. A theoretical model, based on the Reynolds lubrication theory and the augmented Young-Laplace equation including the effects of disjoining pressure, provided excellent agreement with experiment results, indicating the essential physics involved in the interaction between air bubble and solid surfaces can be elucidated. A hydrophobic interaction free energy per unit area of the form: WH(h) = -γ(1 - cos θ(w))exp(-h/D(H)) can be used to quantify the attraction between bubble and hydrophobized solid substrate at separation, h, with γ being the surface tension of water. For surfaces with water contact angle in the range 45° < θ(w) < 90°, the decay length DH varied between 0.8 and 1.0 nm. This study quantified the hydrophobic interaction in asymmetric system between air bubble and hydrophobic surfaces, and provided a feasible method for synchronous measurements of the interaction forces with sub-nN resolution and the drainage dynamics of thin films down to nm thickness. PMID:25514470

  12. Force, Surface Pressure and Flowfield Measurements on Slender Missile Configurations at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birch, T. J.; Allen, J. M.; Wilcox, F. J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a series of wind tunnel experiments carried out with the aim of providing data suitable for evaluating the performance of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. The configurations and flow conditions studied are most relevant to slender supersonic missiles. However, the data obtained, which includes forces and moments, surface pressures, flowfield surveys and a selection of flow visualization images, should he of interest to other CFD practitioners. Results for three test cases are presented and discussed in this paper. These cases have been the subject of a collaborative study concerned with the evaluation of Navier-Stokes solvers for missiles, carried out under the auspices of The Technical Cooperation Programme (TTCP).

  13. A method for the direct measurement of surface tension of collected atmospherically relevant aerosol particles using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hritz, Andrew D.; Raymond, Timothy M.; Dutcher, Dabrina D.

    2016-08-01

    Accurate estimates of particle surface tension are required for models concerning atmospheric aerosol nucleation and activation. However, it is difficult to collect the volumes of atmospheric aerosol required by typical instruments that measure surface tension, such as goniometers or Wilhelmy plates. In this work, a method that measures, ex situ, the surface tension of collected liquid nanoparticles using atomic force microscopy is presented. A film of particles is collected via impaction and is probed using nanoneedle tips with the atomic force microscope. This micro-Wilhelmy method allows for direct measurements of the surface tension of small amounts of sample. This method was verified using liquids, whose surface tensions were known. Particles of ozone oxidized α-pinene, a well-characterized system, were then produced, collected, and analyzed using this method to demonstrate its applicability for liquid aerosol samples. It was determined that oxidized α-pinene particles formed in dry conditions have a surface tension similar to that of pure α-pinene, and oxidized α-pinene particles formed in more humid conditions have a surface tension that is significantly higher.

  14. Measurement of the Casimir force between a spherical gold tip and Si(111)-(7 × 7) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naoki; Higashino, Kazuhiko; Sueoka, Kazuhisa

    2016-08-01

    We have performed the measurement of Casimir force between a spherical Au tip and an atomically flat Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface at tip–sample distances ranging from 15 to 50 nm in an ultrahigh vacuum of 1.5 × 10‑8 Pa by frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy. Atomically flat Si(111) surfaces provided by the ultrahigh-vacuum condition and a degassed Au tip reduce the contact potential difference that must be compensated. These experimental conditions led to the elucidation of the distance dependence of the Casimir force down to the distance of 15 nm. The observed distance dependence still follows a theory provided by Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 74, 022103 (2006)] within these distances.

  15. Force-Measuring Clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A precision clamp that accurately measures force over a wide range of conditions is described. Using a full bridge or other strain gage configuration. the elastic deformation of the clamp is measured or detected by the strain gages. Thc strain gages transmit a signal that corresponds to the degree of stress upon the clamp. Thc strain gage signal is converted to a numeric display. Calibration is achieved by ero and span potentiometers which enable accurate measurements by the force-measuring clamp.

  16. Evidence for water structuring forces between surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, Christopher B; Rau, Dr. Donald

    2011-01-01

    Structured water on apposing surfaces can generate significant energies due to reorganization and displacement as the surfaces encounter each other. Force measurements on a multitude of biological structures using the osmotic stress technique have elucidated commonalities that point toward an underlying hydration force. In this review, the forces of two contrasting systems are considered in detail: highly charged DNA and nonpolar, uncharged hydroxypropyl cellulose. Conditions for both net repulsion and attraction, along with the measured exclusion of chemically different solutes from these macromolecular surfaces, are explored and demonstrate features consistent with a hydration force origin. Specifically, the observed interaction forces can be reduced to the effects of perturbing structured surface water.

  17. Surface shortwave aerosol radiative forcing during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Mobile Facility deployment in Niamey, Niger

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Sally A.; Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Flynn, Connor J.; Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2009-03-18

    This study presents ground-based remote sensing measurements of aerosol optical properties and corresponding shortwave surface radiative effect calculations for the deployment of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s Mobile Facility (AMF) to Niamey, Niger during 2006. Aerosol optical properties including aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and asymmetry parameter (AP) were derived from multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) measurements during the two dry seasons (Jan-Apr and Oct-Dec) at Niamey. The vertical distribution of aerosol extinction was derived from the collocated micropulse lidar (MPL). The aerosol optical properties and vertical distribution of extinction varied significantly throughout the year, with higher AOD, lower SSA, and deeper aerosol layers during the Jan-Apr time period, when biomass burning aerosol layers were more frequent. Using the retrieved aerosol properties and vertical extinction profiles, broadband shortwave surface fluxes and atmospheric heating rate profiles were calculated. Corresponding calculations with no aerosol were used to estimate the aerosol direct radiative effect at the surface. Comparison of the calculated surface fluxes to observed fluxes for non-cloudy periods indicated that the remote sensing retrievals provided a reasonable estimation of the optical properties, with mean differences between calculated and observed fluxes of less than 5 W/m2 and RMS differences less than 25 W/m2. Sensitivity tests for a particular case study showed that the observed fluxes could be matched with variations of < 10% in the inputs to the radiative transfer model. We estimated the daily-averaged aerosol radiative effect at the surface by subtracting the clear calculations from the aerosol calculations. The average daily SW aerosol radiative effect over the study period was -27 W/m2, which is comparable to values estimated from satellite data and from climate models with sophisticated

  18. Extracting local surface charges and charge regulation behavior from atomic force microscopy measurements at heterogeneous solid-electrolyte interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cunlu; Ebeling, Daniel; Siretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2015-10-01

    We present a method to determine the local surface charge of solid-liquid interfaces from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements that takes into account shifts of the adsorption/desorption equilibria of protons and ions as the cantilever tip approaches the sample. We recorded AFM force distance curves in dynamic mode with sharp tips on heterogeneous silica surfaces partially covered by gibbsite nano-particles immersed in an aqueous electrolyte with variable concentrations of dissolved NaCl and KCl at pH 5.8. Forces are analyzed in the framework of Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory in combination with a charge regulation boundary that describes adsorption and desorption reactions of protons and ions. A systematic method to extract the equilibrium constants of these reactions by simultaneous least-squared fitting to experimental data for various salt concentrations is developed and is shown to yield highly consistent results for silica-electrolyte interfaces. For gibbsite-electrolyte interfaces, the surface charge can be determined, yet, an unambiguous identification of the relevant surface speciation reactions is not possible, presumably due to a combination of intrinsic chemical complexity and heterogeneity of the nano-particle surfaces.

  19. Extracting local surface charges and charge regulation behavior from atomic force microscopy measurements at heterogeneous solid-electrolyte interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cunlu; Ebeling, Daniel; Siretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2015-10-21

    We present a method to determine the local surface charge of solid-liquid interfaces from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) measurements that takes into account shifts of the adsorption/desorption equilibria of protons and ions as the cantilever tip approaches the sample. We recorded AFM force distance curves in dynamic mode with sharp tips on heterogeneous silica surfaces partially covered by gibbsite nano-particles immersed in an aqueous electrolyte with variable concentrations of dissolved NaCl and KCl at pH 5.8. Forces are analyzed in the framework of Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory in combination with a charge regulation boundary that describes adsorption and desorption reactions of protons and ions. A systematic method to extract the equilibrium constants of these reactions by simultaneous least-squared fitting to experimental data for various salt concentrations is developed and is shown to yield highly consistent results for silica-electrolyte interfaces. For gibbsite-electrolyte interfaces, the surface charge can be determined, yet, an unambiguous identification of the relevant surface speciation reactions is not possible, presumably due to a combination of intrinsic chemical complexity and heterogeneity of the nano-particle surfaces. PMID:26377347

  20. Attachment forces of ants measured with a centrifuge: better 'wax-runners' have a poorer attachment to a smooth surface.

    PubMed

    Federle, W; Rohrseitz, K; Hölldobler, B

    2000-02-01

    The symbiotic ant partners of glaucous Macaranga ant-plants show an exceptional capacity to run on the slippery epicuticular wax crystals covering the plant stem without any difficulty. We test the hypothesis that these specialised 'wax-runners' have a general, superior attachment capacity. We compared attachment on a smooth surface for 11 ant species with different wax-running capacities. The maximum force that could be withstood before an ant became detached was quantified using a centrifuge recorded by a high-speed video camera. This technique has the advantage of causing minimum disruption and allows measurements in very small animals. When strong centrifugal forces were applied, the ants showed a conspicuous 'freezing reflex' advantageous to attachment. Attachment forces differed strongly among the ant species investigated. This variation could not be explained by different surface area/weight ratios of smaller and larger ants. Within species, however, detachment force per body weight (F/W) scaled with the predicted value of W(-)(0.33), where W is body weight in newtons. Surprisingly, our results not only disprove the hypothesis that 'wax-runners' generally attach better but also provide evidence for the reverse effect. Superior 'wax-runners' (genera Technomyrmex and Crematogaster) did not cling better to smooth Perspex, but performed significantly worse than closely related congeners that are unable to climb up waxy stems. This suggests an inverse relationship between adaptations to run on wax and to attach to a smooth surface. PMID:10637179

  1. Correlating steric hydration forces with water dynamics through surface force and diffusion NMR measurements in a lipid–DMSO–H2O system

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Alex M.; Donaldson, Stephen H.; Song, Jinsuk; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Dong Woog; Han, Songi; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2015-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a common solvent and biological additive possessing well-known utility in cellular cryoprotection and lipid membrane permeabilization, but the governing mechanisms at membrane interfaces remain poorly understood. Many studies have focused on DMSO–lipid interactions and the subsequent effects on membrane-phase behavior, but explanations often rely on qualitative notions of DMSO-induced dehydration of lipid head groups. In this work, surface forces measurements between gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine membranes in DMSO–water mixtures quantify the hydration- and solvation-length scales with angstrom resolution as a function of DMSO concentration from 0 mol% to 20 mol%. DMSO causes a drastic decrease in the range of the steric hydration repulsion, leading to an increase in adhesion at a much-reduced intermembrane distance. Pulsed field gradient NMR of the phosphatidylcholine (PC) head group analogs, dimethyl phosphate and tetramethylammonium ions, shows that the ion hydrodynamic radius decreases with increasing DMSO concentration up to 10 mol% DMSO. The complementary measurements indicate that, at concentrations below 10 mol%, the primary effect of DMSO is to decrease the solvated volume of the PC head group and that, from 10 mol% to 20 mol%, DMSO acts to gradually collapse head groups down onto the surface and suppress their thermal motion. This work shows a connection between surface forces, head group conformation and dynamics, and surface water diffusion, with important implications for soft matter and colloidal systems. PMID:26261313

  2. Electrostatic patch potentials in Casimir force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Joseph; Somers, David; Munday, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    Measurements of the Casimir force require the elimination of the electrostatic force between interacting surfaces. The force can be minimized by applying a potential to one of the two surfaces. However, electrostatic patch potentials remain and contribute an additional force which can obscure the Casimir force signal. We will discuss recent measurements of patch potentials made with Heterodyne Amplitude-Modulated Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy that suggest patches could be responsible for >1% of the signal in some Casimir force measurements, and thus make the distinction between different theoretical models of the Casimir force (e.g. a Drude-model or a plasma-model for the dielectric response) difficult to discern.

  3. Measurement of Ambient Ammonia and Surface-level Meteorological Forcing Variables near an Agricultural Emission Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myles, L.; Heuer, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is a reduced form of reactive nitrogen that is primarily emitted from agricultural activities. NH3 volatilizes from animal waste and fertilized land directly into the atmosphere where it can either react with other gases to form fine particulate matter or deposit on surfaces through air-surface exchange processes. Field measurements in different ecosystems and under various conditions are necessary to improve the understanding of the complex relationships between ambient NH3 and meteorological parameters, such as temperature and relative humidity, which influence volatilization rates and ultimately, ambient concentrations near emission sources. However, the measurement of ambient NH3 is challenging. NH3 is hydroscopic and reactive, and measurement techniques are subject to errors caused by sampling artifacts and other interferences. Recent advancements have led to improved techniques that allow real-time measurement of ambient NH3. A cavity ring-down spectrometer was deployed at a cattle research facility in Knoxville, TN during spring 2012 to measure ambient NH3, and meteorological instrumentation was collocated to measure 3-D winds, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and other parameters (z = 2 m). The study site was rolling pasture typical of the eastern Tennessee Valley and included two large barns and approximately 30-40 cattle. Daytime ambient NH3 averaged 15-20 ppb most days with lows of approximately 7 ppb at night. Higher concentrations (greater than 50 ppb) seemed to correlate with higher temperatures (greater than 27 C), although the data are not consistent. Several instances of 100 ppb concentrations were measured when temperatures were high and winds were from the direction of the barns. Overall, the study shows that ambient NH3 levels near agricultural emission sources may vary greatly with time and a variety of factors, including meteorological conditions. The data support the need for real-time measurements of NH

  4. Shear rheology of mixed protein adsorption layers vs their structure studied by surface force measurements.

    PubMed

    Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A; Radulova, Gergana M; Basheva, Elka S; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Pelan, Eddie G

    2015-08-01

    The hydrophobins are proteins that form the most rigid adsorption layers at liquid interfaces in comparison with all other investigated proteins. The mixing of hydrophobin HFBII with other conventional proteins is expected to reduce the surface shear elasticity and viscosity, E(sh) and η(sh), proportional to the fraction of the conventional protein. However, the experiments show that the effect of mixing can be rather different depending on the nature of the additive. If the additive is a globular protein, like β-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin, the surface rigidity is preserved, and even enhanced. The experiments with separate foam films indicate that this is due to the formation of a bilayer structure at the air/water interface. The more hydrophobic HFBII forms the upper layer adjacent to the air phase, whereas the conventional globular protein forms the lower layer that faces the water phase. Thus, the elastic network formed by the adsorbed hydrophobin remains intact, and even reinforced by the adjacent layer of globular protein. In contrast, the addition of the disordered protein β-casein leads to softening of the HFBII adsorption layer. Similar (an even stronger) effect is produced by the nonionic surfactant Tween 20. This can be explained with the penetration of the hydrophobic tails of β-casein and Tween 20 between the HFBII molecules at the interface, which breaks the integrity of the hydrophobin interfacial elastic network. The analyzed experimental data for the surface shear rheology of various protein adsorption layers comply with a viscoelastic thixotropic model, which allows one to determine E(sh) and η(sh) from the measured storage and loss moduli, G' and G″. The results could contribute for quantitative characterization and deeper understanding of the factors that control the surface rigidity of protein adsorption layers with potential application for the creation of stable foams and emulsions with fine bubbles or droplets. PMID:24828304

  5. Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Drew F. Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J.

    2014-04-28

    A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of surface forces is presented. The model contains two chief elements. First, surface roughness is represented as a probability distribution of surface heights around an average surface height. A roughness-averaged force is determined by taking an average of the classic flat-surface force, weighing all possible separation distances against the probability distributions of surface heights. Second the model adds a repulsive contact force due to the elastic contact of asperities. We derive a simple analytic expression for the contact force. The general impact of roughness is to amplify the long range behaviour of noncontact (DLVO) forces. The impact of the elastic contact force is to provide a repulsive wall which is felt at a separation between surfaces that scales with the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the surfaces. The model therefore provides a means of distinguishing between “true zero,” where the separation between the average centres of each surface is zero, and “apparent zero,” defined by the onset of the repulsive contact wall. A normal distribution may be assumed for the surface probability distribution, characterised by the RMS roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alternatively the probability distribution may be defined by the histogram of heights measured by AFM. Both methods of treating surface roughness are compared against the classic smooth surface calculation and experimental AFM measurement.

  6. Wearable Ballistocardiography: Preliminary Methods for Mapping Surface Vibration Measurements to Whole Body Forces

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Andrew; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Klein, Liviu; Roy, Shuvo; Inan, Omer T.

    2015-01-01

    The recent resurgence of ballistocardiogram (BCG) measurement and interpretation technologies has led to a wide range of powerful tools available for unobtrusively assessing mechanical aspects of cardiovascular health at home. Researchers have demonstrated a multitude of modern BCG measurement modalities, including beds, chairs, weighing scales, and wearable approaches. However, many modalities produce significant variations in the morphology of the measured BCG, creating confusion in the analysis and interpretation of the signals. This paper creates a framework for comparing wearable BCG measurements to whole body measurements—such as taken with a weighing scale system—to eventually allow the same analysis and interpretation tools that have been developed for whole body systems to be applied in the future to wearable systems. To the best of our knowledge, it represents the first attempt to morphologically compare vertical acceleration recordings measured on different locations on the torso to whole body displacements measured by BCG instrumentation. PMID:25571158

  7. Nanonet Force Microscopy for Measuring Cell Forces.

    PubMed

    Sheets, Kevin; Wang, Ji; Zhao, Wei; Kapania, Rakesh; Nain, Amrinder S

    2016-07-12

    The influence of physical forces exerted by or felt by cells on cell shape, migration, and cytoskeleton arrangement is now widely acknowledged and hypothesized to occur due to modulation of cellular inside-out forces in response to changes in the external fibrous environment (outside-in). Our previous work using the non-electrospinning Spinneret-based Tunable Engineered Parameters' suspended fibers has revealed that cells are able to sense and respond to changes in fiber curvature and structural stiffness as evidenced by alterations to focal adhesion cluster lengths. Here, we present the development and application of a suspended nanonet platform for measuring C2C12 mouse myoblast forces attached to fibers of three diameters (250, 400, and 800 nm) representing a wide range of structural stiffness (3-50 nN/μm). The nanonet force microscopy platform measures cell adhesion forces in response to symmetric and asymmetric external perturbation in single and cyclic modes. We find that contractility-based, inside-out forces are evenly distributed at the edges of the cell, and that forces are dependent on fiber structural stiffness. Additionally, external perturbation in symmetric and asymmetric modes biases cell-fiber failure location without affecting the outside-in forces of cell-fiber adhesion. We then extend the platform to measure forces of (1) cell-cell junctions, (2) single cells undergoing cyclic perturbation in the presence of drugs, and (3) cancerous single-cells transitioning from a blebbing to a pseudopodial morphology. PMID:27410747

  8. Attractive forces between hydrophobic solid surfaces measured by AFM on the first approach in salt solutions and in the presence of dissolved gases.

    PubMed

    Azadi, Mehdi; Nguyen, Anh V; Yakubov, Gleb E

    2015-02-17

    Interfacial gas enrichment of dissolved gases (IGE) has been shown to cover hydrophobic solid surfaces in water. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) data has recently been supported by molecular dynamics simulation. It was demonstrated that IGE is responsible for the unexpected stability and large contact angle of gaseous nanobubbles at the hydrophobic solid-water interface. Here we provide further evidence of the significant effect of IGE on an attractive force between hydrophobic solid surfaces in water. The force in the presence of dissolved gas, i.e., in aerated and nonaerated NaCl solutions (up to 4 M), was measured by the AFM colloidal probe technique. The effect of nanobubble bridging on the attractive force was minimized or eliminated by measuring forces on the first approach of the AFM probe toward the flat hydrophobic surface and by using high salt concentrations to reduce gas solubility. Our results confirm the presence of three types of forces, two of which are long-range attractive forces of capillary bridging origin as caused by either surface nanobubbles or gap-induced cavitation. The third type is a short-range attractive force observed in the absence of interfacial nanobubbles that is attributed to the IGE in the form of a dense gas layer (DGL) at hydrophobic surfaces. Such a force was found to increase with increasing gas saturation and to decrease with decreasing gas solubility. PMID:25627159

  9. Evidence for water structuring forces between surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Structured water on apposing surfaces can generate significant energies due to reorganization and displacement of water as the surfaces encounter each other. Force measurements on a multitude of biological structures using the osmotic stress technique have elucidated commonalities that point toward an underlying hydration force. In this review, the forces of two contrasting systems are considered in detail: highly charged DNA and nonpolar, uncharged hydroxypropyl cellulose. Conditions for both net repulsion and attraction, along with the measured exclusion of chemically different solutes from these macromolecular surfaces, are explored and demonstrate common features consistent with a hydration force origin. Specifically, the observed interaction forces can be reduced to the effects of perturbing structured surface water. PMID:22125414

  10. Junction formation of Cu3BiS3 investigated by Kelvin probe force microscopy and surface photovoltage measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Fredy; Chamorro, William; Vallejo, William; Baier, Robert; Dittrich, Thomas; Grimm, Alexander; Lux-Steiner, Martha C

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recently, the compound semiconductor Cu3BiS3 has been demonstrated to have a band gap of ~1.4 eV, well suited for photovoltaic energy harvesting. The preparation of polycrystalline thin films was successfully realized and now the junction formation to the n-type window needs to be developed. We present an investigation of the Cu3BiS3 absorber layer and the junction formation with CdS, ZnS and In2S3 buffer layers. Kelvin probe force microscopy shows the granular structure of the buffer layers with small grains of 20–100 nm, and a considerably smaller work-function distribution for In2S3 compared to that of CdS and ZnS. For In2S3 and CdS buffer layers the KPFM experiments indicate negatively charged Cu3BiS3 grain boundaries resulting from the deposition of the buffer layer. Macroscopic measurements of the surface photovoltage at variable excitation wavelength indicate the influence of defect states below the band gap on charge separation and a surface-defect passivation by the In2S3 buffer layer. Our findings indicate that Cu3BiS3 may become an interesting absorber material for thin-film solar cells; however, for photovoltaic application the band bending at the charge-selective contact has to be increased. PMID:22497001

  11. Force, Surface Pressure, and Flowfield Measurements on a Slender Missile Configuration with Square Cross-Section at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Birch, Trevor J.; Allen, Jerry M.

    2004-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of a square cross-section missile configuration has been conducted to obtain force and moment measurements, surface pressure measurements, and vapor screen flow visualization photographs for comparison with computational fluid dynamics studies conducted under the auspices of The Technical Cooperation Program (TTCP). Tests were conducted on three configurations which included: (1) body alone, (2) body plus tail fins mounted on the missile corners, and (3) body plus tail fins mounted on the missile side. This test was conducted in test section #2 of the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at Mach numbers of 2.50 and 4.50 and at a Reynolds number of 4 million per ft. The data were obtained over an angle of attack range from -4 deg. to 24 deg. and roll angles from 0 deg. to 45 deg., i.e., from a diamond shape (as viewed from the rear) at a roll angle of 0 deg. to a square shape at 45 deg.

  12. Influence of Radioactivity on Surface Interaction Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Mark E; McFarlane, Joanna; Glasgow, David C; Chung, Eunhyea; Taboada Serrano, Patricia L; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2010-01-01

    Although some differences have been observed, the transport behavior of radioactive aerosol particles has often been assumed to be analogous to the behavior of nonradioactive aerosols in dispersion models. However, radioactive particles can become electrostatically charged as a result of the decay process. Theories have been proposed to describe this self-charging phenomenon, which may have a significant effect on how these particles interact with one another and with charged surfaces in the environment. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to quantify surface forces between a particle and a planar surface and to compare measurements with and without the involvement of radioactivity. The main objective of this work is to assess directly the effects of radioactivity on the surface interactions of radioactive aerosols via the measurement of the adhesion force. The adhesion force between a silicon nitride AFM tip and an activated gold substrate was measured so that any possible effects due to radioactivity could be observed. The adhesion force between the tip and the gold surface increased significantly when the gold substrate (25 mm{sup 2} surface area) was activated to a level of approximately 0.6 mCi. The results of this investigation will prompt further work into the effects of radioactivity in particle-surface interactions.

  13. Solvation forces between rough surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Frink, L.J.; van Swol, F.

    1998-04-01

    We investigate the role of surface roughness on solvation forces and solvation free energies. Roughness is introduced by dividing a surface into an array of square tiles that are then randomly displaced in the direction perpendicular to the wall. The integrated wall strength of these tiled surfaces is independent of the surface roughness and hence this class of rough walls is ideally suited for isolating roughness effects. We use grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a Lennard-Jones fluid confined in a slit pore with rough walls to generate the solvation interactions as a function of roughness, tile size, and surface area. The simulation data are compared to a simple superposition approximation of smooth wall solvation interactions (obtained from simulation or density functional theory), based on a distribution of wall separations. We find that this approximation provides a surprisingly accurate route to the solvation interaction of rough surfaces. In general, increased roughness leads to a reduction of oscillations in the solvation forces and surface free energies. However, nonmonotonic behavior of the oscillation amplitude with roughness can be observed for finite surfaces. The washing out of the oscillations found for large surface roughness produces a solvation force that exhibits a broad repulsive peak with separation. The broad repulsion is a consequence of the resistance to squeezing out fluid from the smallest gaps between two opposing rough surfaces. It is as much a reflection of packing effects as are the solvation oscillations for perfectly smooth pores. In addition, we present results for patterned and undulating surfaces produced by an analogous modification of the one-body external field for smooth walls. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for a number of experimental systems including self-assembled monolayers, microporous materials, protein solutions, and DNA crystals. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Surface potential measurement of fullerene derivative/copper phthalocyanine on indium tin oxide electrode by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Nobuo; Yamaki, Michio; Noda, Kei; Katori, Shigetaka; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2015-08-01

    We have investigated the organic semiconductor thin films deposited by vacuum evaporation deposition using intersecting metal shadow masks on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode/glass substrates to simulate organic solar cells by simultaneous observation with dynamic force microscopy (DFM)/Kelvin-probe force microscopy (KFM). The energy band diagram was depicted by simultaneously obtaining topographic and surface potential images of the same area using DFM/KFM. We considered the charge behavior at the interface having band bending in the phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) film.

  15. Simultaneous current, force and dissipation measurements on the Si(111) 7×7 surface with an optimized qPlus AFM/STM technique

    PubMed Central

    Setvín, Martin; Feltz, Albrecht; Cháb, Vladimír; Jelínek, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Summary We present the results of simultaneous scanning-tunneling and frequency-modulated dynamic atomic force microscopy measurements with a qPlus setup. The qPlus sensor is a purely electrical sensor based on a quartz tuning fork. If both the tunneling current and the force signal are to be measured at the tip, a cross-talk of the tunneling current with the force signal can easily occur. The origin and general features of the capacitive cross-talk will be discussed in detail in this contribution. Furthermore, we describe an experimental setup that improves the level of decoupling between the tunneling-current and the deflection signal. The efficiency of this experimental setup is demonstrated through topography and site-specific force/tunneling-spectroscopy measurements on the Si(111) 7×7 surface. The results show an excellent agreement with previously reported data measured by optical interferometric deflection. PMID:22496998

  16. Uncertainty in NIST Force Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Tom

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the uncertainty of force calibration measurements at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The uncertainty of the realization of force for the national deadweight force standards at NIST is discussed, as well as the uncertainties associated with NIST’s voltage-ratio measuring instruments and with the characteristics of transducers being calibrated. The combined uncertainty is related to the uncertainty of dissemination for force transfer standards sent to NIST for calibration. PMID:27308181

  17. Measuring Roughnesses Of Optical Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulter, Daniel R.; Al-Jumaily, Gahnim A.; Raouf, Nasrat A.; Anderson, Mark S.

    1994-01-01

    Report discusses use of scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy to measure roughnesses of optical surfaces. These techniques offer greater spatial resolution than other techniques. Report notes scanning tunneling microscopes and atomic force microscopes resolve down to 1 nm.

  18. Force measurements during vibration testing

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, D.O.; Coleman, R.G.

    1993-12-31

    Experimental measurements of force into a ``rigid`` test item representing a typical system level vibration test were conducted to evaluate several methods of force measurements. The methods evaluated included: (1) Direct measurement with force gages between the test item and the fixturing; (2) Measurement of the force at the shaker/fixture interface and correcting the force required to drive the fixturing using two methods, (a) mass subtraction and (b) SWAT (sum of weighted accelerations technique), (3) Force deduced from voltage and current needed to drive the test item. All of the methods worked over a limited frequency range of five to a few hundred Hertz. The widest bandwidth was achieved with force at the shaker/fixture interface with SWAT corrections and from the voltage and current measurements.

  19. Measurement of the interaction forces at various pH levels by using AFM for the interpretation of DNA adsorption on silanized surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Pil; Suga, Kosaku; Fujihara, Masamichi; Park, Byung-Eun

    2014-09-01

    Various surfaces have been used for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) immobilization, one example being a silanized surface. This is useful for determining DNA lengths and, thus, locating specific gene sequences in DNA by using fluorescence microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. In this study, we deposited DNA by using the molecular combing method and, we used fluorescence microscopy to study how the chain lengths of n-alkylsilanes affected the surface density of DNA deposited on the silanized surfaces in a tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (TE) buffer. The forces between a cleaned silicon-nitride (Si3N4) tip and each substrate surface in aqueous buffers at various pH levels (1.0 ~ 9.0) were also studied by using atomic force microscopy to measure the force-distance curves. We explain why the density of lambda bacteriophage DNA (λ-DNA) deposited by using the molecular combing method at pH 8 was lower on the silanized surface with the shorter alkyl chain than it was on the silanized surface with the longer alkyl chain in terms of the electrical double layer (EDL) and the adhesive force.

  20. Ductile cutting of silicon microstructures with surface inclination measurement and compensation by using a force sensor integrated single point diamond tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Cai, Yindi; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a measurement and compensation method of surface inclination for ductile cutting of silicon microstructures by using a diamond tool with a force sensor based on a four-axis ultra-precision lathe. The X- and Y-directional inclinations of a single crystal silicon workpiece with respect to the X- and Y-motion axes of the lathe slides were measured respectively by employing the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe, in which the tool-workpiece contact is sensitively detected by monitoring the force sensor output. Based on the measurement results, fabrication of silicon microstructures can be thus carried out directly along the tilted silicon workpiece by compensating the cutting motion axis to be parallel to the silicon surface without time-consuming pre-adjustment of the surface inclination or turning of a flat surface. A diamond tool with a negative rake angle was used in the experiment for superior ductile cutting performance. The measurement precision by using the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe was investigated. Experiments of surface inclination measurement and ultra-precision ductile cutting of a micro-pillar array and a micro-pyramid array with inclination compensation were carried out respectively to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  1. COOLING FORCE MEASUREMENTS IN CELSIUS.

    SciTech Connect

    GALNANDER, B.; FEDOTOV, A.V.; LITVINENKO, V.N.; ET AL.

    2005-09-18

    The design of future high energy coolers relies heavily on extending the results of cooling force measurements into new regimes by using simulation codes. In order to carefully benchmark these codes we have accurately measured the longitudinal friction force in CELSIUS by recording the phase shift between the beam and the RF voltage while varying the RF frequency. Moreover, parameter dependencies on the electron current, solenoid magnetic field and magnetic field alignment were carried out.

  2. Cooling Force Measurements at CELSIUS

    SciTech Connect

    Ga ring lnander, B.; Lofnes, T.; Ziemann, V.; Fedotov, A. V.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Sidorin, A. O.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2006-03-20

    The design of future high energy coolers relies heavily on extending the results of cooling force measurements into new regimes by using simulation codes. In order to carefully benchmark these codes we have accurately measured the longitudinal friction force in CELSIUS by recording the phase shift between the beam and the RF voltage while varying the RF frequency. Moreover, parameter dependencies on the electron current, solenoid magnetic field and magnetic field alignment were carried out.

  3. Relationship between interfacial forces measured by colloid-probe atomic force microscopy and protein resistance of poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted poly(L-lysine) adlayers on niobia surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Stéphanie; Textor, Marcus; Meagher, Laurence; Spencer, Nicholas D; Griesser, Hans J

    2005-07-01

    Adsorbed layers of "comb-type" copolymers consisting of PEG chains grafted onto a poly(l-lysine) (PLL) backbone on niobium oxide substrates were studied by colloid-probe AFM in order to characterize the interfacial forces associated with coatings of varying architectures (PEG/PLL ratios and PEG chain lengths) and their relevance to protein resistance. The steric and electrostatic forces measured varied substantially with the architecture of the PLL-g-PEG copolymers. Varying the ionic strength of the buffer solutions enabled discrimination between electrostatic and steric-entropic contributions to the net interfacial force. For high PEG grafting densities the steric component was most prominent, but at low ionic strengths and high grafting densities, a repulsive electrostatic surface force was also observed; its origin was assigned to the niobia charges beneath the copolymer, as insufficient protonated amine groups in the PLL backbone were available for compensation of the oxide surface charges. For lower grafting densities and lower ionic strengths there was a substantial attractive electrostatic contribution arising from interaction of the electrical double layer arising from the protonated amine groups, with that of the silica probe surface (as under low ionic strength conditions, the electrical double layer was thicker than the PEG layer). For these PLL-g-PEG coatings the net interfacial force can thus be a markedly varying superposition of electrostatic and steric-entropic contributions, depending on various factors. The force curves correlate with protein adsorption data, demonstrating the utility of AFM colloid-probe force measurements for quantitative analysis of surface forces and how they determine interfacial interactions with proteins. Such characterization of the net interfacial forces is essential to elucidate the multiple types of interfacial forces relevant to the interactions between PLL-g-PEG coatings and proteins and to advance interpretation of

  4. Vision-based force measurement.

    PubMed

    Greminger, Michael A; Nelson, Bradley J

    2004-03-01

    This paper demonstrates a method to visually measure the force distribution applied to a linearly elastic object using the contour data in an image. The force measurement is accomplished by making use of the result from linear elasticity that the displacement field of the contour of a linearly elastic object is sufficient to completely recover the force distribution applied to the object. This result leads naturally to a deformable template matching approach where the template is deformed according to the governing equations of linear elasticity. An energy minimization method is used to match the template to the contour data in the image. This technique of visually measuring forces we refer to as vision-based force measurement (VBFM). VBFM has the potential to increase the robustness and reliability of micromanipulation and biomanipulation tasks where force sensing is essential for success. The effectiveness of VBFM is demonstrated for both a microcantilever beam and a microgripper. A sensor resolution of less than +/- 3 nN for the microcantilever and +/- 3 mN for the microgripper was achieved using VBFM. Performance optimizations for the energy minimization problem are also discussed that make this algorithm feasible for real-time applications. PMID:15376877

  5. Fractal analysis and atomic force microscopy measurements of surface roughness for Hastelloy C276 substrates and amorphous alumina buffer layers in coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, F.; Shi, K.; Xiao, S.-Z.; Zhang, Y.-Y.; Zhao, Z.-J.; Wang, Z.; Wei, J.-J.; Han, Z.

    2012-02-01

    In coated conductors, surface roughness of metallic substrates and buffer layers could significantly affect the texture of subsequently deposited buffer layers and the critical current density of superconductor layer. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is usually utilized to measure surface roughness. However, the roughness values are actually relevant to scan scale. Fractal geometry could be exerted to analyze the scaling performance of surface roughness. In this study, four samples were prepared, which were electro polished Hastelloy C276 substrate, mechanically polished Hastelloy C276 substrate and the amorphous alumina buffer layers deposited on both the substrates by ion beam deposition. The surface roughness, described by root mean squared (RMS) and arithmetic average (Ra) values, was analyzed considering the scan scale of AFM measurements. The surfaces of amorphous alumina layers were found to be fractal in nature because of the scaling performance of roughness, while the surfaces of Hastelloy substrates were not. The flatten modification of AFM images was discussed. And the calculation of surface roughness in smaller parts divided from the whole AFM images was studied, compared with the results of actual AFM measurements of the same scan scales.

  6. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, Scott T.; Niemann, Ralph C.

    1999-01-01

    A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

  7. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

    1999-03-30

    A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  8. Adhesion forces between AFM tips and superficial dentin surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pelin, I M; Piednoir, A; Machon, D; Farge, P; Pirat, C; Ramos, S M M

    2012-06-15

    In this work, we study the adhesion forces between atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips and superficial dentin etched with phosphoric acid. Initially, we quantitatively analyze the effect of acid etching on the surface heterogeneity and the surface roughness, two parameters that play a key role in the adhesion phenomenon. From a statistical study of the force-distance curves, we determine the average adhesion forces on the processed substrates. Our results show that the average adhesion forces, measured in water, increase linearly with the acid exposure time. The highest values of such forces are ascribed to the high density of collagen fibers on the etched surfaces. The individual contribution of exposed collagen fibrils to the adhesion force is highlighted. We also discuss in this paper the influence of the environmental medium (water/air) in the adhesion measurements. We show that the weak forces involved require working in the aqueous medium. PMID:22472512

  9. Measuring Adhesion And Friction Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1991-01-01

    Cavendish balance adapted to new purpose. Apparatus developed which measures forces of adhesion and friction between specimens of solid materials in vacuum at temperatures from ambient to 900 degrees C. Intended primarily for use in studying adhesion properties of ceramics and metals, including silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and iron-base amorphous alloys.

  10. Intrinsic adhesion force of lubricants to steel surface.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonghwi

    2004-09-01

    The intrinsic adhesion forces of lubricants and other pharmaceutical materials to a steel surface were quantitatively compared using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). A steel sphere was attached to the tip of an AFM cantilever, and its adhesion forces to the substrate surfaces of magnesium stearate, sodium stearyl fumarate, lactose, 4-acetamidophenol, and naproxen were measured. Surface roughness varied by an order of magnitude among the materials. However, the results clearly showed that the two lubricants had about half the intrinsic adhesion force as lactose, 4-acetamidophenol, and naproxen. Differences in the intrinsic adhesion forces of the two lubricants were insignificant. The lubricant molecules were unable to cover the steel surface during AFM measurements. Intrinsic adhesion force can slightly be modified by surface treatment and compaction, and its tip-to-tip variation was not greater than its difference between lubricants and other pharmaceutical particles. This study provides a quantitative fundamental basis for understanding adhesion related issues. PMID:15295791

  11. Surface potential modification of molecular beam epitaxially grown SrTiO3-δ/Si(001) measured by Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottier, Ryan; Currie, Alexander; Theodoropoulou, Nikoleta; Texas State University Team

    2014-03-01

    SrTiO3 (STO) films have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy on p-Si(001), n-Si(001), and STO(001) substrates. The STO/Si films were of high crystalline quality as determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM and ranged in thickness from 3.6 to 60 nm as measured by x-ray reflectivity (XRR). The partial pressure of oxygen (O2) was varied during growth to induce oxygen vacancies within the STO structure. Through additional XRD and magnetotransport studies, we estimate that for the lowest O2 pressure the oxygen deficiency is δ = 0.02. The surface potential of the films was modified through the use of a conducting atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip by scanning regions of the STO surface in contact mode with a DC bias on the tip (referred to as `writing'). Regions were written with either positive or negative voltage and then analyzed by Kelvin Force Probe Microscopy (KFPM). Following this writing mode, KFPM revealed a retained surface potential of the same polarity used in writing. The ability of the films to be written and read through this method depended on the growth O2 partial pressure with higher O2 pressures demonstrating weaker surface potential modification. The results agree with other studies regarding the drift and diffusion of charged O2 vacancies in STO. Funded by NSF Career Award, DMR-1255629.

  12. The effect of patch potentials in Casimir force measurements determined by heterodyne Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Joseph L.; Somers, David; Munday, Jeremy N.

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of the Casimir force require the elimination of the electrostatic force between the surfaces. However, due to electrostatic patch potentials, the voltage required to minimize the total force may not be sufficient to completely nullify the electrostatic interaction. Thus, these surface potential variations cause an additional force, which can obscure the Casimir force signal. In this paper, we inspect the spatially varying surface potential of e-beamed, sputtered, sputtered and annealed, and template stripped gold surfaces with Heterodyne amplitude modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy (HAM-KPFM). It is demonstrated that HAM-KPFM improves the spatial resolution of surface potential measurements compared to amplitude modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy. We find that patch potentials vary depending on sample preparation, and that the calculated pressure can be similar to the pressure difference between Casimir force calculations employing the plasma and Drude models.

  13. The effect of patch potentials in Casimir force measurements determined by heterodyne Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Joseph L; Somers, David; Munday, Jeremy N

    2015-06-01

    Measurements of the Casimir force require the elimination of the electrostatic force between the surfaces. However, due to electrostatic patch potentials, the voltage required to minimize the total force may not be sufficient to completely nullify the electrostatic interaction. Thus, these surface potential variations cause an additional force, which can obscure the Casimir force signal. In this paper, we inspect the spatially varying surface potential of e-beamed, sputtered, sputtered and annealed, and template stripped gold surfaces with Heterodyne amplitude modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy (HAM-KPFM). It is demonstrated that HAM-KPFM improves the spatial resolution of surface potential measurements compared to amplitude modulated Kelvin probe force microscopy. We find that patch potentials vary depending on sample preparation, and that the calculated pressure can be similar to the pressure difference between Casimir force calculations employing the plasma and Drude models. PMID:25964997

  14. Covalent Immobilization of Microtubules on Glass Surfaces for Molecular Motor Force Measurements and Other Single-Molecule Assays

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Matthew P.; Rao, Lu; Gennerich, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Rigid attachment of microtubules (MTs) to glass cover slip surfaces is a prerequisite for a variety of microscopy experiments in which MTs are used as substrates for MT-associated proteins, such as the molecular motors kinesin and cytoplasmic dynein. We present an MT-surface coupling protocol in which aminosilanized glass is formylated using the cross-linker glutaraldehyde, fluorescence-labeled MTs are covalently attached, and the surface is passivated with highly pure beta-casein. The technique presented here yields rigid MT immobilization while simultaneously blocking the remaining glass surface against nonspecific binding by polystyrene optical trapping microspheres. This surface chemistry is straightforward and relatively cheap and uses a minimum of specialized equipment or hazardous reagents. These methods provide a foundation for a variety of optical tweezers experiments with MT-associated molecular motors and may also be useful in other assays requiring surface-immobilized proteins. PMID:24633798

  15. Forces and Holes in Liquid Surfaces and Soap Films: A Simple Measurement of a Not-So-Simple Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratton, Luigi M.; Oss, Stefano

    2004-01-01

    In this article we show how to verify that in a fluid surface or film the value of the surface tension (i.e. the free energy per unit area) does not depend on the area of the film itself. The experimental evidence discussed can be obtained extremely simply yet with great accuracy. This experiment is important in that it leads to a deeper…

  16. Casimir forces from conductive silicon carbide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, M.; Svetovoy, V. B.; Broer, W. H.; Palasantzas, G.

    2014-05-01

    Samples of conductive silicon carbide (SiC), which is a promising material due to its excellent properties for devices operating in severe environments, were characterized with the atomic force microscope for roughness, and the optical properties were measured with ellipsometry in a wide range of frequencies. The samples show significant far-infrared absorption due to concentration of charge carriers and a sharp surface phonon-polariton peak. The Casimir interaction of SiC with different materials is calculated and discussed. As a result of the infrared structure and beyond to low frequencies, the Casimir force for SiC-SiC and SiC-Au approaches very slowly the limit of ideal metals, while it saturates significantly below this limit if interaction with insulators takes place (SiC-SiO2). At short separations (<10 nm) analysis of the van der Waals force yielded Hamaker constants for SiC-SiC interactions lower but comparable to those of metals, which is of significance to adhesion and surface assembly processes. Finally, bifurcation analysis of microelectromechanical system actuation indicated that SiC can enhance the regime of stable equilibria against stiction.

  17. Surface potential measurement on contact resistance of amorphous-InGaZnO thin film transistors by Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhiheng; Xu, Guangwei; Wang, Wei; Lu, Congyan; Lu, Nianduan; Ji, Zhuoyu; Li, Ling; Liu, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Contact resistance plays an important role in amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). In this paper, the surface potential distributions along the channel have been measured by using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) on operating a-IGZO TFTs, and sharp potential drops at the edges of source and drain were observed. The source and drain contact resistances can be extracted by dividing sharp potential drops with the corresponding drain to source current. It is found that the contact resistances could not be neglected compared with the whole channel resistances in the a-IGZO TFT, and the contact resistances decrease remarkably with increasing gate biased voltage. Our results suggest that the contact resistances can be controlled by tuning the gate biased voltage. Moreover, a transition from gradual channel approximation to space charge region was observed through the surface potential map directly when TFT operating from linear regime to saturation regime.

  18. Investigation of relationship between interfacial electroadhesive force and surface texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J.; Tailor, M.; Bamber, T.; Chamberlain, M.; Justham, L.; Jackson, M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel investigation into the relationship between the obtainable interfacial electroadhesive forces and different surface textures is presented in this paper. Different surface textures were generated then characterized based on a recognized areal-based non-contact surface texture measurement platform and procedure. An advanced electroadhesive force measurement platform and procedure were then implemented to measure the obtainable electroadhesive forces on those different surface textures. The results show that the obtained interfacial electroadhesive forces increase with decreasing Sq (root mean square height) value of the substrate surface provided that the difference in Sq between the different substrates is over 5 μm. Also, the higher the applied voltage, the larger the relative increase in electroadhesive forces observed. However, when the difference of Sq value between different substrate surfaces is below 2 μm, the obtained interfacial electroadhesive forces do not necessarily increase with decreasing Sq. Furthermore, the obtainable electroadhesive forces are not necessarily the same when the Sq value of two substrate surfaces are the same due to the fact that the direction of the surface texture plays an important role in achieving electroadhesive forces.

  19. Surface potential and resistance measurements for detecting wear of chemically-bonded and unbonded molecularly-thick perfluoropolyether lubricant films using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Manuel; Bhushan, Bharat

    2007-11-01

    The wear of perfluoropolyether (PFPE) lubricants applied on Si(100) and an Au film on Si(100) substrate at ultralow loads was investigated by using atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based surface potential and resistance measurements. Surface potential data is used in detecting lubricant removal and the initiation of wear on the silicon substrate. The surface potential change is attributed to the change in the work function of the silicon after wear, and electrostatic charge build-up of debris in the lubricant. It was found that coatings that are partially bonded, i.e., containing a mobile lubricant fraction, were better able to protect the silicon substrate from wear compared to the fully bonded coating. This enhanced protection is attributed to a lubricant replenishment mechanism. However, an untreated lubricant coating exhibited considerable wear as it contains a smaller amount of lubricant bonded to the substrate relative to the partially bonded and fully bonded coatings. A sample subjected to shear is shown to have improved wear resistance, and this enhancement is attributed to chain reorientation and alignment of the lubricant molecules. The detection of wear of PFPE lubricants on Au by an AFM-based resistance measurement method is demonstrated for the first time. This technique provides complementary information to surface potential data in detecting substrate exposure after wear and is a promising method for studying the wear of conducting films. PMID:17631305

  20. Direct measurements of drag forces in C. elegans crawling locomotion.

    PubMed

    Rabets, Yegor; Backholm, Matilda; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Ryu, William S

    2014-10-21

    With a simple and versatile microcantilever-based force measurement technique, we have probed the drag forces involved in Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion. As a worm crawls on an agar surface, we found that substrate viscoelasticity introduces nonlinearities in the force-velocity relationships, yielding nonconstant drag coefficients that are not captured by original resistive force theory. A major contributing factor to these nonlinearities is the formation of a shallow groove on the agar surface. We measured both the adhesion forces that cause the worm's body to settle into the agar and the resulting dynamics of groove formation. Furthermore, we quantified the locomotive forces produced by C. elegans undulatory motions on a wet viscoelastic agar surface. We show that an extension of resistive force theory is able to use the dynamics of a nematode's body shape along with the measured drag coefficients to predict the forces generated by a crawling nematode. PMID:25418179

  1. Endothelial Surface Protrusion by a Point Force.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Lu, Lan; Shao, Jin-Yu

    2016-03-01

    During leukocyte rolling on the endothelium, surface protrusion and membrane tether extraction occur consecutively on leukocytes. Both surface protrusion and tether extraction of leukocytes stabilize leukocyte rolling. Tethers can also be extracted from endothelial cells (ECs), but surface protrusion of ECs has never been confirmed to exist. In this study, we examined EC surface protrusion with the micropipette aspiration technique. We found that, like leukocytes, surface protrusion on an EC did exist when a point force was imposed. Both the protrusional stiffness and the crossover force of EC surface protrusion were dependent on the force loading rate and the cytoskeletal integrity, but neither of them was dependent on tumor necrosis factor α stimulation. Temperature (37°C) affected the protrusional stiffness only at small force loading rates. When a neutrophil was employed to directly impose the pulling force on the EC, simultaneous surface protrusion from both cells occurred, and it can be modeled as two springs connected in series, although the spring constants should be adjusted according to the force loading rate. Therefore, EC surface protrusion is an important aspect of leukocyte rolling, and it should not be ignored when leukocyte rolling stability is studied systematically. PMID:26958891

  2. Short wave Aerosol Radiative Forcing estimates over a semi urban coastal environment in south-east India and validation with surface flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruna, K.; Lakshmi Kumar, T. V.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.; Babu, S. Suresh; Ratnam, M. Venkat; Rao, D. Narayana

    2016-01-01

    The short wave direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing (ARF) at a semi urban coastal location near Chennai (12.81 °N, 80.03 °E, ˜45 m amsl), a mega city on the east coast of India has been estimated for all the four seasons in the year 2013 using the SBDART (Santa Barbara Discrete ordinate Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) model. As inputs to this model, measured aerosol parameters together with modeled aerosol and atmospheric parameters are used. The ARF in the atmosphere is found to be higher in the pre-monsoon and winter seasons compared to the other seasons whereas at the surface, it is found to be higher in the south-west (SW) monsoon and winter seasons. The estimated ARF values are compared with those reported over other locations in India. The effect of Relative Humidity on ARF has been investigated for the first time in the present study. It is found that the ARF increases with increasing RH in the SW monsoon and winter seasons. An unique feature of the present study is the comparison of the net surface short wave fluxes estimated from the model (SBDART) and measured fluxes using CNR 4 net radiometer. This comparison between the estimated and measured fluxes showed good agreement, providing a 'closure' for the estimates.

  3. Structural and functional changes of the articular surface in a post-traumatic model of early osteoarthritis measured by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, Jane; Amrein, Matthias A; Matyas, John R

    2010-12-01

    The functional integrity of the articulating cartilage surface is a critical determinant of joint health. Although a variety of techniques exist to characterize the structural changes in the tissue with osteoarthritis (OA), some with extremely high resolution, most lack the ability to detect and monitor the functional changes that accompany the structural deterioration of this essential bearing surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) enables the acquisition of both structural and mechanical properties of the articular cartilage surface, with up to nanoscale resolution, making it particularly useful for evaluating the functional behavior of the macromolecular network forming the cartilage surface, which disintegrates in OA. In the present study, AFM was applied to the articular cartilage surfaces from six pairs of canine knee joints with post-traumatic OA. Microstructure (RMS roughness) and micromechanics (dynamic indentation modulus, E* of medial femoral condyle cartilages were compared between contralateral controls and cruciate-transected knee joints, which develop early signs of OA by three months after surgery. Results reveal a significant increase in RMS roughness and a significant four-fold decrease in E* in cartilages from cruciate-transected joints versus contralateral controls. Compared to previous reports of changes in bulk mechanics, AFM was considerably more sensitive at detecting early cartilage changes due to cruciate-deficiency. The use of AFM in this study provides important new information on early changes in the natural history of OA because of its ability to sensitively detect and measure local structural and functional changes of the articular cartilage surface, the presumptive site of osteoarthritic initiation. PMID:20817164

  4. Correlation of nanoscale behaviour of forces and macroscale surface wettability.

    PubMed

    Rana, Abhimanyu; Patra, Abhijeet; Annamalai, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Amar; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Stoerzinger, Kelsey; Lee, Yueh-Lin; Prakash, Saurav; Jueyuan, Reuben Yeo; Goohpattader, Partho S; Satyanarayana, Nalam; Gopinadhan, Kalon; Dykas, Michal M; Poddar, Kingshuk; Saha, Surajit; Sarkar, Tarapada; Kumar, Brijesh; Bhatia, Charanjit S; Giordano, Livia; Shao-Horn, Yang; Venkatesan, T

    2016-08-25

    In this manuscript, we demonstrate a method based on atomic force microscopy which enables local probing of surface wettability. The maximum pull-off force, obtained from force spectroscopy shows a remarkable correlation with the macroscopically observed water contact angle, measured over a wide variety of surfaces starting from hydrophilic, all the way through to hydrophobic ones. This relationship, consequently, facilitates the establishment of a universal behaviour. The adhesion forces scale with the polar component of surface energy. However, no such relation could be established with the dispersive component. Hence, we postulate that the force(s) which enable us to correlate the force spectroscopy data measured on the nanoscale to the macroscopic contact angle are primarily arising from electrostatic-dipole-dipole interactions at the solid-liquid interface. London forces play less of a role. This effect in is line with density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggesting a higher degree of hydroxylation of hydrophilic surfaces. This result shows that molecular simulations and measurements on an atomic scale can be extrapolated to macroscopic surface wetting problems. PMID:27510557

  5. Hydration force between mica surfaces in aqueous KCl electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yongsheng

    2012-03-27

    Liquid-vapor molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the interaction forces between two mica surfaces in an aqueous KCl electrolyte solution. Strong repulsive hydration force is obtained within a distance of ~2 nm between the two mica surfaces, which cannot be explained by the continuum theory of double-layer repulsion. We find that this short-range repulsive hydration force is much stronger than the double-layer force between mica surfaces. Whereas the simulation system is much smaller than the surface force measurement system, fundamental mechanisms of repulsive hydration force are revealed. In particular, important features of the step-like force oscillatory behavior during normal compression and force hysteresis during retraction are observed. Detailed analysis of the ionic density distributions shows that the "forced adsorption" of diffusive K(+) ions onto mica surfaces during compression and the subsequent "slow desorption" of the absorbed K(+) ions from mica surfaces upon retraction are responsible for the hysteresis phenomenon. From a mechanics point of view, we attribute the load bearing capacity of the dense electrolyte to the very hard hydration shells of K(+) metal ions under confinement. We find that the hydrated K(+) ions and Cl(-) co-ions remain very diffusive in the aqueous film. Water molecules in the hydration layer are also very fluidic, in the sense that the diffusion constant of water molecules is less than its bulk value by at most 3 orders of magnitude under the extreme confinement. PMID:22369483

  6. Anisotropic particles near surfaces: Propulsion force and friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Boris; Krüger, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    We theoretically study the phenomenon of propulsion through Casimir forces in thermal nonequilibrium. Using fluctuational electrodynamics, we derive a formula for the propulsion force for an arbitrary small object in two scenarios: (i) for the object being isolated, and (ii) for the object being close to a planar surface. In the latter case, the propulsion force (i.e., the force parallel to the surface) increases with decreasing distance, i.e., it couples to the near field. We numerically calculate the lateral force acting on a hot spheroid near a surface and show that it can be as large as the gravitational force, thus being potentially measurable in fly-by experiments. We close by linking our results to well-known relations of linear-response theory in fluctuational electrodynamics: Looking at the friction of the anisotropic object for constant velocity, we identify a correction term that is additional to the typically used approach.

