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Sample records for surface microbial contamination

  1. Study on Microbial Deposition and Contamination onto Six Surfaces Commonly Used in Chemical and Microbiological Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Tamburini, Elena; Donegà, Valentina; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella; Pedrini, Paola; Monticelli, Cecilia; Balbo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The worktops in both chemical and microbiological laboratories are the surfaces most vulnerable to damage and exposure to contamination by indoor pollutants. The rate at which particles are deposited on indoor surfaces is an important parameter to determine human exposure to airborne biological particles. In contrast to what has been established for inorganic pollutants, no limit has been set by law for microbial contamination in indoor air. To our knowledge, a comparative study on the effect of surfaces on the deposition of microbes has not been carried out. An evaluation of the microbial contamination of worktop materials could be of crucial importance, both for safety reasons and for the reliability of tests and experiments that need to be carried out in non-contaminated environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall microbial contamination (fungi, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, staphylococci) on six widely used worktop materials in laboratories (glass, stainless steel, fine porcelain stoneware, post-forming laminate, high-performing laminate and enamel steel) and to correlate it with the characteristics of the surfaces. After cleaning, the kinetics of microbial re-contamination were also evaluated for all surfaces. PMID:26193296

  2. Study on Microbial Deposition and Contamination onto Six Surfaces Commonly Used in Chemical and Microbiological Laboratories.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Elena; Donegà, Valentina; Marchetti, Maria Gabriella; Pedrini, Paola; Monticelli, Cecilia; Balbo, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    The worktops in both chemical and microbiological laboratories are the surfaces most vulnerable to damage and exposure to contamination by indoor pollutants. The rate at which particles are deposited on indoor surfaces is an important parameter to determine human exposure to airborne biological particles. In contrast to what has been established for inorganic pollutants, no limit has been set by law for microbial contamination in indoor air. To our knowledge, a comparative study on the effect of surfaces on the deposition of microbes has not been carried out. An evaluation of the microbial contamination of worktop materials could be of crucial importance, both for safety reasons and for the reliability of tests and experiments that need to be carried out in non-contaminated environments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall microbial contamination (fungi, mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria, staphylococci) on six widely used worktop materials in laboratories (glass, stainless steel, fine porcelain stoneware, post-forming laminate, high-performing laminate and enamel steel) and to correlate it with the characteristics of the surfaces. After cleaning, the kinetics of microbial re-contamination were also evaluated for all surfaces. PMID:26193296

  3. Metagenomes of Microbial Communities in Arsenic- and Pathogen-Contaminated Well and Surface Water from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Williams, Daniel E.; Mailloux, Brian; Knappett, Peter S. K.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; McKay, Larry D.; Alam, M. Jahangir; Matin Ahmed, Kazi; van Geen, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The contamination of drinking water from both arsenic and microbial pathogens occurs in Bangladesh. A general metagenomic survey of well water and surface water provided information on the types of pathogens present and may help elucidate arsenic metabolic pathways and potential assay targets for monitoring surface-to-ground water pathogen transport. PMID:25414497

  4. Identification and management of microbial contaminations in a surface drinking water source.

    PubMed

    Aström, J; Pettersson, T J R; Stenström, T A

    2007-01-01

    Microbial contamination of surface waters constitutes a health risk for drinking water consumers which may be lowered by closing the raw water intake. We have evaluated microbial discharge events reported in the river Göta älv, which is used for raw water supply to the city of Göteborg. Elevated levels of faecal indicator bacteria were observed during periods of closed raw water intake. High bacteria levels were, however, also occasionally detected during periods of open intake, probably as a result of microbial discharge far upstream in the river which may be difficult to predict and manage by closing the intake. Accumulated upstream precipitations, resulting in surface runoff and wastewater contaminations in the catchment, correlated positively with the levels of total coliforms, E. coli, intestinal enterococci and sulfite-reducing clostridia. Levels of faecal indicator organisms were negatively correlated to the water temperature due to enhanced survival at lower temperatures. Wastewater discharges from a municipality located just upstream of the water intake resulted in elevated E. coli concentrations downstream at the raw water intake for Göteborg. To improve the prediction of microbial contaminations within the river Göta älv, monitoring data on turbidity and upstream precipitation are of particular importance. PMID:17890837

  5. Microbial Air Quality and Bacterial Surface Contamination in Ambulances During Patient Services

    PubMed Central

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Pipitsangjan, Sirikun

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to assess microbial air quality and bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and the surrounding areas among 30 ambulance runs during service. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 106 air samples collected from 30 ambulances before patient services and 212 air samples collected during patient services to assess the bacterial and fungal counts at the two time points. Additionally, 226 surface swab samples were collected from medical instrument surfaces and the surrounding areas before and after ambulance runs. Groups or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram’s stain and lactophenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient with a p-value of less than 0.050 considered significant. Results The mean and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal counts at the start of ambulance runs were 318±485cfu/m3 and 522±581cfu/m3, respectively. Bacterial counts during patient services were 468±607cfu/m3 and fungal counts were 656±612cfu/m3. Mean bacterial and fungal counts during patient services were significantly higher than those at the start of ambulance runs, p=0.005 and p=0.030, respectively. For surface contamination, the overall bacterial counts before and after patient services were 0.8±0.7cfu/cm2 and 1.3±1.1cfu/cm2, respectively (p<0.001). The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi were Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Additionally, there was a significantly positive correlation between bacterial (r=0.3, p<0.010) and fungal counts (r=0.2, p=0.020) in air samples and bacterial counts on medical instruments and allocated areas. Conclusions This study revealed high microbial contamination (bacterial and fungal) in ambulance air during services and higher bacterial contamination on medical instrument surfaces and allocated areas after ambulance services compared to the start of ambulance runs. Additionally, bacterial and fungal counts in ambulance air showed a significantly positive correlation with the bacterial surface contamination on medical instruments and allocated areas. Further studies should be conducted to determine the optimal intervention to reduce microbial contamination in the ambulance environment. PMID:25960835

  6. Reduction of microbial contamination on the surfaces of layer houses using slightly acidic electrolyzed water.

    PubMed

    Ni, L; Cao, W; Zheng, W C; Zhang, Q; Li, B M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) in reducing pathogens on pure cultures and on cotton fabric surfaces in the presence of organic matter and estimate its efficacy in comparison with povidone iodine solution for reducing pathogenic microorganisms on internal surfaces of layer houses. Pure cultures of E.coli, S.enteritidis, and S.aureus and cotton fabric surfaces inoculated with these strains were treated with SAEW in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). In the absence of BSA, complete inactivation of all strains in pure cultures and on cotton fabric surfaces was observed after 2.5 and 5 min treatment with SAEW at 40 mg/L of available chlorine concentration (ACC), respectively. The bactericidal efficiency of SAEW increased with increasing ACC, but decreased with increasing BSA concentration. Then, the surfaces of the layer houses were sprayed with SAEW at 60, 80, and 100 mg/L of ACC and povidone iodine using the automated disinfection system at a rate of 110 mL/m(2), respectively. Samples from the floor, wall, feed trough, and egg conveyor belt surfaces were collected with sterile cotton swabs before and after spraying disinfection. Compared to tap water, SAEW and povidone iodine significantly reduced microbial populations on each surface of the layer houses. SAEW with 80 or 100 mg/L of ACC showed significantly higher efficacy than povidone iodine for total aerobic bacteria, staphylococci, coliforms, or yeasts and moulds on the floor and feed trough surfaces (P < 0.05). SAEW was more effective than povidone iodine at reducing total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and yeasts and moulds on the wall surface. Additionally, SAEW had similar bactericidal activity with povidone iodine on the surface of the egg conveyor belt. Results suggest that SAEW exerts a higher or equivalent bactericidal efficiency for the surfaces compared to povidone iodine, and it may be used as an effective alternative for reducing microbial contamination on surfaces in layer houses. PMID:26371328

  7. Microbial activities and dissolved organic matter dynamics in oil-contaminated surface seawater from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site.

    PubMed

    Ziervogel, Kai; McKay, Luke; Rhodes, Benjamin; Osburn, Christopher L; Dickson-Brown, Jennifer; Arnosti, Carol; Teske, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill triggered a complex cascade of microbial responses that reshaped the dynamics of heterotrophic carbon degradation and the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in oil contaminated waters. Our results from 21-day laboratory incubations in rotating glass bottles (roller bottles) demonstrate that microbial dynamics and carbon flux in oil-contaminated surface water sampled near the spill site two weeks after the onset of the blowout were greatly affected by activities of microbes associated with macroscopic oil aggregates. Roller bottles with oil-amended water showed rapid formation of oil aggregates that were similar in size and appearance compared to oil aggregates observed in surface waters near the spill site. Oil aggregates that formed in roller bottles were densely colonized by heterotrophic bacteria, exhibiting high rates of enzymatic activity (lipase hydrolysis) indicative of oil degradation. Ambient waters surrounding aggregates also showed enhanced microbial activities not directly associated with primary oil-degradation (?-glucosidase; peptidase), as well as a twofold increase in DOC. Concurrent changes in fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) suggest an increase in oil-derived, aromatic hydrocarbons in the DOC pool. Thus our data indicate that oil aggregates mediate, by two distinct mechanisms, the transfer of hydrocarbons to the deep sea: a microbially-derived flux of oil-derived DOC from sinking oil aggregates into the ambient water column, and rapid sedimentation of the oil aggregates themselves, serving as vehicles for oily particulate matter as well as oil aggregate-associated microbial communities. PMID:22509359

  8. Microbial Activities and Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in Oil-Contaminated Surface Seawater from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Site

    PubMed Central

    Ziervogel, Kai; McKay, Luke; Rhodes, Benjamin; Osburn, Christopher L.; Dickson-Brown, Jennifer; Arnosti, Carol; Teske, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill triggered a complex cascade of microbial responses that reshaped the dynamics of heterotrophic carbon degradation and the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in oil contaminated waters. Our results from 21-day laboratory incubations in rotating glass bottles (roller bottles) demonstrate that microbial dynamics and carbon flux in oil-contaminated surface water sampled near the spill site two weeks after the onset of the blowout were greatly affected by activities of microbes associated with macroscopic oil aggregates. Roller bottles with oil-amended water showed rapid formation of oil aggregates that were similar in size and appearance compared to oil aggregates observed in surface waters near the spill site. Oil aggregates that formed in roller bottles were densely colonized by heterotrophic bacteria, exhibiting high rates of enzymatic activity (lipase hydrolysis) indicative of oil degradation. Ambient waters surrounding aggregates also showed enhanced microbial activities not directly associated with primary oil-degradation (?-glucosidase; peptidase), as well as a twofold increase in DOC. Concurrent changes in fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) suggest an increase in oil-derived, aromatic hydrocarbons in the DOC pool. Thus our data indicate that oil aggregates mediate, by two distinct mechanisms, the transfer of hydrocarbons to the deep sea: a microbially-derived flux of oil-derived DOC from sinking oil aggregates into the ambient water column, and rapid sedimentation of the oil aggregates themselves, serving as vehicles for oily particulate matter as well as oil aggregate-associated microbial communities. PMID:22509359

  9. MICROFRACTURE SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY AND ADHERENT MICROBIAL POPULATION METABOLISM IN TCE-CONTAMINATED COMPETENT BEDROCK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A TCE-contaminated competent bedrock site in Portsmouth, NH was used to determine if a relation existed between microfracture (MF) surface geochemistry and the ecology and metabolic activity of attached microbes relative to terminal electron accepting processes (TEAPs) and TCE bi...

  10. Non-destructive mobile monitoring of microbial contaminations on meat surfaces using porphyrin fluorescence intensities.

    PubMed

    Durek, J; Fröhling, A; Bolling, J; Thomasius, R; Durek, P; Schlüter, O K

    2016-05-01

    A non-destructive mobile system for meat quality monitoring was developed and investigated for the possible application along the whole production chain of fresh meat. Pork and lamb meat was stored at 5°C for up to 20days post mortem and measured with a fluorescence spectrometer. Additionally, the bacterial influence on the fluorescence signals was evaluated by different experimental procedures. Fluorescence of NADH and different porphyrins could be correlated to the growth of diverse bacteria and hence used for contamination monitoring. The increase of porphyrin fluorescence started after 9days p.m. for pork and after 2days p.m. for lamb meat. Based on the results, a mobile fluorescence system was built and compared with the laboratory system. The corrected function of the meat slices showed a root mean square error of 1156.97 r.u. and a mean absolute percentage error of 12.59%; for lamb the values were 470.81 r.u. and 15.55%, respectively. A mobile and non-invasive measurement system would improve the microbial security of fresh meat. PMID:26773794

  11. Wipe-rinse technique for quantitating microbial contamination on large surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschner, L. E.; Puleo, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of an improved wipe-rinse technique for the bioassay of large areas was undertaken due to inherent inadequacies in the cotton swab-rinse technique to which assay of spacecraft is currently restricted. Four types of contamination control cloths were initially tested. A polyester-bonded cloth (PBC) was selected for further evaluation because of its superior efficiency and handling characteristics. Results from comparative tests with PBC and cotton swabs on simulated spacecraft surfaces indicated a significantly higher recovery efficiency for the PBC than for the cotton (90.4 versus 75.2%). Of the sampling area sites studied, PBC was found to be most effective on surface areas not exceeding 0.74 sq m (8.0 sq ft).

  12. Wipe-rinse technique for quantitating microbial contamination on large surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Kirschner, L E; Puleo, J R

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of an improved wipe-rinse technique for the bioassay of large areas was undertaken due to inherent inadequacies in the cotton swab-rinse technique to which assay of spacecraft is currently restricted. Four types of contamination control cloths were initially tested. A polyester-bonded cloth (PBC) was selected for further evaluation because of its superior efficiency and handling characteristics. Results from comparative tests with PBC and cotton swabs on simulated spacecraft surfaces indicated a significantly higher recovery efficiency for the PBC than for the cotton (90.4 versus 75.2%). Of the sampling areas sites studied, PBC was found to be most effective on surface areas not exceeding 0.74 m2 (8.0 feet 2). PMID:394682

  13. Efficacy of home washing methods in controlling surface microbial contamination on fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Kilonzo-Nthenge, Agnes; Chen, Fur-Chi; Godwin, Sandria L

    2006-02-01

    Much effort has been focused on sanitation of fresh produce at the commercial level; however, few options are available to the consumer. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of different cleaning methods in reducing bacterial contamination on fresh produce in a home setting. Lettuce, broccoli, apples, and tomatoes were inoculated with Listeria innocua and then subjected to combinations of the following cleaning procedures: (i) soak for 2 min in tap water, Veggie Wash solution, 5% vinegar solution, or 13% lemon solution and (ii) rinse under running tap water, rinse and rub under running tap water, brush under running tap water, or wipe with wet/dry paper towel. Presoaking in water before rinsing significantly reduced bacteria in apples, tomatoes, and lettuce, but not in broccoli. Wiping apples and tomatoes with wet or dry paper towel showed lower bacterial reductions compared with soaking and rinsing procedures. Blossom ends of apples were more contaminated than the surface after soaking and rinsing; similar results were observed between flower section and stem of broccoli. Reductions of L. innocua in both tomatoes and apples (2.01 to 2.89 log CFU/g) were more than in lettuce and broccoli (1.41 to 1.88 log CFU/g) when subjected to same washing procedures. Reductions of surface contamination of lettuce after soaking in lemon or vinegar solutions were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from lettuce soaking in cold tap water. Therefore, educators and extension workers might consider it appropriate to instruct consumers to rub or brush fresh produce under cold running tap water before consumption. PMID:16496573

  14. Microbial populations in contaminant plumes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Bekins, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    Efficient biodegradation of subsurface contaminants requires two elements: (1) microbial populations with the necessary degradative capabilities, and (2) favorable subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions. Practical constraints on experimental design and interpretation in both the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences have resulted in limited knowledge of the interaction between hydrogeological and microbiological features of subsurface environments. These practical constraints include: (1) inconsistencies between the scales of investigation in the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences, and (2) practical limitations on the ability to accurately define microbial populations in environmental samples. However, advances in application of small-scale sampling methods and interdisciplinary approaches to site investigations are beginning to significantly improve understanding of hydrogeological and microbiological interactions. Likewise, culture-based and molecular analyses of microbial populations in subsurface contaminant plumes have revealed significant adaptation of microbial populations to plume environmental conditions. Results of recent studies suggest that variability in subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions significantly influences subsurface microbial-community structure. Combined investigations of site conditions and microbial-community structure provide the knowledge needed to understand interactions between subsurface microbial populations, plume geochemistry, and contaminant biodegradation.

  15. Space Hardware Microbial Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Kern, R.; Wainwright, N.

    Planetary Protection (PP) requirements imposed on unmanned planetary missions require that the spacecraft undergo rigorous bioload reduction prior to launch. The ability to quantitate bioburden on such spacecraft is dependent on developing new analytical methodologies that can be used to identify and trace biological contamination on flight hardware. The focus of new method development is to move forward and to augment the current spore analysis method which was first used on Viking. The ultimate goal of the new techniques is not to increase the cleanliness requirement currently levied on various missions, but instead to better understand the nature of the bioburden through the use of well-characterized standard methods. Subsequently an array of standard techniques is needed to provide various analytical methodologies that can be used to access bioburden, depending upon mission specifications. Since the Viking mission no new methods have been certified for inclusion in the NASA Standard Procedure NPG 5340. The process of transferring a new method from the research and development phase to a standardized laboratory technique suitable for use on space craft will be discussed. A historical overview of the process used to develop and certify the standard assay methods for the Viking mission will be provided. Ongoing challenges to certify new methods include: 1) development of surrogate sampling matrices when spacecraft hardware is not available, 2) a comprehensive laboratory process for standardizing a new method for routine use, and 3) the development of critical pass fail benchmarks for spacecraft using new biomarkers. In addition a proposed process that has been used to develop analytical methods using Limulus Amebocyte Lysate, and Adenosine Triphosphate will be presented.

  16. Mathematical estimation of the level of microbial contamination on spacecraft surfaces by volumetric air sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oxborrow, G. S.; Roark, A. L.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological sampling methods presently used for enumeration of microorganisms on spacecraft surfaces require contact with easily damaged components. Estimation of viable particles on surfaces using air sampling methods in conjunction with a mathematical model would be desirable. Parameters necessary for the mathematical model are the effect of angled surfaces on viable particle collection and the number of viable cells per viable particle. Deposition of viable particles on angled surfaces closely followed a cosine function, and the number of viable cells per viable particle was consistent with a Poisson distribution. Other parameters considered by the mathematical model included deposition rate and fractional removal per unit time. A close nonlinear correlation between volumetric air sampling and airborne fallout on surfaces was established with all fallout data points falling within the 95% confidence limits as determined by the mathematical model.

  17. Microbial populations in contaminant plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Bekins, Barbara A.

    Efficient biodegradation of subsurface contaminants requires two elements: (1) microbial populations with the necessary degradative capabilities, and (2) favorable subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions. Practical constraints on experimental design and interpretation in both the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences have resulted in limited knowledge of the interaction between hydrogeological and microbiological features of subsurface environments. These practical constraints include: (1) inconsistencies between the scales of investigation in the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences, and (2) practical limitations on the ability to accurately define microbial populations in environmental samples. However, advances in application of small-scale sampling methods and interdisciplinary approaches to site investigations are beginning to significantly improve understanding of hydrogeological and microbiological interactions. Likewise, culture-based and molecular analyses of microbial populations in subsurface contaminant plumes have revealed significant adaptation of microbial populations to plume environmental conditions. Results of recent studies suggest that variability in subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions significantly influences subsurface microbial-community structure. Combined investigations of site conditions and microbial-community structure provide the knowledge needed to understand interactions between subsurface microbial populations, plume geochemistry, and contaminant biodegradation. La biodégradation efficace des polluants souterrains requiert deux éléments: des populations microbiennes possédant les aptitudes nécessaires à la dégradation, et des conditions géochimiques et hydrologiques souterraines favorables. Des contraintes pratiques sur la conception et l'interprétation des expériences à la fois en microbiologie et en hydrogéologie ont conduit à une connaissance limitée des interactions entre les phénomènes hydrogéologiques et microbiologiques des environnements souterrains. Ces contraintes pratiques sont dues à des contradictions entre les échelles d'étude de l'hydrogéologie et de la microbiologie et à des limitations pratiques sur la capacitéà définir avec précision les populations microbiennes dans les échantillons. Cependant, des progrès dans l'application de méthodes d'échantillonnage à l'échelle locale et des approches pluridisciplinaires des études de terrain ont commencéà améliorer de façon significative notre compréhension des interactions hydrogéologiques et microbiologiques. De plus, les analyses moléculaires et sur les cultures des populations microbiennes présentes dans les panaches de pollution souterraine ont mis en évidence une adaptation significative de ces populations aux conditions environnementales du panache. Les résultats d'études récentes laissent penser que la variabilité des conditions géochimiques et hydrologiques souterraines influence significativement la structure des communautés microbiennes souterraines. Des recherches combinées sur les conditions de terrain et sur la structure des communautés microbiennes apportent les informations nécessaires à la compréhension des interactions entre les populations microbiennes souterraines, la géochimie du panache et la biodégradation du polluant. Para que la biodegradación de los contaminantes en el subsuelo sea eficiente se requiere: (1) una población microbiana con capacidad de degradación y (2) unas condiciones hidrológicas y geoquímicas favorables. Las restricciones de tipo práctico en los diseños y la interpretación de experimentos, tanto hidrogeológicos como microbiológicos, han dado lugar a un conocimiento limitado de la interrelación entre estas dos ciencias por lo que respecta al subsuelo. Estas restricciones incluyen: (1) inconsistencias entre las escalas de investigación en ambas ciencias (hidrogeología y microbiología) y (2) limitaciones prácticas para definir poblaciones microbianas en las muestras. Sin embargo, los avances en la aplicación de métodos de muestreo a pequeña escala y las investigaciones de campo con equipos interdisciplinares están mejorando significativamente el conocimiento de las interacciones entre hidrogeología y microbiología. Del mismo modo, los análisis moleculares y de cultivos sobre poblaciones microbianas en penachos contaminados han mostrado la adaptación de los microbios a las condiciones naturales. Estudios recientes sugieren que la variabilidad en las condiciones geoquímicas e hidrogeológicas del subsuelo afecta enormemente la estructura de la comunidad microbiana. Las investigaciones que combinan las condiciones del medio con la estructura de la comunidad microbiana proporcionarán el conocimiento necesario para entender las complejas relaciones entre las poblaciones microbianas subsuperficiales, la geoquímica de los penachos de contaminación y la biodegradación de los contaminantes.

  18. Comparative plant uptake and microbial degradation of trichloroethylene in the rhizospheres of five plant species--implications for bioremediation of contaminated surface soils

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.A.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this study was to collect data that would provide a foundation for the concept of using vegetation to enhance in situ bioremediation of contaminated surface soils. Soil and vegetation (Lespedeza cuneta, Paspalum notatum, Pinus taeda, and Solidago sp.) samples from the Miscellaneous Chemicals Basin (MCB) at the Savannah River Site were used in tests to identify critical plant and microbiological variables affecting the fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the root zone. Microbiological assays including phospholipid fatty acid analyses, and {sup 14}C-acetate incorporation were conducted to elucidate differences in rhizosphere and nonvegetated soil microbial communities from the MCB.

  19. Natural protection of spring and well drinking water against surface microbial contamination. II. Indicators and monitoring parameters for parasites.

    PubMed

    Edberg, S C; LeClerc, H; Robertson, J

    1997-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and reports of other newly described para-sitic diseases associated with drinking water transmission prompted a reevaluation of source water monitoring criteria for public health protection. The field of microbial indicators was reviewed and each candidate sentinel evaluated in terms of its sensitivity, specificity, and technical feasibility. In addition, a clear distinction was made between source water monitoring and monitoring in the distribution system. Of all potential candidate microbial sentinels, Escherichia coli is deemed the most efficacious for public health protection. Based on a conservative estimate of its half-life in groundwater for 8 d, it is recommended that at least two samples be obtained during this half-life. In addition to E. coli, two water quality indicator sentinels, which are not necessarily direct public health threats, should also be monitored at the same frequency. These are the total coliform group and the enterococci. If E. coli is present in any source water sample, the borehole and any directly connected borehole should be embargoed. If either total coliforms or enterococci are detected, only that individual borehole should be taken off line and not used until the situation is remediated and the cause of the fecal contamination eliminated. Clostridium perfringens spores serve as a useful long-lived indicator. However, their perseverance in a sample should not be considered a direct public health threat because spores may far outlive pathogens. As a parasite indicator, C. perfringens should have the same importance as a positive coliform or enterococcus analysis. Coliphages do not yet fulfill enough of the criteria to be routinely employed. Biological monitoring should be coupled with physicochemical monitoring to establish a long-term history of the source. Because all natural waters vary in the amounts of heterotrophic plate count bacteria, test methods should be employed that are refractory to them. A combination of rigorous source protection plus extraordinary source monitoring serve as sufficient multiple barriers for parasite protection. PMID:9226113

  20. Comparative plant uptake and microbial degradation of trichloroethylene in the rhizospheres of five plant species-- implications for bioremediation of contaminated surface soils

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.A. ); Walton, B.T. )

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to collect data that would provide a foundation for the concept of using vegetation to enhance in situ bioremediation of contaminated surface soils. Soil and vegetation (Lespedeza cuneata, Paspalum notatum, Pinus taeda, and Solidago sp.) samples from the Miscellaneous Chemicals Basin (MCB) at the Savannah River Site were used in tests to identify critical plant and microbiological variables affecting the fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the root zone. Microbiological assays including phospholipid acid analyses, and {sup 14}C-acetate incorporation were conducted to elucidate differences in rhizosphere and nonvegetated soil microbial communities from the MCB. The microbial activity, biomass, and degradation of TCE in rhizosphere soils were significantly greater than corresponding nonvegetated soils. Vegetation had a positive effect on microbial degradation of {sup 14}C-TCE in whole-plant experiments. Soils from the MCB containing Lespedeza cuneata, Pinus taeda, and Glycine max mineralized greater than 25% of the {sup 14}C- TCE added compared with less than 20% in nonvegetated soils. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the positive role of vegetation in enhancing biodegradation.

  1. [Microbial contamination of railroad trains].

    PubMed

    Nikodemusz, I; Vedres, I; Balatoni, M

    1988-11-01

    The bacterial contamination of the air was studied in moving rail road trains. The air in front of the trains is poor in microorganisms. The contamination increases to the end of the train which is caused by the dust which is whirled up by the air stream from the rail substructure and the depletions from the toilets. The bacteria which had grown in a culture suspension, appeared in the air around the train when they have been poured to the toilets. The colony count decreases with the distance of the point of contamination. The prevention of contamination is mainly a economical problem but it can be solved in the future. PMID:3146177

  2. Microbial ecology of a crude oil contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, B.A.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Warren, E.; Godsy, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed microbial analyses of a glacial outwash aquifer contaminated by crude oil provide insights into the pattern of microbial succession from iron reducing to methanogenic in the anaerobic portion of the contaminant plume. We analysed sediments from this area for populations of aerobes, iron reducers, fermenters and methanogens, using the most probable number method. On the basis of the microbial data the anaerobic area can be divided into distinct physiological zones dominated by either iron-reducers or a consortium of fermenters and methanogens. Chemistry and permeability data show that methanogenic conditions develop first in areas of high hydrocarbon flux. Thus, we find methanogens both in high permeability horizons and also where separate-phase crude oil is present in either the saturated or unsaturated zone. Microbial numbers peak at the top of the separate-phase oil suggesting that growth is most rapid in locations with access to both hydrocarbons and nutrients infiltrating from the surface.

  3. Validation Studies for Microbial Contamination and Control of Contaminants.

    PubMed

    Shintani, Hideharu

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological control is a regulatory requirement and one that can be defined as the continued interaction of science and applied technology with products, processes, materials, equipment, and personnel entering the manufacturing areas. In the ISO 14644-1, control of microbial contamination is addressed. A good microbiological control program starts with understanding the risks for microbial contamination in the manufacturing process and identification of possible types of contaminants. The results obtained from such risk assessment can be used in the design of facilities and equipment as well as when establishing protocols regarding equipment and personnel. Once possible sources of contamination have been identified, control and preventative measures can be implemented and qualified/validated. PMID:26412695

  4. Surface Characterization and Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1999-01-01

    Nondestructive characterization of surface contamination can play an extremely important role in improving quality in manufacturing processes. This area of interest led to the formation of a Surface Contamination Analysis Team (SCAT) at Marshall Space Flight Center, which is primarily concerned with critical bondlines and has provided the major focus for activities under this grant. In addition, determining minute levels of contamination on emerging aerospace systems fabricated from composites has also been an area of interest for which the methods being presented here can be used. Important considerations for the inspection methodologies are good sensitivity, large area coverage, robustness, portability and ease of use for normal production personnel. In parallel with the evaluation of detection methods, considerable effort has been made to developing good, uniform contamination films to use as calibration standards. This activity within itself has presented unique challenges. The development of NIR methods for detecting and identifying contaminants has been in progress for several years. Cooperative efforts between the University, NASA, and Thiokol Corporation has shown some useful results for implementation in both laboratory and on-line procedures.

  5. GEOELECTRICAL EVIDENCE OF MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF DIESEL CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alteration of physical properties by microbial activity in petroleum contaminated sediments was investigated using geophysical techniques in laboratory column experiments. Microbial population growth was determined by the Most Probable Number technique (MPN), community dynami...

  6. Detection of microbial contamination in platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Tracy L.; Leparc, German; Huffman, Debra E.; Gennaccaro, Angela L.; Garcia-Lopez, Alicia; Klungness, Greta; Stephans, Christie; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.

    2005-03-01

    In the United States, approximately 100 patients develop fatal sepsis associated with platelet transfusions every year. Current culture methods take 24-48 hours to acquire results, which in turn decrease the shelf life of platelets. Many of the microorganisms that contaminate platelets can replicate easily at room temperature, which is the necessary storage temperature to keep platelets functional. Therefore, there is a need for in-situ quality control assessment of the platelet quality. For this purpose, a real time spectrophotometric technique has been developed. The Spectral Acquisition Processing Detection (SAPD) method, comprised of a UV-vis spectrophotometer and modeling algorithms, is a rapid method that can be performed prior to platelet transfusion to decrease the risk of bacterial infection to patients. The SAPD method has been used to determine changes in cell suspensions, based on size, shape, chemical composition and internal structure. Changes in these cell characteristics can in turn be used to determine microbial contamination, platelet aging and other physiologic changes. Detection limits of this method for platelet suspensions seeded with bacterial contaminants were identified to be less than 100 cfu/ml of sample. Bacterial counts below 1000 cfu/ml are not considered clinically significant. The SAPD method can provide real-time identification of bacterial contamination of platelets affording patients an increased level of safety without causing undue strain on laboratory budgets or personnel while increasing the time frame that platelets can be used by dramatically shortening contaminant detection time.

  7. Bioremediation of metals, organic and mixed contaminants with microbial mats

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, J.

    1995-12-31

    Microbial mats are natural heterotrophic and autotrophic communities dominated by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). They are self-organized laminated structures annealed tightly together by slimy secretions from various microbial components. The surface slime of the mats effectively immobilizes the ecosystem to a variety of substrates, thereby stabilizing the most efficient internal microbial structure. Cyanobacteria mats are generated for bioremediation applications by enriching a water surface with ensiled grass clippings. These constructed mats have been used to reduce selenate to elemental selenium, remove Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe and Mn from water and to remove Pb from sediments of shallow laboratory ponds. Uranium, U{sup 238}, was removed from groundwater samples at the rate of 3.19 Mg/m{sup 2}/h. Degradation of recalcitrant organic contaminants by mats is relatively rapid under both dark and light conditions. The following contaminants have been degraded in water and/or soil media by constructed mats: TNT, chrysene, naphthalene, hexadecane, phenanthrene, PCB, TCE, pulp and paper mill wastes, and three pesticides: chlordane, carbofuran and paraquat. Radio-labeled experiments with mat-treated carbofuran, petroleum distillates, TNT, chlordane, PCB and TCE show that these compounds are mineralized by the constructed mats. Mats applied to mixed contaminant solutions (TCE + Zn and TNT + pb) sequestered the metal while mineralizing the TCE. Remediation rates of the organic and inorganic components were the same in mixed solution as they were in single application.

  8. Cadmium Selenium Testing for Microbial Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Cadmium selenium Quantum Dots (QDs) are metal nanoparticles that fluoresce in a variety of colors determined by their size. QDs are solid state structures made of semiconductors or metals that confine a countable, small number of electrons into a small space. The confinement of electrons is achieved by the placement of some insulating material(s) around a central, well conducted region. Coupling QDs with antibodies can be used to make spectrally multiplexed immunoassays that test for a number of microbial contaminants using a single test.

  9. Minimizing microbial contamination of sperm samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.

    2011-01-01

    Taken from the Methods section: With the collection and translocation of gametes from aquatic species, a potential hazard exists for microbial transfer. Contamination of semen can occur during collection, processing, storage, and transport. Some preventative measures are described below for limiting the spread and amplification of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, mycoplasmas, and parasites. Generally, sanitation during collection is essential. Materials and equipment used to freeze semen should be sterile. Following good practice guidelines for handling and processing samples collected for freezing is especially important for non-domestic animals where disease-free status cannot be guaranteed and unsophisticated technology is used (Russell et al. 1977).

  10. Materials surface contamination analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Arendale, William F.

    1992-01-01

    The original research objective was to demonstrate the ability of optical fiber spectrometry to determine contamination levels on solid rocket motor cases in order to identify surface conditions which may result in poor bonds during production. The capability of using the spectral features to identify contaminants with other sensors which might only indicate a potential contamination level provides a real enhancement to current inspection systems such as Optical Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE). The optical fiber probe can easily fit into the same scanning fixtures as the OSEE. The initial data obtained using the Guided Wave Model 260 spectrophotometer was primarily focused on determining spectra of potential contaminants such as HD2 grease, silicones, etc. However, once we began taking data and applying multivariate analysis techniques, using a program that can handle very large data sets, i.e., Unscrambler 2, it became apparent that the techniques also might provide a nice scientific tool for determining oxidation and chemisorption rates under controlled conditions. As the ultimate power of the technique became recognized, considering that the chemical system which was most frequently studied in this work is water + D6AC steel, we became very interested in trying the spectroscopic techniques to solve a broad range of problems. The complexity of the observed spectra for the D6AC + water system is due to overlaps between the water peaks, the resulting chemisorbed species, and products of reaction which also contain OH stretching bands. Unscrambling these spectral features, without knowledge of the specific species involved, has proven to be a formidable task.

  11. [Microbial community structure and distribution characteristics in oil contaminated soil].

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng-Qing; Li, Li-Ming; Li, Chuan; Li, Guang-He

    2013-02-01

    Molecular biology methods such as PCR-DGGE combined with phylogenetic analysis were used for the soil microbial community structure and distribution profiling. Relationship of microbial community structure and distribution differed in a typical oil contaminated field was studied. Results showed that soil oil content was the main factor to the difference of microbial community structure similarity. The similarity index of microbial community structure and oil content had a significantly negative correlation. The contaminated soil microorganism genus had an uneven distribution. Thus, soil pollution had obvious stress and differentiation for microbial community structure and species relationship. Dominant species in oil contaminated soil were identified as Gulosibacter, Halomonas, Petrobacter, Methylocystis, and Pseudoalteromonas. The findings provide a basis for understanding the microbial characteristics of oil contaminated soil. PMID:23668156

  12. Field Analysis of Microbial Contamination Using Three Molecular Methods in Parallel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, H.; Stimpson, E.; Schenk, A.; Kish, A.; Damon, M.; Monaco, L.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced technologies with the capability of detecting microbial contamination remain an integral tool for the next stage of space agency proposed exploration missions. To maintain a clean, operational spacecraft environment with minimal potential for forward contamination, such technology is a necessity, particularly, the ability to analyze samples near the point of collection and in real-time both for conducting biological scientific experiments and for performing routine monitoring operations. Multiple molecular methods for detecting microbial contamination are available, but many are either too large or not validated for use on spacecraft. Two methods, the adenosine- triphosphate (ATP) and Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assays have been approved by the NASA Planetary Protection Office for the assessment of microbial contamination on spacecraft surfaces. We present the first parallel field analysis of microbial contamination pre- and post-cleaning using these two methods as well as universal primer-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  13. Comparative Levels and Types of Microbial Contamination Detected in Industrial Clean Rooms

    PubMed Central

    Favero, Martin S.; Puleo, John R.; Marshall, James H.; Oxborrow, Gordon S.

    1966-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine quantitatively and qualitatively the predominant types of microbial contamination occurring in conventional and laminar flow clean rooms. One horizontal laminar flow, three conventional industrial clean rooms, and three open factory areas were selected for microbiological tests. The results showed that as the environment and personnel of a clean room were controlled in a more positive manner with respect to the reduction of particulate contamination, the levels of airborne and surface microbial contaminants were reduced accordingly. The chief sources of microbial contamination were associated with the density and activity of clean room personnel. In addition, the majority of microorganisms isolated from the intramural air by air samplers were those indigenous to humans. Studies on the fallout and accumulation of airborne microorganisms on stainless-steel surfaces showed that, although there were no significant differences in the levels of microbial contamination among the conventional clean rooms, the type of microorganism detected on stainless-steel surfaces was consistently and significantly different. In addition, the “plateau phenomenon” occurred in all environments studied. It was concluded that the stainless-steel strip method for detecting microbial accumulation on surfaces is efficient and sensitive in ultra-clean environments and is the most reliable and practical method for monitoring microbial contamination in future class 100 clean rooms to be used for the assembly of spacecraft which will be sterilized. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 6 PMID:5954479

  14. Microbial Biogeography of Public Restroom Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Gilberto E.; Bates, Scott T.; Knights, Dan; Lauber, Christian L.; Stombaugh, Jesse; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-01-01

    We spend the majority of our lives indoors where we are constantly exposed to bacteria residing on surfaces. However, the diversity of these surface-associated communities is largely unknown. We explored the biogeographical patterns exhibited by bacteria across ten surfaces within each of twelve public restrooms. Using high-throughput barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene, we identified 19 bacterial phyla across all surfaces. Most sequences belonged to four phyla: Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The communities clustered into three general categories: those found on surfaces associated with toilets, those on the restroom floor, and those found on surfaces routinely touched with hands. On toilet surfaces, gut-associated taxa were more prevalent, suggesting fecal contamination of these surfaces. Floor surfaces were the most diverse of all communities and contained several taxa commonly found in soils. Skin-associated bacteria, especially the Propionibacteriaceae, dominated surfaces routinely touched with our hands. Certain taxa were more common in female than in male restrooms as vagina-associated Lactobacillaceae were widely distributed in female restrooms, likely from urine contamination. Use of the SourceTracker algorithm confirmed many of our taxonomic observations as human skin was the primary source of bacteria on restroom surfaces. Overall, these results demonstrate that restroom surfaces host relatively diverse microbial communities dominated by human-associated bacteria with clear linkages between communities on or in different body sites and those communities found on restroom surfaces. More generally, this work is relevant to the public health field as we show that human-associated microbes are commonly found on restroom surfaces suggesting that bacterial pathogens could readily be transmitted between individuals by the touching of surfaces. Furthermore, we demonstrate that we can use high-throughput analyses of bacterial communities to determine sources of bacteria on indoor surfaces, an approach which could be used to track pathogen transmission and test the efficacy of hygiene practices. PMID:22132229

  15. Microbial and chemical contamination during and after flooding in the Ohio River-Kentucky, 2011.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Murphy, Matthew W; Schneeberger, Chandra; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Hoo, Elizabeth; Freiman, Alexander; Lewis, Lauren S; Hill, Vincent R

    2014-09-19

    Surface water contaminants in Kentucky during and after 2011 flooding were characterized. Surface water samples were collected during flood stage (May 2-4, 2011; n = 15) and after (July 25-26, 2011; n = 8) from four different cities along the Ohio River and were analyzed for the presence of microbial indicators, pathogens, metals, and chemical contaminants. Contaminant concentrations during and after flooding were compared using linear and logistic regression. Surface water samples collected during flooding had higher levels of E. coli, enterococci, Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7, adenovirus, arsenic, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to surface water samples collected 3-months post-flood (P < 0.05). These results suggest that flooding increases microbial and chemical loads in surface water. These findings reinforce commonly recommended guidelines to limit exposure to flood water and to appropriately sanitize contaminated surfaces and drinking wells after contamination by flood water. PMID:24967556

  16. Microbial contamination and disinfection methods of pacifiers

    PubMed Central

    NELSON, Paulo; LOUVAIN, Márcia Costa; MACARI, Soraia; LUCISANO, Marília Pacífico; da SILVA, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de QUEIROZ, Alexandra Mussolino; GATON-HERNÁNDEZ, Patrícia; da SILVA, Léa Assed Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the microbial contamination of pacifiers by Mutans Streptococci (MS) and the efficacy of different methods for their disinfection. Methods Twenty-eight children were assigned to a 4-stage changeover system with a 1-week interval. In each stage, children received a new pacifier and the parents were instructed to maintain their normal habits for 1 week. After this time, the pacifiers were subjected to the following 4 disinfection methods: spraying with 0.12% chlorhexidine solution, Brushtox® or sterile tap water, and immersion in boiling tap water for 15 minutes. Microbiological culture for MS and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were performed. The results were analyzed statistically by Friedman’s non-parametric test (a=0.05). Results The 0.12% chlorhexidine spray was statistically similar to the boiling water (p>0.05) and more effective than the Brushtox® spray and control (p<0.05). The analysis of SEM showed the formation of a cariogenic biofilm in all groups with positive culture. Conclusions Pacifiers become contaminated by MS after their use by children and should be disinfected routinely. Spraying with a 0.12% chlorhexidine solution and immersion in boiling water promoted better disinfection of the pacifiers compared with a commercial antiseptic toothbrush cleanser (Brushtox®). PMID:26537723

  17. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using vegetation. A microbial study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.; Banks, M.K. )

    1993-12-01

    The degradation of selected petroleum hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of alfalfa was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Petroleum contaminated and uncontaminated soils were spiked with 100 ppm of polynuclear aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Unspiked, uncontaminated soil was used as a control. Microbial counts for soils with and without plants for each soil treatment were performed 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after planting. Microbial numbers were substantially greater in soil with plants when compared to soil containing no plants, indicating that plant roots enhanced microbial populations in contaminated soil. Soil treatments had no effect on microbial numbers in the presence of plants. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Optimization of biostimulant for bioremediation of contaminated coastal sediment by response surface methodology (RSM) and evaluation of microbial diversity by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Subha, Bakthavachallam; Song, Young Chae; Woo, Jung Hui

    2015-09-15

    The present study aims to optimize the slow release biostimulant ball (BSB) for bioremediation of contaminated coastal sediment using response surface methodology (RSM). Different bacterial communities were evaluated using a pyrosequencing-based approach in contaminated coastal sediments. The effects of BSB size (1-5cm), distance (1-10cm) and time (1-4months) on changes in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile solid (VS) reduction were determined. Maximum reductions of COD and VS, 89.7% and 78.8%, respectively, were observed at a 3cm ball size, 5.5cm distance and 4months; these values are the optimum conditions for effective treatment of contaminated coastal sediment. Most of the variance in COD and VS (0.9291 and 0.9369, respectively) was explained in our chosen models. BSB is a promising method for COD and VS reduction and enhancement of SRB diversity. PMID:26139459

  19. Oxidation of aromatic contaminants coupled to microbial iron reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Baedecker, M.J.; Lonergan, D.J.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Phillips, E.J.P.; Siegel, D.I.