  7. Surface Biology of DNA by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Helen G.

    2001-10-01

    The atomic force microscope operates on surfaces. Since surfaces occupy much of the space in living organisms, surface biology is a valid and valuable form of biology that has been difficult to investigate in the past owing to a lack of good technology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of DNA has been used to investigate DNA condensation for gene therapy, DNA mapping and sizing, and a few applications to cancer research and to nanotechnology. Some of the most exciting new applications for atomic force microscopy of DNA involve pulling on single DNA molecules to obtain measurements of single-molecule mechanics and thermodynamics.

  8. Recent advances in the surface forces apparatus (SFA) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israelachvili, J.; Min, Y.; Akbulut, M.; Alig, A.; Carver, G.; Greene, W.; Kristiansen, K.; Meyer, E.; Pesika, N.; Rosenberg, K.; Zeng, H.

    2010-03-01

    The surface forces apparatus (SFA) has been used for many years to measure the physical forces between surfaces, such as van der Waals (including Casimir) and electrostatic forces in vapors and liquids, adhesion and capillary forces, forces due to surface and liquid structure (e.g. solvation and hydration forces), polymer, steric and hydrophobic interactions, bio-specific interactions as well as friction and lubrication forces. Here we describe recent developments in the SFA technique, specifically the SFA 2000, its simplicity of operation and its extension into new areas of measurement of both static and dynamic forces as well as both normal and lateral (shear and friction) forces. The main reason for the greater simplicity of the SFA 2000 is that it operates on one central simple-cantilever spring to generate both coarse and fine motions over a total range of seven orders of magnitude (from millimeters to ångstroms). In addition, the SFA 2000 is more spacious and modulated so that new attachments and extra parts can easily be fitted for performing more extended types of experiments (e.g. extended strain friction experiments and higher rate dynamic experiments) as well as traditionally non-SFA type experiments (e.g. scanning probe microscopy and atomic force microscopy) and for studying different types of systems.

  9. Force-Control Algorithm for Surface Sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acikmese, Behcet; Quadrelli, Marco B.; Phan, Linh

    2008-01-01

    A G-FCON algorithm is designed for small-body surface sampling. It has a linearization component and a feedback component to enhance performance. The algorithm regulates the contact force between the tip of a robotic arm attached to a spacecraft and a surface during sampling.

  10. Chemical identification of individual surface atoms by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Pou, Pablo; Abe, Masayuki; Jelinek, Pavel; Pérez, Rubén; Morita, Seizo; Custance, Oscar

    2007-03-01

    Scanning probe microscopy is a versatile and powerful method that uses sharp tips to image, measure and manipulate matter at surfaces with atomic resolution. At cryogenic temperatures, scanning probe microscopy can even provide electron tunnelling spectra that serve as fingerprints of the vibrational properties of adsorbed molecules and of the electronic properties of magnetic impurity atoms, thereby allowing chemical identification. But in many instances, and particularly for insulating systems, determining the exact chemical composition of surfaces or nanostructures remains a considerable challenge. In principle, dynamic force microscopy should make it possible to overcome this problem: it can image insulator, semiconductor and metal surfaces with true atomic resolution, by detecting and precisely measuring the short-range forces that arise with the onset of chemical bonding between the tip and surface atoms and that depend sensitively on the chemical identity of the atoms involved. Here we report precise measurements of such short-range chemical forces, and show that their dependence on the force microscope tip used can be overcome through a normalization procedure. This allows us to use the chemical force measurements as the basis for atomic recognition, even at room temperature. We illustrate the performance of this approach by imaging the surface of a particularly challenging alloy system and successfully identifying the three constituent atomic species silicon, tin and lead, even though these exhibit very similar chemical properties and identical surface position preferences that render any discrimination attempt based on topographic measurements impossible. PMID:17330040

  11. Graphene thickness dependent adhesion force and its correlation to surface roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Pourzand, Hoorad; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    2014-04-28

    In this paper, adhesion force of graphene layers on 300 nm silicon oxide is studied. A simple model for measuring adhesion force for a flat surface with sub-nanometer roughness was developed and is shown that small surface roughness decreases adhesion force while large roughness results in an effectively larger adhesion forces. We also show that surface roughness over scales comparable to the tip radius increase by nearly a factor of two, the effective adhesion force measured by the atomic force microscopy. Thus, we demonstrate that surface roughness is an important parameter that should be taken into account in analyzing the adhesion force measurement results.

  12. Measuring the structure of thin soft matter films under confinement: A surface-force type apparatus for neutron reflection, based on a flexible membrane approach

    SciTech Connect

    Vos, Wiebe M. de; Mears, Laura L. E.; Richardson, Robert M.; Cosgrove, Terence; Prescott, Stuart W.; Dalgliesh, Robert M.

    2012-11-15

    A unique surface force type apparatus that allows the investigation of a confined thin film using neutron reflection is described. The central feature of the setup consists of a solid substrate (silicon) and a flexible polymer membrane (Melinex{sup Registered-Sign }). We show that inflation of the membrane against the solid surface provides close and even contact between the interfaces over a large surface area. Both heavy water and air can be completely squeezed out from between the flexible film and the solid substrate, leaving them in molecular contact. The strength of confinement is controlled by the pressure used to inflate the membrane. Dust provides a small problem for this approach as it can get trapped between membrane and substrate to prevent a small part of the membrane from making good contact with the substrate. This results in the measured neutron reflectivity containing a small component of an unwanted reflection, between 10% and 20% at low confining pressures (1 bar) and between 1% and 5% at high confining pressures (5 bar). However, we show that this extra signal does not prevent good and clear information on the structure of thin films being extracted from the neutron reflectivity. The effects of confinement are illustrated with data from a poly(vinyl pyrollidone) gel layer in water, a polyelectrolyte multilayer in water, and with data from a stack of supported lipid-bilayers swollen with D{sub 2}O vapor. The data demonstrates the potential of this apparatus to provide information on the structure of thin films under confinement for a known confining pressure.

  13. Dynamic Force Measurement with Strain Gauges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bruce E.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the use of four strain gauges, a Wheatstone bridge, and an oscilloscope to measure forces dynamically. Included is an example of determining the centripetal force of a pendulum in a general physics laboratory. (CC)

  14. Friction and Adhesion Forces of Bacillus thuringiensis Spores on Planar Surfaces in Atmospheric Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kweon, Hyojin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic friction force and the adhesion force of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on planar surfaces in atmospheric systems were studied using atomic force microscopy. The influence of relative humidity (RH) on these forces varied for different surface properties including hydrophobicity, roughness, and surface charge. The friction force of the spore was greater on a rougher surface than on mica, which is atomically flat. As RH increases, the friction force of the spores decreases on mica whereas it increases on rough surfaces. The influence of RH on the interaction forces between hydrophobic surfaces is not as strong as for hydrophilic surfaces. The friction force of the spore is linear to the sum of the adhesion force and normal load on the hydrophobic surface. The poorly defined surface structure of the spore and the adsorption of contaminants from the surrounding atmosphere are believed to cause a discrepancy between the calculated and measured adhesion forces.

  15. Force measurements in aerodynamics using piezoelectric multicomponent force transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schewe, G.

    The present paper is concerned with a device for the measurement of steady and unsteady aerodynamic forces in a wind tunnel test. The paper represents a continuation of an article written by Schewe (1982) about a multicomponent balance consisting of piezoelectric force transducers for a high-pressure wind tunnel. Advantages of the piezoelectric force-measuring technique compared to other techniques are related to the high rigidity of the quartz crystal sensor elements, taking into account low interference (cross talk) for multicomponent measurements, high natural frequency, and broad dynamic range. It is pointed out that the limitations with respect to quasi-static measurements imposed by the drift of the zero point are not as extensive as generally believed, while drift correction methods improve the measurement accuracy.

  16. The impact of rubbing fabric type on surface roughness and tribological properties of some semi-alicyclic polyimides evaluated from atomic force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Iuliana; Barzic, Andreea Irina; Hulubei, Camelia

    2013-03-01

    The morphology of some polyimides (PI) prepared from a flexible and alicyclic dianhydride, in combination with aromatic diamines was investigated in detail before and after rubbing with two types of fabric: cotton velvet (CV) and cellulose diacetate velvet (CDV). Atomic force microscopy was employed to evaluate the correlation between rubbing-induced grooves in PI film and size/flexibility of textile fibers. For both samples surface isotropy decreased appreciatively with 91% after patterning since the appearance of ordered nanostructures in the direction of rubbing. The angular spectra reveal the generation of a surface anisotropy after rubbing process and a higher surface regularity and uniformity when using CV. This result is confirmed by decrease of texture direction index with 75% and of surface texture aspect ratio with 89%. These parameters together with the rubbing fiber characteristics are key factors in controlling liquid crystal alignment on patterned PI surfaces.

  17. Friction measurements using force versus distance friction loops in force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, G. S.; Dinte, B. P.; Blach-Watson, J. A.; Myhra, S.

    2004-07-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) allows investigation of the properties of surfaces and interfaces at atomic scale resolution. However, several different operational modes (imaging, force versus distance and lateral force), need to be deployed in order to gain insight into the structure, tribiological and mechanical properties. A new method, based on a variation of the force versus distance mode, has been developed. In essence, a coupling of the deformational modes of the probe is exploited whereby the tip is induced to undergo lateral travel in response to application of an out-of-plane force (and thus normal bending of the force-sensing lever). The lateral travel induces in-plane forces that are then measurable as a consequence of stimulation of the 'buckling' deformational mode of the lever. Outcomes will be demonstrated for atomically flat surfaces of WTe 2 and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  18. Correlation between frictional force and surface roughness of orthodontic archwires.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samjin; Hwang, Eun-Young; Park, Hun-Kuk; Park, Young-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Lateral force microscopy measures the lateral bending of the cantilever depending on the frictional force acting between the tip and surface. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the relationship between the surface roughness and frictional resistance of four archwire and bracket combinations consisting of the 0.016-inch NiTi and 0.019 × 0.025-inch stainless steel archwires interacting clinically with two representative self-ligating brackets, active-type Clippy-C(®) ceramic self-ligating brackets, and passive-type Damon(®) stainless steel self-ligating brackets, using the lateral force microscopy technique. A 0.016-inch NiTi archwire interacting with passive-type Damon(®) stainless steel self-ligating brackets showed the smoothest surface roughness and the lowest frictional resistance compared to other combinations. The archwires interacting with passive-type Damon(®) stainless steel self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower surface roughness and frictional resistance than those interacting with active-type Clippy-C(®) ceramic self-ligating brackets. The frictional force in the in vivo archwire and bracket system increased with increasing surface roughness of the archwire. This positive correlation suggests that surface roughness can be used as an evaluating marker for estimating the efficiency of orthodontic treatment, rather than the direct measurement of frictional force. PMID:26018223

  19. Lateral force calibration: accurate procedures for colloidal probe friction measurements in atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Koo-Hyun; Pratt, Jon R; Reitsma, Mark G

    2010-01-19

    The colloidal probe technique for atomic force microscopy (AFM) has allowed the investigation of an extensive range of surface force phenomena, including the measurement of frictional (lateral) forces between numerous materials. The quantitative accuracy of such friction measurements is often debated, in part due to a lack of confidence in existing calibration strategies. Here we compare three in situ AFM lateral force calibration techniques using a single colloidal probe, seeking to establish a foundation for quantitative measurement by linking these techniques to accurate force references available at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. We introduce a procedure for calibrating the AFM lateral force response to known electrostatic forces applied directly to the conductive colloidal probe. In a second procedure, we apply known force directly to the colloidal probe using a precalibrated piezo-resistive reference cantilever. We found agreement between these direct methods on the order of 2% (within random uncertainty for both measurements). In a third procedure, we performed a displacement-based calibration using the piezo-resistive reference cantilever as a stiffness reference artifact. The method demonstrated agreement on the order of 7% with the direct force methods, with the difference attributed to an expected systematic uncertainty, caused by in-plane deflection in the cantilever during loading. The comparison establishes the existing limits of instrument accuracy and sets down a basis for selection criteria for materials and methods in colloidal probe friction (lateral) force measurements via atomic force microscopy. PMID:19827782

  20. Quantifying mineral surface energy by scanning force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sauerer, Bastian; Stukan, Mikhail; Abdallah, Wael; Derkani, Maryam H; Fedorov, Maxim; Buiting, Jan; Zhang, Zhenyu J

    2016-06-15

    Fundamental understanding of the wettability of carbonate formations can potentially be applied to the development of oil recovery strategies in a complex carbonate reservoir. In the present study, surface energies of representative carbonate samples were evaluated by direct quantitative force measurements, using scanning force microscopy (SFM) at sub-micron scale, to develop a reliable method to predict reservoir wettability. Local adhesion force measurements were conducted on appropriate calcite and dolomite samples and performed in air as well as in the presence of polar and nonpolar fluids. This study demonstrated that, by comparing measurements of adhesion forces between samples of the same mineral in different fluids, it is feasible to determine the surface energy of a given mineral as well as its polar and nonpolar components. The derived values are in agreement with literature. A proof-of-principle protocol has been established to quantify surface energy using SFM-based adhesion measurements. This novel methodology complements the conventional contact angle measurement technique, where surface energy can only be examined at large length scale. The reported methodology has great potential for further optimization into a new standard method for fast and accurate surface energy determination, and hence provides a new tool for reservoir rock wettability characterization. PMID:27054773

  1. Force measurement in a nanomachining instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Hocken, Robert J.; Patten, John A.; Lovingood, John

    2000-11-01

    Two miniature, high sensitivity force transducers were employed to measure the thrust force along the in-feed direction and the cutting force along the cross-feed direction in a nanomachining instrument. The instrument was developed for conducting fundamental experiments of nanocutting especially on brittle materials. The force transducers of piezoelectric quartz type can measure machining forces ranging from 0.2 mN to 10 N. The submillinewton resolution makes it possible to measure the machining forces in the cutting experiments with depths of cut as small as the nanometer level. The stiffness and resonant frequency of the force transducers are 400 mN/nm and 300 kHz, respectively, which meet the specification of the instrument. A force transducer assembly is designed to provide a mechanism to adjust the preload on the force transducer and to decouple the measurement of forces. The assembly consists of three dual-axis circular flexures and a subframe. The axial stiffness of the flexures is designed to be greater than 6×107 N/m and the lateral stiffness of the flexures is designed to be 1×106 N/m to provide proper decoupling of forces.

  2. Micromechanical cohesion force measurements to determine cyclopentane hydrate interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Aman, Zachary M; Joshi, Sanjeev E; Sloan, E Dendy; Sum, Amadeu K; Koh, Carolyn A

    2012-06-15

    Hydrate aggregation and deposition are critical factors in determining where and when hydrates may plug a deepwater flowline. We present the first direct measurement of structure II (cyclopentane) hydrate cohesive forces in the water, liquid hydrocarbon and gas bulk phases. For fully annealed hydrate particles, gas phase cohesive forces were approximately twice that obtained in a liquid hydrocarbon phase, and approximately six times that obtained in the water phase. Direct measurements show that hydrate cohesion force in a water-continuous bulk may be only the product of solid-solid cohesion. When excess water was present on the hydrate surface, gas phase cohesive forces increased by a factor of three, suggesting the importance of the liquid or quasi-liquid layer (QLL) in determining cohesive force. Hydrate-steel adhesion force measurements show that, when the steel surface is coated with hydrophobic wax, forces decrease up to 96%. As the micromechanical force technique is uniquely capable of measuring hydrate-surface forces with variable contact time, the present work contains significant implications for hydrate applications in flow assurance. PMID:22484169

  3. Measuring the force of drag on air sheared sessile drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Andrew J. B.; Fleck, Brian; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2012-11-01

    To blow a drop along or off of a surface (i.e. to shed the drop), the drag force on the drop (based on flow conditions, drop shape, and fluid properties) must overcome the adhesion force between the drop and the surface (based on surface tension, drop shape, and contact angle). While the shedding of sessile drops by shear flow has been studied [Milne, A. J. B. & Amirfazli, A. Langmuir 25, 14155 (2009).], no independent measurements of the drag or adhesion forces have been made. Likewise, analytic predictions are limited to hemispherical drops and low air velocities. We present, therefore, measurements of the drag force on sessile drops at air velocities up to the point of incipient motion. Measurements were made using a modified floating element shear sensor in a laminar low speed wind tunnel to record drag force over the surface with the drop absent, and over the combined system of the surface and drop partially immersed in the boundary layer. Surfaces of different wettabilities were used to study the effects of drop shape and contact angles, with drop volume ranged between approximately 10 and 100 microlitres. The drag force for incipient motion (which by definition equals the maximum of the adhesion force) is compared to simplified models for drop adhesion such as that of Furmidge

  4. Knee joint forces: prediction, measurement, and significance

    PubMed Central

    D’Lima, Darryl D.; Fregly, Benjamin J.; Patil, Shantanu; Steklov, Nikolai; Colwell, Clifford W.

    2011-01-01

    Knee forces are highly significant in osteoarthritis and in the survival and function of knee arthroplasty. A large number of studies have attempted to estimate forces around the knee during various activities. Several approaches have been used to relate knee kinematics and external forces to internal joint contact forces, the most popular being inverse dynamics, forward dynamics, and static body analyses. Knee forces have also been measured in vivo after knee arthroplasty, which serves as valuable validation of computational predictions. This review summarizes the results of published studies that measured knee forces for various activities. The efficacy of various methods to alter knee force distribution, such as gait modification, orthotics, walking aids, and custom treadmills are analyzed. Current gaps in our knowledge are identified and directions for future research in this area are outlined. PMID:22468461

  5. Knee joint forces: prediction, measurement, and significance.

    PubMed

    D'Lima, Darryl D; Fregly, Benjamin J; Patil, Shantanu; Steklov, Nikolai; Colwell, Clifford W

    2012-02-01

    Knee forces are highly significant in osteoarthritis and in the survival and function of knee arthroplasty. A large number of studies have attempted to estimate forces around the knee during various activities. Several approaches have been used to relate knee kinematics and external forces to internal joint contact forces, the most popular being inverse dynamics, forward dynamics, and static body analyses. Knee forces have also been measured in vivo after knee arthroplasty, which serves as valuable validation of computational predictions. This review summarizes the results of published studies that measured knee forces for various activities. The efficacy of various methods to alter knee force distribution, such as gait modification, orthotics, walking aids, and custom treadmills are analyzed. Current gaps in our knowledge are identified and directions for future research in this area are outlined. PMID:22468461

  6. Sub-Angstrom oscillation amplitude non-contact atomic force microscopy for lateral force gradient measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atabak, Mehrdad; Ünverdi, Özhan; Özer, H. Özgür; Oral, Ahmet

    2009-12-01

    We report the first results from novel sub-Angstrom oscillation amplitude non-contact atomic force microscopy developed for lateral force gradient measurements. Quantitative lateral force gradients between a tungsten tip and Si(1 1 1)-(7 × 7) surface can be measured using this microscope. Simultaneous lateral force gradient and scanning tunnelling microscope images of single and multi atomic steps are obtained. In our measurement, tunnel current is used as feedback. The lateral stiffness contrast has been observed to be 2.5 N/m at single atomic step, in contrast to 13 N/m at multi atomic step on Si(1 1 1) surface. We also carried out a series of lateral stiffness-distance spectroscopy. We observed lateral stiffness-distance curves exhibit sharp increase in the stiffness as the sample is approached towards the surface. We usually observed positive stiffness and sometimes going into slightly negative region.

  7. On averaging force curves over heterogeneous surfaces in atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, I; Kalaparthi, V; Kreshchuk, M; Dokukin, M E

    2012-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be used to study mechanics at the nanoscale. Biological surfaces and nanocomposites have typically heterogeneous surfaces, both mechanically and chemically. When studying such surfaces with AFM, one needs to collect a large amount of data to make statistically sound conclusions. It is time- and resource-consuming to process each force curve separately. The analysis of an averaged raw force data is a simple and time saving option, which also averages out the noise and measurement artifacts of the force curves being analyzed. Moreover, some biomedical applications require just an average number per biological cell. Here we investigate such averaging, study the possible artifacts due to the averaging, and demonstrate how to minimize or even to avoid them. We analyze two ways of doing the averaging: over the force data for each particular distance (method 1, the most commonly used way), and over the distances for each particular force (method 2). We derive the errors of the methods in finding to the true average rigidity modulus. We show that both methods are accurate (the error is <2%) when the heterogeneity of the surface rigidity is small (<50%). When the heterogeneity is large (>100×), method 2 underestimates the average rigidity modulus by a factor of 2, whereas the error of method 1 is only 15%. However, when analyzing the different surface chemistry, which reveals itself in the changing long-range forces, the accuracy of the methods behave oppositely: method 1 can produce a noticeable averaging artifact in the deriving of the long-range forces; whereas method 2 can be successfully used to derive the averaged long-range force parameters without artifacts. We exemplify our conclusions by the study of human cervical cancer and normal epithelial cells, which demonstrate different degrees of heterogeneity. PMID:22917859

  8. Simultaneous measurement of force and tunneling current at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Morita, Ken-ichi; Abe, Masayuki; Morita, Seizo

    2009-04-01

    We have performed simultaneous scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy measurements in the dynamic mode using metal-coated Si cantilevers at room temperature. Frequency shift (Δf) and time-average tunneling current (⟨It⟩) images are obtained by tip scanning on the Si(111)-(7×7) surface at constant height mode. By measuring site-specific Δf(⟨It⟩) versus tip-surface distance curves, we derive the force (tunneling current) at the closest separation between the sample surface and the oscillating tip. We observe the drop in the tunneling current due to the chemical interaction between the tip apex atom and the surface adatom, which was found recently, and estimate the value of the chemical bonding force. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy using the same tip shows that the tip is metallic enough to measure local density of states of electrons on the surface.

  9. Surface properties and interaction forces of biopolymer-doped conductive polypyrrole surfaces by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pelto, Jani M; Haimi, Suvi P; Siljander, Aliisa S; Miettinen, Susanna S; Tappura, Kirsi M; Higgins, Michael J; Wallace, Gordon G

    2013-05-21

    Surface properties and electrical charges are critical factors elucidating cell interactions on biomaterial surfaces. The surface potential distribution and the nanoscopic and microscopic surface elasticity of organic polypyrrole-hyaluronic acid (PPy-HA) were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in a fluid environment in order to explain the observed enhancement in the attachment of human adipose stem cells on positively charged PPy-HA films. The electrostatic force between the AFM tip and a charged PPy-HA surface, the tip-sample adhesion force, and elastic moduli were estimated from the AFM force curves, and the data were fitted to electrostatic double-layer and elastic contact models. The surface potential of the charged and dried PPy-HA films was assessed with Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), and the KPFM data were correlated to the fluid AFM data. The surface charge distribution and elasticity were both found to correlate well with the nodular morphology of PPy-HA and to be sensitive to the electrochemical charging conditions. Furthermore, a significant change in the adhesion was detected when the surface was electrochemically charged positive. The results highlight the potential of positively charged PPy-HA as a coating material to enhance the stem cell response in tissue-engineering scaffolds. PMID:23621360

  10. Interaction forces between silica surfaces in cationic surfactant solutions: an atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Lüderitz, Liset A C; v Klitzing, Regine

    2013-07-15

    The interaction forces between silicon oxide surfaces in the presence of surfactant solutions were studied. Based on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these interaction forces the correlation with the structure of the aggregates on the surfaces is analyzed. A colloidal probe atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the forces between two colloidal silica particles and between a colloidal particle and a silicon wafer in the presence of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) at concentrations between 0.005 mM and 1.2 mM. Different interaction forces were obtained for the silica particle-silica particle system when compared to those for the silica particle-silicon wafer system for the same studied concentration. This indicates that the silica particles and the silicon wafer have different aggregate morphologies on their surfaces. The point of zero charge (pzc) was obtained at 0.05 mM CTAB concentration for the silica particles and at 0.3mM for the silica particle-silicon wafer system. This indicates a higher charge at the silicon wafer than at the silica particles. The observed long range attractions are explained by nanobubbles present at the silicon oxide surfaces and/or by attractive electrostatic interactions between the surfaces, induced by oppositely charged patches at the opposing Si oxide surfaces. PMID:23647691

  11. Friction force measurements relevant to de-inking by means of atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Theander, Katarina; Pugh, Robert J; Rutland, Mark W

    2005-11-15

    In the pulping step of the de-inking process, the ink detaches from the fibers due to shear and physical chemical interaction. In order to get a better understanding of the forces involved between cellulose and ink, the atomic force microscope and the colloidal probe technique have been used in the presence of a model chemical dispersant (hexa-ethyleneglycol mono n-dodecyl ether, C12E6). A cellulose bead was used as the colloidal probe and three different lower surfaces have been used, an alkyd resin, mica and a cellulose sphere. The normal and lateral forces have been measured at a range of nonionic concentrations. It was found that the lateral sliding friction forces deceased with increasing surfactant concentration for both the alkyd resin and mica while no differences were observed for the cellulose surface. In addition, only a very small change in normal force could be detected for the alkyd surface as the concentration changed. PMID:15961095

  12. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing.

    PubMed

    Gravesen, Flemming H; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2009-01-14

    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external force transducers over in-vivo strain gauges of various sizes to electrical impedance based measurements. The amplitude and duration of the axial force has been shown to be as reliable as manometry. Normal, as well as abnormal, manometric recordings occur with normal bolus transit, which have been documented using imaging modalities such as radiography and scintigraphy. This inconsistency using manometry has also been documented by axial force recordings. This underlines the lack of information when diagnostics are based on manometry alone. Increasing the volume of a bag mounted on a probe with combined axial force and manometry recordings showed that axial force amplitude increased by 130% in contrast to an increase of 30% using manometry. Using axial force in combination with manometry provides a more complete picture of esophageal motility, and the current paper outlines the advantages of using this method. PMID:19132762

  13. Surface cleanliness measurement procedure

    DOEpatents

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  14. Force Measurement Device for ARIANE 5 Payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, O.; Braeken, R.

    2004-08-01

    ESTEC uses since 1991 a Force Measurement Device (FMD) for the measurement of dynamic mechanical forces and moments. This tool allows the determination of forces and moments applied to the test hardware at its interface to the test facilities during dynamic testing. Three forces and three moments are calculated from the measurements of eight tri-axial force links and used to either characterize the dynamic mechanical behaviour of the test item and/or to control forces and moments during vibration testing (force limited vibration control). The current FMD is limited to test items with an interface diameter of up to about 1.2 m (adapter already available) and a mass compatible with ARIANE 4 payloads. The limitations of the current system come from the maximum of eight tri-axial force links and from the analogue technique of the Signal Processing Unit (SPU) that allows only a limited number of geometric configurations for the mechanical interface. Following the success of the FMD during former test campaigns, e.g. ROSETTA STM + FM, the need for a FMD, compatible with ARIANE 5 payloads has been established. Therefore ESA decided to develop a new FMD system. The system will include a digital real time SPU with 72 force input channels, corresponding to 24 tri-axes force sensors or 72 mono axial force sensors. The SPU design will allow extending the number of force input channels to 144. The set-up of the FMD will be done via a standard PC interface. The user will enter for each force sensor the location and the measurement direction in the reference coordinate system. Based on the geometrical information and the maximum forces and moments expected the PC will calculate the optimum range settings for the charge-amplifiers and the corresponding matrix with weighting factors which will allow to perform a fast calculation of the six output forces and moments from the 72 (or 144) input forces. The six output channels with forces and moments can then be connected either to the

  15. Development of a force measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmar, Otto

    1991-10-01

    The development of a Force Measurement Device (FMD) for recording interface forces between shaker table and Ariane 4 satellites is reported. The FMD is designed to measure forces and moments in the frequency range from 0.1 to 100 Hz with an accuracy better than 3 percent in basic modes up to 20 Hz, and 7 percent for higher modes. The ring shaped FMD concept contains 8 piezoelectronic force links and an analog electronic signal processing unit for reduction of the measured signals to 3 total forces and 3 moments. These are output to the test site signal analysis system. The required accuracy of the output and the structural safety of the device were verified by static tests.

  16. Augmented Computer Mouse Would Measure Applied Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Larry C. H.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed computer mouse measures force of contact applied by user. Adds another dimension to two-dimensional-position-measuring capability of conventional computer mouse; force measurement designated to represent any desired continuously variable function of time and position, such as control force, acceleration, velocity, or position along axis perpendicular to computer video display. Proposed mouse enhances sense of realism and intuition in interaction between operator and computer. Useful in such applications as three-dimensional computer graphics, computer games, and mathematical modeling of dynamics.

  17. Surface force spectroscopic point load measurements and viscoelastic modelling of the micromechanical properties of air flow sensitive hairs of a spider (Cupiennius salei)

    PubMed Central

    McConney, Michael E.; Schaber, Clemens F.; Julian, Michael D.; Eberhardt, William C.; Humphrey, Joseph A.C.; Barth, Friedrich G.; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    The micromechanical properties of spider air flow hair sensilla (trichobothria) were characterized with nanometre resolution using surface force spectroscopy (SFS) under conditions of different constant deflection angular velocities (rad s−1) for hairs 900–950 μm long prior to shortening for measurement purposes. In the range of angular velocities examined (4×10−4−2.6×10−1 rad s−1), the torque T (Nm) resisting hair motion and its time rate of change (Nm s−1) were found to vary with deflection velocity according to power functions. In this range of angular velocities, the motion of the hair is most accurately captured by a three-parameter solid model, which numerically describes the properties of the hair suspension. A fit of the three-parameter model (3p) to the experimental data yielded the two torsional restoring parameters, S 3p=2.91×10−11 Nm rad−1 and =2.77×10−11 Nm rad−1 and the damping parameter R 3p=1.46×10−12 Nm s rad−1. For angular velocities larger than 0.05 rad s−1, which are common under natural conditions, a more accurate angular momentum equation was found to be given by a two-parameter Kelvin solid model. For this case, the multiple regression fit yielded S 2p=4.89×10−11 Nm rad−1 and R 2p=2.83×10−14 Nm s rad−1 for the model parameters. While the two-parameter model has been used extensively in earlier work primarily at high hair angular velocities, to correctly capture the motion of the hair at both low and high angular velocities it is necessary to employ the three-parameter model. It is suggested that the viscoelastic mechanical properties of the hair suspension work to promote the phasic response behaviour of the sensilla. PMID:19091682

  18. Laser Photon Force Measurements using a CW Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Perry; Edwards, David L.; Carruth, M. Ralph, Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The photon force resulting from the non-damaging impact of laser derived photons on a metallic target was measured using a vacuum compatible microbalance. This experiment quantitatively verified that the force resulting from laser photons impacting a reflective surface is measurable and predictable. The photon wavelength is 1064 mn and the laser is a multi-mode 30OW Nd YAG continuous wave (CW) laser.

  19. Micromechanical apparatus for measurement of forces

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, Danelle Mary; Allen, James Joe

    2004-05-25

    A new class of micromechanical dynamometers has been disclosed which are particularly suited to fabrication in parallel with other microelectromechanical apparatus. Forces in the microNewton regime and below can be measured with such dynamometers which are based on a high-compliance deflection element (e.g. a ring or annulus) suspended above a substrate for deflection by an applied force, and one or more distance scales for optically measuring the deflection.

  20. Measuring the conductivity dependence of the Casimir force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Schafer, Robert; Banishev, Alexandr; Mohideen, Umar

    2015-03-01

    The strength and distance dependence of the Casimir force can be controlled through the conductivity of the material bodies, with lower conductivity in general leading to lower Casimir forces. However low conductivity, large bandgap materials which are insulating, have drawbacks as any surface electrostatic charges cannot be easily compensated. This restricts experiments to metallic or highly doped semiconductor materials. We will report on measurements of the Casimir force gradient using the frequency shift technique. Improvements in the measurement technique will be discussed. Measurements of the Casimir force gradient using low and high conductivity silicon surfaces will be reported. The authors thank G.L. Klimchitskaya and V.M. Mostepanenko for help with the theory and the US National Science Foundation for funding the research.

  1. Mastication forces and implant-bearing surface.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, M G; Lauret, J F; Saadoun, A P

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the shift of emphasis in implantology from the phenomenon of osseointegration of implants to the accurate fabrication of the prosthesis, recognizing the implant/prosthesis unit as an actual replica rather than a replacement of the missing tooth. The study of kinetics with its succession of mandibular cycles is used to discuss the integration of mastication and occlusion. The importance of periimplant ligament in natural teeth is discussed, along with the impact of its absence on implant mobility. The impact of the bone types and the root surface architecture on the implant-bearing surface is presented along with the stress of the mastication forces. All these factors have to be considered in the treatment planning and effectively communicated to the laboratory. The learning objective of this article is to provide updated information in those areas for the reader. PMID:7488751

  2. Influence of aerosols on surface reaching spectral irradiance and introduction to a new technique of estimating aerosol radiative forcing from high resolution spectral flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Roshan

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol radiative forcing estimates with high certainty are required in climate change studies. The approach in estimating the aerosol radiative forcing by using the chemical composition of aerosols is not effective as the chemical composition data with radiative properties are not widely available. We look into the approach where ground based spectral radiation flux measurement is made and along with an Radtiative transfer (RT) model, radiative forcing is estimated. Measurements of spectral flux were made using an ASD spectroradiometer with 350 - 1050 nm wavelength range and a 3nm resolution during around 54 clear-sky days during which AOD range was around 0.01 to 0.7. Simultaneous measurements of black carbon were also made using Aethalometer (Magee Scientific) which ranged from around 1.5 ug/m3 to 8 ug/m3. The primary study involved in understanding the sensitivity of spectral flux due to change in individual aerosol species (Optical properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) classified aerosol species) using the SBDART RT model. This made us clearly distinguish the influence of different aerosol species on the spectral flux. Following this, a new technique has been introduced to estimate an optically equivalent mixture of aerosol species for the given location. The new method involves matching different combinations of aerosol species in OPAC model and RT model as long as the combination which gives the minimum root mean squared deviation from measured spectral flux is obtained. Using the optically equivalent aerosol mixture and RT model, aerosol radiative forcing is estimated. Also an alternate method to estimate the spectral SSA is discussed. Here, the RT model, the observed spectral flux and spectral AOD is used. Spectral AOD is input to RT model and SSA is varied till the minimum root mean squared difference between observed and simulated spectral flux from RT model is obtained. The methods discussed are limited to clear sky scenes and its accuracy to derive

  3. Measurement and analysis of forces in grinding of silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Jahanmir, S.; Hwang, T.; Whitenton, E.P.; Job, L.S.; Evans, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Using an instrumented surface grinder, the two components of grinding forces (normal and tangential) were measured for different types of silicon nitride ceramics. The influences of grinding parameters, such as down feed and table speed, and grinding fluids on forces were determined. In addition to these measurements, the specific grinding energy defined as the energy per unit volume of removed material was calculated. This parameter and the measured forces were then analyzed to determine possible correlations with mechanical properties of the silicon nitrides. It was found that, in general, the grinding forces and the specific grinding energy increase with the hardness. Both the grinding forces and the specific grinding energy were influenced by the grinding fluid and the grinding parameters. The implication of these results on the mechanisms of material removal in grinding of silicon nitride and the possible tribological effects are discussed.

  4. Detecting climate forcing and feedback signals in surface climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, Richard; Esau, Igor

    2015-04-01

    The Earth has warmed in the last century and a large component of that warming has been attributed to the build-up of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. There are also numerous feedback processes which can introduce strong, regionalized asymmetries to the overall warming trend. These processes alter the surface energy budget, and thus affect the surface air temperature, which is one of the primary measures of how the climate is changing. However, the degree to which a given forcing or feedback process alters surface temperatures is contingent on the effective heat capacity of the atmosphere which is defined by the depth of the planetary boundary layer. This can vary by an order of magnitude on different temporal and spatial scales, which can lead to a strongly amplified temperature response in shallow boundary layers. Therefore, if a climate forcing or feedback is acting across a wide range of conditions of the boundary layer, then this non-linear response of the surface climate to perturbations in the forcing must be accounted for in order to correctly assess the effect of the forcing on the surface climatology.

  5. Phoretic Force Measurement for Microparticles Under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. J.; Zheng, R.

    1999-01-01

    This theoretical and experimental investigation of the collisional interactions between gas molecules and solid and liquid surfaces of microparticles involves fundamental studies of the transfer of energy, mass and momentum between gas molecules and surfaces. The numerous applications include particle deposition on semiconductor surfaces and on surfaces in combustion processes, containerless processing, the production of nanophase materials, pigments and ceramic precursors, and pollution abatement technologies such as desulfurization of gaseous effluents from combustion processes. Of particular emphasis are the forces exerted on microparticles present in a nonuniform gas, that is, in gaseous surroundings involving temperature and concentration gradients. These so-called phoretic forces become the dominant forces when the gravitational force is diminished, and they are strongly dependent on the momentum transfer between gas molecules and the surface. The momentum transfer, in turn, depends on the gas and particle properties and the mean free path and kinetic energy of the gas molecules. The experimental program involves the particle levitation system shown. A micrometer size particle is held between two heat exchangers enclosed in a vacuum chamber by means of ac and dc electric fields. The ac field keeps the particle centered on the vertical axis of the chamber, and the dc field balances the gravitational force and the thermophoretic force. Some measurements of the thermophoretic force are presented in this paper.

  6. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  7. Fusion of intraoperative force sensoring, surface reconstruction and biomechanical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röhl, S.; Bodenstedt, S.; Küderle, C.; Suwelack, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B. P.; Dillmann, R.; Speidel, S.

    2012-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is medically complex and can heavily benefit from computer assistance. One way to help the surgeon is to integrate preoperative planning data into the surgical workflow. This information can be represented as a customized preoperative model of the surgical site. To use it intraoperatively, it has to be updated during the intervention due to the constantly changing environment. Hence, intraoperative sensor data has to be acquired and registered with the preoperative model. Haptic information which could complement the visual sensor data is still not established. In addition, biomechanical modeling of the surgical site can help in reflecting the changes which cannot be captured by intraoperative sensors. We present a setting where a force sensor is integrated into a laparoscopic instrument. In a test scenario using a silicone liver phantom, we register the measured forces with a reconstructed surface model from stereo endoscopic images and a finite element model. The endoscope, the instrument and the liver phantom are tracked with a Polaris optical tracking system. By fusing this information, we can transfer the deformation onto the finite element model. The purpose of this setting is to demonstrate the principles needed and the methods developed for intraoperative sensor data fusion. One emphasis lies on the calibration of the force sensor with the instrument and first experiments with soft tissue. We also present our solution and first results concerning the integration of the force sensor as well as accuracy to the fusion of force measurements, surface reconstruction and biomechanical modeling.

  8. Force Measurements of a varying camber hydrofoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najdzin, Derek; Bardet, Philippe M.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2013-11-01

    The swimming motion of cetaceans (dolphins, whales) is capable of producing large amounts of thrust as observed in nature. This project aims to determine the propulsive efficiency of this swimming motion through force and power measurements. A mechanism was constructed to replicate this motion by applying a combination of pitching and heaving motions to a varying camber hydrofoil. A novel force balance allows the measurement of three direction force and moments as the fin oscillates. A range of Reynolds and Strouhal numbers were tested to identify the most efficient conditions. Allowing the camber of the hydrofoil to vary has shown to increase lift generated, while generating similar thrust forces when compared to a constant camber hydrofoil.

  9. Brief: Field measurements of casing tension forces

    SciTech Connect

    Quigley, M.S.; Lewis, D.B.; Boswell, R.S.

    1995-02-01

    Tension forces acting on individual casing joints were accurately measured during installation of 10,158 ft of 9 5/8-in. {times} 47-lbm/ft casing and 11,960 ft of 11 7/8-in. {times} 71.8-lbm/ft casing. A unique casing load table (CLT) weighed the casing string after the addition of each casing joint. Strain gauges attached inside the pin ends of instrumented casing joints (ICJ`s) directly measured tension force on those joints. A high-speed computer data-acquisition system (DAS) automatically recorded data from all the sensors. Several casing joints were intentionally subjected to extreme deceleration to determine upper limits for dynamic tension forces. Data from these tests clearly show effects of wellbore friction and casing handling conditions. In every case, tension forces in the casing during maximum deceleration were considerably less than expected. In some cases, the highest tension forces occurred when the casing lifted out of the slips. Peak tension forces caused by setting the casing slips were typically no more than 5% greater than tension forces in the casing at rest. This dynamic amplification was far less than the 60% value used in the previous casing design method. Reducing the safety factor for installation loads has permitted use of lighter, less-expensive casing than dictated by older design criteria.

  10. Measuring Cell Forces by a Photoelastic Method

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Adam; Sokolikova-Csaderova, Lucia; Aitchison, Gregor

    2007-01-01

    A new method for measuring the mechanical forces exerted by cells on the substratum and through the substratum to act on other cells is described. This method depends upon the growth of cells on a photoelastic substratum, polydimethylsiloxane coated with a near monolayer of fibronectin. Changes in the forces applied by the cells to the substratum lead to changes in birefringence, which can be measured and recorded by the Polscope computer-controlled polarizing microscope. The changes in azimuth and retardance can be measured. A method for calibrating the stress is described. The method is sensitive down to forces of 1 pN per square microns. Fairly rapid changes with time can be recorded with a time resolution of ∼1 s. The observations show that both isolated adhering, spread cells and also cells close to contact exert stresses on the substratum and that the stresses are those that would be produced by forces of 10–1000 pN per cell. The forces are almost certainly exerted on nearby cells since movement of one cell causes strains to appear around other nearby cells. The method has the defect that strains under the cells, though detectable in principle, are unclear due to birefringence of the components of the cytoplasm and nucleus. It is of special interest that the strains on the substratum can change in the time course of a few seconds and appear to be concentrated near the base of the lamellopodium of the cell as though they originated there. As well as exerting forces on the substratum in the direction of the long axis of the cell, appreciable forces are exerted from the lateral sides of the cell. The observations and measurements tend to argue that microtopography and embedded beads can concentrate the forces. PMID:17189310

  11. Flapping wing PIV and force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Benjamin H.

    Flapping wing aerodynamics has been of interest to engineers recently due in part to the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) MAV (Micro-Aerial Vehicle) initiative. MAVs are small unmanned aerial vehicles with length scales similar to birds and insects. Flapping wing MAVs would serve as mobile and stealthy sensing platforms capable of gathering intelligence in hazardous and physically inaccessible locations. Traditional means of lift and thrust generation become inefficient when scaled to these sizes, therefore a flapping wing propulsion system will be necessary. The design of a flapping wing MAV requires the ability to measure forces and velocities around the wing. Three components of velocity were measured in the wake of a two dimensional (2D) flapping airfoil model using a novel application of stereoscopic DPIV (Digital Particle Image Velocimetry). One component of force was measured using a newly proposed method outlined in the dissertation. The force measurement technique relies on a specific sequence of data acquisition, which has the benefit of reducing measurement uncertainty and noise. No experiments of this type have been conducted, and no direct aerodynamic force data exists for the low Reynolds numbers applicable to flapping wing MAVs. The well-established stereoscopic DPIV technique produces relatively low uncertainties while the new force measurement technique has not been previously tested. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that aerodynamic forces are attainable for chord Reynolds numbers as low as 1,000, which is significantly lower than previous studies. PIV measurements reveal symmetric and asymmetric wake topologies for a NACA 0012 and flat plate airfoil. A sinusoidally heaving flat plate airfoil produces highly deflected wakes for a wider range of flapping conditions than a NACA 0012 airfoil. Deflected wakes are of potentially interest since both lift and thrust components of force are developed. The flat plate also

  12. Electrostatic forces involved in orienting Anabaena ferredoxin during binding to Anabaena ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase: site-specific mutagenesis, transient kinetic measurements, and electrostatic surface potentials.

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, J. K.; Hazzard, J. T.; Martínez-Júlvez, M.; Medina, M.; Gómez-Moreno, C.; Tollin, G.

    1999-01-01

    Transient absorbance measurements following laser flash photolysis have been used to measure the rate constants for electron transfer (et) from reduced Anabaena ferredoxin (Fd) to wild-type and seven site-specific charge-reversal mutants of Anabaena ferredoxin:NADP+ reductase (FNR). These mutations have been designed to probe the importance of specific positively charged amino acid residues on the surface of the FNR molecule near the exposed edge of the FAD cofactor in the protein-protein interaction during et with Fd. The mutant proteins fall into two groups: overall, the K75E, R16E, and K72E mutants are most severely impaired in et, and the K138E, R264E, K290E, and K294E mutants are impaired to a lesser extent, although the degree of impairment varies with ionic strength. Binding constants for complex formation between the oxidized proteins and for the transient et complexes show that the severity of the alterations in et kinetics for the mutants correlate with decreased stabilities of the protein-protein complexes. Those mutated residues, which show the largest effects, are located in a region of the protein in which positive charge predominates, and charge reversals have large effects on the calculated local surface electrostatic potential. In contrast, K138, R264, K290, and K294 are located within or close to regions of intense negative potential, and therefore the introduction of additional negative charges have considerably smaller effects on the calculated surface potential. We attribute the relative changes in et kinetics and complex binding constants for these mutants to these characteristics of the surface charge distribution in FNR and conclude that the positively charged region of the FNR surface located in the vicinity of K75, R16, and K72 is especially important in the binding and orientation of Fd during electron transfer. PMID:10452605

  13. The Kilogram and Measurements of Mass and Force

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Z. J.; Yaniv, S. L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the facilities, measurement capabilities, and ongoing research activities in the areas of mass and force at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The first section of the paper is devoted to mass metrology and starts with a brief historical perspective on the developments that led to the current definition of the kilogram. An overview of mass measurement procedures is given with a brief discussion of current research on alternative materials for mass standards and surface profiles of the U.S. national prototype kilograms. A brief outlook into the future possible redefinition of the unit of mass based on fundamental principles is included. The second part of this paper focuses on the unit of force and describes the realization of the unit, measurement procedures, uncertainty in the realized force, facilities, and current efforts aimed at the realization of small forces.

  14. Measurement of surface microtopography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S. D.; Farr, T. G.; Muller, J.-P.; Lewis, P.; Leberl, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    Acquisition of ground truth data for use in microwave interaction modeling requires measurement of surface roughness sampled at intervals comparable to a fraction of the microwave wavelength and extensive enough to adequately represent the statistics of a surface unit. Sub-centimetric measurement accuracy is thus required over large areas, and existing techniques are usually inadequate. A technique is discussed for acquiring the necessary photogrammetric data using twin film cameras mounted on a helicopter. In an attempt to eliminate tedious data reduction, an automated technique was applied to the helicopter photographs, and results were compared to those produced by conventional stereogrammetry. Derived root-mean-square (RMS) roughness for the same stereo-pair was 7.5 cm for the automated technique versus 6.5 cm for the manual method. The principal source of error is probably due to vegetation in the scene, which affects the automated technique but is ignored by a human operator.

  15. A MEMS sensor for microscale force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majcherek, S.; Aman, A.; Fochtmann, J.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a new MEMS-based sensor device for microscale contact force measurements. A special MEMS cell was developed to reach higher lateral resolution than common steel-based load cells with foil-type strain gauges as mechanical-electrical converters. The design provided more than one normal force measurement point with spatial resolution in submillimeter range. Specific geometric adaption of the MEMS-device allowed adjustability of its measurement range between 0.5 and 5 N. The thin film nickel-chromium piezo resistors were used to achieve a mechanical-electrical conversion. The production process was realized by established silicon processing technologies such as deep reactive ion etching and vapor deposition (sputtering). The sensor was tested in two steps. Firstly, the sensor characteristics were carried out by application of defined loads at the measurement points by a push-pull tester. As a result, the sensor showed linear behavior. A measurement system analysis (MSA1) was performed to define the reliability of the measurement system. The measured force values had the maximal relative deviation of 1% to average value of 1.97 N. Secondly, the sensor was tested under near-industrial conditions. In this context, the thermal induced relaxation behavior of the electrical connector contact springs was investigated. The handling of emerging problems during the characterization process of the sensor is also described.

  16. Genetically encoded force sensors for measuring mechanical forces in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuexiu; Sachs, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    There are three sources of free energy for cells: chemical potential, electrical potential and mechanical potential. There is little known about the last one since there have not been simple ways to measure stress in proteins in cells. we have now developed genetically encoded force sensors to assess the stress in fibrous proteins in living cells. These FReT based fluorescence sensors can be read out at video rates and provide real time maps of the stress distribution in cells, tissues and animals. The sensors can be inserted into specific proteins and in general do not disturb the normal function or anatomy. The original sensors used mutant GFPs linked by elastic linkers. These sensors provide a linear output with applied stress but the response is linear in strain. To improve contrast and dynamic range we have now developed a new class of sensors that are smaller making them less invasive, and have much higher intrinsic sensitivity since force modulates the angle between the donor and acceptor much more than the distance between them. Known as cpstFRET, the probe shows improved biocompatibility, wider dynamic range and higher sensitivity. PMID:21966553

  17. Simplified fundamental force and mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The watt balance relates force or mass to the Planck constant h, the metre and the second. It enables the forthcoming redefinition of the unit of mass within the SI by measuring the Planck constant in terms of mass, length and time with an uncertainty of better than 2 parts in 108. To achieve this, existing watt balances require complex and time-consuming alignment adjustments limiting their use to a few national metrology laboratories. This paper describes a simplified construction and operating principle for a watt balance which eliminates the need for the majority of these adjustments and is readily scalable using either electromagnetic or electrostatic actuators. It is hoped that this will encourage the more widespread use of the technique for a wide range of measurements of force or mass. For example: thrust measurements for space applications which would require only measurements of electrical quantities and velocity/displacement.

  18. Forced and Moment Measurements with Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) to provide aerodynamic loads measurements has been a driving force behind the development of this measurement technique. To demonstrate the suitability of PSP for this purpose, it is necessary to show that PSP-derived pressures can be accurately integrated over the model surface. This cannot be done simply by demonstrating the accuracy of PSP as compared to pressure taps. PSP errors due to misregistration or temperature sensitivity may be high near model edges, where they will have a strong effect on moment measurements, but where pressure taps are rarely installed. A more suitable technique is to compare integrated PSP data over the entire model surface with balance and/or CFD results. This paper presents results from three experiments in which integrated PSP data is compared with balance and/or CFD data. This allows the usefulness of PSP for force and moment measurements, and by implication for loads measurements, to be assessed.

  19. Casimir force measurements in Au-Au and Au-Si cavities at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, J.; Sellier, H.; Mosset, A.; Huant, S.; Chevrier, J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on measurements of the Casimir force in a sphere-plane geometry using a cryogenic force microscope to move the force probe in situ over different materials. We show how the electrostatic environment of the interacting surfaces plays an important role in weak force measurements and can overcome the Casimir force at large distance. After minimizing these parasitic forces, we measure the Casimir force between a gold-coated sphere and either a gold-coated or a heavily doped silicon surface in the 100-400 nm distance range. We compare the experimental data with theoretical predictions and discuss the consequence of a systematic error in the scanner calibration on the agreement between experiment and theory. The relative force over the two surfaces compares favorably with theory at short distance, showing that this Casimir force experiment is sensitive to the dielectric properties of the interacting surfaces.

  20. Intermodulation electrostatic force microscopy for imaging surface photo-voltage

    SciTech Connect

    Borgani, Riccardo Forchheimer, Daniel; Thorén, Per-Anders; Haviland, David B.; Bergqvist, Jonas; Inganäs, Olle

    2014-10-06

    We demonstrate an alternative to Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy for imaging surface potential. The open-loop, single-pass technique applies a low-frequency AC voltage to the atomic force microscopy tip while driving the cantilever near its resonance frequency. Frequency mixing due to the nonlinear capacitance gives intermodulation products of the two drive frequencies near the cantilever resonance, where they are measured with high signal to noise ratio. Analysis of this intermodulation response allows for quantitative reconstruction of the contact potential difference. We derive the theory of the method, validate it with numerical simulation and a control experiment, and we demonstrate its utility for fast imaging of the surface photo-voltage on an organic photo-voltaic material.

  1. Direct Aerosol Radiative Forcing: Calculations and Measurements from the Tropospheric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Hignett, P.; Stowe, L. L.; Livingston, J. M.; Kinne, S.; Wong, J.; Chan, K. Roland (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Radiative forcing is defined as the change in the net (downwelling minus upwelling) radiative flux at a given level in the atmosphere. This net flux is the radiative power density available to drive climatic processes in the earth-atmosphere system below that level. Recent research shows that radiative forcing by aerosol particles is a major source of uncertainty in climate predictions. To reduce those uncertainties, TARFOX was designed to determine direct (cloud-free) radiative forcing by the aerosols in one of the world's major industrial pollution plumes--that flowing from the east coast of the US over the Atlantic Ocean. TARFOX measured a variety of aerosol radiative effects (including direct forcing) while simultaneously measuring the chemical, physical, and optical properties of the aerosol particles causing those effects. The resulting data sets permit a wide variety of tests of the consistency, or closure, among the measurements and the models that link them. Because climate predictions use the same or similar model components, closure tests help to assess and reduce prediction uncertainties. In this work we use the TARFOX-determined aerosol, gas, and surface properties to compute radiative forcing for a variety of aerosol episodes, with inadvisable optical depths ranging from 0.07 to 0.6. We calculate forcing by several techniques with varying degrees of sophistication, in part to test the range of applicability of simplified techniques--which are often the only ones feasible in climate predictions by general circulation models (GCMs). We then compare computed forcing to that determined from: (1) Upwelling and downwelling fluxes (0.3-0.7 mm and 0.7-3.0 mm) measured by radiometers on the UK MRF C-130. and (2) Daily average cloud-free absorbed solar and emitted thermal radiative flux at the top of the atmosphere derived from the AVHRR radiometer on the NOAA- 14 satellite. The calculations and measurements all yield aerosol direct radiative forcing in the

  2. Calibration of lateral force measurements in atomic force microscopy with a piezoresistive force sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Hui; Vitard, Julien; Haliyo, Sinan; Regnier, Stephane

    2008-03-15

    We present here a method to calibrate the lateral force in the atomic force microscope. This method makes use of an accurately calibrated force sensor composed of a tipless piezoresistive cantilever and corresponding signal amplifying and processing electronics. Two ways of force loading with different loading points were compared by scanning the top and side edges of the piezoresistive cantilever. Conversion factors between the lateral force and photodiode signal using three types of atomic force microscope cantilevers with rectangular geometries (normal spring constants from 0.092 to 1.24 N/m and lateral stiffness from 10.34 to 101.06 N/m) were measured in experiments using the proposed method. When used properly, this method calibrates the conversion factors that are accurate to {+-}12.4% or better. This standard has less error than the commonly used method based on the cantilever's beam mechanics. Methods such of this allow accurate and direct conversion between lateral forces and photodiode signals without any knowledge of the cantilevers and the laser measuring system.

  3. Structure, surface interactions, and compressibility of bacterial S-layers through scanning force microscopy and the surface force apparatus.

    PubMed

    Martín-Molina, Alberto; Moreno-Flores, Susana; Perez, Eric; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B; Toca-Herrera, José L

    2006-03-01

    Two-dimensional crystalline bacterial surface layers (S-layers) are found in a broad range of bacteria and archaea as the outermost cell envelope component. The self-assembling properties of the S-layers permit them to recrystallize on solid substrates. Beyond their biological interest as S-layers, they are currently used in nanotechnology to build supramolecular structures. Here, the structure of S-layers and the interactions between them are studied through surface force techniques. Scanning force microscopy has been used to study the structure of recrystallized S-layers from Bacillus sphaericus on mica at different 1:1 electrolyte concentrations. They give evidence of the two-dimensional organization of the proteins and reveal small corrugations of the S-layers formed on mica. The lattice parameters of the S-layers were a=b=14 nm, gamma=90 degrees and did not depend on the electrolyte concentration. The interaction forces between recrystallized S-layers on mica were studied with the surface force apparatus as a function of electrolyte concentration. Force measurements show that electrostatic and steric interactions are dominant at long distances. When the S-layers are compressed they exhibit elastic behavior. No adhesion between recrystallized layers takes place. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, the value of the compressibility modulus of the S-layer (0.6 MPa). The compressibility modulus is independent on the electrolyte concentration, although loads of 20 mN m-1 damage the layer locally. Control experiments with denatured S-proteins show similar elastic properties under compression but they exhibit adhesion forces between proteins, which were not observed in recrystallized S-layers. PMID:16361337

  4. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy Combined with Surface Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Shigenori; Yoshinari, Yohsuke

    2007-03-01

    In this presentation, we will show magnetic resonance force microscopy imaging combined with surface topography. The individual and combined images taken in the same coordinate are presented for extraction of the position, shapes and spin density distribution of target phantoms. This imaging technique is useful applied when the surface needs to be investigated in relation to the influence of a material buried below the surface. In our method, the surface topography was observed by the AFM with tapping mode. The spin density distribution was measured by the MRFM with the cyclic saturation technique. The AFM and MRFM experiments were made one after another by using the same experimental set-up, and their images were merged together afterwards. The sample consists of two kind of materials, one is DPPH containing unpaird spins and the other is a glass bead. DPPH particles with the size of 5˜8 micrometer and a 8.8 micrometer single bead were glued on a commercial cantilever.

  5. Trends of measured climate forcing agents

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James E.; Sato, Makiko

    2001-01-01

    The growth rate of climate forcing by measured greenhouse gases peaked near 1980 at almost 5 W/m2 per century. This growth rate has since declined to ≈3 W/m2 per century, largely because of cooperative international actions. We argue that trends can be reduced to the level needed for the moderate “alternative” climate scenario (≈2 W/m2 per century for the next 50 years) by means of concerted actions that have other benefits, but the forcing reductions are not automatic “co-benefits” of actions that slow CO2 emissions. Current trends of climate forcings by aerosols remain very uncertain. Nevertheless, practical constraints on changes in emission levels suggest that global warming at a rate +0.15 ± 0.05°C per decade will occur over the next several decades. PMID:11752424

  6. Trends of Measured Climate Forcing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James E.; Sato, Makiko; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The growth rate of climate forcing by measured greenhouse gases peaked near 1980 at almost 5 W/sq m per century. This growth rate has since declined to approximately equal to 3 W/sq m per century, largely because of cooperative international actions. We argue that trends can be reduced to the level needed for the moderate "alternative" climate scenario (approximately equal to 2 W/M2 per century for the next 50 years) by means of concerted actions that have other benefits, but the forcing reductions are not automatic "co-benefits" of actions that slow CO2 emissions. Current trends of climate forcings by aerosols remain very uncertain. Nevertheless, practical constraints on changes in emission levels suggest that global warming at a rate + 0.15 +/- 0.05 C per decade will occur over the next several decades.

  7. Force measurement in heaving and pitching foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Enrique; Najdzin, Derek; Leftwich, Megan C.; Bardet, Philippe M.

    2012-11-01

    This study analyzes the efficiency of a cambering hydrofoil built to simulate the movement of flukes on cetaceans. The mechanism is a 10 bar assembly that allows a hydrofoil to move in a cambered pitching and heaving motion similar to that of a dolphin. The mechanism sits on a force-balance with six strain gages that together measure the three forces and three moments experienced by the fin during a cycle of motion. These gages are attached to a traveling mechanism that rest on a water flume. To analyze the efficiency of the hydrofoil we took measurements at various Reynolds and Strouhal numbers. These measurements were done twice were compared to the thrust produced by a rigid (non-cambered) hydrofoil at the same conditions.

  8. Influence of atmospheric forcing parameters on land surface simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, H. P.; Mandal, M.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2015-12-01

    The quality of atmospheric forcing plays important role on land surface simulation using decoupled land surface modeling system. In the present study, the influence of the various atmospheric forcing parameters on land surface simulation is assessed through sensitivity experiments. Numerical experiments are conducted towards preparation of land surface analysis for the period Jan-2011 - Dec-2013 using offline 2D-Noah land surface model (LSM) based land data assimilation system (LDAS) over Indian region (5 - 39N, 60 - 100E) hereafter referred as LDASI. The surface temperature, specific humidity, horizontal winds and pressure as atmospheric forcing parameters are derived from Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The downward (solar and thermal) radiation and precipitation is obtained from European Centre for Medium Range Forecast (ECMWF) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) respectively. The sensitivity experiments are conducted by introducing perturbation in one atmospheric forcing parameter at a time keeping the other parameters unchanged. Influence of temperature, specific humidity, downward (shortwave and long wave) radiation, rain-rate and wind speed is investigated by conducted 13 numerical experiments. It is observed that the land surface analysis from LDASI is most sensitive to the downward longwave radiation and least sensitive to wind speed. The analysis is also substantially influenced by the surface air temperature. The annual mean soil moisture at 5 cm is decreased by 12-15% if the downward long-wave radiation is increased by 20% and it is increased by 15% if the downward long-wave radiation is decreased by 20%. The influence is even more in the Himalayan region but the increase in long-wave radiation leads to increase in soil moisture and similar influence on decrease because downward long-wave radiation leads glacier melting. The annual mean soil temperature in the analysis is increased by 2.2 K if surface

  9. Quantitative evaluation of interaction force of fibrinogen at well-defined surfaces with various structures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weixin; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The effects of functional groups and structures at the surface of biomaterials on protein adsorption were examined using direct interaction force measurements. Three kinds of surface structures were evaluated: polymer brushes, self-assembled monolayers with low molecular weight compounds, and surfaces with conventional polymer coatings. These surfaces had various functional groups including phosphorylcholine (PC) group. The surface characterization demonstrated that surface wettability and flexibility depended on both the structure of the surface and the functional groups at the surface. The interactions of protein with these surfaces were evaluated by a force vs. distance curve using an atomic force microscope (AFM). We used fibrinogen as the protein, and the fibrinogen was immobilized on the surface of the AFM cantilever by a conventional technique. It was observed that the interaction force of fibrinogen was strongly related to surface hydrophobic nature and flexibility. That is, the interaction force increased with the increasing hydrophobic nature of the surface. The relationship between the amount of fibrinogen adsorbed on the surface and the interaction force showed good correlation in the range of fibrinogen adsorption from 0 to 250 ng/cm(2), that is, in a monolayered adsorption region. The interaction force decreased with increasing surface viscoelasticity. The most effective surface for preventing fibrinogen adsorption was the polymer brush surface with phosphorylcholine (PC) groups, that is, poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) brush. The interaction force of this sample was less than 0.1 nN and the amount of fibrinogen adsorbed on the surface was minimal. It was found that the evaluation of protein adsorption based on the interaction force measurement is useful for low-protein adsorption surfaces. It was demonstrated that an extremely hydrophilic and flexible surface could weaken the protein interactions at the surface, resulting in

  10. Measuring adhesion forces in powder collectives by inertial detachment.

    PubMed

    Wanka, Stefanie; Kappl, Michael; Wolkenhauer, Markus; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2013-12-31

    One way of measuring adhesion forces in fine powders is to place the particles on a surface, retract the surface with a high acceleration, and observe their detachment due to their inertia. To induce detachment of micrometer-sized particles, an acceleration in the order of 500,000g is required. We developed a device in which such high acceleration is provided by a Hopkinson bar and measured via laser vibrometry. Using a Hopkinson bar, the fundamental limit of mechanically possible accelerations is reached, since higher values cause material failure. Particle detachment is detected by optical video microscopy. With subsequent automated data evaluation a statistical distribution of adhesion forces is obtained. To validate the method, adhesion forces for ensembles of single polystyrene and silica particles on a polystyrene coated steel surface were measured under ambient conditions. We were able to investigate more than 150 individual particles in one experiment and obtained adhesion values of particles in a diameter range of 3-13 μm. Measured adhesion forces of small particles agreed with values from colloidal probe measurements and theoretical predictions. However, we observe a stronger increase of adhesion for particles with a diameter larger than roughly 7-10 μm. We suggest that this discrepancy is caused by surface roughness and heterogeneity. Large particles adjust and find a stable position on the surface due to their inertia while small particles tend to remain at the position of first contact. The new device will be applicable to study a broad variety of different particle-surface combinations on a routine basis, including strongly cohesive powders like pharmaceutical drugs for treatment of lung diseases. PMID:24320051

  11. Combined atomic force microscopy and voltage pulse technique to accurately measure electrostatic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new method of extracting electrostatic force. The technique is based on frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) combined with a voltage pulse. In this method, the work that the electrostatic field does on the oscillating tip is measured through the cantilever energy dissipation. This allows us to directly extract capacitive forces including the longer range part, to which the conventional FM-AFM is insensitive. The distance-dependent contact potential difference, which is modulated by local charges distributed on the surfaces of the tip and/or sample, could also be correctly obtained. In the absence of local charges, our method can perfectly reproduce the electrostatic force as a function of the distance and the bias voltage. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the system serves as a sensitive sensor enabling us to check the existence of the local charges such as trapped charges and patch charges.

  12. Forced free-shear layer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed three-dimensional three-component phase averaged measurements of the spanwise and streamwise vorticity formation and evolution in acoustically forced plane free-shear flows have been obtained. For the first time, phase-averaged measurements of all three velocity components have been obtained in both a mixing layer and a wake on three-dimensional grids, yielding the spanwise and streamwise vorticity distributions without invoking Taylor's hypothesis. Initially, two-frequency forcing was used to phase-lock the roll-up and first pairing of the spanwise vortical structures in a plane mixing layer. The objective of this study was to measure the near-field vortical structure morphology in a mixing layer with 'natural' laminar initial boundary layers. For the second experiment the second and third subharmonics of the fundamental roll-up frequency were added to the previous two-frequency forcing in order to phase-lock the roll-up and first three pairings of the spanwise rollers in the mixing layer. The objective of this study was to determine the details of spanwise scale changes observed in previous time-averaged measurements and flow visualization of unforced mixing layers. For the final experiment, single-frequency forcing was used to phase-lock the Karman vortex street in a plane wake developing from nominally two-dimensional laminar initial boundary layers. The objective of this study was to compare measurements of the three-dimensional structure in a wake developing from 'natural' initial boundary layers to existing models of wake vortical structure.

  13. Casimir force on a surface with shallow nanoscale corrugations: geometry and finite conductivity effects.

    PubMed

    Bao, Y; Guérout, R; Lussange, J; Lambrecht, A; Cirelli, R A; Klemens, F; Mansfield, W M; Pai, C S; Chan, H B

    2010-12-17

    We measure the Casimir force between a gold sphere and a silicon plate with nanoscale, rectangular corrugations with a depth comparable to the separation between the surfaces. In the proximity force approximation (PFA), both the top and bottom surfaces of the corrugations contribute to the force, leading to a distance dependence that is distinct from a flat surface. The measured Casimir force is found to deviate from the PFA by up to 10%, in good agreement with calculations based on scattering theory that includes both geometry effects and the optical properties of the material. PMID:21231564

  14. A voice coil motor based measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shengdong; Liu, Xiaojun; Chen, Liangzhou; Zhou, Liping; Lu, Wenlong

    2015-02-01

    In tactile scanning profiler, the measuring force would change in a wide range when it was used for profile measurement in a large range, which could possibly destroy the measured surface. To solve the problem, measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler was needed. In the paper, a voice coil motor-based measuring force control system for tactile scanning profiler was designed. In the design, a low stiffness coefficient spring was used to provide contact force, while a voice coil motor (VCM) to balance the spring force so that the contact force could be kept for constant measuring force. A VCM was designed specially, and for active measuring force control, a precision current source circuit under the control of a DSP unit was designed to drive the VCM. The performance of voice coil motor based measuring force control system had been tested, and its good characteristics were verified.

  15. Surface Roughness Model Based on Force Sensors for the Prediction of the Tool Wear

    PubMed Central

    de Agustina, Beatriz; Rubio, Eva María; Sebastián, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a methodology has been developed with the objective of evaluating the surface roughness obtained during turning processes by measuring the signals detected by a force sensor under the same cutting conditions. In this way, the surface quality achieved along the process is correlated to several parameters of the cutting forces (thrust forces, feed forces and cutting forces), so the effect that the tool wear causes on the surface roughness is evaluated. In a first step, the best cutting conditions (cutting parameters and radius of tool) for a certain quality surface requirement were found for pieces of UNS A97075. Next, with this selection a model of surface roughness based on the cutting forces was developed for different states of wear that simulate the behaviour of the tool throughout its life. The validation of this model reveals that it was effective for approximately 70% of the surface roughness values obtained. PMID:24714391

  16. A measurement of the hysteresis loop in force-spectroscopy curves using a tuning-fork atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Lange, Manfred; van Vörden, Dennis; Möller, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of the frequency shift versus distance in noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) allow measurements of the force gradient between the oscillating tip and a surface (force-spectroscopy measurements). When nonconservative forces act between the tip apex and the surface the oscillation amplitude is damped. The dissipation is caused by bistabilities in the potential energy surface of the tip-sample system, and the process can be understood as a hysteresis of forces between approach and retraction of the tip. In this paper, we present the direct measurement of the whole hysteresis loop in force-spectroscopy curves at 77 K on the PTCDA/Ag/Si(111) √3 × √3 surface by means of a tuning-fork-based NC-AFM with an oscillation amplitude smaller than the distance range of the hysteresis loop. The hysteresis effect is caused by the making and breaking of a bond between PTCDA molecules on the surface and a PTCDA molecule at the tip. The corresponding energy loss was determined to be 0.57 eV by evaluation of the force-distance curves upon approach and retraction. Furthermore, a second dissipation process was identified through the damping of the oscillation while the molecule on the tip is in contact with the surface. This dissipation process occurs mainly during the retraction of the tip. It reaches a maximum value of about 0.22 eV/cycle. PMID:22496993

  17. A simple apparatus for electrostatic force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hale, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic attraction can explain as a first approximation the binding of ionic solids. One of the two reasons for constructing the apparatus described was to demonstrate that electrostatic forces can be large, thus giving at least some plausibility to the theory of ionic solids. Secondly, it is an attempt to create a cheap and simple apparatus for measuring these forces and relating them to other physical quantities. An apparatus giving similar results of some precision has already been described (Hale 1978a). That was constructed by skilled instrument makers for undergraduate teaching, cost several hundred pounds and needed a considerable amount of time to iron out the problems encountered. The present apparatus was made in a few hours largely from scrap and using only ordinary hand tools. Although it is somewhat crude, quite acceptable results can be obtained from it. It could be used to advantage in courses dealing with fields and potential for example Nuffield advanced physics, unit 3.

  18. Unbinding Force Measurement of a Histidine--Nickel Complex. The His-Tag Immobilization Force.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jeffrey G.; Yim, Peter

    1998-03-01

    A sequence of six or more histidines will bind tightly to a nickel complex. The compound typically used to immobilized the nickel is N-(5-amino-1-carboxypentyl)iminodiacetic acid (NTA). Most proteins will not bind to the complex unless there is a sequence of histidines, which is readily added using recombinant DNA techniques. The histidine tag may be removed from the nickel complex with a high concentration of imidazole or by protonating the histidines at a pH below 6. We have studied the the unbinding strength of this interaction with the atomic force microscope (AFM). To perform this measurement, we have functionalized silicon nitride AFM tips with Ni--NTA. A glass slide was coated with recombinant DNAse I with a his-tag on the C-terminus. Unbinding force measurements were made in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) to reduce electrostatic interactions. We find that the unbinding force for the NTA-Ni/His-tag interaction to be ca. 50 pN. Interestingly, 0.5 M imidazole does not remove the interaction, but only changes the distribution of the measured forces. This is a result of the non-equilibrium condition of the tip being forced into the protein coated surface. The interaction is completely removed by lowering the pH to 5.0 where the histidines are protonated and can no longer coordinate with the nickel.

  19. Force measurement of low forces in combination with high dead loads by the use of electromagnetic force compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diethold, Christian; Hilbrunner, Falko

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses the force measurement of small forces in combination with high dead loads. The measurement force acts perpendicular to gravity, while the dead load is orientated in the direction of gravity. Furthermore, the influence of the dead load on the metrological properties is described. The application is the flow rate measurement of conducting fluids by Lorentz force (Thess et al 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 164501). The aim is to measure forces with a resolution of FM = 10-6 N. The dead load is mainly due to the mass of the magnet system. It is of the order of magnitude of FG = 10 N. The force measurement system works with the principle of electromagnetic force compensation. The applied force is compensated by a Lorentz force induced by a current in a voice coil and a magnetic field of a permanent magnet. The current is proportional to the applied force.

  20. Measured long-range repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces

    PubMed Central

    Munday, J. N.; Capasso, Federico; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Quantum fluctuations create intermolecular forces that pervade macroscopic bodies1–3. At molecular separations of a few nanometres or less, these interactions are the familiar van der Waals forces4. However, as recognized in the theories of Casimir, Polder and Lifshitz5–7, at larger distances and between macroscopic condensed media they reveal retardation effects associated with the finite speed of light. Although these long-range forces exist within all matter, only attractive interactions have so far been measured between material bodies8–11. Here we show experimentally that, in accord with theoretical prediction12, the sign of the force can be changed from attractive to repulsive by suitable choice of interacting materials immersed in a fluid. The measured repulsive interaction is found to be weaker than the attractive. However, in both cases the magnitude of the force increases with decreasing surface separation. Repulsive Casimir–Lifshitz forces could allow quantum levitation of objects in a fluid and lead to a new class of switchable nanoscale devices with ultra-low static friction13–15. PMID:19129843

  1. Direct Measurements of Drag Forces in C. elegans Crawling Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Rabets, Yegor; Backholm, Matilda; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Ryu, William S.

    2014-01-01

    With a simple and versatile microcantilever-based force measurement technique, we have probed the drag forces involved in Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion. As a worm crawls on an agar surface, we found that substrate viscoelasticity introduces nonlinearities in the force-velocity relationships, yielding nonconstant drag coefficients that are not captured by original resistive force theory. A major contributing factor to these nonlinearities is the formation of a shallow groove on the agar surface. We measured both the adhesion forces that cause the worm’s body to settle into the agar and the resulting dynamics of groove formation. Furthermore, we quantified the locomotive forces produced by C. elegans undulatory motions on a wet viscoelastic agar surface. We show that an extension of resistive force theory is able to use the dynamics of a nematode’s body shape along with the measured drag coefficients to predict the forces generated by a crawling nematode. PMID:25418179

  2. Combining the effect of crops surface albedo variability on the radiative forcing together with crop GHG budgets calculated from in situ flux measurements in a life cycle assessment approach: methodology and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceschia, E.; Ferlicoq, M.; Brut, A.; Tallec, T.

    2013-12-01

    The carbon and GHG budgets (GHGB) of the 2 crop sites with contrasted management located in South West France was estimated over a complete rotation by combining a classical LCA approach with on site CO2 flux measurements. At both sites, carbon inputs (organic fertilization, seeds), carbon exports (harvest) and net ecosystem production (NEP), measured with the eddy covariance technique, were estimated. The variability of the different terms and their relative contributions to the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) were analyzed for all site-years, and the effect of management on NECB was assessed. To account for GHG fluxes that were not directly measured on site, we estimated the emissions caused by field operations (EFO) for each site using emission factors from the literature. The EFO were added to the NECB to calculate the total GHGB for a range of cropping systems and management regimes. N2O emissions were calculated following the IPCC (2007) guidelines or and CH4 emissions were assumed to be negligible. Albedo was calculated continuously using the short wave incident and reflected radiation measurements in the field from CNR1 sensors. Rapid changes in surface albedo typical from those ecosystems and resulting from management and crop phenology were analysed. The annual radiative forcing for each plot was estimated by calculating the difference between a mean annual albedo for each crop and a reference bare soil albedo value calculated over 5 years for each plot. To finalize the radiative forcing calculation, the method developed by Muñoz et al (2010) using up and down atmospheric transmittance had to be corrected so it would only account for up-going atmospheric transmittance. Annual differences in radiative forcing between crops were then converted in g C equivalent m-2 in order to add this effect to the GHG budget of each crop within a rotation. This methodology could be applied to all ICOS/NEON cropland sites. We found that the differences in radiative

  3. Critical Casimir forces between planar and crenellated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tröndle, M.; Harnau, L.; Dietrich, S.

    2015-06-01

    We study critical Casimir forces between planar walls and geometrically structured substrates within mean-field theory. As substrate structures, crenellated surfaces consisting of periodic arrays of rectangular crenels and merlons are considered. Within the widely used proximity force approximation, both the top surfaces of the merlons and the bottom surfaces of the crenels contribute to the critical Casimir force. However, for such systems the full, numerically determined critical Casimir forces deviate significantly from the pairwise addition formalism underlying the proximity force approximation. A first-order correction to the proximity force approximation is presented in terms of a step contribution arising from the critical Casimir interaction between a planar substrate and the right-angled steps of the merlons consisting of their upper and lower edges as well as their sidewalls.

  4. Mapping the Surface Adsorption Forces of Nanomaterials in Biological Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xin R.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Mathur, Sanjay; Song, Xuefeng; Xiao, Lisong; Oldenberg, Steven J.; Fadeel, Bengt; Riviere, Jim E.

    2011-01-01

    The biological surface adsorption index (BSAI) is a novel approach to characterize surface adsorption energy of nanomaterials that is the primary force behind nanoparticle aggregation, protein corona formation, and other complex interactions of nanomaterials within biological systems. Five quantitative nanodescriptors were obtained to represent the surface adsorption forces (hydrophobicity, hydrogen bond, polarity/polarizability, and lone-pair electrons) of the nanomaterial interaction with biological components. We have mapped the surface adsorption forces over 16 different nanomaterials. When the five-dimensional information of the nanodescriptors was reduced to two dimensions, the 16 nanomaterials were classified into distinct clusters according their surface adsorption properties. BSAI nanodescriptors are intrinsic properties of nanomaterials useful for quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) model development. This is the first success in quantitative characterization of the surface adsorption forces of nanomaterials in biological conditions, which could open a quantitative avenue in predictive nanomedicine development, risk assessment, and safety evaluation of nanomaterials. PMID:21999618

  5. A measurement of the hysteresis loop in force-spectroscopy curves using a tuning-fork atomic force microscope

    PubMed Central

    van Vörden, Dennis; Möller, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Summary Measurements of the frequency shift versus distance in noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) allow measurements of the force gradient between the oscillating tip and a surface (force-spectroscopy measurements). When nonconservative forces act between the tip apex and the surface the oscillation amplitude is damped. The dissipation is caused by bistabilities in the potential energy surface of the tip–sample system, and the process can be understood as a hysteresis of forces between approach and retraction of the tip. In this paper, we present the direct measurement of the whole hysteresis loop in force-spectroscopy curves at 77 K on the PTCDA/Ag/Si(111) √3 × √3 surface by means of a tuning-fork-based NC-AFM with an oscillation amplitude smaller than the distance range of the hysteresis loop. The hysteresis effect is caused by the making and breaking of a bond between PTCDA molecules on the surface and a PTCDA molecule at the tip. The corresponding energy loss was determined to be 0.57 eV by evaluation of the force–distance curves upon approach and retraction. Furthermore, a second dissipation process was identified through the damping of the oscillation while the molecule on the tip is in contact with the surface. This dissipation process occurs mainly during the retraction of the tip. It reaches a maximum value of about 0.22 eV/cycle. PMID:22496993

  6. Comparison of Shortwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Derived from ARM SGP Surface and GOES-8 Satellite Measurements During ARESE I and ARESE II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, A. D.; Doelling, D. R.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Nguyen, L.; Haeffelin, M. P.; Valero, F. P. J.; Asano, S.

    2001-01-01

    One of the objectives of the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) is to investigate the absorption of solar radiation by clouds over the ARM Southern Great Plains central facility. A variety of techniques employing various combinations Of Surface, aircraft, and satellite data have been used to estimate the absorption empirically. During ARESE-I conducted during fall 1995, conflicting results were produced from different analyses of the combined datasets leading to the need for a more controlled experiment. ARESE-II was conducted during spring 2000. Improved calibrations, different sampling strategies, and broadband satellite data were all available to minimize some of the sources of uncertainty in the data. In this paper, cloud absorption or its parametric surrogates (e.g., Cess et al. 1995) are derived from collocated and coincident surface and satellite radiometer data from both ARESE-I and ARESE-II using the latest satellite and surface instrument calibrations.

  7. Shear force microscopy using piezoresistive cantilevers in surface metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotszalk, Teodor; Kopiec, Daniel; Sierakowski, Andrzej; Janus, Paweł; Grabiec, Piotr; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2014-09-01

    In this article we describe application of piezoresistive cantilevers in surface investigations carried out with the use of shear force microscopy (ShFM). The novel piezoresistive cantilevers integrate a Wheatstone piezoresistive bridge was used to detect the cantilever deflection, thermal deflection detector and planar tip protruding out of the spring beam. Because the planar tip deflection can be detected and controlled electronically the described technology is very flexible and can be applied in many surface investigations. In this article we will present operation theory of the described solution, experimental setup, methods for calibration of the tip deflection detection and actuation The analysis will be illustrated with example results of topography measurements performed using the described technology.

  8. Robust high-resolution imaging and quantitative force measurement with tuned-oscillator atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dagdeviren, Omur E; Götzen, Jan; Hölscher, Hendrik; Altman, Eric I; Schwarz, Udo D

    2016-02-12

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopy are based on locally detecting the interactions between a surface and a sharp probe tip. For highest resolution imaging, noncontact modes that avoid tip-sample contact are used; control of the tip's vertical position is accomplished by oscillating the tip and detecting perturbations induced by its interaction with the surface potential. Due to this potential's nonlinear nature, however, achieving reliable control of the tip-sample distance is challenging, so much so that despite its power vacuum-based noncontact AFM has remained a niche technique. Here we introduce a new pathway to distance control that prevents instabilities by externally tuning the oscillator's response characteristics. A major advantage of this operational scheme is that it delivers robust position control in both the attractive and repulsive regimes with only one feedback loop, thereby providing an easy-to-implement route to atomic resolution imaging and quantitative tip-sample interaction force measurement. PMID:26754332

  9. Keratocytes Pull with Similar Forces on Their Dorsal and Ventral Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Catherine G.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    1999-01-01

    As cells move forward, they pull rearward against extracellular matrices (ECMs), exerting traction forces. However, no rearward forces have been seen in the fish keratocyte. To address this discrepancy, we have measured the propulsive forces generated by the keratocyte lamella on both the ventral and the dorsal surfaces. On the ventral surface, a micromachined device revealed that traction forces were small and rearward directed under the lamella, changed direction in front of the nucleus, and became larger under the cell body. On the dorsal surface of the lamella, an optical gradient trap measured rearward forces generated against fibronectin-coated beads. The retrograde force exerted by the cell on the bead increased in the thickened region of the lamella where myosin condensation has been observed (Svitkina, T.M., A.B. Verkhovsky, K.M. McQuade, and G.G. Borisy. 1997. J. Cell Biol. 139:397–415). Similar forces were generated on both the ventral (0.2 nN/μm2) and the dorsal (0.4 nN/μm2) surfaces of the lamella, suggesting that dorsal matrix contacts are as effectively linked to the force-generating cytoskeleton as ventral contacts. The correlation between the level of traction force and the density of myosin suggests a model for keratocyte movement in which myosin condensation in the perinuclear region generates rearward forces in the lamella and forward forces in the cell rear. PMID:10601343

  10. Surface Polarity Of Beta-hmx Crystal And The Related Adhesive Forces With Estane Binder

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lu; Hanson, David E

    2008-01-01

    Here we present the results on the study of surface properties of {beta}-HMX crystal utilizing molecular simulations. The surface polarity of three principal crystal surfaces are investigated by measuring the water contact angles. The calculated contact angles agree excellently with the values measured by experiment and show that the surface polarity of three crystal surfaces are different. The free energies and forces of detaching an Estane chain with and without nitroplasticizer from the three principal crystal surfaces were calculated using umbrella sampling technique. We find that the detaching free energy/force increases with the increasing HMX surface polarity. In addition, our results also show that nitroplasticizer plays an important role in the adhesion forces between Estane and HMX surfaces.

  11. Quantitative evaluation of interaction force between functional groups in protein and polymer brush surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Sho; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2014-03-18

    To understand interactions between polymer surfaces and different functional groups in proteins, interaction forces were quantitatively evaluated by force-versus-distance curve measurements using atomic force microscopy with a functional-group-functionalized cantilever. Various polymer brush surfaces were systematically prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization as well-defined model surfaces to understand protein adsorption behavior. The polymer brush layers consisted of phosphorylcholine groups (zwitterionic/hydrophilic), trimethylammonium groups (cationic/hydrophilic), sulfonate groups (anionic/hydrophilic), hydroxyl groups (nonionic/hydrophilic), and n-butyl groups (nonionic/hydrophobic) in their side chains. The interaction forces between these polymer brush surfaces and different functional groups (carboxyl groups, amino groups, and methyl groups, which are typical functional groups existing in proteins) were quantitatively evaluated by force-versus-distance curve measurements using atomic force microscopy with a functional-group-functionalized cantilever. Furthermore, the amount of adsorbed protein on the polymer brush surfaces was quantified by surface plasmon resonance using albumin with a negative net charge and lysozyme with a positive net charge under physiological conditions. The amount of proteins adsorbed on the polymer brush surfaces corresponded to the interaction forces generated between the functional groups on the cantilever and the polymer brush surfaces. The weakest interaction force and least amount of protein adsorbed were observed in the case of the polymer brush surface with phosphorylcholine groups in the side chain. On the other hand, positive and negative surfaces generated strong forces against the oppositely charged functional groups. In addition, they showed significant adsorption with albumin and lysozyme, respectively. These results indicated that the interaction force at the functional group level might be

  12. Atomic force microscopy, lateral force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy investigations and adhesion force measurements for elucidation of tungsten removal mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, D.J.; Cecchi, J.L.; Hetherington, D.L.

    1999-09-01

    We investigated various interactions between alumina and tungsten films that occur during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). Atomic force microscopy surface topography measurements of post-CMP tungsten indicate that the roughness of the tungsten is independent of polish pressure and rotation rate. Pure mechanical abrasion is therefore an unlikely mechanism of material removal during CMP. Transmission electron microscopy images corroborate these results. The adhesion force between alumina and tungsten was measured in solution. The adhesive force increased with KIO{sub 3} concentration. Friction forces were measured in solution using lateral force microscopy. The friction force in buffered solutions was independent of KIO{sub 3} concentration. These results indicate that interactions other than purely mechanical interactions exist during CMP. {copyright} {ital 1999 Materials Research Society.}

  13. Strong Casimir force reduction through metallic surface nanostructuring.

    PubMed

    Intravaia, Francesco; Koev, Stephan; Jung, Il Woong; Talin, A Alec; Davids, Paul S; Decca, Ricardo S; Aksyuk, Vladimir A; Dalvit, Diego A R; López, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The Casimir force between bodies in vacuum can be understood as arising from their interaction with an infinite number of fluctuating electromagnetic quantum vacuum modes, resulting in a complex dependence on the shape and material of the interacting objects. Becoming dominant at small separations, the force has a significant role in nanomechanics and object manipulation at the nanoscale, leading to a considerable interest in identifying structures where the Casimir interaction behaves significantly different from the well-known attractive force between parallel plates. Here we experimentally demonstrate that by nanostructuring one of the interacting metal surfaces at scales below the plasma wavelength, an unexpected regime in the Casimir force can be observed. Replacing a flat surface with a deep metallic lamellar grating with sub-100 nm features strongly suppresses the Casimir force and for large inter-surfaces separations reduces it beyond what would be expected by any existing theoretical prediction. PMID:24071657

  14. Strong Casimir force reduction through metallic surface nanostructuring

    PubMed Central

    Intravaia, Francesco; Koev, Stephan; Jung, Il Woong; Talin, A. Alec; Davids, Paul S.; Decca, Ricardo S.; Aksyuk, Vladimir A.; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; López, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The Casimir force between bodies in vacuum can be understood as arising from their interaction with an infinite number of fluctuating electromagnetic quantum vacuum modes, resulting in a complex dependence on the shape and material of the interacting objects. Becoming dominant at small separations, the force has a significant role in nanomechanics and object manipulation at the nanoscale, leading to a considerable interest in identifying structures where the Casimir interaction behaves significantly different from the well-known attractive force between parallel plates. Here we experimentally demonstrate that by nanostructuring one of the interacting metal surfaces at scales below the plasma wavelength, an unexpected regime in the Casimir force can be observed. Replacing a flat surface with a deep metallic lamellar grating with sub-100 nm features strongly suppresses the Casimir force and for large inter-surfaces separations reduces it beyond what would be expected by any existing theoretical prediction. PMID:24071657

  15. Force field measurements within the exclusion zone of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Shuo; Chung, Wei-Ju; Hsu, Ian C; Wu, Chien-Ming; Chin, Wei-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Water molecules play critical roles in many biological functions, such as protein dynamics, enzymatic activities, and cellular responses. Previous nuclear magnetic resonance and neutron scattering studies have shown that water molecules bind to specific sites on surfaces and form localized clusters. However, most current experimental techniques cannot measure dynamic behaviors of ordered water molecules on cell-size (10 μm) scale. Recently, the long-distance effect of structured water has been demonstrated by Pollack and his colleagues. Namely, there is a structured water layer near the hydrophilic surface that can exclude solutes (Zheng et al, Adv Colloid Interface Sci 127:19-27, 2006; Pollack 2006, Adv Colloid Interface Sci 103:173-196, 2003). The repelling forces of water clusters inside this exclusion region are investigated in this study. With a laser tweezers system, we found the existence of an unexpected force fields inside the solute-free exclusion zone near a Nafion surface. Our results suggest that the water clusters could transduce mechanical signals on the micrometer range within the exclusion zone. This unexpected inhomogeneous force field near the hydrophilic surface would provide a new insight into cellular activities, leading to a potential new physical chemistry mechanism for cell biology. PMID:23277674

  16. An Antarctic Circumpolar Current driven by surface buoyancy forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, Andrew McC.

    2010-12-01

    Simulations of an idealised, but eddy-resolving, channel model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) are used to investigate the sensitivity of ACC transport to wind and surface buoyancy forcing. The results are consistent with theoretical predictions of the eddy-saturated limit, where transport is independent of wind stress. In this parameter regime, buoyancy forcing provides the primary control over ACC transport.

  17. Surface Gravity and Hawking Temperature from Entropic Force Viewpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Álvarez González, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauer, G.; Beauchemin, P.-H.; Bedeschi, F.; Beecher, D.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Bizjak, I.; Blair, R. E.; Blocker, C.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brau, B.; Bridgeman, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brubaker, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Budd, S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Buzatu, A.; Byrum, K. L.; Cabrera, S.; Calancha, C.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campbell, M.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Carron, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chang, S. H.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Chlebana, F.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Chou, J. P.; Chung, K.; Chung, W. H.; Chung, Y. S.; Chwalek, T.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Ciocci, M. A.; Clark, A.; Clark, D.; Compostella, G.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Crescioli, F.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; Cully, J. C.; Dagenhart, D.; D'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; Davies, T.; de Barbaro, P.; de Cecco, S.; Deisher, A.; de Lorenzo, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Deluca, C.; Demortier, L.; Deng, J.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; di Canto, A.; di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dong, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dube, S.; Ebina, K.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ershaidat, N.; Eusebi, R.; Fang, H. C.; Farrington, S.; Fedorko, W. T.; Feild, R. G.; Feindt, M.; Fernandez, J. P.; Ferrazza, C.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Frank, M. J.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Furic, I.; Gallinaro, M.; Galyardt, J.; Garberson, F.; Garcia, J. E.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerdes, D.; Gessler, A.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibson, K.; Gimmell, J. L.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M.; Giromini, P.; Giunta, M.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldschmidt, N.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gresele, A.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R. C.; Grundler, U.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Gunay-Unalan, Z.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S. R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Han, B.-Y.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, D.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Hartz, M.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heck, M.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Heuser, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Hidas, D.; Hill, C. S.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hocker, A.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hughes, R. E.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Incandela, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jha, M. K.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, W.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, J. E.; Junk, T. R.; Kamon, T.; Kar, D.; Karchin, P. E.; Kato, Y.; Kephart, R.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kietzman, B.; Khotilovich, V.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. W.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirsch, L.; Klimenko, S.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Krop, D.; Krumnack, N.; Kruse, M.; Krutelyov, V.; Kuhr, T.; Kulkarni, N. P.; Kurata, M.; Kwang, S.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lami, S.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lander, R. L.; Lannon, K.; Lath, A.; Latino, G.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lecompte, T.; Lee, E.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, S. W.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Lin, C.-J.; Linacre, J.; Lindgren, M.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Litvintsev, D. O.; Liu, C.; Liu, T.; Lockyer, N. S.; Loginov, A.; Lovas, L.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; MacQueen, D.; Madrak, R.; Maeshima, K.; Makhoul, K.; Maksimovic, P.; Malde, S.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, C.; Marino, C. P.; Martin, A.; Martin, V.; Martínez, M.; Martínez-Ballarín, R.; Mastrandrea, P.; Mathis, M.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K. S.; McIntyre, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Menzione, A.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Miladinovic, N.; Miller, R.; Mills, C.; Milnik, M.; Mitra, A.; Mitselmakher, G.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Mondragon, M. N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Morlock, J.; Movilla Fernandez, P.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.

    We consider a freely falling holographic screen for the Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström black holes and evaluate the entropic force à la Verlinde. When the screen crosses the event horizon, the temperature of the screen agrees to the Hawking temperature and the entropic force gives rise to the surface gravity for both of the black holes.

  18. A Simple Apparatus for Electrostatic Force Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, D. P.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the construction of an apparatus that demonstrates that electrostatic forces can be large and also gives some idea of dependence of electrostatic forces between charged parallel discs on potential differences and separation. (CS)

  19. On Frictional Forces between the Finger and a Textured Surface during Active Touch.

    PubMed

    Janko, Marco; Primerano, Richard; Visell, Yon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated forces felt by a bare finger in sliding contact with a textured surface, and how they depend on properties of the surface and contact interaction. Prior research has shed light on haptic texture perception. Nevertheless, how texture-produced forces depend on the properties of a touched object or the way that it is touched is less clear. To address this, we designed an apparatus to accurately measure contact forces between a sliding finger and a textured surface. We fabricated textured surfaces, and measured spatial variations in forces produced as subjects explored the surfaces with a bare finger. We analyzed variations in these force signals, and their dependence on object geometry and contact parameters. We observed a number of phenomena, including transient stick-slip behavior, nonlinearities, phase variations, and large force fluctuations, in the form of aperiodic signal components that proved difficult to model for fine surfaces. Moreover, metrics such as total harmonic distortion and normalized variance decreased as the spatial scale of the stimuli increased. The results of this study suggest that surface geometry and contact parameters are insufficient to account for force production during such interactions. Moreover, the results shed light on perceptual challenges solved by the haptic system during active touch sensing of surface texture. PMID:26685262

  20. Molecular interaction forces generated during protein adsorption to well-defined polymer brush surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Sho; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2015-03-17

    The molecular interaction forces generated during the adsorption of proteins to surfaces were examined by the force-versus-distance (f-d) curve measurements of atomic force microscopy using probes modified with appropriate molecules. Various substrates with polymer brush layers bearing zwitterionic, cationic, anionic, and hydrophobic groups were systematically prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Surface interaction forces on these substrates were analyzed by the f-d curve measurements using probes with the same polymer brush layer as the substrate. Repulsive forces, which decreased depending on the ionic strength, were generated between cationic or anionic polyelectrolyte brush layers; these were considered to be electrostatic interaction forces. A strong adhesive force was detected between hydrophobic polymer brush layers during retraction; this corresponded to the hydrophobic interaction between two hydrophobic polymer layers. In contrast, no significant interaction forces were detected between zwitterionic polymer brush layers. Direct interaction forces between proteins and polymer brush layers were then quantitatively evaluated by the f-d curve measurements using protein-immobilized probes consisting of negatively charged albumin and positively charged lysozyme under physiological conditions. In addition, the amount of protein adsorbed on the polymer brush layer was quantified by surface plasmon resonance measurements. Relatively large amounts of protein adsorbed to the polyelectrolyte brush layers with opposite charges. It was considered that the detachment of the protein after contact with the polymer brush layer hardly occurred due to salt formation at the interface. Both proteins adsorbed significantly on the hydrophobic polymer brush layer, which was due to hydrophobic interactions at the interface. In contrast, the zwitterionic polymer brush layer exhibited no significant interaction force with proteins and suppressed

  1. Simultaneous current-, force-, and work-function measurement with atomic resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, M.; Schiller, Ch.; Giessibl, F. J.; Mannhart, J.

    2005-04-01

    The local work function of a surface determines the spatial decay of the charge density at the Fermi level normal to the surface. Here, we present a method that enables simultaneous measurements of local work-function and tip-sample forces. A combined dynamic scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope is used to measure the tunneling current between an oscillating tip and the sample in real time as a function of the cantilever's deflection. Atomically resolved work-function measurements on a silicon (111)-(7×7) surface are presented and related to concurrently recorded tunneling current and force measurements.

  2. Surface modifications with Lissajous trajectories using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Wei; Yao, Nan

    2015-09-14

    In this paper, we report a method for atomic force microscopy surface modifications with single-tone and multiple-resolution Lissajous trajectories. The tip mechanical scratching experiments with two series of Lissajous trajectories were carried out on monolayer films. The scratching processes with two scan methods have been illustrated. As an application, the tip-based triboelectrification phenomenon on the silicon dioxide surface with Lissajous trajectories was investigated. The triboelectric charges generated within the tip rubbed area on the surface were characterized in-situ by scanning Kelvin force microscopy. This method would provide a promising and cost-effective approach for surface modifications and nanofabrication.

  3. Fundamental aspects of electric double layer force-distance measurements at liquid-solid interfaces using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Black, Jennifer M; Zhu, Mengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Unocic, Raymond R; Guo, Daqiang; Okatan, M Baris; Dai, Sheng; Cummings, Peter T; Kalinin, Sergei V; Feng, Guang; Balke, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) force-distance measurements are used to investigate the layered ion structure of Ionic Liquids (ILs) at the mica surface. The effects of various tip properties on the measured force profiles are examined and reveal that the measured ion position is independent of tip properties, while the tip radius affects the forces required to break through the ion layers as well as the adhesion force. Force data is collected for different ILs and directly compared with interfacial ion density profiles predicted by molecular dynamics. Through this comparison it is concluded that AFM force measurements are sensitive to the position of the ion with the larger volume and mass, suggesting that ion selectivity in force-distance measurements are related to excluded volume effects and not to electrostatic or chemical interactions between ions and AFM tip. The comparison also revealed that at distances greater than 1 nm the system maintains overall electroneutrality between the AFM tip and sample, while at smaller distances other forces (e.g., van der waals interactions) dominate and electroneutrality is no longer maintained. PMID:27587276

  4. Fundamental aspects of electric double layer force-distance measurements at liquid-solid interfaces using atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jennifer M.; Zhu, Mengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Unocic, Raymond R.; Guo, Daqiang; Okatan, M. Baris; Dai, Sheng; Cummings, Peter T.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Feng, Guang; Balke, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) force-distance measurements are used to investigate the layered ion structure of Ionic Liquids (ILs) at the mica surface. The effects of various tip properties on the measured force profiles are examined and reveal that the measured ion position is independent of tip properties, while the tip radius affects the forces required to break through the ion layers as well as the adhesion force. Force data is collected for different ILs and directly compared with interfacial ion density profiles predicted by molecular dynamics. Through this comparison it is concluded that AFM force measurements are sensitive to the position of the ion with the larger volume and mass, suggesting that ion selectivity in force-distance measurements are related to excluded volume effects and not to electrostatic or chemical interactions between ions and AFM tip. The comparison also revealed that at distances greater than 1 nm the system maintains overall electroneutrality between the AFM tip and sample, while at smaller distances other forces (e.g., van der waals interactions) dominate and electroneutrality is no longer maintained. PMID:27587276

  5. Measurements of the rotordynamic shroud forces for centrifugal pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinzburg, A.; Brennen, C. E.; Acosta, A. J.; Caughey, T. K.

    1990-01-01

    An experiment was designed to measure the rotordynamic shroud forces on a centrifugal pump impeller. The measurements were done for various whirl/impeller speed ratios and for different flow rates. A destabilizing tangential force was measured for small positive whirl ratios and this force decreased with increasing flow rate.

  6. 21 CFR 890.1575 - Force-measuring platform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Force-measuring platform. 890.1575 Section 890...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1575 Force-measuring platform. (a) Identification. A force-measuring platform is a device intended for medical purposes...

  7. 21 CFR 890.1575 - Force-measuring platform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Force-measuring platform. 890.1575 Section 890...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1575 Force-measuring platform. (a) Identification. A force-measuring platform is a device intended for medical purposes...

  8. 21 CFR 890.1575 - Force-measuring platform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Force-measuring platform. 890.1575 Section 890...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1575 Force-measuring platform. (a) Identification. A force-measuring platform is a device intended for medical purposes...

  9. 21 CFR 890.1575 - Force-measuring platform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Force-measuring platform. 890.1575 Section 890...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1575 Force-measuring platform. (a) Identification. A force-measuring platform is a device intended for medical purposes...

  10. 21 CFR 890.1575 - Force-measuring platform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Force-measuring platform. 890.1575 Section 890...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1575 Force-measuring platform. (a) Identification. A force-measuring platform is a device intended for medical purposes...

  11. Apparatus for measuring the thermal Casimir force at large distances.

    PubMed

    Bimonte, Giuseppe

    2014-12-12

    We describe a Casimir apparatus based on a differential force measurement between a Au-coated sphere and a planar slab divided in two regions, one of which is made of high-resistivity (dielectric) Si, and the other of Au. The crucial feature of the setup is a semitransparent plane parallel conducting overlayer, covering both regions. The setup offers two important advantages over existing Casimir setups. On one hand, it leads to a large amplification of the difference between the Drude and the plasma prescriptions that are currently used to compute the thermal Casimir force. On the other hand, thanks to the screening power of the overlayer, it is in principle immune from electrostatic forces caused by potential patches on the plates surfaces, that plague present large distance Casimir experiments. If a semitransparent conductive overlayer with identical patch structure over the Au-Si regions of the plate can be manufactured, similar to the opaque overlayers used in recent searches of non-Newtonian gravitational forces based on the isoelectronic technique, the way will be paved for a clear observation of the thermal Casimir force up to separations of several microns, and an unambiguous discrimination between the Drude and the plasma prescriptions. PMID:25541756

  12. Apparatus for Measuring the Thermal Casimir Force at Large Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimonte, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    We describe a Casimir apparatus based on a differential force measurement between a Au-coated sphere and a planar slab divided in two regions, one of which is made of high-resistivity (dielectric) Si, and the other of Au. The crucial feature of the setup is a semitransparent plane parallel conducting overlayer, covering both regions. The setup offers two important advantages over existing Casimir setups. On one hand, it leads to a large amplification of the difference between the Drude and the plasma prescriptions that are currently used to compute the thermal Casimir force. On the other hand, thanks to the screening power of the overlayer, it is in principle immune from electrostatic forces caused by potential patches on the plates surfaces, that plague present large distance Casimir experiments. If a semitransparent conductive overlayer with identical patch structure over the Au-Si regions of the plate can be manufactured, similar to the opaque overlayers used in recent searches of non-Newtonian gravitational forces based on the isoelectronic technique, the way will be paved for a clear observation of the thermal Casimir force up to separations of several microns, and an unambiguous discrimination between the Drude and the plasma prescriptions.

  13. Vertical and lateral force mapping on the Si(111)-(7×7) surface by dynamic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Namikawa, Takashi; Miki, Koutaro; Abe, Masayuki; Morita, Seizo

    2008-05-01

    The topographic image of dynamic force microscopy (DFM) keeping the frequency shift (Δfz) constant at tiny cantilever oscillation amplitudes corresponds to the constant-vertical force (Fz) gradient surface, while the interpretation becomes complicated at larger oscillation amplitudes. We discuss how Fz and the potential energy (U) act on the tip during DFM topographic scan at various cantilever oscillation amplitudes by measuring the Δfz map on the Si(111)-(7×7) surface at room temperature. The Δfz map is numerically converted into Fz and U maps. DFM topographic curves at various cantilever oscillation amplitudes are numerically derived by using the experimentally obtained Fz map. In addition, we discuss how the lateral force (Fx) acts on the tip at various tip-surface distances on various surface sites by an Fx map converted from a U map. The positions at which Fx becomes zero are identified as U minimum sites, such as the top of adatom sites, and U maximum sites (equilibrium positions of Fx ), such as the center positions among three center adatoms. The tip deviated from these sites is then laterally attracted toward the U minimum sites. It is also demonstrated that lateral force microscopy performed at 1Å cantilever oscillation enables direct measurement of the lateral force gradient by numerically deriving the frequency shift (Δfx) caused by Fx .

  14. Measuring shear force transmission across a biomimetic glycocalyx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Isabel; Young, Dylan; Scrimgeour, Jan

    Human blood vessels are lined with a low-density polymer brush known as the glycocalyx. This brush plays an active role in defining the mechanical and biochemical environment of the endothelial cell in the blood vessel wall. In addition, it is involved in the detection of mechanical stimuli, such as the shear stress from blood flowing in the vessel. In this work, we construct a biomimetic version of the glycocalyx on top of a soft deformable substrate in order to measure its ability to modulate the effects of shear stress at the endothelial cell surface. The soft substrate is stamped on to a glass substrate and then enclosed inside a microfluidic device that generates a controlled flow over the substrate. The hydrogel chemistry has been optimized so that it reliably stamps into a defined shape and has consistent mechanical properties. Fluorescent microbeads embedded in the gel allow measurement of the surface deformation, and subsequently, calculation of the shear force at the surface of the soft substrate. We investigate the effect of the major structural elements of the glycocalyx, hyaluronic acid and charged proteoglycans, on the magnitude of the shear force transmitted to the surface of the hydrogel.

  15. Measurement of the electrical and mechanical responses of a force transducer against impact forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yusaku

    2006-08-01

    A method for measuring the electrical and mechanical responses of force transducers to impact loads is proposed. The levitation mass method (LMM) is used to generate and measure the reference impact force used. In the LMM, a mass that is levitated using an aerostatic linear bearing (and hence encounters negligible friction) is made to collide with the force transducer under test, and the force acting on the mass is measured using an optical interferometer. The electrical response is evaluated by comparing the output signal of the force transducer with the inertial force of the mass as measured using the optical interferometer. Simultaneously, the mechanical response is evaluated by comparing the displacement of the sensing point of the transducer, which is measured using another optical interferometer, with the inertial force of the mass. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method, the impact responses of a force transducer are accurately determined.

  16. Surface forces between colloidal particles at high hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilat, D. W.; Pouligny, B.; Best, A.; Nick, T. A.; Berger, R.; Butt, H.-J.

    2016-02-01

    It was recently suggested that the electrostatic double-layer force between colloidal particles might weaken at high hydrostatic pressure encountered, for example, in deep seas or during oil recovery. We have addressed this issue by means of a specially designed optical trapping setup that allowed us to explore the interaction of a micrometer-sized glass bead and a solid glass wall in water at hydrostatic pressures of up to 1 kbar. The setup allowed us to measure the distance between bead and wall with a subnanometer resolution. We have determined the Debye lengths in water for salt concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mM. We found that in the pressure range from 1 bar to 1 kbar the maximum variation of the Debye lengths was <1 nm for both salt concentrations. Furthermore, the magnitude of the zeta potentials of the glass surfaces in water showed no dependency on pressure.

  17. Uncertainty quantification in nanomechanical measurements using the atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Ryan; Moon, Robert; Pratt, Jon; Shaw, Gordon; Raman, Arvind

    2011-11-01

    Quantifying uncertainty in measured properties of nanomaterials is a prerequisite for the manufacture of reliable nanoengineered materials and products. Yet, rigorous uncertainty quantification (UQ) is rarely applied for material property measurements with the atomic force microscope (AFM), a widely used instrument that can measure properties at nanometer scale resolution of both inorganic and biological surfaces and nanomaterials. We present a framework to ascribe uncertainty to local nanomechanical properties of any nanoparticle or surface measured with the AFM by taking into account the main uncertainty sources inherent in such measurements. We demonstrate the framework by quantifying uncertainty in AFM-based measurements of the transverse elastic modulus of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), an abundant, plant-derived nanomaterial whose mechanical properties are comparable to Kevlar fibers. For a single, isolated CNC the transverse elastic modulus was found to have a mean of 8.1 GPa and a 95% confidence interval of 2.7-20 GPa. A key result is that multiple replicates of force-distance curves do not sample the important sources of uncertainty, which are systematic in nature. The dominant source of uncertainty is the nondimensional photodiode sensitivity calibration rather than the cantilever stiffness or Z-piezo calibrations. The results underscore the great need for, and open a path towards, quantifying and minimizing uncertainty in AFM-based material property measurements of nanoparticles, nanostructured surfaces, thin films, polymers and biomaterials. This work is a partial contribution of the USDA Forest Service and NIST, agencies of the US government, and is not subject to copyright.