    1989-01-01

    THE contamination of sub-surface water supplies with aromatic compounds is a significant environmental concern1,2. As these contaminated sub-surface environments are generally anaerobic, the microbial oxidation of aromatic compounds coupled to nitrate reduction, sulphate reduction and methane production has been studied intensively1-7. In addition, geochemical evidence suggests that Fe(III) can be an important electron acceptor for the oxidation of aromatic compounds in anaerobic groundwater. Until now, only abiological mechanisms for the oxidation of aromatic compounds with Fe(III) have been reported8-12. Here we show that in aquatic sediments, microbial activity is necessary for the oxidation of model aromatic compounds coupled to Fe(III) reduction. Furthermore, a pure culture of the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium GS-15 can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing benzoate, toluene, phenol or p-cresol with Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor. These results extend the known physiological capabilities of Fe(III)-reducing organisms and provide the first example of an organism of any type which can oxidize an aromatic hydrocarbon anaerobically. ?? 1989 Nature Publishing Group.

  20. 21 CFR 111.10 - What requirements apply for preventing microbial contamination from sick or infected personnel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Personnel § 111.10 What requirements apply for preventing microbial... components, dietary supplements, and contact surfaces used in the manufacture, packaging, labeling, or... contamination of components, dietary supplements, or contact surfaces, until the health condition no...

  1. Surface characterization and contamination analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    The research activity for this first year has focussed on three distinct activities: (1) the use of an integrating sphere to improve upon the gathering of spectral data from a variety of surfaces; (2) the use of optical fiber spectrometry to determine levels of contamination from tape residues on critical bonding surfaces; and (3) an exploratory activity in the use of spectroscopic ellipsometry for the analysis of thin films of contaminants on critical surfaces has also begun.

  2. Biofilms: Microbial Life on Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Microorganisms attach to surfaces and develop biofilms. Biofilm-associated cells can be differentiated from their suspended counterparts by generation of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix, reduced growth rates, and the up- and down- regulation of specific genes. Attachment is a complex process regulated by diverse characteristics of the growth medium, substratum, and cell surface. An established biofilm structure comprises microbial cells and EPS, has a defined architecture, and provides an optimal environment for the exchange of genetic material between cells. Cells may also communicate via quorum sensing, which may in turn affect biofilm processes such as detachment. Biofilms have great importance for public health because of their role in certain infectious diseases and importance in a variety of device-related infections. A greater understanding of biofilm processes should lead to novel, effective control strategies for biofilm control and a resulting improvement in patient management. PMID:12194761

  3. Surface micropattern limits bacterial contamination

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial surface contamination contributes to transmission of nosocomial infections. Chemical cleansers used to control surface contamination are often toxic and incorrectly implemented. Additional non-toxic strategies should be combined with regular cleanings to mitigate risks of human error and further decrease rates of nosocomial infections. The Sharklet micropattern (MP), inspired by shark skin, is an effective tool for reducing bacterial load on surfaces without toxic additives. The studies presented here were carried out to investigate the MP surfaces capability to reduce colonization of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) compared to smooth control surfaces. Methods The MP and smooth surfaces produced in acrylic film were compared for remaining bacterial contamination and colonization following inoculation. Direct sampling of surfaces was carried out after inoculation by immersion, spray, and/or touch methods. Ultimately, a combination assay was developed to assess bacterial contamination after touch transfer inoculation combined with drying (persistence) to mimic common environmental contamination scenarios in the clinic or hospital environment. The combination transfer and persistence assay was then used to test antimicrobial copper beside the MP for the ability to reduce MSSA and MRSA challenge. Results The MP reduced bacterial contamination with log reductions ranging from 87-99% (LR = 0.90-2.18; p < 0.05) compared to smooth control surfaces. The MP was more effective than the 99.9% pure copper alloy C11000 at reducing surface contamination of S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA) through transfer and persistence of bacteria. The MP reduced MSSA by as much as 97% (LR = 1.54; p < 0.01) and MRSA by as much as 94% (LR = 1.26; p < 0.005) compared to smooth controls. Antimicrobial copper had no significant effect on MSSA contamination, but reduced MRSA contamination by 80% (LR = 0.70; p < 0.005). Conclusion The assays developed in this study mimic hospital environmental contamination events to demonstrate the performance of a MP to limit contamination under multiple conditions. Antimicrobial copper has been implemented in hospital room studies to evaluate its impact on nosocomial infections and a decrease in HAI rate was shown. Similar implementation of the MP has potential to reduce the incidence of HAIs although future clinical studies will be necessary to validate the MP’s true impact. PMID:25232470

  4. Inactivation of Microbial Contaminants in Fresh Produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the microbial safety of fresh produce of increasing concern, conventional sanitizing treatments need to be supplemented with effective new interventions to inactivate human pathogens. Our research group has shown that inoculation with suppressive microbial communities inhibits the growth of Sal...

  5. Microbial contamination in poultry chillers estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of microbial contamination during poultry processing may be reduced by the operating characteristics of the chiller. The performance of air chillers and immersion chillers were compared in terms of pre-chill and post-chill contamination using Monte Carlo simulations. Three parameters were u...

  6. MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuses sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

  7. MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuse sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

  8. Instruments Sniff Organic Surface Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Matthew, Michael W.

    1995-01-01

    Portable instruments detecting both nonvolatile and volatile organic surface contaminants in real time developed. Instruments easy to use: operate under ordinary ambient atmospheric conditions, without need to use messy liquid solvents or install and remove witness plates, and without need to cut specimens from surfaces to be inspected. Principle of detection involves sweeping pure, activated gas across surface spot inspected, then monitoring light emitted at wavelengths characteristic of excited molecules formed by chemical reactions between activated gas and contaminants. Gas activated by dc discharge, radio-frequency induction, microwave radiation, laser beam, hot filaments, or any other suitable means that excites some of gas molecules.

  9. Phylogenetic & Physiological Profiling of Microbial Communities of Contaminated Soils/Sediments: Identifying Microbial consortia...

    SciTech Connect

    Terence L. Marsh

    2004-05-26

    The goals of this study were: (1) survey the microbial community in soil samples from a site contaminated with heavy metals using new rapid molecular techniques that are culture-independent; (2) identify phylogenetic signatures of microbial populations that correlate with metal ion contamination; and (3) cultivate these diagnostic strains using traditional as well as novel cultivation techniques in order to identify organisms that may be of value in site evaluation/management or bioremediation.

  10. Microbial contamination of antiseptic-soaked cotton balls.

    PubMed

    Oie, S; Kamiya, A

    1997-06-01

    We investigated microbial contamination of in-use antiseptics at a hospital. No microbial contamination was observed in 70 samples of 0.02% benzalkonium chloride solution (500-ml volume), 70 samples of 1% titratable I2 povidone-iodine solution (250-ml volume), or 15 samples of 0.1% ethacridine lactate solution (500-ml volume) during use in reduced amounts. Nor was any microbial contamination observed in 70 samples of cotton balls soaked in 1% titratable I2 povidone-iodine solution in canisters or cotton gauze soaked in 70% (w/v) ethanol solution in canisters. However, among 70 samples of cotton balls soaked in 0.02% benzalkonium chloride solution in canisters, 6 (8.6%) were contaminated with 10(4) to 10(6) viable cells/ml. The microbial species detected were glucose non-fermentative bacilli such as Alcaligenes xylosoxidans and Pseudomonas putida. The contaminants obtained from cotton balls soaked in 0.02% benzalkonium chloride solution did not proliferate in that solution or in distilled water but showed rapid growth in the cotton balls soaked in either of these liquids. These findings suggested that benzalkonium chloride solution tends to become contaminated when cotton balls are immersed. Therefore, cotton balls soaked in benzalkonium chloride solution are not recommended as an antiseptic. When no other choice is available, the cotton balls should be soaked in benzalkonium chloride solution at the time of usage. PMID:9212987

  11. Ecogenomics of microbial communities in bioremediation of chlorinated contaminated sites

    PubMed Central

    Maphosa, Farai; Lieten, Shakti H.; Dinkla, Inez; Stams, Alfons J.; Smidt, Hauke; Fennell, Donna E.

    2012-01-01

    Organohalide compounds such as chloroethenes, chloroethanes, and polychlorinated benzenes are among the most significant pollutants in the world. These compounds are often found in contamination plumes with other pollutants such as solvents, pesticides, and petroleum derivatives. Microbial bioremediation of contaminated sites, has become commonplace whereby key processes involved in bioremediation include anaerobic degradation and transformation of these organohalides by organohalide respiring bacteria and also via hydrolytic, oxygenic, and reductive mechanisms by aerobic bacteria. Microbial ecogenomics has enabled us to not only study the microbiology involved in these complex processes but also develop tools to better monitor and assess these sites during bioremediation. Microbial ecogenomics have capitalized on recent advances in high-throughput and -output genomics technologies in combination with microbial physiology studies to address these complex bioremediation problems at a system level. Advances in environmental metagenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics have provided insights into key genes and their regulation in the environment. They have also given us clues into microbial community structures, dynamics, and functions at contaminated sites. These techniques have not only aided us in understanding the lifestyles of common organohalide respirers, for example Dehalococcoides, Dehalobacter, and Desulfitobacterium, but also provided insights into novel and yet uncultured microorganisms found in organohalide respiring consortia. In this paper, we look at how ecogenomic studies have aided us to understand the microbial structures and functions in response to environmental stimuli such as the presence of chlorinated pollutants. PMID:23060869

  12. Inactivation of Microbial Contaminants in Fresh Produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the microbial safety of fresh produce of increasing concern, conventional sanitizing treatments need to be supplemented with effective new interventions to inactivate human pathogens. The Produce Safety research project at the US Dept. Agriculture’s Eastern Regional Research Center develops and...

  13. Environmental surface cleanliness and the potential for contamination during handwashing.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Christopher J; Malik, Rifhat; Cooper, Rose A; Looker, Nick; Michaels, Barry

    2003-04-01

    Effective handwashing (including drying) is important in infection control. The ability of the various stages of handwashing to decrease skin-surface microbial counts has been documented. However, an important element, environmental surface cleanliness, and the potential for contamination of hands during the process has not been well studied or quantified. An examination of the adenosine triphosphate (a measure of residual organic soil), bacterial, and staphylococcal load on ward handwash station surfaces, which could be touched during handwashing, is reported. Hand contact surfaces tested consisted of approximately 620 each of: faucet handles, soap dispenser activator mechanisms, and folded paper-towel dispenser exits. Failure rates in excess of benchmark clean values were higher with adenosine triphosphate assays than microbial counts. This could indicate the presence of a higher level of general organic debris (eg, skin cells) as opposed to microbial contamination or could reflect greater assay sensitivity. Faucet handles were more likely to be contaminated and be in excess of benchmark values than paper-towel dispenser exits. However, the latter are likely to be the final surface touched during the handwashing process and overall nearly 20% were above microbiologic benchmark values. Many of the organisms isolated were staphylococci and the results are discussed within the context of microbial cross-contamination and potential pathogen spread. PMID:12665742

  14. The impact of land use on microbial surface water pollution.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Christiane; Rechenburg, Andrea; Rind, Esther; Kistemann, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Our knowledge relating to water contamination from point and diffuse sources has increased in recent years and there have been many studies undertaken focusing on effluent from sewage plants or combined sewer overflows. However, there is still only a limited amount of microbial data on non-point sources leading to diffuse pollution of surface waters. In this study, the concentrations of several indicator micro-organisms and pathogens in the upper reaches of a river system were examined over a period of 16 months. In addition to bacteria, diffuse pollution caused by Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. was analysed. A single land use type predestined to cause high concentrations of all microbial parameters could not be identified. The influence of different land use types varies between microbial species. The microbial concentration in river water cannot be explained by stable non-point effluent concentrations from different land use types. There is variation in the ranking of the potential of different land use types resulting in surface water contamination with regard to minimum, median and maximum effects. These differences between median and maximum impact indicate that small-scale events like spreading manure substantially influence the general contamination potential of a land use type and may cause increasing micro-organism concentrations in the river water by mobilisation during the next rainfall event. PMID:25456147

  15. Microbial contamination detection at low levels by [125]I radiolabeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, David; Karouia, Fathi

    Contamination of mission spacecraft is an ongoing issue. A broad diversity of microorganisms have been detected in clean rooms where spacecraft are assembled. Some of which, depicted as oligotroph, are of special regard, as they are capable of colonizing inorganic surfaces like metal, and have been shown to be a concern for forward contamination of pristine celestial bodies. Currently, the NASA standard assay is the only approved assay intended for the enumeration of spores and heterotrophic microbial populations. However, culture-based microbial detection methods underestimate the viable microbial population. More recently, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence and limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assays, which employ measure-ments of selected metabolic products as a proxy of biomass, have been used successfully to circumvent the necessity of the growth of microorganisms in order to estimate the biodurdens associated with spacecraft assembly facility. However, these methods have limitation in the amount of cells that can be detected, i.e., 103 cells, and the type of microorganisms respec-tively. This work seeks to develop a new highly sensitive method for the determination of bioburdens (and the detection of microorganisms and life) that is independant of the type of organism while preserving a good turn-around time for analysis for planetary protection purposes. The assay is based on the detection of the organism's protein by labeling them by radioiodination, 125 I, of aromatic rings on tyrosine amino acids residues. Radiolabeling techniques are inherently sensitive and 125 I, in particular, benefits from a 60 day half-life, providing greater activity and signal per unit number of labels. Furthermore, microorganisms can contain over 50% of protein by dry weight. Thus, just one label per protein increases the sensitivity, compared to the ATP and LAL assays, by one and three orders of magnitude by using standard detection methods and the use of multiphoton detection (MPD), respectively. Therefore this assay enables the detection to lower levels than previously possible, down to single cells. The method has also applicability for testing returned samples hardware and for the testing sterilization methods as well as other Astrobiological applications. Future work could extend to species such as viruses and prions.

  16. Specificity of marine microbial surface interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Imam, S H; Bard, R F; Tosteson, T R

    1984-01-01

    The macromolecular surface components involved in intraspecific cell surface interactions of the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and closely associated bacteria were investigated. The specific surface attachment between this alga and its associated bacteria is mediated by lectin-like macromolecules associated with the surfaces of these cells. The binding activity of these surface polymers was inhibited by specific simple sugars; this suggests the involvement of specific receptor-ligand binding sites on the interactive surfaces. Epifluorescent microscopic evaluation of bacteria-alga interactions in the presence and absence of the macromolecules that mediate these interactions showed that the glycoproteins active in these processes were specific to the microbial sources from which they were obtained. The demonstration and definition of the specificity of these interactions in mixed microbial populations may play an important role in our understanding of the dynamics of marine microbial populations in the sea. PMID:6508293

  17. Response of microbial activities and diversity to PAHs contamination at coal tar contaminated land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Sun, Yujiao; Ding, Aizhong; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dayi

    2015-04-01

    Coal tar is one of the most hazardous and concerned organic pollutants and the main hazards are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The indigenous microorganisms in soils are capable to degrade PAHs, with essential roles in biochemical process for PAHs natural attenuation. This study investigated 48 soil samples (from 8 depths of 6 boreholes) in Beijing coking and chemistry plant (China) and revealed the correlation between PAHs contamination, soil enzyme activities and microbial community structure, by 16S rRNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). At the site, the key contaminants were identified as naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene, and the total PAHs concentration ranged from 0.1 to 923.9 mg/kg dry soil. The total PAHs contamination level was positively correlated (p<0.05) with the bacteria count (0.9×107-14.2×107 CFU/mL), catalase activities (0.554-6.230 mL 0.02 M KMnO4/g•h) and dehydrogenase activities (1.9-30.4 TF μg/g•h soil), showing the significant response of microbial population and degrading functions to the organic contamination in soils. The PAHs contamination stimulated the PAHs degrading microbes and promoted their biochemical roles in situ. The positive relationship between bacteria count and dehydrogenase activities (p<0.05) suggested the dominancy of PAHs degrading bacteria in the microbial community. More interestingly, the microbial community deterioration was uncovered via the decline of microbial biodiversity (richness from 16S rRNA DGGE) against total PAHs concentration (p<0.05). Our research described the spatial profiles of PAHs contamination and soil microbial functions at the PAHs heavily contaminated sites, offering deeper understanding on the roles of indigenous microbial community in natural attenuation process.

  18. Microbial contamination of two urban sandstone aquifers in the UK.

    PubMed

    Powell, Karen L; Taylor, Richard G; Cronin, Aidan A; Barrett, Mike H; Pedley, Steve; Sellwood, Jane; Trowsdale, Sam A; Lerner, David N

    2003-01-01

    Development of urban groundwater has historically been constrained by concerns about its quality. Rising urban water tables and overabstraction from rural aquifers in the UK have led to a renewed interest in urban groundwater, particularly the possibility of finding water of acceptable quality at depth. This study assessed the microbial quality of groundwater collected from depth-specific intervals over a 15-month period within the Permo-Triassic Sherwood Sandstone aquifers underlying the cities of Nottingham and Birmingham. Sewage-derived bacteria (thermotolerant coliforms, faecal streptococci and sulphite-reducing clostridia) and viruses (enteroviruses, Norwalk-like viruses, coliphage) were regularly detected to depths of 60 m in the unconfined sandstone and to a depth of 91 m in the confined sandstone. Microbial concentrations varied temporally and spatially but increased frequency of contamination with depth coincided with geological heterogeneities such as fissures and mudstone bands. Significantly, detection of Norwalk-like viruses and Coxsackievirus B4 in groundwater corresponded with seasonal variations in virus discharge to the sewer system. The observation of low levels of sewage-derived microbial contaminants at depth in the Triassic Sandstone aquifer is explained by the movement of infinitesimal proportions of bulk (macroscopic) groundwater flow along preferential pathways (e.g., fissures, bedding planes). The existence of very high microbial populations at source (raw sewage) and their extremely low detection limits at the receptor (multilevel piezometer) enable these statistically extreme (microscopic) flows to be traced. Rapid penetration of microbial contaminants into sandstone aquifers, not previously reported, highlights the vulnerability of sandstone aquifers to microbial contamination. PMID:12502063

  19. Response of a salt marsh microbial community to metal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Teixeira, Catarina; Reis, Izabela; Magalhães, Catarina; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.

    2013-09-01

    Salt marshes are important sinks for contaminants, namely metals that tend to accumulate around plant roots and could eventually be taken up in a process known as phytoremediation. On the other hand, microbial communities display important roles in the salt marsh ecosystems, such as recycling of nutrients and/or degradation of organic contaminants. Thus, plants can benefit from the microbial activity in the phytoremediation process. Nevertheless, above certain levels, metals are known to be toxic to microorganisms, fact that can eventually compromise their ecological functions. In this vein, the aim of present study was to investigate, in the laboratory, the effect of selected metals (Cd, Cu and Pb) on the microbial communities associated to the roots of two salt marsh plants. Sediments colonized by Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis were collected in the River Lima estuary (NW Portugal), and spiked with each of the metals at three different Effects Range-Median (ERM) concentrations (1, 10×, 50×), being ERM the sediment quality guideline that indicates the concentration above which adverse biological effects may frequently occur. Spiked sediments were incubated with a nutritive saline solution, being left in the dark under constant agitation for 7 days. The results showed that, despite the initial sediments colonized by J. maritimus and P. australis displayed significant (p < 0.05) differences in terms of microbial community structure (evaluated by ARISA), they presented similar microbial abundances (estimated by DAPI). Also, in terms of microbial abundance, both sediments showed a similar response to metal addition, with a decrease in number of cells only observed for the higher addition of Cu. Nevertheless, both Cu and Pb, at intermediate metals levels promote a shift in the microbial community structure, with possibly effect on the ecological function of these microbial communities in salt marshes. These changes may affect plants phytoremediation potential and further work on this subject is in need.

  20. Apparatus for Sampling Surface Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Mark

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus denoted a swab device has been developed as a convenient means of acquiring samples of contaminants from surfaces and suspending the samples in liquids. (Thereafter, the liquids can be dispensed, in controlled volumes, into scientific instruments for analysis of the contaminants.) The swab device is designed so as not to introduce additional contamination and to facilitate, simplify, and systematize the dispensing of controlled volumes of liquid into analytical instruments. The swab device is a single apparatus into which are combined all the equipment and materials needed for sampling surface contamination. The swab device contains disposable components stacked together on a nondisposable dispensing head. One of the disposable components is a supply cartridge holding a sufficient volume of liquid for one complete set of samples. (The liquid could be clean water or another suitable solvent, depending on the application.) This supply of liquid is sealed by Luer valves. At the beginning of a sampling process, the user tears open a sealed bag containing the supply cartridge. A tip on the nondisposable dispensing head is engaged with a Luer valve on one end of the supply cartridge and rotated, locking the supply cartridge on the dispensing head and opening the valve. The swab tip includes a fabric swab that is wiped across the surface of interest to acquire a sample. A sealed bag containing a disposable dispensing tip is then opened, and the swab tip is pushed into the dispensing tip until seated. The dispensing head contains a piston that passes through a spring-loaded lip seal. The air volume displaced by this piston forces the liquid out of the supply cartridge, over the swab, and into the dispensing tip. The piston is manually cycled to enforce oscillation of the air volume and thereby to cause water to flow to wash contaminants from the swab and cause the resulting liquid suspension of contaminants to flow into the dispensing tip. After several cycles to ensure adequate mixing, liquid containing the suspended contaminant sample is dispensed. The disposable components are then removed from the dispensing head, which may then be reused with a fresh set of disposable components.

  1. Microbial Contamination of Chicken Wings: An Open-Ended Laboratory Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutch, Charles E.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the chicken wing project in which students assess the microbial contamination of chicken wings for the safety of foods. Uses the colony counting technique and direct wash fluid examination for determining the microbial contamination, and investigates methods to reduce the level of microbial contamination. (Contains 14 references.) (YDS)

  2. Microbial contamination of computer keyboards in a university setting.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Glenn; Palombo, Enzo A

    2009-08-01

    The keyboards of multiple-user (student) and single-user (staff) computers located on a university campus were sampled to assess microbial contamination. The average number of microorganisms present on multiple-user computer keyboards was significantly greater than on single-user keyboards, and the number of keyboards harboring potential pathogens was also greater for multiple-user computers. It is recommended that regular cleaning and disinfection of computers be used to reduce the microbial load, especially for multiple-user workstations. PMID:19233511

  3. A theoretical microbial contamination model for a human Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupisella, Mark Lewis

    Contamination from a human presence on Mars could significantly compromise the search for extraterrestrial life. In particular, the difficulties in controlling microbial contamination, the potential for terrestrial microbes to grow, evolve, compete, and modify the Martian environment, and the likely microbial nature of putative Martian life, make microbial contamination worthy of focus as we begin to plan for a human mission to Mars. This dissertation describes a relatively simple theoretical model that can be used to explore how microbial contamination from a human Mars mission might survive and grow in the Martian soil environment surrounding a habitat. A user interface has been developed to allow a general practitioner to choose values and functions for almost all parameters ranging from the number of astronauts to the half-saturation constants for microbial growth. Systematic deviations from a baseline set of parameter values are explored as potential plausible scenarios for the first human Mars missions. The total viable population and population density are the primary state variables of interest, but other variables such as the total number of births and total dead and viable microbes are also tracked. The general approach was to find the most plausible parameter value combinations that produced a population density of 1 microbe/cm3 or greater, a threshold that was used to categorize the more noteworthy populations for subsequent analysis. Preliminary assessments indicate that terrestrial microbial contamination resulting from leakage from a limited human mission (perhaps lasting up to 5 months) will not likely become a problematic population in the near-term as long as reasonable contamination control measures are implemented (for example, a habitat leak rate no greater than 1% per hour). However, there appear to be plausible, albeit unlikely, scenarios that could cause problematic populations, depending in part on (a) the initial survival fraction and death rate of microbes that are leaked into the Martian environment, which depends largely on the possibility for protection from the high UV radiation environment on Mars, (b) organic nutrient availability, and (c) liquid water availability, which is likely to be the limiting survival and growth factor.

  4. Surface reflectance degradation by microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Allman, Steve L.; Graham, David E.; Cheng, Karen R.; Pfiffner, Susan Marie; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-11-05

    Building envelope, such as a roof, is the interface between a building structure and the environment. Understanding of the physics of microbial interactions with the building envelope is limited. In addition to the natural weathering, microorganisms and airborne particulate matter that attach to a cool roof tend to reduce the roof reflectance over time, compromising the energy efficiency advantages of the reflective coating designs. We applied microbial ecology analysis to identify the natural communities present on the exposed coatings and investigated the reduction kinetics of the surface reflectance upon the introduction of a defined mixture of both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms representing the natural communities. The result are (1) reflectance degradation by microbial communities follows a first-order kinetic relationship and (2) more than 50% of degradation from the initial reflectance value can be caused by microbial species alone in much less time than 3 years required by the current standard ENERGY STAR® test methods.

  5. Surface reflectance degradation by microbial communities

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cheng, Meng -Dawn; Allman, Steve L.; Graham, David E.; Cheng, Karen R.; Pfiffner, Susan Marie; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2015-11-05

    Building envelope, such as a roof, is the interface between a building structure and the environment. Understanding of the physics of microbial interactions with the building envelope is limited. In addition to the natural weathering, microorganisms and airborne particulate matter that attach to a cool roof tend to reduce the roof reflectance over time, compromising the energy efficiency advantages of the reflective coating designs. We applied microbial ecology analysis to identify the natural communities present on the exposed coatings and investigated the reduction kinetics of the surface reflectance upon the introduction of a defined mixture of both photoautotrophic and heterotrophicmore » microorganisms representing the natural communities. The result are (1) reflectance degradation by microbial communities follows a first-order kinetic relationship and (2) more than 50% of degradation from the initial reflectance value can be caused by microbial species alone in much less time than 3 years required by the current standard ENERGY STAR® test methods.« less

  6. Evaluation of metal and microbial contamination in botanical supplements.

    PubMed

    Raman, Priyadarshini; Patino, Lina C; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-12-29

    The sale of botanical dietary supplements in the United States is on the rise. However, limited studies have been conducted on the safety of these supplements. There are reports on the presence of undesired metals in some of the botanical dietary supplements. In this study, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, grape seed extract, kava kava, saw palmetto, and St. John's wort supplements manufactured by Nature's Way, Meijer, GNC, Nutrilite, Solaray, Sundown and Natrol, have been analyzed for lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, uranium, chromium, vanadium, copper, zinc, molybdenum, palladium, tin, antimony, thallium, and tungsten using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. All samples were devoid of mercury contamination. Results indicated that the botanical supplements analyzed did not contain unacceptable concentrations of these metals. These supplements were also evaluated for microbial contamination, and most samples analyzed showed the presence of bacteria or fungi or both. Microbes were not counted nor were microbial counts determined in these samples. PMID:15612762

  7. Sequester of metals and mineralization of organic contaminants with microbial mats

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, J.; Phillips, P.; Gould, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Several recalcitrant organic contaminants are completely mineralized to simple products by microbial mats. Contaminants include chlordane, PCB, TNT, petroleum distillates, BM compounds and TCE in a mixed contaminant solution containing Zn. Degradation rates are relatively rapid under both dark and light conditions. In addition to complete degradation of organic materials, mats have been used to reduce selenate to elemental selenium, remove Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Co, Cr, Fe and Mn from water and sequester uranium (U{sup 238}) at a rate of 3.19 mg/m{sup 2}/h. Results of three pilot projects, including field pond treatment of mine drainage and bioreactor treatment of BTEX compounds will be reported. Microbial mats are natural heterotrophic and autotrophic communities dominated by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). They are self-organized laminated structures annealed fightly together by slimy secretions from various microbial components. The surface slime of the mats effectively immobilizes the ecosystem to a variety of substrates, thereby stabilizing the most efficient internal microbial structure. Cyanobacteria mats are generated for bioremediation applications by enriching a water surface with ensiled grass clippings together with mat inocula developed in the laboratory.

  8. Response of a salt marsh microbial community to antibiotic contamination.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Joana P; Almeida, C Marisa R; Basto, M Clara P; Mucha, Ana P

    2015-11-01

    Salt marsh plants and associated microorganisms can have an important role in contaminant removal from estuaries, through bioremediation processes. Nevertheless, the interaction between emerging contaminants, namely antibiotics, and plant-microorganism associations in estuarine environment are still scarcely known. In this vein, the aim of the present study was to evaluate, in controlled conditions, the response of a salt marsh plant-microorganism association to a contamination with a veterinary antibiotic. For that a salt marsh plant (Phragmites australis) and its respective rhizosediment were collected in a temperate estuary (Lima estuary, NW Portugal) and exposed for 7 days to enrofloxacin (ENR) under different nutritional conditions in sediment elutriates. Response was evaluated in terms of ENR removal and changes in microbial community structure (evaluated by ARISA) and abundance (estimated by DAPI). In general, no significant changes were observed in microbial abundance. Changes in bacterial richness and diversity were observed but only in unplanted systems. However, multivariate analysis of ARISA profiles showed significant effect of both the presence of plant and type of treatment on the microbial community structure, with significant differences among all treatment groups. In addition, plants and associated microorganisms presented a potential for antibiotic removal that, although highly dependent on their nutritional status, can be a valuable asset to recover impacted areas such as estuarine ones. PMID:26081732

  9. Detector for Particle Surface Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogan, Paul A. (Inventor); Schwindt, Christian J. (Inventor); Mattson, Carl B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A system and method for detecting and quantizing particle fallout contamination particles which are collected on a transparent disk or other surface employs an optical detector, such as a CCD camera, to obtain images of the disk and a computer for analyzing the images. From the images, the computer detects, counts and sizes particles collected on the disk The computer also determines, through comparison to previously analyzed images, the particle fallout rate, and generates an alarm or other indication if the rate exceeds a maximum allowable value. The detector and disk are disposed in a housing having an aperture formed therein for defining the area on the surface of the disk which is exposed to the particle fallout. A light source is provided for evenly illuminating the disk. A first drive motor slowly rotates the disk to increase the amount of its surface area which is exposed through the aperture to the particle fallout. A second motor is also provided for incrementally scanning the disk in a radial direction back and forth over the camera so that the camera eventually obtains images of the entire surface of the disk which is exposed to the particle fallout.

  10. How to deal with PCR contamination in molecular microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Mennerat, Adèle; Sheldon, Ben C

    2014-11-01

    Microbial ecology studies often use broad-range PCR primers to obtain community profiles. Contaminant microbial DNA present in PCR reagents may therefore be amplified together with template DNA, resulting in unrepeatable data which may be difficult to interpret, especially when template DNA is present at low levels. One possible decontamination method consists in pre-treating PCR mixes with restriction enzymes before heat-inactivating those enzymes prior to the start of the PCR. However, this method has given contrasting results, including a reduction in PCR sensitivity. In this study, we tested the efficiency of two different enzymes (DNase 1 and Sau3AI) as well as the effect of dithiothreitol (DTT), a strong reducing agent, in the decontamination procedure. Our results indicate that enzymatic treatment does reduce contamination levels. However, DNase 1 caused substantial reductions in the bacterial richness found in communities, which we interpret as a result of its incomplete inactivation by heat treatment. DTT did help maintain bacterial richness in mixes treated with DNase 1. No such issues arose when using Sau3AI, which therefore seems a more appropriate enzyme. In our study, four operational taxonomic units (OTU) decreased in frequency and relative abundance after treatment with Sau3AI and hence are likely to represent contaminant bacterial DNA. We found higher within-sample similarity in community structure after treatment with Sau3AI, probably better reflecting the initial bacterial communities. We argue that the presence of contaminant bacterial DNA may have consequences in the interpretation of ecological data, especially when using low levels of template DNA from highly diverse communities. We advocate the use of such decontaminating approaches as a standard procedure in microbial ecology. PMID:25004997

  11. Microbial Reduction of Intragrain U(VI) in Contaminated Sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M.; Zhong, Lirong; Heald, Steve M.; Wang, Zheming; Jeon, Byong Hun; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2009-07-01

    The accessibility of precipitated, intragrain U(VI) in a contaminated sediment to microbial reduction was investigated to ascertain geochemical and microscopic transport phenomena controlling U(VI) bioavailability. The sediment was collected from the US DOE Hanford site, and contained uranyl precipitates in a form of Na-boltwoodite within the mm-sized granitic lithic fragments in the sediment. Microbial reduction was investigated in a culture of a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium (DMRB), Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, in bicarbonate solutions at pH 6.8 buffered by PIPES. Measurements of uranium concentration, speciation, and valence in aqueous and solid phases indicated that microbial reduction of intragrain U(VI) proceeded by two mechanisms: 1) sequentially coupled dissolution of intragrain uranyl precipitates, diffusion of dissolved U(VI) out of intragrain regions, and microbial reduction of dissolved U(VI); and 2) U(VI) reduction in the intragrain regions by soluble, diffusible biogenic reductants. The bioreduction rate in the first pathway was over 3 orders of magnitude slower than that in comparable aqueous solutions containing aqueous U(VI) only. The slower bioreduction rate was attributed to: 1) the release of calcium from the desorption/dissolution of calcium-containing minerals in the sediment, which subsequently altered U(VI) aqueous speciation and slowed U(VI) bioreduction and 2) alternative electron transfer pathways that reduced U(VI) in the intragrain regions and changed its dissolution and solubility behavior. The results implied that the overall rate of microbial reduction of intragrain U(VI) will be influenced by the reactive mass transfer of U(VI) and biogenic reductants within intragrain regions, and geochemical reactions controlling major ion concentrations that affect U(VI) aqueous speciation and microbial activity.

  12. Microbial mobilization of plutonium and other actinides from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Francis, A J; Dodge, C J

    2015-12-01

    We examined the dissolution of Pu, U, and Am in contaminated soil from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) due to indigenous microbial activity. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) analysis of the soil showed that Pu was present in its polymeric form and associated with Fe- and Mn- oxides and aluminosilicates. Uranium analysis by x-ray diffraction (?-XRD) revealed discrete U-containing mineral phases, viz., schoepite, sharpite, and liebigite; synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (?-XRF) mapping showed its association with Fe- and Ca-phases; and ?-x-ray absorption near edge structure (?-XANES) confirmed U(IV) and U(VI) oxidation states. Addition of citric acid or glucose to the soil and incubated under aerobic or anaerobic conditions enhanced indigenous microbial activity and the dissolution of Pu. Detectable amount of Am and no U was observed in solution. In the citric acid-amended sample, Pu concentration increased with time and decreased to below detection levels when the citric acid was completely consumed. In contrast, with glucose amendment, Pu remained in solution. Pu speciation studies suggest that it exists in mixed oxidation states (III/IV) in a polymeric form as colloids. Although Pu(IV) is the most prevalent and generally considered to be more stable chemical form in the environment, our findings suggest that under the appropriate conditions, microbial activity could affect its solubility and long-term stability in contaminated environments. PMID:26406590

  13. On microbial contaminants, micropseudofossils, and the oldest records of life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloud, P.; Morrison, K.

    1979-01-01

    Microbial contaminants may be introduced on outcrop as well as en route to or in the laboratory. Micropseudofossils may be natural or man-made. It is possible to recognize such misleading objects and important that they are not allowed to dilute the growing record of authentic pre-Phanerozoic life. Filamentous microbial contaminants from minute cracks in samples of ancient carbonate rocks from Brazil (perhaps 1 Ga old) and South Africa (???2.3 Ga old) are similar to occurrences previously described as fossils. Published records of supposedly Archean microbial life also include microcontaminants and laboratory artifacts. Although microstructures from sedimentary rocks of the Swaziland system could be fossils, they are not demonstrably so. The oldest structurally preserved fossils yet known seem to be the filaments described by Lois Nagy from stromatolitic limestone in the ???2.3 Ga old Malmani Dolomite of South Africa. It will be difficult to establish unequivocal older records in the absence of definitive ultrastructural or micro-chemical evidence. ?? 1979.

  14. MICROBIAL INTERACTIONS WITH PESTICIDES IN ESTUARINE SURFACE SLICKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuarine surface films from Escambia Bay, Florida, and adjacent waters were sampled by using the membrane adsorption technique to enumerate microbial populations. Samples of the upper 10 micrometers of estuarine surface films yielded microbial populations. These populations were...

  15. Microbial contamination and chemical toxicity of the Rio Grande

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Jose; Botsford, James; Hernandez, Jose; Montoya, Anna; Saenz, Roswitha; Valles, Adrian; Vazquez, Alejandro; Alvarez, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Background The Rio Grande River is the natural boundary between U.S. and Mexico from El Paso, TX to Brownsville, TX. and is one of the major water resources of the area. Agriculture, farming, maquiladora industry, domestic activities, as well as differences in disposal regulations and enforcement increase the contamination potential of water supplies along the border region. Therefore, continuous and accurate assessment of the quality of water supplies is of paramount importance. The objectives of this study were to monitor water quality of the Rio Grande and to determine if any correlations exist between fecal coliforms, E. coli, chemical toxicity as determined by Botsford's assay, H. pylori presence, and environmental parameters. Seven sites along a 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX were sampled on a monthly basis between January 2000 and December 2002. Results The results showed great variability in the number of fecal coliforms, and E. coli on a month-to-month basis. Fecal coliforms ranged between 0–106 CFU/100 ml while E. coli ranged between 6 to > 2419 MPN. H. pylori showed positive detection for all the sites at different times. Toxicity ranged between 0 to 94% of inhibition capacity (IC). Since values above 50% are considered to be toxic, most of the sites displayed significant chemical toxicity at different times of the year. No significant correlations were observed between microbial indicators and chemical toxicity. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the 112-Km segment of the Rio Grande river from Sunland Park, NM to Fort Hancock, TX exceeds the standards for contact recreation water on a continuous basis. In addition, the presence of chemical toxicity in most sites along the 112-Km segment indicates that water quality is an area of concern for the bi-national region. The presence of H. pylori adds to the potential health hazards of the Rio Grande. Since no significant correlation was observed between the presence of H. pylori antigens and the two indicators of fecal contamination, we can conclude that fecal indicators cannot be used to detect the presence of H. pylori reliably in surface water. PMID:15104800

  16. EVIDENCE FOR MICROBIAL ENHANCED ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electrical conductivity of sediments during microbial mineralization of diesel was investigated in a mesoscale column experiment consisting of biotic contaminated and uncontaminated columns. Microbial population numbers increased with a clear pattern of depth zonation within the ...

  17. Microbial contamination of drinking water in Pakistan--a review.

    PubMed

    Nabeela, Farhat; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Uzma, Syeda; Murad, Waheed; Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Ullah, Waheed; Qasim, Muhammad; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2014-12-01

    Water pollution with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the serious threats to human health, particularly in developing countries. The main objective of this article is to highlight microbial contamination of drinking water, the major factors responsible for microbial contamination, and the resulting health problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for researchers and administrative agencies to initiate relevant studies and develop new policies to protect further deterioration of water supply with pathogenic microbes and ensure clean and safe drinking water to the public in Pakistan. In Pakistan, water at the source, in the distribution network, and at the consumer tap is heavily polluted with coliforms and fecal coliforms all over the country. An overview of more than 7,000 water samples reviewed here reveals that an average of over 71 and 58 % samples in the country was contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively. Drinking water contamination accounts for 20 to 40 % of all diseases in the country, which causes national income losses of Rs 25-58 billion annually (US$0.25-0.58 billion, approximately 0.6-1.44 % of the country's GDP). Improper disposal of industrial and municipal wastes is the most important factor responsible for water pollution in the country followed by cross-contamination due to old and leaking pipes and lack of water filtration and disinfection facilities. There is an urgent need for emergency steps to stop further deterioration of water quality and improve the existing water quality so as to protect the public from widespread waterborne diseases. PMID:25056753

  18. Potential sources of microbial contamination in unpasteurized apple cider.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Luis; Henderson, John; Fabri, Martha; Oke, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify possible sources of microbial contamination and to assess the effect of good cleaning and sanitation practices on the microbial quality and safety of unpasteurized apple cider. Raw unwashed apples, washed apples, cleaning water, fresh cider, and finished cider samples were collected from five Ontario producers over 4 months and microbiologically tested. Total coliforms were found in 31, 71 and 38% of the unwashed apple, water, and washed apple samples, respectively. Escherichia coli was found in 40% of the water samples from one producer alone. The washing step was identified as a potential source of contamination, possibly due to water in the dump tanks seldom being refreshed, and because scrubbers, spray nozzles, and conveyors were not properly cleaned and sanitized. Higher total coliform counts (P < 0.0001) and prevalence (P < 0.0001) in fresh cider compared with those in unwashed apples and washed apples indicated considerable microbial buildup along the process, possibly explained by the lack of appropriate equipment sanitation procedures. Results showed that producers who had better sanitary practices in place had lower (P < 0.001) total coliform prevalence than the rest of the producers. Overall results show that good sanitation procedures are associated with improved microbial quality of fresh cider in terms of total coliforms and that operators who pasteurize and/or UV treat their product should still be required to have a sound good manufacturing practices program in place to prevent recontamination. Cryptosporidium parvum, an important pathogen for this industry, was found in different sample types, including washed apples, water, and fresh and finished cider. PMID:16416911

  19. Responses of microbial community from tropical pristine coastal soil to crude oil contamination

    PubMed Central

    Pylro, Victor; Clark, Ian M.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Tótola, Marcos R.