  18. Surface science experiments involving the atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Sean P.

    Three diverse first author surfaces science experiments conducted by Sean P. McBride1-3 will be discussed in detail and supplemented by secondary co-author projects by Sean P. McBride,4-7 all of which rely heavily on the use of an atomic force microscope (AFM). First, the slip length parameter, b of liquids is investigated using colloidal probe AFM. The slip length describes how easily a fluid flows over an interface. The slip length, with its exact origin unknown and dependencies not overwhelming decided upon by the scientific community, remains a controversial topic. Colloidal probe AFM uses a spherical probe attached to a standard AFM imaging tip driven through a liquid. With the force on this colloidal AFM probe known, and using the simplest homologous series of test liquids, many of the suspected causes and dependencies of the slip length demonstrated in the literature can be suppressed or eliminated. This leaves the measurable trends in the slip length attributed only to the systematically varying physical properties of the different liquids. When conducting these experiments, it was realized that the spring constant, k, of the system depends upon the cantilever geometry of the experiment and therefore should be measured in-situ. This means that the k calibration needs to be performed in the same viscous liquid in which the slip experiments are performed. Current in-situ calibrations in viscous fluids are very limited, thus a new in-situ k calibration method was developed for use in viscous fluids. This new method is based upon the residuals, namely, the difference between experimental force-distance data and Vinogradova slip theory. Next, the AFM's ability to acquire accurate sub nanometer height profiles of structures on interfaces was used to develop a novel experimental technique to measure the line tension parameter, tau, of isolated nanoparticles at the three phase interface in a solid-liquid-vapor system. The tau parameter is a result of excess energy

  19. Measurement of surface velocity fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, J. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A new technique for measuring surface velocity fields is briefly described. It determines the surface velocity vector as a function of location and time by the analysis of thermal fluctuations of the surface profile in a small domain around the point of interest. The apparatus now being constructed will be used in a series of experiments involving flow fields established by temperature gradients imposed along a surface.

  20. Surface roughtness and its influence on particle adhesion using atomic force microscope techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gady, B.; Schaefer, D.; Reifenberger, R.; Rimai, D.; DeMejo, L.P.

    1996-12-31

    The surface force interactions between individual 8 {mu}m diameter spheres and atomically flat substrates have been systematically investigated using atomic force techniques. The lift-off force of glass, polystyrene and tin particles from atomically smooth mica and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrates was determined as a function of the applied loading force in an inert nitrogen environment. While the relative magnitudes of the measured lift-off force was found to scale as expected between the various systems studied, the absolute values were a factor of {approximately}50 smaller than expected from the Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts theory. The surface topography of representative spheres was characterized with atomic force microscopy, allowing a quantitative assessment of the role that surface roughness plays in the adhesion of micrometer-size particles to substrates. Taking into account the radius of curvature of the asperities measured from the atomic force scans, agreement between the measured and theoretical estimates for the lift-off forces was improved, with the corrected experimental forces about a factor of 3 smaller than theoretical expectations.

  1. Force of adhesion on supersolvophobic surfaces: The role of capillary necks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, Juan V.; Castillo, Rolando

    2016-02-01

    We study theoretically the force of adhesion of pinned liquid drops in contact with supersolvophobic surfaces. We develop a method to calculate the contact and excess surface areas vs compression of the drops against surfaces characterized by an effective interfacial energy in the Cassie-Baxter wetting regime. We find that a 9° difference in contact angle can increase the force of adhesion by almost three orders of magnitude. We investigate the role that the inevitable formation of capillary necks has on this force, which has the same functional form of Derjaguin's result for elastic solids. Our results suggest that measuring the force of adhesion directly on nearly perfectly solvophobic surfaces may be a more precise technique to quantify the effective interfacial energy than traditional contact angle measurements on macroscopic drops.

  2. Variation of Surface Charge along the Surface of Wool Fibers Assessed by High-Resolution Force Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Bonnie; Chow, James; Abbott, Albert G.; Ellison, Michael S.; Kennedy, Marian S.; Dean, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have mapped the surface charge of wool fibers using chemically specific high-resolution force spectroscopy in order to better understand the dispersion of amino acids in relation to fiber morphology. The inter-surface forces between standard atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe tips (tip radius ~ 50 nm) functionalized with COOH and NH3 terminated alkanethiol self assembling monolayers and the wool surface were used to estimate the surface charge per unit area using linear Poisson-Boltzmann-based electrostatic double layer theory. The positional measurement of nano-scale surface charge showed a correlation between the surface charge and fiber morphology, indicated that basic amino acids are located near the scale edges. PMID:21866220

  3. Cantilevers orthodontics forces measured by fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Neblyssa; Milczewski, Maura S.; de Oliveira, Valmir; Guariza Filho, Odilon; Lopes, Stephani C. P. S.; Kalinowski, Hypolito J.

    2015-09-01

    Fibers Bragg Gratings were used to evaluate the transmission of the forces generates by orthodontic mechanic based one and two cantilevers used to move molars to the upright position. The results showed levels forces of approximately 0,14N near to the root of the molar with one and two cantilevers.

  4. Capillary Forces between Floating Objects: Superhydrophobic Surfaces Provide Mechanistic Insight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Minchao; McCarthy, Thomas J.; Crosby, Alfred J.

    When two floating objects are close, they will either move towards or away from one another to minimize the energy caused by the overlap of the liquid/air interfacial deformations. Capillary forces cause these behaviors, but directly relating the interfacial deformations and the capillary interactions hasn't been explored experimentally. We choose a liquid marble, which has a superhydrophobic surface, as a free floating object and a fixed ``wall'' with carefully controlled contact angle as another object to generate two deformations at the interface. When the liquid marble is close to the wall, the two deformations interact, causing changes in the Laplace pressure at the interface and a reconfiguration of the interface. In response, the liquid marble moves either towards or away from the wall. Using image analysis of videos recording the liquid marble position as a function of time, we measured the liquid marble to wall distance and determine the spatio-temporal relationships. Furthermore, capillary forces were calculated from the velocities and accelerations. Based on this data, we present a new explanation for the capillary interactions from the perspective of Laplace pressure changing induced the reconfiguration of the interfacial deformations.

  5. Measuring the Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreman, W.; Huysentruyt, R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a fast and simple method for measuring the magnetic force acting on a current-carrying conductor using a digital balance. Discusses the influence of current intensity and wire length on the magnetic force on the conductor. (JRH)

  6. Dynamometer for measuring machining forces in two perpendicular directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, I. A.

    1974-01-01

    Published report discusses development of two-component force dynamometer which is used for dynamic measurement of machining forces in cutting and thrust directions. Resulting data suggest that faster metal-cutting machines may be developed that have reduced vibrations.

  7. A Simple Method for Measuring Linguopalatal Contact Force During Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Ryunosuke; Matsumuta, Masafumi; Niikawa, Takuya; Nohara, Kanji; Tachimura, Takashi; Wada, Takeshi; Chihara, Kunihiro

    This paper proposes a using probe for measuring of contact force between tongue and palatal, during speech. We developed a 0.03 mm-thick stainless steel tongue force probe with a 3x5 mm force sensor at the tip. Linguopalatal contact force was measured by inserting the probe into the oral cavity. Contact force was measured at the following three locations. Based on the coordinate and measurement obtained at the three points, the action point of tongue force was calculated by the weighted mean. Linguopalatal contact force was measured in four adult men and women without articulation disorder and in three adult men with articulation disorders. Results showed that the action point of tongue force in subjects with articulation disorders was further toward the pharynx than that in subjects without articulation disorders. Linguopalatal contact pressure was then measured again by asking the subjects with articulation disorders to wear a palatal augmentation prosthesis (PAP) to compensate for insufficient linguopalatal contact force. The action point of tongue force became better approximated to that of subjects without articulation disorders. Given these results, our simple method for measuring linguopalatal contact force using a tongue force probe appears to be a promising tool for speech therapists treating articulation disorders.

  8. What is Credible and what is Incredible in the Measurements of the Casimir Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    We comment on progress in measurements of the Casimir force and discuss what is the actual reliability of different experiments. In this connection a more rigorous approach to the usage of such concepts as accuracy, precision, and measure of agreement between experiment and theory, is presented. We demonstrate that all measurements of the Casimir force employing spherical lenses with centimeter-size curvature radii are fundamentally flawed due to the presence of bubbles and pits on their surfaces. The commonly used formulation of the proximity force approximation is shown to be inapplicable for centimeter-size lenses. New expressions for the Casimir force are derived taking into account surface imperfections. Uncontrollable deviations of the Casimir force from the values predicted using the assumption of perfect sphericity vary by a few tens of percent within the separation region from 1 to 3μm. This makes impractical further use of centimeter-size lenses in experiments on measuring the Casimir force.

  9. What is Credible and what is Incredible in the Measurements of the Casimir Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2011-06-01

    We comment on progress in measurements of the Casimir force and discuss what is the actual reliability of different experiments. In this connection a more rigorous approach to the usage of such concepts as accuracy, precision, and measure of agreement between experiment and theory, is presented. We demonstrate that all measurements of the Casimir force employing spherical lenses with centimeter-size curvature radii are fundamentally flawed due to the presence of bubbles and pits on their surfaces. The commonly used formulation of the proximity force approximation is shown to be inapplicable for centimeter-size lenses. New expressions for the Casimir force are derived taking into account surface imperfections. Uncontrollable deviations of the Casimir force from the values predicted using the assumption of perfect sphericity vary by a few tens of percent within the separation region from 1 to 3 μm. This makes impractical further use of centimeter-size lenses in experiments on measuring the Casimir force.

  10. Blocked force measurement of an electro-active paper actuator using a cantilevered force transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Gyu-young; Kim, Heung Soo; Kim, Jaehwan

    2008-04-01

    The blocked force of an electro-active paper (EAPap) actuator was measured by a custom-built force transducer. The tip deflection of the force transducer was measured and converted into force using a simple Euler beam model. Since the blocked force is the maximum force generated at the tip of a bending actuator without displacement, the blocked force was found from the measured force of the transducer by extrapolating it. The force transducer was made from a thin steel cantilever beam and calibrated using a linear stage and a micro-balance. The measured maximum free bending displacement of the EAPap actuator was 4.4 mm and the blocked force was 224 µN under 350 V mm-1 AC electric field and 33 µN under DC electric field with the same field strength. When an AC electric field was applied to the actuator, the generated blocked force of the EAPap was about 700% larger than that caused by DC excitation. The proposed blocked force measurement is accurate down to a micro-Newton resolution under DC as well as AC electric fields.

  11. Setting-Up Of A Cutting Forces Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turc, Cristian-Gheorghe; Belgiu, George; Banciu, Felicia Veronica

    2015-07-01

    The paper is focused in the field of cutting forces measurement by modern sensors and data acquisition systems. It is presented the measurement chain with its components. Thus, there are presented the piezoelectric sensors that are commonly used in modern cutting forces dynamometers construction, as well as some typical topologies. The measurement system includes a data acquisition system that allows the real time data acquisition during the cutting process. The proposed cutting force measurement system can be used in the measurement of three orthogonal forces in milling processes, as well as the measurement of the torque in drilling processes.

  12. Tools for measuring surface cleanliness

    DOEpatents

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  13. Compact cantilever force probe for plasma pressure measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Nedzelskiy, I. S.; Silva, C.; Fernandes, H.; Duarte, P.; Varandas, C. A. F.

    2007-12-15

    A simple, compact cantilever force probe (CFP) has been developed for plasma pressure measurements. It is based on the pull-in phenomenon well known in microelectromechanical-system electrostatic actuators. The probe consists of a thin (25 {mu}m) titanium foil cantilever (38 mm of length and 14 mm of width) and a fixed electrode separated by a 0.75 mm gap. The probe is shielded by brass box and enclosed into boron nitride housing with a 9 mm diameter window for exposing part of cantilever surface to the plasma. When the voltage is applied between the cantilever and the electrode, an attractive electrostatic force is counterbalanced by cantilever restoring spring force. At some threshold (pull-in) voltage the system becomes unstable and the cantilever abruptly pulls toward the fixed electrode until breakdown occurs between them. The threshold voltage is sensitive to an additional externally applied force, while a simple detection of breakdown occurrence can be used to measure that threshold voltage value. The sensitivity to externally applied forces obtained during calibration is 0.28 V/{mu}N (17.8 V/Pa for pressure). However, the resolution of the measurements is {+-}0.014 mN ({+-}0.22 Pa) due to the statistical scattering in measured pull-in voltages. The diagnostic temporal resolution is {approx}10 ms, being determined by the dynamics of pull-in process. The probe has been tested in the tokamak ISTTOK edge plasma, and a plasma force of {approx}0.07 mN (plasma pressure {approx}1.1 Pa) has been obtained near the leading edge of the limiter. This value is in a reasonable agreement with the estimations using local plasma parameters measured by electrical probes. The use of the described CFP is limited by a heat flux of Q{approx}10{sup 6} W/m{sup 2} due to uncontrollable rise of the cantilever temperature ({delta}T{approx}20 deg. C) during CFP response time.

  14. Measuring energies with an Atomic Force Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, J.; Díez-Pérez, I.; Sanz, F.; Fraxedas, J.

    2006-04-01

    The elastic and plastic response of ordered inorganic, organic and biological materials involving nanometer-scale volumes in the nano- and low micronewton force range can be characterized by means of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) using ultrasharp cantilever tips with radius R typically below 10 nm. Because the plastic onset can be easily identified, the maximal accumulated elastic energy can be directly determined from the force curves (force F vs. penetration δ curves), thus giving a realistic estimate of the characteristic energies of the materials. We illustrate the ability of AFMs to determine such energies with the case example of the molecular organic metal TTF-TCNQ (TTF = tetrathiafulvalene, TCNQ = tetracyanoquinodimethane), where the enthalpy of sublimation is obtained.

  15. Study of DNA adsorption on mica surfaces using a surface force apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Yajing; Tan, Qiyan; Wu, Gensheng; Si, Wei; Chen, Yunfei

    2015-02-01

    We report our studies on the adsorption properties of double-stranded DNA molecules on mica surfaces in a confined environment using a surface force apparatus. Specifically, we studied the influence of cation species and concentrations on DNA adsorption properties. Our results indicated that divalent cations (Mg2+ and Co2+) preferred to form uniform and moderately dense DNA layers on a mica substrate. By measuring the interactions between DNA-coated mica and bare mica in an aqueous solution, obvious adhesion was observed in a cobalt chloride solution, possibly due to the ion-correlation attraction between negatively charged DNA and the mica surface. Furthermore, the interaction differences that were observed with MgCl2 and CoCl2 solutions reveal that the specific adsorption behaviors of DNA molecules on a mica substrate were mediated by these two salts. Our results are helpful to elucidate the dynamics of DNA binding on a solid substrate.

  16. Relative surface charge density mapping with the atomic force microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, W F; Hoh, J H

    1999-01-01

    An experimental approach for producing relative charge density maps of biological surfaces using the atomic force microscope is presented. This approach, called D minus D (D-D) mapping, uses isoforce surfaces collected at different salt concentrations to remove topography and isolate electrostatic contributions to the tip-sample interaction force. This approach is quantitative for surface potentials below 25 mV, and does not require prior knowledge of the cantilever spring constant, tip radius, or tip charge. In addition, D-D mapping does not require tip-sample contact. The performance of D-D mapping is demonstrated on surfaces of constant charge and varying topography (mechanically roughened mica and stacked bilayers of dipalmitolphosphatidylserine), a surface of varying charge and varying topography (patches of dipalmitolphosphatidylcholine on mica), and bacteriorhopsin membranes adsorbed to mica. PMID:9876166

  17. A new transducer system for direct motor unit force measurement.

    PubMed

    Turkawski, S J; van Ruijven, L J; van Kuyen, M; Schreurs, A W; Weijs, W A

    1996-11-01

    A new transducer was developed for in situ measurement of the force vector in a complex muscle. The transducer measures the magnitude, and the line of action of a force in a single plane. The dynamic range of the transducer is 0-5 N. This range includes the small forces developed by an active motor unit and the relatively large passive force of a whole muscle. In this study we present the details of the transducer design and specifications, and describe its application in the measurement of motor unit forces of the rabbit masseter muscle. PMID:8894930

  18. Infrared Aerosol Radiative Forcing at the Surface and the Top of the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowicz, Krzysztof M.; Flatau, Piotr J.; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2003-01-01

    We study the clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing at infrared wavelengths using data from the Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) cruise of the NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown. Limited number of data points is analyzed mostly from ship and collocated satellite values. An optical model is derived from chemical measurements, lidar profiles, and visible extinction measurements which is used to and estimate the infrared aerosol optical thickness and the single scattering albedo. The IR model results are compared to detailed Fourier Transform Interferometer based infrared aerosol forcing estimates, pyrgeometer based infrared downward fluxes, and against the direct solar forcing observations. This combined approach attests for the self-consistency of the optical model and allows to derive quantities such as the infrared forcing at the top of the atmosphere or the infrared optical thickness. The mean infrared aerosol optical thickness at 10 microns is 0.08 and the single scattering albedo is 0.55. The modeled infrared aerosol forcing reaches 10 W/sq m during the cruise, which is a significant contribution to the total direct aerosol forcing. The surface infrared aerosol radiative forcing is between 10 to 25% of the shortwave aerosol forcing. The infrared aerosol forcing at the top of the atmosphere can go up to 19% of the solar aerosol forcing. We show good agreement between satellite (CERES instrument) retrievals and model results at the top of the atmosphere. Over the Sea of Japan, the average infrared radiative forcing is 4.6 W/sq m in the window region at the surface and it is 1.5 W/sq m at top of the atmosphere. The top of the atmosphere IR forcing efficiency is a strong function of aerosol temperature while the surface IR forcing efficiency varies between 37 and 55 W/sq m (per infrared optical depth unit). and changes between 10 to 18 W/sq m (per infrared optical depth unit).

  19. Simultaneous measurement of normal and friction forces using a cantilever-based optical interfacial force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byung I.; Bonander, Jeremy R.; Rasmussen, Jared A.

    2011-05-01

    We measured normal and friction forces simultaneously using a recently developed cantilever-based optical interfacial force microscope technique for studies of interfacial structures and mechanical properties of nanoscale materials. We derived how the forces can be incorporated into the detection signal using the classical Euler equation for beams. A lateral modulation with the amplitude of nanometers was applied to create the friction forces between tip and sample. We demonstrated its capability by measuring normal and friction forces of interfacial water at the molecular scale over all distance ranges.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of normal and friction forces using a cantilever-based optical interfacial force microscope.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung I; Bonander, Jeremy R; Rasmussen, Jared A

    2011-05-01

    We measured normal and friction forces simultaneously using a recently developed cantilever-based optical interfacial force microscope technique for studies of interfacial structures and mechanical properties of nanoscale materials. We derived how the forces can be incorporated into the detection signal using the classical Euler equation for beams. A lateral modulation with the amplitude of nanometers was applied to create the friction forces between tip and sample. We demonstrated its capability by measuring normal and friction forces of interfacial water at the molecular scale over all distance ranges. PMID:21639511

  1. Quantitative measurement of tip sample forces by dynamic force spectroscopy in ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölscher, H.; Anczykowski, B.

    2005-03-01

    We introduce a dynamic force spectroscopy technique enabling the quantitative measurement of conservative and dissipative tip-sample forces in ambient conditions. In difference to the commonly detected force-vs-distance curves dynamic force microscopy allows to measure the full range of tip-sample forces without hysteresis effects caused by a jump-to-contact. The approach is based on the specific behavior of a self-driven cantilever (frequency-modulation technique). Experimental applications on different samples (Fischer-sample, silicon wafer) are presented.

  2. The Frictional Force with Respect to the Actual Contact Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Ragnar

    1944-01-01

    Hardy's statement that the frictional force is largely adhesion, and to a lesser extent, deformation energy is proved by a simple experiment. The actual contact surface of sliding contacts and hence the friction per unit of contact surface was determined in several cases. It was found for contacts in normal atmosphere to be about one-third t-one-half as high as the macroscopic tearing strength of the softest contact link, while contacts annealed in vacuum and then tested, disclosed frictional forces which are greater than the macroscopic strength.

  3. Force Control Is Related to Low-Frequency Oscillations in Force and Surface EMG

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hwasil; Kim, Changki; Kwon, Minhyuk; Chen, Yen Ting; Onushko, Tanya; Lodha, Neha; Christou, Evangelos A.

    2014-01-01

    Force variability during constant force tasks is directly related to oscillations below 0.5 Hz in force. However, it is unknown whether such oscillations exist in muscle activity. The purpose of this paper, therefore, was to determine whether oscillations below 0.5 Hz in force are evident in the activation of muscle. Fourteen young adults (21.07±2.76 years, 7 women) performed constant isometric force tasks at 5% and 30% MVC by abducting the left index finger. We recorded the force output from the index finger and surface EMG from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle and quantified the following outcomes: 1) variability of force using the SD of force; 2) power spectrum of force below 2 Hz; 3) EMG bursts; 4) power spectrum of EMG bursts below 2 Hz; and 5) power spectrum of the interference EMG from 10–300 Hz. The SD of force increased significantly from 5 to 30% MVC and this increase was significantly related to the increase in force oscillations below 0.5 Hz (R2 = 0.82). For both force levels, the power spectrum for force and EMG burst was similar and contained most of the power from 0–0.5 Hz. Force and EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz were highly coherent (coherence = 0.68). The increase in force oscillations below 0.5 Hz from 5 to 30% MVC was related to an increase in EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz (R2 = 0.51). Finally, there was a strong association between the increase in EMG burst oscillations below 0.5 Hz and the interference EMG from 35–60 Hz (R2 = 0.95). In conclusion, this finding demonstrates that bursting of the EMG signal contains low-frequency oscillations below 0.5 Hz, which are associated with oscillations in force below 0.5 Hz. PMID:25372038

  4. Unbinding forces and energies between a siRNA molecule and a dendrimer measured by force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dumitru, Andra C; Herruzo, Elena T; Rausell, Estrella; Ceña, Valentin; Garcia, Ricardo

    2015-12-21

    We have measured the intermolecular forces between small interference RNA (siRNA) and polyamidoamine dendrimers at the single molecular level. A single molecule force spectroscopy approach has been developed to measure the unbinding forces and energies between a siRNA molecule and polyamidoamine dendrimers deposited on a mica surface in a buffer solution. We report three types of unbinding events which are characterized by forces and free unbinding energies, respectively, of 28 pN, 0.709 eV; 38 pN, 0.722 eV; and 50 pN, 0.724 eV. These events reflect different possible electrostatic interactions between the positive charges of one or two dendrimers and the negatively charged phosphate groups of a single siRNA. We have evidence of a high binding affinity of siRNA towards polyamidoamine dendrimers that leads to a 45% probability of measuring specific unbinding events. PMID:26580848

  5. Unbinding forces and energies between a siRNA molecule and a dendrimer measured by force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitru, Andra C.; Herruzo, Elena T.; Rausell, Estrella; Ceña, Valentin; Garcia, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    We have measured the intermolecular forces between small interference RNA (siRNA) and polyamidoamine dendrimers at the single molecular level. A single molecule force spectroscopy approach has been developed to measure the unbinding forces and energies between a siRNA molecule and polyamidoamine dendrimers deposited on a mica surface in a buffer solution. We report three types of unbinding events which are characterized by forces and free unbinding energies, respectively, of 28 pN, 0.709 eV; 38 pN, 0.722 eV; and 50 pN, 0.724 eV. These events reflect different possible electrostatic interactions between the positive charges of one or two dendrimers and the negatively charged phosphate groups of a single siRNA. We have evidence of a high binding affinity of siRNA towards polyamidoamine dendrimers that leads to a 45% probability of measuring specific unbinding events.

  6. Viscosity effects on hydrodynamic drainage force measurements involving deformable bodies.

    PubMed

    Dagastine, Raymond R; Webber, Grant B; Manica, Rogerio; Stevens, Geoffrey W; Grieser, Franz; Chan, Derek Y C

    2010-07-20

    Dynamic force measurements have been made between an oil drop and a silica particle in surfactant and sucrose solutions with viscosities that range up to 50 times that of water. These conditions provide variations in the shear rate and the relative time scales of droplet deformation and hydrodynamic drainage in a soft matter system. The results obtained indicate that soft deformable boundaries have a natural response that limits the maximum shear rate that can be sustained in thin films compared to shear rates that can be attained in films bounded by rigid boundaries. In addition, to extend boundary slip studies on rigid surfaces, we use a smooth deformable droplet surface to probe the dependence of the boundary slip on fluid viscosity without the added complications of surface roughness or heterogeneity. Imposing a Navier slip model to characterize possible slip at the deformable oil-sucrose solution interface gives results that are consistent with a slip length of no larger than 10 nm over the range of solution viscosity studied, although an immobile (zero slip length) condition at the oil-sucrose solution interface is perfectly adequate. In high viscosity solutions, cantilever motion at high scan rates induces a significant cantilever deflection. A method has been developed to account for this effect in order to extract the correct dynamic force between the deformable drop and the particle. PMID:20578751

  7. Surface roughness mediated adhesion forces between borosilicate glass and gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Preedy, Emily; Perni, Stefano; Nipiĉ, Damijan; Bohinc, Klemen; Prokopovich, Polina

    2014-08-12

    It is well-known that a number of surface characteristics affect the extent of adhesion between two adjacent materials. One of such parameters is the surface roughness as surface asperities at the nanoscale level govern the overall adhesive forces. For example, the extent of bacterial adhesion is determined by the surface topography; also, once a bacteria colonizes a surface, proliferation of that species will take place and a biofilm may form, increasing the resistance of bacterial cells to removal. In this study, borosilicate glass was employed with varying surface roughness and coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) in order to replicate the protein layer that covers orthopedic devices on implantation. As roughness is a scale-dependent process, relevant scan areas were analyzed using atomic force microscope (AFM) to determine Ra; furthermore, appropriate bacterial species were attached to the tip to measure the adhesion forces between cells and substrates. The bacterial species chosen (Staphylococci and Streptococci) are common pathogens associated with a number of implant related infections that are detrimental to the biomedical devices and patients. Correlation between adhesion forces and surface roughness (Ra) was generally better when the surface roughness was measured through scanned areas with size (2 × 2 μm) comparable to bacteria cells. Furthermore, the BSA coating altered the surface roughness without correlation with the initial values of such parameter; therefore, better correlations were found between adhesion forces and BSA-coated surfaces when actual surface roughness was used instead of the initial (nominal) values. It was also found that BSA induced a more hydrophilic and electron donor characteristic to the surfaces; in agreement with increasing adhesion forces of hydrophilic bacteria (as determined through microbial adhesion to solvents test) on BSA-coated substrates. PMID:25019516

  8. A study of molecular adsorption of a cationic surfactant on complex surfaces with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, I; Zorn, G; Nichols, J M

    2016-02-01

    The study of molecular adsorption on solid surfaces is of broad interest. However, so far the study has been restricted to idealized flat smooth rigid surfaces which are rarely the case in real world applications. Here we describe a study of molecular adsorption on a complex surface of the submicron fibers of a fibrous membrane of regenerated cellulose in aqueous media. We use a cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC), as the adsorbing molecule. We study the equilibrium adsorption of CTAC molecules on the same area of the fibers by sequentially immersing the membrane in pure water, 1 mM and then a 20 mM solution of CTAC. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is applied to study the adsorption. The force-volume mode is used to record the force-deformation curves of the adsorbed molecules on the fiber surface. We suggest a model to separate the forces due to the adsorbed molecules from the elastic deformation of the fiber. Interestingly, knowledge of the surface geometry is not required in this model provided the surface is made of elastically homogeneous material. Different models are investigated to estimate the amount of the adsorbed molecules based on the obtained force curves. The exponential steric repulsion model fits the force data the best. The amount of the adsorbed surfactant molecules and its dependence on the concentration are found to be reasonable compared to the data previously measured by means of Raman scattering done on a flat surface of silica. PMID:26730682

  9. Magnetic resonance force microscopy combined with surface topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, S.; Yoshinari, Y.; Kawai, E.; Nakajima, K.; Park, H. S.; Shindo, D.

    2007-10-01

    A new method of surface microscopy is proposed, which combines three-dimensional electron spin resonance imaging by magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) and topographic imaging of the sample surface by scanning force microscopy (SFM). In order to demonstrate its potential for the identification of microscale objects, the individual and combined images are used to provide the locations, shapes and spin density distributions of target phantom objects. We report spatial resolution in MRFM of 2.8 × 2.8 × 2.0μm 3. This could be improved to the theoretical limit of 0.08 × 0.08 × 0.04μm 3 through reduction of the thermal noise by cooling to cryogenic temperatures ˜0.5 K. We believe that this type of microscopy will become a very useful tool for the investigation of anomalies induced in surfaces by materials buried below the surface.

  10. MEASUREMENTS OF CONFORMATION CHANGES DURING ADHESION OF LIPID PROTEIN (POLYLYSINE AND S-LAYER) SURFACES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adhesion forces between various surfaces were measured using the "surface forces apparatus" technique which allows for the thickness of surface layers and the adhesion force between them to be directly measured in controlled vapor or liquid environments. hree types of biologi...

  11. Measuring the Forces between Magnetic Dipoles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayetsky, Lisa E.; Caylor, Craig L.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a simple undergraduate lab in which students determine how the force between two magnetic dipoles depends on their separation. We consider the case where both dipoles are permanent and the case where one of the dipoles is induced by the field of the other (permanent) dipole. Agreement with theoretically expected results is quite good.

  12. Intermolecular Casimir-Polder forces in water and near surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiyam, Priyadarshini; Persson, Clas; Sernelius, Bo E.; Parsons, Drew F.; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Boström, Mathias

    2014-09-01

    The Casimir-Polder force is an important long-range interaction involved in adsorption and desorption of molecules in fluids. We explore Casimir-Polder interactions between methane molecules in water, and between a molecule in water near SiO2 and hexane surfaces. Inclusion of the finite molecular size in the expression for the Casimir-Polder energy leads to estimates of the dispersion contribution to the binding energies between molecules and between one molecule and a planar surface.

  13. Probing the interaction between air bubble and sphalerite mineral surface using atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lei; Shi, Chen; Wang, Jingyi; Huang, Jun; Lu, Qiuyi; Liu, Qingxia; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-03-01

    The interaction between air bubbles and solid surfaces plays important roles in many engineering processes, such as mineral froth flotation. In this work, an atomic force microscope (AFM) bubble probe technique was employed, for the first time, to directly measure the interaction forces between an air bubble and sphalerite mineral surfaces of different hydrophobicity (i.e., sphalerite before/after conditioning treatment) under various hydrodynamic conditions. The direct force measurements demonstrate the critical role of the hydrodynamic force and surface forces in bubble-mineral interaction and attachment, which agree well with the theoretical calculations based on Reynolds lubrication theory and augmented Young-Laplace equation by including the effect of disjoining pressure. The hydrophobic disjoining pressure was found to be stronger for the bubble-water-conditioned sphalerite interaction with a larger hydrophobic decay length, which enables the bubble attachment on conditioned sphalerite at relatively higher bubble approaching velocities than that of unconditioned sphalerite. Increasing the salt concentration (i.e., NaCl, CaCl2) leads to weakened electrical double layer force and thereby facilitates the bubble-mineral attachment, which follows the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory by including the effects of hydrophobic interaction. The results provide insights into the basic understanding of the interaction mechanism between bubbles and minerals at nanoscale in froth flotation processes, and the methodology on probing the interaction forces of air bubble and sphalerite surfaces in this work can be extended to many other mineral and particle systems. PMID:25675101

  14. Lateral optical force on chiral particles near a surface

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S. B.; Chan, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    Light can exert radiation pressure on any object it encounters and that resulting optical force can be used to manipulate particles. It is commonly assumed that light should move a particle forward and indeed an incident plane wave with a photon momentum ħk can only push any particle, independent of its properties, in the direction of k. Here we demonstrate, using full-wave simulations, that an anomalous lateral force can be induced in a direction perpendicular to that of the incident photon momentum if a chiral particle is placed above a substrate that does not break any left–right symmetry. Analytical theory shows that the lateral force emerges from the coupling between structural chirality (the handedness of the chiral particle) and the light reflected from the substrate surface. Such coupling induces a sideway force that pushes chiral particles with opposite handedness in opposite directions. PMID:24598792

  15. Lateral optical force on chiral particles near a surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, S B; Chan, C T

    2014-01-01

    Light can exert radiation pressure on any object it encounters and that resulting optical force can be used to manipulate particles. It is commonly assumed that light should move a particle forward and indeed an incident plane wave with a photon momentum ħk can only push any particle, independent of its properties, in the direction of k. Here we demonstrate, using full-wave simulations, that an anomalous lateral force can be induced in a direction perpendicular to that of the incident photon momentum if a chiral particle is placed above a substrate that does not break any left-right symmetry. Analytical theory shows that the lateral force emerges from the coupling between structural chirality (the handedness of the chiral particle) and the light reflected from the substrate surface. Such coupling induces a sideway force that pushes chiral particles with opposite handedness in opposite directions. PMID:24598792

  16. Artefacts for optical surface measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, Stuart; Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Brownhill, Andrew; MacDonald, Lindsay

    2011-07-01

    Flexible manufacturing technologies are supporting the routine production of components with freeform surfaces in a wide variety of materials and surface finishes. Such surfaces may be exploited for both aesthetic and performance criteria for a wide range of industries, for example automotive, aircraft, small consumer goods and medial components. In order to ensure conformance between manufactured part and digital design it is necessary to understand, validate and promote best practice of the available measurement technologies. Similar, but currently less quantifiable, measurement requirements also exist in heritage, museum and fine art recording where objects can be individually hand crafted to extremely fine levels of detail. Optical 3D measurement systems designed for close range applications are typified by one or more illumination sources projecting a spot, line or structured light pattern onto a surface or surfaces of interest. Reflections from the projected light are detected in one or more imaging devices and measurements made concerning the location, intensity and optionally colour of the image. Coordinates of locations on the surface may be computed either directly from an understanding of the illumination and imaging geometry or indirectly through analysis of the spatial frequencies of the projected pattern. Regardless of sensing configuration some independent means is necessary to ensure that measurement capability will meet the requirements of a given level of object recording and is consistent for variations in surface properties and structure. As technologies mature, guidelines for best practice are emerging, most prominent at the current time being the German VDI/VDE 2634 and ISO/DIS 10360-8 guidelines. This considers state of the art capabilities for independent validation of optical non-contact measurement systems suited to the close range measurement of table top sized manufactured or crafted objects.

  17. Robust high-resolution imaging and quantitative force measurement with tuned-oscillator atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagdeviren, Omur E.; Götzen, Jan; Hölscher, Hendrik; Altman, Eric I.; Schwarz, Udo D.

    2016-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopy are based on locally detecting the interactions between a surface and a sharp probe tip. For highest resolution imaging, noncontact modes that avoid tip–sample contact are used; control of the tip’s vertical position is accomplished by oscillating the tip and detecting perturbations induced by its interaction with the surface potential. Due to this potential’s nonlinear nature, however, achieving reliable control of the tip–sample distance is challenging, so much so that despite its power vacuum-based noncontact AFM has remained a niche technique. Here we introduce a new pathway to distance control that prevents instabilities by externally tuning the oscillator’s response characteristics. A major advantage of this operational scheme is that it delivers robust position control in both the attractive and repulsive regimes with only one feedback loop, thereby providing an easy-to-implement route to atomic resolution imaging and quantitative tip–sample interaction force measurement.

  18. Force dependency of biochemical reactions measured by single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Ionel; Kosuri, Pallav; Alegre-Cebollada, Jorge; Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Fernandez, Julio M.

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe a protocol for using force-clamp spectroscopy to precisely quantify the effect of force on biochemical reactions. A calibrated force is used to control the exposure of reactive sites in a single polyprotein substrate composed of repeated domains. The use of polyproteins allows the identification of successful single-molecule recordings from unambiguous mechanical unfolding fingerprints. Biochemical reactions are then measured directly by detecting the length changes of the substrate held at a constant force. We present the layout of a force-clamp spectrometer along with protocols to design and conduct experiments. These experiments measure reaction kinetics as a function of applied force. We show sample data of the force dependency of two different reactions, protein unfolding and disulfide reduction. These data, which can be acquired in just a few days, reveal mechanistic details of the reactions that currently cannot be resolved by any other technique. PMID:23744288

  19. Interlaboratory comparison of traceable atomic force microscope pitch measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixson, Ronald; Chernoff, Donald A.; Wang, Shihua; Vorburger, Theodore V.; Tan, Siew Leng; Orji, Ndubuisi G.; Fu, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Advanced Surface Microscopy (ASM), and the National Metrology Centre (NMC) of the Agency for Science, Technology, and Research (A*STAR) in Singapore have completed a three-way interlaboratory comparison of traceable pitch measurements using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The specimen being used for this comparison is provided by ASM and consists of SiO2 lines having a 70 nm pitch patterned on a silicon substrate. NIST has a multifaceted program in atomic force microscope (AFM) dimensional metrology. One component of this effort is a custom in-house metrology AFM, called the calibrated AFM (C-AFM). The NIST C-AFM has displacement metrology for all three axes traceable to the 633 nm wavelength of the iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser - a recommended wavelength for realization of the SI (Système International d'Unités, or International System of Units) meter. NIST used the C-AFM to participate in this comparison. ASM used a commercially available AFM with an open-loop scanner, calibrated by a 144 nm pitch transfer standard. In a prior collaboration with Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German national metrology institute, ASM's transfer standard was calibrated using PTB's traceable optical diffractometry instrument. Thus, ASM's measurements are also traceable to the SI meter. NMC/A*STAR used a large scanning range metrological atomic force microscope (LRM-AFM). The LRM-AFM integrates an AFM scanning head into a nano-stage equipped with three built-in He-Ne laser interferometers so that its measurement related to the motion on all three axes is directly traceable to the SI meter. The measurements for this interlaboratory comparison have been completed and the results are in agreement within their expanded uncertainties and at the level of a few parts in 104.

  20. Observation of the skin-depth effect on the Casimir force between metallic surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Iannuzzi, Davide; Capasso, Federico

    2005-01-01

    We have performed measurements of the Casimir force between a metallic plate and a transparent sphere coated with metallic films of different thicknesses. We have observed that, if the thickness of the coating is less than the skin-depth of the electromagnetic modes that mostly contribute to the interaction, the force is significantly smaller than that measured with a thick bulk-like film. Our results provide direct evidence of the skin-depth effect on the Casimir force between metallic surfaces. PMID:16091459

  1. Observation of the skin-depth effect on the Casimir force between metallic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lisanti, Mariangela; Iannuzzi, Davide; Capasso, Federico

    2005-08-23

    We have performed measurements of the Casimir force between a metallic plate and a transparent sphere coated with metallic films of different thicknesses. We have observed that, if the thickness of the coating is less than the skin-depth of the electromagnetic modes that mostly contribute to the interaction, the force is significantly smaller than that measured with a thick bulk-like film. Our results provide direct evidence of the skin-depth effect on the Casimir force between metallic surfaces. PMID:16091459

  2. Spatial spectrograms of vibrating atomic force microscopy cantilevers coupled to sample surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Ryan; Raman, Arvind; Proksch, Roger

    2013-12-23

    Many advanced dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques such as contact resonance, force modulation, piezoresponse force microscopy, electrochemical strain microscopy, and AFM infrared spectroscopy exploit the dynamic response of a cantilever in contact with a sample to extract local material properties. Achieving quantitative results in these techniques usually requires the assumption of a certain shape of cantilever vibration. We present a technique that allows in-situ measurements of the vibrational shape of AFM cantilevers coupled to surfaces. This technique opens up unique approaches to nanoscale material property mapping, which are not possible with single point measurements alone.

  3. Characterization of the surface charge distribution on kaolinite particles using high resolution atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naveen; Zhao, Cunlu; Klaassen, Aram; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder; Siretanu, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Most solid surfaces, in particular clay minerals and rock surfaces, acquire a surface charge upon exposure to an aqueous environment due to adsorption and/or desorption of ionic species. Macroscopic techniques such as titration and electrokinetic measurements are commonly used to determine the surface charge and ζ -potential of these surfaces. However, because of the macroscopic averaging character these techniques cannot do justice to the role of local heterogeneities on the surfaces. In this work, we use dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine the distribution of surface charge on the two (gibbsite-like and silica-like) basal planes of kaolinite nanoparticles immersed in aqueous electrolyte with a lateral resolution of approximately 30 nm. The surface charge density is extracted from force-distance curves using DLVO theory in combination with surface complexation modeling. While the gibbsite-like and the silica-like facet display on average positive and negative surface charge values as expected, our measurements reveal lateral variations of more than a factor of two on seemingly atomically smooth terraces, even if high resolution AFM images clearly reveal the atomic lattice on the surface. These results suggest that simple surface complexation models of clays that attribute a unique surface chemistry and hence homogeneous surface charge densities to basal planes may miss important aspects of real clay surfaces.

  4. Hierarchy of adhesion forces in patterns of photoreactive surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlawacek, Gregor; Shen, Quan; Teichert, Christian; Lex, Alexandra; Trimmel, Gregor; Kern, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Precise control of surface properties including electrical characteristics, wettability, and friction is a prerequisite for manufacturing modern organic electronic devices. The successful combination of bottom up approaches for aligning and orienting the molecules and top down techniques to structure the substrate on the nano- and micrometer scale allows the cost efficient fabrication and integration of future organic light emitting diodes and organic thin film transistors. One possibility for the top down patterning of a surface is to utilize different surface free energies or wetting properties of a functional group. Here, we used friction force microscopy (FFM) to reveal chemical patterns inscribed by a photolithographic process into a photosensitive surface layer. FFM allowed the simultaneous visualization of at least three different chemical surface terminations. The underlying mechanism is related to changes in the chemical interaction between probe and film surface.

  5. Sensor Prototype to Evaluate the Contact Force in Measuring with Coordinate Measuring Arms

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Eduardo; Telenti, Alejandro; Patiño, Hector; González-Madruga, Daniel; Martínez-Pellitero, Susana

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development and evaluation tests of an integrated force sensor prototype for portable Coordinate Measuring Arms (CMAs or AACMMs). The development is based on the use of strain gauges located on the surface of the CMAs’ hard probe. The strain gauges as well as their cables and connectors have been protected with a custom case, made by Additive Manufacturing techniques (Polyjet 3D). The same method has been selected to manufacture an ergonomic handle that includes trigger mechanics and the electronic components required for synchronizing the trigger signal when probing occurs. The paper also describes the monitoring software that reads the signals in real time, the calibration procedure of the prototype and the validation tests oriented towards increasing knowledge of the forces employed in manual probing. Several experiments read and record the force in real time comparing different ways of probing (discontinuous and continuous contact) and measuring different types of geometric features, from single planes to exterior cylinders, cones, or spheres, through interior features. The probing force is separated into two components allowing the influence of these strategies in probe deformation to be known. The final goal of this research is to improve the probing technique, for example by using an operator training programme, allowing extra-force peaks and bad contacts to be minimized or just to avoid bad measurements. PMID:26057038

  6. Sensor Prototype to Evaluate the Contact Force in Measuring with Coordinate Measuring Arms.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, Eduardo; Telenti, Alejandro; Patiño, Hector; González-Madruga, Daniel; Martínez-Pellitero, Susana

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development and evaluation tests of an integrated force sensor prototype for portable Coordinate Measuring Arms (CMAs or AACMMs). The development is based on the use of strain gauges located on the surface of the CMAs' hard probe. The strain gauges as well as their cables and connectors have been protected with a custom case, made by Additive Manufacturing techniques (Polyjet 3D). The same method has been selected to manufacture an ergonomic handle that includes trigger mechanics and the electronic components required for synchronizing the trigger signal when probing occurs. The paper also describes the monitoring software that reads the signals in real time, the calibration procedure of the prototype and the validation tests oriented towards increasing knowledge of the forces employed in manual probing. Several experiments read and record the force in real time comparing different ways of probing (discontinuous and continuous contact) and measuring different types of geometric features, from single planes to exterior cylinders, cones, or spheres, through interior features. The probing force is separated into two components allowing the influence of these strategies in probe deformation to be known. The final goal of this research is to improve the probing technique, for example by using an operator training programme, allowing extra-force peaks and bad contacts to be minimized or just to avoid bad measurements. PMID:26057038

  7. Microstructural Characterization of Hierarchical Structured Surfaces by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomareva, A. A.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Suchaneck, G.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we evaluate the hierarchical surface topography of reactively sputtered nanocrystalline Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and TiO2 thin films as well as plasma-treated antireflective PET films by means of determining the fractal dimension and power spectral density (PSD) of surface topography recorded by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Local fractal dimension was obtained using the triangulation method. The PSDs of all samples were fitted to the k-correlation model (also called ABC model) valid for a self-affine surface topography. Fractal analysis of AFM images was shown to be an appropriate and easy to use tool for the characterization of hierarchical nanostructures.

  8. Surface-tip interactions in noncontact atomic-force microscopy on reactive surfaces: Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Rubén; Štich, Ivan; Payne, Michael C.; Terakura, Kiyoyuki

    1998-10-01

    Total-energy pseudopotential calculations are used to study the imaging process in noncontact atomic-force microscopy on Si(111) surfaces. At the distance of closest approach between the tip and the surface, there is an onset of covalent chemical bonding between the dangling bonds of the tip and the surface. Displacement curves and lateral scans on the surface show that this interaction energy and force are comparable to the macroscopic Van der Waals interaction. However, the covalent interaction completely dominates the force gradients probed in the experiments. Hence, this covalent interaction is responsible for the atomic resolution obtained on reactive surfaces and it should play a role in improving the resolution in other systems. Our results provide a clear understanding of a number of issues such as (i) the experimental difficulty in achieving stable operation, (ii) the quality of the images obtained in different experiments and the role of tip preparations and (iii) recently observed discontinuities in the force gradient curves.

  9. AFM forces between mica and polystyrene surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions with and without gas bubbles.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Jorge H; Acuña, Sergio M; Toledo, Pedro G

    2013-11-15

    Force curves between a flat mica substrate and a polystyrene microsphere were measured with an atomic force microscope (AFM) in carefully degassed water and aqueous NaCl, CaCl2, and AlCl3 solutions. The pH of the water used does not change significantly with degassing treatment, and its value remains close to 6. Electrolyte concentration ranges from 10-4 to 10-2M and pH from 4.7 to 5.1. We have found that the repulsive long-range electrostatic force between mica and polystyrene is attenuated by the presence of electrolytes and counterbalanced by a long-range attractive force, which we referred to as a hydrophobic force, which is longer-ranged than the ever present attractive van der Waals force. This force, which includes the adhesive bridging of residual air bubbles and newborn vapor cavities, and any other unknown forces, is reasonably well represented by a unique exponential law. Prefactor and decaying length are not very sensitive to electrolyte type, concentration, and pH, suggesting that any new force included in the law, in addition to adhesive bridges, should obey a non-classical electrostatic mechanism. However, we also know that liquid/solid contact angle and liquid/vapor surface tension increase with electrolyte concentration and valence increasing the stability of bubbles and cavities which in turn increase the bridging force. Clearly, these effects are hidden in the empirical force law. PMID:23998373

  10. Toward isometric force capabilities evaluation by using a musculoskeletal model: Comparison with direct force measurement.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Vincent; Rezzoug, Nasser; Gorce, Philippe

    2015-09-18

    Developing formalisms to determine force capabilities of human limbs by using musculoskeletal models could be useful for biomechanical and ergonomic applications. In this framework, the purpose of this study was to compare measured maximal isometric force capabilities at the hand in a set of Cartesian directions with forces computed from a musculoskeletal model of the upper-limb. The results were represented under the form of a measured force polytope (MFP) and a musculoskeletal force polytope (MSFP). Both of them were obtained from the convex hull of measured and simulated force vectors endpoints. Nine subjects participated to the experiment. For one posture recorded with an optoelectronic system, maximum isometric forces exerted at the hand were recorded in twenty six directions of the Cartesian space with a triaxial force sensor. Results showed significant differences between the polytopes global shapes. The MSFP was more elongated than the MFP. Concerning the polytopes volumes, no significant difference was found. Mean maximal isometric forces provided by MFP and MSFP were 509.6 (118.4)N and 627.9 (73.3)N respectively. Moreover, the angle between the main axes of the two polytopes was 5.5 (2.3)° on average. Finally, RMS error values between MFP and MSFP were lower than 100N in 88% of the considered directions. The proposed MSFP based on a musculoskeletal model gave interesting information on optimal force orientation parameters. The possible applications in the frame of ergonomics, rehabilitation and biomechanics are proposed and discussed. PMID:26206551

  11. Measuring Surface Water From Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partsch, J.; Alsdorf, D.; Rodriguez, E.; Lettenmaier, D.; Mognard, N.; Participants, T.

    2006-12-01

    Surface fresh water is essential for life, yet we have surprisingly poor knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface fresh water discharge and changes in storage globally. For example, we are unable to answer such basic questions as "What is the spatial and temporal variability of water stored on and near the surface of all continents?" Furthermore, key societal issues, such as the susceptibility of life to flood hazards, cannot be answered with the current global, in-situ networks designed to observe river discharge at points but not flood events. The measurements required to answer these hydrologic questions are surface water area, the elevation of the water surface (h), its slope (dh/dx), and temporal change (dh/dt). Advances in remote sensing hydrology, particularly over the past 10 years and even more recently, have demonstrated that these hydraulic variables can be measured reliably from orbiting platforms. Measurements of inundated area have been used to varying degrees of accuracy as proxies for discharge, but are successful only when in-situ data are available for calibration and fail to indicate the dynamic topography of water surfaces. Radar altimeters have a rich, multi-decadal history of successfully measuring elevations of the ocean surface and are now also accepted as capable tools for measuring h along orbital profiles crossing fresh water bodies. However, altimeters are profiling tools which, because of their orbital spacings, miss too many fresh water bodies to be useful hydrologically. High spatial resolution images of dh/dt have been observed with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), but the method requires emergent vegetation to scatter radar pulses back to the receiving antenna. Essentially, existing spaceborne methods have been used to measure components of surface water hydraulics, but none of the technologies can singularly supply the water volume and hydraulic measurements that are needed to accurately model the

  12. Measuring surface water from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsdorf, Douglas E.; RodríGuez, Ernesto; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2007-06-01

    Surface fresh water is essential for life, yet we have surprisingly poor knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface freshwater discharge and changes in storage globally. For example, we are unable to answer such basic questions as "What is the spatial and temporal variability of water stored on and near the surface of all continents?" Furthermore, key societal issues, such as the susceptibility of life to flood hazards, cannot be answered with the current global, in situ networks designed to observe river discharge at points but not flood events. The measurements required to answer these hydrologic questions are surface water area, the elevation of the water surface (h), its slope (∂h/∂x), and temporal change (∂h/∂t). Advances in remote sensing hydrology, particularly over the past 10 years and even more recently, have demonstrated that these hydraulic variables can be measured reliably from orbiting platforms. Measurements of inundated area have been used to varying degrees of accuracy as proxies for discharge but are successful only when in situ data are available for calibration; they fail to indicate the dynamic topography of water surfaces. Radar altimeters have a rich, multidecadal history of successfully measuring elevations of the ocean surface and are now also accepted as capable tools for measuring h along orbital profiles crossing freshwater bodies. However, altimeters are profiling tools, which, because of their orbital spacings, miss too many freshwater bodies to be useful hydrologically. High spatial resolution images of ∂h/∂t have been observed with interferometric synthetic aperture radar, but the method requires emergent vegetation to scatter radar pulses back to the receiving antenna. Essentially, existing spaceborne methods have been used to measure components of surface water hydraulics, but none of the technologies can singularly supply the water volume and hydraulic measurements that are needed to accurately model

  13. Force Measurement on the GLAST Delta II Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Scott; Kaufman, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the interface force measurement at spacecraft separation of GLAST Delta II. The contents include: 1) Flight Force Measurement (FFM) Background; 2) Team Members; 3) GLAST Mission Overview; 4) Methodology Development; 5) Ground Test Validation; 6) Flight Data; 7) Coupled Loads Simulation (VCLA & Reconstruction); 8) Basedrive Simulation; 9) Findings; and 10) Summary and Conclusions.

  14. Development of cylindrical-type finger force measuring system using force sensors and its characteristics evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeon-Min; Yoon, Joungwon; Shin, Hee-Suk; Kim, Gab-Soon

    2012-02-01

    Some patients cannot use their hands because of the paralysis of their fingers. Their fingers can recover with rehabilitative training, and the extent of rehabilitation can be judged by grasping a cylindrical-object with their fingers. At present, the cylindrical-object used in hospitals is only a plastic cylinder, which cannot measure grasping force of the fingers. Therefore, doctors must judge the extent of rehabilitation by watching patients' fingers as they grasp the plastic cylinder. In this paper, the development of two cylindrical-type finger force measuring systems with four force sensors for left hand and right hand were developed. The developed finger force measuring system can measure the grasping force of patients' each finger (forefinger, middle finger, ring finger and little finger), and the measured results could be used to judge the rehabilitation extent of a finger patient. The grasping force tests of men and women were performed using the developed cylindrical-type finger force measuring systems. The tests confirm that the average finger forces of right hand and left hand for men were about 194 N and 179 N, and for women, 108 N and 95 N.

  15. Calculation of Excavation Force for ISRU on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Xiangwu (David); Burnoski, Louis; Agui, Juan H.; Wilkinson, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Accurately predicting the excavation force that will be encountered by digging tools on the lunar surface is a crucial element of in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Based on principles of soil mechanics, this paper develops an analytical model that is relatively simple to apply and uses soil parameters that can be determined by traditional soil strength tests. The influence of important parameters on the excavation force is investigated. The results are compared with that predicted by other available theories. Results of preliminary soil tests on lunar stimulant are also reported.

  16. A Revised Force Restore Model for Land Surface Modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Diandong; Xue, Ming

    2004-11-01

    To clarify the definition of the equation for the temperature toward which the soil skin temperature is restored, the prediction equations in the commonly used force restore model for soil temperature are rederived from the heat conduction equation. The derivation led to a deep-layer temperature, commonly denoted T2, that is defined as the soil temperature at depth πd plus a transient term, where d is the e-folding damping depth of soil temperature diurnal oscillations. The corresponding prediction equation for T2 has the same form as the commonly used one except for an additional term involving the lapse rate of the “seasonal mean” soil temperature and the damping depth d. A term involving the same also appears in the skin temperature prediction equation, which also includes a transient term. In the literature, T2 was initially defined as the short-term (over several days) mean of the skin temperature, but in practice it is often used as the deep-layer temperature. Such inconsistent use can lead to drift in T2 prediction over a several-day period, as is documented in this paper. When T2 is properly defined and initialized, large drift in T2 prediction is avoided and the surface temperature prediction is usually improved. This is confirmed by four sets of experiments, each for a period during each season of 2000, that are initialized using and verified against measurements of the Oklahoma Atmospheric Surface-Layer Instrumentation System (OASIS) project.


  17. Direct measurement of the intermolecular forces between counterion-condensed DNA double helices. Evidence for long range attractive hydration forces.

    PubMed Central

    Rau, D C; Parsegian, V A

    1992-01-01

    Rather than acting by modifying van der Waals or electrostatic double layer interactions or by directly bridging neighboring molecules, polyvalent ligands bound to DNA double helices appear to act by reconfiguring the water between macromolecular surfaces to create attractive long range hydration forces. We have reached this conclusion by directly measuring the repulsive forces between parallel B-form DNA double helices pushed together from the separations at which they have self organized into hexagonal arrays of parallel rods. For all of the wide variety of "condensing agents" from divalent Mn to polymeric protamines, the resulting intermolecular force varies exponentially with a decay rate of 1.4-1.5 A, exactly one-half that seen previously for hydration repulsion. Such behavior qualitatively contradicts the predictions of all electrostatic double layer and van der Waals force potentials previously suggested. It fits remarkably well with the idea, developed and tested here, that multivalent counterion adsorption reorganizes the water at discrete sites complementary to unadsorbed sites on the apposing surface. The measured strength and range of these attractive forces together with their apparent specificity suggest the presence of a previously unexpected force in molecular organization. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:1540693

  18. Imaging surface nanobubbles at graphite-water interfaces with different atomic force microscopy modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chih-Wen; Lu, Yi-Hsien; Hwang, Ing-Shouh

    2013-05-01

    We have imaged nanobubbles on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces in pure water with different atomic force microscopy (AFM) modes, including the frequency-modulation, the tapping, and the PeakForce techniques. We have compared the performance of these modes in obtaining the surface profiles of nanobubbles. The frequency-modulation mode yields a larger height value than the other two modes and can provide more accurate measurement of the surface profiles of nanobubbles. Imaging with PeakForce mode shows that a nanobubble appears smaller and shorter with increasing peak force and disappears above a certain peak force, but the size returns to the original value when the peak force is reduced. This indicates that imaging with high peak forces does not cause gas removal from the nanobubbles. Based on the presented findings and previous AFM observations, the existing models for nanobubbles are reviewed and discussed. The model of gas aggregate inside nanobubbles provides a better explanation for the puzzles of the high stability and the contact angle of surface nanobubbles.

  19. The role of deformable structured surfaces on viscous forces during peeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhong, Charles; Frechette, Joelle

    It is known that tree frogs are able to adhere well in flooded environments, presumably due to their interconnected network of drainage channels formed by hexagonal epithelial cells in their toe pads. To investigate this effect, a patterned surface of hexagonally arranged cylindrical posts was brought close to a stationary substrate in a submerged, viscous fluid via a normal load, and then peeled off to measure a retraction force. Because these structured surfaces were made from PDMS, they are able to deform throughout the process. We find that these deformable surfaces further reduce the work required to peel apart the two surfaces, even when compared to previous studies in the same system with rigid structures, and we isolated these contributions independent of conservative forces. We then conducted experiments to compare the effect of deformation on the viscous forces and conservative forces. We find that there are several regimes where deformation either increases or decreases the retraction force since we have found that elasticity decreases retraction forces when considering viscous contributions but is also known to increase adhesion in the context of conservative forces. Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, Hopkins Extreme Materials Institute.

  20. Recent Investments by NASA's National Force Measurement Technology Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Commo, Sean A.; Ponder, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Force Measurement Technology Capability (NFMTC) is a nationwide partnership established in 2008 and sponsored by NASA's Aeronautics Evaluation and Test Capabilities (AETC) project to maintain and further develop force measurement capabilities. The NFMTC focuses on force measurement in wind tunnels and provides operational support in addition to conducting balance research. Based on force measurement capability challenges, strategic investments into research tasks are designed to meet the experimental requirements of current and future aerospace research programs and projects. This paper highlights recent and force measurement investments into several areas including recapitalizing the strain-gage balance inventory, developing balance best practices, improving calibration and facility capabilities, and researching potential technologies to advance balance capabilities.

  1. Impact of Thermal Gradients on Wind Tunnel Force Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hereford, James; Parker, Peter A.; Rhew, Ray D.

    1999-01-01

    In a wind tunnel facility, the direct measurement of forces and moments induced on the model are performed by a force measurement balance. The measurement balance is a precision-machined device that has strain gages at strategic locations to measure the strain (i.e., deformations) due to applied forces and moments. The strain gages convert the strain (and hence the applied force) to an electrical voltage that is measured by external meters. Thermal gradients can complicate the process, however. Thermal gradients on the balance cause differential expansion (or contraction) of various parts of the balance that induce a strain that is detected by the strain gages and is indistinguishable from an external applied force. The thermal gradients can result when testing is done at elevated temperatures or at cryogenic temperatures such as at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  2. Modifications of the structure of the pericellular matrix measured via optical force probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLane, Louis; Kramer, Anthony; Chang, Patrick; Curtis, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    The pericellular matrix is a large protein and polysaccharide rich polymer layer attached to the surface of many cells, and which often extends several microns out from the cell surface into the surrounding extracellular space. Here we study the intrinsic nature and modifications of the structure of the pericellular coat on rat chondrocytes with the use of optical force probe microscopy. Optical force probe studies allow us to make both dynamic force measurements as well as equilibrium force measurements throughout the coat. These force measurements are used to observe the structural change in the coat with the addition of exogenous aggrecan. Not only does addition of exogenous aggrecan dramatically swell our coat to well over twice in size, our analysis indicates that the addition of exogenous aggrecan decreases the mesh size throughout the coat. We speculate that the added aggrecan binds to available binding sites along the hyaluronan chain, both enlarging the coat's size as well as tightening up the opening within the coat. We further suggest that the available binding sites for the exogenous aggrecan are abundant in the outer edges of the coat, as both the dynamic and equilibrium forces in this region are changed. Here, both force measurements show that forces closest to the cell membrane remain relatively unchanged, while the forces in the outer region of the coat are increased. These results are consistent with those obtained with complementary measurements using quantitative particle exclusion assays.

  3. Measuring Wind Ventilation of Dense Surface Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, S. A.; Huwald, H.; Selker, J. S.; Higgins, C. W.; Lehning, M.; Thomas, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Wind ventilation enhances exposure of suspended, canopy-captured and corniced snow to subsaturated air and can significantly increase sublimation rate. Although sublimation rate may be high for highly ventilated snow this snow regime represents a small fraction snow that resides in a basin potentially minimizing its influence on snow mass balance. In contrast, the vast majority of a seasonal snowpack typically resides as poorly ventilated surface snow. The sublimation rate of surface snow is often locally so small as to defy direct measurement but regionally pervasive enough that the integrated mass loss of frozen water across a basin may be significant on a seasonal basis. In a warming climate, sublimation rate increases even in subfreezing conditions because the equilibrium water vapor pressure over ice increases exponentially with temperature. To better understand the process of wintertime surface snow sublimation we need to quantify the depth to which turbulent and topographically driven pressure perturbations effect air exchange within the snowpack. Hypothetically, this active layer depth increases the effective ventilated snow surface area, enhancing sublimation above that given by a plane, impermeable snow surface. We designed and performed a novel set of field experiments at two sites in the Oregon Cascades during the 2014 winter season to examine the spectral attenuation of pressure perturbations with depth for dense snow as a function of turbulence intensity and snow permeability. We mounted a Campbell Scientific Irgason Integrated CO2 and H2O Open Path Gas Analyzer and 3-D Sonic Anemometer one meter above the snow to capture mean and turbulent wind forcing and placed outlets of four high precision ParoScientific 216B-102 pressure transducers at different depths to measure the depth-dependent pressure response to wind forcing. A GPS antenna captured data acquisition time with sufficient precision to synchronize a Campbell Scientific CR-3000 acquiring

  4. Direct calibration of colloidal probe cantilevers via Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek surface forces in electrolyte solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xiaoting; Willing, Gerold A.

    2008-12-01

    The development of colloidal probe microscopy has made it possible to directly measure the interaction forces between two different surfaces in solution. Cantilever calibration is presently a subject of intense experimental and theoretical interest due to the need for accurate force measurement. We developed a novel and direct calibration method for colloidal probe cantilevers to which a silica microsphere has been previously attached based on fitting experimental force curves for the interaction between the silica sphere and a silica flat in dilute KBr solutions to the theoretical Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek force curves using the measured zeta potential of the silica surfaces.

  5. Direct Measurement of Forces Between Linear Polysaccharides Xanthan and Schizophyllan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Donald C.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    1990-09-01

    Direct osmotic stress measurements have been made of forces between helices of xanthan, an industrially important charged polysaccharide. Exponentially decaying hydration forces, much like those already measured between lipid bilayer membranes or DNA double helices, dominate the interactions at close separation. Interactions between uncharged schizophyllans also show the same kind of hydration force seen between xanthans. In addition to the practical possibilities for modifying solution and suspension properties through recognition and control of molecular forces, there is now finally the opportunity for theorists to relate macroscopic properties of a polymer solution to the microscopic properties that underlie them.

  6. An ABS control logic based on wheel force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, D.; Galvagno, E.; Ondrak, V.; van Leeuwen, B.; Vigliani, A.

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents an anti-lock braking system (ABS) control logic based on the measurement of the longitudinal forces at the hub bearings. The availability of force information allows to design a logic that does not rely on the estimation of the tyre-road friction coefficient, since it continuously tries to exploit the maximum longitudinal tyre force. The logic is designed by means of computer simulation and then tested on a specific hardware in the loop test bench: the experimental results confirm that measured wheel force can lead to a significant improvement of the ABS performances in terms of stopping distance also in the presence of road with variable friction coefficient.

  7. A measurable force driven by an excitonic condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Hakioğlu, T.; Özgün, Ege; Günay, Mehmet

    2014-04-21

    Free energy signatures related to the measurement of an emergent force (≈10{sup −9}N) due to the exciton condensate (EC) in Double Quantum Wells are predicted and experiments are proposed to measure the effects. The EC-force is attractive and reminiscent of the Casimir force between two perfect metallic plates, but also distinctively different from it by its driving mechanism and dependence on the parameters of the condensate. The proposed experiments are based on a recent experimental work on a driven micromechanical oscillator. Conclusive observations of EC in recent experiments also provide a strong promise for the observation of the EC-force.

  8. Forces and torques on the nanoscale: from measurement to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpe, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    The possibility of measuring microscopic forces down to the femtonewton range has opened new possibilities in fields such as biophysics and nanophotonics. I will review some of the techniques most often employed, namely the photonic force microscope (PFM) and the total internal reflection microscope (TIRM), which are able to measure tiny forces acting on optically trapped particles. I will then discuss several applications of such nanoscopic forces: from plasmonic optical manipulation, to self-propelled microswimmers, to self-organization in large ensembles of particles.

  9. Simulation of Forces between Humid Amorphous Silica Surfaces: A Comparison of Empirical Atomistic Force Fields

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric humidity strongly influences the interactions between dry granular particles in process containers. To reduce the energy loss in industrial production processes caused by particle agglomeration, a basic understanding of the dependence of particle interactions on humidity is necessary. Hence, in this study, molecular dynamic simulations were carried out to calculate the adhesion between silica surfaces in the presence of adsorbed water. For a realistic description, the choice of force field is crucial. Because of their frequent use and transferability to biochemical systems, the Clay and CWCA force fields were investigated with respect to their ability to describe the water–silica interface in comparison to the more advanced Reax force field, ab initio calculations, and experiments. PMID:23378869

  10. A non-integral, axial-force measuring element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringel, M.; Levin, D.; Seginer, A.

    1989-10-01

    A new approach to the measurement of the axial force is presented. A nonintegral axial-force measuring element, housed within the wind-tunnel model, avoids the interactions that are caused by nonlinear elastic phenomena characteristic of integral balances. The new design overcomes other problems, such as friction, misalignment and relative motion between metric elements, that plagued previous attempts at separate measurement of the axial force. Calibration and test results prove the ability of the new approach to duplicate and even surpass the results of much more complicated and expensive integral balances. The advantages of the new design make it the best known solution for particular measurement problems.

  11. NASA Langley Research Center Force and Strain Measurement Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Paul W.

    1999-01-01

    Direct measurements of forces and moments are some of the most important data acquired during aerodynamic testing. This paper deals with the force and strain measurement capabilities at the Langley Research Center (LaRC). It begins with a progressive history of LaRC force measurement developments beginning in the 1940's and ends with the center's current capabilities. Various types of force and moment transducers used at LaRC are discussed including six-component sting mounted balances, semi-span balances, hinge moment balances, flow-through balances, rotor balances, and many other unique transducers. Also discussed are some unique strain-gage applications, such as those used in extreme environments. The final topics deal with the LaRC's ability to perform custom calibrations and our current levels of effort in the area of force and strain measurement.

  12. Micromechanical adhesion force measurements between tetrahydrofuran hydrate particles.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Craig J; Dieker, Laura E; Miller, Kelly T; Koh, Carolyn A; Sloan, E Dendy

    2007-02-15

    Adhesion forces between tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate particles in n-decane were measured using an improved micromechanical technique. The experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure over the temperature range 261-275 K. The observed forces and trends were explained by a capillary bridge between the particles. The adhesion force of hydrates was directly proportional to the contact force and contact time. A scoping study examined the effects of temperature, anti-agglomerants, and interfacial energy on the particle adhesion forces. The adhesion force of hydrates was found to be directly proportional to interfacial energy of the surrounding liquid, and to increase with temperature. Both sorbitan monolaurate (Span20) and poly-N-vinyl caprolactam (PVCap) decreased the adhesion force between the hydrate particles. PMID:17126359

  13. Temporal Modulations of Contact Force during Haptic Surface Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sven; Schwarz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Individuals constantly modulate their exploratory movements and adapt their internal hypotheses to incoming sensory information to achieve a thorough and realistic percept. Perception depends on the exploratory movements as well as influencing them. While this seems to be common sense, scientifically we know very little about the temporal dynamics during haptic exploration. To address this, we investigated the exploratory force modulations of two groups of healthy young adults during the exploration of grated surfaces with differing detection difficulty during successive (n = 20) and random stimulus presentation (n = 20). Results showed that exploratory force depended on stimulus properties and increased with increasing detection difficulty. Both experiments yielded the same direction of results with slightly smaller effects in the random stimulus presentation group. Across exploration time average fingertip force also increased. The biggest increase occurred systematically at the beginning (within the first 40 percent) of exploration time per stimulus indicating that most critical information is received during the initial contact phase and is directly transformed into the exploration procedure and force application. Furthermore, video-analyses and comparisons to our high temporal resolution data revealed strong dynamic changes in pressure application during test stimulus exploration with differences in the force dynamics and exploration strategies of simple and difficult stimuli. PMID:27073843

  14. Surface Instability of Liquid Propellant under Vertical Oscillatory Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, H. Q.; Peugeot, John

    2011-01-01

    Fluid motion in a fuel tank produced during thrust oscillations can circulate sub-cooled hydrogen near the liquid-vapor interface resulting in increased condensation and ullage pressure collapse. The first objective of this study is to validate the capabilities of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool, CFD-ACE+, in modeling the fundamental interface transition physics occurring at the propellant surface. The second objective is to use the tool to assess the effects of thrust oscillations on surface dynamics. Our technical approach is to first verify the CFD code against known theoretical solutions, and then validate against existing experiments for small scale tanks and a range of transition regimes. A 2D axisymmetric, multi-phase model of gases, liquids, and solids is used to verify that CFD-ACE+ is capable of modeling fluid-structure interaction and system resonance in a typical thrust oscillation environment. Then, the 3D mode is studied with an assumed oscillatory body force to simulate the thrust oscillating effect. The study showed that CFD modeling can capture all of the transition physics from solid body motion to standing surface wave and to droplet ejection from liquid-gas interface. Unlike the analytical solutions established during the 1960 s, CFD modeling is not limited to the small amplitude regime. It can extend solutions to the nonlinear regime to determine the amplitude of surface waves after the onset of instability. The present simulation also demonstrated consistent trends from numerical experiments through variation of physical properties from low viscous fluid to high viscous fluids, and through variation of geometry and input forcing functions. A comparison of surface wave patterns under various forcing frequencies and amplitudes showed good agreement with experimental observations. It is concluded that thrust oscillations can cause droplet formation at the interface, which results in increased surface area and enhanced heat transfer

  15. SU-8 force sensing pillar arrays for biological measurements.

    PubMed

    Doll, Joseph C; Harjee, Nahid; Klejwa, Nathan; Kwon, Ronald; Coulthard, Sarah M; Petzold, Bryan; Goodman, Miriam B; Pruitt, Beth L

    2009-05-21

    The generation and sensation of mechanical force plays a role in many dynamic biological processes, including touch sensation. This paper presents a two-axis micro strain gauge force sensor constructed from multiple layers of SU-8 and metal on quartz substrates. The sensor was designed to meet requirements for measuring tactile sensitivity and interaction forces exerted during locomotion by small organisms such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The device is transparent and compatible with light microscopes, allowing behavioral experiments to be combined with quantitative force measurements. For the first time, we have characterized the scale of interaction forces generated in wild-type C. elegans in probing and responding to their environment during locomotion. The device features sub-microN force resolution from 1 Hz to 1 kHz, >25 microN range, kHz acquisition rates and biocompatibility. PMID:19417913

  16. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the Casimir-Polder force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrecht, John Michael

    A measurement of the temperature dependence of the Casimir-Polder force is presented along with subsequent measurements of electric fields near surfaces. These measurements were obtained by studying the effects of surface forces on the collective oscillations of a magnetically trapped 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). In the first part of this thesis, the measurement of the Casimir-Polder force is described. In this experiment, the BEC was placed a few microns from a dielectric substrate and excited into its dipole oscillation. Changes in the collective oscillation frequency resulted from spatial variations in the surface-atom force. The temperature dependence of this force was observed as a threefold increase in its strength as the substrate was heated from 300 K to 600 K, in agreement with theory. The second part of this thesis deals with measurements that were made of electric fields emanating from surface adsorbates. An alternating external electric field was applied that adds to (or subtracts from) the adsorbate's field in such a way as to resonantly drive the BEC into a mechanical dipole oscillation. The growth rate of the oscillation's amplitude provides information about the magnitude and sign of the adsorbate's field gradient. Using this technique, we were able to reconstruct vectorially the electric field produced by surface contaminants and account for their systematic effects. Lastly, we show that baking the substrate can reduce the electric fields emanating from adsorbates, and that the mechanism for reduction is likely surface diffusion, not desorption.

  17. A density-scaled continuum surface force model within a balanced force formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Kensuke

    2014-12-01

    We propose a numerical framework which can simulate free surface flows with complex moving interfaces like droplet splashing as minimizing spurious currents. The numerical framework is based on the CLSVOF (coupled level set and volume-of-fluid) method, the THINC/WLIC (tangent of hyperbola for interface capturing/weighted line interface calculation) scheme, multi-moment methods (CIP-CSL and VSIAM3) and density-scaled CSF (continuum surface force) model within a balanced force formulation. In this paper, we propose a level set based algorithm of the density-scaled balanced CSF model and show that the density-scaled balanced CSF model can reduce spurious currents more than the standard balanced CSF model without using the density-scaling when the exact curvature is not given. We also show that the numerical framework can well capture the physics of droplet splashing.

  18. Annual Cycle of Cloud Forcing of Surface Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilber, Anne C.; Smith, G. Louis; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Gupta, Shashi K.

    2006-01-01

    The climate of the Earth is determined by its balance of radiation. The incoming and outgoing radiation fluxes are strongly modulated by clouds, which are not well understood. The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (Barkstrom and Smith, 1986) provided data from which the effects of clouds on radiation at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) could be computed (Ramanathan, 1987). At TOA, clouds increase the reflected solar radiation, tending to cool the planet, and decrease the OLR, causing the planet to retain its heat (Ramanathan et al., 1989; Harrison et al., 1990). The effects of clouds on radiation fluxes are denoted cloud forcing. These shortwave and longwave forcings counter each other to various degrees, so that in the tropics the result is a near balance. Over mid and polar latitude oceans, cloud forcing at TOA results in large net loss of radiation. Here, there are large areas of stratus clouds and cloud systems associated with storms. These systems are sensitive to surface temperatures and vary strongly with the annual cycle. During winter, anticyclones form over the continents and move to the oceans during summer. This movement of major cloud systems causes large changes of surface radiation, which in turn drives the surface temperature and sensible and latent heat released to the atmosphere.

  19. Sensitivity of Force Specifications to the Errors in Measuring the Interface Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worth, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Force-Limited Random Vibration Testing has been applied in the last several years at NASA/GSFC for various programs at the instrument and system level. Different techniques have been developed over the last few decades to estimate the dynamic forces that the test article under consideration will encounter in the operational environment. Some of these techniques are described in the handbook, NASA-HDBK-7004, and the monograph, NASA-RP-1403. A key element in the ability to perform force-limited testing is multi-component force gauges. This paper will show how some measurement and calibration errors in force gauges are compensated for w en tie force specification is calculated. The resulting notches in the acceleration spectrum, when a random vibration test is performed, are the same as the notches produced during an uncompensated test that has no measurement errors. The paper will also present the results of tests that were used to validate this compensation. Knowing that the force specification can compensate for some measurement errors allows tests to continue after force gauge failures or allows dummy gauges to be used in places that are inaccessible.

  20. A force balance system for the measurement of skin friction drag force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Mcvey, E. S.

    1971-01-01

    Research on force balance instrumentation to measure the skin friction of hypersonic vehicles at extreme temperatures, high altitudes and in a vibration field is discussed. A rough overall summary and operating instructions for the equipment are presented.

  1. Sensor for direct measurement of interaction forces in probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degertekin, F. L.; Onaran, A. G.; Balantekin, M.; Lee, W.; Hall, N. A.; Quate, C. F.

    2005-11-01

    We introduce a sensor for direct measurement of tip-sample interaction forces in probe microscopy. The sensor uses a micromachined membrane structure built on a transparent substrate with an integrated diffraction grating for optical interferometric detection, and a built-in electrostatic actuator. To demonstrate our concept for this sensor, we measured the force curves between an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever tip and a micromachined aluminum sensor membrane built on a quartz substrate. We also measured transient interaction forces exerted on the sensor membrane during each cycle of the vibrating AFM cantilever. These agree well with the temporal response of the sensor to a short force pulse applied by our integrated electrostatic actuator. With the addition of an integrated tip, this structure may be used for scanning probe microscopy with a bandwidth limited by the membrane dynamics.

  2. Direct measurement of the forces generated by an undulatory microswimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, Rafael; Backholm, Matilda; Ryu, William; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2014-11-01

    C. elegans is a millimeter-sized nematode which has served as a model organism in biology for several decades, primarily due to its simple anatomy. Employing an undulatory form of locomotion, this worm is capable of propelling itself through various media. Using a micropipette deflection technique, in conjunction with high speed imaging, we directly measure the time-varying forces generated by C. elegans. We observe excellent agreement between our measured forces and the predictions of resistive force theory, through which we determine the drag coefficients of the worm. We also perform the direct force measurements at controlled distances from a single solid boundary as well as between two solid boundaries. We extract the drag coefficients of the worm to quantify the influence of the boundary on the swimming and the hydrodynamic forces involved.

  3. Piconewton force measurement using a nanometric photonic crystal diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wonuk; Digonnet, Michel J F

    2014-08-01

    A compact force fiber sensor capable of measuring forces at the piconewton level is reported. It consists of a miniature Fabry-Perot cavity fabricated at the tip a single-mode fiber, in which the external reflector is a compliant photonic-crystal diaphragm that deflects when subjected to a force. In the laboratory environment, this sensor was able to detect a force of only ∼4  pN generated by the radiation pressure of a laser beam. Its measured minimum detectable force (MDF) at 3 kHz was as weak as 1.3  pN/√Hz. In a quiet environment, the measured noise was ∼16 times lower, and the MDF predicted to be ∼76  fN/√Hz. PMID:25078221

  4. Force Measurements in Magnetic Suspension and Balance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzin, Alexander; Shapovalov, George; Prohorov, Nikolay

    1996-01-01

    The description of an infrared telemetry system for measurement of drag forces in Magnetic Suspension and Balance Systems (MSBS) is presented. This system includes a drag force sensor, electronic pack and transmitter placed in the model which is of special construction, and receiver with a microprocessor-based measuring device, placed outside of the test section. Piezosensitive resonators as sensitive elements and non-magnetic steel as the material for the force sensor are used. The main features of the proposed system for load measurements are discussed and the main characteristics are presented.

  5. Surface flow measurements from drones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauro, Flavia; Porfiri, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Drones are transforming the way we sense and interact with the environment. However, despite their increased capabilities, the use of drones in geophysical sciences usually focuses on image acquisition for generating high-resolution maps. Motivated by the increasing demand for innovative and high performance geophysical observational methodologies, we posit the integration of drone technology and optical sensing toward a quantitative characterization of surface flow phenomena. We demonstrate that a recreational drone can be used to yield accurate surface flow maps of sub-meter water bodies. Specifically, drone's vibrations do not hinder surface flow observations, and velocity measurements are in agreement with traditional techniques. This first instance of quantitative water flow sensing from a flying drone paves the way to novel observations of the environment.

  6. Measuring Drag Force in Newtonian Liquids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Matthew T.; O'Donnell, Mary Kate; Fingerut, Jonathan; Habdas, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    The experiments described in this paper have two goals. The first goal is to show how students can perform simple but fundamental measurements of objects moving through simple liquids (such as water, oil, or honey). In doing so, students can verify Stokes' law, which governs the motion of spheres through simple liquids, and see how it fails at…

  7. Vehicle Lateral State Estimation Based on Measured Tyre Forces

    PubMed Central

    Tuononen, Ari J.

    2009-01-01

    Future active safety systems need more accurate information about the state of vehicles. This article proposes a method to evaluate the lateral state of a vehicle based on measured tyre forces. The tyre forces of two tyres are estimated from optically measured tyre carcass deflections and transmitted wirelessly to the vehicle body. The two remaining tyres are so-called virtual tyre sensors, the forces of which are calculated from the real tyre sensor estimates. The Kalman filter estimator for lateral vehicle state based on measured tyre forces is presented, together with a simple method to define adaptive measurement error covariance depending on the driving condition of the vehicle. The estimated yaw rate and lateral velocity are compared with the validation sensor measurements. PMID:22291535

  8. What Does the Force Concept Inventory Actually Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Douglas; Heller, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 29-question, multiple-choice test designed to assess students' Newtonian and non-Newtonian conceptions of force. Presents an analysis of FCI results as one way to determine what the inventory actually measures. (LZ)

  9. Differential force microscope for long time-scale biophysical measurements

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Jason L.; Parekh, Sapun H.; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Liu, Allen P.; Bustamante, Carlos; Footer, Matthew J.; Theriot, Julie A.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Force microscopy techniques including optical trapping, magnetic tweezers, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have facilitated quantification of forces and distances on the molecular scale. However, sensitivity and stability limitations have prevented the application of these techniques to biophysical systems that generate large forces over long times, such as actin filament networks. Growth of actin networks drives cellular shape change and generates nano-Newtons of force over time scales of minutes to hours, and consequently network growth properties have been difficult to study. Here, we present an AFM-based differential force microscope with integrated epifluorescence imaging in which two adjacent cantilevers on the same rigid support are used to provide increased measurement stability. We demonstrate 14 nm displacement control over measurement times of 3 hours and apply the instrument to quantify actin network growth in vitro under controlled loads. By measuring both network length and total network fluorescence simultaneously, we show that the average cross-sectional density of the growing network remains constant under static loads. The differential force microscope presented here provides a sensitive method for quantifying force and displacement with long time-scale stability that is useful for measurements of slow biophysical processes in whole cells or in reconstituted molecular systems in vitro. PMID:17477674

  10. Report of the Task Force on Institutional Effectiveness Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Board of Directors for Community Colleges, Phoenix.

    The Task Force on Institutional Effectiveness Measures was formed by the State Board of Directors for Community Colleges of Arizona to develop a statewide plan for systematically demonstrating the degree to which community colleges accomplish their diverse missions. Two subgroups were formed in the Task Force on transfer and college programs and…

  11. Evaluation of a force plate system for measuring center of pressure in railroad ballast.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hang; Merryweather, Andrew; Bloswick, Donald

    2016-05-01

    Traditional biomechanical analyses have focused primarily on the human gait across hard, flat surfaces and provide little information about human locomotion as a function of work environment or terrain. The purpose of this study was evaluation of a force plate system for measure of center of pressure (COP) in railroad ballast by comparing its accuracy across three surface conditions (hard surface, mainline ballast and walking ballast) with two configurations (level and 7° cross-slope). Custom walkways and an isolation fixture were developed to rigidly attach a force plate beneath ballast surfaces to collect the COP. The difference in COP location (ΔCOPx, y, z) between the force plate system and a calibration system (motion capture derived) were compared using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results indicate that the effects of surface condition and configuration were not significant for ΔCOPx, y, z and no differences were found among the three surface conditions during pairwise comparison, though ΔCOPx, y, z were different between the center and corners of the force plate in ballasts for both level and cross-slope configurations. The system presented in this study demonstrates the feasibility of measuring the COP by using an isolation-fixture force plate to expand the scope of biomechanical studies on ballast surfaces that are level or cross-slope. PMID:27131198

  12. Optical measurements on contaminated surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonham, T. E.; Schmitt, R. J.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A bidirectional reflectometer system was developed for in situ measurements of the changes in spectral reflectance of surfaces contaminated with films of organic materials. The system permits experiments with films of controlled thickness in an environment that simulates the thermal, radiation, and vacuum conditions of space. The mechanical and optical construction of the reflectometer are discussed in detail, and actual data curves are used to illustrate its operation and performance.

  13. Surface adhesive forces: a metric describing the drag-reducing effects of superhydrophobic coatings.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mengjiao; Song, Mengmeng; Dong, Hongyu; Shi, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Nanomaterials with superhydrophobic properties are promising as drag-reducing coatings. However, debates regarding whether superhydrophobic surfaces are favorable for drag reduction require further clarification. A quantified water adhesive force measurement is proposed as a metric and its effectiveness demonstrated using three typical superhydrophobic coatings on model ships with in situ sailing tests. PMID:25418808

  14. La force de Casimir et les plasmons de surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intravaia, F.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.

    2004-11-01

    La présence de fluctuations irréductibles de champ dans le vide est une prédiction importante de la théorie quantique. Ces fluctuations ont de nombreux effets bien connus, dont l'archétype est la force de Casimir apparaîssant entre deux miroirs placés dans le vide par suite de la pression de radiation du vide. Elle a été récemment mesurée avec une précision de l'ordre du %. De nombreux travaux sont consacrés à l'évaluation théorique de cette force en visant une précision du même ordre. Ici nous étudions la force de Casimir dans la configuration de deux miroirs métalliques plans parallèles à température nulle. En supposant les miroirs décrits par un modèle plasma nous interprétons la force de Casimir comme le résultat de l'interaction entre les plasmons de surface des deux miroirs.

  15. Attractive surface force in the presence of dissolved gas: a molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Bratko, Dusan; Luzar, Alenka

    2008-02-19

    Despite widespread evidence of the influence of dissolved air on hydrophobic interaction, the mechanisms of observed effects are still unknown. Although some experiments indicate that adsorbed gases can modify the structure of water next to hydrophobic surfaces, gas effects on measured forces have been observed only at large surface separations. Gas-specific depletion of water at a hydrophobic surface has been detected but was not reproduced in subsequent measurements. We use computer simulations to study short-ranged hydrophobic attraction in the absence and presence of dissolved gas and monitor gas adsorption at molecular resolution inaccessible in experiments. Although we observe a significant accumulation of dissolved gases at hydrophobic surfaces, even in supersaturated gas solutions surface concentrations remain too low to induce any significant change in the local structure of water and short-range surface forces. We present direct calculations of the hydrophobic force between model hydrocarbon plates at separations between 1.5 and 4 nm. Although stronger, the calculated solvation force has a similar decay rate as deduced from recent surface force apparatus measurements at a somewhat lower contact angle. Within the statistical uncertainty, short-range attraction is not affected by the presence of dissolved nitrogen, even in supersaturated solution with a gas fugacity as high as 30 atm. Comparisons of the adsorption behavior of N2, O2, CO2, and Ar reveal similar features in contrast to the peculiar suppression of water depletion reported for an Ar solution in a neutron reflectivity experiment. Our calculations reveal a notable difference between pathways to the capillary evaporation of pure water and gas-phase nucleation in confined supersaturated gas solutions. PMID:17979305

  16. Influence of ultrathin water layer on the van der Waals/Casimir force between gold surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Palasantzas, G.; Zwol, P. J. van; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2009-06-15

    In this paper we investigate the influence of ultrathin water layer ({approx}1-1.5 nm) on the van der Waals/Casimir force between gold surfaces. Adsorbed water is inevitably present on gold surfaces at ambient conditions as jump-up-to contact during adhesion experiments demonstrate. Calculations based on the Lifshitz theory give very good agreement with the experiment in the absence of any water layer for surface separations d > or approx. 10 nm. However, a layer of thickness h < or approx. 1.5 nm is allowed by the error margin in force measurements. At shorter separations, d < or approx. 10 nm, the water layer can have a strong influence as calculations show for flat surfaces. Nonetheless, in reality the influence of surface roughness must also be considered, and it can overshadow any water layer influence at separations comparable to the total sphere-plate rms roughness w{sub shp}+w.

  17. Response of the surface tropical Atlantic Ocean to wind forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Paola; Pelegrí, Josep L.; Campos, Edmo J. D.; Rosell-Fieschi, Miquel; Gasser, Marc

    2015-05-01

    We use 10 years of satellite data (sea level pressure, surface winds and absolute dynamic topography [ADT]) together with Argo-inferred monthly-mean values of near-surface velocity and water transport, to examine how the tropical system of near-surface zonal currents responds to wind forcing. The data is analyzed using complex Hilbert empirical orthogonal functions, confirming that most of the variance has annual periodicity, with maximum amplitudes in the region spanned by the seasonal displacement of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The ADT mirrors the shape of the upper isopycnals, hence becoming a good indicator of the amount of water stored in the upper ocean. Within about 3° from the Equator, where the Coriolis force is small, there is year-long meridional Ekman-transport divergence that would lead to the eastward transport of the Equatorial Undercurrent and its northern and southern branches. Beyond 3° of latitude, and at least as far as 20°, the convergence of the Ekman transport generally causes a poleward positive ADT gradient, which sustains the westward South Equatorial Current (SEC). The sole exception occurs in summer, between 8°N and 12°N, when an Ekman-transport divergence develops and depletes de amount of surface water, resulting in an ADT ridge-valley system which reverses the ADT gradient and drives the eastward North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) at latitudes 4-9°N; in late fall, divergence ceases and the NECC drains the ADT ridge, so the ADT gradient again becomes positive and the SEC reappears. The seasonal evolution of a tilted ITCZ controls the surface water fluxes: the wind-induced transports set the surface divergence-convergence, which then drive the ADT and, through the ADT gradients, create the geostrophic jets that close the water balance.

  18. Probing biofouling resistant polymer brush surfaces by atomic force microscopy based force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schön, Peter; Kutnyanszky, Edit; ten Donkelaar, Bas; Santonicola, M Gabriella; Tecim, Tugba; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S; Vancso, G Julius

    2013-02-01

    The protein repellency and biofouling resistance of zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate)(pSBMA) brushes grafted via surface initiated polymerization (SIP) from silicon and glass substrata was assessed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) adherence experiments. Laboratory settlement assays were conducted with cypris larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. AFM adherence includes the determination of contact rupture forces when AFM probe tips are withdrawn from the substratum. When the surface of the AFM tip is modified, adherence can be assessed with chemical specifity using a method known as chemical force microscopy (CFM). In this study, AFM tips were chemically functionalized with (a) fibronectin- here used as model for a nonspecifically adhering protein - and (b) arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide motifs covalently attached to poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) brushes as biomimics of cellular adhesion receptors. Fibronectin functionalized tips showed significantly reduced nonspecific adhesion to pSBMA-modified substrata compared to bare gold (2.3±0.75 nN) and octadecanethiol (ODT) self-assembled monolayers (1.3±0.75 nN). PMAA and PMAA-RGD modified probes showed no significant adhesion to pSBMA modified silicon substrata. The results gathered through AFM protein adherence studies were complemented by laboratory fouling studies, which showed no adhesion of cypris larvae of Balanus amphitrite on pSBMA. With regard to its unusually high non-specific adsorption to a wide variety of materials the behavior of fibronectin is analogous to the barnacle cyprid temporary adhesive that also binds well to surfaces differing in polarity, charge and free energy. The antifouling efficacy of pSBMA may, therefore, be directly related to the ability of this surface to resist nonspecific protein adsorption. PMID:23138001

  19. Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) Force Measurement System (FMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    An Electronics Engineer at the Glenn Research Center (GRC), requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) provide technical support for an evaluation of the existing force measurement system (FMS) at the GRC's Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with the intent of developing conceptual designs to improve the tunnel's force measurement capability in order to better meet test customer needs. This report contains the outcome of the NESC technical review.

  20. Flight of a Rufous Hummingbird Robotic Model-Force Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Alarcon, Ramiro; Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Ferreira de Sousa, Paulo; Tobalske, Bret; Allen, James

    2008-11-01

    Aerodynamic force data was measured on a 2-DOF scaled robotic hummingbird model for both hovering and translational flight. Experiments were conducted in a large water channel facility at New Mexico State University. Reynolds and Strouhal numbers for the experiment are in the range of 3600 and 0.97, respectively. Forces are directly measured using strain gages and compared with phase-locked PIV results.

  1. Imaging the condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films with surface forces apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Gutian; Tan, Qiyan; Xiang, Li; Zhang, Di; Ni, Zhonghua E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn; Yi, Hong; Chen, Yunfei E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn

    2014-01-15

    A new method for imaging condensation and evaporation of molecularly thin ethanol films is reported. It is found that the first adsorbed layer of ethanol film on mica surface behaves as solid like structure that cannot flow freely. With the increase of exposure time, more ethanol molecules condense over the mica surface in the saturated ethanol vapor condition. The first layer of adsorbed ethanol film is about 3.8 Å thick measured from the surface forces apparatus, which is believed to be the average diameter of ethanol molecules while they are confined in between two atomically smooth mica surfaces.

  2. Efficient parametrization of complex molecule-surface force fields.

    PubMed

    Gao, David Z; Federici Canova, Filippo; Watkins, Matthew B; Shluger, Alexander L

    2015-06-15

    We present an efficient scheme for parametrizing complex molecule-surface force fields from ab initio data. The cost of producing a sufficient fitting library is mitigated using a 2D periodic embedded slab model made possible by the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics scheme in CP2K. These results were then used in conjunction with genetic algorithm (GA) methods to optimize the large parameter sets needed to describe such systems. The derived potentials are able to well reproduce adsorption geometries and adsorption energies calculated using density functional theory. Finally, we discuss the challenges in creating a sufficient fitting library, determining whether or not the GA optimization has completed, and the transferability of such force fields to similar molecules. PMID:25891018

  3. Development of living cell force sensors for the interrogation of cell surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Scott Chang

    The measurement of cell surface interactions, or cell interaction forces, are critical for the early diagnosis and prevention of disease, the design of targeted drug and gene delivery vehicles, the development of next-generation implant materials, and much more. However, the technologies and devices that are currently available are highly limited with respect to the dynamic force range over which they can measure cell-cell or cell-substratum interactions, and with their ability to adequately mimic biologically relevant systems. Consequently, research efforts that involve cell surface interactions have been limited. In this dissertation, existing tools for research at the nanoscale (i.e., atomic force microscopy microcantilevers) are modified to develop living cell force sensors that allow for the highly sensitive measurement of cell-mediated interactions over the entire range of forces expected in biotechnology (and nano-biotechnology) research (from a single to millions of receptor-ligand bonds). Several force sensor motifs have been developed that can be used to measure interactions using single adherent cells, single suspension culture cell, and cell monolayers (tissues) over a wide range of interaction conditions (e.g., approach velocity, shear rate, contact time) using a conventional atomic force microscope. This new tool has been applied to study the pathogenesis of spontaneous pneumothorax and the interaction of cells with 14 man-made interfaces. Consequently, a new hypothesis of the interactions that manifest spontaneous pneumothorax has been developed. Additionally, these findings have the potential to lead to the development of tools for data mining materials and surfaces for unique cell interactions that could have an immense societal impact.

  4. Flight Force Measurements on a Spacecraft to Launch Vehicle Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Daniel S.; Gordon, Scott A.

    2012-07-01

    For several years we had wanted to measure interface forces between a launch vehicle and the Payload. Finally in July 2006 a proposal was made and funded to evaluate the use of flight force measurements (FFM) to improve the loads process of a Spacecraft in its design and test cycle. A NASA/Industry team was formed, the core Team consisted of 20 people. The proposal identified two questions that this assessment would attempt to address by obtaining the flight forces. These questions were: 1) Is flight correlation and reconstruction with acceleration methods sufficient? 2) How much can the loads and therefore the design and qualification be reduced by having force measurements? The objective was to predict the six interface driving forces between the Spacecraft and the Launch Vehicle throughout the boost phase. Then these forces would be compared with reconstructed loads analyses for evaluation in an attempt to answer them. The paper will present the development of a strain based force measurement system and also an acceleration method, actual flight results, post flight evaluations and lessons learned.

  5. Application of Lorentz force techniques for flow rate measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Reschad Johann; Resagk, Christian

    2014-11-01

    We report on the progress of the Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV): a contactless non-invasive flow velocity measurement technique. This method has been developed and demonstrated for various applications in our institute and in industry. At applications for weakly conducting fluids such as electrolytes with conductivities in the range of 1 - 10 S/m the challenging bottleneck is the detection of the tiny Lorentz forces in the noisy environment of the test channel. For the force measurement a state-of-the-art electromagnetic force compensation balance is used. Due to this device the mass of the Lorentz force generating magnets is limited. For enabling larger magnet systems and for higher force signals we have developed and tested a buoyancy based weight force compensation method which will be presented here. Additionally, results of LFV measurements at non-symmetric fluid profiles will be shown. By that an evaluation of the feasibility of this measurement principle for disturbed fluid profiles that are relevant for developing the LFV for weakly conducting fluids towards industrial applications can be made. Additionally a prospective setup for using the LFV for molten salt flows will be explained.

  6. Long Term Surface Salinity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Raymond W.; Brown, Neil L.

    2005-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to establish a reliable system for monitoring surface salinity around the global ocean. Salinity is a strong indicator of the freshwater cycle and has a great influence on upper ocean stratification. Global salinity measurements have potential to improve climate forecasts if an observation system can be developed. This project is developing a new internal field conductivity cell that can be protected from biological fouling for two years. Combined with a temperature sensor, this foul-proof cell can be deployed widely on surface drifters. A reliable in-situ network of surface salinity sensors will be an important adjunct to the salinity sensing satellite AQUARIUS to be deployed by NASA in 2009. A new internal-field conductivity cell has been developed by N Brown, along with new electronics. This sensor system has been combined with a temperature sensor to make a conductivity - temperature (UT) sensor suitable for deployment on drifters. The basic sensor concepts have been proven on a high resolution CTD. A simpler (lower cost) circuit has been built for this application. A protection mechanism for the conductivity cell that includes antifouling protection has also been designed and built. Mr. A.Walsh of our commercial partner E-Paint has designed and delivered time-release formulations of antifoulants for our application. Mr. G. Williams of partner Clearwater Instrumentation advised on power and communication issues and supplied surface drifters for testing.

  7. Reflectance measurements from particulate surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, J.; Gritsevich, M.; Hakala, T.; Penttilä, A.; Eskelinen, J.; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Arnalds, O.; Guirado, D.; Muinonen, K.

    2014-07-01

    Asteroids consists of, e.g., metals and rocky materials, and comets consist of, e.g., icy and rocky materials and dust. Their surfaces can be covered by small particles. To certain extent, these surfaces can resemble some natural or artificial surfaces on the Earth, such as snow layers, sand, gravels, or silt. By measuring the reflectance from such surfaces, one can gain better understanding on how to interpret astronomical observations of asteroids and comets. Even if not completely analogous, these samples and measurements provide a strict test bed for the scattering models applied to interpret observations of small Solar System bodies. FIGIFIGO (Finnish Geodetic Institute's Field Gonio-spectro-polari- radiometer) can measure the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of surface targets of a diameter of around 10 cm, in a selected angular range and resolution, in the spectral range of 400-2400 nm, at about 10-nm resolution, including linear polarisation (Stokes I, Q, and U, or reflection coefficient matrix elements R_{11}, R_{12}, and R_{13}). Using FIGIFIGO, over 500 samples have been measured over the past years, including over 100 snow samples and almost 100 samples resembling sand, silt, soil, dust, or gravel. For planetary studies, especially interesting are dark volcanic ash and silt samples from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvönt eruptions. These have been measured loose and compressed, smooth and rough, purely and deposited on snow. Further single-scattering measurements using the Granada setup and measurements using the Univ. Helsinki integrating sphere complement the picture. Generally, we have observed that the reflectance from volcanic materials behaves mostly as expected and modelled. BRF shows typical bowl shape with strong phase-angle dependence. Spectral features are smooth, with slight angular dependence. Polarisation depends strongly on the phase angle, weaker on other angles defining the scattering geometry, and smoothly on the wavelength. There

  8. Line contribution to the critical Casimir force between a homogeneous and a chemically stepped surface.

    PubMed

    Toldin, Francesco Parisen; Tröndle, Matthias; Dietrich, S

    2015-06-01

    Recent experimental realizations of the critical Casimir effect have been implemented by monitoring colloidal particles immersed in a binary liquid mixture near demixing and exposed to a chemically structured substrate. In particular, critical Casimir forces have been measured for surfaces consisting of stripes with periodically alternating adsorption preferences, forming chemical steps between them. Motivated by these experiments, we analyze the contribution of such chemical steps to the critical Casimir force for the film geometry and within the Ising universality class. By means of Monte Carlo simulations, mean-field theory and finite-size scaling analysis we determine the universal scaling function associated with the contribution to the critical Casimir force due to individual, isolated chemical steps facing a surface with homogeneous adsorption preference or with Dirichlet boundary condition. In line with previous findings, these results allow one to compute the critical Casimir force for the film geometry and in the presence of arbitrarily shaped, but wide stripes. In this latter limit the force decomposes into a sum of the contributions due to the two homogeneous parts of the surface and due to the chemical steps between the stripes. We assess this decomposition by comparing the resulting sum with actual simulation data for the critical Casimir force in the presence of a chemically striped substrate. PMID:25966039

  9. Line contribution to the critical Casimir force between a homogeneous and a chemically stepped surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisen Toldin, Francesco; Tröndle, Matthias; Dietrich, S.

    2015-06-01

    Recent experimental realizations of the critical Casimir effect have been implemented by monitoring colloidal particles immersed in a binary liquid mixture near demixing and exposed to a chemically structured substrate. In particular, critical Casimir forces have been measured for surfaces consisting of stripes with periodically alternating adsorption preferences, forming chemical steps between them. Motivated by these experiments, we analyze the contribution of such chemical steps to the critical Casimir force for the film geometry and within the Ising universality class. By means of Monte Carlo simulations, mean-field theory and finite-size scaling analysis we determine the universal scaling function associated with the contribution to the critical Casimir force due to individual, isolated chemical steps facing a surface with homogeneous adsorption preference or with Dirichlet boundary condition. In line with previous findings, these results allow one to compute the critical Casimir force for the film geometry and in the presence of arbitrarily shaped, but wide stripes. In this latter limit the force decomposes into a sum of the contributions due to the two homogeneous parts of the surface and due to the chemical steps between the stripes. We assess this decomposition by comparing the resulting sum with actual simulation data for the critical Casimir force in the presence of a chemically striped substrate.

  10. Quantitative measurements of force and displacement using an optical trap.

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, R M; Finer, J T; Chu, S; Spudich, J A

    1996-01-01

    We combined a single-beam gradient optical trap with a high-resolution photodiode position detector to show that an optical trap can be used to make quantitative measurements of nanometer displacements and piconewton forces with millisecond resolution. When an external force is applied to a micron-sized bead held by an optical trap, the bead is displaced from the center of the trap by an amount proportional to the applied force. When the applied force is changed rapidly, the rise time of the displacement is on the millisecond time scale, and thus a trapped bead can be used as a force transducer. The performance can be enhanced by a feedback circuit so that the position of the trap moves by means of acousto-optic modulators to exert a force equal and opposite to the external force applied to the bead. In this case the position of the trap can be used to measure the applied force. We consider parameters of the trapped bead such as stiffness and response time as a function of bead diameter and laser beam power and compare the results with recent ray-optic calculations. PMID:8785341

  11. Scaling Forces to the Asteroid Surface: The Role of Cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, Daniel J.; Hartzell, C. M.; Sanchez, P.; Swift, M.

    2010-10-01

    The surfaces and interiors of asteroids are characterized by their low ambient gravitational accelerations which range from milli-Gs on the surface of Eros to much less than micro-Gs at the equator of rapidly spinning bodies such as 1999 KW4 Alpha. We report research on performing a full accounting for all relevant physical forces, in addition to a particle's weight, in such regimes and find that cohesive van der Waals forces become significant for macroscopic grains (Scheeres et al., Icarus in press). For example, theory predicts that on the surface of Itokawa the cohesive attraction between two centimeter-sized grains in contact should exceed their weight, implying that a collection of such gravels should behave more like a cohesive powder (such as bread flour) than as a terrestrial gravel pile. Extending the theory to the self-gravitation of two boulders in contact, such as in a rubble pile, predicts that mutual cohesive forces dominate mutual gravitation for component sizes less than a few meters. One implication of this is that higher rotation rates are necessary to cause smaller grains to fission from an asteroid, while larger aggregates should be less affected and fission at lower rotation rates, introducing a size-scale into an otherwise scale-invariant physical process. A simple model for this cohesive effect is presented and its implications for asteroid science are discussed. This research was supported in part by NASA's DDAP and PGG Programs via Grants NNG06GG22G and NNX08AL51G.

  12. Predictability in France : atmospheric forcing or land surface initial conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, S.; Martin, E.; Céron, J.-P.; Regimbeau, F.

    2010-09-01

    A first study of a hydrological forecasting suite has already been done at seasonal time scales over France (Céron and al., 2010) in a context of adaptation for water resources management. The results showed the feasibility of hydrological seasonal forecasts by forcing the hydrometeorological model Safran-Isba-Modcou (SIM) with seasonal atmospheric forecasts from the DEMETER project. Scores were better for hydrological variables than for atmospheric variables for four river catchments for the spring season. The purpose of the present study is to quantify the sources of predictability of the hydrometeorological system. Two experiences were conducted in order to address this issue. The first experience consisted in testing the impact of the land surface initial conditions. We used realistic land surface initial state produced by the operational SIM model for the specific year and 9 random years of Safran atmospheric analyses (temperature and precipitation) from 1971 to 2001, in a consistent way with the previous study (Céron et al, 2010). The other atmospheric parameters (wind, specific humidity, long wave and short wave radiation and cloudiness) come from the SAFRAN climatology over the same period. The second experience was designed to evaluate the impact of the atmospheric forcing with 9 random years, chosen for the land surface initial state. The atmospheric forcing (temperature and precipitation) comes from the Safran analysis system for the corresponding year. Some results of this study will be presented on soil wetness index (SWI) forecasts and river flows forecasts for all stations in France. We will compare deterministic and probabilistic scores of the two experiences with those of the hydrological forecasting suite built with the seasonal forecasts from the DEMETER project. Perspectives for the downscaling of seasonal forecasts will be discussed in a last part. Céron J-P, Tanguy G, Franchistéguy L, Martin E, Regimbeau F and Vidal J-P, 2010. Hydrological

  13. Video measurements of instantaneous forces of flapping wing vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Alan; Mayhew, Michael; Black, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Flapping wings for small aerial vehicles have revolutionary potential for maneuverability and endurance. Ornithopters fail to achieve the performance of their biological equivalents, despite extensive research on how animals fly. Flapping wings produce peak forces due to the stroke reversal of the wing. This research demonstrates in-flight measurements of an ornithopter through the use of image processing, specifically measuring instantaneous forces. Results show that the oscillation about the flight path is significant, being about 20% of the mean velocity and up to 10 g's. Results match forces with deformations of the wing to contrast the timing and wing shape of the upstroke and the downstroke. Holding the vehicle fixed (e.g. wind tunnel testing or simulations) structural resonance is affected along with peak forces, also affecting lift. Non-contact, in-flight measurements are proposed as the best method for matching the flight conditions of flapping wing vehicles.

  14. NASA ATP Force Measurement Technology Capability Strategic Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    2008-01-01

    The Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) initiated a strategic planning effort to re-vitalize the force measurement capability within NASA. The team responsible for developing the plan included members from three NASA Centers (Langley, Ames and Glenn) as well as members from the Air Force s Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC). After visiting and discussing force measurement needs and current capabilities at each participating facility as well as selected force measurement companies, a strategic plan was developed to guide future NASA investments. This paper will provide the details of the strategic plan and include asset management, organization and technology research and development investment priorities as well as efforts to date.

  15. Easy and direct method for calibrating atomic force microscopy lateral force measurements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenhua; Bonin, Keith; Guthold, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We have designed and tested a new, inexpensive, easy-to-make and easy-to-use calibration standard for atomic force microscopy (AFM) lateral force measurements. This new standard simply consists of a small glass fiber of known dimensions and Young’s modulus, which is fixed at one end to a substrate and which can be bent laterally with the AFM tip at the other end. This standard has equal or less error than the commonly used method of using beam mechanics to determine a cantilever’s lateral force constant. It is transferable, thus providing a universal tool for comparing the calibrations of different instruments. It does not require knowledge of the cantilever dimensions and composition or its tip height. This standard also allows direct conversion of the photodiode signal to force and, thus, circumvents the requirement for a sensor response (sensitivity) measurement. PMID:17614616

  16. Phoretic and Radiometric Force Measurements on Microparticles in Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. James

    1996-01-01

    Thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and radiometric forces on microparticles are being measured over a wide range of gas phase and particle conditions using electrodynamic levitation of single particles to simulate microgravity conditions. The thermophoretic force, which arises when a particle exists in a gas having a temperature gradient, is measured by levitating an electrically charged particle between heated and cooled plates mounted in a vacuum chamber. The diffusiophoretic force arising from a concentration gradient in the gas phase is measured in a similar manner except that the heat exchangers are coated with liquids to establish a vapor concentration gradient. These phoretic forces and the radiation pressure force acting on a particle are measured directly in terms of the change in the dc field required to levitate the particle with and without the force applied. The apparatus developed for the research and the experimental techniques are discussed, and results obtained by thermophoresis experiments are presented. The determination of the momentum and energy accommodation coefficients associated with molecular collisions between gases molecules and particles and the measurement of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and small particles are of particular interest.

  17. Measuring surface fluxes in CAPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; D-Shah, T.; Nie, Dalin

    1992-01-01

    Two stations (site 1612 and site 2008) were operated by the University of Georgia group from 6 July 1991 to 18 August 1991. The following data were collected continuously: surface energy fluxes (i.e., net radiation, soil heat fluxes, sensible heat flux and latent heat flux), air temperature, vapor pressure, soil temperature (at 1 cm depth), and precipitation. Canopy reflectance and light interception data were taken three times at each site between 6 July and 18 August. Soil moisture content was measured twice at each site.