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian offshore crude oil exploration has increased after the discovery of new reservoirs in the region known as pré-sal, in a depth of 7.000 m under the water surface. Oceanic islands near these areas represent sensitive environments, where changes in microbial communities due oil contamination could stand for the loss of metabolic functions, with catastrophic effects to the soil services provided from these locations. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of petroleum contamination on microbial community shifts (Archaea, Bacteria and Fungi) from Trindade Island coastal soils. Microcosms were assembled and divided in two treatments, control and contaminated (weathered crude oil at the concentration of 30 g kg−1), in triplicate. Soils were incubated for 38 days, with CO2 measurements every four hours. After incubation, the total DNA was extracted, purified and submitted for target sequencing of 16S rDNA, for Bacteria and Archaea domains and Fungal ITS1 region, using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Three days after contamination, the CO2 emission rate peaked at more than 20 × the control and the emissions remained higher during the whole incubation period. Microbial alpha-diversity was reduced for contaminated-samples. Fungal relative abundance of contaminated samples was reduced to almost 40% of the total observed species. Taxonomy comparisons showed rise of the Actinobacteria phylum, shifts in several Proteobacteria classes and reduction of the Archaea class Nitrososphaerales. This is the first effort in acquiring knowledge concerning the effect of crude oil contamination in soils of a Brazilian oceanic island. This information is important to guide any future bioremediation strategy that can be required. PMID:26925341

  20. Responses of microbial community from tropical pristine coastal soil to crude oil contamination.

    PubMed

    Morais, Daniel; Pylro, Victor; Clark, Ian M; Hirsch, Penny R; Tótola, Marcos R

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian offshore crude oil exploration has increased after the discovery of new reservoirs in the region known as pré-sal, in a depth of 7.000 m under the water surface. Oceanic islands near these areas represent sensitive environments, where changes in microbial communities due oil contamination could stand for the loss of metabolic functions, with catastrophic effects to the soil services provided from these locations. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of petroleum contamination on microbial community shifts (Archaea, Bacteria and Fungi) from Trindade Island coastal soils. Microcosms were assembled and divided in two treatments, control and contaminated (weathered crude oil at the concentration of 30 g kg(-1)), in triplicate. Soils were incubated for 38 days, with CO2 measurements every four hours. After incubation, the total DNA was extracted, purified and submitted for target sequencing of 16S rDNA, for Bacteria and Archaea domains and Fungal ITS1 region, using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Three days after contamination, the CO2 emission rate peaked at more than 20 × the control and the emissions remained higher during the whole incubation period. Microbial alpha-diversity was reduced for contaminated-samples. Fungal relative abundance of contaminated samples was reduced to almost 40% of the total observed species. Taxonomy comparisons showed rise of the Actinobacteria phylum, shifts in several Proteobacteria classes and reduction of the Archaea class Nitrososphaerales. This is the first effort in acquiring knowledge concerning the effect of crude oil contamination in soils of a Brazilian oceanic island. This information is important to guide any future bioremediation strategy that can be required. PMID:26925341

  1. Evaluation of Unfixed Tritium Surface Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Postolache, C.; Matei, Lidia

    2005-07-15

    Surface unfixed radioactive contamination represents the amount of surface total radioactive contamination which can be eliminated by pure mechanical processes. This unfixed contamination represents the main risk factor for contamination of the personnel which operates in tritium laboratories. Unfixed contamination was determined using sampling smears type FPCSN-PSE-AA. Those FPCSN-PSE-AA smears are disks of expanded polystyrene which contain acrylic acid fragments superficially grafted. Sampling factor was determinated by contaminated surface wiping with moisten smears in 50 {mu}L butylic alcohol and activity measuring at liquid scintillation measuring device. Sampling factor was determined by the ratio between measured activity and initially real conventional activity. The sampling factor was determined for Tritium Laboratory existent surfaces: stainless steel, aluminum, glass, ceramics, linoleum, washable coats, epoxy resins type ALOREX LP-52.The sampling factors and the reproducibility were determined in function of surface nature.

  2. Studies on possible propagation of microbial contamination in planetary clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimmick, R. L.; Chatigny, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Current U.S. planetary quarantine standards based on international agreements require consideration of the probability of contamination (Pc) of the outer planets, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, etc. One of the key parameters in estimation of the Pc of these planets is the probability of growth (Pg) of terrestrial microorganisms on or near these planets. For example, Jupiter and Saturn appear to have an atmosphere in which some microbial species could metabolize and propagate. This study includes investigation of the likelihood of metabolism and propagation of microbes suspended in dynamic atmospheres. It is directed toward providing experimental information needed to aid in rational estimation of Pg for these outer plants.

  3. Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

    2002-02-26

    Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

  4. [Microbial contamination of cuffs lab coats during health care].

    PubMed

    Margarido, Carla Auxiliadora; Villas Boas, Tamires Monteiro; Mota, Valeria Siqueira; da Silva, Cristiane Karina Malvezzi; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the bacterial contamination in lab coats worn by nursing students, before and after being worn in health care practices. A quantitative and descriptive study was carried out, in which the students' coats were collected, washed and ironed in a standardized way and wore for four hours in assistance activities. Subsequently, samples from the cuffs were collected with sterile cotton swabs in order to be incubated in order to analyze microbial growth through morphological analysis by Gram's Method and antibiogram. There was bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in 50% of the collected samples and Staphylococcus aureus, found in patients with wounds in outpatient care, showed resistance to antibiotics such as Vancomycin, Chloramphenicol and Sulfonamides. The data demonstrated that the lab coats wore during assistance activities, even in short periods, are effectively contaminated by strains resistant to antibiotics and can potentially cause infection related to health care. PMID:24676079

  5. Functional gene diversity of soil microbial communities from five oil-contaminated fields in China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Zhang, Xu; Li, Guanghe; Zhou, Jizhong

    2011-01-01

    To compare microbial functional diversity in different oil-contaminated fields and to know the effects of oil contaminant and environmental factors, soil samples were taken from typical oil-contaminated fields located in five geographic regions of China. GeoChip, a high-throughput functional gene array, was used to evaluate the microbial functional genes involved in contaminant degradation and in other major biogeochemical/metabolic processes. Our results indicated that the overall microbial community structures were distinct in each oil-contaminated field, and samples were clustered by geographic locations. The organic contaminant degradation genes were most abundant in all samples and presented a similar pattern under oil contaminant stress among the five fields. In addition, alkane and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation genes such as monooxygenase and dioxygenase were detected in high abundance in the oil-contaminated fields. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the microbial functional patterns were highly correlated to the local environmental variables, such as oil contaminant concentration, nitrogen and phosphorus contents, salt and pH. Finally, a total of 59% of microbial community variation from GeoChip data can be explained by oil contamination, geographic location and soil geochemical parameters. This study provided insights into the in situ microbial functional structures in oil-contaminated fields and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and environmental variables, which is important to the application of bioremediation in oil-contaminated sites. PMID:20861922

  6. Microbial Ecology of the Vadose Zone in the Vicinity of Residual Crude-Oil Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekins, B. A.; Godsy, E. M.; Warren, E.; Hostettler, F. D.

    2001-05-01

    We characterized the microbial population in an 8-meter-thick, hydrocarbon-contaminated vadose zone using Most Probable Number (MPN) estimates for four physiologic types: aerobes, heterotrophic fermenters, iron-reducers and methanogens. The site is a surficial sand and gravel aquifer near Bemidji, MN, that was contaminated in 1979 when crude oil infiltrated the subsurface from a broken pipeline. Substantial liquid and vapor-phase petroleum hydrocarbons remain in the vadose zone. We examined three vadose-zone profiles located in: 1) the residual oil, 2) a vapor-contaminated area, and 3) the capillary fringe above the contaminated aquifer. In the residual oil ~100 methanogens per gram dry weight of sediment (g-1) are present throughout the profile, and fermenter numbers g-1 are 10,000 times those of iron-reducers, suggesting that methanogenesis is now the dominant degradation process. Analyses of extracted oil from these sediments show that substantial degradation of C15 -C35 n-alkanes has occurred since 1983. Moreover, gas concentration measurements indicate that methane production in this location has been active since at least 1986, raising the possibility that significant degradation of C15 and higher n-alkanes has occurred under methanogenic conditions. In the vapor-contaminated profile, aerobe numbers g-1 are 10,000 times higher than uncontaminated background values. Methanotrophic activity also was detected in laboratory incubations of these sediments. Apparently, a substantial microbial population has developed that is supported by the hydrocarbon vapors and methane. Downgradient from the oil, where groundwater is contaminated but no hydrocarbon vapors are detected, fermenter and aerobe numbers g-1 above the capillary fringe match those of uncontaminated sediments (100-1,000 g-1). Within the capillary fringe, numbers increase rapidly with depth to values typically found in the contaminated saturated zone. In the vadose zone profiles with significant hydrocarbon sources from residual oil and vapors, microbial populations are typically 10-100 times higher than in the underlying contaminated saturated zone. Moreover, in areas with residual oil, numbers g-1 increase significantly upward toward the land surface. This pattern suggests that supply of an unknown, essential nutrient from the land surface may be facilitating growth in the hydrocarbon-contaminated vadose zone. In contrast, at the location with no significant vadose zone hydrocarbons, numbers g-1 in the capillary fringe are less than or equal to those in the contaminated saturated zone below.

  7. Microbial cross-contamination during air chilling of poultry.

    PubMed

    Mead, G C; Allen, V M; Burton, C H; Corry, J E

    2000-05-01

    1. Cross-contamination during air chilling of poultry carcases was investigated using a nalidixic acid-resistant strain of Escherichia coli K12 as a marker organism. 2. Experiments were carried out on 2 types of commercial chiller, with and without the use of water sprays (evaporative cooling), and a pilot-scale chiller in which conditions could be varied as required. 3. In the commercial chillers, the marker was dispersed in all directions from a single inoculated carcase and transmission was increased by the use of chlorinated water sprays. 4. Similar results were obtained with the pilot-scale chiller, where the marker was recovered from 45/54 uninoculated carcases; cross-contamination was not prevented by spraying carcases with water containing 50 mg/l of free available chlorine. 5. Despite the ease of microbial transmission from inoculated carcases, cross-contamination during air chilling is likely to be less than that occurring at earlier stages of poultry processing, when carcases are more heavily contaminated. PMID:10890210

  8. Methodology for modeling the microbial contamination of air filters.

    PubMed

    Joe, Yun Haeng; Yoon, Ki Young; Hwang, Jungho

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to simulate microbial growth on contaminated air filters and entrainment of bioaerosols from the filters to an indoor environment. Air filter filtration and antimicrobial efficiencies, and effects of dust particles on these efficiencies, were evaluated. The number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter could be characterized according to three phases: initial, transitional, and stationary. In the initial phase, the number was determined by filtration efficiency, the concentration of dust particles entering the filter, and the flow rate. During the transitional phase, the number of bioaerosols gradually increased up to the stationary phase, at which point no further increase was observed. The antimicrobial efficiency and flow rate were the dominant parameters affecting the number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter in the transitional and stationary phase, respectively. It was found that the nutrient fraction of dust particles entering the filter caused a significant change in the number of bioaerosols in both the transitional and stationary phases. The proposed model would be a solution for predicting the air filter life cycle in terms of microbiological activity by simulating the microbial contamination of the filter. PMID:24523908

  9. Microbial community structures in anoxic freshwater lake sediment along a metal contamination gradient

    PubMed Central

    Gough, Heidi L; Stahl, David A

    2011-01-01

    Contamination, such as by heavy metals, has frequently been implicated in altering microbial community structure. However, this association has not been extensively studied for anaerobic communities, or in freshwater lake sediments. We investigated microbial community structure in the metal-contaminated anoxic sediments of a eutrophic lake that were impacted over the course of 80 years by nearby zinc-smelting activities. Microbial community structure was inferred for bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic populations by evaluating terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) patterns in near-surface sediments collected in triplicate from five areas of the lake that had differing levels of metal contamination. The majority of the fragments in the bacterial and eukaryotic profiles showed no evidence of variation in association with metal contamination levels, and diversity revealed by these profiles remained consistent even as metal concentrations varied from 3000 to 27 000 mg kg−1 total Zn, 0.125 to 11.2 μ pore water Zn and 0.023 to 5.40 μ pore water As. Although most archaeal fragments also showed no evidence of variation, the prevalence of a fragment associated with mesophilic Crenarchaeota showed significant positive correlation with total Zn concentrations. This Crenarchaeota fragment dominated the archaeal TRFLP profiles, representing between 35% and 79% of the total measured peak areas. Lake DePue 16S rRNA gene sequences corresponding to this TRFLP fragment clustered with anaerobic and soil mesophilic Crenarchaeota sequences. Although Crenarchaeota have been associated with metal-contaminated groundwater and soils, this is a first report (to our knowledge) documenting potential increased prevalence of Crenarchaeota associated with elevated levels of metal contamination. PMID:20811473

  10. Microbial community structures in anoxic freshwater lake sediment along a metal contamination gradient.

    PubMed

    Gough, Heidi L; Stahl, David A

    2011-03-01

    Contamination, such as by heavy metals, has frequently been implicated in altering microbial community structure. However, this association has not been extensively studied for anaerobic communities, or in freshwater lake sediments. We investigated microbial community structure in the metal-contaminated anoxic sediments of a eutrophic lake that were impacted over the course of 80 years by nearby zinc-smelting activities. Microbial community structure was inferred for bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic populations by evaluating terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) patterns in near-surface sediments collected in triplicate from five areas of the lake that had differing levels of metal contamination. The majority of the fragments in the bacterial and eukaryotic profiles showed no evidence of variation in association with metal contamination levels, and diversity revealed by these profiles remained consistent even as metal concentrations varied from 3000 to 27,000 mg kg(-1) total Zn, 0.125 to 11.2 ? pore water Zn and 0.023 to 5.40 ?M pore water As. Although most archaeal fragments also showed no evidence of variation, the prevalence of a fragment associated with mesophilic Crenarchaeota showed significant positive correlation with total Zn concentrations. This Crenarchaeota fragment dominated the archaeal TRFLP profiles, representing between 35% and 79% of the total measured peak areas. Lake DePue 16S rRNA gene sequences corresponding to this TRFLP fragment clustered with anaerobic and soil mesophilic Crenarchaeota sequences. Although Crenarchaeota have been associated with metal-contaminated groundwater and soils, this is a first report (to our knowledge) documenting potential increased prevalence of Crenarchaeota associated with elevated levels of metal contamination. PMID:20811473

  11. TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF MICROBIAL INDICATORS OF FECAL CONTAMINATION OF MARINE AND FRESHWATER BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring methods for microbial indicators of fecal contamination are an integral component for protecting the health of swimmers exposed to potentially contaminated bathing beach waters. The design of monitoring systems which will accurately characterize the quality of water is...

  12. Microscale Imaging: Microbial Behavior Near NAPL Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Xu, M.; Olson, M. S.

    2006-12-01

    A comprehensive understanding of microbial transport mechanisms is needed for effective in situ bioremediation of ground water contaminants. Microscale imaging has great potential to provide insight into microbial transport and behavior in subsurface water near contaminated sites. In the present study we focus on the application of two novel microscale imaging techniques to observe microbial behavior surrounding dissolving NAPL in porous media: we use micro-CT to quantify bioenhancement of NAPL dissolution and we use two-color molecular probes to observe NAPL toxicity at the NAPL/water interface using fluorescence microscopy. Microcomputed Tomography (micro-CT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that allows visualization and quantification of the internal features of objects and porous media. The dissolution rate of TCE droplets dispersed in 1-mm-diameter glass beads was compared for water-saturated beads and beads containing an aqueous suspension of Pseudomonas putida F1. Changing volumes of NAPL ganglia were measured over time using micro-CT, and used to compute the mass transfer rate coefficient of TCE, with and without microbial degradation. Comparison of the mass transfer rate coefficients of TCE will be discussed. In addition, a novel method was developed to image both chemotaxis and the toxic effect of a dissolving NAPL droplet on the surrounding population of P. putida F1. Chemotaxis refers to the movement of bacteria under the influence of chemical gradient (either away or toward), which helps them to find an optimal concentration for their growth and survival. Agarose plug assays, in combination with a two-color fluorescence assay of bacterial viability, were used for investigation. Bacteria were stained with a mixture of SYTO 9 nucleic acid stain and propidium iodide. The stained bacterial solution was flooded into a chamber formed around an agarose plug containing TCE. Bacterial chemotactic response to TCE dissolution was measured by imaging the characteristic colored chemotactic band of bacterial accumulation a short distance away from the plug. Spatial distribution of live (green) and dead or damaged (red) cells around the plug changes with time as TCE diffuses into the surrounding medium and hence can be used as a toxicity indicator for P. putida F1.

  13. Mitigation of radiation induced surface contamination

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Stulen, Richard H.

    2003-01-01

    A process for mitigating or eliminating contamination and/or degradation of surfaces having common, adventitious atmospheric contaminants adsorbed thereon and exposed to radiation. A gas or a mixture of gases is introduced into the environment of a surface(s) to be protected. The choice of the gaseous species to be introduced (typically a hydrocarbon gas, water vapor, or oxygen or mixtures thereof) is dependent upon the contaminant as well as the ability of the gaseous species to bind to the surface to be protected. When the surface and associated bound species are exposed to radiation reactive species are formed that react with surface contaminants such as carbon or oxide films to form volatile products (e.g., CO, CO.sub.2) which desorb from the surface.

  14. Surface contamination on LDEF exposed materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemminger, Carol S.

    1992-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the surface composition and chemistry of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed materials including silvered Teflon (Ag/FEP), Kapton, S13GLO paint, quartz crystal monitors (QCM's), carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, and carbon fiber/Al Alloy composites. In each set of samples, silicones were the major contributors to the molecular film accumulated on the LDEF exposed surfaces. All surfaces analyzed have been contaminated with Si, O, and C; most have low levels (less than 1 atom percent) of N, S, and F. Occasionally observed contaminants included Cl, Na, K, P, and various metals. Orange/brown discoloration observed near vent slots in some Ag/FEP blankets were higher in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen relative to other contamination types. The source of contamination has not been identified, but amine/amide functionalities were detected. It is probable that this same source of contamination account for the low levels of sulfur and nitrogen observed on most LDEF exposed surfaces. XPS, which probes 50 to 100 A in depth, detected the major sample components underneath the contaminant film in every analysis. This probably indicates that the contaminant overlayer is patchy, with significant areas covered by less that 100 A of molecular film. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of LDEF exposed surfaces during secondary electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples confirmed contamination of the surfaces with Si and O. In general, particulates were not observed to develop from the contaminant overlayer on the exposed LDEF material surfaces. However, many SiO2 submicron particles were seen on a masked edge of an Ag/FEP blanket. In some cases such as the carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, interpretation of the contamination data was hindered by the lack of good laboratory controls. Examination of laboratory controls for the carbon fiber/Al alloy composites showed that preflight contamination was the most significant factor for all the contaminants generally detected at less than 1 atom percent, or detected only occasionally (i.e., all but Si, O, and C). Flight control surfaces, including sample backsides not exposed to space radiation or atomic oxygen flux, have accumulated some contamination on flight (compared to laboratory controls), but experimentally, the LDEF exposed surface contamination levels are generally higher for the contaminants Si and O. For most materials analyzed, Si contamination levels were higher on the leading edge surfaces than on the trailing edge surfaces. This was true even for the composite samples where considerable atomic oxygen erosion of the leading edge surfaces was observed by SEM. It is probable that the return flux associated with atmospheric backscatter resulted in enhanced deposition of silicones and other contaminants on the leading edge flight surfaces relative to the trailing edge. Although the Si concentration data suggested greater on-flight deposition of contaminants on the leading edge surfaces, the XPS analyses did not conclusively show different relative total thicknesses of flight deposited contamination for leading and trailing edge surfaces. It is possible that atomic oxygen reactions on the leading edge resulted in greater volatilization of the carbon component of the deposited silicones, effectively 'thinning' the leading edge deposited overlayer. Unlike other materials, exposed polymers such as Kapton and FEP-type Teflon had very low contamination on the leading edge surfaces. SEM evidence showed that undercutting of the contaminant overlayer and damaged polymer layers occurred during atomic oxygen erosion, which would enhance loss of material from the exposed surface.

  15. Differences in Hyporheic-Zone Microbial Community Structure along a Heavy-Metal Contamination Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Feris, Kevin; Ramsey, Philip; Frazar, Chris; Moore, Johnnie N.; Gannon, James E.; Holben, William E.

    2003-01-01

    The hyporheic zone of a river is nonphotic, has steep chemical and redox gradients, and has a heterotrophic food web based on the consumption of organic carbon entrained from downwelling surface water or from upwelling groundwater. The microbial communities in the hyporheic zone are an important component of these heterotrophic food webs and perform essential functions in lotic ecosystems. Using a suite of methods (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA phylogeny, phospholipid fatty acid analysis, direct microscopic enumeration, and quantitative PCR), we compared the microbial communities inhabiting the hyporheic zone of six different river sites that encompass a wide range of sediment metal loads resulting from large base-metal mining activity in the region. There was no correlation between sediment metal content and the total hyporheic microbial biomass present within each site. However, microbial community structure showed a significant linear relationship with the sediment metal loads. The abundances of four phylogenetic groups (groups I, II, III, and IV) most closely related to ?-, ?-, and ?-proteobacteria and the cyanobacteria, respectively, were determined. The sediment metal content gradient was positively correlated with group III abundance and negatively correlated with group II abundance. No correlation was apparent with regard to group I or IV abundance. This is the first documentation of a relationship between fluvially deposited heavy-metal contamination and hyporheic microbial community structure. The information presented here may be useful in predicting long-term effects of heavy-metal contamination in streams and provides a basis for further studies of metal effects on hyporheic microbial communities. PMID:12957946

  16. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community in uranium-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xun; Luo, Xuegang; Zhao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Uranium tailing is a serious pollution challenge for the environment. Based on metagenomic sequencing analysis, we explored the functional and structural diversity of the microbial community in six soil samples taken at different soil depths from uranium-contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology (KO) groups were obtained using a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool search based on the universal protein resource database. The KO-pathway network was then constructed using the selected KOs. Finally, alpha and beta diversity analyses were performed to explore the differences in soil bacterial diversity between the radioactive soil and uncontaminated soil. In total, 30-68 million high-quality reads were obtained. Sequence assembly yielded 286,615 contigs; and these contigs mostly annotated to 1699 KOs. The KO distributions were similar among the six soil samples. Moreover, the proportion of the metabolism of other amino acids (e.g., beta-alanine, taurine, and hypotaurine) and signal transduction was significantly lower in radioactive soil than in uncontaminated soil, whereas the proportion of membrane transport and carbohydrate metabolism was higher. Additionally, KOs were mostly enriched in ATP-binding cassette transporters and two-component systems. According to diversity analyses, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in radioactive and uncontaminated soil, and Robiginitalea, Microlunatus, and Alicyclobacillus were the dominant genera in radioactive soil. Taken together, these results demonstrate that soil microbial community, structure, and functions show significant changes in uranium-contaminated soil. The dominant categories such as Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria may be applied in environmental governance for uranium-contaminated soil in southern China. PMID:26433967

  17. Microbial studies of a selenium-contaminated mine site and potential for on-site remediation.

    PubMed

    Knotek-Smith, Heather M; Crawford, Don L; Möller, Gregory; Henson, Rachel A

    2006-11-01

    Surface water Selenium (Se) concentrations are above regulatory standards at several active and inactive phosphate mine sites in the US Western Phosphate Resource Area. The focus of the present study was to examine the impacts of the microbial communities on the oxidation state of Se in overburden waste from the Smoky Canyon phosphate mine in Idaho, USA. Microbial populations were found that reduce soluble selenate (SeO (4) (2-) ) to insoluble elemental Se. Microcosm experiments were conducted for molecular genetic analysis of this microbial community by rRNA gene profiling. An acetone pretreatment step was developed to remove interfering pre-petroleum hydrocarbons from the samples prior to extraction. PCR was used to amplify 16S and 18S rRNA genes present in the microbial community DNA. The amplified products were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Isolates and excised DGGE bands were amplified and sequenced for identification to determine the relative importance of culturable isolates to the total microbial population. Analysis of samples from different sites at the mine showed how Se contamination and previous remediation treatments changed the microbial populations across the site. Members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were dominant among the selenate reducing isolates from the site containing high Se levels. In particular, Serratia fonticola was isolated repeatedly from contaminated Smoky Canyon Mine site samples. Packed column studies were performed with seleniferous waste rock fractions from Smoky Canyon Mine. Column amendments consisted of combinations of iron, compost, and whey. Eh, pH, and extractable Se measurements were taken. Tests with infiltrated water showed columns containing an organic amendment combined with iron metal were the most resistant to Se leaching. Iron-based compounds from the corroding metal are thought to strongly bind the Se reduced by microbial activity, thereby stabilizing the Se in an insoluble form. We conclude that long-term stabilization of selenium at contaminated mine sites may require reductive microbial processes combined with abiotic immobilization by iron, either natural or engineered, to stabilize the Se and retard re-oxidation and release. Iron-selenide or iron-selenite compounds are more stable and resistant to leaching, especially when removed from active weathering. PMID:16804682

  18. Microbial contamination of mobile phones in a health care setting in Alexandria, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Selim, Heba Sayed; Abaza, Amani Farouk

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed at investigating the microbial contamination of mobile phones in a hospital setting. Methods: Swab samples were collected from 40 mobile phones of patients and health care workers at the Alexandria University Students’ Hospital. They were tested for their bacterial contamination at the microbiology laboratory of the High Institute of Public Health. Quantification of bacteria was performed using both surface spread and pour plate methods. Isolated bacterial agents were identified using standard microbiological methods. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was identified by disk diffusion method described by Bauer and Kirby. Isolated Gram-negative bacilli were tested for being extended spectrum beta lactamase producers using the double disk diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. Results: All of the tested mobile phones (100%) were contaminated with either single or mixed bacterial agents. The most prevalent bacterial contaminants were methicillin-resistant S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci representing 53% and 50%, respectively. The mean bacterial count was 357 CFU/ml, while the median was 13 CFU/ml using the pour plate method. The corresponding figures were 2,192 and 1,720 organisms/phone using the surface spread method. Conclusions: Mobile phones usage in hospital settings poses a risk of transmission of a variety of bacterial agents including multidrug-resistant pathogens as methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The surface spread method is an easy and useful tool for detection and estimation of bacterial contamination of mobile phones. PMID:25699226

  19. Standardization of surface contamination analysis systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, Richard E.

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion products, oils and greases can potentially degrade material bonding properties. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Surface Contamination Analysis Team (SCAT) utilizes a variety of analytical equipment to detect identify and quantify contamination on metallic and non-metallic substrates. Analysis techniques include FT-IR Microscopy (FT-IR), Near Infrared Optical Fiber Spectrometry (NIR), Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE), Ultraviolet Fluorescence (UVF) and Ellipsometry. To insure that consistent qualitative and quantitative information are obtained, standards are required to develop analysis techniques, to establish instrument sensitivity to potential contaminants, and to develop calibration curves. This paper describes techniques for preparing and preserving contamination standards. Calibration of surface contamination analysis systems is discussed, and methods are presented for evaluating the effects of potential contaminants on bonding properties.

  20. A PILOT STUDY TO COMPARE MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limitations exist in applying traditional microbial methods for the detection of human fecal contamination of water. A pilot study was undertaken to compare the microbial and chemical indicators of human fecal contamination of water. Sixty-four water samples were collected in O...

  1. Microbial reduction of intragrain U(VI) in contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chongxuan; Zachara, John M; Zhong, Lirong; Heald, Steve M; Wang, Zheming; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Fredrickson, James K

    2009-07-01

    The accessibility of precipitated, intragrain U(VI) in a contaminated sediment to microbial reduction was investigated to ascertain geochemical and microscopic transport phenomena controlling U(VI) bioavailability. The sediment was collected from the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site, and contained uranyl precipitates within the mm-sized granitic lithic fragments in the sediment. Bioreduction was investigated in a culture of a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanellea oneidensis strain MR-1. Measurements of uranium concentration, speciation, and valence in aqueous and solid phases indicated that microbial reduction of intragrain U(VI) proceeded by two mechanisms: (1) sequentially coupled dissolution of intragrain uranyl precipitates, diffusion of dissolved U(VI) from intragrain regions, and microbial reduction of dissolved U(VI); and (2) U(VI) reduction in the intragrain regions by soluble, diffusible biogenic reductants. The bioreduction rate in the first pathway was over 3 orders of magnitude slowerthan that in comparable aqueous solutions containing aqueous U(VI) only. The slower bioreduction rate was attributed to (1) the release of calcium from the desorption/dissolution of calcium-containing minerals in the sediment, which subsequently altered U(VI) aqueous speciation and slowed U(VI) bioreducton and (2) alternative electron transfer pathways that reduced U(VI) in the intragrain regions and changed its dissolution and solubility behavior. The results implied that the overall rate of bioreduction of intragrain U(VI) will be influenced by the reactive mass transfer of U(VI) and biogenic reductants within intragrain regions, and geochemical reactions controlling major ion concentrations. PMID:19673287

  2. Device For Sampling Surface Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Felix A.; Stern, Susan M.

    1995-01-01

    Specially designed cotton swab suitable for use in clean room. Contamination-sampling device improved version of basic cotton-tipped wooden applicator, designed for extreme cleanliness and to enhance utility for sampling according to exacting specifications. Device does not shed cotton and wood fibers.

  3. BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological remediation of soils contaminated with organic chemicals is an alternative treatment technology that can often meet the goal of achieving a permanent clean-up remedy at hazardous waste sites, as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for impl...

  4. Microbial Monitoring of Surface Water in South Africa: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Luyt, Catherine D.; Tandlich, Roman; Muller, Wilhelmine J.; Wilhelmi, Brendan S.

    2012-01-01

    Infrastructural problems force South African households to supplement their drinking water consumption from water resources of inadequate microbial quality. Microbial water quality monitoring is currently based on the Colilert®18 system which leads to rapidly available results. Using Escherichia coli as the indicator microorganism limits the influence of environmental sources on the reported results. The current system allows for understanding of long-term trends of microbial surface water quality and the related public health risks. However, rates of false positive for the Colilert®18-derived concentrations have been reported to range from 7.4% to 36.4%. At the same time, rates of false negative results vary from 3.5% to 12.5%; and the Colilert medium has been reported to provide for cultivation of only 56.8% of relevant strains. Identification of unknown sources of faecal contamination is not currently feasible. Based on literature review, calibration of the antibiotic-resistance spectra of Escherichia coli or the bifidobacterial tracking ratio should be investigated locally for potential implementation into the existing monitoring system. The current system could be too costly to implement in certain areas of South Africa where the modified H2S strip test might be used as a surrogate for the Colilert®18. PMID:23066390

  5. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay. PMID:25086698

  6. Profiling microbial community in a watershed heavily contaminated by an active antimony (Sb) mine in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weimin; Xiao, Enzong; Dong, Yiran; Tang, Song; Krumins, Valdis; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Zhao, Yanlong; Wu, Shiliang; Xiao, Tangfu

    2016-04-15

    Located in Southwest China, the Chahe watershed has been severely contaminated by upstream active antimony (Sb) mines. The extremely high concentrations of Sb make the Chahe watershed an excellent model to elucidate the response of indigenous microbial activities within a severe Sb-contaminated environment. In this study, water and surface sediments from six locations in the Chahe watershed with different levels of Sb contamination were analyzed. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons revealed more than 40 phyla from the domain Bacteria and 2 phyla from the domain Archaea. Sequences assigned to the genera Flavobacterium, Sulfuricurvum, Halomonas, Shewanella, Lactobacillus, Acinetobacter, and Geobacter demonstrated high relative abundances in all sequencing libraries. Spearman's rank correlations indicated that a number of microbial phylotypes were positively correlated with different speciation of Sb, suggesting potential roles of these phylotypes in microbial Sb cycling. Canonical correspondence analysis further demonstrated that geochemical parameters, including water temperature, pH, total Fe, sulfate, aqueous Sb, and Eh, significantly structured the overall microbial community in Chahe watershed samples. Our findings offer a direct and reliable reference to the diversity of microbial communities in the presence of extremely high Sb concentrations, and may have potential implications for in situ bioremediation strategies of Sb contaminated sites. PMID:26820933

  7. Mapping microbial ecosystems and spoilage-gene flow in breweries highlights patterns of contamination and resistance.

    PubMed

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Ziola, Barry; Mills, David A

    2015-01-01

    Distinct microbial ecosystems have evolved to meet the challenges of indoor environments, shaping the microbial communities that interact most with modern human activities. Microbial transmission in food-processing facilities has an enormous impact on the qualities and healthfulness of foods, beneficially or detrimentally interacting with food products. To explore modes of microbial transmission and spoilage-gene frequency in a commercial food-production scenario, we profiled hop-resistance gene frequencies and bacterial and fungal communities in a brewery. We employed a Bayesian approach for predicting routes of contamination, revealing critical control points for microbial management. Physically mapping microbial populations over time illustrates patterns of dispersal and identifies potential contaminant reservoirs within this environment. Habitual exposure to beer is associated with increased abundance of spoilage genes, predicting greater contamination risk. Elucidating the genetic landscapes of indoor environments poses important practical implications for food-production systems and these concepts are translatable to other built environments. PMID:25756611

  8. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E. (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  9. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems. PMID:25359474

  10. Microbial Contamination of Contact Lenses, Lens Care Solutions, and Their Accessories: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B.; Pearlman, Eric; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Purpose A contact lens (CL) can act as a vector for microorganisms to adhere to and transfer to the ocular surface. Commensal microorganisms that uneventfully cohabitate on lid margins and conjunctivae and potential pathogens that are found transiently on the ocular surface can inoculate CLs in vivo. In the presence of reduced tissue resistance, these resident microorganisms or transient pathogens can invade and colonize the cornea or conjunctiva to produce inflammation or infection. Methods The literature was reviewed and used to summarize the findings over the last 30 years on the identification, enumeration, and classification of microorganisms adherent to CLs and their accessories during the course of normal wear and to hypothesize the role that these microorganisms play in CL infection and inflammation. Results Lens handling greatly increases the incidence of lens contamination, and the ocular surface has a tremendous ability to destroy organisms. However, even when removed aseptically from the eye, more than half of lenses are found to harbor microorganisms, almost exclusively bacteria. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci are most commonly cultured from worn lenses; however, approximately 10% of lenses harbor Gram-negative and highly pathogenic species, even in asymptomatic subjects. In storage cases, the incidence of positive microbial bioburden is also typically greater than 50%. All types of care solutions can become contaminated, including up to 30% of preserved products. Conclusions The process of CL-related microbial keratitis and inflammation is thought to be preceded by the presence or transfer or both of microorganisms from the lens to the ocular surface. Thus, this detailed understanding of lens-related bioburden is important in the understanding of factors associated with infectious and inflammatory complications. Promising mechanisms to prevent bacterial colonization on lenses and lens cases are forthcoming, which may decrease the incidence of microbially driven CL complications. PMID:20168237

  11. Microbial contamination of anesthetic syringes in relation to different handling habits.

    PubMed

    Heid, Florian; Bender, Carolin; Gervais, Hendrik; Schmeck, Joachim; Kohnen, Wolfgang; Noppens, Rüdiger

    2016-03-01

    This single-center study prospectively assessed the microbial contamination of anesthetic syringes handled perioperatively under different conditions. We documented high rates of bacterial contamination, with strong but statistically nonsignificant differences between handling groups. Our results identify skin contact as the main source of contamination, and thus we emphasize the impact of proper hand hygiene. PMID:26559736

  12. Microbial Contamination of Human Milk Purchased Via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Joseph S.; McNamara, Kelly A.; Gudimetla, Vishnu; Dillon, Chelsea E.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Geraghty, Sheela R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify microbial contamination of human milk purchased via the Internet as an indicator of disease risk to recipient infants. METHODS: Cross-sectional sample of human milk purchased via a popular US milk-sharing Web site (2012). Individuals advertising milk were contacted to arrange purchase, and milk was shipped to a rented mailbox in Ohio. The Internet milk samples (n = 101) were compared with unpasteurized samples of milk donated to a milk bank (n = 20). RESULTS: Most (74%) Internet milk samples were colonized with Gram-negative bacteria or had >104 colony-forming units/mL total aerobic count. They exhibited higher mean total aerobic, total Gram-negative, coliform, and Staphylococcus sp counts than milk bank samples. Growth of most species was positively associated with days in transit (total aerobic count [log10 colony-forming units/mL] ? = 0.71 [95% confidence interval: 0.38–1.05]), and negatively associated with number of months since the milk was expressed (? = ?0.36 [95% confidence interval: ?0.55 to ?0.16]), per simple linear regression. No samples were HIV type 1 RNA-positive; 21% of Internet samples were cytomegalovirus DNA-positive. CONCLUSIONS: Human milk purchased via the Internet exhibited high overall bacterial growth and frequent contamination with pathogenic bacteria, reflecting poor collection, storage, or shipping practices. Infants consuming this milk are at risk for negative outcomes, particularly if born preterm or are medically compromised. Increased use of lactation support services may begin to address the milk supply gap for women who want to feed their child human milk but cannot meet his or her needs. PMID:24144714

  13. Microbial and enzymatic activity of soil contaminated with azoxystrobin.

    PubMed

    Ba?maga, Ma?gorzata; Kucharski, Jan; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga

    2015-10-01

    The use of fungicides in crop protection still effectively eliminates fungal pathogens of plants. However, fungicides may dissipate to various elements of the environment and cause irreversible changes. Considering this problem, the aim of the presented study was to evaluate changes in soil biological activity in response to contamination with azoxystrobin. The study was carried out in the laboratory on samples of sandy loam with a pH of 7.0 in 1 Mol KCl dm(-3). Soil samples were treated with azoxystrobin in one of four doses: 0.075 (dose recommended by the manufacturer), 2.250, 11.25 and 22.50 mg kg(-1) soil DM (dry matter of soil). The control soil sample did not contain fungicide. Bacteria were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and fungi were identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequencing. The study revealed that increased doses of azoxystrobin inhibited the growth of organotrophic bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. The fungicide also caused changes in microbial biodiversity. The lowest values of the colony development (CD) index were recorded for fungi and the ecophysiological (EP) index for organotrophic bacteria. Azoxystrobin had an inhibitory effect on the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. Dehydrogenases were found to be most resistant to the effects of the fungicide, while alkaline phosphatase in the soil recovered the balance in the shortest time. Four species of bacteria from the genus Bacillus and two species of fungi from the genus Aphanoascus were isolated from the soil contaminated with the highest dose of azoxystrobin (22.50 mg kg(-1)). PMID:26343782

  14. Fluorometric estimation of surface associated microbial abundance.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Gabriel J; Hagenbuch, Isaac M; Pinckney, James L; Long, Richard A

    2012-02-01

    Surface associated microbes have historically been difficult to accurately and effectively enumerate. In the current study, we propose a rapid and simple method for estimating abundance of surface associated microbial cells by fluorescence of SYBRGreen stained bacteria and in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence of benthic diatoms in 24 and 48-well microtiter plates. The effectiveness of this high-throughput technique is demonstrated by assessing sensitivity of a clinical strain of Vibrio cholerae, a benthic bacterial isolate and the benthic microalgae Cylindrotheca closterium to three antibiotics--tylosin, lincomycin and ciproflaxacin. We report on the significant linear relationships between spectral chl a fluorescence and cell abundance and between microalgal growth rates derived from cell counts and fluorescence. Additionally, we provide a simplified and improved method for preparation of a silica gel matrix (SGM), which is an ideal plating media for fluorescence applications. These findings indicate that spectrofluorometry is an inexpensive tool for rapidly estimating abundance of surface associated microbiota and can be employed for assessing antibiotic sensitivity. PMID:22230233

  15. Did surface temperatures constrain microbial evolution?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzman, D.; McMenamin, M.; Volk, T.

    1993-01-01

    The proposition that glaciation may not have occurred before the Cenozoic--albeit not yet a consensus position--nevertheless raises for reconsideration the surface temperature history of the earth. Glacial episodes, from the Huronian (2.3 billion years ago; BYA) through the late Paleozoic (320 to 250 million years ago; MYA) have been critical constraints on estimation of the upper bounds of temperature (Crowley 1983, Kasting and Toon 1989). Once removed, few if any constraints on the upper temperature limit other than life remain. Walker (1982) recognized that life provides an upper limit to temperature in the Precambrian. We propose a more radical concept: the upper temperature limit for viable growth of a given microbial group corresponds to the actual surface temperature at the time of the group's first appearance. In particular, we propose here that two major evolutionary developments--the emergence of cyanobacteria and aerobic eukaryotes--can be used to determine surface temperature in the Precambrian, and that only subsequent cooling mediated by higher plants and then angiosperms permitted what may possibly be the earth's first glaciation in the late Cenozoic.

  16. Microbial Surface Colonization and Biofilm Development in Marine Environments.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hongyue; Lovell, Charles R

    2016-03-01

    Biotic and abiotic surfaces in marine waters are rapidly colonized by microorganisms. Surface colonization and subsequent biofilm formation and development provide numerous advantages to these organisms and support critical ecological and biogeochemical functions in the changing marine environment. Microbial surface association also contributes to deleterious effects such as biofouling, biocorrosion, and the persistence and transmission of harmful or pathogenic microorganisms and their genetic determinants. The processes and mechanisms of colonization as well as key players among the surface-associated microbiota have been studied for several decades. Accumulating evidence indicates that specific cell-surface, cell-cell, and interpopulation interactions shape the composition, structure, spatiotemporal dynamics, and functions of surface-associated microbial communities. Several key microbial processes and mechanisms, including (i) surface, population, and community sensing and signaling, (ii) intraspecies and interspecies communication and interaction, and (iii) the regulatory balance between cooperation and competition, have been identified as critical for the microbial surface association lifestyle. In this review, recent progress in the study of marine microbial surface colonization and biofilm development is synthesized and discussed. Major gaps in our knowledge remain. We pose questions for targeted investigation of surface-specific community-level microbial features, answers to which would advance our understanding of surface-associated microbial community ecology and the biogeochemical functions of these communities at levels from molecular mechanistic details through systems biological integration. PMID:26700108

  17. KINETICS OF CHEMICAL & MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Once treated drinking water enters the distribution system, substantial microbial, chemical, and physical changes can occur. Examples of such changes can nclude loss of disinfectant residual, increases in disinfection byproducts (DBP), growth of microbial diversity and population...

  18. Quantification of surface contamination: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1982-01-01

    The applications discussed in this paper underscore the usefulness and versatility of molecular luminescence spectroscopy as an efficient surface detection technique. The technique can be used not only as a qualitative characterization method, but also as a quantitative analytical tool to detect trace contaminants on surfaces. Recent advances in instrumentation and methodology have expanded the applicability of surface luminescence into many new problem areas. Trace organics are emphasized here.

  19. Long-Term Oil Contamination Alters the Molecular Ecological Networks of Soil Microbial Functional Genes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuting; Zhao, Huihui; Deng, Ye; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Guanghe; Sun, Bo

    2016-01-01

    With knowledge on microbial composition and diversity, investigation of within-community interactions is a further step to elucidate microbial ecological functions, such as the biodegradation of hazardous contaminants. In this work, microbial functional molecular ecological networks were studied in both contaminated and uncontaminated soils to determine the possible influences of oil contamination on microbial interactions and potential functions. Soil samples were obtained from an oil-exploring site located in South China, and the microbial functional genes were analyzed with GeoChip, a high-throughput functional microarray. By building random networks based on null model, we demonstrated that overall network structures and properties were significantly different between contaminated and uncontaminated soils (P < 0.001). Network connectivity, module numbers, and modularity were all reduced with contamination. Moreover, the topological roles of the genes (module hub and connectors) were altered with oil contamination. Subnetworks of genes involved in alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation were also constructed. Negative co-occurrence patterns prevailed among functional genes, thereby indicating probable competition relationships. The potential "keystone" genes, defined as either "hubs" or genes with highest connectivities in the network, were further identified. The network constructed in this study predicted the potential effects of anthropogenic contamination on microbial community co-occurrence interactions. PMID:26870020

  20. Long-Term Oil Contamination Alters the Molecular Ecological Networks of Soil Microbial Functional Genes

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuting; Zhao, Huihui; Deng, Ye; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Guanghe; Sun, Bo

    2016-01-01

    With knowledge on microbial composition and diversity, investigation of within-community interactions is a further step to elucidate microbial ecological functions, such as the biodegradation of hazardous contaminants. In this work, microbial functional molecular ecological networks were studied in both contaminated and uncontaminated soils to determine the possible influences of oil contamination on microbial interactions and potential functions. Soil samples were obtained from an oil-exploring site located in South China, and the microbial functional genes were analyzed with GeoChip, a high-throughput functional microarray. By building random networks based on null model, we demonstrated that overall network structures and properties were significantly different between contaminated and uncontaminated soils (P < 0.001). Network connectivity, module numbers, and modularity were all reduced with contamination. Moreover, the topological roles of the genes (module hub and connectors) were altered with oil contamination. Subnetworks of genes involved in alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation were also constructed. Negative co-occurrence patterns prevailed among functional genes, thereby indicating probable competition relationships. The potential “keystone” genes, defined as either “hubs” or genes with highest connectivities in the network, were further identified. The network constructed in this study predicted the potential effects of anthropogenic contamination on microbial community co-occurrence interactions. PMID:26870020

  1. DYNAMICS OF COUPLED CONTAMINANT AND MICROBIAL TRANSPORT IN HETEROGENEOUS POROUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dynamic microbial attachment/detachment occurs in subsurface systems in response to changing environmental conditions caused by contaminant movement and degradation. Understanding the environmental conditions and mechanisms by which anaerobic bacteria partition between aqueous a...

  2. MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN A SHALLOW HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED AQUIFER ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about the complex interactions between microbial communities and electrical properties in contaminated aquifers. In order to investigate possible connections between these parameters a study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that the degradation of hydr...

  3. DYNAMICS OF COUPLED CONTAMINANT AND MICROBIAL TRANSPORT IN HETEROGENEOUS POROUS MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dynamic microbial attachment/detachment occurs in subsurface systems in response to changing environmental conditions caused by contaminant movement and degradation. Understanding the environmental conditions and mechanisms by which anaerobic bacteria partition between aqueous an...

  4. Rapid and reagentless detection of microbial contamination within meat utilizing a smartphone-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pei-Shih; Park, Tu San; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2014-08-01

    A smartphone-utilized biosensor was developed for detecting microbial spoilage on ground beef, without using antibodies, microbeads or any other reagents, towards a preliminary screening tool for microbial contamination on meat products, and potentially towards wound infection. Escherichia coli K12 solutions (101-108 CFU/mL) were added to ground beef products to simulate microbial spoilage. An 880 nm near infrared LED was irradiated perpendicular to the surface of ground beef, and the scatter signals at various angles were evaluated utilizing the gyro sensor and the digital camera of a smartphone. The angle that maximized the Mie scatter varied by the E. coli concentration: 15° for 108 CFU/mL, 30° for 104 CFU/mL, and 45° for 10 CFU/mL, etc. SEM and fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that the antigens and cell fragments from E. coli bonded preferably to the fat particles within meat, and the size and morphologies of such aggregates varied by the E. coli concentration.

  5. Rapid and reagentless detection of microbial contamination within meat utilizing a smartphone-based biosensor.

    PubMed

    Liang, Pei-Shih; Park, Tu San; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    A smartphone-utilized biosensor was developed for detecting microbial spoilage on ground beef, without using antibodies, microbeads or any other reagents, towards a preliminary screening tool for microbial contamination on meat products, and potentially towards wound infection. Escherichia coli K12 solutions (10(1)-10(8) CFU/mL) were added to ground beef products to simulate microbial spoilage. An 880 nm near infrared LED was irradiated perpendicular to the surface of ground beef, and the scatter signals at various angles were evaluated utilizing the gyro sensor and the digital camera of a smartphone. The angle that maximized the Mie scatter varied by the E. coli concentration: 15° for 10(8) CFU/mL, 30° for 10(4) CFU/mL, and 45° for 10 CFU/mL, etc. SEM and fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that the antigens and cell fragments from E. coli bonded preferably to the fat particles within meat, and the size and morphologies of such aggregates varied by the E. coli concentration. PMID:25092261

  6. Rapid and reagentless detection of microbial contamination within meat utilizing a smartphone-based biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Pei-Shih; Park, Tu San; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    A smartphone-utilized biosensor was developed for detecting microbial spoilage on ground beef, without using antibodies, microbeads or any other reagents, towards a preliminary screening tool for microbial contamination on meat products, and potentially towards wound infection. Escherichia coli K12 solutions (101–108 CFU/mL) were added to ground beef products to simulate microbial spoilage. An 880 nm near infrared LED was irradiated perpendicular to the surface of ground beef, and the scatter signals at various angles were evaluated utilizing the gyro sensor and the digital camera of a smartphone. The angle that maximized the Mie scatter varied by the E. coli concentration: 15° for 108 CFU/mL, 30° for 104 CFU/mL, and 45° for 10 CFU/mL, etc. SEM and fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that the antigens and cell fragments from E. coli bonded preferably to the fat particles within meat, and the size and morphologies of such aggregates varied by the E. coli concentration. PMID:25092261

  7. Insect contamination protection for laminar flow surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croom, Cynthia C.; Holmes, Bruce J.

    1986-01-01

    The ability of modern aircraft surfaces to achieve laminar flow was well-accepted in recent years. Obtaining the maximum benefit of laminar flow for aircraft drag reduction requires maintaining minimum leading-edge contamination. Previously proposed insect contamination prevention methods have proved impractical due to cost, weight, or inconvenience. Past work has shown that insects will not adhere to water-wetted surfaces, but the large volumes of water required for protection rendered such a system impractical. The results of a flight experiment conducted by NASA to evaluate the performance of a porous leading-edge fluid discharge ice protection system operated as an insect contamination protections system are presented. In addition, these flights explored the environmental and atmospheric conditions most suitable for insect accumulation.

  8. Microbial contamination of ship fuels. [Mercaptopyridine, methylene bisthiocyanate, triazines, organoboron compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Neihof, R.A.; Klemme, D.E.; Patouillet, C.E.; Hannan, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory evaluation has been made of water-soluble biocides which might be effective in controlling microbial contamination in water-compensated fuel storage tanks on naval ships. Higher concentrations of biocides were generally required for control of sulfate-reducing bacteria in steel drums simulating ships' tanks than in test-tube scale assays. At least tenfold higher concentrations were necessary when biocide additions were made after, rather than before, bacterial growth had developed extensively. A mercaptopyridine biocide was effective at the lowest concentration followed by methylene bisthiocyanate and a triazine derivative; an organoboron compound was comparatively ineffective. Attention has also been given to the possible environmental impact of discharging biocide-treated water. An algal assay has been used to study the loss in toxicity of candidate biocides in seawater solution on exposure to sunlight. The mercaptopyridine biocide was particularly susceptible to photodegradation. Thus it may be possible to control microbial contamination indefinitely in a dark fuel tank with a biocide which photodegrades to nontoxic products when discharged into sunlit surface waters.

  9. Contamination of optical surfaces in Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinser, Donald L.; Weller, Robert A.; Mendenhall, M. H.; Wiedlocher, D. E.; Nichols, R.; Tucker, D.; Whitaker, A.

    1992-01-01

    Glass and glass ceramic samples exposed to the low earth orbit environment for approximately 5.5 years on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) were found to display limited degradation in optical transmission. Commercial optical quality fused silica samples display decreases in transmission in the 200 to 400 nm wavelength region, and this degradation appears to be a consequence of surface contamination. The contamination, found only on internal surfaces of samples, was measured by medium energy backscattering spectrometry and found to be primarily carbon. Additional thin film contamination by a species with atomic mass near 64, which was present at the level of about 8 x 10 exp 14/sq. cm has not been identified. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that organic binders used in the black absorbing paint (Chem Glaze Z-306) inside the sample holding tray were concentrated in the vicinity of the samples and photolytically cracked by solar UV radiation. The resulting decomposition products were deposited on the interior sample surface and gave rise to the optical transmission loss. No detectable contamination was observed on the external or space exposed surface of the samples. No measurable damage was detected which could be attributed to the direct action of gamma or UV radiation on the glass samples. These results emphasize the need for special precautions in the preparation of spacecraft carrying precision optical components on long duration missions.

  10. Microbial and plant ecology of a long-term TNT-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Travis, Emma R; Bruce, Neil C; Rosser, Susan J

    2008-05-01

    The contamination of the environment with explosive residues presents a serious ecological problem at sites across the world, with the highly toxic compound trinitrotoluene (TNT) the most widespread contaminant. This study examines the soil microbial community composition across a long-term TNT-contaminated site. It also investigates the extent of nitroaromatic contamination and its effect on vegetation. Concentrations of TNT and its metabolites varied across the site and this was observed to dramatically impact on the extent and diversity of the vegetation, with the most heavily contaminated area completely devoid of vegetation. Bryophytes were seen to be particularly sensitive to TNT contamination. The microbial population experienced both a reduction in culturable bacterial numbers and a shift in composition at the high concentrations of TNT. DGGE and community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) revealed a clear change in both the genetic and functional diversity of the soil when soil was contaminated with TNT. PMID:17825462

  11. Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation for Subsurface Immobilization of Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. W.; Fujita, Y.; Ginn, T. R.; Hubbard, S. S.; Dafflon, B.; Delwiche, M.; Gebrehiwet, T.; Henriksen, J. R.; Peterson, J.; Taylor, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Subsurface radionuclide and metal contaminants throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex pose one of the greatest challenges for long-term stewardship. One promising stabilization mechanism for divalent trace ions, such as the short-lived radionuclide 90Sr, is co-precipitation in calcite. We have found that calcite precipitation and co-precipitation of Sr can be accelerated by the activity of urea hydrolyzing microorganisms, that higher calcite precipitation rates can result in increased Sr partitioning, and that nutrient additions can stimulate ureolytic activity. To extend our understanding of microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) in an aquifer setting a continuous recirculation field experiment evaluating MICP was conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site located at Rifle, CO. In this experiment, groundwater extracted from an onsite well was amended with urea (total mass of 42.5 kg) and molasses (a carbon and electron donor) and re-injected into a well approximately 4 meters up-gradient for a period of 12 days followed by 10 months of groundwater sampling and monitoring. Crosshole radar and electrical tomographic data were collected prior, during, and after the MICP treatment. The urea and molasses treatment resulted in an enhanced population of sediment associated urea hydrolyzing organisms as evidenced by increases in the number of ureC gene copies, increases in 14C urea hydrolysis rates, and long-term observations of ammonium (a urea hydrolysis product) in the injection, extraction and down gradient monitoring wells. Permeability changes and increases in the calcite saturation indexes in the well field suggest that mineral precipitation has occurred; ongoing analysis of field samples seeks to confirm this. Changes in dielectric constant and electrical conductivity were used to interpret the spatiotemporal distribution of the injectate and subsequent calcite precipitation. Modeling activities are underway to define field-scale urea hydrolysis rates.

  12. An integrated insight into the response of sedimentary microbial communities to heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huaqun; Niu, Jiaojiao; Ren, Youhua; Cong, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Fan, Fenliang; Xiao, Yunhua; Zhang, Xian; Deng, Jie; Xie, Ming; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2015-01-01

    Response of biological communities to environmental stresses is a critical issue in ecology, but how microbial communities shift across heavy metal gradients remain unclear. To explore the microbial response to heavy metal contamination (e.g., Cr, Mn, Zn), the composition, structure and functional potential of sedimentary microbial community were investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and a functional gene microarray. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the composition and structure of sedimentary microbial communities changed significantly across a gradient of heavy metal contamination, and the relative abundances were higher for Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Crenarchaeota, but lower for Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria in highly contaminated samples. Also, molecular ecological network analysis of sequencing data indicated that their possible interactions might be enhanced in highly contaminated communities. Correspondently, key functional genes involved in metal homeostasis (e.g., chrR, metC, merB), carbon metabolism, and organic remediation showed a higher abundance in highly contaminated samples, indicating that bacterial communities in contaminated areas may modulate their energy consumption and organic remediation ability. This study indicated that the sedimentary indigenous microbial community may shift the composition and structure as well as function priority and interaction network to increase their adaptability and/or resistance to environmental contamination. PMID:26391875

  13. An integrated insight into the response of sedimentary microbial communities to heavy metal contamination

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Huaqun; Niu, Jiaojiao; Ren, Youhua; Cong, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Fan, Fenliang; Xiao, Yunhua; Zhang, Xian; Deng, Jie; Xie, Ming; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2015-01-01

    Response of biological communities to environmental stresses is a critical issue in ecology, but how microbial communities shift across heavy metal gradients remain unclear. To explore the microbial response to heavy metal contamination (e.g., Cr, Mn, Zn), the composition, structure and functional potential of sedimentary microbial community were investigated by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons and a functional gene microarray. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the composition and structure of sedimentary microbial communities changed significantly across a gradient of heavy metal contamination, and the relative abundances were higher for Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Crenarchaeota, but lower for Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria in highly contaminated samples. Also, molecular ecological network analysis of sequencing data indicated that their possible interactions might be enhanced in highly contaminated communities. Correspondently, key functional genes involved in metal homeostasis (e.g., chrR, metC, merB), carbon metabolism, and organic remediation showed a higher abundance in highly contaminated samples, indicating that bacterial communities in contaminated areas may modulate their energy consumption and organic remediation ability. This study indicated that the sedimentary indigenous microbial community may shift the composition and structure as well as function priority and interaction network to increase their adaptability and/or resistance to environmental contamination. PMID:26391875

  14. Type of closure prevents microbial contamination of cosmetics during consumer use.

    PubMed Central

    Brannan, D K; Dille, J C

    1990-01-01

    The dispensing closure used for containers plays an important role in protecting cosmetics from in-use microbial contamination. This hypothesis was tested by aseptically packing unpreserved shampoo and skin lotion into containers with three different closure types which provided various degrees of protection against consumer and environmental microbial insults. Shampoo was packed in containers with slit-cap (n = 25), flip-cap (n = 25), or screw-cap (n = 28) closures. Skin lotion was packed in containers with pump-top (n = 21), flip-cap (n = 18), or screw-cap (n = 21) closures. The products were then used by volunteers under actual in-use conditions for 3 (shampoo) or 2 (skin lotion) weeks. After use, the products were evaluated for microbial contamination by using standard methods for enumeration and identification. The standard screw-cap closure provided only minimal protection against microbial contamination of both the shampoo (29% contamination incidence) and the skin lotion (71%). The slit-cap closure on the shampoo container and the flip-cap closure on the skin lotion container provided slightly enhanced degrees of protection (21 and 39% contamination incidence, respectively). The greatest amount of protection (i.e., lowest contamination incidence) was provided by the flip-cap closure for the shampoo container (0%) and the pump-top closure for the skin lotion container (10%). As a result, closure type plays an important role in protecting poorly preserved products from in-use microbial contamination. Images PMID:2339896

  15. Effect of organic amendments on microbial activity in chlorpyrifos contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kadian, Neeru; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh; Dureja, Prem

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this research was to study the inhibitory effect of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on soil microbial activity and to evaluate the efficacy of different organic amendments as a biostimulation agent for sustaining the microbial activity and thereby assisting in the remediation of CPF (10 ppm) contaminated soil. Experiments were carried out under controlled conditions (37 °C) up to 74 days; CPF was analyzed by GC-ECD while dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was measured as one of the indices of soil microbial activity. Throughout the experiment, there was higher microbial activity in uncontaminated soil (S) as compared to CPF contaminated soil (SP) and overall a considerably high reduction (63.51%) in average DHA was noticed in CPF contaminated soil. Organic amendments enhanced the microbial activity over unamended CPF contaminated soil. The trend of DHA on 24th day was MS (SP + 1% Mushroom Spent) >VC (SP + 1% Vermicompost) >BS (SP + 1% Biogas Slurry) >SP (Soil spiked with 10 ppm CPF) >FM (SP + 1% Farmyard Manure). The enhancement in pesticide dissipation over the unamended soil showed the following trend VC (37%)>MS (24%) >FM (1.9%). In spite of sufficient DHA, BS could not enhance pesticide dissipation over the unamended soil (SP). These results indicate the potential of vermicompost and mushroom spent compost as suitable biostimulation agents to sustain the microbial activity in CPF contaminated soil. PMID:21035243

  16. Multiwall carbon nanotubes increase the microbial community in crude oil contaminated fresh water sediments.

    PubMed

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Since crude oil contamination is one of the biggest environmental concerns, its removal from contaminated sites is of interest for both researchers and industries. In situ bioremediation is a promising technique for decreasing or even eliminating crude oil and hydrocarbon contamination. However, since these compounds are potentially toxic for many microorganisms, high loads of contamination can inhibit the microbial community and therefore reduce the removal rate. Therefore, any strategy with the ability to increase the microbial population in such circumstances can be of promise in improving the remediation process. In this study, multiwall carbon nanotubes were employed to support microbial growth in sediments contaminated with crude oil. Following spiking of fresh water sediments with different concentrations of crude oil alone and in a mixture with carbon nanotubes for 30days, the microbial profiles in these sediments were obtained using FLX-pyrosequencing. Next, the ratios of each member of the microbial population in these sediments were compared with those values in the untreated control sediment. This study showed that combination of crude oil and carbon nanotubes can increase the diversity of the total microbial population. Furthermore, these treatments could increase the ratios of several microorganisms that are known to be effective in the degradation of hydrocarbons. PMID:26372939

  17. Relating groundwater and sediment chemistry to microbial characterization at a BTEX-contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Pfiffner, S.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; McCarthy, J.F.; Gibson, T.

    1996-07-01

    The National Center for Manufacturing Science is investigating bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon at a site in Belleville, Michigan. As part of this study we examined the microbial communities to help elucidate biodegradative processes currently active at the site. We observed high densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers in the less-contaminated sediments. Low densities of iron and sulfate reducers were measured in the same sediments. In contrast, the highly-contaminated sediments showed low densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers and high densities of iron and sulfate reducers. Methanogens were also found in these highly-contaminated sediments. These contaminated sediments also showed a higher biomass, by phospholipid fatty acids, and greater ratios of phospholipid fatty acids which indicate stress within the microbial community. Aquifer chemistry analyses indicated that the more-contaminated area was more reduced and had lower sulfate than the less-contaminated area. These conditions suggest that the subsurface environment at the highly-contaminated area had progressed into sulfate reduction and methanogensis. The less-contaminated area, although less reduced, also appeared to be progressing into primarily iron- and sulfate-reducing microbial communities. The proposed treatment to stimulate bioremediation includes addition of oxygen and nitrate. Groundwater chemistry and microbial analyses revealed significant differences resulted from the injection of dissolved oxygen and nitrate in the subsurface. These differences included increases in pH and Eh and large decreases in BTEX, dissolved iron, and sulfate concentrations at the injection well.

  18. An exometabolomics approach to monitoring microbial contamination in microalgal fermentation processes by using metabolic footprint analysis.

    PubMed

    Sue, Tiffany; Obolonkin, Victor; Griffiths, Hywel; Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato

    2011-11-01

    The early detection of microbial contamination is crucial to avoid process failure and costly delays in fermentation industries. However, traditional detection methods such as plate counting and microscopy are labor-intensive, insensitive, and time-consuming. Modern techniques that can detect microbial contamination rapidly and cost-effectively are therefore sought. In the present study, we propose gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic footprint analysis as a rapid and reliable method for the detection of microbial contamination in fermentation processes. Our metabolic footprint analysis detected statistically significant differences in metabolite profiles of axenic and contaminated batch cultures of microalgae as early as 3 h after contamination was introduced, while classical detection methods could detect contamination only after 24 h. The data were analyzed by discriminant function analysis and were validated by leave-one-out cross-validation. We obtained a 97% success rate in correctly classifying samples coming from contaminated or axenic cultures. Therefore, metabolic footprint analysis combined with discriminant function analysis presents a rapid and cost-effective approach to monitor microbial contamination in industrial fermentation processes. PMID:21890679

  19. Long-term oil contamination causes similar changes in microbial communities of two distinct soils.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jingqiu; Wang, Jie; Jiang, Dalin; Wang, Michael Cai; Huang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Since total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) are toxic and persistent in environments, studying the impact of oil contamination on microbial communities in different soils is vital to oil production engineering, effective soil management and pollution control. This study analyzed the impact of oil contamination on the structure, activity and function in carbon metabolism of microbial communities of Chernozem soil from Daqing oil field and Cinnamon soil from Huabei oil field through both culture-dependent techniques and a culture-independent technique-pyrosequencing. Results revealed that pristine microbial communities in these two soils presented disparate patterns, where Cinnamon soil showed higher abundance of alkane, (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) PAHs and TPH degraders, number of cultivable microbes, bacterial richness, bacterial biodiversity, and stronger microbial activity and function in carbon metabolism than Chernozem soil. It suggested that complicated properties of microbes and soils resulted in the difference in soil microbial patterns. However, the changes of microbial communities caused by oil contamination were similar in respect of two dominant phenomena. Firstly, the microbial community structures were greatly changed, with higher abundance, higher bacterial biodiversity, occurrence of Candidate_division_BRC1 and TAO6, disappearance of BD1-5 and Candidate_division_OD1, dominance of Streptomyces, higher percentage of hydrocarbon-degrading groups, and lower percentage of nitrogen-transforming groups. Secondly, microbial activity and function in carbon metabolism were significantly enhanced. Based on the characteristics of microbial communities in the two soils, appropriate strategy for in situ bioremediation was provided for each oil field. This research underscored the usefulness of combination of culture-dependent techniques and next-generation sequencing techniques both to unravel the microbial patterns and understand the ecological impact of contamination. PMID:26254788

  20. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site's microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog [reg sign] evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog[reg sign] activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  1. Immunological techniques as tools to characterize the subsurface microbial community at a trichloroethylene contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Fliermans, C.B.; Dougherty, J.M.; Franck, M.M.; McKinzey, P.C.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-12-31

    Effective in situ bioremediation strategies require an understanding of the effects pollutants and remediation techniques have on subsurface microbial communities. Therefore, detailed characterization of a site`s microbial communities is important. Subsurface sediment borings and water samples were collected from a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated site, before and after horizontal well in situ air stripping and bioventing, as well as during methane injection for stimulation of methane-utilizing microorganisms. Subsamples were processed for heterotrophic plate counts, acridine orange direct counts (AODC), community diversity, direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) enumeration for several nitrogen-transforming bacteria, and Biolog {reg_sign} evaluation of enzyme activity in collected water samples. Plate counts were higher in near-surface depths than in the vadose zone sediment samples. During the in situ air stripping and bioventing, counts increased at or near the saturated zone, remained elevated throughout the aquifer, but did not change significantly after the air stripping. Sporadic increases in plate counts at different depths as well as increased diversity appeared to be linked to differing lithologies. AODCs were orders of magnitude higher than plate counts and remained relatively constant with depth except for slight increases near the surface depths and the capillary fringe. Nitrogen-transforming bacteria, as measured by serospecific DFA, were greatly affected both by the in situ air stripping and the methane injection. Biolog{reg_sign} activity appeared to increase with subsurface stimulation both by air and methane. The complexity of subsurface systems makes the use of selective monitoring tools imperative.

  2. [Effects of Perfluoroalkyl Substances on the Microbial Community Structure in Surface Sediments of Typical River, China].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ya-jun; Wang, Tie-yu; Peng, Xia-wei; Wang, Pei

    2015-07-01

    In order to reveal the relationship between Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contamination and the bacterial community composition, surface sediment samples were collected along the Xiaoqing River in Shandong Province in April and July 2014 (XQ1-XQ10), where many PFASs manufacturers were located. PFASs were quantified by HPLC/MS-MS, related environmental factors affecting the microbial community structure were measured, and the microbial community structure in surface sediments was measured by the second-generation sequencing technology Illumina MiSeq. The results not only revealed the degree of PFASs pollution in the sediments of Xiaoqing River, but also illustrated the relationship between PFASs pollution and the microbial community structure. Among the twelve kinds of PFASs detected in this study, PFOA was the predominant compound, and the highest PFOA concentrations were detected in the sample of XQ5 (April: 456. 2 ng. g-1; July: 748.7 ng . g-1) located at the downstream of Xiaoqing River with many fluoropolymer producing facilities. PFOA contamination was the main factor affecting the microbial community structure in April, accordingly community richness and evenness were significantly negatively correlated with PFOA levels. The abundance of Thiobacillus increased with the increasing PFOA concentration in the sediment PFOA. This suggested that Thiobacillus was sensitive to PFOA pollution and might be the potential indicator to reveal the degree of PFOA pollution in sediment. When the concentrations of PFOA were below 100 ng . g-1, no significant effects on the microbial community structure were observed. PMID:26489317

  3. DETECTION OF FECAL/INGESTA CONTAMINANTS ON POULTRY PROCESSING EQUIPMENT SURFACES BY VISIBLE AND NEAR-INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectra and samples for laboratory microbial analysis were acquired of fecal contaminants, ingesta contaminants, and bare processing equipment surfaces (rubber and stainless steel) in a commercial poultry processing plant. Spectra were analyzed in the visible region ...

  4. Surface contamination analysis technology team overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, H. Dewitt

    1995-01-01

    A team was established which consisted of representatives from NASA (Marshall Space Flight Center and Langley Research Center), Thiokol Corporation, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, AC Engineering, SAIC, Martin Marietta, and Aerojet. The team's purpose was to bring together the appropriate personnel to determine what surface inspection techniques were applicable to multiprogram bonding surface cleanliness inspection. In order to identify appropriate techniques and their sensitivity to various contaminant families, calibration standards were developed. Producing standards included development of consistent low level contamination application techniques. Oxidation was also considered for effect on inspection equipment response. Ellipsometry was used for oxidation characterization. Verification testing was then accomplished to show that selected inspection techniques could detect subject contaminants at levels found to be detrimental to critical bond systems of interest. Once feasibility of identified techniques was shown, selected techniques and instrumentation could then be incorporated into a multipurpose inspection head and integrated with a robot for critical surface inspection. Inspection techniques currently being evaluated include optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE); near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy utilizing fiber optics; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy; and ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence. Current plans are to demonstrate an integrated system in MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex within five years from initiation of this effort in 1992 assuming appropriate funding levels are maintained. This paper gives an overview of work accomplished by the team and future plans.

  5. Recommended tritium surface contamination release guides

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.; Draper, D.G.; Foulke, J.D.; Hafner, R.S.; Jalbert, R.A.; Kennedy, W.E.; Myers, D.S.; Strain, C.D. )

    1991-03-01

    This document was prepared to provide scientific basis for recommended changes in specific limits for tritium surface contamination in DOE Order 5480.11. A summary of the physical and biological characteristics of tritium has been provided that illustrate the unique nature of this radionuclide when compared to other pure beta emitters or to beta-gamma emitting radionuclides. This document is divided into nine sections. The introduction and the purpose and scope are addressed in Section 1.0 and Section 2.0, respectively. Section 3.0 contains recommended interpretation of terms used in this document. Section 4.0 addresses recommended methods for evaluating surface contamination. Biological and physical characteristics of tritium compounds are discussed in Section 5.0, as they relate to tritium radiotoxicity. Scenarios and dose calculations for selected, conservatively limiting cases of tritium intake are given and discussed in Section 6.0 and Section 7.0. Section 8.0 provides conclusions on the information given and recommendations for changes in the surface contamination limits for total tritium to 1 {times} 10{sup 6} dpm per 100 cm{sup 2}. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. The Microbial Community Structure in Petroleum-Contaminated Sediments Corresponds to Geophysical Signatures▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jonathan P.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Atekwana, Eliot A.; Duris, Joseph W.; Werkema, D. Dale; Rossbach, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    The interdependence between geoelectrical signatures at underground petroleum plumes and the structures of subsurface microbial communities was investigated. For sediments contaminated with light non-aqueous-phase liquids, anomalous high conductivity values have been observed. Vertical changes in the geoelectrical properties of the sediments were concomitant with significant changes in the microbial community structures as determined by the construction and evaluation of 16S rRNA gene libraries. DNA sequencing of clones from four 16S rRNA gene libraries from different depths of a contaminated field site and two libraries from an uncontaminated background site revealed spatial heterogeneity in the microbial community structures. Correspondence analysis showed that the presence of distinct microbial populations, including the various hydrocarbon-degrading, syntrophic, sulfate-reducing, and dissimilatory-iron-reducing populations, was a contributing factor to the elevated geoelectrical measurements. Thus, through their growth and metabolic activities, microbial populations that have adapted to the use of petroleum as a carbon source can strongly influence their geophysical surroundings. Since changes in the geophysical properties of contaminated sediments parallel changes in the microbial community compositions, it is suggested that geoelectrical measurements can be a cost-efficient tool to guide microbiological sampling for microbial ecology studies during the monitoring of natural or engineered bioremediation processes. PMID:17351087

  7. The microbial community structure in petroleum-contaminated sediments corresponds to geophysical signatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.P.; Atekwana, E.A.; Duris, J.W.; Werkema, D.D.; Rossbach, S.

    2007-01-01

    The interdependence between geoelectrical signatures at underground petroleum plumes and the structures of subsurface microbial communities was investigated. For sediments contaminated with light non-aqueousphase liquids, anomalous high conductivity values have been observed. Vertical changes in the geoelectrical properties of the sediments were concomitant with significant changes in the microbial community structures as determined by the construction and evaluation of 16S rRNA gene libraries. DNA sequencing of clones from four 16S rRNA gene libraries from different depths of a contaminated field site and two libraries from an uncontaminated background site revealed spatial heterogeneity in the microbial community structures. Correspondence analysis showed that the presence of distinct microbial populations, including the various hydrocarbon-degrading, syntrophic, sulfate-reducing, and dissimilatory-iron-reducing populations, was a contributing factor to the elevated geoelectrical measurements. Thus, through their growth and metabolic activities, microbial populations that have adapted to the use of petroleum as a carbon source can strongly influence their geophysical surroundings. Since changes in the geophysical properties of contaminated sediments parallel changes in the microbial community compositions, it is suggested that geoelectrical measurements can be a cost-efficient tool to guide microbiological sampling for microbial ecology studies during the monitoring of natural or engineered bioremediation processes. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Assessment of surface contamination with contact mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    EMERSON,JOHN A.; MILLER,GREGORY V.; SORENSEN,CHRISTOPHER R.; PEARSON,RAYMOND A.

    2000-02-21

    The authors are particularly interested in the work of adhesion measurements as a means to facilitate the understanding of the adhesive failure mechanisms for systems containing encapsulated and bonded components. Of the several issues under investigation, one is the effect of organic contamination on the adhesive strength for several types of polymer/metal interface combinations. The specific question that the authors are trying to address is at what level of contamination does adhesive strength decrease. The use of contact mechanics, the JKR method, is a good approach for studying this question. Another approach being studied is the use of interracial fracture mechanics. The model contaminant is hexadecane--non-polar, medium molecular weight hydrocarbon fluid. They choose hexadecane because it replicates typical machining fluids, is nonreactive with Al surfaces, and should not dissolve readily into the adhesive systems of interest. The application of a uniform, controllable and reproducible hexadecane layer on Al surfaces has proven to be difficult. A primary concern is whether studies of model systems can be extended to systems of technological interest. The JKR theory is a continuum mechanics model of contact between two solid spheres that was developed by Johnson, Kendall and Roberts. The JKR theory is an extension of Hertzian contact theory and attributes the additional increase in the contact area between a soft elastomeric hemisphere to adhesive forces between the two surfaces. The JKR theory allows a direct estimate of the surface free energy of interface as well as the work of adhesion (Wa) between solids. Early studies performed in this laboratory involved the determination of Wa between silicone (PDMS) and Al surfaces in order to establish the potential adhesive failure mechanisms. However, the JKR studies using commercial based PDMS [poly(dimethylsiloxane)] was fraught with difficulty that were attributed to the additives used in commercial PDMS systems. The authors could not discriminate hydrogen-bonding effects between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and hydroxyl groups in the PDMS, and other possible bonding mechanisms. A model PDMS elastomer and polymer treatments were developed for studying solid surfaces by measuring the degree of self-adhesion hysteresis as indicator of surface properties. The goal of this work is to measure the adhesion between PDMS/Al surfaces -- contaminated and two cleaning techniques. A custom-made JKR apparatus is used to determine the amount of hysteresis and Wa.

  9. Relating ground water and sediment chemistry to microbial characterization at a BTEX-contaminated site

    SciTech Connect

    Pfiffner, S.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    The National Center for Manufacturing Science is investigating bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon at a site near Belleville, MI. As part of this study, we examined the microbial communities to help elucidate biodegradative processes currently active at the site. We observed high densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers in the less-contaminated sediments. Low densities of iron and sulfate reducers were measured in the same sediments. In contrast, the highly contaminated sediments showed low densities of aerobic hydrocarbon degraders and denitrifiers, and high densities of iron and sulfate reducers. Methanogens were also found in these highly contaminated sediments. These contaminated sediments also showed a higher biomass, by the phospholipid fatty acids, and greater ratios of phospholipid fatty acids, which indicate stress within the microbial community. Aquifer chemistry analyses indicated that the highly contaminated area was more reduced and had lower sulfate than the less-contaminated area. These conditions suggest that the subsurface environment at the highly contaminated area had progressed into sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. The less-contaminated area, although less reduced, also appeared to be progressing into primarily iron- and sulfate-reducing microbial communities. The proposed treatment to stimulate bioremediation includes addition of oxygen and nitrate to the subsurface. 24 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Impact of electrokinetic remediation on microbial communities within PCP contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lear, G; Harbottle, M J; Sills, G; Knowles, C J; Semple, K T; Thompson, I P

    2007-03-01

    Electrokinetic techniques have been used to stimulate the removal of organic pollutants within soil, by directing contaminant migration to where remediation may be more easily achieved. The effect of this and other physical remediation techniques on the health of soil microbial communities has been poorly studied and indeed, largely ignored. This study reports the impact on soil microbial communities during the application of an electric field within ex situ laboratory soil microcosms contaminated with pentachlorophenol (PCP; 100mg kg(-1) oven dry soil). Electrokinetics reduced counts of culturable bacteria and fungi, soil microbial respiration and carbon substrate utilisation, especially close to the acidic anode where PCP accumulated (36d), perhaps exacerbated by the greater toxicity of PCP at lower soil pH. There is little doubt that a better awareness of the interactions between soil electrokinetic processes and microbial communities is key to improving the efficacy and sustainability of this remediation strategy. PMID:17045711

  11. Sustainable remediation: electrochemically assisted microbial dechlorination of tetrachloroethene-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sayali S; Adetutu, Eric M; Rochow, Jacqueline; Mitchell, James G; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    Microbial electric systems (MESs) hold significant promise for the sustainable remediation of chlorinated solvents such as tetrachlorethene (perchloroethylene, PCE). Although the bio-electrochemical potential of some specific bacterial species such as Dehalcoccoides and Geobacteraceae have been exploited, this ability in other undefined microorganisms has not been extensively assessed. Hence, the focus of this study was to investigate indigenous and potentially bio-electrochemically active microorganisms in PCE-contaminated groundwater. Lab-scale MESs were fed with acetate and carbon electrode/PCE as electron donors and acceptors, respectively, under biostimulation (BS) and BS-bioaugmentation (BS-BA) regimes. Molecular analysis of the indigenous groundwater community identified mainly Spirochaetes, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and ? and ?-Proteobacteria. Environmental scanning electron photomicrographs of the anode surfaces showed extensive indigenous microbial colonization under both regimes. This colonization and BS resulted in 100% dechlorination in both treatments with complete dechlorination occurring 4 weeks earlier in BS-BA samples and up to 11.5??A of current being generated. The indigenous non-Dehalococcoides community was found to contribute significantly to electron transfer with ?61% of the current generated due to their activities. This study therefore shows the potential of the indigenous non-Dehalococcoides bacterial community in bio-electrochemically reducing PCE that could prove to be a cost-effective and sustainable bioremediation practice. PMID:24119162

  12. Sustainable remediation: electrochemically assisted microbial dechlorination of tetrachloroethene-contaminated groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sayali S; Adetutu, Eric M; Rochow, Jacqueline; Mitchell, James G; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    Microbial electric systems (MESs) hold significant promise for the sustainable remediation of chlorinated solvents such as tetrachlorethene (perchloroethylene, PCE). Although the bio-electrochemical potential of some specific bacterial species such as Dehalcoccoides and Geobacteraceae have been exploited, this ability in other undefined microorganisms has not been extensively assessed. Hence, the focus of this study was to investigate indigenous and potentially bio-electrochemically active microorganisms in PCE-contaminated groundwater. Lab-scale MESs were fed with acetate and carbon electrode/PCE as electron donors and acceptors, respectively, under biostimulation (BS) and BS-bioaugmentation (BS-BA) regimes. Molecular analysis of the indigenous groundwater community identified mainly Spirochaetes, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and γ and δ-Proteobacteria. Environmental scanning electron photomicrographs of the anode surfaces showed extensive indigenous microbial colonization under both regimes. This colonization and BS resulted in 100% dechlorination in both treatments with complete dechlorination occurring 4 weeks earlier in BS-BA samples and up to 11.5 μA of current being generated. The indigenous non-Dehalococcoides community was found to contribute significantly to electron transfer with ∼61% of the current generated due to their activities. This study therefore shows the potential of the indigenous non-Dehalococcoides bacterial community in bio-electrochemically reducing PCE that could prove to be a cost-effective and sustainable bioremediation practice. PMID:24119162

  13. PREDICTING THE MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION OF SOILS OF RIVER VALLEYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preventing contamination of the alluvial soils is very important for the public health. Soil is traditionally regarded as a filter that blocks contaminants and pathogens from entering the groundwater and rivers. However soil is a heterogeneous medium; it contains macropores that can work as the path...