  18. Method for measuring surface temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Gary A.; Baker, Sheila N.; McCleskey, T. Mark

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  19. Communication: Contrasting effects of glycerol and DMSO on lipid membrane surface hydration dynamics and forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Alex M.; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Han, Songi

    2016-07-01

    Glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are commonly used cryoprotectants in cellular systems, but due to the challenges of measuring the properties of surface-bound solvent, fundamental questions remain regarding the concentration, interactions, and conformation of these solutes at lipid membrane surfaces. We measured the surface water diffusivity at gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer surfaces in aqueous solutions containing ≤7.5 mol. % of DMSO or glycerol using Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization. We found that glycerol similarly affects the diffusivity of water near the bilayer surface and that in the bulk solution (within 20%), while DMSO substantially increases the diffusivity of surface water relative to bulk water. We compare these measurements of water dynamics with those of equilibrium forces between DPPC bilayers in the same solvent mixtures. DMSO greatly decreases the range and magnitude of the repulsive forces between the bilayers, whereas glycerol increases it. We propose that the differences in hydrogen bonding capability of the two solutes leads DMSO to dehydrate the lipid head groups, while glycerol affects surface hydration only as much as it affects the bulk water properties. The results suggest that the mechanism of the two most common cryoprotectants must be fundamentally different: in the case of DMSO by decoupling the solvent from the lipid surface, and in the case of glycerol by altering the hydrogen bond structure and intermolecular cohesion of the global solvent, as manifested by increased solvent viscosity.

  20. Communication: Contrasting effects of glycerol and DMSO on lipid membrane surface hydration dynamics and forces

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Alex M.; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Han, Songi

    2016-01-01

    Glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are commonly used cryoprotectants in cellular systems, but due to the challenges of measuring the properties of surface-bound solvent, fundamental questions remain regarding the concentration, interactions, and conformation of these solutes at lipid membrane surfaces. We measured the surface water diffusivity at gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer surfaces in aqueous solutions containing ≤7.5 mol. % of DMSO or glycerol using Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization. We found that glycerol similarly affects the diffusivity of water near the bilayer surface and that in the bulk solution (within 20%), while DMSO substantially increases the diffusivity of surface water relative to bulk water. We compare these measurements of water dynamics with those of equilibrium forces between DPPC bilayers in the same solvent mixtures. DMSO greatly decreases the range and magnitude of the repulsive forces between the bilayers, whereas glycerol increases it. We propose that the differences in hydrogen bonding capability of the two solutes leads DMSO to dehydrate the lipid head groups, while glycerol affects surface hydration only as much as it affects the bulk water properties. The results suggest that the mechanism of the two most common cryoprotectants must be fundamentally different: in the case of DMSO by decoupling the solvent from the lipid surface, and in the case of glycerol by altering the hydrogen bond structure and intermolecular cohesion of the global solvent, as manifested by increased solvent viscosity. PMID:27475340

  1. Communication: Contrasting effects of glycerol and DMSO on lipid membrane surface hydration dynamics and forces.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Alex M; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Han, Songi

    2016-07-28

    Glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are commonly used cryoprotectants in cellular systems, but due to the challenges of measuring the properties of surface-bound solvent, fundamental questions remain regarding the concentration, interactions, and conformation of these solutes at lipid membrane surfaces. We measured the surface water diffusivity at gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer surfaces in aqueous solutions containing ≤7.5 mol. % of DMSO or glycerol using Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization. We found that glycerol similarly affects the diffusivity of water near the bilayer surface and that in the bulk solution (within 20%), while DMSO substantially increases the diffusivity of surface water relative to bulk water. We compare these measurements of water dynamics with those of equilibrium forces between DPPC bilayers in the same solvent mixtures. DMSO greatly decreases the range and magnitude of the repulsive forces between the bilayers, whereas glycerol increases it. We propose that the differences in hydrogen bonding capability of the two solutes leads DMSO to dehydrate the lipid head groups, while glycerol affects surface hydration only as much as it affects the bulk water properties. The results suggest that the mechanism of the two most common cryoprotectants must be fundamentally different: in the case of DMSO by decoupling the solvent from the lipid surface, and in the case of glycerol by altering the hydrogen bond structure and intermolecular cohesion of the global solvent, as manifested by increased solvent viscosity. PMID:27475340

  2. Adhesion Forces between Lewis(X) Determinant Antigens as Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tromas, C; Rojo, J; de la Fuente, J M; Barrientos, A G; García, R; Penadés, S

    2001-01-01

    The adhesion forces between individual molecules of Lewis(X) trisaccharide antigen (Le(X) ) have been measured in water and in calcium solution by using atomic force microscopy (AFM, see graph). These results demonstrate the self-recognition capability of this antigen, and reinforce the hypothesis that carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction could be considered as the first step in the cell-adhesion process in nature. PMID:12203646

  3. Designing an experiment to measure cellular interaction forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlinden, Niall; Glass, David G.; Millington, Owain R.; Wright, Amanda J.

    2013-09-01

    Optical trapping is a powerful tool in Life Science research and is becoming common place in many microscopy laboratories and facilities. The force applied by the laser beam on the trapped object can be accurately determined allowing any external forces acting on the trapped object to be deduced. We aim to design a series of experiments that use an optical trap to measure and quantify the interaction force between immune cells. In order to cause minimum perturbation to the sample we plan to directly trap T cells and remove the need to introduce exogenous beads to the sample. This poses a series of challenges and raises questions that need to be answered in order to design a set of effect end-point experiments. A typical cell is large compared to the beads normally trapped and highly non-uniform - can we reliably trap such objects and prevent them from rolling and re-orientating? In this paper we show how a spatial light modulator can produce a triple-spot trap, as opposed to a single-spot trap, giving complete control over the object's orientation and preventing it from rolling due, for example, to Brownian motion. To use an optical trap as a force transducer to measure an external force you must first have a reliably calibrated system. The optical trapping force is typically measured using either the theory of equipartition and observing the Brownian motion of the trapped object or using an escape force method, e.g. the viscous drag force method. In this paper we examine the relationship between force and displacement, as well as measuring the maximum displacement from equilibrium position before an object falls out of the trap, hence determining the conditions under which the different calibration methods should be applied.

  4. Critical Casimir forces in the presence of random surface fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciołek, A.; Vasilyev, O.; Dotsenko, V.; Dietrich, S.

    2015-03-01

    We study critical Casimir forces (CCFs) fC for films of thickness L which in the three-dimensional bulk belong to the Ising universality class and which are exposed to random surface fields (RSFs) on both surfaces. We consider the case in which, in the absence of RSFs, the surfaces of the film belong to the surface universality class of the so-called ordinary transition. We carry out a finite-size scaling analysis and show that for weak disorder, CCFs still exhibit scaling, acquiring a random field scaling variable w that is zero for pure systems. We confirm these analytic predictions by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Moreover, our MC data show that fC varies as fC(w →0 ) -fC(w =0 ) ˜w2 . Asymptotically, for large L , w scales as w ˜L-0.26→0 , indicating that this type of disorder is an irrelevant perturbation of the ordinary surface universality class. However, for thin films such that w ≃1 , we find that the presence of RSFs with vanishing mean value increases significantly the strength of CCFs, as compared to systems without them, and it shifts the extremum of the scaling function of fC toward lower temperatures. But fC remains attractive.

  5. Surface effect on the nonlinear forced vibration of cantilevered nanobeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, H. L.; Zhao, D. M.; Zou, J. J.; Wang, L.

    2016-06-01

    The nonlinear forced vibration behavior of a cantilevered nanobeam is investigated in this paper, essentially considering the effect due to the surface elastic layer. The governing equation of motion for the nano-cantilever is derived, with consideration of the geometrical nonlinearity and the effects of additional flexural rigidity and residual stress of the surface layer. Then, the nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE) is discretized into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by means of the Galerkin's technique. It is observed that surface effects on the natural frequency of the nanobeam is of significance, especially for the case when the aspect ratio of the nanobeam is large. The nonlinear resonant dynamics of the nanobeam system is evaluated by varying the excitation frequency around the fundamental resonance, showing that the nanobeam would display hardening-type behavior and hence the frequency-response curves bend to the right in the presence of positive residual surface stress. However, with the negative residual surface stress, this hardening-type behavior can be shifted to a softening-type one which becomes even more evident with increase of the aspect ratio parameter. It is also demonstrated that the combined effects of the residual stress and aspect ratio on the maximum amplitude of the nanobeam may be pronounced.

  6. Snow surface temperature, radiative forcing and snow depth as determinants of snow density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, P. B.; Painter, T. H.; Skiles, M.; Deems, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed scale observations of snow water equivalence (SWE) are becoming increasingly important globally as the quantity and timing of snowmelt has become less predictable. In the Colorado River watershed, where dust deposition can hasten snowmelt by several weeks, the need for these observations is critical. While advances in measuring snow depth and albedo from the NASA Airborne Snow Observatory have greatly improved our ability to constrain snow depth and radiative forcing, we have yet to develop a method for remotely observing snow density, which is required for calculating SWE. We evaluate measured and modeled variables of snow- infrared surface temperature, radiative forcing and snow depth as predictors of snow density. We use 10 seasons of in situ measured snow surface temperature, cumulative modeled dust in snow radiative forcing, snow depth and manually measured snow density from locations in the Rocky Mountains of southwestern Colorado. We also use measured snow depth and SWE from the 2013 and 2014 water years, from 23-35 locations stratified by modeled downwelling short wave radiation, and evaluate them as predictors of snow density. Our analysis shows that daily mean snow surface temperature (R2 0.61, p = <0.001) and cumulative radiative forcing (R2 0.54, p = <0.001) individually have significant coefficients of determination whereas snow depth alone was not significant. Multiple regression with all three variables (R2 0.84, p = <0.001) was the best predictor of density. Furthermore, when snowpack conditions were isothermal at 0° C, the diurnal coefficient of variation, of measured hourly surface temperature, exhibited consistently high variance. In 2013 we found significant correlations between spatially distributed measurements of snow density (R2 0.33, p = <0.001) and modeled downwelling short wave radiation. However, in 2014 the correlation was very low, supporting our hypothesis that seasonal differences in dust driven radiative forcing are also

  7. Deconvolution Kalman filtering for force measurements of revolving wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vester, R.; Percin, M.; van Oudheusden, B.

    2016-09-01

    The applicability of a deconvolution Kalman filtering approach is assessed for the force measurements on a flat plate undergoing a revolving motion, as an alternative procedure to correct for test setup vibrations. The system identification process required for the correct implementation of the deconvolution Kalman filter is explained in detail. It is found that in the presence of a relatively complex forcing history, the DK filter is better suited to filter out structural test rig vibrations than conventional filtering techniques that are based on, for example, low-pass or moving-average filtering. The improvement is especially found in the characterization of the generated force peaks. Consequently, more reliable force data is obtained, which is vital to validate semi-empirical estimation models, but is also relevant to correlate identified flow phenomena to the force production.

  8. Shortwave spectral radiative forcing of cumulus clouds from surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J.; Berg, L. K.; Long, C. N.; Flynn, C.

    2011-04-01

    The spectral changes of the shortwave total, direct and diffuse cloud radiative forcing (CRF) at surface are examined for the first time using spectrally resolved all-sky flux observations and clear-sky fluxes. The latter are computed applying a physically based approach, which accounts for the spectral changes of aerosol optical properties and surface albedo. Application of this approach to 13 summertime days with single-layer continental cumuli demonstrates: (i) the substantial contribution of the diffuse component to the total CRF, (ii) the well-defined spectral variations of total CRF in the visible spectral region, and (iii) the strong statistical relationship between spectral (500 nm) and shortwave broadband values of total CRF. Our results suggest that the framework based on the visible narrowband fluxes can provide important radiative quantities for rigorous evaluation of radiative transfer parameterizations and also can be applied for estimation of the shortwave broadband CRF.

  9. Thermal desorption study of physical forces at the PTFE surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.; Pepper, S. V.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface was successfully employed to study the possibile role of physical forces in the enhancement of metal-PTFE adhesion by radiation. The thermal desorption spectra were analyzed without assumptions to yield the activation energy for desorption over a range of xenon coverage from less than 0.1 monolayer to more than 100 monolayers. For multilayer coverage, the desorption is zero-order with an activation energy equal to the sublimation energy of xenon. For submonolayer coverages, the order for desorption from the unirradiated PTFE surface is 0.73 and the activation energy for desorption is between 3.32 and 3.36 kcal/mol; less than the xenon sublimation energy. The effect of irradiation is to increase the activation energy for desorption to as high as 4 kcal/mol at low coverage.

  10. Thermal desorption study of physical forces at the PTFE surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.; Pepper, S. V.

    1987-01-01

    Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) of the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) surface was successfully employed to study the possible role of physical forces in the enhancement of metal-PTFE adhesion by radiation. The thermal desorption spectra were analyzed without assumptions to yield the activation energy for desorption over a range of xenon coverage from less than 0.1 monolayer to more than 100 monolayers. For multilayer coverage, the desorption is zero-order with an activation energy equal to the sublimation energy of xenon. For submonolayer coverages, the order for desorption from the unirradiated PTFE surface is 0.73 and the activation energy for desorption is between 3.32 and 3.36 kcal/mol; less than the xenon sublimation energy. The effect of irradiation is to increase the activation energy for desorption to as high as 4 kcal/mol at low coverage.

  11. Surface Forcing from CH4 at the North Slope of Alaska and Southern Great Plains Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, W.; Feldman, D.; Turner, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent increases in atmospheric CH4 have been spatially heterogeneous as indicated by in situ flask measurements and space-borne remote-sensing retrievals from the AIRS instrument, potentially leading to increased radiative forcing. We present detailed, specialized measurements at the DOE ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) sites to derive the time-series of both CH4 atmospheric concentrations and associated radiative implications at highly-contrasting natural and anthropogenic sources. Using a combination of spectroscopic measurements, in situ observations, and ancillary data for the atmospheric thermodynamic state from radiosondes and cloud-clearing from active sounders, we can separate out the contribution of CH4 to clear-sky downwelling radiance spectra and its infrared surface forcing. The time-series indicates year-to-year variation in shoulder season increases of CH4 concentration and forcing at NSA and large signals from anthropogenic activity at SGP.

  12. Direct measurement of depletion and hydrodynamic forces in solutions of a reversible supramolecular polymer.

    PubMed

    Knoben, W; Besseling, N A M; Stuart, M A Cohen

    2007-05-22

    In this paper, the investigation of surface forces in semidilute solutions of a nonadsorbing hydrogen-bonded reversible supramolecular polymer is described. Colloidal probe atomic force microscopy was used for direct measurement of depletion forces. Hydrodynamic drag on the AFM cantilever with the colloidal probe was measured both far away from and close to the planar substrate surface. The results indicate that the presence of the depletion layer causes slip at the surfaces with a large apparent slip length. Our analysis explains how the presence of slip enables the measurement of (relatively weak) depletion forces in solutions with a high viscosity by significantly reducing the hydrodynamic forces. The range and magnitude of the measured depletion forces are qualitatively in agreement with previous experiments and theoretical predictions. Due to the relatively large experimental error, no quantitative conclusions can be drawn. Depletion-induced phase separation of suspensions of stearylated silica particles was also observed. Phase separation becomes more pronounced with increasing polymer concentration. PMID:17439251

  13. Fiber optic micro sensor for the measurement of tendon forces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A fiber optic sensor developed for the measurement of tendon forces was designed, numerically modeled, fabricated, and experimentally evaluated. The sensor incorporated fiber Bragg gratings and micro-fabricated stainless steel housings. A fiber Bragg grating is an optical device that is spectrally sensitive to axial strain. Stainless steel housings were designed to convert radial forces applied to the housing into axial forces that could be sensed by the fiber Bragg grating. The metal housings were fabricated by several methods including laser micromachining, swaging, and hydroforming. Designs are presented that allow for simultaneous temperature and force measurements as well as for simultaneous resolution of multi-axis forces. The sensor was experimentally evaluated by hydrostatic loading and in vitro testing. A commercial hydraulic burst tester was used to provide uniform pressures on the sensor in order to establish the linearity, repeatability, and accuracy characteristics of the sensor. The in vitro experiments were performed in excised tendon and in a dynamic gait simulator to simulate biological conditions. In both experimental conditions, the sensor was found to be a sensitive and reliable method for acquiring minimally invasive measurements of soft tissue forces. Our results suggest that this sensor will prove useful in a variety of biomechanical measurements. PMID:23033868

  14. A transitioning Arctic surface energy budget: the impacts of solar zenith angle, surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlar, Joseph; Tjernström, Michael; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Shupe, Matthew D.; Brooks, Ian M.; Persson, P. Ola G.; Birch, Cathryn E.; Leck, Caroline; Sirevaag, Anders; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2011-10-01

    Snow surface and sea-ice energy budgets were measured near 87.5°N during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS), from August to early September 2008. Surface temperature indicated four distinct temperature regimes, characterized by varying cloud, thermodynamic and solar properties. An initial warm, melt-season regime was interrupted by a 3-day cold regime where temperatures dropped from near zero to -7°C. Subsequently mean energy budget residuals remained small and near zero for 1 week until once again temperatures dropped rapidly and the energy budget residuals became negative. Energy budget transitions were dominated by the net radiative fluxes, largely controlled by the cloudiness. Variable heat, moisture and cloud distributions were associated with changing air-masses. Surface cloud radiative forcing, the net radiative effect of clouds on the surface relative to clear skies, is estimated. Shortwave cloud forcing ranged between -50 W m-2 and zero and varied significantly with surface albedo, solar zenith angle and cloud liquid water. Longwave cloud forcing was larger and generally ranged between 65 and 85 W m-2, except when the cloud fraction was tenuous or contained little liquid water; thus the net effect of the clouds was to warm the surface. Both cold periods occurred under tenuous, or altogether absent, low-level clouds containing little liquid water, effectively reducing the cloud greenhouse effect. Freeze-up progression was enhanced by a combination of increasing solar zenith angles and surface albedo, while inhibited by a large, positive surface cloud forcing until a new air-mass with considerably less cloudiness advected over the experiment area.

  15. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the angular dependence of the Casimir force between sinusoidally corrugated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banishev, A. A.; Wagner, J.; Emig, T.; Zandi, R.; Mohideen, U.

    2014-06-01

    In the current work we present the complete results for the measurement of normal Casimir force between a shallow and smooth sinusoidally corrugated gold coated sphere and a plate at various angles between the corrugations using an atomic force microscope. All measured data were compared with the theoretical approach using the proximity force approximation and theory based on derivative expansion. In both cases real material properties of the surfaces and nonzero temperature were taken into account. Special attention is paid to the description of electrostatic interactions between corrugated surfaces at different angles between corrugations and samples preparation and characterization. The measured forces are found to be in good agreement with the theory including correlation effects of geometry and material properties and deviate significantly from the predictions of the proximity force approximation approach. This provides the quantitative confirmation for the observation of diffraction-type effects that are disregarded within the PFA approach. The obtained results open new opportunities for control of the Casimir effect in micromechanical systems.

  16. Functional atomic force microscopy investigation of osteopontin affinity for silicon stabilized tricalcium phosphate bioceramic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pietak, Alexis M; Sayer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Resorbable silicon stabilized tricalcium phosphate (Si-TCP)-based bioceramics are characterized from a biological perspective by measuring the intermolecular interaction force between osteopontin (OPN) protein and the material surface using atomic force microscopy (AFM). OPN protein was covalently bound to silicon nitride AFM tips and adsorption and adhesion forces were measured in an electrolyte with a composition similar to that of physiological fluids. A strong relationship exists between the adhesion force of OPN on the material surface, the number of adherent osteoclasts (OC) and the resorption of the material. OPN adhesion is strongest on hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces, or in samples that induce a HA-like surface through a precipitation reaction in electrolytic media. It is proposed that the increased biological response of the Si-TCP phase can be attributed in part to its reactivity in a physiological electrolyte, which involves a rapid conversion to a calcium deficient HA phase with a corresponding increase in the adhesion strength of OPN to the material, with a consequentially higher OC resorption response. PMID:16011845

  17. Surface effects on elastic properties of silver nanowires: Contact atomic-force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, G. Y.; Duan, H. L.; Sun, X. M.; Zhang, Z. S.; Xu, J.; Li, Y. D.; Wang, J. X.; Yu, D. P.

    2006-06-01

    Silver nanowires with different diameters were synthesized by a hydrothermal chemical method. The elastic properties of the nanowires with outer diameters ranging from 20 to 140nm were measured using contact atomic force microscopy. The apparent Young modulus of the nanowires is found to decrease with the increase of the diameter. When the diameter of the silver nanowires is larger than 100nm , the Young modulus approaches a constant value. The size dependence of the apparent Young modulus of the silver nanowires is attributed to the surface effect, which includes the effects of the surface stress, the oxidation layer, and the surface roughness. Thus, a theoretical analysis is presented to explain the size dependence. This analysis is different from the previous models in that both the surface stress and the surface moduli are included in it. We also show that the apparent surface modulus and the surface stress of the silver nanowires can be experimentally determined.

  18. Effect of compressive forces on a bone modelling surface.

    PubMed

    Steimetz, T; Mandalunis, P M; Ubios, A M

    1997-01-01

    The work presented herein, is an experimental study on the effect of an orthodontic appliance with a helicoidal spring designed to exert force toward palatine--i.e. in the opposite direction to the natural vestibular drift--on a bone remodelling surface. The appliance consists of two stainless steel molar bands, with a horizontal bracket tube welded to their palatal aspect through which the arms of the helicoidal spring are passed. Wistar rats, 250 g body weight, were fitted with the device for 48 and 96 hours. One group of rats was administered two doses of tetracycline hydrochloride prior to device placement, in order to label mineralizing fronts. Histomorphometric studies of the periodontal wall of the palatine alveolar bone showed a marked increase of bone resorption at both experimental time points together with an increase in the number of osteoclasts, and no tetracycline labelling after 48 hours. The results show that compressive forces are capable of stimulating resorption, even on bone modelling surfaces. The pressure applied would stimulate osteoblasts to send out signals for osteoclast recruitment and activity. PMID:11885237

  19. Suture Forces in Undersized Mitral Annuloplasty: Novel Device and Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Siefert, Andrew; Pierce, Eric; Lee, Madonna; Jensen, Morten; Aoki, Chikashi; Takebayashi, Satoshi; Gorman, Robert; Gorman, Joseph; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Demonstrate the first use of a novel technology for quantifying suture forces on annuloplasty rings to better understand the mechanisms of ring dehiscence. Description: Force transducers were developed, attached to a size 24 Physio™ ring, and implanted in the mitral annulus of an ovine animal. Ring suture forces were measured after implantation and for cardiac cycles reaching peak left ventricular pressures (LVP) of 100, 125, and 150 mmHg. Evaluation: After implanting the undersized ring to the flaccid annulus, the mean suture force was 2.0±0.6 N. During cyclic contraction, anterior ring suture forces were greater than posterior ring suture forces at peak LVPs of 100 mmHg (4.9±2.0 N vs. 2.1±1.1 N), 125 mmHg (5.4±2.3 N vs. 2.3±1.2 N), and 150 mmHg (5.7±2.4 N vs. 2.4±1.1 N). The largest force was 7.4 N at 150 mmHg. Conclusions: Preliminary results demonstrate trends in annuloplasty suture forces and their variation with location and LVP. Future studies will significantly contribute to clinical knowledge by elucidating the mechanisms of ring dehiscence while improving annuloplasty ring design and surgical repair techniques. PMID:24996707

  20. Hydrodynamic effects in fast AFM single-molecule force measurements.

    PubMed

    Janovjak, Harald; Struckmeier, Jens; Müller, Daniel J

    2005-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows the critical forces that unfold single proteins and rupture individual receptor-ligand bonds to be measured. To derive the shape of the energy landscape, the dynamic strength of the system is probed at different force loading rates. This is usually achieved by varying the pulling speed between a few nm/s and a few microm/s, although for a more complete investigation of the kinetic properties higher speeds are desirable. Above 10 microm/s, the hydrodynamic drag force acting on the AFM cantilever reaches the same order of magnitude as the molecular forces. This has limited the maximum pulling speed in AFM single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments. Here, we present an approach for considering these hydrodynamic effects, thereby allowing a correct evaluation of AFM force measurements recorded over an extended range of pulling speeds (and thus loading rates). To support and illustrate our theoretical considerations, we experimentally evaluated the mechanical unfolding of a multi-domain protein recorded at 30 microm/s pulling speed. PMID:15257425

  1. Sensitivity of Force Specifications to the Errors in Measuring the Interface Force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worth, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Force-Limited Random Vibration Testing has been applied in the last several years at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and other NASA centers for various programs at the instrument and spacecraft level. Different techniques have been developed over the last few decades to estimate the dynamic forces that the test article under consideration will encounter in the flight environment. Some of these techniques are described in the handbook, NASA-HDBK-7004, and the monograph, NASA-RP-1403. This paper will show the effects of some measurement and calibration errors in force gauges. In some cases, the notches in the acceleration spectrum when a random vibration test is performed with measurement errors are the same as the notches produced during a test that has no measurement errors. The paper will also present the results Of tests that were used to validate this effect. Knowing the effect of measurement errors can allow tests to continue after force gauge failures or allow dummy gauges to be used in places that are inaccessible to a force gage.

  2. Detecting unknown lateral forces on a bar by vibration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Haim, Y.

    1990-07-01

    In this paper a method is presented for using standard vibration measurements for detecting and characterizing spatially uncertain lateral step forces on a damped hinged-hinged bar. The analysis leads to the specification of the sensor positions and the sampling frequency. An algorithm for signal processing is proposed and tested by computer simulation. Uncertainty in the excitation force profile is described by employing the non-probabilistic, set-theoretical technique called convex modelling. Three different convex models of force-profile uncertainty are discussed.

  3. Direct measurements of controlled aerodynamic forces on a wire-suspended axisymmetric body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Philip; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari

    2011-06-01

    A novel in-line miniature force transducer is developed for direct measurements of the net aerodynamic forces and moments on a bluff body. The force transducers are integrated into each of the eight mounting wires that are utilized for suspension of an axisymmetric model in a wind tunnel having minimal wake interference. The aerodynamic forces and moments on the model are altered by induced active local attachment of the separated base flow. Fluidic control is effected by an array of four integrated aft-facing synthetic jet actuators that emanate from narrow, azimuthally segmented slots, equally distributed around the perimeter of the circular tail end. The jet orifices are embedded within a small backward-facing step that extends into a Coanda surface. The altered flow dynamics associated with both quasi-steady and transitory asymmetric activation of the flow control effect is characterized by direct force and PIV measurements.

  4. Monitoring Coaxial-Probe Contact Force for Dielectric Properties Measurement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A means is described for measuring and monitoring the contact force applied to a material sample with an open-ended coaxial-line probe for purposes of measuring the dielectric properties of semisolid material samples such as fruit, vegetable and animal tissues. The equipment consists of a stainless...

  5. Accuracy of orthodontic force and tooth movement measurements.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, D; Owman-Moll, P; Kurol, J; Mårtensson, B

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to test the accuracy of measurement methods for assessment of force and tooth movement in orthodontic procedures. Daily in vivo measurements of the force produced by activated archwires showed that the initial force declined substantially (by 20 per cent of mean value) within 3 days. Both the 'trueness' (validity) and precision of the force measurements, obtained with a strain gauge, were found to be high (SD values were 1.0 cN and 0.4 cN, respectively). Horizontal tooth movements were measured with three different instruments: a slide calliper, a co-ordinate measuring machine, and laser measuring equipment based on holograms. There was a good level of agreement between these methods. This was also confirmed by calibration data. The precision of the methods was (SD values) 0.06, 0.07, and 0.13 mm, respectively. The benefits of the use of the co-ordinate measuring machine are obvious, since it can measure tooth movements in relation to reference planes in all directions. PMID:8894157

  6. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  7. Topography and Mechanical Property Mapping of International Simple Glass Surfaces with Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Nanomechanical Peak Force (PF-QNM) TappingModeTM atomic force microscopy measurements are presented for the first time on polished glass surfaces. The PF-QNM technique allows for topography and mechanical property information to be measured simultaneously at each pixel. Results for the international simple glass which represents a simplified version of SON68 glass suggests an average Young s modulus of 78.8 15.1 GPa is within the experimental error of the modulus measured for SON68 glass (83.6 2 GPa) with conventional approaches. Application of the PF-QNM technique will be extended to in situ glass corrosion experiments with the goal of gaining atomic-scale insights into altered layer development by exploiting the mechanical property differences that exist between silica gel (e.g., altered layer) and pristine glass surface.

  8. Getting Physical with Your Chemistry: Mechanically Investigating Local Structure and Properties of Surfaces with the Atomic Force Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, William F.; Hoh, Jan H.

    2005-01-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) investigates mechanically the chemical properties of individual molecules, surfaces, and materials using suitably designed probes. The current state of the art of AFM in terms of imaging, force measurement, and sample manipulation and its application to physical chemistry is discussed.

  9. Peeling single-stranded DNA from graphite surface to determine oligonucleotide binding energy by force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Suresh; Mantz, Amber R; Bancroft, Kevin E; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Jagota, Anand; Vezenov, Dmitri V

    2008-12-01

    We measured the force required to peel single-stranded DNA molecules from single-crystal graphite using chemical force microscopy. Force traces during retraction of a tip chemically modified with oligonucleotides displayed characteristic plateaus with abrupt force jumps, which we interpreted as a steady state peeling process punctuated by complete detachment of one or more molecules. We were able to differentiate between bases in pyrimidine homopolymers; peeling forces were 85.3 - 4.7 pN for polythymine and 60.8 +/- 5.5 pN for polycytosine, substantially independent of salt concentration and the rate of detachment. We developed a model for peeling a freely jointed chain from the graphite surface and estimated the average binding energy per monomer to be 11.5 +/- 0.6 k(B)T and 8.3 +/- 0.7 k(B)T in the cases of thymine and cytosine nucleotides, respectively. The equilibrium free-energy profile simulated using molecular dynamics had a potential well of 18.9 k(B)T for thymidine, showing that nonelectrostatic interactions dominate the binding. The discrepancy between the experiment and theory indicates that not all bases are adsorbed on the surface or that there is a population of conformations in which they adsorb. Force spectroscopy using oligonucleotides covalently linked to AFM tips provides a flexible and unambiguous means to quantify the strength of interactions between DNA and a number of substrates, potentially including nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes. PMID:19368004

  10. Numerical study of the hydrodynamic drag force in atomic force microscopy measurements undertaken in fluids.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Méndez, J V; Alonso-Rasgado, M T; Faria, E Correia; Flores-Johnson, E A; Snook, R D

    2014-11-01

    When atomic force microscopy (AFM) is employed for in vivo study of immersed biological samples, the fluid medium presents additional complexities, not least of which is the hydrodynamic drag force due to viscous friction of the cantilever with the liquid. This force should be considered when interpreting experimental results and any calculated material properties. In this paper, a numerical model is presented to study the influence of the drag force on experimental data obtained from AFM measurements using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The model provides quantification of the drag force in AFM measurements of soft specimens in fluids. The numerical predictions were compared with experimental data obtained using AFM with a V-shaped cantilever fitted with a pyramidal tip. Tip velocities ranging from 1.05 to 105 μm/s were employed in water, polyethylene glycol and glycerol with the platform approaching from a distance of 6000 nm. The model was also compared with an existing analytical model. Good agreement was observed between numerical results, experiments and analytical predictions. Accurate predictions were obtained without the need for extrapolation of experimental data. In addition, the model can be employed over the range of tip geometries and velocities typically utilized in AFM measurements. PMID:25080275

  11. Measurements of dispersion forces between colloidal latex particles with the atomic force microscope and comparison with Lifshitz theory

    SciTech Connect

    Elzbieciak-Wodka, Magdalena; Ruiz-Cabello, F. Javier Montes; Trefalt, Gregor; Maroni, Plinio; Borkovec, Michal; Popescu, Mihail N.

    2014-03-14

    Interaction forces between carboxylate colloidal latex particles of about 2 μm in diameter immersed in aqueous solutions of monovalent salts were measured with the colloidal probe technique, which is based on the atomic force microscope. We have systematically varied the ionic strength, the type of salt, and also the surface charge densities of the particles through changes in the solution pH. Based on these measurements, we have accurately measured the dispersion forces acting between the particles and estimated the apparent Hamaker constant to be (2.0 ± 0.5) × 10{sup −21} J at a separation distance of about 10 nm. This value is basically independent of the salt concentration and the type of salt. Good agreement with Lifshitz theory is found when roughness effects are taken into account. The combination of retardation and roughness effects reduces the value of the apparent Hamaker constant and its ionic strength dependence with respect to the case of ideally smooth surfaces.

  12. Elastic modulus, oxidation depth and adhesion force of surface modified polystyrene studied by AFM and XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubarsky, G. V.; Davidson, M. R.; Bradley, R. H.

    2004-06-01

    AFM and XPS have been used to investigate the surface and near-surface properties of polystyrene (PS) substrates which have been subjected to one of three controlled surface modification processes performed in situ in a specially constructed cell. The cell was fitted to a Digital Instruments Nanoscope III AFM measuring head and allowed close control of the gaseous environment and made it possible to UV irradiate the sample during AFM measurements. Treatments were carried out using UV at 184.9 and 253.7 nm wavelengths, in oxygen (UV-ozone), and in nitrogen (UV-only). Polystyrene surfaces were also modified by an exposure to an atmosphere of ozone in the absence of UV (ozone-only). Data show that adhesion force is highest between tip and sample for the UV-ozone exposed surfaces and that the adhesion force increases with sample exposure time. Exposure to UV-only or ozone alone results in lower ultimate adhesion levels with a slower rate of increase with exposure time. Evaluation of Young's modulus for unmodified PS gave a value of 3.37 (±0.52) GPa which agrees well with the textbook value which ranges from 2 to 4 GPa depending on the measurement technique. A 60 s exposure to combined UV-ozone resulted in the formation of a surface layer with a modulus at the surface of 1.25 (±0.19) GPa which increased to 2.5 (±0.37) GPa at a depth of 3.5 nm. The sample exposed for 60 s to UV-only had a Young's modulus of 2.6 (±0.39) GPa but showed no reduced modulus layer at the surface. The modulus of the ozone-only treated material was the least affected with a decrease of around 0.75 GPa with some evidence for a surface layer with a modulus ranging from 2.6 (±0.39) GPa at the surface to 3.2 (±0.48) GPa at a depth of 2 nm. XPS analyses reveal that the oxygen content of the modified surfaces decreased in the order of UV-ozone > UV > ozone with approximate concentrations for a 60 s exposure of 5, 0.7 and 0.05 at.%, respectively. Friction force imaging of patterned surfaces

  13. Direct thrust force measurement of pulse detonation engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahid, Mazlan Abdul; Faiz, M. Z. Ahmad; Saqr, Khalid M.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we present the result of High-Speed Reacting Flow Laboratory (HiREF) pulse detonation engine (PDE) experimental study on direct thrust measurement. The thrust force generated by the repetitive detonation from a 50 mm inner diameter and 600 mm length tube was directly measured using load cell. Shchelkin spiral was used as an accelerator for the Deflagration to Detonation Transition (DDT) phenomenon. Propane-oxygen at stoichiometric condition was used as the combustible fuel-air mixture for the PDE. The PDE was operated at the operation frequency of 3Hz during the test. The amount of thrust force that was measured during the test reaching up to 70N. These values of thrust force were found to be fluctuating and its combustion phenomenon has been analyzed and discussed.

  14. Elasticity measurement of breast cancer cells by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chaoxian; Wang, Yuhua; Jiang, Ningcheng; Yang, Hongqin; Lin, Juqiang; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical properties of living cells play an important role in understanding various cells' function and state. Therefore cell biomechanics is expected to become a useful tool for cancer diagnosis. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) using a square pyramid probe was performed to investigate cancerous (MCF-7) and benign (MCF-10A) human breast epithelial cells. The new QITM mode was used to acquire high-resolution topographic images and elasticity of living cells. Furthermore, individual force curves were recorded at maximum loads of 0.2, 0.5 and 1 nN, and the dependence of cell's elasticity with loading force was discussed. It was showed that the cancerous cells exhibited smaller elasticity modulus in comparison to non-cancerous counterparts. The elasticity modulus increased as the loading force increased from 0.2 nN to 1 nN. This observation indicates that loading force affects the cell's apparent elasticity and it is important to choose the appropriate force applied to cells in order to distinguish normal and cancer cells. The results reveal that the mechanical properties of living cells measured by atomic force microscopy may be a useful indicator of cell type and disease.

  15. Force mapping on a partially H-covered Si(111)-(7×7) surface: Influence of tip and surface reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurtsever, Ayhan; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Hideki; Abe, Masayuki; Morita, Seizo; Ondráček, Martin; Pou, Pablo; Pérez, Rubén; Jelínek, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    We report force mapping experiments on Si(111)-(7×7) surfaces with adsorbed hydrogen, using atomic force microscopy at room temperature supported by density functional theory (DFT) simulations. On the basis of noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) images as well as force versus distance curves measured over both hydrogen-passivated and bare Si adatoms, we identified two types of tip termination, which result in different modes of interaction with the surface. The statistics of the tip dependence of the measured forces, which are effectuated using various tip states with different cantilevers, reveal the typical values of the force and their distribution in the two characteristic interaction modes. The experimental results are corroborated by DFT calculations performed for different tip structures. As a reactive tip, the dimer-terminated Si tip yields results in satisfactory agreement with experimental force curves for hydrogen-passivated and nonpassivated Si adatom sites. An oxidized Si dimer tip that bears a hydroxyl group on its apex reproduces well the experimental force curves acquired by nonreactive tips. This tip model could thus be used to interpret the experimentally obtained weak image contrast for the Si(111)-(7×7) surface. The forces are thought to arise as a result of a weak electrostatic interaction involving a permanent dipole at the tip apex enhanced by the charge density redistribution due to the interaction with surface adatoms.

  16. Application of Sensing Techniques to Cellular Force Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Wang, James H.-C.

    2010-01-01

    Cell traction forces (CTFs) are the forces produced by cells and exerted on extracellular matrix or an underlying substrate. CTFs function to maintain cell shape, enable cell migration, and generate and detect mechanical signals. As such, they play a vital role in many fundamental biological processes, including angiogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. Therefore, a close examination of CTFs can enable better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such processes. To this end, various force-sensing techniques for CTF measurement have been developed over the years. This article will provide a concise review of these sensing techniques and comment on the needs for improved force-sensing technologies for cell mechanics and biology research. PMID:22163449

  17. New magnetoelastic materials for force-measuring transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakrzewski, J.; Kwiczala, J.; Urzedniczok, H.

    1997-02-01

    Some alloys specially chosen for their resistivity and low permeability have been investigated in order to detect their utility for force measuring transducer design. The changes of their magnetic characteristic due to the stress applied either parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic flux have been measured. It was found that all of these materials have significant magnetoelastic properties, but one of them (marked 0H23J5) is the best. A new method of presentation of the magnetoelastic effect is proposed. Some designing remarks connected to improvement of metrological properties (sensitivity, linearity, temperature influence) of magnetoelastic force transducers are given.

  18. A Load Cell for the Measurement of Slack Mooring Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, R.; Sannasiraj, S. A.; Sundar, V.

    2014-07-01

    A load cell for the measurement of mooring forces is designed using the load-strain principles and the same is verified for its efficiency by structural modeling. A model load cell is fabricated and calibrated through laboratory experiments using three axes loading as well as mooring chain catenary principles. Experiments are also conducted in the physical wave tank to measure the mooring forces exerted on a disc shaped data buoy by using the designed load cell. The details of the design concepts, structural modeling, instrumentation, calibration, wave tank experiments and the results are discussed in this paper.

  19. Atomic force microscopy measurements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation onto clay-sized particles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiaoyun; Wu, Huayong; Cai, Peng; Fein, Jeremy B.; Chen, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion onto mineral surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation play key roles in aggregate stability, mineral weathering, and the fate of contaminants in soils. However, the mechanisms of bacteria-mineral interactions are not fully understood. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the adhesion forces between bacteria and goethite in water and to gain insight into the nanoscale surface morphology of the bacteria-mineral aggregates and biofilms formed on clay-sized minerals. This study yields direct evidence of a range of different association mechanisms between bacteria and minerals. All strains studied adhered predominantly to the edge surfaces of kaolinite rather than to the basal surfaces. Bacteria rarely formed aggregates with montmorillonite, but were more tightly adsorbed onto goethite surfaces. This study reports the first measured interaction force between bacteria and a clay surface, and the approach curves exhibited jump-in events with attractive forces of 97 ± 34 pN between E. coli and goethite. Bond strengthening between them occurred within 4 s to the maximum adhesion forces and energies of −3.0 ± 0.4 nN and −330 ± 43 aJ (10−18 J), respectively. Under the conditions studied, bacteria tended to form more extensive biofilms on minerals under low rather than high nutrient conditions. PMID:26585552

  20. Atomic force microscopy measurements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation onto clay-sized particles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiaoyun; Wu, Huayong; Cai, Peng; Fein, Jeremy B; Chen, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion onto mineral surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation play key roles in aggregate stability, mineral weathering, and the fate of contaminants in soils. However, the mechanisms of bacteria-mineral interactions are not fully understood. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the adhesion forces between bacteria and goethite in water and to gain insight into the nanoscale surface morphology of the bacteria-mineral aggregates and biofilms formed on clay-sized minerals. This study yields direct evidence of a range of different association mechanisms between bacteria and minerals. All strains studied adhered predominantly to the edge surfaces of kaolinite rather than to the basal surfaces. Bacteria rarely formed aggregates with montmorillonite, but were more tightly adsorbed onto goethite surfaces. This study reports the first measured interaction force between bacteria and a clay surface, and the approach curves exhibited jump-in events with attractive forces of 97 ± 34 pN between E. coli and goethite. Bond strengthening between them occurred within 4 s to the maximum adhesion forces and energies of -3.0 ± 0.4 nN and -330 ± 43 aJ (10(-18) J), respectively. Under the conditions studied, bacteria tended to form more extensive biofilms on minerals under low rather than high nutrient conditions. PMID:26585552

  1. Atomic force microscopy measurements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation onto clay-sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiaoyun; Wu, Huayong; Cai, Peng; Fein, Jeremy B.; Chen, Wenli

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial adhesion onto mineral surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation play key roles in aggregate stability, mineral weathering, and the fate of contaminants in soils. However, the mechanisms of bacteria-mineral interactions are not fully understood. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the adhesion forces between bacteria and goethite in water and to gain insight into the nanoscale surface morphology of the bacteria-mineral aggregates and biofilms formed on clay-sized minerals. This study yields direct evidence of a range of different association mechanisms between bacteria and minerals. All strains studied adhered predominantly to the edge surfaces of kaolinite rather than to the basal surfaces. Bacteria rarely formed aggregates with montmorillonite, but were more tightly adsorbed onto goethite surfaces. This study reports the first measured interaction force between bacteria and a clay surface, and the approach curves exhibited jump-in events with attractive forces of 97 ± 34 pN between E. coli and goethite. Bond strengthening between them occurred within 4 s to the maximum adhesion forces and energies of -3.0 ± 0.4 nN and -330 ± 43 aJ (10-18 J), respectively. Under the conditions studied, bacteria tended to form more extensive biofilms on minerals under low rather than high nutrient conditions.

  2. Nanomechanics of silicon surfaces with atomic force microscopy: An insight to the first stages of plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Güell, Aleix G.; Gorostiza, Pau; Sanz, Fausto

    2005-09-01

    The use of stiff cantilevers with diamond tips allows us to perform nanoindentations on hard covalent materials such as silicon with atomic force microscopy. Thanks to the high sensitivity in the force measurements together with the high resolution upon imaging the surface, we can study nanomechanical properties. At this scale, the surface deforms, following a simple non-Hertzian spring model. The plastic onset can be assessed from a discontinuity in the force-distance curves. Hardness measurements with penetration depths as small as 1nm yield H =˜25GPa, thus showing a drastic increase with penetration depths below 5nm.

  3. Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy of DNA-Based Reversible Polymer Bridges: Surface Robustness and Homogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Serpe, Michael J.; Whitehead, Jason R.; Rivera, Monica; Clark, Robert L.; Craig, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy, as implemented in an atomic force microscope, provides a rarely-used method by which to monitor dynamic processes that occur near surfaces. Here, a methodology is presented and characterized that facilitates the study of polymer bridging across nanometer-sized gaps. The model system employed is that of DNA-based reversible polymers, and an automated procedure is introduced that allows the AFM tip-surface contact point to be automatically determined, and the distance d between opposing surfaces to be actively controlled. Using this methodology, the importance of several experimental parameters was systematically studied, e.g. the frequency of repeated tip/surface contacts, the area of the substrate surface sampled by the AFM, and the use of multiple AFM tips and substrates. Experiments revealed the surfaces to be robust throughout pulling experiments, so that multiple touches and pulls could be carried out on a single spot with no measurable affect on the results. Differences in observed bridging probabilities were observed, both on different spots on the same surface and, more dramatically, from one day to another. Data normalization via a reference measurement allows data from multiple days to be directly compared. PMID:21966095

  4. Surface forces and protein adsorption on dextran- and polyethylene glycol-modified polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Megan; Beaudoin, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Dextran and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are often covalently bound to the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for the purpose of modifying its hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. In this work, the effects of the dextran and PEG on the morphology, wetting, and surface charge of the resulting surfaces were quantified and correlated with changes in the amount of fibrinogen and albumin adsorbed from aqueous solution. PDMS films were functionalized in a microwave oxygen plasma to create surface hydroxyl groups that were subsequently aminated by incubation in a (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTES) solution. Oxidized dextran and PEG-aldehyde were linked to the surface amines via reductive amination. This process resulted in low surface coverage of immobilized PEG in the end-on conformation and a more uniform and dense distribution of side-on immobilized dextran. The immobilized dextran reduced the contact angle of the PDMS film from 109° to 80° and neutralized the zeta potential over the pH range from 3 to 11. An atomic force microscope was used to measure the interaction force between the modified PDMS and a model hydrophobic surface (polystyrene latex) and a model hydrophilic surface (silica) in aqueous solution to show that van der Waals and hydrophobic attractive forces are the dominant forces for protein adsorption in this system. The PEG- and dextran-modified PDMS were exposed to BSA and fibrinogen to test their resistance to protein adsorption. The coatings were ineffective at reducing the adsorption of either molecule, and the dextran-modification of the PDMS caused more BSA to adsorb than in the case of the unmodified PDMS. PMID:20801620

  5. Surface Forces and Protein Adsorption on Dextran- and Polyethylene Glycol-Modified Polydimethylsiloxane

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Megan; Beaudoin, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Dextran and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are often covalently bound to the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for the purpose of modifying its hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. In this work, the effects of the dextran and PEG on the morphology, wetting, and surface charge of the resulting surfaces were quantified and correlated with changes in the amount of fibrinogen and albumin adsorbed from aqueous solution. PDMS films were functionalized in a microwave oxygen plasma to create surface hydroxyl groups that were subsequently aminated by incubation in a (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTES) solution. Oxidized dextran and PEG-aldehyde were linked to the surface amines via reductive amination. This process resulted in low surface coverage of immobilized PEG in the end-on conformation and a more uniform and dense distribution of side-on immobilized dextran. The immobilized dextran reduced the contact angle of the PDMS film from 109° to 80° and neutralized the zeta potential over the pH range from 3 to 11. An atomic force microscope was used to measure the interaction force between the modified PDMS and a model hydrophobic surface (polystyrene latex) and a model hydrophilic surface (silica) in both water and electrolyte solutions to show that van der Waals and hydrophobic attractive forces are the dominant forces for protein adsorption in this system. The PEG- and dextran-modified PDMS were exposed to BSA and fibrinogen to test their resistance to protein adsorption. The coatings were ineffective at reducing the adsorption of either molecule, and the dextran-modification of the PDMS caused more BSA to adsorb than in the case of the unmodified PDMS. PMID:20801620

  6. Precise control of surface electrostatic forces on polymer brush layers with opposite charges for resistance to protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Sho; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2016-10-01

    Various molecular interaction forces are generated during protein adsorption process on material surfaces. Thus, it is necessary to control them to suppress protein adsorption and the subsequent cell and tissue responses. A series of binary copolymer brush layers were prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, by mixing the cationic monomer unit and anionic monomer unit randomly in various ratios. Surface characterization revealed that the constructed copolymer brush layers exhibited an uniform super-hydrophilic nature and different surface potentials. The strength of the electrostatic interaction forces operating on these mixed-charge copolymer brush surfaces was evaluated quantitatively using force-versus-distance (f-d) curve measurements by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and probes modified by negatively charged carboxyl groups or positively charged amino groups. The electrostatic interaction forces were determined based on the charge ratios of the copolymer brush layers. Notably, the surface containing equivalent cationic/anionic monomer units hardly interacted with both the charged groups. Furthermore, the protein adsorption force and the protein adsorption mass on these surfaces were examined by AFM f-d curve measurement and surface plasmon resonance measurement, respectively. To clarify the influence of the electrostatic interaction on the protein adsorption behavior on the surface, three kinds of proteins having negative, positive, and relatively neutral net charges under physiological conditions were used in this study. We quantitatively demonstrated that the amount of adsorbed proteins on the surfaces would have a strong correlation with the strength of surface-protein interaction forces, and that the strength of surface-protein interaction forces would be determined from the combination between the properties of the electrostatic interaction forces on the surfaces and the charge properties of the proteins. Especially, the

  7. A laboratory apparatus to measure clast-bed contact forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, D.

    2007-12-01

    Glacier dynamics, sediment transport, and erosion are controlled in part by processes occurring at the interface between basal ice and bedrock. One critical parameter is the contact force between a clast and the bedrock. This force affects many processes such as basal friction which regulates sliding speed, slip resistance which influences basal shear stress and may cause micro-seismic events associated with slip instabilities, abrasion which controls rates of erosion, landscape evolution, and production of sediments. Despite field and laboratory evidences indicating that contact forces may be up to one order of magnitude higher than estimated from leading theories, no studies have yet measured with precision the magnitude of contact forces and how contact forces vary as a function of key glaciological variables such as basal melt rate and effective pressure. An apparatus was designed to make two independent measurements: (1) the contact force between a clast and a hard bed as a function of melt rate and effective pressure; (2) the drag force on an identical clast away from the bed as a function of the ice speed. The contact force differs from the drag force because of the presence of the bed which modifies the ice flow field. Measurement (2) is necessary to estimate the rheological properties of the ice and to quantify wall- (bed) effects on the drag force. The apparatus consists of a hydraulic press that pressurizes an ice cylinder, 24~cm high and 20~cm in diameter, to 1.0 - 1.5~MPa. The ice cylinder is contained inside a polycarbonate vessel. Above and below the ice cylinder are three disks: an aluminum disk sandwiched between two Delrin disks. The aluminum disks are hollow and used to circulate a fluid at a controlled temperature. The Delrin disks are used to isolate the ice from the cold room and to control the flow of heat to the ice block. The ice is kept at the melting temperature by circulating a fluid in channels inside the polycarbonate vessel and in the

  8. Seasonal slope surface deformation measured with TLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, L.; Smethurst, J.; Powrie, W.; Sellaiya, A.

    2014-03-01

    In temperate European climates, soil water removal due to vegetation transpiration peaks in summer and soil rewetting from higher levels of precipitation occurs in winter. In clays of high plasticity, the seasonal cycles of drying and wetting cause the soil to experience a volumetric change, resulting in seasonal shrinking and swelling. For a clay slope exhibiting volume change, such behaviour can lead to excessive deformation and could contribute to strain-softening and progressive slope failure. This can in turn cause traffic disruption and loss of life if roads and railways are founded on or surrounded by such slopes. This paper discusses the driving forces of seasonal surface movement, in particular the role of vegetation, and presents the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) to measure the surface movement of a lightly vegetated London Clay slope near Newbury, UK. Two TLS scans were carried out in early and late summer respectively, representing relative wet and dry conditions of the slope. Continuous field measurements of soil water content in upper layers of the slope were obtained from TDR ThetaProbes already installed at the site. The water content data are used to support the results obtained from TLS by indicating the likely volumetric change in the soil due to loss of water.

  9. Systematic review of ground reaction force measurements in cats.

    PubMed

    Schnabl, E; Bockstahler, B

    2015-10-01

    Although orthopaedic abnormalities in cats are frequently observed radiographically, they remain clinically underdiagnosed, and kinetic motion analysis, a fundamental aspect of orthopaedic research in dogs and horses, is not commonly performed. More information obtained with non-invasive measurement techniques to assess normal and abnormal gait in cats would provide a greater insight into their locomotion and biomechanics and improve the objective measurement of disease alterations and treatment modalities. In this systematic review, 12 previously performed studies that investigated ground reaction force measurements in cats during locomotion were evaluated. The aims of these studies, the measurement methods and equipment used, and the outcomes of parameters used to assess both sound and diseased cats are summarised and discussed. All reviewed studies used pressure sensitive walkways to gain data and all provided an acclimatisation period as a prerequisite for measurements. In sound cats during walking, the forelimb peak vertical force was greater than in the hindlimb and the peak vertical force in the hindlimb was greater in cats than in dogs. This review confirms that ground reaction forces can be used to evaluate lameness and treatment effects in the cat. PMID:26118478

  10. Enabling Rapid and Specific Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Immunoassay Using Nanoscaled Surface Shear Forces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuling; Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Trau, Matt

    2015-06-23

    A rapid and simple approach is presented to address two critical issues of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based immunoassay such as removal/avoiding nonspecific adsorption and reducing assay time. The approach demonstrated involves rationally designed fluorophore-integrated gold/silver nanoshells as SERS nanotags and utilizes alternative current electrohydrodynamic (ac-EHD)-induced nanoscaled surface shear forces to enhance the capture kinetics. The assay performance was validated in comparison with hydrodynamic flow and conventional immunoassay-based devices. These nanoscaled physical forces acting within nanometer distances from the electrode surface enabled rapid (40 min), sensitive (10 fg/mL), and highly specific detection of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 in breast cancer patient samples. We believe this approach presents potential for the development of rapid and sensitive SERS immunoassays for routine clinical diagnosis. PMID:25978642

  11. Micropipette suction for measuring piconewton forces of adhesion and tether formation from neutrophil membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Shao, J Y; Hochmuth, R M

    1996-01-01

    A new method for measuring piconewton-scale forces that employs micropipette suction is presented here. Spherical cells or beads are used directly as force transducers, and forces as small as 10-20 pN can be imposed. When the transducer is stationary in the pipette, the force is simply the product of the suction pressure and the cross-sectional area of the pipette minus a small correction for the narrow gap that exists between the transducer and the pipette wall. When the transducer is moving along the pipette, the force on it is corrected by a factor that is proportional to the ratio of its velocity relative to its drag-free velocity. With this technique, the minimum force required to form a membrane tether from neutrophils is determined (45 pN), and the length of the microvilli on the surface of neutrophils is inferred. The strength of this technique is in its simplicity and its ability to measure forces between cells without requiring a separate theory or a calibration against an external standard and without requiring the use of a solid surface. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 7 PMID:8913626

  12. Oceanic Precipitation Measurement - Surface Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepp, Christian

    2013-04-01

    State-of-the-art satellite derived and reanalysis based precipitation climatologies still show remarkably large differences in frequency, amount, intensity, variability and temporal behavior of precipitation over the oceans. Additionally so far appropriate in-situ validation instruments were not available for shipboard use. The uncertainties are largest for light precipitation within the ITCZ and subtropics and for cold season high-latitude precipitation including mix-phase and snowfall. Hence, a long-term issue on which IPWG and GPM-GV is urging more attention is the provision of high quality surface validation data in oceanic areas using innovative ship-based instruments. Precipitation studies would greatly benefit from systematic dataset collection and analysis as such data could also be used to constrain precipitation retrievals. To achieve this goal, the KlimaCampus and Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany funded this project that uses automated shipboard optical disdrometers, called Eigenbrodt ODM470, that are capable of measuring liquid and solid precipitation using drop size distributions in minute intervals on moving ships with high accuracy even under high wind speeds and rough sea states. Since the project start in 2009 the statistical basis for a conclusive validation has significantly improved with comprehensive data collection of more than 3 million minutes of precipitation measurements onboard six ships. Currently, six ODM470 instrument systems are available of which three are long-term mounted onboard the German research icebreaker R/V Polarstern (Alfred Wegner Institut) since June 2010, on R/V Akademik Ioffe (P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia) since September 2010 and on R/V Maria S. Merian (Brise Research, University of Hamburg) since December 2011. Three instruments are used for additional short-term shipboard campaigns and intercomparison projects. The core regions for these

  13. Measurement of cell adhesion force by vertical forcible detachment using an arrowhead nanoneedle and atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Seunghwan; Hashizume, Yui; Mishima, Mari; Kawamura, Ryuzo; Tamura, Masato; Matsui, Hirofumi; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Chikashi

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We developed a method to measure cell adhesion force by detaching cell using an arrowhead nanoneedle and AFM. • A nanofilm consisting of fibronectin and gelatin was formed on cell surface to reinforce the cell cortex. • By the nanofilm lamination, detachment efficiencies of strongly adherent cell lines were improved markedly. - Abstract: The properties of substrates and extracellular matrices (ECM) are important factors governing the functions and fates of mammalian adherent cells. For example, substrate stiffness often affects cell differentiation. At focal adhesions, clustered–integrin bindings link cells mechanically to the ECM. In order to quantitate the affinity between cell and substrate, the cell adhesion force must be measured for single cells. In this study, forcible detachment of a single cell in the vertical direction using AFM was carried out, allowing breakage of the integrin–substrate bindings. An AFM tip was fabricated into an arrowhead shape to detach the cell from the substrate. Peak force observed in the recorded force curve during probe retraction was defined as the adhesion force, and was analyzed for various types of cells. Some of the cell types adhered so strongly that they could not be picked up because of plasma membrane breakage by the arrowhead probe. To address this problem, a technique to reinforce the cellular membrane with layer-by-layer nanofilms composed of fibronectin and gelatin helped to improve insertion efficiency and to prevent cell membrane rupture during the detachment process, allowing successful detachment of the cells. This method for detaching cells, involving cellular membrane reinforcement, may be beneficial for evaluating true cell adhesion forces in various cell types.

  14. Saharan Dust Aerosol Radiative Forcing Measured from Space.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Ramanathan, V.

    2004-07-01

    This study uses data collected from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments to determine Saharan dust broadband shortwave aerosol radiative forcing over the Atlantic Ocean near the African coast (15° 25°N, 45° 15°W). The clear-sky aerosol forcing is derived directly from these data, without requiring detailed information about the aerosol properties that are not routinely observed such as chemical composition, microphysical properties, and their height variations. To determine the diurnally averaged Saharan dust radiative forcing efficiency (i.e., broadband shortwave forcing per unit optical depth at 550 nm, W m-2 τ-1a), two extreme seasons are juxtaposed: the high-dust months [June August (JJA)] and the low-dust months [November January (NDJ)]. It is found that the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) diurnal mean forcing efficiency is -35 ± 3 W m-2 τ-1a for JJA, and -26 ± 3 W m-2 τ-1a for NDJ. These efficiencies can be fit by reducing the spectrally varying aerosol single-scattering albedo such that its value at 550 nm is reduced from 0.95 ± 0.04 for JJA to about 0.86 ± 0.04 for NDJ. The lower value for the low-dust months might be influenced by biomass-burning aerosols that were transported into the study region from equatorial Africa. Although the high-dust season has a greater (absolute value of the) TOA forcing efficiency, the low-dust season may have a greater surface forcing efficiency. Extrapolations based on model calculations suggest the surface forcing efficiencies to be about -65 W m-2 τ-1a for the high-dust season versus -81 W m-2 τ-1a for the low-dust season. These observations indicate that the aerosol character within a region can be readily modified, even immediately adjacent to a powerful source region such as the Sahara. This study provides important observational constraints for models of dust radiative forcing.


  15. The Analog Atomic Force Microscope: Measuring, Modeling, and Graphing for Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Valerie; Brandt, Sharon; Lieberman, Marya

    2013-01-01

    using an analog atomic force microscope (A-AFM) made from a cardboard box and mailing tubes. Varying numbers of ping pong balls inside the tubes mimic atoms on a surface. Students use a dowel to make macroscale measurements similar to those of a nanoscale AFM tip as it…

  16. Surface microstructure of bitumen characterized by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaokong; Burnham, Nancy A; Tao, Mingjiang

    2015-04-01

    Bitumen, also called asphalt binder, plays important roles in many industrial applications. It is used as the primary binding agent in asphalt concrete, as a key component in damping systems such as rubber, and as an indispensable additive in paint and ink. Consisting of a large number of hydrocarbons of different sizes and polarities, together with heteroatoms and traces of metals, bitumen displays rich surface microstructures that affect its rheological properties. This paper reviews the current understanding of bitumen's surface microstructures characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microstructures of bitumen develop to different forms depending on crude oil source, thermal history, and sample preparation method. While some bitumens display surface microstructures with fine domains, flake-like domains, and dendrite structuring, 'bee-structures' with wavy patterns several micrometers in diameter and tens of nanometers in height are commonly seen in other binders. Controversy exists regarding the chemical origin of the 'bee-structures', which has been related to the asphaltene fraction, the metal content, or the crystallizing waxes in bitumen. The rich chemistry of bitumen can result in complicated intermolecular associations such as coprecipitation of wax and metalloporphyrins in asphaltenes. Therefore, it is the molecular interactions among the different chemical components in bitumen, rather than a single chemical fraction, that are responsible for the evolution of bitumen's diverse microstructures, including the 'bee-structures'. Mechanisms such as curvature elasticity and surface wrinkling that explain the rippled structures observed in polymer crystals might be responsible for the formation of 'bee-structures' in bitumen. Despite the progress made on morphological characterization of bitumen using AFM, the fundamental question whether the microstructures observed on bitumen surfaces represent its bulk structure remains to be addressed. In addition

  17. Colored polydimethylsiloxane micropillar arrays for high throughput measurements of forces applied by genetic model organisms.

    PubMed

    Khare, Siddharth M; Awasthi, Anjali; Venkataraman, V; Koushika, Sandhya P

    2015-01-01

    Measuring forces applied by multi-cellular organisms is valuable in investigating biomechanics of their locomotion. Several technologies have been developed to measure such forces, for example, strain gauges, micro-machined sensors, and calibrated cantilevers. We introduce an innovative combination of techniques as a high throughput screening tool to assess forces applied by multiple genetic model organisms. First, we fabricated colored Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars where the color enhances contrast making it easier to detect and track pillar displacement driven by the organism. Second, we developed a semi-automated graphical user interface to analyze the images for pillar displacement, thus reducing the analysis time for each animal to minutes. The addition of color reduced the Young's modulus of PDMS. Therefore, the dye-PDMS composite was characterized using Yeoh's hyperelastic model and the pillars were calibrated using a silicon based force sensor. We used our device to measure forces exerted by wild type and mutant Caenorhabditis elegans moving on an agarose surface. Wild type C. elegans exert an average force of ∼1 μN on an individual pillar and a total average force of ∼7.68 μN. We show that the middle of C. elegans exerts more force than its extremities. We find that C. elegans mutants with defective body wall muscles apply significantly lower force on individual pillars, while mutants defective in sensing externally applied mechanical forces still apply the same average force per pillar compared to wild type animals. Average forces applied per pillar are independent of the length, diameter, or cuticle stiffness of the animal. We also used the device to measure, for the first time, forces applied by Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Peristaltic waves occurred at 0.4 Hz applying an average force of ∼1.58 μN on a single pillar. Our colored microfluidic device along with its displacement tracking software allows us to measure forces

  18. Colored polydimethylsiloxane micropillar arrays for high throughput measurements of forces applied by genetic model organisms

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Siddharth M.; Awasthi, Anjali; Venkataraman, V.; Koushika, Sandhya P.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring forces applied by multi-cellular organisms is valuable in investigating biomechanics of their locomotion. Several technologies have been developed to measure such forces, for example, strain gauges, micro-machined sensors, and calibrated cantilevers. We introduce an innovative combination of techniques as a high throughput screening tool to assess forces applied by multiple genetic model organisms. First, we fabricated colored Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars where the color enhances contrast making it easier to detect and track pillar displacement driven by the organism. Second, we developed a semi-automated graphical user interface to analyze the images for pillar displacement, thus reducing the analysis time for each animal to minutes. The addition of color reduced the Young's modulus of PDMS. Therefore, the dye-PDMS composite was characterized using Yeoh's hyperelastic model and the pillars were calibrated using a silicon based force sensor. We used our device to measure forces exerted by wild type and mutant Caenorhabditis elegans moving on an agarose surface. Wild type C. elegans exert an average force of ∼1 μN on an individual pillar and a total average force of ∼7.68 μN. We show that the middle of C. elegans exerts more force than its extremities. We find that C. elegans mutants with defective body wall muscles apply significantly lower force on individual pillars, while mutants defective in sensing externally applied mechanical forces still apply the same average force per pillar compared to wild type animals. Average forces applied per pillar are independent of the length, diameter, or cuticle stiffness of the animal. We also used the device to measure, for the first time, forces applied by Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Peristaltic waves occurred at 0.4 Hz applying an average force of ∼1.58 μN on a single pillar. Our colored microfluidic device along with its displacement tracking software allows us to measure forces

  19. Toward Standardized Acoustic Radiation Force (ARF)-Based Ultrasound Elasticity Measurements With Robotic Force Control

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Shalki; Lily, Kuo; Sen, H. Tutkun; Iordachita, Iulian; Kazanzides, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Acoustic radiation force (ARF)-based approaches to measure tissue elasticity require transmission of a focused high-energy acoustic pulse from a stationary ultrasound probe and ultrasound-based tracking of the resulting tissue displacements to obtain stiffness images or shear wave speed estimates. The method has established benefits in biomedical applications such as tumor detection and tissue fibrosis staging. One limitation, however, is the dependence on applied probe pressure, which is difficult to control manually and prohibits standardization of quantitative measurements. To overcome this limitation, we built a robot prototype that controls probe contact forces for shear wave speed quantification. Methods The robot was evaluated with controlled force increments applied to a tissue-mimicking phantom and in vivo abdominal tissue from three human volunteers. Results The root-mean-square error between the desired and measured forces was 0.07 N in the phantom and higher for the fatty layer of in vivo abdominal tissue. The mean shear wave speeds increased from 3.7 to 4.5 m/s in the phantom and 1.0 to 3.0 m/s in the in vivo fat for compressive forces ranging from 2.5 to 30 N. The standard deviation of shear wave speeds obtained with the robotic approach were low in most cases (< 0.2 m/s) and comparable to that obtained with a semiquantitative landmark-based method. Conclusion Results are promising for the introduction of robotic systems to control the applied probe pressure for ARF-based measurements of tissue elasticity. Significance This approach has potential benefits in longitudinal studies of disease progression, comparative studies between patients, and large-scale multidimensional elasticity imaging. PMID:26552071

  20. Force Exertion Capacity Measurements in Haptic Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munih, Marko; Bardorfer, Ales; Ceru, Bojan; Bajd, Tadej; Zupan, Anton

    2010-01-01

    An objective test for evaluating functional status of the upper limbs (ULs) in patients with muscular distrophy (MD) is presented. The method allows for quantitative assessment of the UL functional state with an emphasis on force exertion capacity. The experimental measurement setup and the methodology for the assessment of maximal exertable force…

  1. A non-invasive method of tendon force measurement.

    PubMed

    Pourcelot, Philippe; Defontaine, Marielle; Ravary, Bérangère; Lemâtre, Mickaël; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie

    2005-10-01

    The ability to measure the forces exerted in vivo on tendons and, consequently, the forces produced by muscles on tendons, offers a unique opportunity to investigate questions in disciplines as varied as physiology, biomechanics, orthopaedics and neuroscience. Until now, tendon loads could be assessed directly only by means of invasive sensors implanted within or attached to these collagenous structures. This study shows that the forces acting on tendons can be measured, in a non-invasive way, from the analysis of the propagation of an acoustic wave. Using the equine superficial digital flexor tendon as a model, it is demonstrated that the velocity of an ultrasonic wave propagating along the main axis of a tendon increases with the force applied to this tendon. Furthermore, we show that this velocity measurement can be performed even in the presence of skin overlying the tendon. To validate this measurement technique in vivo, the ultrasonic velocity plots obtained in the Achilles tendon at the walk were compared to the loads plots reported by other authors using invasive transducers. PMID:16084214

  2. Direct force-measuring transducer used in blood pressure research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eige, J. J.; Newgard, P. M.; Pressman, G. L.

    1965-01-01

    Direct force measuring transducer acts as an arterial tonometer, gives a direct readout to instrumentation, and is unaffected by ambient noise. It uses a semiconductor strain gage which is deflected by pressure pulses in the artery. The deflection changes the resistance of the gage and alters the voltage reading on the associated instrumentation.

  3. A contoured continuum surface force model for particle methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Guangtao; Koshizuka, Seiichi; Chen, Bin

    2015-10-01

    A surface tension model is essential to simulate multiphase flows with deformed interfaces. This study develops a contoured continuum surface force (CCSF) model for particle methods. A color function that varies sharply across the interface to mark different fluid phases is smoothed in the transition region, where the local contour curvature can be regarded as the interface curvature. The local contour passing through each reference particle in the transition region is extracted from the local profile of the smoothed color function. The local contour curvature is calculated based on the Taylor series expansion of the smoothed color function, whose derivatives are calculated accurately according to the definition of the smoothed color function. Two schemes are proposed to specify the smooth radius: fixed scheme, where 2 ×re (re = particle interaction radius) is assigned to all particles in the transition region; and varied scheme, where re and 2 ×re are assigned to the central and edged particles in the transition region respectively. Numerical examples, including curvature calculation for static circle and ellipse interfaces, deformation of square droplet to a circle (2D and 3D), droplet deformation in shear flow, and droplet coalescence, are simulated to verify the CCSF model and compare its performance with those of other methods. The CCSF model with the fixed scheme is proven to produce the most accurate curvature and lowest parasitic currents among the tested methods.

  4. Model Engine Performance Measurement From Force Balance Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeracki, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    A large scale model representative of a low-noise, high bypass ratio turbofan engine was tested for acoustics and performance in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. This test was part of NASA's continuing Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program. The low tip speed fan, nacelle, and an un-powered core passage (with core inlet guide vanes) were simulated. The fan blades and hub are mounted on a rotating thrust and torque balance. The nacelle, bypass duct stators, and core passage are attached to a six component force balance. The two balance forces, when corrected for internal pressure tares, measure the total thrust-minus-drag of the engine simulator. Corrected for scaling and other effects, it is basically the same force that the engine supports would feel, operating at similar conditions. A control volume is shown and discussed, identifying the various force components of the engine simulator thrust and definitions of net thrust. Several wind tunnel runs with nearly the same hardware installed are compared, to identify the repeatability of the measured thrust-minus-drag. Other wind tunnel runs, with hardware changes that affected fan performance, are compared to the baseline configuration, and the thrust and torque effects are shown. Finally, a thrust comparison between the force balance and nozzle gross thrust methods is shown, and both yield very similar results.

  5. Designing an optical bendloss sensor for clinical force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linders, David R.; Wang, Wei-Chih; Nuckley, David J.

    2009-03-01

    In current physical medicine, specific manual forces are applied to patients for diagnosis, treatment, and evaluation, but these forces remain largely qualitiative. No universal tool exists to measure these forces and display them in real-time. To provide real-time quantitative feedback to clinicians, we have developed a disposable glove with a force sensor embedded in the fingertips or palm. The sensor is based on the fiberoptic bendloss effect whereby light intensity from an infrared source is attenuated as the fiber is bent between a series of corrugated teeth. The sensor fabricated has a very low profile (10 × 7 × 1 mm) and has demonstrated high sensitivity, accuracy, range, and durability. Forces as low as 0.1 N and up to 90 N have been measured with high signal to noise ratios. Good agreement with theoretical predictions of bendloss has been demonstrated. Current trials have obtained data from 20 ACL reconstruction patients demonstrating a significant increase in range of motion recovery for patients who consistently stretch at home over those who do not.

  6. Enclosed Electronic System for Force Measurements in Knee Implants

    PubMed Central

    Forchelet, David; Simoncini, Matteo; Arami, Arash; Bertsch, Arnaud; Meurville, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar; Ryser, Peter; Renaud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is a widely performed surgical technique. Soft tissue force balancing during the operation relies strongly on the experience of the surgeon in equilibrating tension in the collateral ligaments. Little information on the forces in the implanted prosthesis is available during surgery and post-operative treatment. This paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of an instrumented insert performing force measurements in a knee prosthesis. The insert contains a closed structure composed of printed circuit boards and incorporates a microfabricated polyimide thin-film piezoresistive strain sensor for each condylar compartment. The sensor is tested in a mechanical knee simulator that mimics in-vivo conditions. For characterization purposes, static and dynamic load patterns are applied to the instrumented insert. Results show that the sensors are able to measure forces up to 1.5 times body weight with a sensitivity fitting the requirements for the proposed use. Dynamic testing of the insert shows a good tracking of slow and fast changing forces in the knee prosthesis by the sensors. PMID:25196007

  7. Enclosed electronic system for force measurements in knee implants.

    PubMed

    Forchelet, David; Simoncini, Matteo; Arami, Arash; Bertsch, Arnaud; Meurville, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar; Ryser, Peter; Renaud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty is a widely performed surgical technique. Soft tissue force balancing during the operation relies strongly on the experience of the surgeon in equilibrating tension in the collateral ligaments. Little information on the forces in the implanted prosthesis is available during surgery and post-operative treatment. This paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of an instrumented insert performing force measurements in a knee prosthesis. The insert contains a closed structure composed of printed circuit boards and incorporates a microfabricated polyimide thin-film piezoresistive strain sensor for each condylar compartment. The sensor is tested in a mechanical knee simulator that mimics in-vivo conditions. For characterization purposes, static and dynamic load patterns are applied to the instrumented insert. Results show that the sensors are able to measure forces up to 1.5 times body weight with a sensitivity fitting the requirements for the proposed use. Dynamic testing of the insert shows a good tracking of slow and fast changing forces in the knee prosthesis by the sensors. PMID:25196007

  8. Radiative Forcing of Dust in Mountain Snow from MODIS surface reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, T. H.

    2009-05-01

    Here I present an algorithm that retrieves the radiative forcing by desert dust in mountain snow cover from surface reflectance data from NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Dust emitted from natural and disturbed lands frequently deposits to mountain snow cover through dry and wet deposition, particularly in spring when synoptic scale storms entrain material from recently dried surfaces. Dust decreases snow spectral albedo, primarily in the visible wavelengths where the imaginary parts of the complex refractive indices of dust and ice have the greatest contrast. This surface radiative forcing accelerates melt and contributes to the snow-albedo feedback. In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, this has been shown to shorten the duration of snow cover by approximately a month. The algorithm presented here, MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MOD-DRFS), determines the per pixel radiative forcing by dust in snow from a coupled radiative transfer model that infers the reflectance difference between clean snow spectra and dust- laden snow spectra according to a grain size matching in the near infrared and shortwave infrared wavelengths that are not affected by dust absorption. The spectral residuals are splined to a high spectral resolution and convolved with the at surface spectral irradiance modulated by local topography, and subsequently integrated to the instantaneous surface radiative forcing. I demonstrate the model with retrievals in the Zagros Mountains, Iran and the San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA. Preliminary validation of the model with in situ detailed pyranometer measurements in the San Juan Mountains indicates that the model has uncertainties of < 7 W/m2.

  9. Chemical force microscopy investigation of phosphate adsorption on the surfaces of iron(III) oxyhydroxide particles.

    PubMed

    Kreller, D I; Gibson, G; vanLoon, G W; Horton, J H

    2002-10-15

    Phosphate-modified AFM tips were prepared by the deposition of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of bis(11-thioundecyl) phosphate on Au-coated silicon nitride cantilevers. The properties of the PO(2)H-terminated SAMs were investigated by studying the pH-dependent force interactions of the tips with phosphate- and carboxylic acid-terminated SAM control surfaces. The PO(2)H functional groups had a pK(a) of approximately 5.0. A chemical force microscopy (CFM) study was conducted on the interactions between the probes and the surfaces of hydrous ferric oxide particles prepared in our laboratory by hydrolytic precipitation from FeCl(3). The forces between PO(2)H probes and the hydrous ferric oxide surfaces were seen to exhibit a strong pH dependence, with maximum attractive forces occurring for pH values between 5 and 8. The effects of postprecipitation of the hydrous ferric oxide colloids with orthophosphate, H(2)PO(4)(-), dimethylphosphate, (CH(3)O)(2)PO(2)H (DMP), and tannic acid (TA) on the adhesive interactions between the PO(2)H tips and the solids were also investigated. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was used to verify the presence of surface-adsorbed species and zeta potentiometric measurements to determine surface charge on the colloids. We show that the method of chemical force titration using phosphate-terminated tips can differentiate between these various colloids and that it shows promise as a general method for studying this environmentally important class of compounds. PMID:12702389

  10. Kinesin force generation measured using a centrifuge microscope sperm-gliding motility assay.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, K; Cole, D; Yeh, Y; Baskin, R J

    1996-01-01

    To measure force generation and characterize the relationship between force and velocity in kinesin-driven motility we have developed a centrifuge microscope sperm-gliding motility assay. The average (extrapolated) value of maximum isometric force at low kinesin density was 0.90 +/- 0.14 pN. Furthermore, in the experiments at low kinesin density, sperm pulled off before stall at forces between 0.40 and 0.75 pN. To further characterize our kinesin-demembranated sperm assay we estimated maximum isometric force using a laser trap-based assay. At low kinesin density, 4.34 +/- 1.5 pN was the maximum force. Using values of axoneme stiffness available from other studies, we concluded that, in our centrifuge microscope-based assay, a sperm axoneme functions as a lever arm, magnifying the centrifugal force and leading to pull-off before stall. In addition, drag of the distal portion of the axoneme is increased by the centrifugal force (because the axoneme is rotated into closer proximity to the glass surface) and represents an additional force that the kinesin motor must overcome. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 PMID:8968616

  11. The measurement of surface gravity.

    PubMed

    Crossley, David; Hinderer, Jacques; Riccardi, Umberto

    2013-04-01

    This review covers basic theory and techniques behind the use of ground-based gravimetry at the Earth's surface. The orientation is toward modern instrumentation, data processing and interpretation for observing surface, land-based, time-variable changes to the geopotential. The instrumentation side is covered in some detail, with specifications and performance of the most widely used models of the three main types: the absolute gravimeters (FG5, A10 from Micro-g LaCoste), superconducting gravimeters (OSG, iGrav from GWR instruments), and the new generation of spring instruments (Micro-g LaCoste gPhone, Scintrex CG5 and Burris ZLS). A wide range of applications is covered, with selected examples from tides and ocean loading, atmospheric effects on gravity, local and global hydrology, seismology and normal modes, long period and tectonics, volcanology, exploration gravimetry, and some examples of gravimetry connected to fundamental physics. We show that there are only a modest number of very large signals, i.e. hundreds of µGal (10(-8) m s(-2)), that are easy to see with all gravimeters (e.g. tides, volcanic eruptions, large earthquakes, seasonal hydrology). The majority of signals of interest are in the range 0.1-5.0 µGal and occur at a wide range of time scales (minutes to years) and spatial extent (a few meters to global). Here the competing effects require a careful combination of different gravimeter types and measurement strategies to efficiently characterize and distinguish the signals. Gravimeters are sophisticated instruments, with substantial up-front costs, and they place demands on the operators to maximize the results. Nevertheless their performance characteristics such as drift and precision have improved dramatically in recent years, and their data recording ability and ruggedness have seen similar advances. Many subtle signals are now routinely connected with known geophysical effects such as coseismic earthquake displacements, post

  12. Aerodynamics of Dragonfly in Hover: Force measurements and PIV results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xinyan; Hu, Zheng

    2009-11-01

    We useda pair of dynamically scaled robotic dragonfly model wings to investigate the aerodynamic effects of wing-wing interaction in dragonflies. We follow the wing kinematics of real dragonflies in hover, while systematically varied the phase difference between the forewing and hindwing. Instantaneous aerodynamic forces and torques were measured on both wings, while flow visualization and PIV results were obtained. The results show that, in hovering flight, wing-wing interaction causes force reduction for both wings at most of the phase angle differences except around 0 degree (when the wings are beating in-phase).

  13. Effect of permanent-magnet irregularities in levitation force measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J. R.

    1999-10-14

    In the measurement of the levitation force between a vertically magnetized permanent magnet (PM) and a bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS), PM domains with horizontal components of magnetization are shown to produce a nonnegligible contribution to the levitation force in most systems. Such domains are typically found in all PMs, even in those that exhibit zero net horizontal magnetic moment. Extension of this analysis leads to an HTS analog of Earnshaw's theorem, in which at the field-cooling position the vertical stiffness is equal to the sum of the horizontal stiffnesses, independent of angular distribution of magnetic moments within the PM.

  14. Adhesion force measurements on the two wax layers of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers

    PubMed Central

    Gorb, Elena V.; Purtov, Julia; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    The wax coverage of the waxy zone in Nepenthes alata pitchers consists of two clearly distinguishable layers, designated the upper and lower wax layers. Since these layers were reported to reduce insect attachment, they were considered to have anti-adhesive properties. However, no reliable adhesion tests have been performed with these wax layers. In this study, pull-off force measurements were carried out on both wax layers of the N. alata pitcher and on two reference polymer surfaces using deformable polydimethylsiloxane half-spheres as probes. To explain the results obtained, roughness measurements were performed on test surfaces. Micro-morphology of both surface samples and probes tested was examined before and after experiments. Pull-off forces measured on the upper wax layer were the lowest among surfaces tested. Here, contamination of probes by wax crystals detached from the pitcher surface was found. This suggests that low insect attachment on the upper wax layer is caused primarily by the breaking off of wax crystals from the upper wax layer, which acts as a separation layer between the insect pad and the pitcher surface. High adhesion forces obtained on the lower wax layer are explained by the high deformability of probes and the particular roughness of the substrate. PMID:24889352

  15. Dynamic tunneling force microscopy for characterizing electronic trap states in non-conductive surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, R.; Williams, C. C.

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic tunneling force microscopy (DTFM) is a scanning probe technique for real space mapping and characterization of individual electronic trap states in non-conductive films with atomic scale spatial resolution. The method is based upon the quantum mechanical tunneling of a single electron back and forth between a metallic atomic force microscopy tip and individual trap states in completely non-conducting surface. This single electron shuttling is measured by detecting the electrostatic force induced on the probe tip at the shuttling frequency. In this paper, the physical basis for the DTFM method is unfolded through a physical model and a derivation of the dynamic tunneling signal as a function of several experimental parameters is shown. Experimental data are compared with the theoretical simulations, showing quantitative consistency and verifying the physical model used. The experimental system is described and representative imaging results are shown.

  16. Dynamic tunneling force microscopy for characterizing electronic trap states in non-conductive surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, R.; Williams, C. C.

    2015-09-15

    Dynamic tunneling force microscopy (DTFM) is a scanning probe technique for real space mapping and characterization of individual electronic trap states in non-conductive films with atomic scale spatial resolution. The method is based upon the quantum mechanical tunneling of a single electron back and forth between a metallic atomic force microscopy tip and individual trap states in completely non-conducting surface. This single electron shuttling is measured by detecting the electrostatic force induced on the probe tip at the shuttling frequency. In this paper, the physical basis for the DTFM method is unfolded through a physical model and a derivation of the dynamic tunneling signal as a function of several experimental parameters is shown. Experimental data are compared with the theoretical simulations, showing quantitative consistency and verifying the physical model used. The experimental system is described and representative imaging results are shown.

  17. Measuring electric fields from surface contaminants with neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Obrecht, J. M.; Wild, R. J.; Cornell, E. A.

    2007-06-15

    In this paper we demonstrate a technique of utilizing magnetically trapped neutral {sup 87}Rb atoms to measure the magnitude and direction of stray electric fields emanating from surface contaminants. We apply an alternating external electric field that adds to (or subtracts from) the stray field in such a way as to resonantly drive the trapped atoms into a mechanical dipole oscillation. The growth rate of the oscillation's amplitude provides information about the magnitude and sign of the stray field gradient. Using this measurement technique, we are able to reconstruct the vector electric field produced by surface contaminants. In addition, we can accurately measure the electric fields generated from adsorbed atoms purposely placed onto the surface and account for their systematic effects, which can plague a precision surface-force measurement. We show that baking the substrate can reduce the electric fields emanating from adsorbate and that the mechanism for reduction is likely surface diffusion, not desorption.

  18. In situ ion gun cleaning of surface adsorbates and its effect on electrostatic forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Robert; Xu, Jun; Mohideen, Umar

    2016-01-01

    To obtain precise measurements of the Casimir force, it is crucial to take into account the electrostatic interactions that exist between the two boundaries. Two otherwise grounded conductors will continue to have residual electrostatic effects from patch potentials existing on the surfaces. In this paper, we look at the effect of in situ cleaning of adsorbate patches, and the resultant effect on the net electrostatic potential difference between two surfaces. We find a significant reduction in the residual potential due to in situ Ar+ cleaning for the samples used.

  19. Photothermally excited force modulation microscopy for broadband nanomechanical property measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Ryan; Killgore, Jason P.

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate photothermally excited force modulation microscopy (PTE FMM) for mechanical property characterization across a broad frequency range with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Photothermal excitation allows for an AFM cantilever driving force that varies smoothly as a function of drive frequency, thus avoiding the problem of spurious resonant vibrations that hinder piezoelectric excitation schemes. A complication of PTE FMM is that the sub-resonance cantilever vibration shape is fundamentally different compared to piezoelectric excitation. By directly measuring the vibrational shape of the cantilever, we show that PTE FMM is an accurate nanomechanical characterization method. PTE FMM is a pathway towards the characterization of frequency sensitive specimens such as polymers and biomaterials with frequency range limited only by the resonance frequency of the cantilever and the low frequency limit of the AFM.

  20. Photothermally excited force modulation microscopy for broadband nanomechanical property measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Ryan Killgore, Jason P.

    2015-11-16

    We demonstrate photothermally excited force modulation microscopy (PTE FMM) for mechanical property characterization across a broad frequency range with an atomic force microscope (AFM). Photothermal excitation allows for an AFM cantilever driving force that varies smoothly as a function of drive frequency, thus avoiding the problem of spurious resonant vibrations that hinder piezoelectric excitation schemes. A complication of PTE FMM is that the sub-resonance cantilever vibration shape is fundamentally different compared to piezoelectric excitation. By directly measuring the vibrational shape of the cantilever, we show that PTE FMM is an accurate nanomechanical characterization method. PTE FMM is a pathway towards the characterization of frequency sensitive specimens such as polymers and biomaterials with frequency range limited only by the resonance frequency of the cantilever and the low frequency limit of the AFM.

  1. Optical tweezers force measurements to study parasites chemotaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Fontes, A.; Almeida, D. B.; Stahl, C. V.; Santos-Mallet, J. R.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Feder, D.; Ayres, D. C.; Giorgio, S.; Cesar, C. L.

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we propose a methodology to study microorganisms chemotaxis in real time using an Optical Tweezers system. Optical Tweezers allowed real time measurements of the force vectors, strength and direction, of living parasites under chemical or other kinds of gradients. This seems to be the ideal tool to perform observations of taxis response of cells and microorganisms with high sensitivity to capture instantaneous responses to a given stimulus. Forces involved in the movement of unicellular parasites are very small, in the femto-pico-Newton range, about the same order of magnitude of the forces generated in an Optical Tweezers. We applied this methodology to investigate the Leishmania amazonensis (L. amazonensis) and Trypanossoma cruzi (T. cruzi) under distinct situations.

  2. Using optics to measure biological forces and mechanics.

    PubMed

    Kuo, S C

    2001-11-01

    Spanning all size levels, regulating biological forces and transport are fundamental life processes. Used by various investigators over the last dozen years, optical techniques offer unique advantages for studying biological forces. The most mature of these techniques, optical tweezers, or the single-beam optical trap, is commercially available and is used by numerous investigators. Although technical innovations have improved the versatility of optical tweezers, simple optical tweezers continue to provide insights into cell biology. Two new, promising optical technologies, laser-tracking microrheology and the optical stretcher, allow mechanical measurements that are not possible with optical tweezers. Here, I review these various optical technologies and their roles in understanding mechanical forces in cell biology. PMID:11733041

  3. Measurement of the Casimir force between dissimilar metals.

    PubMed

    Decca, R S; López, D; Fischbach, E; Krause, D E

    2003-08-01

    The first precise measurement of the Casimir force between dissimilar metals is reported. The attractive force, between a Cu layer evaporated on a microelectromechanical torsional oscillator and an Au layer deposited on an Al2O3 sphere, was measured dynamically with a noise level of 6 fN/sqrt[Hz]. Measurements were performed for separations in the 0.2-2 micro m range. The results agree to better than 1% in the 0.2-0.5 micro m range with a theoretical model that takes into account the finite conductivity and roughness of the two metals. The observed discrepancies, which are much larger than the experimental precision, can be attributed to a lack of a complete characterization of the optical properties of the specific samples used in the experiment. PMID:12906584

  4. Measurement of turbine blade-tip rotordynamic excitation forces

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Jaroux, B.; Song, S.J.; Yoo, S.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents results of a program to investigate the magnitude, original, and parametric variations of destabilizing forces that arise in high power turbines due to blade-tip leakage effects. Five different unshrouded turbine configurations and one configuration shrouded with a labyrinth seal were tested with static offsets of the turbine shaft. The forces along and perpendicular to the offset were measured directly with a dynamometer, and were also inferred from velocity triangles and pressure distributions obtained form detailed flow surveys. These two routes yielded values in fair agreement in all case. For unshrouded turbines, the cross-forces are seen to originate mainly ({approximately} 2/3) from the classical Alford mechanism (nonuniform work extraction due to varying blade efficiency with tip gap) and about 1/3 from a slightly skewed hub pressure pattern. The direct forces arise mainly (3/4) from this pressure pattern, with the rest due to a slight skewness of the Alford mechanism. The pressure nonuniformity (lower pressures near the widest gap) is seen to arise from a large-scale redistribution of the substantially when the gap is reduced from 3.0 to 1.9 percent of blade height, probably due to viscous blade-tip effects. The forces also increase when the hub gap between stator and rotor decreases. The force coefficient decreases with operating flow coefficient. In the case of the shrouded turbine, most of the forces arise from rest appears to come from uneven work extraction (Alford mechanism). Their level is about 50 percent higher than in the unshrouded cases.

  5. Breast Cancer EDGE Task Force Outcomes: Clinical Measures of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Shana; Gilchrist, Laura; Sander, Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is one of the most commonly reported impairments after breast cancer treatment affecting anywhere from 16-73% of breast cancer survivors Despite the high reported incidence of pain from cancer and its treatments, the ability to evaluate cancer pain continues to be difficult due to the complexity of the disease and the subjective experience of pain. The Oncology Section Breast Cancer EDGE Task Force was created to evaluate the evidence behind clinical outcome measures of pain in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods The authors systematically reviewed the literature for pain outcome measures published in the research involving women diagnosed with breast cancer. The goal was to examine the reported psychometric properties that are reported in the literature in order to determine clinical utility. Results Visual Analog Scale, Numeric Rating Scale, Pressure Pain Threshold, McGill Pain Questionnaire, McGill Pain Questionnaire – Short Form, Brief Pain Inventory and Brief Pain Inventory – Short Form were highly recommended by the Task Force. The Task Force was unable to recommend two measures for use in the breast cancer population at the present time. Conclusions A variety of outcome measures were used to measure pain in women diagnosed with breast cancer. When assessing pain in women with breast cancer, researchers and clinicians need to determine whether a unidimensional or multidimensional tool is most appropriate as well as whether the tool has strong psychometric properties. PMID:25346950

  6. Study of surface forces dependence on pH by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gavoille, J; Takadoum, J

    2002-06-01

    We used an atomic force microscope to investigate silicon nitride tip interactions with various materials (copper, nickel, silicon carbide) as a function of pH. The electrolyte used was 10(-3) M NaCl and the interactions observed through force versus distance curves (attraction or repulsion) depended on the pH value. Interaction forces calculation was derived from force versus distance curve data and the results are discussed in terms of electrostatic interactions using Zeta potential theory. PMID:16290640

  7. Seasonal variation of surface and atmospheric cloud radiative forcing over the globe derived from satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Shashi K.; Staylor, W. Frank; Darnell, Wayne L.; Wilber, Anne C.; Ritchey, Nancy A.

    1993-01-01

    Global distributions of surface and atmospheric cloud radiative forcing parameters have been derived using parameterized radiation models with satellite meteorological data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project, and directly measured top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Specifically, shortwave, longwave, and total cloud forcing at the surface, and column-averaged values of longwave cloud forcing of the atmosphere were derived for the midseasonal months of April, July, and October 1985 and January 1986, covering a complete annual cycle. Seasonal variability is illustrated by comparing the results for July 1985 and January 1986, which represent the seasonal extremes. Surface shortwave cloud forcing is always negative, representing a cooling of the surface, with strongest cooling (-120 to -180 W/sq m) occurring over midlatitude storm tracks of the summer hemisphere. Surface longwave cloud forcing is always positive, representing a warming of the surface, with strongest warming (60 to 75 W/sq m) occurring over storm tracks of the winter hemisphere. Zonal averages show the entire summer hemisphere dominated by shortwave cooling, the middle and high latitudes of the winter hemisphere dominated by longwave warming, and a broad zone of transition in between. The globally averaged total cloud forcing amounts to a cooling throughout the year, ranging from a low of about -12 W/sq m for July 1985 to a high of about -25 W/sq m for January 1986. The longwave cloud forcing of the atmosphere shows a strong warming over deep convective regions in the tropics and a moderate cooling outside the tropics, amounting to a weak cooling (-2 to -5 W/sq m) in the global average. Comparisons of the results with general circulation model simulations show broad qualitative agreement regarding the locations of prominent warming and cooling regions. Quantitative comparisons, on the other hand, show significant differences between the

  8. Development of measuring system to measure standing pose of the foot using distributed triaxial force sensor.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akimi; Tanaka, Noriko; Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Oshima, Hiroko; Minato, Kotaro; Yoshida, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Yotaro

    2006-01-01

    The bottom of a person's foot grips the floor for balance, and the action force and action moment work at the foot bottom when he maintains posture and when he moves. They are important indices in the evaluation and the medical attention of standing pose balance and gait disturbances. A lot of equipments to measure the floor reaction force have been researched. However, no floor reaction force meter exists that can measure distribution information force in three directions. This paper aims at the development of a system that can measure the standing pose of the foot that exists from a measuring instrument and that can measure the standing pose of foot distributed 6times4 three axis force sensors and software that displays and preserves the output of the sensor element. A time change of force that worked at the foot bottom is sought as a vector by outputting each sensor element. Moreover, an action vector is three dimensionally displayed whose data can be intuitively understood. The results of experiments show that the measuring system can measure the action force of the foot bottom as distribution information on force in three directions. PMID:17945646

  9. Dynamic electrical response of thin dielectric films measured by Electrostatic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Clayton; Klein, Levente

    2002-03-01

    Electrostatic Force Microscopy measurements have been performed on thin dielectric films on conducting substrates. Cantilever oscillation amplitude versus distance curves are measured as a function of the frequency of the voltage applied between tip and sample. When a DC voltage is applied, the oscillation amplitude versus distance curve is significantly different from that when a low frequency (500 Hz) AC voltage is applied (cantilever resonance at 125 kHz). The frequency dependence of the AC force response for different dielectric films (SiO2 and Al_2O_3) are studied. The frequency dependence is accounted for by the movement of charge near the sample surface with a finite response time.

  10. ForceFit: a code to fit classical force fields to ab-initio potential energy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, Neil Jon; Waldher, Benjamin; Kuta, Jadwiga; Clark, Aurora; Clark, Aurora E

    2009-01-01

    The ForceFit program package has been developed for fitting classical force field parameters based upon a force matching algorithm to quantum mechanical gradients of configurations that span the potential energy surface of the system. The program, which runs under Unix and is written in C++, is an easy to use, nonproprietary platform that enables gradient fitting of a wide variety of functional force field forms to quantum mechanical information obtained from an array of common electronic structure codes. All aspects of the fitting process are run from a graphical user interface, from the parsing of quantum mechanical data, assembling of a potential energy surface database, setting the force field and variables to be optimized, choosing a molecular mechanics code for comparison to the reference data, and finally, the initiation of a least squares minimization algorithm. Furthermore, the code is based on a modular templated code design that enables the facile addition of new functionality to the program.

  11. Molecular force probe measurement of antigen I/II-matrix protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Soell, Martine; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Hannig, Matthias; Haïkel, Youssef; Sano, Hidehiko; Selimovic, Denis

    2010-12-01

    Viridans streptococci possess a family of immunologically and structurally related cell-surface proteins, termed antigen I/II, which may function as adhesins and enable oral streptococci to adhere to saliva-coated surfaces and matrix proteins. Here we used atomic force microscopy in the molecular force mode to measure the specific interaction forces between antigen I/II and two matrix proteins, collagen and fibronectin. These matrix proteins provide important binding sites for adherence of oral streptococcal in dentinal caries and endocarditis, respectively. Antigen I/II-coated cantilever tips were brought into contact with collagen- or fibronectin-coated silica coverslips. For the protein I/II-fibronectin interaction experiments, the mean strength of the last ruptures was 216 pN, with most of the detachments located around 125 pN. In antigen I/II-collagen interaction experiments, the mean strength of the last rupture forces corresponded to 136 pN, with the most frequent unbinding force around 75 pN. Thus, our findings definitely suggest that, under the present experimental conditions, antigen I/II binds more strongly to fibronectin than to type I collagen. This might be of relevance for the attachment of viridians streptococci to surfaces exposed to strong hydrodynamic shearing forces under in vivo conditions. PMID:21083620

  12. Lateral forces on circularly polarizable particles near a surface

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J.; Engheta, Nader; Martínez, Alejandro; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2015-01-01

    Optical forces allow manipulation of small particles and control of nanophotonic structures with light beams. While some techniques rely on structured light to move particles using field intensity gradients, acting locally, other optical forces can ‘push' particles on a wide area of illumination but only in the direction of light propagation. Here we show that spin–orbit coupling, when the spin of the incident circularly polarized light is converted into lateral electromagnetic momentum, leads to a lateral optical force acting on particles placed above a substrate, associated with a recoil mechanical force. This counterintuitive force acts in a direction in which the illumination has neither a field gradient nor propagation. The force direction is switchable with the polarization of uniform, plane wave illumination, and its magnitude is comparable to other optical forces. PMID:26581479

  13. Hydrodynamic forces during the initial stage of body lifting from water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Martínez, Patricia; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Korobkin, A.; Khabakhpasheva, Tatyana

    2015-11-01

    We consider the flow induced by a rigid flat plate, initially touching a horizontal water surface, when it starts to move upwards with constant acceleration. Negative hydrodynamic pressures on the wetted surface of the plate are allowed, thus the water follows the plate due to the resulting suction force. The acceleration of the plate and the plate length are such that gravity, surface tension and viscous effects can be neglected. Under these assumptions, the potential flow caused by the plate lifting is obtained by using the small-time expansion of the velocity potential. This small-time solution fails close to the plate edges, as it predicts there singular velocities and unbounded displacements of the free surface. It is shown that close to the plate edges the flow is non-linear and self-similar in the leading order. This nonlinear flow is computed by the boundary element method combined with a time-marching scheme. We also present the results of an experimental investigation aimed at measuring the hydrodynamic force felt by the plate. This force seems to be very weak, what suggests that cavitation occurs during these initial stages. Supported by the NICOP research grant N62909-13-1-N274, and the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, grant DPI2014-59292-C3-1-P.

  14. Long reach cantilevers for sub-cellular force measurements.

    PubMed

    Paneru, Govind; Thapa, Prem S; McBride, Sean P; Ramm, Adam; Law, Bruce M; Flanders, Bret N

    2012-11-16

    Maneuverable, high aspect ratio poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) fibers are fabricated for use as cellular force probes that can interface with individual pseudopod adhesive contact sites without forming unintentional secondary contacts to the cell. The straight fibers have lengths between 5 and 40 μm and spring constants in the 0.07-23.2 nN μm(-1) range. The spring constants of these fibers were measured directly using an atomic force microscope (AFM). These AFM measurements corroborate determinations based on the transverse vibrational resonance frequencies of the fibers, which is a more convenient method. These fibers are employed to characterize the time dependent forces exerted at adhesive contacts between apical pseudopods of highly migratory D. discoideum cells and the PEDOT fibers, finding an average terminal force of 3.1 ± 2.7 nN and lifetime of 23.4 ± 18.5 s to be associated with these contacts. PMID:23085541

  15. Measurement of depletion-induced force in microtubule bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilitski, Fiodar; Ward, Andrew; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2014-03-01

    Microtubule (MT) bundles formed in the presence of non-adsorbing polymers - poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) or Dextran - are widely used in experimental active matter systems. However, many properties of such MT bundles have not been studied experimentally. In this work, we combine optical trapping techniques with an umbrella sampling method in order to measure the depletion force acting on individual microtubule in the axial direction within the bundle. We find depletion force is independent of bundle overlap length and measure its magnitude to be on the order of tens of kB/T μm. We explore the dependence of the depletion force on concentration of depletant (PEG 20K) as well as K+ ions (necessary for screening electrostatic repulsion between MT filaments). We also verify additivity of depletion interaction and confirm that force is increased by a factor of two for three-MT bundles. Additionally, our experimental technique allows us to probe interactions between MTs within the bundle. Experimental data suggests that filaments in the bundle interact only hydrodynamically when depletant concentrations are low enough; however, we observe onset of solid-like friction when osmotic pressure is increased above a certain threshold.

  16. Measuring red blood cell aggregation forces using double optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Heloise P; Fontes, Adriana; Thomaz, André; Castro, Vagner; Cesar, Carlos L; Barjas-Castro, Maria L

    2013-04-01

    Classic immunohematology approaches, based on agglutination techniques, have been used in manual and automated immunohematology laboratory routines. Red blood cell (RBC) agglutination depends on intermolecular attractive forces (hydrophobic bonds, Van der Walls, electrostatic forces and hydrogen bonds) and repulsive interactions (zeta potential). The aim of this study was to measure the force involved in RBC aggregation using double optical tweezers, in normal serum, in the presence of erythrocyte antibodies and associated to agglutination potentiator solutions (Dextran, low ionic strength solution [LISS] and enzymes). The optical tweezers consisted of a neodymium:yattrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser beam focused through a microscope equipped with a minicam, which registered the trapped cell image in a computer where they could be analyzed using a software. For measuring RBC aggregation, a silica bead attached to RBCs was trapped and the force needed to slide one RBC over the other, as a function of the velocities, was determined. The median of the RBC aggregation force measured in normal serum (control) was 1 × 10(-3) (0.1-2.5) poise.cm. The samples analyzed with anti-D showed 2 × 10(-3) (1.0-4.0) poise.cm (p < 0.001). RBC diluted in potentiator solutions (Dextran 0.15%, Bromelain and LISS) in the absence of erythrocyte antibodies, did not present agglutination. High adherence was observed when RBCs were treated with papain. Results are in agreement with the imunohematological routine, in which non-specific results are not observed when using LISS, Dextran and Bromelain. Nevertheless, false positive results are frequently observed in manual and automated microplate analyzer using papain enzyme. The methodology proposed is simple and could provide specific information with the possibility of meansuration regarding RBC interaction. PMID:23402665

  17. Lorentz force velocimetry based on time-of-flight measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viré, Axelle; Knaepen, Bernard; Thess, André

    2010-12-01

    Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) is a contactless technique for the measurement of liquid metal flowrates. It consists of measuring the force acting upon a magnetic system and arising from the interaction between an external magnetic field and the flow of an electrically conducting fluid. In this study, a new design is proposed so as to make the measurement independent of the fluid's electrical conductivity. It is made of one or two coils placed around a circular pipe. The forces produced on each coil are recorded in time as the liquid metal flows through the pipe. It is highlighted that the auto- or cross-correlation of these forces can be used to determine the flowrate. The reliability of the flowmeter is first investigated with a synthetic velocity profile associated with a single vortex ring, which is convected at a constant speed. This configuration is similar to the movement of a solid rod and enables a simple analysis of the flowmeter. Then, the flowmeter is applied to a realistic three-dimensional turbulent flow. In both cases, the influence of the coil radii, coil separation, and sign of the coil-carrying currents is systematically assessed. The study is entirely numerical and uses a second-order finite volume method. Two sets of simulations are performed. First, the equations of motion are solved without accounting for the effect of the magnetic field on the flow (kinematic simulations). Second, the Lorentz force is explicitly added to the momentum balance (dynamic simulations), and the influence of the external magnetic field on the flow is then quantified.

  18. Planetary boundary layer response to surface temperature anomalies forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Xavier; Lapeyre, Guillaume; Plougonven, Riwal

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies showed that strong sea surface temperature (SST) fronts, on the scale of the western boundary currents, strongly affect the planetary boundary layer (PBL) but also all the troposphere. This renewed the interest of air-sea interactions at oceanic meso-scales. Mainly two mechanisms are proposed in the literature, the first one (due to Wallace et al 1989) is based on the destabilization of the PBL above SST anomalies, the second one (Lindzen and Nigam 1987) is based on the pressure anomalies linked to the atmosphere temperature adjustment to the SST. These two mechanisms predict different responses of the PBL to the SST. We did numerical simulations with a meso-scale atmospheric model (WRF) with the same configuration as the one described in Lambert et al 2013. The model is forced by a SST anomaly which is first a zonally or meridionally constant field and secondly a field of meso-scale structures. Firstly we studied the influence of the initial wind strength on the PBL response for the two different types of SST anomalies. We showed that the dominant mechanism can change according to weak or strong wind and to the orientation of the SST anomaly. Secondly after considering a dry atmosphere we switched on the humidity in our configuration. We studied how it influences the PBL response and whether the mechanism driving the PBL response is still the same as in the dry case.

  19. Protein crystallization on liquid surfaces: Forced versus natural crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsa, A.

    2005-11-01

    Two-dimensional crystallization of proteins has recently been reported where streptavidin protein dissolved in the bulk liquid anchors to binding sites on a biotinylated lipid monolayer initially spread on the liquid surface. Thermodynamic aspects investigated include the effects of subphase buffer and pH, dilution of bulk protein and monolayer. Here, we investigate three possible avenues where flow can influence protein crystallization: i) change the initial state of monolayer, ii) advect dissolved protein to the interface, iii) apply direct hydrodynamic force on the crystals at the interface. The flow system consists of a stationary open cylinder driven by constant rotation of the floor, in the axisymmetric flow regime with inertia. Direct imaging of the interface illuminated by forward scattering of a laser was utilized to avoid labeling proteins for conventional fluorescence microscopy. These images provide greater detail than Brewster angle microscopy. Scientific motivation is to use flow to probe protein structure, and the application is to make designer protein thin-films, e.g. for biosensors.

  20. Surface adhesion and its dependence on surface roughness and humidity measured with a flat tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çolak, Arzu; Wormeester, Herbert; Zandvliet, Harold J. W.; Poelsema, Bene

    2012-07-01

    The adhesion force between a surface and the tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever has been determined by recording force-distance curves with an atomic force microscope. Flat tips with a diameter of 2 μm were used to mimic the adhesion between two parallel surfaces. In such a configuration, the location for the formation and breaking of the capillary water neck is a stochastic by nature, significantly different from that of a spherical tip. The adhesion force is measured as a function of relative humidity for smooth and chemically etched Si(1 0 0) surfaces. The roughness of the etched substrate reduces the adhesion by more than an order of magnitude, depending on the exact value of the relative humidity. The adhesion force increases with increasing humidity until a relative humidity of about 70%. Beyond a relative humidity of 70% a decrease of the adhesion force is observed. We anticipate that the latter is due to a decrease of the cross section of the water neck at the snap off point with increasing relative humidity.

  1. In Situ Friction Measurement on Murine Cartilage by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Jeffrey M.; Blum, Jason J.; Jay, Gregory D.; Darling, Eric M.; Guilak, Farshid; Zauscher, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Articular cartilage provides a low-friction, wear resistant surface for the motion of diarthrodial joints. The objective of this study was to develop a method for in situ friction measurement of murine cartilage using a colloidal probe attached to the cantilever of an atomic force microscope. Sliding friction was measured between a chemically functionalized microsphere and the cartilage of the murine femoral head. Friction was measured at normal loads ranging incrementally from 20 nN to 100 nN with a sliding speed of 40 μm/s and sliding distance of 64 μm. Under these test conditions, hydrostatic pressurization and biphasic load support in the cartilage were minimized, providing frictional measurements that predominantly reflect boundary lubrication properties. Friction coefficients measured on murine tissue (0.25±0.11) were similar to those measured on porcine tissue (0.23±0.09) and were in general agreement with measurements of boundary friction on cartilage by other researchers. Using the colloidal probe as an indenter, the elastic mechanical properties and surface roughness were measured in the same configuration. Interfacial shear was found to be the principal mechanism of friction generation, with little to no friction resulting from plowing forces, collision forces, or energy losses due to normal deformation. This measurement technique can be applied to future studies of cartilage friction and mechanical properties on genetically altered mice or other small animals. PMID:18054362

  2. Peptide adsorption on a hydrophobic surface results from an interplay of solvation, surface, and intrapeptide forces.

    PubMed

    Horinek, D; Serr, A; Geisler, M; Pirzer, T; Slotta, U; Lud, S Q; Garrido, J A; Scheibel, T; Hugel, T; Netz, R R

    2008-02-26

    The hydrophobic effect, i.e., the poor solvation of nonpolar parts of molecules, plays a key role in protein folding and more generally for molecular self-assembly and aggregation in aqueous media. The perturbation of the water structure accounts for many aspects of protein hydrophobicity. However, to what extent the dispersion interaction between molecular entities themselves contributes has remained unclear. This is so because in peptide folding interactions and structural changes occur on all length scales and make disentangling various contributions impossible. We address this issue both experimentally and theoretically by looking at the force necessary to peel a mildly hydrophobic single peptide molecule from a flat hydrophobic diamond surface in the presence of water. This setup avoids problems caused by bubble adsorption, cavitation, and slow equilibration that complicate the much-studied geometry with two macroscopic surfaces. Using atomic-force spectroscopy, we determine the mean desorption force of a single spider-silk peptide chain as F = 58 +/- 8 pN, which corresponds to a desorption free energy of approximately 5 k(B)T per amino acid. Our all-atomistic molecular dynamics simulation including explicit water correspondingly yields the desorption force F = 54 +/- 15 pN. This observation demonstrates that standard nonpolarizable force fields used in classical simulations are capable of resolving the fine details of the hydrophobic attraction of peptides. The analysis of the involved energetics shows that water-structure effects and dispersive interactions give contributions of comparable magnitude that largely cancel out. It follows that the correct modeling of peptide hydrophobicity must take the intimate coupling of solvation and dispersive effects into account. PMID:18287007

  3. Analytical Model of the Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever Tip-Sample Surface Interactions for Various Acoustic-Atomic Force Microscopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H., Jr.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical model of the interaction of the cantilever tip of the atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is developed that accounts for the nonlinearity of the tip-surface interaction force. The interaction is modeled as a nonlinear spring coupled at opposite ends to linear springs representing cantilever and sample surface oscillators. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a standard iteration procedure. Solutions are obtained for the phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) techniques including force modulation microscopy, atomic force acoustic microscopy, ultrasonic force microscopy, heterodyne force microscopy, resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), and the commonly used intermittent contact mode (TappingMode) generally available on AFMs. The solutions are used to obtain a quantitative measure of image contrast resulting from variations in the Young modulus of the sample for the amplitude and phase images generated by the A-AFM techniques. Application of the model to RDF-AFUM and intermittent soft contact phase images of LaRC-cp2 polyimide polymer is discussed. The model predicts variations in the Young modulus of the material of 24 percent from the RDF-AFUM image and 18 percent from the intermittent soft contact image. Both predictions are in good agreement with the literature value of 21 percent obtained from independent, macroscopic measurements of sheet polymer material.