  14. Mapping microbial ecosystems and spoilage-gene flow in breweries highlights patterns of contamination and resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bokulich, Nicholas A; Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Ziola, Barry; Mills, David A

    2015-01-01

    Distinct microbial ecosystems have evolved to meet the challenges of indoor environments, shaping the microbial communities that interact most with modern human activities. Microbial transmission in food-processing facilities has an enormous impact on the qualities and healthfulness of foods, beneficially or detrimentally interacting with food products. To explore modes of microbial transmission and spoilage-gene frequency in a commercial food-production scenario, we profiled hop-resistance gene frequencies and bacterial and fungal communities in a brewery. We employed a Bayesian approach for predicting routes of contamination, revealing critical control points for microbial management. Physically mapping microbial populations over time illustrates patterns of dispersal and identifies potential contaminant reservoirs within this environment. Habitual exposure to beer is associated with increased abundance of spoilage genes, predicting greater contamination risk. Elucidating the genetic landscapes of indoor environments poses important practical implications for food-production systems and these concepts are translatable to other built environments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04634.001 PMID:25756611

  15. Hard Surface Biocontrol in Hospitals Using Microbial-Based Cleaning Products

    PubMed Central

    Vandini, Alberta; Temmerman, Robin; Frabetti, Alessia; Caselli, Elisabetta; Antonioli, Paola; Balboni, Pier Giorgio; Platano, Daniela; Branchini, Alessio; Mazzacane, Sante

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) are one of the most frequent complications occurring in healthcare facilities. Contaminated environmental surfaces provide an important potential source for transmission of many healthcare-associated pathogens, thus indicating the need for new and sustainable strategies. Aim This study aims to evaluate the effect of a novel cleaning procedure based on the mechanism of biocontrol, on the presence and survival of several microorganisms responsible for HAIs (i.e. coliforms, Staphyloccus aureus, Clostridium difficile, and Candida albicans) on hard surfaces in a hospital setting. Methods The effect of microbial cleaning, containing spores of food grade Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megaterium, in comparison with conventional cleaning protocols, was evaluated for 24 weeks in three independent hospitals (one in Belgium and two in Italy) and approximately 20000 microbial surface samples were collected. Results Microbial cleaning, as part of the daily cleaning protocol, resulted in a reduction of HAI-related pathogens by 50 to 89%. This effect was achieved after 3–4 weeks and the reduction in the pathogen load was stable over time. Moreover, by using microbial or conventional cleaning alternatively, we found that this effect was directly related to the new procedure, as indicated by the raise in CFU/m2 when microbial cleaning was replaced by the conventional procedure. Although many questions remain regarding the actual mechanisms involved, this study demonstrates that microbial cleaning is a more effective and sustainable alternative to chemical cleaning and non-specific disinfection in healthcare facilities. Conclusions This study indicates microbial cleaning as an effective strategy in continuously lowering the number of HAI-related microorganisms on surfaces. The first indications on the actual level of HAIs in the trial hospitals monitored on a continuous basis are very promising, and may pave the way for a novel and cost-effective strategy to counteract or (bio)control healthcare-associated pathogens. PMID:25259528

  16. Elevated nitrate enriches microbial functional genes for potential bioremediation of complexly contaminated sediments

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meiying; Zhang, Qin; Xia, Chunyu; Zhong, Yuming; Sun, Guoping; Guo, Jun; Yuan, Tong; Zhou, Jizhong; He, Zhili

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate is an important nutrient and electron acceptor for microorganisms, having a key role in nitrogen (N) cycling and electron transfer in anoxic sediments. High-nitrate inputs into sediments could have a significant effect on N cycling and its associated microbial processes. However, few studies have been focused on the effect of nitrate addition on the functional diversity, composition, structure and dynamics of sediment microbial communities in contaminated aquatic ecosystems with persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here we analyzed sediment microbial communities from a field-scale in situ bioremediation site, a creek in Pearl River Delta containing a variety of contaminants including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), before and after nitrate injection using a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 4.0). Our results showed that the sediment microbial community functional composition and structure were markedly altered, and that functional genes involved in N-, carbon (C)-, sulfur (S)-and phosphorus (P)- cycling processes were highly enriched after nitrate injection, especially those microorganisms with diverse metabolic capabilities, leading to potential in situ bioremediation of the contaminated sediment, such as PBDE and PAH reduction/degradation. This study provides new insights into our understanding of sediment microbial community responses to nitrate addition, suggesting that indigenous microorganisms could be successfully stimulated for in situ bioremediation of POPs in contaminated sediments with nitrate addition. PMID:24671084

  17. Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of willows depend on soil contamination.

    PubMed

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Maynard, Christine; St-Arnaud, Marc; Greer, Charles W

    2014-02-01

    The goal of phytoremediation is to use plants to immobilize, extract or degrade organic and inorganic pollutants. In the case of organic contaminants, plants essentially act indirectly through the stimulation of rhizosphere microorganisms. A detailed understanding of the effect plants have on the activities of rhizosphere microorganisms could help optimize phytoremediation systems and enhance their use. In this study, willows were planted in contaminated and non-contaminated soils in a greenhouse, and the active microbial communities and the expression of functional genes in the rhizosphere and bulk soil were compared. Ion Torrent sequencing of 16S rRNA and Illumina sequencing of mRNA were performed. Genes related to carbon and amino-acid uptake and utilization were upregulated in the willow rhizosphere, providing indirect evidence of the compositional content of the root exudates. Related to this increased nutrient input, several microbial taxa showed a significant increase in activity in the rhizosphere. The extent of the rhizosphere stimulation varied markedly with soil contamination levels. The combined selective pressure of contaminants and rhizosphere resulted in higher expression of genes related to competition (antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation) in the contaminated rhizosphere. Genes related to hydrocarbon degradation were generally more expressed in contaminated soils, but the exact complement of genes induced was different for bulk and rhizosphere soils. Together, these results provide an unprecedented view of microbial gene expression in the plant rhizosphere during phytoremediation. PMID:24067257

  18. Microbial expression profiles in the rhizosphere of willows depend on soil contamination

    PubMed Central

    Yergeau, Etienne; Sanschagrin, Sylvie; Maynard, Christine; St-Arnaud, Marc; Greer, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    The goal of phytoremediation is to use plants to immobilize, extract or degrade organic and inorganic pollutants. In the case of organic contaminants, plants essentially act indirectly through the stimulation of rhizosphere microorganisms. A detailed understanding of the effect plants have on the activities of rhizosphere microorganisms could help optimize phytoremediation systems and enhance their use. In this study, willows were planted in contaminated and non-contaminated soils in a greenhouse, and the active microbial communities and the expression of functional genes in the rhizosphere and bulk soil were compared. Ion Torrent sequencing of 16S rRNA and Illumina sequencing of mRNA were performed. Genes related to carbon and amino-acid uptake and utilization were upregulated in the willow rhizosphere, providing indirect evidence of the compositional content of the root exudates. Related to this increased nutrient input, several microbial taxa showed a significant increase in activity in the rhizosphere. The extent of the rhizosphere stimulation varied markedly with soil contamination levels. The combined selective pressure of contaminants and rhizosphere resulted in higher expression of genes related to competition (antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation) in the contaminated rhizosphere. Genes related to hydrocarbon degradation were generally more expressed in contaminated soils, but the exact complement of genes induced was different for bulk and rhizosphere soils. Together, these results provide an unprecedented view of microbial gene expression in the plant rhizosphere during phytoremediation. PMID:24067257

  19. A Pilot Study of Microbial Contamination of Subtropical Recreational Waters

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Lora E; Solo, Gabriele H.; Elmir, Samir; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Squicciarini, Dominick; Quirino, Wendy; Arguello, Margia; Van de Bogart, Gayl

    2009-01-01

    Microbial water quality indicators are used to determine whether a water body is safe for recreational purposes. There have been concerns raised about the appropriate use of microbial indicators to regulate recreational uses of water bodies, in particular those located in tropical and sub-tropical environments. This prospective cohort pilot study evaluated the relationship between microbial water quality indicators and public health within two public beaches without known sewage discharge, but with historically high microbial levels for one beach, in subtropical Miami-Dade County (Florida). Monitoring was conducted in three phases: daily water monitoring, beach sand sampling, and spatially intense water sampling. An epidemiological questionnaire from a Los Angeles recreational beach-goer study was used to assess the self-reported swimming-related symptoms and exposures. There was no significant association between the number nor the type of reported symptoms and the different sampling months or beach sites, although persons who returned repeatedly to the beach were more likely to report symptoms. The number of indicator organisms correlated negatively with the frequency of symptoms reported by recreational beach goers. Results of the daily monitoring indicated that different indicators provided conflicting results concerning beach water quality. Larger epidemiologic studies with individual exposure monitoring are recommended to further evaluate these potentially important associations in subtropical recreational waters. PMID:20151031

  20. Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nilanjana; Chandran, Preethy

    2011-01-01

    One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Accidental releases of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon components have been known to belong to the family of carcinogens and neurotoxic organic pollutants. Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive. Bioremediation is the promising technology for the treatment of these contaminated sites since it is cost-effective and will lead to complete mineralization. Bioremediation functions basically on biodegradation, which may refer to complete mineralization of organic contaminants into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and cell protein or transformation of complex organic contaminants to other simpler organic compounds by biological agents like microorganisms. Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. This paper presents an updated overview of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under different ecosystems. PMID:21350672

  1. Molecular characterization of microbial contaminants isolated from Umbilical Cord Blood Units for transplant.

    PubMed

    Bello-López, Juan Manuel; Noguerón-Silva, Jorge; Castañeda-Sánchez, Jorge Ismael; Rojo-Medina, Julieta

    2015-01-01

    Disposal of Umbilical Cord Blood Units due to microbial contamination is a major problem in Cord Blood Banks worldwide as it reduces the number of units available for transplantation. Additionally, economic losses are generated as result of resources and infrastructure used to obtain such units. Umbilical Cord Blood Units that showed initial microbial contamination were subject to strains isolation, identification, and characterization by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC-PCR). Moreover, tests of antimicrobial resistance/sensitivity and phenotypic activities that may play an important role in microbial infection were performed. Microbial contamination was detected in 120 Umbilical Cord Blood Units (2.31%) in the period from 2003 to 2013. The most frequently isolated strains were Enterococcus faecium, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus haemoliticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus durans, Lactobacillus helveticus, Enterococcus hiriae and Roseomonas genomospecies 5. The ERIC-PCR assays revealed a wide genetic diversity in some strains although belonging to the same genus and specie, indicating different sources of contamination. Broad-spectrum penicillins, third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones showed lower inhibitory activity on the tested strains. All strains were proteolytic, 67.69% were amylase-positive, 27.6% hemolysis-positive, and 34.71% nuclease-positive. The most common sources of contamination were: vaginal flora, digestive tract, and skin flora, highlighting the need for staff training in good manufacturing practices in collection SCU since all contaminants identified are part of the microbial flora of the donors. Implications and consequences in the therapeutic use of Umbilical Cord Blood Units for transplantation contaminated by multiresistant bacteria in immunocompromised patients are discussed. PMID:26361843

  2. Portable spotter for fluorescent contaminants on surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Schuresko, Daniel D.

    1980-01-01

    A portable fluorescence-based spotter for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon contamination on personnel and work area surfaces under ambient lighting conditions is provided. This instrument employs beam modulation and phase sensitive detection for discriminating between fluorescence from organic materials from reflected background light and inorganic fluorescent material. The device uses excitation and emission filters to provide differentiation between classes of aromatic organic compounds. Certain inorganic fluorescent materials, including heavy metal compounds, may also be distinguished from the organic compounds, despite both having similar optical properties.

  3. Characterizing public health and microbial risks due to water contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research track evaluates risks associated with the occurrence of waterborne disease in the population. A clear understanding of the health burden associated with exposure to contaminated drinking water is critical to developing regulations that are protective of public healt...

  4. Radiation treatment of herb tea for the reduction of microbial contamination (Flores chamomillae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, B.; Ražem, D.; Dvornik, I.; Mati?, S.

    A survey of microbiological contamination of dried chamomile flowers indicates the presence of thermophilic bacteria up to the level of 10 4 per gram. This material often contains insecticides which have been used to reduce post-harvest losses. This work was undertaken in order to study the feasibility of radiation treatment of dried chamomile flowers as the only acceptable process for reduction of microbial contamination and as an alternative to chemical treatment. The main microbial contaminants were identified and typical contamination levels established. Survival curves of the irradiated microflora were obtained as a function of gamma radiation dose. Chemical composition of chamomile oil was followed by spectroscopy, thin layer and gas chromatography. No untoward effects of radiation treatment on active components were found, which indicates the usefulness of radiation treatment of dry flowers.

  5. APD imaging probe for tritium surface contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Richard A.; Farrell, Richard; Robertson, Frank; Dogruel, David; Willms, R. Scott

    2008-08-01

    We report on the development of a practical, easy-to-use, multi-element, solid-state instrument for detecting and imaging tritium contamination on surfaces. The innovation, which enables this instrumentation, relies on cutting-edge silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) array detector technology to provide an effective coverage area without compromising the overall sensitivity. We discuss the design and assembly of a prototype unit to monitor a surface area of over 900 mm2 while maintaining a spatial resolution of less than 4 mm. During tests at Los Alamos National Laboratories, we demonstrated tritium counting efficiencies of over 40% and established that this unit can be used to expedite established testing procedures by locating areas of potential activity or when combined with established swipe analysis.

  6. 75 FR 80826 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 527.300 Dairy Products-Microbial Contaminants and Alkaline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... In the Federal Register of December 1, 2009 (74 FR 62795), FDA made available draft CPG Sec. 527.300...--Microbial Contaminants and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 527.300 Dairy Products-- Microbial Contaminants and Alkaline...

  7. Microbial Contamination of Seven Major Weaning Foods in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ibeh, I. Nnanna

    2011-01-01

    Five million children aged less than five years die annually due to diarrhoea. The aim of the study was to identify some possible contributing factors for persistent diarrhoea. Seven weaning foods, including a locally-made food, were evaluated by estimating the microbial load using the most probable number method and aflatoxin levels (AFM1, AFG1, AFG2, and AFB2) by immunoaffinity column extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection of fluorescence. The results showed that the locally-made weaning food had the highest microbial count (2,000 cfu/g) and faecal streptococcal count (25 cfu/g). Moulds isolated were mainly Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. glaucus, Cladosporium sp., and Penicillium sp. The home-made weaning food recorded the highest fungal count (6,500 cfu/g). AFM1 of the weaning foods was 4.6-530 ng/mL. One weaning food had AFB1 level of 4,806 ng/g. Aflatoxin metabolites, apart from AFM1 and AFB1 present in the weaning foods, were AFG1 and AFG2. There were low microbial counts in commercial weaning foods but had high levels of aflatoxins (AFM1, AFG1, AFG2, AFB1, and AFB2). Growth and development of the infant is rapid, and it is, thus, possible that exposure to aflatoxins in weaning foods might have significant health effects. PMID:21957681

  8. Microbial rhodopsins on leaf surfaces of terrestrial plants.

    PubMed

    Atamna-Ismaeel, Nof; Finkel, Omri M; Glaser, Fabian; Sharon, Itai; Schneider, Ron; Post, Anton F; Spudich, John L; von Mering, Christian; Vorholt, Julia A; Iluz, David; Béjà, Oded; Belkin, Shimshon

    2012-01-01

    The above-ground surfaces of terrestrial plants, the phyllosphere, comprise the main interface between the terrestrial biosphere and solar radiation. It is estimated to host up to 10(26) microbial cells that may intercept part of the photon flux impinging on the leaves. Based on 454-pyrosequencing-generated metagenome data, we report on the existence of diverse microbial rhodopsins in five distinct phyllospheres from tamarisk (Tamarix nilotica), soybean (Glycine max), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), clover (Trifolium repens) and rice (Oryza sativa). Our findings, for the first time describing microbial rhodopsins from non-aquatic habitats, point towards the potential coexistence of microbial rhodopsin-based phototrophy and plant chlorophyll-based photosynthesis, with the different pigments absorbing non-overlapping fractions of the light spectrum. PMID:21883799

  9. Microbial rhodopsins on leaf surfaces of terrestrial plants

    PubMed Central

    Atamna-Ismaeel, Nof; Finkel, Omri M.; Glaser, Fabian; Sharon, Itai; Schneider, Ron; Post, Anton F.; Spudich, John L.; von Mering, Christian; Vorholt, Julia A.; Iluz, David; Béjà, Oded; Belkin, Shimshon

    2013-01-01

    Summary The above-ground surfaces of terrestrial plants, the phyllosphere, comprise the main interface between the terrestrial biosphere and solar radiation. It is estimated to host up to 1026 microbial cells that may intercept part of the photon flux impinging on the leaves. Based on 454-pyrosequencing-generated metagenome data, we report on the existence of diverse microbial rhodopsins in five distinct phyllospheres from tamarisk (Tamarix nilotica), soybean (Glycine max), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), clover (Trifolium repens) and rice (Oryza sativa). Our findings, for the first time describing microbial rhodopsins from non-aquatic habitats, point towards the potential coexistence of microbial rhodopsin-based phototrophy and plant chlorophyll-based photosynthesis, with the different pigments absorbing non-overlapping fractions of the light spectrum. PMID:21883799

  10. Antibiotic, Pesticide, and Microbial Contaminants of Honey: Human Health Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Al-Waili, Noori; Salom, Khelod; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Ansari, Mohammad Javed

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's pathogens. Many cases of infant botulisms have been attributed to contaminated honey. Honey may be very toxic when produced from certain plants. Ingestion of honey without knowing its source and safety might be problematic. Honey should be labeled to explore its origin, composition, and clear statement that it is free from contaminants. Honey that is not subjected for analysis and sterilization should not be used in infants, and should not be applied to wounds or used for medicinal purposes. This article reviews the extent and health impact of honey contamination and stresses on the introduction of a strict monitoring system and validation of acceptable minimal concentrations of pollutants or identifying maximum residue limits for bee products, in particular, honey. PMID:23097637

  11. Antibiotic, pesticide, and microbial contaminants of honey: human health hazards.

    PubMed

    Al-Waili, Noori; Salom, Khelod; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Ansari, Mohammad Javed

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's pathogens. Many cases of infant botulisms have been attributed to contaminated honey. Honey may be very toxic when produced from certain plants. Ingestion of honey without knowing its source and safety might be problematic. Honey should be labeled to explore its origin, composition, and clear statement that it is free from contaminants. Honey that is not subjected for analysis and sterilization should not be used in infants, and should not be applied to wounds or used for medicinal purposes. This article reviews the extent and health impact of honey contamination and stresses on the introduction of a strict monitoring system and validation of acceptable minimal concentrations of pollutants or identifying maximum residue limits for bee products, in particular, honey. PMID:23097637

  12. Resistance to disinfection of a polymicrobial association contaminating the surface of elastomeric dental impressions.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, Giovanni M; Melilli, Dario; Rallo, Antonio; Pecorella, Sonia; Mammina, Caterina; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability to resist disinfection of a polymicrobial association contaminating the surface of dental impressions obtained with two different elastomers: a polyether (Impregum) and an addition-polymerized silicone (Elite). Impressions were contaminated with a mixture of three biofilm-forming microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans) and disinfected immediately after contamination, or after microbial layers were allowed to develop during a six-hour storage. Two commercial disinfectants were tested: MD 520 containing 0.5% glutaraldehyde and Sterigum Powder without glutaraldehyde. Residual contamination was recovered by mechanical rinsing immediately after disinfection and after a six-hour storage of disinfected impressions, and assessed by colony counting. Both disinfectants tested were shown to be effective in reducing the microbial presence on the impression materials, achieving at least a 102 reduction of microbial counts compared to water rinsing. However, Sterigum was generally less effective on the Elite elastomer and could not grant disinfection on six-hour aged P. aeruginosa and C. albicans microbial layers. The results of this study suggest that the materials used for the impressions influence the efficacy of disinfection. Disinfectants should be tested according to conditions encountered in everyday clinical practice and the need for immediate disinfection of impressions should be clearly indicated by manufacturers. PMID:19579694

  13. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 835 - Surface Contamination Values

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Surface Contamination Values D Appendix D to Part 835 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Pt. 835, App. D Appendix D to Part 835—Surface Contamination Values The data presented in appendix D are to be used in identifying the need for posting of contamination and high...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 835 - Surface Contamination Values

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surface Contamination Values D Appendix D to Part 835 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Pt. 835, App. D Appendix D to Part 835—Surface Contamination Values The data presented in appendix D are to be used in identifying the need for posting of contamination and high...

  15. Soil microbial community responses to antibiotic-contaminated manure under different soil moisture regimes.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Rüdiger; Radl, Viviane; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Albert, Andreas; Amelung, Wulf; Schloter, Michael; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören

    2014-01-01

    Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is an antibiotic frequently administered to livestock, and it alters microbial communities when entering soils with animal manure, but understanding the interactions of these effects to the prevailing climatic regime has eluded researchers. A climatic factor that strongly controls microbial activity is soil moisture. Here, we hypothesized that the effects of SDZ on soil microbial communities will be modulated depending on the soil moisture conditions. To test this hypothesis, we performed a 49-day fully controlled climate chamber pot experiments with soil grown with Dactylis glomerata (L.). Manure-amended pots without or with SDZ contamination were incubated under a dynamic moisture regime (DMR) with repeated drying and rewetting changes of >20 % maximum water holding capacity (WHCmax) in comparison to a control moisture regime (CMR) at an average soil moisture of 38 % WHCmax. We then monitored changes in SDZ concentration as well as in the phenotypic phospholipid fatty acid and genotypic 16S rRNA gene fragment patterns of the microbial community after 7, 20, 27, 34, and 49 days of incubation. The results showed that strongly changing water supply made SDZ accessible to mild extraction in the short term. As a result, and despite rather small SDZ effects on community structures, the PLFA-derived microbial biomass was suppressed in the SDZ-contaminated DMR soils relative to the CMR ones, indicating that dynamic moisture changes accelerate the susceptibility of the soil microbial community to antibiotics. PMID:24743980

  16. Microbial and Heavy Metal Contaminant of Antidiabetic Herbal Preparations Formulated in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Zamir, Rausan; Hosen, Anowar; Ullah, M. Obayed; Nahar, Nilufar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate microbial contamination in terms of microbial load (total aerobic count and total coliform count) and specific pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, particularly Escherichia coli 0157) in thirteen antidiabetic herbal preparations (ADHPs) from Dhaka City. All the thirteen ADHPs had been found contaminated with fungi and different pathogenic bacteria. From the data, it is found that only two of these preparations (ADHP-1 and ADHP-12) complied with the safety limit (as stated in different Pharmacopoeias and WHO guidelines) evaluated by all different microbial counts. None of these herbal preparations could assure the safety as all of them were contaminated by fungi. The overall safety regarding heavy metal content (Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Cd, and Pb) was assured as none of them exceeded the safety limit of the daily intake. Microbial contaminants in these herbal preparations pose a potential risk for human health and care should be taken in every step involved in the preparation of these herbal preparations to assure safety. PMID:26587044

  17. Characterization of Microbial Communities from Pristine and Chlorinated-Ethene-Contaminated Landfill Groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.

    2002-05-17

    Molecular, phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), and substrate utilization (BIOLOG) techniques were used to assess structural and functional differences between microbial communities from a chlorinated-ethene (CE)-contaminated groundwater at a sanitary landfill. The information will be used to evaluate natural attenuation of the associated CE plume. Two groundwater-monitoring wells were tested.

  18. BIOGEOCHEMICAL EVIDENCE FOR MICROBIAL COMMUNITY CHANGE IN A JET FUEL HYDROCARBONS-CONTAMINATED AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A glacio-fluvial aquifer located at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, had been contaminated with JP-4 fuel hydrocarbons released after the crash of a tanker aircraft in October of 1988 Microbial biomass and community structure, associated with the aquifer sediments, were chara...

  19. Microbial hydroxylation of quinoline in contaminated groundwater: evidence for incorporation of the oxygen atom of water.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Leiker, T.J.; Updegraff, D.M.; Bennett, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies conducted in an aquifer contaminated by creosote suggest that quinoline is converted to 2(1H)quinolinone by an indigenous consortium of microorganisms. Laboratory microbial experiments using H218O indicate that water is the source of the oxygen atom for this hydroxylation reaction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

  20. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURES IN PRISTINE AND CONTAMINATED AQUIFERS: FIELD AND LABORATORY MICROCOSM EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study used phylogenetic probes in hybridization analysis to (i) determine in situ microbial community structures in regions of a shallow sand aquifer that were oxygen depleted and fuel contaminated (FC) or aerobic and noncontaminted (NC) and (ii) examine alterations in micro...

  1. IN SITU APPARENT CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENTS AND MICROBIAL POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AT A HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the bulk electrical conductivity and microbial population distribution in sediments at a site contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL). The bulk conductivity was measured using in situ vertical resistivity probes, while the most probable number met...

  2. Evaluation of the Effect of Arsenic Contamination on Selected Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental impact of different contaminants which enter the soil can alter the diversity of the soil microflora thus disrupting their ability to maintain soil quality and health. Due to the vital role played by the diverse soil microbes in soil, the measurement of the soil microbial diversity has...

  3. Impact of Long-Term Diesel Contamination on Soil Microbial Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Maphosa, Farai; Morillo, Jose A.; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Langenhoff, Alette A. M.; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H. M.; Smidt, Hauke

    2013-01-01

    Microbial community composition and diversity at a diesel-contaminated railway site were investigated by pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene fragments to understand the interrelationships among microbial community composition, pollution level, and soil geochemical and physical properties. To this end, 26 soil samples from four matrix types with various geochemical characteristics and contaminant concentrations were investigated. The presence of diesel contamination significantly impacted microbial community composition and diversity, regardless of the soil matrix type. Clean samples showed higher diversity than contaminated samples (P < 0.001). Bacterial phyla with high relative abundances in all samples included Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi. High relative abundances of Archaea, specifically of the phylum Euryarchaeota, were observed in contaminated samples. Redundancy analysis indicated that increased relative abundances of the phyla Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Euryarchaeota correlated with the presence of contamination. Shifts in the chemical composition of diesel constituents across the site and the abundance of specific operational taxonomic units (OTUs; defined using a 97% sequence identity threshold) in contaminated samples together suggest that natural attenuation of contamination has occurred. OTUs with sequence similarity to strictly anaerobic Anaerolineae within the Chloroflexi, as well as to Methanosaeta of the phylum Euryarchaeota, were detected. Anaerolineae and Methanosaeta are known to be associated with anaerobic degradation of oil-related compounds; therefore, their presence suggests that natural attenuation has occurred under anoxic conditions. This research underscores the usefulness of next-generation sequencing techniques both to understand the ecological impact of contamination and to identify potential molecular proxies for detection of natural attenuation. PMID:23144139

  4. Impact of long-term diesel contamination on soil microbial community structure.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Nora B; Maphosa, Farai; Morillo, Jose A; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M; Smidt, Hauke

    2013-01-01

    Microbial community composition and diversity at a diesel-contaminated railway site were investigated by pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene fragments to understand the interrelationships among microbial community composition, pollution level, and soil geochemical and physical properties. To this end, 26 soil samples from four matrix types with various geochemical characteristics and contaminant concentrations were investigated. The presence of diesel contamination significantly impacted microbial community composition and diversity, regardless of the soil matrix type. Clean samples showed higher diversity than contaminated samples (P < 0.001). Bacterial phyla with high relative abundances in all samples included Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi. High relative abundances of Archaea, specifically of the phylum Euryarchaeota, were observed in contaminated samples. Redundancy analysis indicated that increased relative abundances of the phyla Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Euryarchaeota correlated with the presence of contamination. Shifts in the chemical composition of diesel constituents across the site and the abundance of specific operational taxonomic units (OTUs; defined using a 97% sequence identity threshold) in contaminated samples together suggest that natural attenuation of contamination has occurred. OTUs with sequence similarity to strictly anaerobic Anaerolineae within the Chloroflexi, as well as to Methanosaeta of the phylum Euryarchaeota, were detected. Anaerolineae and Methanosaeta are known to be associated with anaerobic degradation of oil-related compounds; therefore, their presence suggests that natural attenuation has occurred under anoxic conditions. This research underscores the usefulness of next-generation sequencing techniques both to understand the ecological impact of contamination and to identify potential molecular proxies for detection of natural attenuation. PMID:23144139

  5. Studies on possible propagation of microbial contamination in planetary clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimmick, R. L.; Chatigny, M. A.; Wolochow, H.

    1973-01-01

    One of the key parameters in estimation of the probability of contamintion of the outer planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, etc.) is the probability of growth (Pg) of terrestrial microorganisms on or near these planets. For example, Jupiter appears to have an atmosphere in which some microbial species could metabolize and propagate. This study includes investigation of the likelihood of metabolism and propagation of microbes suspended in dynamic atmospheres. It is directed toward providing experimental information needed to aid in rational estimation of Pg for these outer planets. Current work is directed at demonstration of aerial metabolism under near optimal conditions and tests of propagation in simulated Jovian atmospheres.

  6. Flood management: prediction of microbial contamination in large-scale floods in urban environments.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jonathon; Lai, Ka Man; Davies, Mike; Clifton, David; Ridley, Ian; Biddulph, Phillip

    2011-07-01

    With a changing climate and increased urbanisation, the occurrence and the impact of flooding is expected to increase significantly. Floods can bring pathogens into homes and cause lingering damp and microbial growth in buildings, with the level of growth and persistence dependent on the volume and chemical and biological content of the flood water, the properties of the contaminating microbes, and the surrounding environmental conditions, including the restoration time and methods, the heat and moisture transport properties of the envelope design, and the ability of the construction material to sustain the microbial growth. The public health risk will depend on the interaction of these complex processes and the vulnerability and susceptibility of occupants in the affected areas. After the 2007 floods in the UK, the Pitt review noted that there is lack of relevant scientific evidence and consistency with regard to the management and treatment of flooded homes, which not only put the local population at risk but also caused unnecessary delays in the restoration effort. Understanding the drying behaviour of flooded buildings in the UK building stock under different scenarios, and the ability of microbial contaminants to grow, persist, and produce toxins within these buildings can help inform recovery efforts. To contribute to future flood management, this paper proposes the use of building simulations and biological models to predict the risk of microbial contamination in typical UK buildings. We review the state of the art with regard to biological contamination following flooding, relevant building simulation, simulation-linked microbial modelling, and current practical considerations in flood remediation. Using the city of London as an example, a methodology is proposed that uses GIS as a platform to integrate drying models and microbial risk models with the local building stock and flood models. The integrated tool will help local governments, health authorities, insurance companies and residents to better understand, prepare for and manage a large-scale flood in urban environments. PMID:21481472

  7. An investigation of microbial contamination in the home.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, E.; Bloomfield, S. F.; Barlow, C. G.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the bacterial flora in over 200 homes is reported. The occurrence of potential pathogens and the levels of contamination at individual sites, particularly in the kitchen, toilet and bathroom is described and the implications for hygiene practices in the home discussed. PMID:7130703

  8. Microbial contamination in poultry chillers estimated by Monte Carlo simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent bacterial outbreaks in fresh and processed foods have increased awareness of food safety among consumers, regulatory agencies, and the food industry. The risk of contamination exists in meat processing facilities where bacteria that are normally associated with the animal are transferred to t...

  9. Surface interactions relevant to space station contamination problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, J. T.

    1988-01-01

    The physical and chemical processes at solid surfaces which can contribute to Space Station contamination problems are reviewed. Suggested areas for experimental studies to provide data to improve contamination modeling efforts are presented.

  10. Contamination of shallow wells in Nigeria from surface contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Ademoroti, C.M.A. )

    1987-01-01

    Contaminated wells, located in six south/western and western states of Nigeria, were sampled and analyzed for pollution characteristics. Results of analysis indicated migration of contaminants into the wells from places where there was a potential source. There was a significant microbiological population in the wells placed near domestic waste sites. Also, there were excessive levels of trace heavy metals in those placed near metal dumping sites. On the other hand, the contaminants were minimal in wells that were not close to polluting sources. The studies revealed that groundwater contamination occurred primarily by dumping of wastes, wrong placement of waste disposal facilities, and improper construction of wells. The groundwater sources (wells, etc.) are used when pipe-borne water facilities are inadequate.

  11. Relating subsurface temperature changes to microbial activity at a crude oil-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ean; Bekins, Barbara A

    2015-11-01

    Crude oil at a spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota has been undergoing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation for over 30 years, creating a 150-200 m plume of primary and secondary contaminants. Microbial degradation generates heat that should be measurable under the right conditions. To measure this heat, thermistors were installed in wells in the saturated zone and in water-filled monitoring tubes in the unsaturated zone. In the saturated zone, a thermal groundwater plume originates near the residual oil body with temperatures ranging from 2.9°C above background near the oil to 1.2°C down gradient. Temperatures in the unsaturated zone above the oil body were up to 2.7°C more than background temperatures. Previous work at this site has shown that methane produced from biodegradation of the oil migrates upward and is oxidized in a methanotrophic zone midway between the water table and the surface. Enthalpy calculations and observations demonstrate that the temperature increases primarily result from aerobic methane oxidation in the unsaturated zone above the oil. Methane oxidation rates at the site independently estimated from surface CO2 efflux data are comparable to rates estimated from the observed temperature increases. The results indicate that temperature may be useful as a low-cost measure of activity but care is required to account for the correct heat-generating reactions, other heat sources and the effects of focused recharge. PMID:26409188

  12. Relating subsurface temperature changes to microbial activity at a crude oil-contaminated site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, Ean; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil at a spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota has been undergoing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation for over 30 years, creating a 150–200 m plume of primary and secondary contaminants. Microbial degradation generates heat that should be measurable under the right conditions. To measure this heat, thermistors were installed in wells in the saturated zone and in water-filled monitoring tubes in the unsaturated zone. In the saturated zone, a thermal groundwater plume originates near the residual oil body with temperatures ranging from 2.9 °C above background near the oil to 1.2 °C down gradient. Temperatures in the unsaturated zone above the oil body were up to 2.7 °C more than background temperatures. Previous work at this site has shown that methane produced from biodegradation of the oil migrates upward and is oxidized in a methanotrophic zone midway between the water table and the surface. Enthalpy calculations and observations demonstrate that the temperature increases primarily result from aerobic methane oxidation in the unsaturated zone above the oil. Methane oxidation rates at the site independently estimated from surface CO2 efflux data are comparable to rates estimated from the observed temperature increases. The results indicate that temperature may be useful as a low-cost measure of activity but care is required to account for the correct heat-generating reactions, other heat sources and the effects of focused recharge.

  13. Relating subsurface temperature changes to microbial activity at a crude oil-contaminated site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Ean; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2015-11-01

    Crude oil at a spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota has been undergoing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation for over 30 years, creating a 150-200 m plume of primary and secondary contaminants. Microbial degradation generates heat that should be measurable under the right conditions. To measure this heat, thermistors were installed in wells in the saturated zone and in water-filled monitoring tubes in the unsaturated zone. In the saturated zone, a thermal groundwater plume originates near the residual oil body with temperatures ranging from 2.9 °C above background near the oil to 1.2 °C down gradient. Temperatures in the unsaturated zone above the oil body were up to 2.7 °C more than background temperatures. Previous work at this site has shown that methane produced from biodegradation of the oil migrates upward and is oxidized in a methanotrophic zone midway between the water table and the surface. Enthalpy calculations and observations demonstrate that the temperature increases primarily result from aerobic methane oxidation in the unsaturated zone above the oil. Methane oxidation rates at the site independently estimated from surface CO2 efflux data are comparable to rates estimated from the observed temperature increases. The results indicate that temperature may be useful as a low-cost measure of activity but care is required to account for the correct heat-generating reactions, other heat sources and the effects of focused recharge.

  14. Microbial interactions with naturally occurring hydrophobic sediments: Influence on sediment and associated contaminant mobility.

    PubMed

    Droppo, I G; Krishnappan, B G; Lawrence, J R

    2016-04-01

    The erosion, transport and fate of sediments and associated contaminants are known to be influenced by both particle characteristics and the flow dynamics imparted onto the sediment. The influential role of bitumen containing hydrophobic sediments and the microbial community on sediment dynamics are however less understood. This study links an experimental evaluation of sediment erosion with measured sediment-associated contaminant concentrations and microbial community analysis to provide an estimate of the potential for sediment to control the erosion, transport and fate of contaminants. Specifically the paper addresses the unique behaviour of hydrophobic sediments and the role that the microbial community associated with hydrophobic sediment may play in the transport of contaminated sediment. Results demonstrate that the hydrophobic cohesive sediment demonstrates unique transport and particle characteristics (poor settling and small floc size). Biofilms were observed to increase with consolidation/biostabilization times and generated a unique microbial consortium relative to the eroded flocs. Natural oil associated with the flocs appeared to be preferentially associated with microbial derived extracellular polymeric substances. While PAHs and naphthenic acid increased with increasing shear (indicative of increasing loads), they tended to decrease with consolidation/biostabilization (CB) time at similar shears suggesting a chemical and/or biological degradation. PAH and napthenic acid degrading microbes decreased with time as well, which may suggest that there was a reduced pool of PAHs and naphthenic acids available resulting in their die off. This study emphasizes the importance that any management strategies and operational assessments for the protection of human and aquatic health incorporate the sediment (suspended and bed sediment) and biological (biofilm) compartments and the energy dynamics within the system in order to better predict contaminant transport. PMID:26849315

  15. Response of the microbial community to seasonal groundwater level fluctuations in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ai-xia; Zhang, Yu-ling; Dong, Tian-zi; Lin, Xue-yu; Su, Xiao-si

    2015-07-01

    The effects of seasonal groundwater level fluctuations on the contamination characteristics of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soils, groundwater, and the microbial community were investigated at a typical petrochemical site in northern China. The measurements of groundwater and soil at different depths showed that significant TPH residue was present in the soil in this study area, especially in the vicinity of the pollution source, where TPH concentrations were up to 2600 mg kg(-1). The TPH concentration in the groundwater fluctuated seasonally, and the maximum variation was 0.8 mg L(-1). The highest TPH concentrations were detected in the silty clay layer and lied in the groundwater level fluctuation zones. The groundwater could reach previously contaminated areas in the soil, leading to higher groundwater TPH concentrations as TPH leaches into the groundwater. The coincident variation of the electron acceptors and TPH concentration with groundwater-table fluctuations affected the microbial communities in groundwater. The microbial community structure was significantly different between the wet and dry seasons. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that in the wet season, TPH, NO3(-), Fe(2+), TMn, S(2-), and HCO3(-) were the major factors correlating the microbial community. A significant increase in abundance of operational taxonomic unit J1 (97% similar to Dechloromonas aromatica sp.) was also observed in wet season conditions, indicating an intense denitrifying activity in the wet season environment. In the dry season, due to weak groundwater level fluctuations and low temperature of groundwater, the microbial activity was weak. But iron and sulfate-reducing were also detected in dry season at this site. As a whole, groundwater-table fluctuations would affect the distribution, transport, and biodegradation of the contaminants. These results may be valuable for the control and remediation of soil and groundwater pollution at this site and in other petrochemical-contaminated areas. Furthermore, they are probably helpful for reducing health risks to the general public from contaminated groundwater. PMID:25687607

  16. Depth, soil type, water table, and site effects on microbial community composition in sediments of pesticide-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Marja K; Liu, Xinxin; Yu, Dan; Kontro, Merja H

    2015-07-01

    Microbial community compositions in pesticide-contaminated aquifers have not been studied, although such information is important for remediation and maintaining freshwater sources clean under changing climate. Therefore, phospholipid (PLFAs), glycolipid (GLFAs), and neutral lipid (NLFAs) fatty acids were determined from sand and clay sediments at depths of 0.3-24.8 m, all contaminated with triazines and dichlobenil/2,6-dichlorobenzamide. The portion of fungi and Gram-negative bacteria at 0.3 m was greater than at 0.8 m, where the percentage of Gram-positive bacteria, actinobacteria, and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) increased. In deeper sediments, microbial biomass, activity, and diversity decreased. Clay sediments seemed to serve as a reservoir for slow pesticide elution to groundwater, and their biomarker portion for all bacteria except actinobacteria was greater than in sand sediments. The slow pesticide dissipation seemed to occur in the main groundwater flow zone, resulting in nitrogen release simultaneously with organic matter elution from gardening and bank filtration. As a result, microbial biomass, activity, and diversity were increased. This shift in conditions towards that in surface soil may be appropriate for enhanced natural attenuation of pesticides in groundwater sources. PMID:25703619

  17. Soil ventilation: Effects on microbial populations in gasoline-contaminated subsurface soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, W.J.

    1995-07-01

    Short- and long-term effects of vapor extraction (VE) in an unsaturated subsurface soil and in situ biodegradation of gasoline were evaluated in a field study. Subsurface temperature, moisture, solid- and gas-phase contaminant levels, atmospheric gases, nutrient levels, and microbial population densities were measured during and after soil VE for 462 d. Microbial activity, based on in situ O{sub 2} consumption rates, measured 7 d after VE started averaged 3.8% O{sub 2} d{sup -1}; by Day 62 these rates dropped to 0.2% O{sub 2} d{sup -1}. Soil VE was stopped on Day 180 and about 70 d elapsed before renewed, low-level (0.05% O{sub 2} d{sup -1}) activity was detectable. Following a second round of VE, average O{sub 2} consumption rates increased to 0.11% O{sub 2} d{sup -1}. Microbial population densities did not consistently reflect activity changes measured by O{sub 2} consumption. Activity increases in the latter part of the study were not adequately accounted for by changes in subsurface moisture levels, temperature, or contaminant vapor concentrations. At the study`s completion, 400 kg of gasoline was volatilized from the soil and another 139 kg estimated to be biodegraded in situ. A two-phase process is proposed to account for the effects of VE on microbial activity. The initial phase is characterized by declining microbial activity levels in response to substrate reduction. Microbial activity slowly increases as a result of interactions between gasoline vapor concentrations and possibly changes in degradative activities of the microbial population. More work is needed to identify the gasoline constituents serving as substrates for microbial populations before and after ventilation. 31 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Impact of chromium-contaminated wastewaters on the microbial community of a river.

    PubMed

    Branco, Rita; Chung, Ana-Paula; Veríssimo, António; Morais, Paula V

    2005-09-01

    The influence of chromium on the microbial community structure was analyzed in a river system subjected to long-term chromium contamination, by plating and by sequencing 16S rRNA genes cloned from DNA extracted from the river sediments. We also analyzed the influence of chromium on the ability of the microbial community to resist and reduce Cr(VI) and on its resistance to antibiotics. Shifts in the microbial community structure were analyzed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis fingerprinting. The isolates obtained were phylogenetically related to Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, whereas Acidobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria were only revealed by clone analyses. Cr(VI)-resistant and Cr(VI)-reducing strains were isolated in all sites examined. However, each sample site had a microbial community with a different antibiotic resistance pattern. Our study seems to indicate that in this river ecosystem chromium influenced the microbial communities, altering some of their functional characteristics, such as the percentage of the microbial community able to resist or to reduce Cr(VI) and the phylogenetic groups isolated, but it did not affect the structural diversity. Furthermore, the concentration of Cr(VI) in the sediments could not be correlated with a lower number of bacteria or lower index of generic diversity, neither with the ability of the microbial community to resist or to reduce higher Cr(VI) concentrations. PMID:16329970

  19. Microbial water quality and sedimentary faecal sterols as markers of sewage contamination in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Lyons, B P; Devlin, M J; Abdul Hamid, S A; Al-Otiabi, A F; Al-Enezi, M; Massoud, M S; Al-Zaidan, A S; Smith, A J; Morris, S; Bersuder, P; Barber, J L; Papachlimitzou, A; Al-Sarawi, H A

    2015-11-30

    Microbial water quality and concentrations of faecal sterols in sediment have been used to assess the degree of sewage contamination in Kuwait's marine environment. A review of microbial (faecal coliform, faecal streptococci and Escherichia coli) water quality data identified temporal and spatial sources of pollution around the coastline. Results indicated that bacterial counts regularly breach regional water quality guidelines. Sediments collected from a total of 29 sites contained detectable levels of coprostanol with values ranging from 29 to 2420ngg(-1) (dry weight). Hot spots based on faecal sterol sediment contamination were identified in Doha Bay and Sulaibikhat Bay, which are both smaller embayments of Kuwait Bay. The ratio of epicoprostanol/coprostanol indicates that a proportion of the contamination was from raw or partially treated sewage. Sewage pollution in these areas are thought to result from illegal connections and discharges from storm drains, such as that sited at Al-Ghazali. PMID:26228071

  20. Parenterals Laboratory Course to Reduce Microbial Contamination Rates in Media Fill Tests Performed by Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Isanhart, Christine M.; Kretschmer, Diane; Grimes, Barbie A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate microbial contamination rates of low- and medium-risk level media fill tests performed by pharmacy students near the beginning and end of a parenterals laboratory course in the second- professional year of a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Methods Students enrolled in a required parenterals laboratory class (N = 84) participated in this study. The aseptic technique procedures performed at the beginning of the course were identical to the procedures performed at the end of the course and included 3 low-risk level media-fill tests and a medium-risk level media-fill test. Single-strength trypticase-soy broth (TSB) was substituted for the drug and was used to detect microbial contamination for all manipulations. Results The baseline and end-of-course contamination rate was 21 of 504 syringes and 0 of 498 syringes, respectively (p < 0.001). Eighteen of 84 students at baseline and 0 of 83 students near the end of the course produced one or more contaminated syringes (p < 0.001). Of the 21 contaminated syringes at baseline, low-risk manipulations accounted for 14 and medium-risk manipulations accounted for 7. Of the low-risk procedures, the ampule produced the highest contamination rate (11 syringes), followed by the vial (2 syringes) and the reconstitution (1 syringe). Conclusions This study demonstrated a decreased rate of microbial contamination during the manipulation of parenteral products and a corresponding improvement in aseptic technique skills among pharmacy students enrolled in a parenterals laboratory course. The most sensitive tests for poor aseptic technique and bacterial contamination were medium-risk manipulations and low-risk manipulations involving an ampule. PMID:18483595

  1. Potential impact of soil microbial heterogeneity on the persistence of hydrocarbons in contaminated subsurface soils.

    PubMed

    Aleer, Sam; Adetutu, Eric M; Weber, John; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

    2014-04-01

    In situ bioremediation is potentially a cost effective treatment strategy for subsurface soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, however, limited information is available regarding the impact of soil spatial heterogeneity on bioremediation efficacy. In this study, we assessed issues associated with hydrocarbon biodegradation and soil spatial heterogeneity (samples designated as FTF 1, 5 and 8) from a site in which in situ bioremediation was proposed for hydrocarbon removal. Test pit activities showed similarities in FTF soil profiles with elevated hydrocarbon concentrations detected in all soils at 2 m below ground surface. However, PCR-DGGE-based cluster analysis showed that the bacterial community in FTF 5 (at 2 m) was substantially different (53% dissimilar) and 2-3 fold more diverse than communities in FTF 1 and 8 (with 80% similarity). When hydrocarbon degrading potential was assessed, differences were observed in the extent of (14)C-benzene mineralisation under aerobic conditions with FTF 5 exhibiting the highest hydrocarbon removal potential compared to FTF 1 and 8. Further analysis indicated that the FTF 5 microbial community was substantially different from other FTF samples and dominated by putative hydrocarbon degraders belonging to Pseudomonads, Xanthomonads and Enterobacteria. However, hydrocarbon removal in FTF 5 under anaerobic conditions with nitrate and sulphate electron acceptors was limited suggesting that aerobic conditions were crucial for hydrocarbon removal. This study highlights the importance of assessing available microbial capacity prior to bioremediation and shows that the site's spatial heterogeneity can adversely affect the success of in situ bioremediation unless area-specific optimizations are performed. PMID:24553295

  2. Rhizosphere effect of Scirpus triqueter on soil microbial structure during phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated wetland.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinying; Chen, Xueping; Liu, Shanshan; Chen, Lisha

    2014-01-01

    Though phytoremediation has been widely used to restore various contaminated sites, it is still unclear how soil microbial communities respond microecologically to plants and pollutants during the process. In this paper, batch microcosms imitating in situ phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated wetland by Scirpus triqueter were set up to monitor the influence of plant rhizosphere effect on soil microbes. Palmitic acid, one of the main root exudates of S. triqueter, was added to strengthen rhizosphere effect. Abundances of certain microbial subgroups were quantified by phospholipid fatty acid profiles. Results showed that diesel removal extents were significantly higher in the rhizosphere (57.6 +/-4.2-65.5 +/- 6.9%) than those in bulk soil (27.8 +/-6.5-36.3 +/- 3.2%). In addition, abundances of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in planted soil than those in the bulk soil. When it was less than 15,000 mg diesel kg soil-1, increasing diesel concentration led to higher abundances of fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The addition of palmitic acid amplified the rhizosphere effect on soil microbial populations and diesel removal. Principal component analysis revealed that plant rhizosphere effect was the dominant factor affecting microbial structure. These results provided new insights into plant-microbe-pollutant coactions responsible for diesel degradation, and they were valuable to facilitate phytoremediation of diesel contamination in wetland habitats. PMID:24600892

  3. Early warning system for detection of microbial contamination of source waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogensen, Claus Tilsted; Bentien, Anders; Lau, Mogens; Højris, Bo; Iversen, Kåre; Klinting, Mette; Berg, Tommy Winter; Agersnap, Niels; Valvik, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Ensuring chemical and microbial water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, determination of microbial water quality is a time (and money) consuming manual laboratory process. We have developed and field-tested an online and real-time sensor for measuring the microbial water quality of a wide range of source waters. The novel optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the microbial content present in the sample. This gives a fast and reliable detection capability of microbial contamination of the source. Sample acquisition and analysis is performed real-time where objects in suspension are differentiated into e.g. organic/inorganic subgroups. The detection system is a compact, low power, reagentless device and thus ideal for applications where long service intervals and remote operations are desired. Due to the very large dynamic range in measured parameters, the system is able to monitor process water in industry and food production as well as monitor waste water, source water and water distribution systems. The applications envisioned for this system includes early warning of source water contamination and/or variation. This includes: water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, waste water effluent, and industry in general.

  4. Large-scale contamination of microbial isolate genomes by Illumina PhiX control

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid growth and development of sequencing technologies, genomes have become the new go-to for exploring solutions to some of the world’s biggest challenges such as searching for alternative energy sources and exploration of genomic dark matter. However, progress in sequencing has been accompanied by its share of errors that can occur during template or library preparation, sequencing, imaging or data analysis. In this study we screened over 18,000 publicly available microbial isolate genome sequences in the Integrated Microbial Genomes database and identified more than 1000 genomes that are contaminated with PhiX, a control frequently used during Illumina sequencing runs. Approximately 10% of these genomes have been published in literature and 129 contaminated genomes were sequenced under the Human Microbiome Project. Raw sequence reads are prone to contamination from various sources and are usually eliminated during downstream quality control steps. Detection of PhiX contaminated genomes indicates a lapse in either the application or effectiveness of proper quality control measures. The presence of PhiX contamination in several publicly available isolate genomes can result in additional errors when such data are used in comparative genomics analyses. Such contamination of public databases have far-reaching consequences in the form of erroneous data interpretation and analyses, and necessitates better measures to proofread raw sequences before releasing them to the broader scientific community. PMID:26203331

  5. Responses of microbial activity and decomposer organisms to contamination in microcosms containing coniferous forest soil.

    PubMed

    Salminen, J; Liiri, M; Haimi, J

    2002-09-01

    Soil respiration from microcosms contaminated with pentachlorophenol, 2-ethanolhexanoate, creosote, CuSO4, and benomyl was measured in order to evaluate usefulness of soil microcosms and microbial respiration rate monitoring as a toxicity test in soils with high organic matter content. Coniferous forest soil and its organisms were used as test objects. In addition, how a short-term low temperature period including frost affects respiration dynamics in stressed soils was studied, i.e., whether contaminants reduce resistance of the community to other (also natural) stresses. In addition, at the end of the experiment, effects of contaminants on faunal and microbial community structures were analyzed. Soil respiration measurements from the microcosms appeared to be a sensitive parameter for testing community-level effects of chemicals in the soil with high organic matter content. An 84-day exposure had acute effects, long-term effects, delaying effects, and total recovery of community respiration. Direct negative and indirect positive effects of chemical contamination on the community of soil organisms were found. Responses to contamination of soil respiration rate and structure of the soil community were parallel. Addition of pentachlorophenol, 2-ethanolhexane, and Cu into the soil reduced frost resistance of the decomposer community. It was concluded that soil respiration monitoring of artificially contaminated soil microcosms seems to be a useful tool for testing community-level toxic effects of chemicals. PMID:12481864

  6. Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines and effect on quality of indoor air.

    PubMed

    Kadaifciler, Duygu Göksay; Cotuk, Aysin

    2014-06-01

    The microbiological quality in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) is considered to be important because patients and dental staff with suppressed immune systems are regularly exposed to water and aerosols generated from dental units (DUs). Opportunistic pathogens like Pseudomonas, Legionella, Candida, and Aspergillus can be present in DUWLs, while during consultations, bioaerosols can be dispersed in the air, thus resulting in effects on microbiological quality of indoor air. This present study represents microbiological air and water quality in dental offices (DOs) and also concerns the relationship between the quality of DO air and dental unit water. This study aimed to assess both the microbial quality of dental unit water and the indoor air in 20 DOs and to survey the effect on the quality of the indoor air with the existing microorganisms in dental unit water. Fourteen out of 20 (70 %) DUWLs were found to be contaminated with a high number of aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria. In terms of bacterial air contamination levels, in 90 % of DOs, a medium level (<500 colony-forming units (CFU)/m(3)) of contamination was determined, while in terms of microfungal air contamination, in all DOs, a low level (<100 CFU/m(3)) of contamination was determined. Potential infection or allergen agents, such as Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Paecilomyces were isolated from water and air samples. This study's determination of contamination sources and evaluation of microbial load in DOs could contribute to the development of quality control methods in the future. PMID:24469014

  7. Natural attenuation of contaminated marine sediments from an old floating dock Part II: changes of sediment microbial community structure and its relationship with environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Fen; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2012-04-15

    Changes of microbial community structure and its relationship with various environmental variables in surface marine sediments were examined for a one-year period after the removal of an old floating dock in Hong Kong SAR, South China. Temporal variations in the microbial community structure were clearly revealed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the microbial ester-linked fatty acid methyl ester (EL-FAME) profiles. The most obvious shift in microbial community structure was detected 6 months after the removal of the dock, although no significant decline in the levels of pollutants could be detected. As determined by EL-FAME profiles, the microbial diversity recovered and the predominance of gram-negative bacteria was gradually replaced by gram-positive bacteria and fungi in the impacted stations. With redundancy analysis (RDA), the concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was found to be the second important determinant of microbial community structure, next to Time. The relative abundance of 18:1?9c and hydroxyl fatty acids enriched in the PAH hot spots, whereas 16:1?9 and 18:1?9t were negatively correlated to total PAH concentration. The significant relationships observed between microbial EL-FAME profiles and pollutants, exampled by PAHs in the present study, suggested the potential of microbial community analysis in the assessment of the natural attenuation process in contaminated environments. PMID:22417882

  8. Fecal contamination in irrigation water and microbial quality of vegetable primary production in urban farms of Metro Manila, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Bea Clarise B; Dimasupil, Ma Angela Z; Vital, Pierangeli G; Widmer, Kenneth W; Rivera, Windell L

    2015-01-01

    Microbial contamination of fresh produce can present a severe risk to public health. By conducting a rigorous survey of irrigation waters, the impacts of fecal contamination on the quality of produce could be assessed. In this study, surface waters were observed to be contaminated with Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and somatic coliphages. Culture methods show that out of 373 irrigation water, soil, and vegetable samples collected for a 1-year period, 232 (62.20%) were found positive for E. coli, 213 (57.26%) for somatic coliphages, and 2 (0.53%) for Salmonella spp. Out of 190 water samples, 167 (87.9%) were found to have E.coli, 174 (91.6%) have somatic coliphages, and 1 (0.5%) with Salmonella spp. In soil samples, 36 of 91 (39.6%) have E. coli, 31 (34.0%) have somatic coliphages, and none with Salmonella spp. Lastly, out of 92 vegetable samples, 29 (31.5%), 8 (8.7%), and 1 (1.1%) were found to have E. coli, somatic coliphages, and Salmonella spp., respectively. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of bacterial contaminants. Seasonal weather conditions were noted to have an effect on the presence and number of these fecal indicator organisms. The observed data suggest that contaminated irrigation water may greatly affect the quality of fresh produce from these agricultural operations. PMID:26273758

  9. Engineering microbial surfaces to degrade lignocellulosic biomass

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Grace L; Anderson, Timothy D; Clubb, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Renewable lignocellulosic plant biomass is a promising feedstock from which to produce biofuels, chemicals, and materials. One approach to cost-effectively exploit this resource is to use consolidating bioprocessing (CBP) microbes that directly convert lignocellulose into valuable end products. Because many promising CBP-enabling microbes are non-cellulolytic, recent work has sought to engineer them to display multi-cellulase containing minicellulosomes that hydrolyze biomass more efficiently than isolated enzymes. In this review, we discuss progress in engineering the surfaces of the model microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We compare the distinct approaches used to display cellulases and minicellulosomes, as well as their surface enzyme densities and cellulolytic activities. Thus far, minicellulosomes have only been grafted onto the surfaces of B. subtilis and S. cerevisiae, suggesting that the absence of an outer membrane in fungi and Gram-positive bacteria may make their surfaces better suited for displaying the elaborate multi-enzyme complexes needed to efficiently degrade lignocellulose. PMID:24430239

  10. Engineering microbial surfaces to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Huang, Grace L; Anderson, Timothy D; Clubb, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Renewable lignocellulosic plant biomass is a promising feedstock from which to produce biofuels, chemicals, and materials. One approach to cost-effectively exploit this resource is to use consolidating bioprocessing (CBP) microbes that directly convert lignocellulose into valuable end products. Because many promising CBP-enabling microbes are non-cellulolytic, recent work has sought to engineer them to display multi-cellulase containing minicellulosomes that hydrolyze biomass more efficiently than isolated enzymes. In this review, we discuss progress in engineering the surfaces of the model microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We compare the distinct approaches used to display cellulases and minicellulosomes, as well as their surface enzyme densities and cellulolytic activities. Thus far, minicellulosomes have only been grafted onto the surfaces of B. subtilis and S. cerevisiae, suggesting that the absence of an outer membrane in fungi and Gram-positive bacteria may make their surfaces better suited for displaying the elaborate multi-enzyme complexes needed to efficiently degrade lignocellulose. PMID:24430239

  11. Effect of contaminant concentration on aerobic microbial mineralization of DCE and VC in stream-bed sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    Discharge of DCE and VC to an aerobic surface water system simultaneously represents a significant environmental concern and, potentially, a non-engineered opportunity for efficient contaminant bioremediation. The potential for bioremediation, however, depends on the ability of the stream-bed microbial community to efficiently and completely degrade DCE and VC over a range of contaminant concentrations. The purposes of the studies reported here were to assess the potential for aerobic DCE and VC mineralization by stream-bed microorganisms and to evaluate the effects of DCE and VC concentrations on the apparent rates of aerobic mineralization. Bed-sediment microorganisms indigenous to a creek, where DCE-contaminated groundwater continuously discharges, demonstrated rapid mineralization of DCE and VC under aerobic conditions. Over 8 days, the recovery of [1,2-14C]DCE radioactivity as 14CO2 ranged from 17% to 100%, and the recovery of [1,2- 14C]VC radioactivity as 14CO2 ranged from 45% to 100%. Rates of DCE and VC mineralization increased significantly with increasing contaminant concentration, and the response of apparent mineralization rates to changes in DCE and VC concentrations was adequately described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics.Discharge of DCE and VC to an aerobic surface water system simultaneously represents a significant environmental concern and, potentially, a non-engineered opportunity for efficient contaminant bioremediation. The potential for bioremediation, however, depends on the ability of the stream-bed microbial community to efficiently and completely degrade DCE and VC over a range of contaminant concentrations. The purposes of the studies reported here were to assess the potential for aerobic DCE and VC mineralization by stream-bed microorganisms and to evaluate the effects of DCE and VC concentrations on the apparent rates of aerobic mineralization. Bed-sediment microorganisms indigenous to a creek, where DCE-contaminated groundwater continuously discharges, demonstrated rapid mineralization of DCE and VC under aerobic conditions. Over 8 days, the recovery of [1,2-14C]DCE radioactivity as 14CO2 ranged from 17% to 100%, and the recovery of [1,2-14C]VC radioactivity as 14CO2 ranged from 45% to 100%. Rates of DCE and VC mineralization increased significantly with increasing contaminant concentration, and the response of apparent mineralization rates to changes in DCE and VC concentrations was adequately described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

  12. Successful bioremediation of an aged and heavily contaminated soil using a microbial/plant combination strategy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Sun, Guang-Dong; Jin, Jing-Hua; Liu, Ying; Luo, Mu; Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2014-01-15

    Bioremediation of an aged and heavily contaminated soil was performed using microbial remediation, phytoremediation, and microbial/phytoremediation. The removal efficiency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was in the order microbial/phytoremediation>microbial remediation?phytoremediation>control. The removal percentage of microbial/phytoremediation (69.6%) was twice that of control. Kocuria sp. P10 significantly enhanced PAH removal (P<0.05) and ryegrass growth (P<0.01). Dehydrogenase activity increased steadily and was negatively correlated with total PAH content. Successional changes in soil microbial communities were also detected by pyrosequencing. The results indicated that biodiversity of the soil bacterial community gradually increased with time and was slightly lower in control, as indicated by operational taxonomic unit (OTU) numbers and Shannon-Wiener indices. Proportions of Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were consistently high in all groups. Actinobacteridae were initially predominant (>37.8%) but rapidly decreased to <4%. The proportions of Acidobacteria increased greatly and this increase was positively correlated with PAH removal. These findings indicate a healthy ecological progression and a role of Acidobacteria as an indicator of the process. This study provides new insights into the dynamics of community structure during bioremediation process and a possible basis for ecological assessment for bioremediation on a large scale. PMID:24321347

  13. Microbial abundance in surface ice on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Stibal, Marek; Gözdereliler, Erkin; Cameron, Karen A.; Box, Jason E.; Stevens, Ian T.; Gokul, Jarishma K.; Schostag, Morten; Zarsky, Jakub D.; Edwards, Arwyn; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.; Jacobsen, Carsten S.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring microbial abundance in glacier ice and identifying its controls is essential for a better understanding and quantification of biogeochemical processes in glacial ecosystems. However, cell enumeration of glacier ice samples is challenging due to typically low cell numbers and the presence of interfering mineral particles. We quantified for the first time the abundance of microbial cells in surface ice from geographically distinct sites on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), using three enumeration methods: epifluorescence microscopy (EFM), flow cytometry (FCM), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In addition, we reviewed published data on microbial abundance in glacier ice and tested the three methods on artificial ice samples of realistic cell (102–107 cells ml−1) and mineral particle (0.1–100 mg ml−1) concentrations, simulating a range of glacial ice types, from clean subsurface ice to surface ice to sediment-laden basal ice. We then used multivariate statistical analysis to identify factors responsible for the variation in microbial abundance on the ice sheet. EFM gave the most accurate and reproducible results of the tested methodologies, and was therefore selected as the most suitable technique for cell enumeration of ice containing dust. Cell numbers in surface ice samples, determined by EFM, ranged from ~ 2 × 103 to ~ 2 × 106 cells ml−1 while dust concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 2 mg ml−1. The lowest abundances were found in ice sampled from the accumulation area of the ice sheet and in samples affected by fresh snow; these samples may be considered as a reference point of the cell abundance of precipitants that are deposited on the ice sheet surface. Dust content was the most significant variable to explain the variation in the abundance data, which suggests a direct association between deposited dust particles and cells and/or by their provision of limited nutrients to microbial communities on the GrIS. PMID:25852678

  14. Microbial abundance in surface ice on the Greenland Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Stibal, Marek; Gözdereliler, Erkin; Cameron, Karen A; Box, Jason E; Stevens, Ian T; Gokul, Jarishma K; Schostag, Morten; Zarsky, Jakub D; Edwards, Arwyn; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D L; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2015-01-01

    Measuring microbial abundance in glacier ice and identifying its controls is essential for a better understanding and quantification of biogeochemical processes in glacial ecosystems. However, cell enumeration of glacier ice samples is challenging due to typically low cell numbers and the presence of interfering mineral particles. We quantified for the first time the abundance of microbial cells in surface ice from geographically distinct sites on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), using three enumeration methods: epifluorescence microscopy (EFM), flow cytometry (FCM), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In addition, we reviewed published data on microbial abundance in glacier ice and tested the three methods on artificial ice samples of realistic cell (10(2)-10(7) cells ml(-1)) and mineral particle (0.1-100 mg ml(-1)) concentrations, simulating a range of glacial ice types, from clean subsurface ice to surface ice to sediment-laden basal ice. We then used multivariate statistical analysis to identify factors responsible for the variation in microbial abundance on the ice sheet. EFM gave the most accurate and reproducible results of the tested methodologies, and was therefore selected as the most suitable technique for cell enumeration of ice containing dust. Cell numbers in surface ice samples, determined by EFM, ranged from ~ 2 × 10(3) to ~ 2 × 10(6) cells ml(-1) while dust concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 2 mg ml(-1). The lowest abundances were found in ice sampled from the accumulation area of the ice sheet and in samples affected by fresh snow; these samples may be considered as a reference point of the cell abundance of precipitants that are deposited on the ice sheet surface. Dust content was the most significant variable to explain the variation in the abundance data, which suggests a direct association between deposited dust particles and cells and/or by their provision of limited nutrients to microbial communities on the GrIS. PMID:25852678

  15. Microbial contamination of carcasses, meat, and equipment from an Iberian pork cutting plant.

    PubMed

    Palá, Teresa Rivas; Sevilla, Ana

    2004-08-01

    An assessment and follow-up of the microbial contamination of an Iberian pork cutting room is presented. Samples were taken from carcasses (n = 76), meat pieces (three types, n = 71), meat for dry-cured sausages (3 types, n = 66), and surfaces of equipment (n = 158). Aerobic plate counts (APC) at 37 degrees C on meat pieces (primal cuts) were lower than on carcasses (3.62 log CFU/10 cm2 against 4.63 log CFU/10 cm2), probably owing to the removal of the skin. However, more than 80% of the meat pieces showed presence of Escherichia coli. For the three types of meat intended for dry-cured sausages, higher counts (P < 0.001) were found for meat type 3--an important cut obtained from the vertebral column--at 2.62 log CFU/g for E. coli; the particular surface used in the handling of meat type 3 also showed high counts (P < 0.001) for E. coli. Consequently, attention should be paid to the hazard analysis critical control point plan at this stage. Salmonella was isolated from 3.94% of the carcass surfaces (perianal zone), 4.46% of meat pieces, and 13.58% of meat for dry-cured sausages. Moreover, the percentages for isolation of Salmonella from carcasses of Iberian pigs (extensive rearing) in our study were lower than those generally reported in the literature for "white pigs" (intensive rearing). Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 31.82% of meat samples for dry-cured sausages, in 16.90% of meat pieces, and in 15.50% of the equipment after 4 h of work. Of the coagulase-positive strains isolated, 47.61% were producers of enterotoxin. PMID:15330525

  16. Study on contaminants on flight and other critical surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Hughes, Charles; Arendale, William F.

    1994-01-01

    The control of surface contamination in the manufacture of space hardware can become a critical step in the production process. Bonded surfaces have been shown to be affected markedly by contamination. It is important to insure surface cleanliness by preventing contamination prior to bonding. In this vein techniques are needed in which the contamination which may affect bonding are easily found and removed. Likewise, if materials which are detrimental to bonding are not easily removed, then they should not be used in the manufacturing process. This study will address the development of techniques to locate and quantify contamination levels of particular contaminants. With other data becoming available from MSFC and its contractors, this study will also quantify how certain contaminants affect bondlines and how easily they are removed in manufacturing.

  17. Functional gene array-based analysis of microbial community structure in groundwaters with a gradient of contaminant levels

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, P.J.; Wu, L.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Schadt, C.W.; Watson, D.B.; Jardine, P.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2009-06-15

    To understand how contaminants affect microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, six groundwater monitoring wells from the Field Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP; Oak Ridge, TN), with a wide range of pH, nitrate, and heavy metal contamination were investigated. DNA from the groundwater community was analyzed with a functional gene array containing 2006 probes to detect genes involved in metal resistance, sulfate reduction, organic contaminant degradation, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. Highly contaminated wells had lower gene diversity but greater signal intensity than the pristine well. The microbial composition was heterogeneous, with 17-70% overlap between different wells. Metal-resistant and metal-reducing microorganisms were detected in both contaminated and pristine wells, suggesting the potential for successful bioremediation of metal-contaminated groundwaters. In addition, results of Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis indicate that nitrate, sulfate, pH, uranium, and technetium have a significant (p < 0.05) effect on microbial community structure. This study provides an overall picture of microbial community structure in contaminated environments with functional gene arrays by showing that diversity and heterogeneity can vary greatly in relation to contamination.

  18. Microbial contamination of ambient air by ultrasonic humidifier and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Oie, S; Masumoto, N; Hironaga, K; Koshiro, A; Kamiya, A

    1992-01-01

    The microbially contaminated ultrasonic humidifier (UH) causes humidifier fever. The number of airborne viable bacteria was determined when the UH was operating, and other methods to humidify the air of hospital wards were also examined. A UH contaminated with 10(5) bacteria ml(-1), a level common in hospitals, increased the bacterial count in the air from 860 m(-3) to 88,000 m(-3) at a distance of 3 m from the humidifier. Thus UH in hospitals may contaminate the air and be a potential hazard to patients. Contamination was slight when a washable and disinfectable ultrasonic nebulizer was used with disinfection at 24 h intervals. In tracheostomy patients requiring a high degree of air humidification, ultrasonic nebulizers which are readily washed and disinfected are recommended. PMID:1488018

  19. Microbially supported phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils: strategies and applications.

    PubMed

    Phieler, René; Voit, Annekatrin; Kothe, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soil as a result of, for example, mining operations, evokes worldwide concern. The use of selected metal-accumulating plants to clean up heavy metal contaminated sites represents a sustainable and inexpensive method for remediation approaches and, at the same time, avoids destruction of soil function. Within this scenario, phytoremediation is the use of plants (directly or indirectly) to reduce the risks of contaminants in soil to the environment and human health. Microbially assisted bioremediation strategies, such as phytoextraction or phytostabilization, may increase the beneficial aspects and can be viewed as potentially useful methods for application in remediation of low and heterogeneously contaminated soil. The plant-microbe interactions in phytoremediation strategies include mutually beneficial symbiotic associations such as mycorrhiza, plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), or endophytic bacteria that are discussed with respect to their impact on phytoremediation approaches. PMID:23719709

  20. Contamination of microbial foreign bodies in bottled mineral water in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, H; Wauke, T; Kusunoki, J; Noguchi, Y; Takahashi, Y; Ohta, K; Itoh, T

    1997-03-01

    A total of 292 imported and domestic bottled mineral waters (90 brands) obtained from consumers and retailers were examined, by eye, for observable microbial foreign bodies. Fungal and bacterial foreign contaminants were found in 45 samples of water (20 brands) and in 14 samples of water (10 brands), respectively. Of the samples of water found to be contaminated, 41 (22 brands) were imported and 18 (8 brands) were produced domestically. Of 22 brands that were contaminated, 20 (91%) had been sterilized by at least one method. Forty-eight (98%) of 49 samples confirmed with foreign bodies were less than 1 year old. Among the moulds isolated the most predominant genus was Penicillium, followed by Acremonium and Cladosporium. The samples that contained fungi were less contaminated by bacteria than those that contained observable bacterial foreign bodies. PMID:12455891

  1. Tracking Microbial Contamination in Retail Environments Using Fluorescent Powder - A Retail Delicatessen Environment Example

    PubMed Central

    Sirsat, Sujata A.; Kim, Kawon; Gibson, Kristen E.; Crandall, Phillip G.; Ricke, Steven C.; Neal, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Cross contamination of foodborne pathogens in the retail environment is a significant public health issue contributing to an increased risk for foodborne illness. Ready-to-eat (RTE) processed foods such as deli meats, cheese, and in some cases fresh produce, have been involved in foodborne disease outbreaks due to contamination with pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. With respect to L. monocytogenes, deli slicers are often the main source of cross contamination. The goal of this study was to use a fluorescent compound to simulate bacterial contamination and track this contamination in a retail setting. A mock deli kitchen was designed to simulate the retail environment. Deli meat was inoculated with the fluorescent compound and volunteers were recruited to complete a set of tasks similar to those expected of a food retail employee. The volunteers were instructed to slice, package, and store the meat in a deli refrigerator. The potential cross contamination was tracked in the mock retail environment by swabbing specific areas and measuring the optical density of the swabbed area with a spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the refrigerator (i.e. deli case) grip and various areas on the slicer had the highest risk for cross contamination. The results of this study may be used to develop more focused training material for retail employees. In addition, similar methodologies could also be used to track microbial contamination in food production environments (e.g. small farms), hospitals, nursing homes, cruise ships, and hotels. PMID:24637553

  2. Factors affecting microbial 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene mineralization in contaminated soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of selected environmental factors on microbial TNT mineralization in soils collected from a TNT-contaminated site at Weldon Spring, MO, was examined using uniformly ring-labeled [14C]TNT. Microbial TNT mineralization was significantly inhibited by the addition of cellobiose and syringate. This response suggests that the indigenous microorganisms are capable of metabolizing TNT but preferentially utilize less recalcitrant substrates when available. The observed inhibition of TNT mineralization by TNT concentrations higher than 100 ??mol/kg of soil and by dry soil conditions suggests that toxic inhibition of microbial activity at high TNT concentrations and the periodic drying of these soils have contributed to the long-term persistence of TNT at Weldon Spring. In comparison to aerobic microcosms, mineralization was inhibited in anaerobic microcosms and in microcosms with a headspace of air amended with oxygen, suggesting that a mosaic of aerobic and anaerobic conditions may optimize TNT degradation at this site.

  3. Genotypic and phenotypic responses of a riverine microbial community to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Langworthy, D.E.; Findlay, R.H.; Stapleton, R.D.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-09-01

    The phenotypic and genotypic adaptation of a freshwater sedimentary microbial community to elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined by using an integrated biomolecular approach. Central to the approach was the use of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles to characterize the microbial community structure and nucleic acid analysis to quantify the frequency of degradative genes. The study site was the Little Scioto River, a highly impacted, channelized riverine system located in central Ohio. This study site is a unique lotic system, with all sampling stations having similar flow and sediment characteristics both upstream and downstream from the source of contamination. These characteristics allowed for the specific analysis of PAH impact on the microbial community. PAH concentrations in impacted sediments ranged from 22 to 217 {micro}g g(dry weight) of sediment{sup {minus}1}, while PAH concentrations in ambient sediments ranged from below detection levels to 1.5 {micro}g g (dry weight) of sediment{sup {minus}1}. Total microbial biomass measured by phospholipid phosphate (PLP) analysis ranged from 95 to 345 nmol of PLP g(dry weight) of sediment{sup {minus}1}. Nucleic acid analysis showed the presence of PAH-degradative genes at all sites, although observed frequencies were typically higher at contaminated sites. Principal component analysis of PLFA profiles indicated that moderate to high PAH concentrations altered microbial community structure and that seasonal changes were comparable in magnitude to the effects of PAH pollution. These data indicate that this community responded to PAH contamination at both the phenotypic and the genotypic level.

  4. Development of a microbial contamination susceptibility model for private domestic groundwater sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynds, Paul D.; Misstear, Bruce D.; Gill, Laurence W.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater quality analyses were carried out on samples from 262 private sources in the Republic of Ireland during the period from April 2008 to November 2010, with microbial quality assessed by thermotolerant coliform (TTC) presence. Assessment of potential microbial contamination risk factors was undertaken at all sources, and local meteorological data were also acquired. Overall, 28.9% of wells tested positive for TTC, with risk analysis indicating that source type (i.e., borehole or hand-dug well), local bedrock type, local subsoil type, groundwater vulnerability, septic tank setback distance, and 48 h antecedent precipitation were all significantly associated with TTC presence (p < 0.05). A number of source-specific design parameters were also significantly associated with bacterial presence. Hierarchical logistic regression with stepwise parameter entry was used to develop a private well susceptibility model, with the final model exhibiting a mean predictive accuracy of >80% (TTC present or absent) when compared to an independent validation data set. Model hierarchies of primary significance are source design (20%), septic tank location (11%), hydrogeological setting (10%), and antecedent 120 h precipitation (2%). Sensitivity analysis shows that the probability of contamination is highly sensitive to septic tank setback distance, with probability increasing linearly with decreases in setback distance. Likewise, contamination probability was shown to increase with increasing antecedent precipitation. Results show that while groundwater vulnerability category is a useful indicator of aquifer susceptibility to contamination, its suitability with regard to source contamination is less clear. The final model illustrates that both localized (well-specific) and generalized (aquifer-specific) contamination mechanisms are involved in contamination events, with localized bypass mechanisms dominant. The susceptibility model developed here could be employed in the appropriate location, design, construction, and operation of private groundwater wells, thereby decreasing the contamination risk, and hence health risk, associated with these sources.

  5. Microbial contamination of suction tubes attached to suction instruments and preventive methods.

    PubMed

    Yorioka, Katsuhiro; Oie, Shigeharu; Kamiya, Akira

    2010-03-01

    We investigated the microbial contamination of suction tubes attached to wall-type suction instruments. Microbial contamination of suction tubes used for endoscopy or sputum suction in hospital wards was examined before and after their disinfection. In addition, disinfection and washing methods for suction tubes were evaluated. Suction tubes (n=33) before disinfection were contaminated with 10(2)-10(8) colony-forming units (cfu)/tube. The main contaminants were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The suction tubes were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite (n=11) or hot water (n=11), or by an automatic tube cleaner (n=11). After 2-h immersion in 0.1% (1,000 ppm) sodium hypochlorite, 10(3)-10(7) cfu/tube of bacteria were detected in all 11 tubes examined. After washing in hot running water (65 degrees C), 10(3)-10(7) cfu/tube were detected in 3 of the 11 examined tubes. The bacteria detected in the suction tubes after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite or hot water were P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and S. maltophilia. On the other hand, after washing with warm water (40 degrees C) using the automatic tube cleaner, contamination was found to be <20 cfu/tube (lower detection limit, 20 cfu/tube) in all 11 tubes examined. These results suggest the usefulness of washing with automatic tube cleaners. PMID:20332576

  6. Microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants in lead contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Gattai, Graziella S.; Pereira, Sônia V.; Costa, Cynthia M. C.; Lima, Cláudia E. P.; Maia, Leonor C.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants (Caesalpinia ferrea, Mimosa tenuiflora and Erythrina velutina) in lead contaminated soil from the semi-arid region of northeastern of Brazil (Belo Jardim, Pernambuco). Dilutions were prepared by adding lead contaminated soil (270 mg Kg-1) to uncontaminated soil (37 mg Pb Kg soil-1) in the proportions of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (v:v). The increase of lead contamination in the soil negatively influenced the amount of carbon in the microbial biomass of the samples from both the dry and rainy seasons and the metabolic quotient only differed between the collection seasons in the 30% contaminated soil. The average value of the acid phosphatase activity in the dry season was 2.3 times higher than observed during the rainy season. There was no significant difference in the number of glomerospores observed between soils and periods studied. The most probable number of infective propagules was reduced for both seasons due to the excess lead in soil. The mycorrhizal colonization rate was reduced for the three plant species assayed. The inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefited the growth of Erythrina velutina in lead contaminated soil. PMID:24031701

  7. Arsenic mobility during flooding of contaminated soil: the effect of microbial sulfate reduction.

    PubMed

    Burton, Edward D; Johnston, Scott G; Kocar, Benjamin D

    2014-12-01

    In floodplain soils, As may be released during flooding-induced soil anoxia, with the degree of mobilization being affected by microbial redox processes such as the reduction of As(V), Fe(III), and SO4(2-). Microbial SO4(2-) reduction may affect both Fe and As cycling, but the processes involved and their ultimate consequences on As mobility are not well understood. Here, we examine the effect of microbial SO4(2) reduction on solution dynamics and solid-phase speciation of As during flooding of an As-contaminated soil. In the absence of significant levels of microbial SO4(2-) reduction, flooding caused increased Fe(II) and As(III) concentrations over a 10 week period, which is consistent with microbial Fe(III)- and As(V)-reduction. Microbial SO4(2-) reduction leads to lower concentrations of porewater Fe(II) as a result of FeS formation. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the newly formed FeS sequestered substantial amounts of As. Bulk and microfocused As K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy confirmed that As(V) was reduced to As(III) and showed that in the presence of FeS, solid-phase As was retained partly via the formation of an As2S3-like species. High resolution transmission electron microscopy suggested that this was due to As retention as an As2S3-like complex associated with mackinawite (tetragonal FeS) rather than as a discrete As2S3 phase. This study shows that mackinawite formation in contaminated floodplain soil can help mitigate the extent of arsenic mobilization during prolonged flooding. PMID:25346449

  8. An Auger electron spectroscopy study of surface-preparation contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, D.; Stephens, R. M.; Outlaw, R. A.; Hopson, P.

    1990-01-01

    There are many cleaning techniques that are presently being employed for surface preparation of materials that are subsequently exposed to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Unfortunately, there are virtually no comparative measurements which establish the residual contaminant level of each method. In this report, eleven different cleaning methods, ranging from only detergent cleaning to electrochemical polishing, were applied to identical samples of 347 stainless steel. Two surface conditions, a standard machined surface and a mechanically polished surface, were studied. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) within a UHV environment was then used to detect the types of contaminants and the magnitudes found on the sample surfaces. It was found that the electrochemical polishing gave the least contaminated surface of all metals studied and that mechanically polished surfaces were significantly cleaner than the as-machined surfaces for any given cleaning method. Furthermore, it was also found that the residual contaminations left by methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, and freon finishing rinses are almost the same.

  9. Microbial Contamination in Next Generation Sequencing: Implications for Sequence-Based Analysis of Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Michael J.; Xu, Guorong; Morici, Lisa; Splinter Bon-Durant, Sandra; Baddoo, Melody; Lin, Zhen; Fewell, Claire; Taylor, Christopher M.; Flemington, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    The high level of accuracy and sensitivity of next generation sequencing for quantifying genetic material across organismal boundaries gives it tremendous potential for pathogen discovery and diagnosis in human disease. Despite this promise, substantial bacterial contamination is routinely found in existing human-derived RNA-seq datasets that likely arises from environmental sources. This raises the need for stringent sequencing and analysis protocols for studies investigating sequence-based microbial signatures in clinical samples. PMID:25412476

  10. Microbial Community Succession During Lactate Amendment of Chromium Contaminated Groundwater Reveals a Predominance of Pelosinus spp.

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, Jennifer J; Phelps, Tommy Joe; Drake, Meghan M; Campbell, James H; Moberly, James G; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Podar, Mircea; Brown, Steven D; Hazen, Terry; Arkin, Adam; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Faybishenko, Boris A; Elias, Dwayne A

    2012-01-01

    Microbial community structure and metabolism in contaminated ecosystems are potentially controlled not only by the different populations within the community, but a myriad of dynamic physicochemical parameters as well. The goal of the current work was to determine the impact of organic acid enrichment, in this case lactate, on the succession of the native microbial community from a contaminated groundwater aquifer. Triplicate anaerobic, continuous-flow glass reactors were inoculated with Hanford 100-H groundwater and incubated for 95 days to obtain a stable, enriched community. The microbial community experienced a shift in the population dynamics over time to eventually form a community with far less diversity than the original. The final community was dominated by Pelosinus spp. and to a lesser degree, Acetobacterium spp. with small amounts of other bacteria and archaea including methanogens. The resultant diversity was far decreased from 63 genera within 12 phyla to 11 bacterial genera (from three phyla) and 2 archaeal genera (from one phylum). Isolation efforts were successful in attaining new species of Pelosinus and known members of Methanosarcina barkerii along with several sulfate- and Fe(III)- reducing consortia members. The continuous-flow reactors allowed for testing physiochemical factors with microbial community dynamics on a smaller, replicable, scale while also facilitating the isolation of several previously uncultured community members. These lab-scale simulations will presumably allow for a deeper understanding of the community metabolism with specific carbon amendments that can inform future in situ efforts.