  4. Rabi interferometry and sensitive measurement of the Casimir-Polder force with ultracold gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chwedenczuk, Jan; Piazza, Francesco; Smerzi, Augusto; Pezze, Luca

    2010-09-15

    We show that Rabi oscillations of a degenerate fermionic or bosonic gas trapped in a double-well potential can be exploited for the interferometric measurement of external forces at micrometer length scales. The Rabi interferometer is less sensitive but easier to implement than the Mach-Zehnder, since it does not require dynamical beam-splitting or recombination processes. As an application we propose a measurement of the Casimir-Polder force acting between the atoms and a dielectric surface. We find that even if the interferometer is fed with a coherent state of relatively small number of atoms, and in the presence of realistic experimental noise, the force might be measured with a sensitivity sufficient to discriminate between thermal and zero-temperature regimes of the Casimir-Polder potential. Higher sensitivities can be reached with bosonic spin squeezed states.

  5. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the Casimir-Polder force.

    PubMed

    Obrecht, J M; Wild, R J; Antezza, M; Pitaevskii, L P; Stringari, S; Cornell, E A

    2007-02-01

    We report on the first measurement of a temperature dependence of the Casimir-Polder force. This measurement was obtained by positioning a nearly pure 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate a few microns from a dielectric substrate and exciting its dipole oscillation. Changes in the collective oscillation frequency of the magnetically trapped atoms result from spatial variations in the surface-atom force. In our experiment, the dielectric substrate is heated up to 605 K, while the surrounding environment is kept near room temperature (310 K). The effect of the Casimir-Polder force is measured to be nearly 3 times larger for a 605 K substrate than for a room-temperature substrate, showing a clear temperature dependence in agreement with theory. PMID:17358936

  6. Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Wu, W.; Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.

    2011-07-21

    This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surface-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. The analytical expression is then used to deduce a new approach for inferring cloud albedo from concurrent surface-based measurements of downwelling surface shortwave radiation and cloud fraction. High-resolution decade-long data on cloud albedos are obtained by use of this surface-based approach over the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiaton Measurement (ARM) Program at the Great Southern Plains (SGP) site. The surface-based cloud albedos are further compared against those derived from the coincident GOES satellite measurements. The three long-term (1997-2009) sets of hourly data on shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo collected over the SGP site are analyzed to explore the multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations. The analytical formulation is useful for diagnosing deficiencies of cloud-radiation parameterizations in climate models.

  7. Measuring and Plotting Surface-Contour Deviations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aragon, Lino A.; Shuck, Thomas; Crockett, Leroy K.

    1987-01-01

    Hand-held device measures deviation of contour of surface from desired contour and provides output to x-y plotter. Carriage on device rolled along track representing desired contour, while spring-loaded stylus on device deflects perpendicularly to track to follow surface. Operator moves carriage of contour-measuring device on beamlike track. Stylus on carriage traces contour of surface above it. Carriage of measuring device holds transducer measuring cross-track displacement of surface from desired contour, and multiple-turn potentiometer measuring position along track.

  8. Dynamic Forces in Spur Gears - Measurement, Prediction, and Code Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.; Rebbechi, Brian; Lin, Hsiang Hsi

    1996-01-01

    Measured and computed values for dynamic loads in spur gears were compared to validate a new version of the NASA gear dynamics code DANST-PC. Strain gage data from six gear sets with different tooth profiles were processed to determine the dynamic forces acting between the gear teeth. Results demonstrate that the analysis code successfully simulates the dynamic behavior of the gears. Differences between analysis and experiment were less than 10 percent under most conditions.

  9. Gauge Measures Large Spherical Bearing Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, George L.

    1992-01-01

    Radius of spherical portion of surface computed from reading of depth gauge. Measuring tool calibrated by applying it to reference spherical surface of known radius. Used onsite, so unnecessary to ship bearings to laboratory for examination by computerized test equipment.

  10. Numerical study on the adhesion and reentrainment of nondeformable particles on surfaces: the role of surface roughness and electrostatic forces.

    PubMed

    Henry, Christophe; Minier, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Grégory

    2012-01-10

    In this paper, the reentrainment of nanosized and microsized particles from rough walls under various electrostatic conditions and various hydrodynamic conditions (either in air or aqueous media) is numerically investigated. This issue arises in the general context of particulate fouling in industrial applications, which involves (among other phenomena) particle deposition and particle reentrainment. The deposition phenomenon has been studied previously and, in the present work, we focus our attention on resuspension. Once particles are deposited on a surface, the balance between hydrodynamic forces (which tend to move particles away from the surface) and adhesion forces (which maintain particles on the surface) can lead to particle removal. Adhesion forces are generally described using van der Waals attractive forces, but the limit of these models is that any dependence of adhesion forces on electrostatic forces (due to variations in pH or ionic strength) cannot be reproduced numerically. For this purpose, we develop a model of adhesion forces that is based on the DLVO (Derjaguin and Landau, Verwey and Overbeek) theory and which includes also the effect of surface roughness through the use of hemispherical asperities on the surface. We first highlight the effect of the curvature radius on adhesion forces. Then some numerical predictions of adhesion forces or adhesion energies are compared to experimental data. Finally, the overall effects of surface roughness and electrostatic forces are demonstrated with some applications of the complete reentrainment model in some simple test cases. PMID:22107171

  11. Development of Field Excavator with Embedded Force Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, K.; Creager, C.; Izadnegahdar, A.; Bauman, S.; Gallo, C.; Abel, P.

    2012-01-01

    A semi-intelligent excavation mechanism was developed for use with the NASA-built Centaur 2 rover prototype. The excavator features a continuously rotatable large bucket supported between two parallel arms, both of which share a single pivot axis near the excavator base attached to the rover. The excavator is designed to simulate the collection of regolith, such as on the Moon, and to dump the collected soil into a hopper up to one meter tall for processing to extract oxygen. Because the vehicle can be autonomous and the terrain is generally unknown, there is risk of damaging equipment or using excessive power when attempting to extract soil from dense or rocky terrain. To minimize these risks, it is critical for the rover to sense the digging forces and adjust accordingly. It is also important to understand the digging capabilities and limitations of the excavator. This paper discusses the implementation of multiple strain gages as an embedded force measurement system in the excavator's arms. These strain gages can accurately measure and resolve multi-axial forces on the excavator. In order to validate these sensors and characterize the load capabilities, a series of controlled excavation tests were performed at Glenn Research Center with the excavator at various depths and cut angles while supported by a six axis load cell. The results of these tests are both compared to a force estimation model and used for calibration of the embedded strain gages. In addition, excavation forces generated using two different types of bucket edge (straight vs. with teeth) were compared.

  12. A contactless methodology of picking up micro-particles from rigid surfaces by acoustic radiation force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Kun; Yang, Keji; Fan, Zongwei; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Controlled movement and pick up of small object from a rigid surface is a primary challenge in many applications. In this paper, a contactless methodology of picking up micro-particles within deionized water from rigid surfaces by acoustic radiation force is presented. In order to achieve this, an acoustic radiation force was generated by 1.75 MHz transducers. A custom built setup facilitates the optimization of the sound field by varying the parameters such as sound source size and source position. The three-dimensional pressure distributions are measured and its relative sound field is also characterized accordingly. The standing wave field has been formed and it is mainly composed of two obliquely incident plane waves and their reflectors. We demonstrated the gripping and positioning of silica beads, SiO2, and aluminum micro-particles of 100 μm to 500 μm in size with this method using acoustic radiation force. The acoustic radiation force generated is well controlled, contactless, and in the tens of nano-Newton range which allowed us to manipulate relative big micro objects such as MEMS components as well as moving objects such as living cells. The proposed method provided an alternative form of contactless operating environment with scalable dimensions suitable for the manipulating of small objects. This permits high-throughput processing and reduction in time required for MEMS assembling, cell biomechanics, and biotechnology applications.

  13. A scanning force microscope for simultaneous force and patch-clamp measurements on living cell tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, M. G.; Öffner, W.; Wittmann, H.; Flösser, H.; Schaar, H.; Häberle, W.; Pralle, A.; Ruppersberg, J. P.; Hörber, J. K. H.

    1997-06-01

    For the investigation of mechanosensitive ion channels of living cells it is of great interest to apply very local forces in the piconewton range and to measure, simultaneously, ion currents down to 1 pA. Scanning force microscopy (SFM) is a suitable technique, that allows the application of such small forces with a lateral resolution in the range of 10 nm. We developed a novel type of experimental setup, because no existing SFM, home built or commercial, allows a simultaneous investigation of ion currents and mechanical properties of living cells. The construction consists of a SFM that is combined with an upright infrared differential interference contrast (DIC) video microscope and a conventional patch-clamp setup. Instead of the object, the force sensor is scanned to prevent relative movements between the patch pipette and the patched cell. The deflection of the SFM cantilever is detected with the so-called optical deflection method through the objective of the optical microscope. In opposite to common optical setups the laser beam was not focused on the force sensor. The presented optic creates a parallel laser beam between the objective and the SFM cantilever, which allows a vertical displacement of the sensor without any changes of the detector signal. For the three-dimensional positioning of the specimen chamber a two-axis translation stage including a vertical piezoelectric translation device was developed. The SFM tip is fixed on a combined lateral and vertical translation stage including a piezoelectric tube scanner for three-dimensional fine positioning. Thus the instrument enables an easy approach of the SFM tip to any optically identified cell structure. The head stage of the patch-clamp electronics and the patch pipette are directly fixed on the specimen stage. This prevents relative movements between patched cells and patch pipette during the approach to the SFM tip. The three-axis positioning of the patch pipette is done by a compact hydraulic

  14. Interactions of hyaluronan grafted on protein surfaces studied using a quartz crystal microbalance and a surface force balance.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Han, Juan; Yang, Limin; Ma, Hongchao; Huang, Bo

    2015-10-01

    Vocal folds are complex and multilayer-structured where the main layer is widely composed of hyaluronan (HA). The viscoelasticity of HA is key to voice production in the vocal fold as it affects the initiation and maintenance of phonation. In this study a simple layer-structured surface model was set up to mimic the structure of the vocal folds. The interactions between two opposing surfaces bearing HA were measured and characterised to analyse HA's response to the normal and shear compression at a stress level similar to that in the vocal fold. From the measurements of the quartz crystal microbalance, atomic force microscopy and the surface force balance, the osmotic pressure, normal interactions, elasticity change, volume fraction, refractive index and friction of both HA and the supporting protein layer were obtained. These findings may shed light on the physical mechanism of HA function in the vocal fold and the specific role of HA as an important component in the effective treatment of the vocal fold disease. PMID:26274046

  15. Material transport in a convective surface mixed layer under weak wind forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensa, Jean A.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Poje, Andrew C.; Imberger, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Flows in the upper ocean mixed layer are responsible for the transport and dispersion of biogeochemical tracers, phytoplankton and buoyant pollutants, such as hydrocarbons from an oil spill. Material dispersion in mixed layer flows subject to diurnal buoyancy forcing and weak winds (| u10 | = 5m s-1) are investigated using a non-hydrostatic model. Both purely buoyancy-forced and combined wind- and buoyancy-forced flows are sampled using passive tracers, as well as 2D and 3D particles to explore characteristics of horizontal and vertical dispersion. It is found that the surface tracer patterns are determined by the convergence zones created by convection cells within a time scale of just a few hours. For pure convection, the results displayed the classic signature of Rayleigh-Benard cells. When combined with a wind stress, the convective cells become anisotropic in that the along-wind length scale gets much larger than the cross-wind scale. Horizontal relative dispersion computed by sampling the flow fields using both 2D and 3D passive particles is found to be consistent with the Richardson regime. Relative dispersion is an order of magnitude higher and 2D surface releases transition to Richardson regime faster in the wind-forced case. We also show that the buoyancy-forced case results in significantly lower amplitudes of scale-dependent horizontal relative diffusivity, kD(ℓ), than those reported by Okubo (1970), while the wind- and buoyancy-forced case shows a good agreement with Okubo's diffusivity amplitude, and the scaling is consistent with Richardson's 4/3rd law, kD ∼ ℓ4/3. These modeling results provide a framework for measuring material dispersion by mixed layer flows in future observational programs.

  16. Radial force development during root growth measured by photoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Evelyne; Hartmann, Christian; Genet, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    The mechanical and topological properties of a soil like the global porosity and the distribution of void sizes greatly affect the development of a plant root, which in turn affects the shoot development. In particular, plant roots growing in heterogeneous medium like sandy soils or cracked substrates have to adapt their morphology and exert radial forces depending on the pore size in which they penetrate. We propose a model experiment in which a pivot root (chick-pea seeds) of millimetric diameter has to grow in a size-controlled gap δ (δ ranging 0.5-2.3 mm) between two photoelastic grains. By time-lapse imaging, we continuously monitored the root growth and the development of optical fringes in the photoelastic neighbouring grains when the root enters the gap. Thus we measured simultaneously and in situ the root morphological changes (length and diameter growth rates, circumnutation) as well as the radial forces the root exerts. Radial forces were increasing in relation with gap constriction and experiment duration but a levelling of the force was not observed, even after 5 days and for narrow gaps. The inferred mechanical stress was consistent with the turgor pressure of compressed cells. Therefore our set-up could be a basis for testing mechanical models of cellular growth.

  17. Measurements of planing forces and cavity shapes on cylindrical afterbodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellum, Aren; Belden, Jesse; Beal, David; Huyer, Stephen; Henoch, Charles; Hrubes, Dana

    2015-11-01

    Supercavitation is a drag reduction technique by which an underwater body is enclosed over a significant portion of its length in a bubble of gas. Hydrodynamic forces act on the body only through contact with the nose and a planing section at the rear. Models of the planing forces typically assume that the body is placed into a cavity which is unchanged by the presence of the body, and the present study was designed to test the validity of this assumption. Measurements were taken of the planing forces for five afterbody lengths over a range of angles concurrently with photographs showing the size and shape of the cavity produced. These observations reveal that the cavity form and growth rate are significantly affected by both the length and angle of attack of the body; the length of the cavity shrinks at the same angle of attack as the body length is reduced past a critical threshold, suggesting a hydrodynamic interaction between the afterbody trailing edge and the cavity. Additionally, the planing forces demonstrate a non-monotonic dependence on attack angle that is not readily explained by existing models, specifically a ``lift crisis'' for short bodies in which the planing lift goes to zero over a range from -1 to -3 degrees.

  18. Electrostatic force microscopy studies of surface defects on GaAs/Ge films

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Q.; Hsu, J.W.

    1999-03-01

    We apply electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) to study defects in GaAs films grown on Ge. On a GaAs film with surface antiphase boundaries (APBs), we reproducibly measure the surface contact potential (SCP) at the APBs to be (30{plus_minus}5) mV higher than that of the domains, due to the surface Fermi level at APBs being pinned closer to the valence band maximum. On a thick film which contains buried APBs and wedge-shaped depressions on the surface, we find that the SCP of the wedge-shaped depressions is (25{plus_minus}5) mV lower than that of the GaAs surface. Hence, these wedge-shaped depressions have defect electronic states different from those of APBs. The capacitance gradient ({partial_derivative}C/{partial_derivative}z) contrasts on the two samples are also shown to arise from different origins. Factors that can affect the measured SCP and {partial_derivative}C/{partial_derivative}z values are discussed. We demonstrate a new application of EFM to distinguish different types of defects by measuring variations in relative SCP (thus the work function or position of Fermi level) and/or {partial_derivative}C/{partial_derivative}z on sample surfaces. The spatial resolutions of SCP and {partial_derivative}C/{partial_derivative}z are 30 nm, limited by the tip size. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Use of piezoelectric multicomponent force measuring devices in fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richter, A.; Stefan, K.

    1979-01-01

    The characterisitics of piezoelectric multicomponent transducers are discussed, giving attention to the advantages of quartz over other materials. The main advantage of piezoelectric devices in aerodynamic studies is their ability to indicate rapid changes in the values of physical parameters. Problems in the accuracy of measurments by piezoelectric devices can be overcome by suitable design approaches. A practical example is given of how such can be utilized to measure rapid fluctuations of fluid forces exerted on a circular cylinder mounted in a water channel.

  20. The Effects of Noncellulosic Compounds on the Nanoscale Interaction Forces Measured between Carbohydrate-Binding Module and Lignocellulosic Biomass.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Baran; Colpan, Mert; Ju, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiao; Kostyukova, Alla; Abu-Lail, Nehal I

    2016-05-01

    The lack of fundamental understanding of the types of forces that govern how cellulose-degrading enzymes interact with cellulosic and noncellulosic components of lignocellulosic surfaces limits the design of new strategies for efficient conversion of biomass to bioethanol. In a step to improve our fundamental understanding of such interactions, nanoscale forces acting between a model cellulase-a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) of cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I)-and a set of lignocellulosic substrates with controlled composition were measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The three model substrates investigated were kraft (KP), sulfite (SP), and organosolv (OPP) pulped substrates. These substrates varied in their surface lignin coverage, lignin type, and xylan and acetone extractives' content. Our results indicated that the overall adhesion forces of biomass to CBM increased linearly with surface lignin coverage with kraft lignin showing the highest forces among lignin types investigated. When the overall adhesion forces were decoupled into specific and nonspecific component forces via the Poisson statistical model, hydrophobic and Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) forces dominated the binding forces of CBM to kraft lignin, whereas permanent dipole-dipole interactions and electrostatic forces facilitated the interactions of lignosulfonates to CBM. Xylan and acetone extractives' content increased the attractive forces between CBM and lignin-free substrates, most likely through hydrogen bonding forces. When the substrates treated differently were compared, it was found that both the differences in specific and nonspecific forces between lignin-containing and lignin-free substrates were the least for OPP. Therefore, cellulase enzymes represented by CBM would weakly bind to organosolv lignin. This will facilitate an easy enzyme recovery compared to other substrates treated with kraft or sulfite pulping. Our results also suggest that altering the surface hydrophobicity

  1. Thermophoretic force measurements of spherical and non-spherical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Feng

    An electrodynamic balance (EDB) with three-dimensional force compensation and measurement ability was developed for single particle thermophoretic force measurements. The new EDB had an octopole double-ring electrode. Each electrode ring was split into four equal segments. Different voltages were applied to each segment so that three independent and orthogonal dc fields were superimposed on another ac electric field. The balance constants of the new EDB were determined by both numerical calculations and measurements. Among the various particle size measurement techniques, the oscillation offset method was found to be an accurate and universal method for particle size determination with an EDB. The technique involved partially balancing the gravitational force on a particle to let it oscillate stably in the ac electric field. The oscillation trajectory was recorded using a linescan camera, and the data were fitted to the solution for the particle equation of motion to obtain its size. For aggregate particles of single, two and three polystyrene latex (PSL) spheres (nominal diameter 19.7 mum), the equivalent volume diameters were determined by the oscillation offset method within 3%. The thermophoretic force on these PSL sphere aggregates, with their plane of centers parallel to the temperature gradient, was measured using the octopole double-ring EDB. Thermophoretic force (TF) shape factor kT was defined as the ratio of the TF on a particle of interest to that on a sphere of equal volume. For PSL doublets kT is 1.13 +/- 0.08 at Kn = 0.98 in nitrogen and 1.04 +/- 0.03 at Kn = 0.65 in helium. For PSL triangular triplets kT is 1.20 +/- 0.12 at Kn = 0.98 in nitrogen, and 1.06 +/- 0.06 at Kn = 0.65 in helium. The TF shape factors compare fairly well with the continuum limits predicted by the existing theories. It was found that the TF shape factor only depends on the Knudsen number weakly in the transition regime. The TF shape factor was found to increase with the number

  2. Displacement sensor with controlled measuring force and its error analysis and precision verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liangen; Wang, Xuanze; Lv, Wei

    2011-05-01

    A displacement sensor with controlled measuring force and its error analysis and precision verification are discussed in this paper. The displacement sensor consists of an electric induction transducer with high resolution and a voice coil motor (VCM). The measuring principles, structure, method enlarging measuring range, signal process of the sensor are discussed. The main error sources such as parallelism error and incline of framework by unequal length of leaf springs, rigidity of measuring rods, shape error of stylus, friction between iron core and other parts, damping of leaf springs, variation of voltage, linearity of induction transducer, resolution and stability are analyzed. A measuring system for surface topography with large measuring range is constructed based on the displacement sensor and 2D moving platform. Measuring precision and stability of the measuring system is verified. Measuring force of the sensor in measurement process of surface topography can be controlled at μN level and hardly changes. It has been used in measurement of bearing ball, bullet mark, etc. It has measuring range up to 2mm and precision of nm level.

  3. Displacement sensor with controlled measuring force and its error analysis and precision verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liangen; Wang, Xuanze; Lv, Wei

    2010-12-01

    A displacement sensor with controlled measuring force and its error analysis and precision verification are discussed in this paper. The displacement sensor consists of an electric induction transducer with high resolution and a voice coil motor (VCM). The measuring principles, structure, method enlarging measuring range, signal process of the sensor are discussed. The main error sources such as parallelism error and incline of framework by unequal length of leaf springs, rigidity of measuring rods, shape error of stylus, friction between iron core and other parts, damping of leaf springs, variation of voltage, linearity of induction transducer, resolution and stability are analyzed. A measuring system for surface topography with large measuring range is constructed based on the displacement sensor and 2D moving platform. Measuring precision and stability of the measuring system is verified. Measuring force of the sensor in measurement process of surface topography can be controlled at μN level and hardly changes. It has been used in measurement of bearing ball, bullet mark, etc. It has measuring range up to 2mm and precision of nm level.

  4. Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Reed

    1989-01-01

    Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)

  5. Measurement-based modeling of contact forces and textures for haptic rendering.

    PubMed

    Lang, Jochen; Andrews, Sheldon

    2011-03-01

    Haptic texture represents the fine-grained attributes of an object's surface and is related to physical characteristics such as roughness and stiffness. We introduce an interactive and mobile scanning system for the acquisition and synthesis of haptic textures that consists of a visually tracked handheld touch probe. The most novel aspect of our work is an estimation method for the contact stiffness of an object based solely on the acceleration and forces measured during stroking of its surface with the handheld probe. We establish an experimental relationship between the estimated stiffness and the contact stiffness observed during compression. We also measure the height-displacement profile of an object's surface enabling us to generate haptic textures. We show an example of mapping the textures on to a coarse surface mesh obtained with an image-based technique, but the textures may also be combined with coarse surface meshes obtained by manual modeling. PMID:21233518

  6. A Novel Method for Localizing Reporter Fluorescent Beads Near the Cell Culture Surface for Traction Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Samantha G.; Ali, M. Yakut; Saif, M. Taher A.

    2014-01-01

    PA gels have long been used as a platform to study cell traction forces due to ease of fabrication and the ability to tune their elastic properties. When the substrate is coated with an extracellular matrix protein, cells adhere to the gel and apply forces, causing the gel to deform. The deformation depends on the cell traction and the elastic properties of the gel. If the deformation field of the surface is known, surface traction can be calculated using elasticity theory. Gel deformation is commonly measured by embedding fluorescent marker beads uniformly into the gel. The probes displace as the gel deforms. The probes near the surface of the gel are tracked. The displacements reported by these probes are considered as surface displacements. Their depths from the surface are ignored. This assumption introduces error in traction force evaluations. For precise measurement of cell forces, it is critical for the location of the beads to be known. We have developed a technique that utilizes simple chemistry to confine fluorescent marker beads, 0.1 and 1 µm in diameter, in PA gels, within 1.6 μm of the surface. We coat a coverslip with poly-D-lysine (PDL) and fluorescent beads. PA gel solution is then sandwiched between the coverslip and an adherent surface. The fluorescent beads transfer to the gel solution during curing. After polymerization, the PA gel contains fluorescent beads on a plane close to the gel surface. PMID:25286326

  7. Interfacial water dielectric-permittivity-profile measurements using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Teschke, O; Ceotto, G; de Souza, E F

    2001-07-01

    The arrangement of water molecules at charged aqueous interfaces is an important question in biology, electrochemistry, and geochemistry. Theoretical studies suggest that the molecules become arranged in several layers adjacent to a solid interface. Using atomic force microscopy we have measured the water dielectric-permittivity profile perpendicular to mica surfaces. The measured variable permittivity profile starting at epsilon approximately 4 at the interface and increasing to epsilon=80 about 10 nm from the surface suggests a reorientation of water molecule dipoles in the presence of the mica interfacial charge. PMID:11461268

  8. Interaction forces between red cells agglutinated by antibody. II. Measurement of hydrodynamic force of breakup.

    PubMed Central

    Tha, S P; Shuster, J; Goldsmith, H L

    1986-01-01

    The expressions derived in the previous paper for the respective normal, F3, and shear forces, Fshear, acting along and perpendicular to the axis of a doublet of rigid spheres, were used to determine the hydrodynamic forces required to separate two red cell spheres of antigenic type B crosslinked by the corresponding antibody. Cells were sphered and swollen in isotonic buffered glycerol containing 8 X 10(-5) M sodium dodecyl sulfate, fixed in 0.085% glutaraldehyde, and suspended in aqueous glycerol (viscosity: 15-34 mPa s), containing 0.15 M NaCl and anti-B antibody from human hyperimmune antiserum at concentrations from 0.73 to 3.56 vol%. After incubating and mixing for 12 h, doublets were observed through a microscope flowing in a 178-micron tube by gravity feed between two reservoirs. Using a traveling microtube apparatus, the doublets were tracked in a constantly accelerating flow and the translational and rotational motions were recorded on videotape until breakup occurred. From a frame by frame replay of the tape, the radial position, velocity and orientation of the doublet were obtained and the normal and shear forces of separation at breakup computed. Both forces increased significantly with increasing antiserum concentration, the mean values of F3 increasing from 0.060 to 0.197 nN, and Fshear from 0.023 to 0.072 nN. There was no significant effect of glycerol viscosity on the forces of separation. It was not possible to determine whether the shear or normal force was responsible for doublet separation. Measurements of the mean dimensionless period of rotation, TG, of doublets in suspensions containing 0.73 and 2.40% antiserum undergoing steady flow were also made to test whether the spheres were rigidly linked or capable of some independent rotation. A fairly narrow distribution in TG about the value 15.64, predicted for rigidly-linked doublets, was obtained at both antiserum concentrations. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3801572

  9. An Electromotive Force Measurement System for Alloy Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Changhu Xing; Colby Jensen; Heng Ban; Robert Mariani; J. Rory Kennedy

    2010-11-01

    The development of advanced nuclear fuels requires a better understanding of the transmutation and micro-structural evolution of the materials. Alloy fuels have the advantage of high thermal conductivity and improved characteristics in fuel-cladding chemical reaction. However, information on thermodynamic and thermophysical properties is limited. The objective of this project is to design and build an experimental system to measure the thermodynamic properties of solid materials from which the understanding of their phase change can be determined. The apparatus was used to measure the electromotive force (EMF) of several materials in order to calibrate and test the system. The EMF of chromel was measured from 100°C to 800°C and compared with theoretical values. Additionally, the EMF measurement of Ni-Fe alloy was performed and compared with the Ni-Fe phase diagram. The prototype system is to be modified eventually and used in a radioactive hot-cell in the future.

  10. Analyzing excitation forces acting on a plate based on measured acoustic pressure.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sean F; Zhou, Pan

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study on "seeing" through an elastic structure to uncover the root cause of sound and vibration by using nearfield acoustical holography (NAH) and normal modes expansion. This approach is of generality because vibro-acoustic responses on the surface of a vibrating structure can always be reconstructed, exactly or approximately. With these vibro-acoustic responses, excitation forces acting on the structure can always be determined, analytically or numerically, given any set of boundary conditions. As an example, the explicit formulations for reconstructing time-harmonic excitation forces, including point, line and surface forces, and their arbitrary combinations acting on a rectangular thin plate in vacuum mounted on an infinite baffle are presented. The reason for choosing this example is that the analytic solutions to vibro-acoustic responses are available, and in-depth analyses of results are possible. Results demonstrate that this approach allows one to identify excitation forces based on measured acoustic pressures and reveal their characteristics such as locations, types and amplitudes, as if one could "see" excitation forces acting behind the plate based on acoustic pressure measured on the opposite side. This approach is extendable to general elastic structures, except that in such circumstance numerical results must be sought. PMID:27475174

  11. Forces of Interaction between Surfaces Bearing Looped Polymer Brushes in Good Solvent.

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzo, Jose; Mays, Jimmy; Kilbey, II, S Michael

    2009-01-01

    In a previous publication we suggested [Huang et al., Macromolecules, 2008, 41, 1745-1752] that looped polymer brushes formed by tethering chains by both ends to a surface may exhibit a polydispersity-like effect due to a distribution of distances between tethering points, leading to segment density profiles dominated by a long and diffuse exponentially-decaying tail. To study this issue in more detail, the force profiles (forces of interaction as a function of separation distance) of a series of looped polymer brushes made by preferential adsorption of poly(2-vinylpyridine)-polystyrene-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PVP-b-PS-b-PVP) triblock copolymers of varying molecular weight and asymmetry ratio are measured using the surface forces apparatus. The force profiles are analyzed using an equivalent diblock model, which considers the triblock copolymer brushes as being comprised of two diblock copolymers of half the PS molecular weight. While scaling the dependencies of the interaction energy and distance on molecular weight, the tethering density and segment size coalesce the measured force profiles to the universal profile, it is necessary to include polydispersity in the description of the equilibrium structure. This is done using the self-consistent field model of Milner et al. [Macromolecules, 1988, 21, 2610-2619]. For looped brushes formed from the symmetric and moderately symmetric triblock copolymers we find that the polydispersity due to molecular weight distribution effectively accounts for the observed force profiles. On the other hand, agreement between the measured and predicted force profiles of looped brushes formed from highly asymmetric copolymers at low degrees-of-compression is achieved only if a much smaller value of the polydispersity index is used in the fitting. The implication of these results is that the shape of the segment density profiles is not due to the previously proposed anchor-induced polydispersity arising due to loop formation; however in

  12. Granular Mechanics of Debris-Flow Incision: Measuring and Modeling Grain-Scale Impact Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, S. W.; Tucker, G. E.; Kean, J. W.; Coe, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Although steep valleys are ubiquitous in mountainous terrain and there is evidence that episodic scour by debris flows is an important erosional process in these valleys, there is no agreed upon mechanical framework to describe debris flow incision into bedrock. In this work, we take steps towards a defensible stochastic debris flow incision rule. We first characterize frequency-magnitude distributions of basal force using measurements made with a force plate that was overridden during natural debris-flow events that incised bedrock. With these measurements in mind, we use grain-scale numerical experiments (discrete element method simulations) of free-surface, gravity-driven granular flows to quantify how changes in field measureable channel and flow properties (channel slope, flow depth, and grain size) influence the erosive potential of a flow. The basal force during five monitored natural debris-flow events had a large-magnitude, high-frequency fluctuating component. Variability in force magnitude that resulted from the fluctuating component increased linearly with the time-averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces greater than the mean force were best fit by generalized Pareto distributions with well-defined means and variances. In contrast, probability density of basal normal force from simulated monodispersed flows decayed much more rapidly and in an exponential manner with increasing force magnitude. Only when monodispersed flows were replaced by broad grain size distributions, characteristic of natural debris flows, did the distributions of simulated impact forces have a similar form to those measured beneath the natural flows. These results highlight the important role flow grain size can have on basal impact force. As either bed inclination or flow depth was increased in the simulated flows, the mean and the spread of the impact force and impact energy distribution increased as well and in a nonlinear fashion. Bed

  13. A noncontact force sensor based on a fiber Bragg grating and its application for corrosion measurement.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Clara J; Bruno, Antonio C

    2013-01-01

    A simple noncontact force sensor based on an optical fiber Bragg grating attached to a small magnet has been proposed and built. The sensor measures the force between the magnet and any ferromagnetic material placed within a few millimeters of the sensor. Maintaining the sensor at a constant standoff distance, material loss due to corrosion increases the distance between the magnet and the corroded surface, which decreases the magnetic force. This will decrease the strain in the optical fiber shifting the reflected Bragg wavelength. The measured shift for the optical fiber used was 1.36 nm per Newton. Models were developed to optimize the magnet geometry for a specific sensor standoff distance and for particular corrosion pit depths. The sensor was able to detect corrosion pits on a fuel storage tank bottom with depths in the sub-millimeter range. PMID:23995095

  14. Lateral Casimir force between self-affine rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajik, Fatemeh; Masoudi, Amir Ali; Khorrami, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    The effect of self-affine roughness on the lateral Casimir force between two plates is studied using a perturbative expansion method. The PWS (pairwise summation) method is applicable only at lateral correlation lengths much larger than the separation between two plates. The effect of the roughness parameters on the lateral Casimir force is investigated, and it is seen that this effect is significant, enabling one to tailor roughness parameters so that to obtain the desirable Casimir force and increase the yield of micro- or nano-electromechanical devices based on the vacuum fluctuations.

  15. Direct force measurement of the stability of poly(ethylene glycol)-polyethylenimine graft films.

    PubMed

    Nnebe, Ijeoma M; Tilton, Robert D; Schneider, James W

    2004-08-15

    The stability and passivity of poly(ethylene glycol)-polyethylenimine (PEG-PEI) graft films are important for their use as antifouling coatings in a variety of biotechnology applications. We have used AFM colloidal-probe force measurements combined with optical reflectometry to characterize the surface properties and stability of PEI and dense PEG-PEI graft films on silica. Initial contact between bare silica probes and PEI-modified surfaces yields force curves that exhibit a long-range electrostatic repulsion and short-range attraction between the surfaces, indicating spontaneous desorption of PEI in the aqueous medium. Further transfer of PEI molecules to the probe occurs with subsequent application of forces between FR = 300 and 500 microN/m. The presence of PEG reduces the adhesive properties of the PEI surface and prevents transfer of PEI molecules to the probe with continuous contact, though an initial desorption of PEI still occurs. Glutaraldehyde crosslinking of the graft films prevents both the initial desorption and subsequent transfer of the PEI, resulting in sustained attractive interaction forces of electrostatic origin between the negatively charged probe and the positively charged copolymer graft films. PMID:15271557

  16. Real time drift measurement for colloidal probe atomic force microscope: a visual sensing approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuliang Bi, Shusheng; Wang, Huimin

    2014-05-15

    Drift has long been an issue in atomic force microscope (AFM) systems and limits their ability to make long time period measurements. In this study, a new method is proposed to directly measure and compensate for the drift between AFM cantilevers and sample surfaces in AFM systems. This was achieved by simultaneously measuring z positions for beads at the end of an AFM colloidal probe and on sample surface through an off-focus image processing based visual sensing method. The working principle and system configuration are presented. Experiments were conducted to validate the real time drift measurement and compensation. The implication of the proposed method for regular AFM measurements is discussed. We believe that this technique provides a practical and efficient approach for AFM experiments requiring long time period measurement.

  17. How polyelectrolyte adsorption depends on history: A combined Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection and surface forces study

    SciTech Connect

    Sukhishvili, S.A.; Dhinojwala, A.; Granick, S.

    1999-11-23

    The authors present a systematic study of how adsorption history affects the thickness, surface forces, and interfacial rheology of a model cationic polymer. The polymer was quaternized poly-4-vinylpyridine, QPVP (weight average degree of polymerization n{sub w} = 325 and 98% quaternized with ethyl bromide). The main comparisons concerned one-step adsorption from solution at a variable salt concentration up to 0.5 NaCl, versus two-step adsorption (initial adsorption from buffer solution without added salt, then NaCl added later). The aqueous solutions were buffered at pH = 9.2 such that the surfaces (mica in the case of surfaces forces (SFA) experiments, oxidized silicon in the case of in situ infrared (FTIR-ATR) experiments) in each case carried a large negative charge. The SFA and FTIR-ATR experiments gave consistent estimates of the amount of polymer adsorbed, confirming the expectation that adsorption should be driven by electrostatic attraction to the surface of large opposite charge. The adsorbed amount showed little dependence on path, validating the common assumption of equilibration in this respect. However the layer thickness measured by surface forces, the shear nanorheology response at a given surface force, and the dichroism of pendant side groups of the polymer all showed a pronounced dependence on the path to reach the adsorbed state. The authors interpret the measurements to suggest that two-step adsorption produces an inhomogeneous layer comprised of a dense layer of segments closest to the solid surface and a sparse outer layer. In particular, two-step adsorption produced thicker layers and a greater tendency to decouple shear forces from those that resist compression in the normal direction, thereby lessening the shear forces at a given level of normal force.

  18. Surface phonon-polariton enhanced optical forces in silicon carbide nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongfang; Lawandy, Nabil M; Zia, Rashid

    2013-09-01

    The enhanced optical forces induced by surface phonon-polariton (SPhP) modes are investigated in different silicon carbide (SiC) nanostructures. Specifically, we calculate optical forces using the Maxwell stress tensor for three different geometries: spherical particles, slab waveguides, and rectangular waveguides. We show that SPhP modes in SiC can produce very large forces, more than one order of magnitude larger than the surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) forces in analogous metal nanostructures. The material and geometric basis for these large optical forces are examined in terms of dispersive permittivity, separation distance, and operating wavelength. PMID:24103963

  19. Complex Squeezing and Force Measurement Beyond the Standard Quantum Limit.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, L F; Schreppler, S; Kohler, J; Spethmann, N; Stamper-Kurn, D M

    2016-07-15

    A continuous quantum field, such as a propagating beam of light, may be characterized by a squeezing spectrum that is inhomogeneous in frequency. We point out that homodyne detectors, which are commonly employed to detect quantum squeezing, are blind to squeezing spectra in which the correlation between amplitude and phase fluctuations is complex. We find theoretically that such complex squeezing is a component of ponderomotive squeezing of light through cavity optomechanics. We propose a detection scheme called synodyne detection, which reveals complex squeezing and allows the accounting of measurement backaction. Even with the optomechanical system subject to continuous measurement, such detection allows the measurement of one component of an external force with sensitivity only limited by the mechanical oscillator's thermal occupation. PMID:27472106

  20. Rheology of fluids measured by correlation force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radiom, Milad; Robbins, Brian; Honig, Christopher D. F.; Walz, John Y.; Paul, Mark R.; Ducker, William A.

    2012-04-01

    We describe a method, correlation force spectrometry (CFS), which characterizes fluids through measurement of the correlations between the thermally stimulated vibrations of two closely spaced micrometer-scale cantilevers in fluid. We discuss a major application: measurement of the rheological properties of fluids at high frequency and high spatial resolution. Use of CFS as a rheometer is validated by comparison between experimental data and finite element modeling of the deterministic ring-down of cantilevers using the known viscosity of fluids. The data can also be accurately fitted using a harmonic oscillator model, which can be used for rapid rheometric measurements after calibration. The method is non-invasive, uses a very small amount of fluid, and has no actively moving parts. It can also be used to analyze the rheology of complex fluids. We use CFS to show that (non-Newtonian) aqueous polyethylene oxide solution can be modeled approximately by incorporating an elastic spring between the cantilevers.

  1. Complex Squeezing and Force Measurement Beyond the Standard Quantum Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmann, L. F.; Schreppler, S.; Kohler, J.; Spethmann, N.; Stamper-Kurn, D. M.

    2016-07-01

    A continuous quantum field, such as a propagating beam of light, may be characterized by a squeezing spectrum that is inhomogeneous in frequency. We point out that homodyne detectors, which are commonly employed to detect quantum squeezing, are blind to squeezing spectra in which the correlation between amplitude and phase fluctuations is complex. We find theoretically that such complex squeezing is a component of ponderomotive squeezing of light through cavity optomechanics. We propose a detection scheme called synodyne detection, which reveals complex squeezing and allows the accounting of measurement backaction. Even with the optomechanical system subject to continuous measurement, such detection allows the measurement of one component of an external force with sensitivity only limited by the mechanical oscillator's thermal occupation.

  2. Spring constants and adhesive properties of native bacterial biofilm cells measured by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Volle, C B; Ferguson, M A; Aidala, K E; Spain, E M; Núñez, M E

    2008-11-15

    Bacterial biofilms were imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and their elasticity and adhesion to the AFM tip were determined from a series of tip extension and retraction cycles. Though the five bacterial strains studied included both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria and both environmental and laboratory strains, all formed simple biofilms on glass surfaces. Cellular spring constants, determined from the extension portion of the force cycle, varied between 0.16+/-0.01 and 0.41+/-0.01 N/m, where larger spring constants were measured for Gram-positive cells than for Gram-negative cells. The nonlinear regime in the extension curve depended upon the biomolecules on the cell surface: the extension curves for the smooth Gram-negative bacterial strains with the longest lipopolysaccharides on their surface had a larger nonlinear region than the rough bacterial strain with shorter lipopolysaccharides on the surface. Adhesive forces between the retracting silicon nitride tip and the cells varied between cell types in terms of the force components, the distance components, and the number of adhesion events. The Gram-negative cells' adhesion to the tip showed the longest distance components, sometimes more than 1 microm, whereas the shortest distance adhesion events were measured between the two Gram-positive cell types and the tip. Fixation of free-swimming planktonic cells by NHS and EDC perturbed both the elasticity and the adhesive properties of the cells. Here we consider the biochemical meaning of the measured physical properties of simple biofilms and implications to the colonization of surfaces in the first stages of biofilm formation. PMID:18815013

  3. Roll Damping Derivatives from Generalized Lifting-Surface Theory and Wind Tunnel Forced-Oscillation Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pototzky, Anthony S; Murphy, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Improving aerodynamic models for adverse loss-of-control conditions in flight is an area being researched under the NASA Aviation Safety Program. Aerodynamic models appropriate for loss of control conditions require a more general mathematical representation to predict nonlinear unsteady behaviors. As more general aerodynamic models are studied that include nonlinear higher order effects, the possibility of measurements that confound aerodynamic and structural responses are probable. In this study an initial step is taken to look at including structural flexibility in analysis of rigid-body forced-oscillation testing that accounts for dynamic rig, sting and balance flexibility. Because of the significant testing required and associated costs in a general study, it makes sense to capitalize on low cost analytical methods where possible, especially where structural flexibility can be accounted for by a low cost method. This paper provides an initial look at using linear lifting surface theory applied to rigid-body aircraft roll forced-oscillation tests.

  4. Scanning-force techniques to monitor time-dependent changes in topography and adhesion force of proteins on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mondon, M; Berger, S; Ziegler, C

    2003-04-01

    Scanning-force microscopy (SFM) investigations were conducted to probe the influences of the interactions of proteins with surfaces relevant in medicine. These interactions are an important feature in the area of biofilm formation. The adsorption of proteins leads to changes in topography, which was monitored for the build up of protein layers of hen egg-white lysozyme and bovine serum albumin (BSA) on mica in real time in phosphate-buffered aqueous solution over a time period of 10 min. Phase imaging was additionally applied to compare material contrasts and to evaluate this method for further application in this field. The adhesion forces that develop on a time scale below 20 s between a protein-modified SFM tip and titanium surfaces (TiO(2), TiAl6V4 and TiAl6Nb7) were investigated. The influences of the parameters loading force and interaction time between the protein and the surface were monitored as well as the influence of protein structure. The interaction time dependency of the adhesion force could be described with a kinetic model of two consecutive first-order reactions. For the maximal adhesion force a correlation to the ratio of the amino acids cysteine, proline and glycine has been proposed. PMID:12707750

  5. Quantitative measurement of sliding friction dynamics at mesoscopic scales: The lateral force apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, C. P.; Vellinga, W. P.

    2000-06-01

    We describe an apparatus designed to quantitatively measure friction dynamics at the mesoscopic scale. This lateral force apparatus, LFA, uses double parallel leaf springs in leaf-spring units as force transducers and two focus error detection optical heads, optical heads, to measure deflections. The design of the leaf-spring units is new. Normal spring constants are in the range of 20-4000 N/m, and lateral spring constants are 7-1000 N/m. The optical heads combine a 10 nm sensitivity with a useful range of about 100 μm. The proven range of normal forces is 400 nN-150 mN. The leaf-spring units transduce friction and normal forces independently. Absolute values of normal and friction forces are calibrated. Typical errors are less than 10%. The calibration is partly in situ, for the sensitivity of the optical heads, and partly ex situ for the normal and lateral spring constants of the leaf-spring units. There is minimal coupling between the deflection measurements in the lateral and normal directions. This coupling is also calibrated in situ. It is typically 1% and can be as low as 0.25%. This means that the displacements of the tip can be measured accurately in the sliding direction and normal to the surface. Together, these characteristics make the LFA, well suited for quantitative study of friction dynamics at mesoscopic scales. Furthermore the design of the leaf-spring unit allows exchange of tips which may be fabricated (e.g., etched) from wire material (d≈0.4 mm) and can have customized shapes, e.g., polished flat squares. The ability of the LFA to study friction dynamics is briefly illustrated by results of stick-slip measurements on soft polymer surfaces.

  6. Sticking like sticky tape: tree frogs use friction forces to enhance attachment on overhanging surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Endlein, Thomas; Ji, Aihong; Samuel, Diana; Yao, Ning; Wang, Zhongyuan; Barnes, W. Jon P.; Federle, Walter; Kappl, Michael; Dai, Zhendong

    2013-01-01

    To live and clamber about in an arboreal habitat, tree frogs have evolved adhesive pads on their toes. In addition, they often have long and slender legs to facilitate not only long jumps, but also to bridge gaps between leaves when climbing. Both adhesive pads and long limbs are used in conjunction, as we will show in this study. Previous research has shown that tree frogs change from a crouched posture (where the limbs are close to the body) to a sprawled posture with extended limbs when clinging on to steeper inclines such as vertical or overhanging slopes. We investigated this change in posture in White's tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) by challenging the frogs to cling onto a tiltable platform. The platform consisted of an array of 24 three-dimensional force transducers, which allowed us to measure the ground reaction forces of the frogs during a tilt. Starting from a crouched resting position, the normal forces on the forelimbs changed sign and became increasingly negative with increasing slope angle of the platform. At about 106°±12°, tilt of the platform the frogs reacted by extending one or two of their limbs outwards. At a steeper angle (131°±11°), the frogs spread out all their limbs sideways, with the hindlimbs stretched out to their maximum reach. Although the extension was strongest in the lateral direction, limbs were significantly extended in the fore–aft direction as well. With the extension of the limbs, the lateral forces increased relative to the normal forces. The large contribution of the in-plane forces helped to keep the angle between the force vector and the platform small. The Kendall theory for the peeling of adhesive tape predicts that smaller peel angles lead to higher attachment forces. We compare our data with the predictions of the Kendall model and discuss possible implications of the sliding of the pads on the surface. The forces were indeed much larger for smaller angles and thus can be explained by peeling theory. PMID

  7. Direct measurement of the dielectrophoresis forces acting on micro-objects using optical tweezers and a simple microfluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, In Soo; Park, Se Hee; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Beop-Min

    2014-09-01

    We constructed a reliable frequency-dependent dielectrophoretic (DEP) force measurement system based on optical tweezers and a microfluidic chip. Using this system, we directly measured the frequency-dependent DEP forces acting on polystyrene beads while varying various parameters, which were all verified by theoretical simulations. We also investigated the DEP characteristics of non-functionalized and carboxyl-functionalized polystyrene beads in solutions with different conductivities by associating the measured crossover frequencies with a theoretical DEP model. This system can be used as a quantifying tool for surface conductance assays by characterizing the DEP forces acting on micro-objects in various experimental conditions.

  8. Proximity effect on hydrodynamic interaction between a sphere and a plane measured by force feedback microscopy at different frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentier, Simon; Rodrigues, Mario S.; Charlaix, Elisabeth; Chevrier, Joël

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we measure the viscous damping G″, and the associated stiffness G', of a liquid flow in sphere-plane geometry over a large frequency range. In this regime, the lubrication approximation is expected to dominate. We first measure the static force applied to the tip. This is made possible thanks to a force feedback method. Adding a sub-nanometer oscillation of the tip, we obtain the dynamic part of the interaction with solely the knowledge of the lever properties in the experimental context using a linear transformation of the amplitude and phase change. Using a Force Feedback Microscope (FFM), we are then able to measure simultaneously the static force, the stiffness, and the dissipative part of the interaction in a broad frequency range using a single AFM probe. Similar measurements have been performed by the Surface Force Apparatus (SFA) with a probe radius hundred times bigger. In this context, the FFM can be called nano-SFA.

  9. Molecular-scale quantitative charge density measurement of biological molecule by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Kei; Oyabu, Noriaki; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2015-07-01

    Surface charge distributions on biological molecules in aqueous solutions are essential for the interactions between biomolecules, such as DNA condensation, antibody-antigen interactions, and enzyme reactions. There has been a significant demand for a molecular-scale charge density measurement technique for better understanding such interactions. In this paper, we present the local electric double layer (EDL) force measurements on DNA molecules in aqueous solutions using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) with a three-dimensional force mapping technique. The EDL forces measured in a 100 mM KCl solution well agreed with the theoretical EDL forces calculated using reasonable parameters, suggesting that FM-AFM can be used for molecular-scale quantitative charge density measurements on biological molecules especially in a highly concentrated electrolyte.

  10. Ultrasonic Measurement of Microdisplacement Induced by Acoustic Radiation Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Ryo; Izumi, Takuya; Komatsu, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2013-07-01

    Quantitative evaluation of human skin aging is achieved by measuring the viscoelasticity of the skin. In the present study, microdisplacement induced by acoustic radiation force (ARF) is quantitatively measured by high-frequency ultrasonography (HFUS) and the result is confirmed by laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV). Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with 1% cellulose particles was used as the biological phantom. A concave piezoelectric zirconate titanate (PZT) transducer with a diameter and focal length of 3 cm was used as an applicator to generate ARF. Microdisplacement at each depth of PVA was measured by the phased tracking method at 100 MHz of ultrasound with a repetition rate of 2000 Hz. When 80 tone-burst pulses were applied, the displacement measured by HFUS was 9 µm and the same result was obtained by LDV. As the displacement at each depth of PVA is measurable using ARF and the HFUS system, the system could be applied to measuring the viscoelasticity of the layered structure of the human skin.

  11. Surface texture measurement for dental wear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, R. S.; Mullen, F.; Bartlett, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    The application of surface topography measurement and characterization within dental materials science is highly active and rapidly developing, in line with many modern industries. Surface measurement and structuring is used extensively within oral and dental science to optimize the optical, tribological and biological performance of natural and biomimetic dental materials. Although there has historically been little standardization in the use and reporting of surface metrology instrumentation and software, the dental industry is beginning to adopt modern areal measurement and characterization techniques, especially as the dental industry is increasingly adopting digital impressioning techniques in order to leverage CAD/CAM technologies for the design and construction of dental restorations. As dental treatment becomes increasingly digitized and reliant on advanced technologies such as dental implants, wider adoption of standardized surface topography and characterization techniques will become evermore essential. The dental research community welcomes the advances that are being made in surface topography measurement science towards realizing this ultimate goal.

  12. High performance target measurement flights from Vandenberg Air Force Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalfant, C. P.; Rosen, H.; Jerger, J. H.

    A description is presented of a new launch facility which is being prepared for the High Performance Target Measurement (HPTEM) booster at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). A deactivated Atlas launch complex is currently being modified to allow the rocket to be launched from a semisilo. The underground launch operations building will contain a new control center and instrumentation room. Attention is given to the Multi-Spectral Measurement Program (MSMP), details concerning the launch facility, and a target and flight safety trajectory analysis. Construction and modification of the facility is scheduled to be completed in mid-1983. The first HPTEM launch is planned to occur in April 1984. The HPTEM launch facility can also be utilized to launch Aries I (single stage) and Aries II (two-stage) probes with minor modification.

  13. Multi-dimensional modelling of electrostatic force distance curve over dielectric surface: Influence of tip geometry and correlation with experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Boularas, A. Baudoin, F.; Villeneuve-Faure, C.; Clain, S.; Teyssedre, G.

    2014-08-28

    Electric Force-Distance Curves (EFDC) is one of the ways whereby electrical charges trapped at the surface of dielectric materials can be probed. To reach a quantitative analysis of stored charge quantities, measurements using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) must go with an appropriate simulation of electrostatic forces at play in the method. This is the objective of this work, where simulation results for the electrostatic force between an AFM sensor and the dielectric surface are presented for different bias voltages on the tip. The aim is to analyse force-distance curves modification induced by electrostatic charges. The sensor is composed by a cantilever supporting a pyramidal tip terminated by a spherical apex. The contribution to force from cantilever is neglected here. A model of force curve has been developed using the Finite Volume Method. The scheme is based on the Polynomial Reconstruction Operator—PRO-scheme. First results of the computation of electrostatic force for different tip–sample distances (from 0 to 600 nm) and for different DC voltages applied to the tip (6 to 20 V) are shown and compared with experimental data in order to validate our approach.

  14. Free-molecule heat transfer in a conservative force field between parallel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardt, Steffen

    2016-05-01

    The heat flux between parallel surfaces is computed analytically assuming that heat is transferred by particles moving ballistically under the influence of a conservative force field. Particle reflection at the surfaces is governed by a Maxwell-type boundary condition. It is found that the force field can give rise to a substantial reduction, but also to an enhancement of the heat flux, depending on the ratio of the temperatures at the two surfaces. The influence of the accommodation coefficients is studied. An asymmetry introduced by the