  11. Microbial nitrogen cycling in contaminated and uncontaminated Great Lakes sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Schubauer-Berigan, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    In this study the authors attempted to identify some of the underlying factors regulating ammonia concentrations in sediments. Sediments were collected from seven locations throughout the Great Lakes Region of the US. Three of the sites had pore water ammonia levels (range 9 to 45 mg/1) acutely toxic to C. dubia and Fathead minnows. Three sites had non-toxic levels of pore water ammonia (range < 1 to 3 mg/1). Sediments were subjected to a suite of chemical/physical analyses including: determination of pH, redox, inorganic nitrogen concentrations in bulk sediment and interstitial water, organic carbon content, total PCB concentration, and concentrations of common PAHs. Acid volatile sulfide (AVS) concentrations (to evaluate metal bioavailability) and pore water and weak acid extractable metal (zinc, lead, copper, cadmium, nickel and 15 others) concentrations were also determined. Sediment nitrification and denitrification rates were determined for all sites using the following methods: (1) pore water nitrogen profiles of N-serve blocked/unblocked whole cores; (2) analysis of overlying water nitrogen fluxes in N-serve blocked/unblocked sediment cores; and (3) fickian modeling of sediment core pore water nitrogen profiles. Preliminary analysis of the results indicate that no measurable nitrification is occurring in the contaminated sediments, whereas, in the uncontaminated sediments, the authors observed nitrification. They also observed that all the sediments could denitrify and that denitrification was nitrate limited in all sediments tested. In the nutrient flux experiments, the overlying water ammonia and nitrate concentrations decreased over the course of experiments for all sediments (including those having greatly elevated and toxic levels of ammonia).

  12. Microbial remediation of soils co-contaminated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Roane, T.M.; Pepper, I.L.

    1997-12-31

    One-third of organically-polluted sites are also contaminated with metals; however, the bioremediation potential of such sites is not clear. While metals are thought to inhibit the abilities of microbial communities to degrade organic pollutants, several microbial-metal resistance mechanisms are known to exist. This study utilizes cadmium-resistant soil microorganisms to enhance the degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in the presence of cadmium. Cadmium-resistant bacteria were isolated from both a 40-year-old metal-contaminated soil and an uncontaminated soil. During growth experiments, it was found that the uncontaminated soil had a greater number of resistant isolates at low concentrations of cadmium, while the cadmium-contaminated soil exhibited higher microbial resistance with increased cadmium concentrations. ERIC PCR fingerprints discriminated among the cadmium-resistant isolates identified by BIOLOG as Bacillus, Corynecbacterium, Pseudomonas, and Xanthomonas spp. These isolates were resistant to concentrations ranging from 5 to 275 ppm soluble cadmium. In conventional degradation studies, two resistant isolates, a Bacillus and an unidentified Gram positive rod, supported the degradation of 500 ppm 2,4-D by the cadmium-sensitive 2,4-D degrader Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 in the presence of 20 and 40 ppm soluble cadmium, respectively.

  13. QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS AND COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN SUBSURFACE MATERIAL: A PROKARYOTIC CONSORTIUM RESPONSIVE TO ORGANIC CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Application of quantitative methods for microbial biomass, community structure, and nutritional status to the subsurface samples collected with careful attention to contamination reveals a group of microbes. The microbiota are sparse by several measures of biomass compared to sur...

  14. Tailored carbon nanotube immunosensors for the detection of microbial contamination.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Simón, B; Bandaru, N M; Saint, C; Voelcker, N H

    2015-05-15

    The use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as building blocks in the design of electrochemical biosensors has been attracting attention over the last few years, mainly due to their high electrical conductivity and large surface area. Here, we present two approaches based on tailored single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) architectures to develop immunosensors for the bacteriophage MS2, a virus often detected in sewage-impacted water supplies. In the first approach, SWCNTs were used in the bottom-up design of sensors as antibody immobilization support. Carboxy-functionalised SWCNTs were covalently tethered onto gold electrodes via carbodiimide coupling to cysteamine-modified gold electrodes. These SWCNTs were hydrazide functionalized by electrochemical grafting of diazonium salts. Site-oriented immobilization of antibodies was then carried out through hydrazone bond formation. Results showed microarray electrode behavior, greatly improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Excellent sensitivity and limit of detection (9.3 pfu/mL and 9.8 pfu/mL in buffer and in river water, respectively) were achieved, due to the combination of the SWCNTs' ability to promote electron transfer reactions with electroactive species at low overpotentials and their high surface-to-volume ratio providing a favorable environment to immobilize biomolecules. In the second approach, SWCNTs were decorated with iron oxide nanoparticles. Diazonium salts were electrochemically grafted on iron-oxide-nanoparticle-decorated SWCNTs to functionalize them with hydrazide groups that facilitate site-directed immobilization of antibodies via hydrazone coupling. These magnetic immunocarriers facilitated MS2 separation and concentration on an electrode surface. This approach minimized non-specific adsorptions and matrix effects and allowed low limits of detection (12 pfu/mL and 39 pfu/mL in buffer and in river water, respectively) that could be further decreased by incubating the magnetic immunocarriers with larger volumes of sample. Significantly, both approaches permitted the detection of MS2 to levels regularly encountered in sewage-impacted environments. PMID:25316087

  15. Widespread potential for microbial MTBE degradation in surface-water sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2001-01-01

    Microorganisms indigenous to stream and lake bed sediments, collected from 11 sites throughout the United States, demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenate, methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Mineralization of [U-14C]MTBE to 14CO2 ranged from 15 to 66% over 50 days and did not differ significantly between sediments collected from MTBE contaminated sites and from sites with no history of MTBE exposure. This result suggests that even the microbial communities indigenous to newly contaminated surface water systems will exhibit some innate ability to attenuate MTBE under aerobic conditions. The magnitude of MTBE mineralization was related to the sediment grain size distribution. A pronounced, inverse correlation (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.73) was observed between the final recovery of 14CO2 and the percentage content of silt and clay sized grains (grain diameter < 0.125 mm). The results of this study indicate that the microorganisms that inhabit the bed sediments of streams and lakes can degrade MTBE efficiently and that this capability is widespread in the environment. Thus aerobic bed sediment microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE in surface water systems throughout the United States and may contribute to the reported transience of MTBE in some surface waters.

  16. ISSUES IN UNDERSTANDING DERMAL EXPOSURES RESULTING FROM CONTACT WITH CONTAMINATED SURFACES, MEASURING SURFACE CONTAMINATION, AND CHARACTERIZING TRANSFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although monitoring for surface contamination in work with radioactive materials and dermal monitoring of pesticide exposure to agricultural workers have been standard practice for 50 years, regular surface sampling and dermal monitoring methods have only been applied to indust...

  17. Modification of soil microbial activity and several hydrolases in a forest soil artificially contaminated with copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellas, Rosa; Leirós, M? Carmen; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Soils have long been exposed to the adverse effects of human activities, which negatively affect soil biological activity. As a result of their functions and ubiquitous presence microorganisms can serve as environmental indicators of soil pollution. Some features of soil microorganisms, such as the microbial biomass size, respiration rate, and enzyme activity are often used as bioindicators of the ecotoxicity of heavy metals. Although copper is essential for microorganisms, excessive concentrations have a negative influence on processes mediated by microorganisms. In this study we measured the response of some microbial indicators to Cu pollution in a forest soil, with the aim of evaluating their potential for predicting Cu contamination. Samples of an Ah horizon from a forest soil under oakwood vegetation (Quercus robur L.) were contaminated in the laboratory with copper added at different doses (0, 120, 360, 1080 and 3240 mg kg-1) as CuCl2×2H2O. The soil samples were kept for 7 days at 25 °C and at a moisture content corresponding to the water holding capacity, and thereafter were analysed for carbon and nitrogen mineralization capacity, microbial biomass C, seed germination and root elongation tests, and for urease, phosphomonoesterase, catalase and ß-glucosidase activities. In addition, carbon mineralization kinetics were studied, by plotting the log of residual C against incubation time, and the metabolic coefficient, qCO2, was estimated. Both organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization were lower in polluted samples, with the greatest decrease observed in the sample contaminated with 1080 mg kg-1. In all samples carbon mineralization followed first order kinetics; the C mineralization constant was lower in contaminated than in uncontaminated samples and, in general, decreased with increasing doses of copper. Moreover, it appears that copper contamination not only reduced the N mineralization capacity, but also modified the N mineralization process, since in the contaminated samples all of the inorganic nitrogen was present as ammonium, probably because of inhibition of nitrification. There was a marked decrease in biomass-C with addition of copper, and the decrease was more acute at intermediate doses (average decrease, 73%). Despite the decreases in microbial biomass and mineralized C, the value of qCO2 increased after the addition of copper. Urease activity was strongly affected by the presence of copper and the decrease was proportional to the dose; the activity at the highest dose was only 96% of that in the uncontaminated sample. Phosphomonoesterase activity was also affected by addition of copper; the reduction in activity was less than for urease and the greatest reduction was observed for the dose of 1080 mg kg-1 of copper. Catalase activity was affected by the contamination, but no clear trend was observed in relation to the dose of copper. ß-glucosidase was scarcely modified by the contamination but an increase in activity was observed at the highest dose of copper. Seed germination was not affected by copper contamination, since it only showed a clear decrease for the sample contaminated with the highest dose of copper, while root elongation decreased sharply with doses higher than 120 mg kg-1 of copper. The combined germination-elongation index followed a similar pattern to that of root elongation. For all investigated properties showing a reduction of more than 50%, the response to copper contamination was fitted to a sigmoidal dose-response model, in order to estimate the ED50 values. The ED50 values were calculated for microbial biomass, urease, root elongation and germination-elongation index, and similar values were obtained, ranging from 340 to 405 mg kg-1 Cu. The ED50 values may therefore provide a good estimation of soil deterioration.

  18. Contamination analyses of technology mirror assembly optical surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Germani, Mark S.

    1991-01-01

    Automated electron microprobe analyses were performed on tape lift samples from the Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) optical surfaces. Details of the analyses are given, and the contamination of the mirror surfaces is discussed. Based on the automated analyses of the tape lifts from the TMA surfaces and the control blank, we can conclude that the particles identified on the actual samples were not a result of contamination due to the handling or sampling process itself and that the particles reflect the actual contamination on the surface of the mirror.

  19. Microbial Factors Rather Than Bioavailability Limit the Rate and Extent of PAH Biodegradation in Aged Crude Oil Contaminated Model Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Fortman, Timothy J.

    2002-08-01

    The rate and extent of PAH biodegradation in a set of aged, crude oil contaminated model soils were measured in 90-week slurry bioremediation experiments. Soil properties such as organic matter content, mineral type, particle diameter, surface area, and porosity did not significantly influence the PAH biodegradation kinetics among the ten different model soils. A comparison of aged and freshly spiked soils indicates that aging affects the biodegradation rates and extents only for higher molecular weight PAHs while the effects of aging are insignificant for 3-ring PAHs and total PAHs. In all model soils with the exception of kaolinite clay, the rate of abiotic desorption was faster than the rate of biodegradation during the initial phase of bioremediation treatment indicating that PAH biodegradation was limited by microbial factors. Similarly, any of the higher molecular weight PAHs that were still present after 90 weeks of treatment were released rapidly during abiotic desorption tests which demonstrates that bioavailability limitations were not responsible for the recalcitrance of these hydrocarbons. Indeed, an analysis of microbial counts indicates that a severe reduction in hydrocarbon degrader populations may be responsible for the observed incomplete PAH biodegradation. It can therefore be concluded that the recalcitrance of PAHs during bioremediation is not necessarily due to bioavailability limitations and that these residual contaminants might, therefore, pose a greater risk to environmental receptors than previously thought.

  20. Surface Contamination by FTIR-PAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Dennis M.; Hoffland, Lynn D.

    1985-12-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) is used to study the contamination of alkyd painted panels by liquids and solids. These alkyd painted panels are stainless steel panels coated with primer and an alkyd resin based paint which the Army uses for its vehicles. Portions of these panels were contaminated by dimethyl methyl phosphonate, tri-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate, and triphenyl phosphate. The panels were then studied using FTIR-PAS, and the spectra identified.

  1. Dynamics of coupled contaminant and microbial transport in heterogeneous porous media. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ginn, T.R.; Boone, D.R.; Fletcher, M.M.; Friedrich, D.M.; Murphy, E.M.

    1997-06-01

    'Dynamic microbial attachment/detachment occurs in subsurface systems in response to changing environmental conditions caused by contaminant movement and degradation. Understanding the environmental conditions and mechanisms by which anaerobic bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases is a critical requirement for designing and evaluating in situ bioremediation efforts. This interdisciplinary research project will provide fundamental information on the attachment/detachment dynamics of anaerobic bacteria in heterogeneous porous media under growth and growth-limiting conditions. Experiments will provide information on passive and active attachment/detachment mechanisms used by growing anaerobes capable of reductive dechlorination. Theoretical representations of these attachment/detachment mechanisms will be incorporated into existing groundwater flow and contaminant transport models that incorporate heterogeneity effects and can be used to predict behavior at field scales. These mechanistic-based models will be tested against experimental data provided through controlled laboratory experiments in heterogeneous porous media in large (meter-scale) 2-D flow cells. In addition to a mechanistic-based predictive model, this research will lead to new theories for the transient spatial distribution of microbial populations and contaminant plumes in heterogeneous porous media, improving the capability for designing staged remediation strategies for dealing with mixed contaminants.'

  2. Hydrocarbon contamination affects deep-sea benthic oxygen uptake and microbial community composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Main, C. E.; Ruhl, H. A.; Jones, D. O. B.; Yool, A.; Thornton, B.; Mayor, D. J.

    2015-06-01

    Accidental oil well blowouts have the potential to introduce large quantities of hydrocarbons into the deep sea and disperse toxic contaminants to midwater and seafloor areas over ocean-basin scales. Our ability to assess the environmental impacts of these events is currently impaired by our limited understanding of how resident communities are affected. This study examined how two treatment levels of a water accommodated fraction of crude oil affected the oxygen consumption rate of a natural, deep-sea benthic community. We also investigated the resident microbial community's response to hydrocarbon contamination through quantification of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and their stable carbon isotope (?13C) values. Sediment community oxygen consumption rates increased significantly in response to increasing levels of contamination in the overlying water of oil-treated microcosms, and bacterial biomass decreased significantly in the presence of oil. Multivariate ordination of PLFA compositional (mol%) data showed that the structure of the microbial community changed in response to hydrocarbon contamination. However, treatment effects on the ?13C values of individual PLFAs were not statistically significant. Our data demonstrate that deep-sea benthic microbes respond to hydrocarbon exposure within 36 h.

  3. Quantitative analysis of microbial contamination in private drinking water supply systems.

    PubMed

    Allevi, Richard P; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Hagedorn, Charles; Benham, Brian; Lawrence, Annie H; Ling, Erin J; Ziegler, Peter E

    2013-06-01

    Over one million households rely on private water supplies (e.g. well, spring, cistern) in the Commonwealth of Virginia, USA. The present study tested 538 private wells and springs in 20 Virginia counties for total coliforms (TCs) and Escherichia coli along with a suite of chemical contaminants. A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate potential correlations between TC contamination and chemical parameters (e.g. NO3(-), turbidity), as well as homeowner-provided survey data describing system characteristics and perceived water quality. Of the 538 samples collected, 41% (n = 221) were positive for TCs and 10% (n = 53) for E. coli. Chemical parameters were not statistically predictive of microbial contamination. Well depth, water treatment, and farm location proximate to the water supply were factors in a regression model that predicted presence/absence of TCs with 74% accuracy. Microbial and chemical source tracking techniques (Bacteroides gene Bac32F and HF183 detection via polymerase chain reaction and optical brightener detection via fluorometry) identified four samples as likely contaminated with human wastewater. PMID:23708572

  4. Mathematical modeling the cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the surface of ready-to-eat meat product while slicing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial cross-contamination either at home or production site is one of the major factors of causing contamination of foods and leading to the foodborne illness. The knowledge regarding Escherichia coli O157:H7 surface transfer on ready-to-eat (RTE) deli meat and the slicer used for slicing diffe...

  5. [Carbon source utilization characteristics of microbial communities in a petroleum-contaminated soil in Daqing Oil Field, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Yue, Bing-Bing; Li, Xin; Ren, Fang-Fei; Meng, Fan-Juan; Yin, Peng-Da; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Sun, Guang-Yu

    2011-12-01

    By using Biolog technique, this paper studied the carbon source utilization characteristics of microbial communities in different layers (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-30 cm) of a petroleum-contaminated soil near an oil well having exploited for 36 years in Daqing Oil Field. Petroleum contamination enhanced the metabolic activity of the soil microbial communities obviously. In the three layers of the petroleum-contaminated soil, the metabolic activity of the microbes was higher than that of the control, and there existed significant differences between different layers of the petroleum-contaminated soil. The carbon source metabolic capacity of the microbes in different layers of the petroleum-contaminated soil was in the order of 20-30 cm > 10-20 cm > 0-10 cm. Petroleum contamination made the kinds of soil carbon source and the metabolic diversity of soil microbes increased, being more obvious in 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm soil layers but less change in 0-10 cm soil layer. In the contaminated soil, the majority of the carbon sources utilized by the microbes in 10-20 cm soil layer were carbohydrates instead of the carboxylic acids in non-contaminated soil, whereas the majority of the carbon substrates utilized in 20-30 cm soil layer were carboxylic acids. All the results suggested that petroleum-contaminated soil had its unique microbial community structure and peculiar microbial carbon source utilization characteristics. PMID:22384595

  6. Insight into the Modulation of Dissolved Organic Matter on Microbial Remediation of PAH-Contaminated Soils.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue-Mei; Liu, Yu-Rong; Zhang, Li-Mei; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-08-01

    Microorganisms play a key role in degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environments. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can enhance microbial degradation of PAHs in soils. However, it is not clear how will the soil microbial community respond to addition of DOM during bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. In this study, DOMs derived from various agricultural wastes were applied to remediate the aging PAH-contaminated soils in a 90-day microcosm experiment. Results showed that the addition of DOMs offered a more efficient and persistent elimination of soil PAHs compared to the control which had no DOM addition. PAH removal effects were different among treatments with various DOMs; the addition of DOMs with high proportion of hydrophobic fraction could remove PAHs more efficiently from the soil. Low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs were more easily eliminated than that with high-molecular-weight (HMW). Addition of DOMs significantly increased abundance of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), pdo1, nah, and C12O genes and obviously changed community compositions of nah and C12O genes in different ways in the PAH-contaminated soil. Phylogenetic analyses of clone libraries exhibited that all of nah sequences and most of C12O sequences were affiliated into Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. These results suggested that external stimuli produced by DOMs could enhance the microbial degradation of PAHs in soils through not only solubilizing PAHs but also altering abundance and composition of indigenous microbial degraders. Our results reinforce the understanding of role of DOMs in mediating degradation of PAHs by microorganims in soils. PMID:25707714

  7. Metal-Macrofauna Interactions Determine Microbial Community Structure and Function in Copper Contaminated Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Daniel J.; Gray, Nia B.; Elver-Evans, Joanna; Midwood, Andrew J.; Thornton, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Copper is essential for healthy cellular functioning, but this heavy metal quickly becomes toxic when supply exceeds demand. Marine sediments receive widespread and increasing levels of copper contamination from antifouling paints owing to the 2008 global ban of organotin-based products. The toxicity of copper will increase in the coming years as seawater pH decreases and temperature increases. We used a factorial mesocosm experiment to investigate how increasing sediment copper concentrations and the presence of a cosmopolitan bioturbating amphipod, Corophium volutator, affected a range of ecosystem functions in a soft sediment microbial community. The effects of copper on benthic nutrient release, bacterial biomass, microbial community structure and the isotopic composition of individual microbial membrane [phospholipid] fatty acids (PLFAs) all differed in the presence of C. volutator. Our data consistently demonstrate that copper contamination of global waterways will have pervasive effects on the metabolic functioning of benthic communities that cannot be predicted from copper concentrations alone; impacts will depend upon the resident macrofauna and their capacity for bioturbation. This finding poses a major challenge for those attempting to manage the impacts of copper contamination on ecosystem services, e.g. carbon and nutrient cycling, across different habitats. Our work also highlights the paucity of information on the processes that result in isotopic fractionation in natural marine microbial communities. We conclude that the assimilative capacity of benthic microbes will become progressively impaired as copper concentrations increase. These effects will, to an extent, be mitigated by the presence of bioturbating animals and possibly other processes that increase the influx of oxygenated seawater into the sediments. Our findings support the move towards an ecosystem approach for environmental management. PMID:23741430

  8. Spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity in an aged creosote-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shinjini; Juottonen, Heli; Siivonen, Pauli; Lloret Quesada, Cosme; Tuomi, Pirjo; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Yrjälä, Kim

    2014-10-01

    Restoration of polluted sites via in situ bioremediation relies heavily on the indigenous microbes and their activities. Spatial heterogeneity of microbial populations, contaminants and soil chemical parameters on such sites is a major hurdle in optimizing and implementing an appropriate bioremediation regime. We performed a grid-based sampling of an aged creosote-contaminated site followed by geostatistical modelling to illustrate the spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity and to relate these patterns to the distribution of pollutants. Spatial distribution of bacterial groups unveiled patterns of niche differentiation regulated by patchy distribution of pollutants and an east-to-west pH gradient at the studied site. Proteobacteria clearly dominated in the hot spots of creosote pollution, whereas the abundance of Actinobacteria, TM7 and Planctomycetes was considerably reduced from the hot spots. The pH preferences of proteobacterial groups dominating in pollution could be recognized by examining the order and family-level responses. Acidobacterial classes came across as generalists in hydrocarbon pollution whose spatial distribution seemed to be regulated solely by the pH gradient. Although the community evenness decreased in the heavily polluted zones, basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis rates were higher, indicating the adaptation of specific indigenous microbial populations to hydrocarbon pollution. Combining the information from the kriged maps of microbial and soil chemistry data provided a comprehensive understanding of the long-term impacts of creosote pollution on the subsurface microbial communities. This study also highlighted the prospect of interpreting taxa-specific spatial patterns and applying them as indicators or proxies for monitoring polluted sites. PMID:25105905

  9. Spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity in an aged creosote-contaminated site

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shinjini; Juottonen, Heli; Siivonen, Pauli; Lloret Quesada, Cosme; Tuomi, Pirjo; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Yrjälä, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of polluted sites via in situ bioremediation relies heavily on the indigenous microbes and their activities. Spatial heterogeneity of microbial populations, contaminants and soil chemical parameters on such sites is a major hurdle in optimizing and implementing an appropriate bioremediation regime. We performed a grid-based sampling of an aged creosote-contaminated site followed by geostatistical modelling to illustrate the spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity and to relate these patterns to the distribution of pollutants. Spatial distribution of bacterial groups unveiled patterns of niche differentiation regulated by patchy distribution of pollutants and an east-to-west pH gradient at the studied site. Proteobacteria clearly dominated in the hot spots of creosote pollution, whereas the abundance of Actinobacteria, TM7 and Planctomycetes was considerably reduced from the hot spots. The pH preferences of proteobacterial groups dominating in pollution could be recognized by examining the order and family-level responses. Acidobacterial classes came across as generalists in hydrocarbon pollution whose spatial distribution seemed to be regulated solely by the pH gradient. Although the community evenness decreased in the heavily polluted zones, basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis rates were higher, indicating the adaptation of specific indigenous microbial populations to hydrocarbon pollution. Combining the information from the kriged maps of microbial and soil chemistry data provided a comprehensive understanding of the long-term impacts of creosote pollution on the subsurface microbial communities. This study also highlighted the prospect of interpreting taxa-specific spatial patterns and applying them as indicators or proxies for monitoring polluted sites. PMID:25105905

  10. Biophysical methods for the study of microbial surfaces.

    PubMed

    Frases, Susana; Viana, Nathan B; Casadevall, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The challenge in studying the surface architecture of different microbial pathogens is to integrate the most current biochemical, spectroscopic, microscopic, and processing techniques. Individually these methods have insufficient sensitivity to reveal complex structures, such as branched, large, viscous polymers with a high structure hydration, size, and complexity. However, when used in combination biophysical techniques are our primary source of information for understanding polydisperse molecules and complex microbial surfaces. Biophysical methods seek to explain biological function in terms of the molecular structures and properties of specific molecules. The sizes of the molecules found in microbial surfaces vary greatly from small fatty acids and sugars to macromolecules like proteins, polysaccharides, and pigments, such as melanin. These molecules, which comprise the building blocks of living organisms, assemble into cells, tissues, and whole organisms by forming complex individual structures with dimensions from 10 to 10,000?nm and larger. Biophysics is directed to determining the structure of specific biological molecules and of the larger structures into which they assemble. Some of this effort involves developing new methods, adapting old methods and building new instruments for viewing these structures. The description of biophysical properties in an experimental model where, properties such as flexibility, hydrodynamic characteristics, and size can be precisely determined is of great relevance to study the affinity of the surfaces with biologically active and inert substrates and the interaction with host molecules. Furthermore, this knowledge could establish the abilities of different molecules and their structures to differentially activate cellular responses. Recent studies in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans have demonstrated that the physical properties of its unique polysaccharide capsule correlate with the biological functions associated with the intact capsule and the components comprising the capsule. In this review, we describe the application of biophysical techniques to study and characterize this highly hydrated and fragile fungal surface structure. PMID:22013430

  11. Biophysical Methods for the Study of Microbial Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Frases, Susana; Viana, Nathan B.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    The challenge in studying the surface architecture of different microbial pathogens is to integrate the most current biochemical, spectroscopic, microscopic, and processing techniques. Individually these methods have insufficient sensitivity to reveal complex structures, such as branched, large, viscous polymers with a high structure hydration, size, and complexity. However, when used in combination biophysical techniques are our primary source of information for understanding polydisperse molecules and complex microbial surfaces. Biophysical methods seek to explain biological function in terms of the molecular structures and properties of specific molecules. The sizes of the molecules found in microbial surfaces vary greatly from small fatty acids and sugars to macromolecules like proteins, polysaccharides, and pigments, such as melanin. These molecules, which comprise the building blocks of living organisms, assemble into cells, tissues, and whole organisms by forming complex individual structures with dimensions from 10 to 10,000?nm and larger. Biophysics is directed to determining the structure of specific biological molecules and of the larger structures into which they assemble. Some of this effort involves developing new methods, adapting old methods and building new instruments for viewing these structures. The description of biophysical properties in an experimental model where, properties such as flexibility, hydrodynamic characteristics, and size can be precisely determined is of great relevance to study the affinity of the surfaces with biologically active and inert substrates and the interaction with host molecules. Furthermore, this knowledge could establish the abilities of different molecules and their structures to differentially activate cellular responses. Recent studies in the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans have demonstrated that the physical properties of its unique polysaccharide capsule correlate with the biological functions associated with the intact capsule and the components comprising the capsule. In this review, we describe the application of biophysical techniques to study and characterize this highly hydrated and fragile fungal surface structure. PMID:22013430

  12. Distribution of microbial physiologic types in an aquifer contaminated by crude oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, B.A.; Godsy, E.M.; Warren, E.

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a plume-scale study of the microbial ecology in the anaerobic portion of an aquifer contaminated by crude-oil compounds. The data provide insight into the patterns of ecological succession, microbial nutrient demands, and the relative importance of free-living versus attached microbial populations. The most probable number (MPN) method was used to characterize the spatial distribution of six physiologic types: aerobes, denitrifiers, iron-reducers, heterotrophic fermenters, sulfate-reducers, and methanogens. Both free-living and attached numbers were determined over a broad cross-section of the aquifer extending horizontally from the source of the plume at a nonaqueous oil body to 66 m downgradient, and vertically from above the water table to the base of the plume below the water table. Point samples from widely spaced locations were combined with three closely spaced vertical profiles to create a map of physiologic zones for a cross-section of the plume. Although some estimates suggest that less than 1% of the subsurface microbial population can be grown in laboratory cultures, the MPN results presented here provide a comprehensive qualitative picture of the microbial ecology at the plume scale. Areas in the plume that are evolving from iron-reducing to methanogenic conditions are clearly delineated and generally occupy 25-50% of the plume thickness. Lower microbial numbers below the water table compared to the unsaturated zone suggest that nutrient limitations may be important in limiting growth in the saturated zone. Finally, the data indicate that an average of 15% of the total population is suspended.

  13. Relationship between microbial diversity and chemical contamination along a 50-year-old sediment core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthe, T.; Petit, F.; Boust, D.; Lesueur, P.; Roose-Amsaleg, C.; Cécillon, S.; Kaci-Benaicha, A.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential use of sediment microbial diversity (community structure) as an indicator of the impact of anthropogenic activities within an estuarine ecosystem. The diversity of microbial communities was investigated along a 5-m-long sediment core collected in an anthropized European estuary (Seine, France), giving an evolution of trace metal, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations over the last 50 years. An increase of trace metal and PCB concentrations are observed with depth, with an enrichment of these contaminants in the 1970s. The concentration profiles of light, intermediate and heavy PAHs showed distinct peaks, but the highest total PAH concentration was also detected in the sediment from the 1970s. We first investigated the bacterial community resistant to cobalt, zinc and cadmium by analyzing the diversity of the czcA gene encoding an RND efflux pump (Heavy Metal Efflux-RND) in 5-year and 33-year-old sediment samples displaying contrasted concentrations in these trace metals. The diversity of the czcA gene was reduced in the 33-year-old and more contaminated sediments suggesting a selection of resistant bacterial species. A molecular fingerprinting method (DGGE) was used to study the evolution of total microbial (Bacteria and Archaea) community structures for samples selected along the sediment core. A correlation is observed between the bacterial community structures, the sediment age, the trace metal and PAH concentrations. The metabolically active and total microbial communities were further characterized by a microarray approach (Phylochips) in sediment samples selected according to the DGGE results. Bacterial diversity was found dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes in all analyzed samples. Diversity of phylotypes corresponds to changes in PAH and trace metal concentrations in sediment, suggesting that chemical contaminants have selected for well-adapted taxa. In addition, the taxa able to survive and remain active within the contaminated sediments have been identified by characterizing the metabolically active fraction of the microbial communities. This metabolically active community is dominated by the same phyla but different classes are observed.

  14. Metal impacts on microbial biomass in the anoxic sediments of a contaminated lake

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, Heidi L.; Dahl, Amy L.; Nolan, Melissa A.; Gaillard, Jean-Francois; Stahl, David A.

    2008-04-26

    Little is known about the long-term impacts of metal contamination on the microbiota of anoxic lake sediments. In this study, we examined microbial biomass and metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, and zinc) in the sediments of Lake DePue, a backwater lake located near a former zinc smelter. Sediment core samples were examined using two independent measures for microbial biomass (total microscopic counts and total phospholipid-phosphate concentrations), and for various fractions of each metal (pore water extracts, sequential extractions, and total extracts of all studied metals and zinc speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Zinc concentrations were up to 1000 times higher than reported for sediments in the adjacent Illinois River, and ranged from 21,400 mg/kg near the source to 1,680 mg/kg near the river. However, solid metal fractions were not well correlated with pore water concentrations, and were not good predictors of biomass concentrations. Instead, biomass, which varied among sites by as much as two-times, was inversely correlated with concentrations of pore water zinc and arsenic as established by multiple linear regression. Monitoring of other parameters known to naturally influence biomass in sediments (e.g., organic carbon concentrations, nitrogen concentrations, pH, sediment texture, and macrophytes) revealed no differences that could explain observed biomass trends. This study provides strong support for control of microbial abundance by pore water metal concentrations in contaminated freshwater sediments.

  15. Microbial contamination of vegetable crop and soil profile in arid regions under controlled application of domestic wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Balkhair, Khaled S.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing lack of potable water in arid countries leads to the use of treated wastewater for crop production. However, the use of inappropriate irrigation practices could result in a serious contamination risk to plants, soils, and groundwater with sewage water. This research was initiated in view to the increasing danger of vegetable crops and groundwater contamination with pathogenic bacteria due to wastewater land application. The research was designed to study: (1) the effect of treated wastewater irrigation on the yield and microbial contamination of the radish plant under field conditions; (2) contamination of the agricultural soil profile with fecal coliform bacteria. Effluent from a domestic wastewater treatment plant (100%) in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia, was diluted to 80% and 40% with the groundwater of the experimental site constituting three different water qualities plus groundwater as control. Radish plant was grown in two consecutive seasons under two drip irrigation systems and four irrigation water qualities. Upon harvesting, plant weight per ha, total bacterial, fecal coliform, fecal streptococci were detected per 100 g of dry matter and compared with the control. The soil profile was also sampled at an equal distance of 3 cm from soil surface for fecal coliform detection. The results indicated that the yield increased significantly under the subsurface irrigation system and the control water quality compared to surface irrigation system and other water qualities. There was a considerable drop in the count of all bacteria species under the subsurface irrigation system compared to surface irrigation. The bacterial count/g of the plant shoot system increased as the percentage of wastewater in the irrigation water increased. Most of the fecal coliform bacteria were deposited in the first few centimeters below the column inlet and the profile exponentially decreased with increasing depth. PMID:26858571

  16. Microbial contamination of vegetable crop and soil profile in arid regions under controlled application of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Balkhair, Khaled S

    2016-01-01

    Increasing lack of potable water in arid countries leads to the use of treated wastewater for crop production. However, the use of inappropriate irrigation practices could result in a serious contamination risk to plants, soils, and groundwater with sewage water. This research was initiated in view to the increasing danger of vegetable crops and groundwater contamination with pathogenic bacteria due to wastewater land application. The research was designed to study: (1) the effect of treated wastewater irrigation on the yield and microbial contamination of the radish plant under field conditions; (2) contamination of the agricultural soil profile with fecal coliform bacteria. Effluent from a domestic wastewater treatment plant (100%) in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia, was diluted to 80% and 40% with the groundwater of the experimental site constituting three different water qualities plus groundwater as control. Radish plant was grown in two consecutive seasons under two drip irrigation systems and four irrigation water qualities. Upon harvesting, plant weight per ha, total bacterial, fecal coliform, fecal streptococci were detected per 100 g of dry matter and compared with the control. The soil profile was also sampled at an equal distance of 3 cm from soil surface for fecal coliform detection. The results indicated that the yield increased significantly under the subsurface irrigation system and the control water quality compared to surface irrigation system and other water qualities. There was a considerable drop in the count of all bacteria species under the subsurface irrigation system compared to surface irrigation. The bacterial count/g of the plant shoot system increased as the percentage of wastewater in the irrigation water increased. Most of the fecal coliform bacteria were deposited in the first few centimeters below the column inlet and the profile exponentially decreased with increasing depth. PMID:26858571

  17. Microbial Community Responses to Organophosphate Substrate Additions in Contaminated Subsurface Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Robert J.; Wu, Cindy H.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Andersen, Gary L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Hazen, Terry C.; Taillefert, Martial; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Radionuclide- and heavy metal-contaminated subsurface sediments remain a legacy of Cold War nuclear weapons research and recent nuclear power plant failures. Within such contaminated sediments, remediation activities are necessary to mitigate groundwater contamination. A promising approach makes use of extant microbial communities capable of hydrolyzing organophosphate substrates to promote mineralization of soluble contaminants within deep subsurface environments. Methodology/Principal Findings Uranium-contaminated sediments from the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC) Area 2 site were used in slurry experiments to identify microbial communities involved in hydrolysis of 10 mM organophosphate amendments [i.e., glycerol-2-phosphate (G2P) or glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P)] in synthetic groundwater at pH 5.5 and pH 6.8. Following 36 day (G2P) and 20 day (G3P) amended treatments, maximum phosphate (PO43?) concentrations of 4.8 mM and 8.9 mM were measured, respectively. Use of the PhyloChip 16S rRNA microarray identified 2,120 archaeal and bacterial taxa representing 46 phyla, 66 classes, 110 orders, and 186 families among all treatments. Measures of archaeal and bacterial richness were lowest under G2P (pH 5.5) treatments and greatest with G3P (pH 6.8) treatments. Members of the phyla Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria demonstrated the greatest enrichment in response to organophosphate amendments and the OTUs that increased in relative abundance by 2-fold or greater accounted for 9%–50% and 3%–17% of total detected Archaea and Bacteria, respectively. Conclusions/Significance This work provided a characterization of the distinct ORFRC subsurface microbial communities that contributed to increased concentrations of extracellular phosphate via hydrolysis of organophosphate substrate amendments. Within subsurface environments that are not ideal for reductive precipitation of uranium, strategies that harness microbial phosphate metabolism to promote uranium phosphate precipitation could offer an alternative approach for in situ sequestration. PMID:24950228

  18. Dynamics of Coupled Contaminant and Microbial Transport in Heterogeneous Porous Media: Purdue Component

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.; Madilyn Fletcher

    2000-06-01

    Dynamic microbial attachment/detachment occurs in subsurface systems in response to changing environmental conditions caused by contaminant movement and degradation. Understanding the environmental conditions and mechanisms by which anaerobic bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases is a critical requirement for designing and evaluating in situ bioremediation efforts. This interdisciplinary research project, of which we report only the Purdue contribution, provides fundamental information on the attachment/detachment dynamics of bacteria in heterogeneous porous media. Fundamental results from the Purdue collaboration are: (a) development of a matched-index method for obtaining 3-D Lagrangian trajectories of microbial sized particles transporting within porous media or microflow cells, (b) application of advanced numerical methods to optimally design a microflow cell for studying anaerobic bacterial attachment/detachment phenomena, (c) development of two types of models for simulating bacterial movement and attachment/detachment in microflow cells and natural porous media, (d) application of stochastic analysis to upscale pore scale microbial attachment/detachment models to natural heterogeneous porous media, and (e) evaluation of the role nonlocality plays in microbial dynamics in heterogeneous porous media

  19. Dynamics of Coupled Contaminant and Microbial Transport in Heterogeneous Porous Media: Purdue Component

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, J.H.

    2000-06-01

    Dynamic microbial attachment/detachment occurs in subsurface systems in response to changing environmental conditions caused by contaminant movement and degradation. Understanding the environmental conditions and mechanisms by which anaerobic bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases is a critical requirement for designing and evaluating in situ bioremediation efforts. This interdisciplinary research project, of which we report only the Purdue contribution, provides fundamental information on the attachment/detachment dynamics of bacteria in heterogeneous porous media. Fundamental results from the Purdue collaboration are: (a) development of a matched-index method for obtaining 3-D Lagrangian trajectories of microbial sized particles transporting within porous media or microflow cells, (b) application of advanced numerical methods to optimally design a microflow cell for studying anaerobic bacterial attachment/detachment phenomena, (c) development of two types of models for simulating bacterial movement and attachment/detachment in microflow cells and natural porous media, (d) application of stochastic analysis to upscale pore scale microbial attachment/detachment models to natural heterogeneous porous media, and (e) evaluation of the role nonlocality plays in microbial dynamics in heterogeneous porous media.

  20. Hydrocarbon degrading microbial communities in bench scale aerobic biobarriers for gasoline contaminated groundwater treatment.

    PubMed

    Daghio, Matteo; Tatangelo, Valeria; Franzetti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Isabella; Papacchini, Maddalena; Careghini, Alessandro; Sezenna, Elena; Saponaro, Sabrina; Bestetti, Giuseppina

    2015-07-01

    BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) are some of the main constituents of gasoline and can be accidentally released in the environment. In this work the effect of bioaugmentation on the microbial communities in a bench scale aerobic biobarrier for gasoline contaminated water treatment was studied by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Catabolic genes (tmoA and xylM) were quantified by qPCR, in order to estimate the biodegradation potential, and the abundance of total bacteria was estimated by the quantification of the number of copies of the 16S rRNA gene. Hydrocarbon concentration was monitored over time and no difference in the removal efficiency for the tested conditions was observed, either with or without the microbial inoculum. In the column without the inoculum the most abundant genera were Acidovorax, Bdellovibrio, Hydrogenophaga, Pseudoxanthomonas and Serpens at the beginning of the column, while at the end of the column Thauera became dominant. In the inoculated test the microbial inoculum, composed by Rhodococcus sp. CE461, Rhodococcus sp. CT451 and Methylibium petroleiphilum LMG 22953, was outcompeted. Quantitative PCR results showed an increasing in xylM copy number, indicating that hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were selected during the treatment, although only a low increase of the total biomass was observed. However, the bioaugmentation did not lead to an increase in the degradative potential of the microbial communities. PMID:25747304

  1. CONTAMINANT DETECTION ON POULTRY CARCASS SURFACES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A real-time imaging system has been developed to detect fecal contaminants on poultry carcasses. The system, which will require two to three multispectral cameras to fully image the outside of a poultry carcass, has shown promise in early trials. The system was developed from spectroscopic first p...

  2. Organic surface film contamination of Vitallium implants

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.M.; Flynn, H.E.; Meenaghan, M.A.; Natiella, J.R.; Akers, C.K.; Baier, R.E.

    1981-11-01

    Conventional finishing and polishing techniques used to prepare Vitallium subperiosteal dental implant castings were found to produce low energy surfaces as measured by critical surface tension. Standard metallographic preparation gave slightly higher values. Glow discharge cleaning of both types of polished surface gave much higher critical surface tension values. This suggests the presence of an organic film after surface polishing of the implant which may later affect tissue reaction, in particular attachment, as has been noticed in related animal studies.

  3. Recalls of foods and cosmetics due to microbial contamination reported to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Wong, S; Street, D; Delgado, S I; Klontz, K C

    2000-08-01

    In the U.S., food product recalls serve as an important intervention in stemming the consumption of food products contaminated with infectious disease agents. We summarize the number and nature of foods and cosmetics recalled as a result of microbial contamination reported to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the period 1 October 1993 through 30 September 1998. During this period, microbial contamination of food and cosmetic products was the leading cause for recalls, accounting for a total of 1,370 recalls (36% of all products recalled). Listeria monocytogenes accounted for the greatest number of food products recalled because of microbial contamination, whereas Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common microbe associated with recalls of cosmetic products. Dairy products, followed by seafood and pastry items, were the types of products most often associated with recalls due to microbial contamination. The FDA was the entity most often responsible for detecting microbial contamination of foods and cosmetics (33% of all such recalls), followed by state regulatory agencies (24%), and manufacturers/retailers (21%). Nineteen percent of recalls were associated with at least one reported case of illness. Salmonella was the pathogen most often implicated in reports of illness associated with these recalled products. PMID:10945589

  4. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Bell, Terrence H.; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E.; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods. PMID:26053848

  5. Use of nutrient supplements to increase the microbial degradation of PAH in contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, L.M.; Pfaender, F.K.

    1994-12-31

    The microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is often low in soils due to unavailability of PAH and/or to conditions in the soil that are not favorable to microbial activity. As a result, successful bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils may require the addition of supplements to impact PAH availability or soil conditions. This paper reports on the addition of supplements (Triton X-100, Inopol, nutrient buffer, an organic nutrient solution, salicylic acid) on the fate of (9-{sup 14}C) phenanthrene, a model PAH, in creosote contaminated soils. Phenanthrene metabolism was assessed using a mass balance approach that accounts for metabolism of phenanthrene to CO{sub 2}, relative metabolite production, and uptake of phenanthrene into cells. Most of the supplements did not drastically alter the fate of phenanthrene in the contaminated soils. Additions of Inopol, however, increased phenanthrene mineralization, while salicylic acid decreased phenanthrene mineralization but greatly increased the production of polar and water soluble metabolites. All supplements (excluding salicylic acid and the organic nutrient solution) increased populations of heterotrophic microorganisms, as measured by plate counts. Phenanthrene degrader populations, however, were only slightly increased by additions of the nutrient buffer, as measured by the Most Probable Number assay.

  6. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Franck O P; Bell, Terrence H; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods. PMID:26053848

  7. Pilot study on the microbial contamination of conventional vs. silver-impregnated uniforms worn by ambulance personnel during one week of emergency medical service

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Raoul; Hübner, Nils; Assadian, Ojan; Jibson, Bethany; Kramer, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The antimicrobial impregnation of products used everyday, such as surfaces, textiles and clothing – including those used in hospitals – is increasing. In view of potential toxic and environmental risks for users and patients, a careful risk-benefit assessment must be conducted for each newly developed product impregnated or coated with antimicrobial agents, prior to marketing and manufacture. It has been proposed that incorporation of silver threads into the clothing of emergency service workers could reduce microbial contamination over time. As clothing in the emergency services is often not adequately changed, and it is plausible that microbial contamination increases with time in use, a study was conducted in the emergency medical setting in order to test this hypothesis. We compared the contamination rates of newly developed silver-hybrid clothing with that of standard textile clothing. Samples were taken from jackets and pants of 10 emergency workers at day 0 (pre-service), day 3 and day 7 after use over a divided 4-week period to examine this hypothesis. No significant difference in the extent of microbial contamination was detected between these two materials. A larger sample size is required to further verify this result. PMID:20941337

  8. Pilot study on the microbial contamination of conventional vs. silver-impregnated uniforms worn by ambulance personnel during one week of emergency medical service.

    PubMed

    Groß, Raoul; Hübner, Nils; Assadian, Ojan; Jibson, Bethany; Kramer, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The antimicrobial impregnation of products used everyday, such as surfaces, textiles and clothing - including those used in hospitals - is increasing. In view of potential toxic and environmental risks for users and patients, a careful risk-benefit assessment must be conducted for each newly developed product impregnated or coated with antimicrobial agents, prior to marketing and manufacture.It has been proposed that incorporation of silver threads into the clothing of emergency service workers could reduce microbial contamination over time. As clothing in the emergency services is often not adequately changed, and it is plausible that microbial contamination increases with time in use, a study was conducted in the emergency medical setting in order to test this hypothesis. We compared the contamination rates of newly developed silver-hybrid clothing with that of standard textile clothing. Samples were taken from jackets and pants of 10 emergency workers at day 0 (pre-service), day 3 and day 7 after use over a divided 4-week period to examine this hypothesis. No significant difference in the extent of microbial contamination was detected between these two materials. A larger sample size is required to further verify this result. PMID:20941337

  9. Elevated microbial tolerance to metals and antibiotics in metal-contaminated industrial environments.

    PubMed

    Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Glenn, Travis C; Jagoe, Charles H; Tuckfield, R Cary; Lindell, Angela H; McArthur, J V

    2005-05-15

    To test the hypothesis that industrial metal contaminants select for microorganisms tolerant to unrelated agents, such as antibiotics, we analyzed metal and antibiotic tolerance patterns in microbial communities in the intake and discharge of ash settling basins (ASBs) of three coal-fired power plants. High-throughput flow-cytometric analyses using cell viability probes were employed to determine tolerances of entire bacterioplankton communities, avoiding bias toward culturable versus nonculturable bacteria. We found that bacterioplankton collected in ASB discharges were significantly more tolerant to metal and antibiotic exposures than bacterioplankton collected in ASB intakes. Optical properties of microorganisms collected in ASB discharges indicated no defensive physiological adaptations such as formation of resting stages or excessive production of exopolymers. Thus, it is likely that the elevated frequency of metal and antibiotic tolerances in bacterioplankton in ASB discharges were caused by shifts in microbial community composition, resulting from the selective pressure imposed by elevated metal concentrations or organic toxicants present in ASBs. PMID:15952371

  10. Metal contamination disturbs biochemical and microbial properties of calcareous agricultural soils of the Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Cheviron, Natalie; Quintana, Jose R; González, Concepción; Lafuente, Antonio L; Mougin, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Mediterranean climate characteristics and carbonate are key factors governing soil heavy-metal accumulation, and low organic matter (OM) content could limit the ability of microbial populations to cope with resulting stress. We studied the effects of metal contamination on a combination of biological parameters in soils having these characteristics. With this aim, soils were spiked with a mixture of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, at the two limit values proposed by current European legislation, and incubated for ?12 months. Then we measured biochemical (phosphatase, urease, ?-galactosidase, arylsulfatase, and dehydrogenase activities) and microbial (fungal and bacterial DNA concentration by quantitative polymerase chain reaction) parameters. All of the enzyme activities were strongly affected by metal contamination and showed the following inhibition sequence: phosphatase (30-64 %) < arylsulfatase (38-97 %) ? urease (1-100 %) ? ?-galactosidase (30-100 %) < dehydrogenase (69-100 %). The high variability among soils was attributed to the different proportion of fine mineral fraction, OM, crystalline iron oxides, and divalent cations in soil solution. The decrease of fungal DNA concentration in metal-spiked soils was negligible, whereas the decrease of bacterial DNA was ~1-54 % at the lowest level and 2-69 % at the highest level of contamination. The lowest bacterial DNA decrease occurred in soils with the highest OM, clay, and carbonate contents. Finally, regarding the strong inhibition of the biological parameters measured and the alteration of the fungal/bacterial DNA ratio, we provide strong evidence that disturbance on the system, even within the limiting values of contamination proposed by the current European Directive, could alter key soil processes. These limiting values should be established according to soil characteristics and/or revised when contamination is produced by a mixture of heavy metals. PMID:23183935

  11. Potential contribution of microbial degradation to natural attenuation of MTBE in surface water systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the potential contribution of in situ biodegradation as a mechanism for natural attenuation of MTBE in surface water, surface water sediments were collected from streams and lakes at 11 sites throughout the US and the ability of the indigenous microorganisms to mineralize [U-14C] MTBE to 14CO2 under aerobic conditions was examined. Mineralization of [U-14C] MTBE to 14CO2 ranged from 15 to 66% over 50 days and did not differ significantly between sediments collected from MTBE contaminated sites and from sites with no history of MTBE exposure. The microorganisms, which inhabit the bed sediments of streams and lakes could degrade MTBE efficiently and this capability is widespread in the environment. Microbial degradation of [U-14C] MTBE was observed in surface-water-sediment microcosms under anaerobic conditions, but the efficiency and products of anaerobic MTBE biodegradation were strongly dependent on the predominant terminal electron accepting conditions. Microorganisms inhabiting the bed sediments of streams and lakes could degrade MTBE effectively under a range of anaerobic terminal electron accepting conditions. Thus, anaerobic bed sediment microbial processes also might contribute to natural attenuation of MTBE in surface water systems throughout the US.

  12. TRACE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN ANTHROPOGENICALLY ACIDIFIED SURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The biological effects of trace organic contaminants in anthropogenically acidified surface waters are mediated by the nature of the association of trace organics with dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOC and POC). his paper (1) briefly reviews available deposition estim...

  13. Microbial Diversity and Bioremediation of a Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer (Vega Baja, Puerto Rico)

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Enid M.; Pérez, Ernie X.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Zhou, Jizhong; Massol-Deyá, Arturo A.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater resources has become a major environmental and human health concern in many parts of the world. Our objectives were to employ both culture and culture-independent techniques to characterize the dynamics of microbial community structure within a fluidized bed reactor used to bioremediate a diesel-contaminated groundwater in a tropical environment. Under normal operating conditions, 97 to 99% of total hydrocarbons were removed with only 14 min hydraulic retention time. Over 25 different cultures were isolated from the treatment unit (96% which utilized diesel constituents as sole carbon source). Approximately 20% of the isolates were also capable of complete denitrification to nitrogen gas. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA demonstrated ample diversity with most belonging to the ?, ? and ? subdivision of the Proteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria groups. Moreover, the genetic constitution of the microbial community was examined at multiple time points with a Functional Gene Array (FGA) containing over 12,000 probes for genes involved in organic degradation and major biogeochemical cycles. Total community DNA was extracted and amplified using an isothermal ?29 polymerase-based technique, labeled with Cy5 dye, and hybridized to the arrays in 50% formimide overnight at 50°C. Cluster analysis revealed comparable profiles over the course of treatment suggesting the early selection of a very stable microbial community. A total of 270 genes for organic contaminant degradation (including naphthalene, toluene [aerobic and anaerobic], octane, biphenyl, pyrene, xylene, phenanthrene, and benzene); and 333 genes involved in metabolic activities (nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases [nirS, nirK, and nosZ], dissimilatory sulfite reductases [dsrAB], potential metal reducing C-type cytochromes, and methane monooxygenase [pmoA]) were repeatedly detected. Genes for degradation of MTBE, nitroaromatics and chlorinated compounds were also present, indicating a broad catabolic potential of the treatment unit. FGA’s demonstrated the early establishment of a diverse community with concurrent aerobic and anaerobic processes contributing to the bioremediation process. PMID:16968977

  14. Microbial Diversity and Bioremediation of a Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer (Vega Baja, Puerto Rico)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Martinex, Enid M.; Perez, Ernie; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Zhou, Jizhong; Massol-Deya, Arturo A.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater resources has become a major environmental and human health concern in many parts of the world. Our objectives were to employ both culture and culture-independent techniques to characterize the dynamics of microbial community structure within a fluidized bed reactor used to bioremediate a diesel-contaminated groundwater in a tropical environment. Under normal operating conditions, 97 to 99% of total hydrocarbons were removed with only 14 min hydraulic retention time. Over 25 different cultures were isolated from the treatment unit (96% which utilized diesel constituents as sole carbon source). Approximately 20% of the isolates were also capable of complete denitrification to nitrogen gas. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA demonstrated ample diversity with most belonging to the {infinity}, {beta} and {gamma} subdivision of the Proteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria groups. Moreover, the genetic constitution of the microbial community was examined at multiple time points with a Functional Gene Array (FGA) containing over 12,000 probes for genes involved in organic degradation and major biogeochemical cycles. Total community DNA was extracted and amplified using an isothermal {phi}29 polymerase-based technique, labeled with Cy5 dye, and hybridized to the arrays in 50% formimide overnight at 50 C. Cluster analysis revealed comparable profiles over the course of treatment suggesting the early selection of a very stable microbial community. A total of 270 genes for organic contaminant degradation (including naphthalene, toluene [aerobic and anaerobic], octane, biphenyl, pyrene, xylene, phenanthrene, and benzene); and 333 genes involved in metabolic activities (nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases [nirS, nirK, and nosZ], dissimilatory sulfite reductases [dsrAB], potential metal reducing C-type cytochromes, and methane monooxygenase [pmoA]) were repeatedly detected. Genes for degradation of MTBE, nitroaromatics and chlorinated compounds were also present, indicating a broad catabolic potential of the treatment unit. FGA's demonstrated the early establishment of a diverse community with concurrent aerobic and anaerobic processes contributing to the bioremediation process.

  15. Characterization of nonpoint source microbial contamination in an urbanizing watershed serving as a municipal water supply.

    PubMed

    Rowny, Jakob G; Stewart, Jill R

    2012-11-15

    Inland watersheds in the southeastern United States are transitioning from agricultural and forested land uses to urban and exurban uses at a rate greater than the national average. This study sampled creeks representing a variety of land use factors in a rapidly urbanizing watershed that also serves as a drinking water supply. Samples were collected bimonthly under dry-weather conditions and four times during each of three storm events and assessed for microbial indicators of water quality. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were measured using standard membrane filtration techniques. Results showed that FIB concentrations varied between 10(0) and 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mL. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that FIB were generally higher in more developed watersheds (p < 0.01). Concentrations were also significantly greater during storm events than during dry-weather conditions (p < 0.02), although concentrations demonstrated both intra and inter-storm variability. These results indicate that the magnitude of microbial contamination is influenced by intensity of watershed development, streamflow and antecedent precipitation. Dry-weather FIB loads showed considerable seasonal variation, but the average storm event delivered contaminant loads equivalent to months of dry-weather loading. Analysis of intra-storm loading patterns provided little evidence to support "first-flush" loading of either FIB, results that are consistent with environmental reservoirs of FIB. These findings demonstrate that single sampling monitoring efforts are inadequate to capture the variability of microbial contaminants in a watershed, particularly if sampling is conducted during dry weather. This study also helps to identify timing and conditions for public health vulnerabilities, and for effective management interventions. PMID:23021518

  16. Effect of 0.2% chlorhexidine on microbial and fungal contamination of dental unit waterlines

    PubMed Central

    Agahi, Raha Habib; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Kalantari, Mahsa; Ayatollah-Mosavi, Amin; Aghassi, Hossein; Nassab, Amir Hossein Gandjalikhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is known that dental unit waterline can be a source of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a mouthwash, chlorhexidine, in controlling microbial and fungal contamination of dental unit waterlines. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, the water in high-speed handpieces and air/water syringes of 35 dental units in a dental school was investigated microbiologically. Five of the units and one tap water served as controls; 100-200-mL water samples were collected aseptically in sterile containers in the morning after a 2-min purge. Water reservoir bottles were emptied and 50 mL of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash was introduced into the tank. Then the water syringe was used to flush the waterline until the pink-colored chlorhexidine was observed to flow from the water syringe. Before the next day's session and before the students used the unit, two water samples from the water syringe and water turbine was collected. The samples were transferred to the laboratory. After 48 h at 37°C, the microbial colonies were counted. The number of these colonies was evaluated using colony forming unit CFU. Data were analyzed with Mann — Whitney U test and SPSS 13.5 statistical program. The statistical significance was defined at P ? 0.05. Results: All 35 units were contaminated before chlorhexidine use; no contamination was detected after adding chlorhexidine to the waterlines of the units. After week 1, 28 of the 30 treated dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) had values of CFU/mL less than 200. Conclusion: The present study showed that the use of chlorhexidine could reduce microbial counts in dental unit waterlines. PMID:25097645

  17. High surface area electrode for high efficient microbial electrosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Huarong; Cui, Mengmeng; Lu, Haiyun; Zhang, Tian; Russell, Thomas; Lovley, Derek

    2012-02-01

    Microbial electrosynthesis, a process in which microorganisms directly accept electrons from an electrode to convert carbon dioxide and water into multi carbon organic compounds, affords a novel route for the generation of valuable products from electricity or even wastewater. The surface area of the electrode is critical for high production. A biocompatible, highly conductive, three-dimensional cathode was fabricated from a carbon nanotube textile composite to support the microorganism to produce acetate from carbon dioxide. The high surface area and macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT coated textile ?bers provides easy microbe access. The production of acetate using this cathode is 5 fold larger than that using a planar graphite electrode with the same volume. Nickel-nanowire-modified carbon electrodes, fabricated by microwave welding, increased the surface area greatly, were able to absorb more bacteria and showed a 1.5 fold increase in performance

  18. Direct Quantification of Microbial Community Respiration along a Contamination Gradient using a novel Hydrologic Smart Tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanaway, D. J.; Haggerty, R.; Feris, K. P.

    2010-12-01

    Heavy metal contamination in lotic ecosystems is a major health and environmental concern worldwide. The Resazurin Resorufin (Raz Rru) Smart Tracer system (Haggerty et al., 2008) provides a novel approach to test current models of microbial ecosystem response to chronic stressors such as heavy metals. These models predict that functional redundancy of metabolic capabilities of community members (e.g. respiration rate and enzyme activity) will compensate for decreases in species diversity until a stress threshold is reached. At this point, species diversity and function are expected to decline rapidly. Contrary to this model, microbial communities of the Clark Fork River (CF), Montana, demonstrate high levels of species diversity along the contamination gradient, whereas community function is inversely proportional to the level of contamination. The Raz Rru tool, a metabolically reactive hydrologic tracer, allows for direct quantification of in-situ microbial respiration rates. Therefore, this tool provides an opportunity to build upon studies of ecosystem response to contamination previously limited to extrapolation of point scale measurements to reach scale processes. The Raz Rru tool is used here to quantify the magnitude of metal induced limits on heterotrophic microbial respiration in communities that have evolved to different levels of chronic metal exposure. In this way we propose to be able to test a novel hypothesis concerning the nature of evolution of community processes to chronic stress and persistent environmental pollutants. Specifically, we hypothesize that metal contamination produces a measureable metabolic cost to both tolerant and intolerant communities. To test this hypothesis, rates of respiration associated with hyporheic sediments, supporting intact microbial communities, were quantified in the presence and absence of an acute Cd exposure in column experiments. Hyporheic sediment was collected from differently contaminated locations within the CF and compared to sediment from pristine reference sites. The biological reduction rate of Raz to Rru, K_12 in the Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE) below, represents rates of sediment associated heterotrophic respiration. ∂C_Raz}/{∂t} = {α_Lν}/{R} {∂^2C_Raz}/{∂x^2} - {ν}/{R} {∂C_Raz}/{∂x} - k_1C_Raz -k_12C_Raz [/tex] {∂C_Rru}/{∂t} = {α_Lν}/{R} {∂^2C_Rru}/{∂x^2} -{ν}/{R} {∂C_Rru}/{∂x} - k_2C_Rru + k_12 {M_Rru}/{M_Raz}CRaz [/tex] The Raz-Rru ADE will be optimized through the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Preliminary analysis of Cl^- tracer data provides input estimation of physical parameters, populating the hydrological terms of the ADE necessary for elucidation of K_12. It is expected that sediment metal content and K_12 are inversely related and that acute Cd exposure will negatively affect K_12 of both communities, with communities inhabiting metal contaminated sediments demonstrating a smaller reduction in K_12. This project has the potential to contribute to a revised theory of community response to metal induced chronic ecosystem stress, while contributing to the further development and application of the Raz Rru Smart Tracer system.

  19. Characterization of Microbial Communities in TCE-Contaminated Seep Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    ROBIN, BRIGMON

    2005-03-07

    Hundreds of sites across the United States contain trichloroethene (TCE) contamination, including the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. Previous studies have indicated that microorganisms are capable of efficiently degrading TCE to nonhazardous end products. In this project, molecular and growth based methods were used for microbial characterization of a TCE impacted seepzone where TCE degradation is naturally occurring. The results from this work provide clear evidence that the SRB may play a significant role in TCE degradation along the Twin Lakes seepline.

  20. Experimental Studies on Elimination of Microbial Contamination by Hydroxyl Radicals Produced by Strong Ionization Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Mindong; Zhang, Zhitao; Zhao, Dongyan; Yang, Bo

    2008-08-01

    Using fogdrops of OH˙ radicals to eliminate microbial contamination is an effective way to solve the current domestic and international problem. The results show that the threshold of OH˙ solution used in the experiment is 0.6 mg/L, the lethal time is 1 s, and the spray density of OH˙ solution is 21 μL/m2. The experimental results show that the OH˙ radical possesses the following advantages: celerity, low lethal concentration and spray density, short lethal time, and absence of secondary pollution.

  1. The Effects of Microbial Surfaces on Mineral Trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajo-Franklin, C.; Cappuccio, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration, the underground storage of CO2, will be an essential component of global climate change mitigation. Carbonate minerals are a stable form of CO2 storage, but their geologic formation is slow. Many microbes are known to affect carbonate mineral formation; however the mechanisms of such mineralization are largely unknown. Suggested mechanisms include metabolic processes that alter pH and supersaturation, as well as cell surface properties that induce mineral nucleation. This work systematically investigates how diverse bacterial surface alter the rates and transformations of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Under low supersaturation conditions, several diverse species accelerated the formation of CaCO3 relative to silicate containing solutions. These rate changes also occurred for metabolically inactive bacteria, indicating that metabolic activity was not the operating mechanism. Rather, since the number of CaCO3 crystals increased in number as the cell density increased, these results indicate that many bacterial species accelerate the nucleation of CaCO3. Bacterial surface charge and cation binding was assessed using zeta potential measurements and correlated to the bacterial surface chemistry and biomineralization experiments with varying Ca2+ concentrations. To understand the role of specific biomolecules on nucleation, we engineered surface layer proteins (S-layers) to affect their charge and displayed functional groups. From these results combined, we postulate that microbial surfaces can selectively attract Ca2+ ions, serving as nucleation sites for CaCO3, thereby accelerating crystal formation. These observations provide substantive evidence for a non-specific nucleation mechanism, and stress the importance of microbes, on the rate of formation of carbonate minerals. This work also indicates that additional microbial engineering specifically targeted to S-layer proteins could optimize these interactions and be used to implement the sequestration of CO2 as stable mineral carbonates on an accelerated timescale.

  2. Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels.

  3. Identification of contaminant type in surface electromyography (EMG) signals.

    PubMed

    McCool, Paul; Fraser, Graham D; Chan, Adrian D C; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Soraghan, John J

    2014-07-01

    The ability to recognize various forms of contaminants in surface electromyography (EMG) signals and to ascertain the overall quality of such signals is important in many EMG-enabled rehabilitation systems. In this paper, new methods for the automatic identification of commonly occurring contaminant types in surface EMG signals are presented. Such methods are advantageous because the contaminant type is typically not known in advance. The presented approach uses support vector machines as the main classification system. Both simulated and real EMG signals are used to assess the performance of the methods. The contaminants considered include: 1) electrocardiogram interference; 2) motion artifact; 3) power line interference; 4) amplifier saturation; and 5) additive white Gaussian noise. Results show that the contaminants can readily be distinguished at lower signal to noise ratios, with a growing degree of confusion at higher signal to noise ratios, where their effects on signal quality are less significant. PMID:24760926

  4. Microbial biofilm formation and contamination of dental-unit water systems in general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Walker, J T; Bradshaw, D J; Bennett, A M; Fulford, M R; Martin, M V; Marsh, P D

    2000-08-01

    Dental-unit water systems (DUWS) harbor bacterial biofilms, which may serve as a haven for pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial load of water from DUWS in general dental practices and the biofouling of DUWS tubing. Water and tube samples were taken from 55 dental surgeries in southwestern England. Contamination was determined by viable counts on environmentally selective, clinically selective, and pathogen-selective media, and biofouling was determined by using microscopic and image analysis techniques. Microbial loading ranged from 500 to 10(5) CFU. ml(-1); in 95% of DUWS water samples, it exceeded European Union drinking water guidelines and in 83% it exceeded American Dental Association DUWS standards. Among visible bacteria, 68% were viable by BacLight staining, but only 5% of this "viable by BacLight" fraction produced colonies on agar plates. Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium spp., Candida spp., and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in one, five, two, and nine different surgeries, respectively. Presumptive oral streptococci and Fusobacterium spp. were detected in four and one surgeries, respectively, suggesting back siphonage and failure of antiretraction devices. Hepatitis B virus was never detected. Decontamination strategies (5 of 55 surgeries) significantly reduced biofilm coverage but significantly increased microbial numbers in the water phase (in both cases, P < 0.05). Microbial loads were not significantly different in DUWS fed with soft, hard, deionized, or distilled water or in different DUWS (main, tank, or bottle fed). Microbiologically, no DUWS can be considered "cleaner" than others. DUWS deliver water to patients with microbial levels exceeding those considered safe for drinking water. PMID:10919792

  5. Microbial transformations of azaarenes in creosite-contaminated soil and ground water: Laboratory and field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Updegraff, D.M.; Bennett, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Azaarenes or aromatic nitrogen heterocycles are a class of compounds found in wood-preservative wastes containing creosote. The fate and movement of these compounds in contaminated aquifers is not well understood. Water-quality studies in an aquifer contaminated with creosote near Pensacola, Florida, indicated that ground water was contaminated with several azaarenes and their oxygenated and alkylated derivatives, suggesting that these oxygenated compounds may be products of microbial transformation reactions. Accordingly, laboratory studies were designed to investigate the fate of these compounds. Under aerobic conditions, soil pseudomonads isolated from creosote-contaminated soil converted quinoline to 2(1H)quinoline that subsequently was degraded to unknown products. A methanogenic consortium isolated from an anaerobic sewage digestor, in presence of ground-water and creosote-contaminated soil, converted quinoline, isoquinoline, and 4-methylquinoline to their respective oxygenated analogs. In addition, N-, C-, and O-methylated analogs of oxygenated azaarenes were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in aerobic cultures. Under the experimental conditions, 2-methylquinoline was biorefractory. Presence of similar biotransformation products in anaerobic cultures and contaminated ground water from the Pensacola site provided further evidence that these compounds indeed were mivrobial transformation products. Stable isotope labeling studies indicated that the source of the oxygen atom for this hydroxylation reaction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was water. A mechanism was proposed for this hydroxylation reaction. Whereas parent azaarenes are biodegradable in both anaerobic and aerobic zones, oxygenated and alkylated analogs are more biorefractory and, hence, persistent in anaerobic zones of contaminated aquifers.

  6. LASER CLEANING OF CONTAMINATED PAINTED SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    Ames A. Grisanti; Charlene R. Crocker; Robert R. Jensen

    1999-11-19

    Several techniques are available or under development for surface decontamination in nuclear facilities. Each technique has its merits; however, none of them is universally the best choice for all surface decontamination applications. Because of the multitude of factors which influence the environmental and economic aspects of selecting a surface decontamination technique, it is difficult to select the best method in a given situation; an objective basis for comparing techniques is needed. The objective of this project was to develop a software tool for use by personnel selecting a surface decontamination technique. The software incorporates performance data for available surface decontamination techniques. The beta release version of the Surface Decontamination Assistant Software has been completed and has undergone testing at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. Minor modifications to the software were completed, and a final release version of the software is ready to be issued.

  7. Quantification of Microbial Activities in Near-Surface Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroth, M. H.; Nauer, P.; Zeyer, J.

    2007-12-01

    Microbial processes in near-surface soils play an important role in carbon and nutrient cycling, and specifically in the turnover of greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. We modified a recently developed technique, the gas push-pull test (GPPT), to allow for the in-situ quantification of microbial activities in near-surface soils. A GPPT consists of the controlled injection of a gas mixture containing reactive gases (e.g., CH4, O2, CO2) and nonreactive tracer gases (e.g., Ar, Ne) into the soil, followed by the extraction of the gas mixture/soil-air blend from the same location. Rates of microbial activities are computed from the gases" breakthrough curves obtained during the GPPT's extraction phase. For a GPPT to be applied successfully, it is important that sufficient mass of the injected gases can be recovered during the test, even after prolonged incubation in soil. But this may be difficult to achieve during GPPTs performed in near- surface soils, where gas loss to the atmosphere can be substantial. Our modification consisted of performing GPPTs within a steel cylinder (8.4-cm radius), which was previously driven into the soil to a depth of 50 cm. During the GPPTs, the cylinder was temporarily closed with a removable lid to minimize gas loss to the atmosphere. We performed a series of numerical simulations as well as laboratory experiments to test the usefulness of this modification. Numerical simulations confirmed that without use of the cylinder, typical near- surface GPPTs (e.g., injection/extraction depth 20 cm below soil surface) are subject to extensive gas loss to the atmosphere (mass recovery < 20% for most gases), whereas mass recovery of injected gases increased dramatically when the cylinder was employed (mass recovery > 90% for most gases). Results from laboratory experiments confirmed this observation. We will also present results of a first field application, in which a near- surface GPPT was successfully conducted in a sandy soil to quantify in-situ rates of CH4 oxidation.

  8. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-02-28

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application.

  9. Radon induced surface contaminations in low background experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pattavina, L.

    2013-08-08

    In neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through careful material selection and production, minimizing the background contributions. In order to achieve the required, extremely low, counting rates, very stringent requirements must be fulfilled in terms of bulk material radiopurity. As the experimental sensitivity increases, the bulk impurities in the detector components decrease, and surface contaminations start to play an increasingly significant role In fully active detectors, like cryogenic particle detectors, surface contaminations are a critical issue (as shown by the CUORICINO experiment). {sup 222}Rn is by far the most intense source of airborne radioactivity, and if a radio-pure material is exposed to environment where the Radon concentration is not minimized, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po contaminations can occur. The mechanisms and the dynamics of Radon-induced surface contaminations are reviewed, and specific solutions to prevent and to reject the induced background are presented.

  10. Characterization of Groundwater Microbial Communities from a Chlorinated-Ethene-Contaminated Landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.

    2002-11-20

    Molecular (rDNA), phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA), and substrate utilization (BIOLOG) techniques were used to assess structural and functional differences between groundwater microbial communities from a chlorinated-ethene (CE)-contaminated landfill. Prokaryotic cells were collected from pristine (LFW 43B) and CE-contaminated (LFW 62D) groundwater monitoring wells on 0.2 micron filters, DNA was extracted from the filters, and libraries were prepared. For well LFW 43B, 26 clones were examined by sequencing and restriction endonuclease patterns, and all were found to be closely related to Pseudomonas gessardii and P. libaniensis. For well LFW 62D, 40 bacterial clones were examined, and 17 ribotypes were found including representatives of type I and II methylotrophs, Pseudomonas spp., Zoogloea spp., and other proteobacteria. In an archaeal library from well LFW 62D, all 15 of the clones examined were nearly identical and possessed about 89 percent sequence similarity to Cenarchaeum symbiosum. PLFA analysis revealed that the communities from contaminated groundwater contained primarily gram-negative bacteria, as indicated by the predominance of the biomarker 16:1w7c. The bacteria were in the stationary growth phase as indicated by the abundance of cyclopropyl fatty acids cy17:0 and cy19:0 and their respective precursors 16:1w7c and 18:1w7c. Further, PLFA ratios for 16:1w7t/16:1w7c and 18:1w7t/18:1w7c were greater than 0.1, indicative of increased cellular membrane permeability. Using BIOLOG GN plates, a similar number of substrates were utilized in LFW43B (72) and LFW 62D (63) communities, even though inoculum densities were 2-orders of magnitude greater in LFW 62D. The combination of non-selective characterization techniques was useful to further our understanding of CE-contamination on groundwater microbial communities.

  11. Comparison of Contamination Model Predictions to LDEF Surface Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Tim; Rantanen, Ray; Pippin, Gary; Finckenor, Miria

    1998-01-01

    Contaminant deposition measurements have been made on species content and depth profiles on three experiments trays from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), Auger, Argon sputtering, Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. The integrated spacecraft environment model (ISEM) was used to predict the deposition levels of the contaminants measured on the three trays. The details of the modeling and assumptions used are presented along with the predictions for the deposition on select surfaces on the trays. These are compared to the measured results. The trays represent surfaces that have a high atomic oxygen flux, and intermediate oxygen flux, and no oxygen flux. All surfaces received significant solar Ultraviolet flux. It appears that the atomic oxygen was the primary agent that caused significant deposition to occur. Surfaces that saw significant contaminant flux solar UV and no atomic oxygen did not show any appreciable levels of observable deposition. The implications of the atom ic oxygen interaction with contaminant deposits containing silicon contaminant sources is discussed. The primary contaminant sources are DC61104 adhesive and Z306 paint. The results and interpretation of the findings have a potential significant impact on spacecraft surfaces that are exposed to solar UV and atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit.

  12. Microbial community analysis in rice paddy soils irrigated by acid mine drainage contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Sun, Min; Xiao, Tangfu; Ning, Zengping; Xiao, Enzong; Sun, Weimin

    2015-03-01

    Five rice paddy soils located in southwest China were selected for geochemical and microbial community analysis. These rice fields were irrigated with river water which was contaminated by Fe-S-rich acid mine drainage. Microbial communities were characterized by high-throughput sequencing, which showed 39 different phyla/groups in these samples. Among these phyla/groups, Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in all samples. Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Nitrospirae, and Bacteroidetes exhibited higher relative abundances than other phyla. A number of rare and candidate phyla were also detected. Moreover, canonical correspondence analysis suggested that pH, sulfate, and nitrate were significant factors that shaped the microbial community structure. In addition, a wide diversity of Fe- and S-related bacteria, such as GOUTA19, Shewanella, Geobacter, Desulfobacca, Thiobacillus, Desulfobacterium, and Anaeromyxobacter, might be responsible for biogeochemical Fe and S cycles in the tested rice paddy soils. Among the dominant genera, GOUTA19 and Shewanella were seldom detected in rice paddy soils. PMID:25408313

  13. Microbial activity in Alaskan taiga soils contaminated by crude oil in 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, E.M.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.; Raddock, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Biodegradation, often measured via microbial activity, includes destruction of environmental pollutants by living microorganisms and is dependent upon many physical and chemical factors. Effects of mineral nutrients and organic matter on biodegradation of Prudhoe Bay crude oil were investigated at a nineteen-year-old oil spill site in Alaskan taiga. Microcosms of two different soil types from the spill site; one undeveloped soil with forest litter and detritus (O horizon) and one more developed with lower organic content (A horizon), were treated with various nitrogen and phosphorus amendments, and incubated for up to six weeks. Each microcosm was sampled periodically and assayed for hydrocarbon mineralization potential using radiorespirometry, for total carbon dioxide respired using gas chromatography, and for numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria using most probable number counting techniques. Organic matter in the O horizon soil along with combinations of mineral nutrients were found to stimulate microbial activity. No combination of mineral nutrient additions to the A horizon soil stimulated any of the parameters above those measured in control microcosms. The results of this study indicate that adding mineral nutrients and tilling the O horizon into the A horizon of subarctic soils contaminated with crude oil, would stimulate microbial activity, and therefore the biodegradation potential, ultimately increasing the rate of destruction of crude oil in these soils.

  14. In situ bioremediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated water by a resting-cell methanotrophic microbial filter

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R T; Duba, A G; Durham, W B; Hanna, M L; Jackson, K J; Jovanovich, M C; Knapp, R B; Knezovich, J P; Shah, N N; Shonnard, D R; Wijesinghe, A M

    1992-10-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is testing and developing an in situ microbial filter technology for remediating migrating subsurface plumes contaminated with low concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE). Their current focus is the establishment of a replenishable bioactive zone (catalytic filter) along expanding plume boundaries by the Injection of a representative methanotrophic bacterium, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. We have successfully demonstrated this microbial filter strategy using emplaced, attached resting cells (no methane additions) in a 1.1-m flow-through test bed loaded with water-saturated sand. Two separate 24 h pulses of TCE (109 ppb and 85 ppb), one week apart, were pumped through the system at a flow velocity of 1.5 cm/h; no TCE (<0.5 ppb) was detected on the downstream side of the microbial filter. Subsequent excavation of the wet sand confirmed the existence of a TCE-bioactive zone 19 days after it had been created. An enhanced longevity of the cellular, soluble-form methane monooxygenase produced by this methanotroph Is a result of our laboratory bioreactor culturing conditions. Additional experiments with cells in sealed vials and emplaced in the 1.1-m test bed yielded a high resting-cell finite TCE biotransformation capacity of [approximately] 0.25 mg per mg of bacteria; this is suitable for a planned sand-filled trench field demonstration at a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory site.

  15. Metagenomic insights into evolution of a heavy metal-contaminated groundwater microbial community

    SciTech Connect

    Hemme, Christopher; Deng, Ye; Gentry, Terry; Fields, Matthew Wayne; Wu, Liyou; Barua, Soumitra; Barry, Kerry; Green-Tringe, Susannah; Watson, David B; He, Zhili; Hazen, Terry; Tiedje, James M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-02-01

    Understanding adaptation of biological communities to environmental change is a central issue in ecology and evolution. Metagenomic analysis of a stressed groundwater microbial community reveals that prolonged exposure to high concentrations of heavy metals, nitric acid and organic solvents (~50 years) has resulted in a massive decrease in species and allelic diversity as well as a significant loss of metabolic diversity. Although the surviving microbial community possesses all metabolic pathways necessary for survival and growth in such an extreme environment, its structure is very simple, primarily composed of clonal denitrifying - and -proteobacterial populations. The resulting community is overabundant in key genes conferring resistance to specific stresses including nitrate, heavy metals and acetone. Evolutionary analysis indicates that lateral gene transfer could have a key function in rapid response and adaptation to environmental contamination. The results presented in this study have important implications in understanding, assessing and predicting the impacts of human-induced activities on microbial communities ranging from human health to agriculture to environmental management, and their responses to environmental changes.

  16. Metagenomic Insights into Evolution of a Heavy Metal-Contaminated Groundwater Microbial Community

    SciTech Connect

    Hemme, Christopher L.; Deng, Ye; Gentry, Terry J.; Fields, Matthew W.; Wu, Liyou; Barua, Soumitra; Barry, Kerrie; Tringe, Susannah G.; Watson, David B.; He, Zhili; Hazen, Terry C.; Tiedje, James M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-02-15

    Understanding adaptation of biological communities to environmental change is a central issue in ecology and evolution. Metagenomic analysis of a stressed groundwater microbial community reveals that prolonged exposure to high concentrations of heavy metals, nitric acid and organic solvents (~;;50 years) have resulted in a massive decrease in species and allelic diversity as well as a significant loss of metabolic diversity. Although the surviving microbial community possesses all metabolic pathways necessary for survival and growth in such an extreme environment, its structure is very simple, primarily composed of clonal denitrifying ?- and ?-proteobacterial populations. The resulting community is over-abundant in key genes conferring resistance to specific stresses including nitrate, heavy metals and acetone. Evolutionary analysis indicates that lateral gene transfer could be a key mechanism in rapidly responding and adapting to environmental contamination. The results presented in this study have important implications in understanding, assessing and predicting the impacts of human-induced activities on microbial communities ranging from human health to agriculture to environmental management, and their responses to environmental changes.

  17. Metagenomic insights into evolution of heavy metal-contaminated groundwater microbial community

    SciTech Connect

    Hemme, C.L.; Deng, Y.; Gentry, T.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wu, L.; Barua, S.; Barry, K.; Green-Tringe, S.; Watson, D.B.; He, Z.; Hazen, T.C.; Tiedje, J.M.; Rubin, E.M.; Zhou, J.

    2010-07-01

    Understanding adaptation of biological communities to environmental change is a central issue in ecology and evolution. Metagenomic analysis of a stressed groundwater microbial community reveals that prolonged exposure to high concentrations of heavy metals, nitric acid and organic solvents ({approx}50 years) has resulted in a massive decrease in species and allelic diversity as well as a significant loss of metabolic diversity. Although the surviving microbial community possesses all metabolic pathways necessary for survival and growth in such an extreme environment, its structure is very simple, primarily composed of clonal denitrifying {gamma}- and {beta}-proteobacterial populations. The resulting community is overabundant in key genes conferring resistance to specific stresses including nitrate, heavy metals and acetone. Evolutionary analysis indicates that lateral gene transfer could have a key function in rapid response and adaptation to environmental contamination. The results presented in this study have important implications in understanding, assessing and predicting the impacts of human-induced activities on microbial communities ranging from human health to agriculture to environmental management, and their responses to environmental changes.

  18. Adaptation of soil microbial community structure and function to chronic metal contamination at an abandoned Pb-Zn mine.

    PubMed

    Epelde, Lur; Lanzén, Anders; Blanco, Fernando; Urich, Tim; Garbisu, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of metals released from mine tailings may cause severe damage to ecosystems. A diversity of microorganisms, however, have successfully adapted to such sites. In this study, our objective was to advance the understanding of the indigenous microbial communities of mining-impacted soils. To this end, a metatranscriptomic approach was used to study a heavily metal-contaminated site along a metal concentration gradient (up to 3220 000 and 97 000 mg kg(-1) of Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively) resulting from previous mining. Metal concentration, soil pH and amount of clay were the most important factors determining the structure of soil microbial communities. Interestingly, evenness of the microbial communities, but not its richness, increased with contamination level. Taxa with high metabolic plasticity like Ktedonobacteria and Chloroflexi were found with higher relative abundance in more contaminated samples. However, several taxa belonging to the phyla Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria followed opposite trends in relation to metal pollution. Besides, functional transcripts related to transposition or transfer of genetic material and membrane transport, potentially involved in metal resistance mechanisms, had a higher expression in more contaminated samples. Our results provide an insight into microbial communities in long-term metal-contaminated environments and how they contrast to nearby sites with lower contamination. PMID:25764532

  19. Phylogenetic Microarray Analysis of a Microbial Community Performing Reductive Dechlorination at a TCE-contaminated Site

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patrick K. H.; Warnecke, F.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Macbeth, Tamzen W.; Conrad, Mark E.; Andersen, Gary L.; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A high-density phylogenetic microarray (PhyloChip) was applied to track bacterial and archaeal populations through different phases of remediation at Ft. Lewis, WA, a trichloroethene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater site. Biostimulation with whey, and bioaugmentation with a Dehalococcoides-containing enrichment culture were strategies implemented to enhance dechlorination. As a measure of species richness, over 1300 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in DNA from groundwater samples extracted during different stages of treatment and in the bioaugmentation culture. In order to determine active members within the community, 16S rRNA from samples were analyzed by microarray and ~600 OTUs identified. A cDNA clone library of the expressed 16S rRNA corroborated the observed diversity and activity of some of the phyla. Principle component analysis of the treatment plot samples revealed that the microbial populations were constantly changing during the course of the study. Dynamic analysis of the archaeal population showed significant increases in methanogens at the later stages of treatment that correlated with increases in methane concentrations of over two orders of magnitude. Overall, the PhyloChip analyses in this study have provided insights into the microbial ecology and population dynamics at the TCE-contaminated field site useful for understanding the in situ reductive dechlorination processes. PMID:22091783

  20. Evaluation of the performance of different cleaning treatments in reducing microbial contamination of poultry transport crates.

    PubMed

    Allen, V M; Burton, C H; Wilkinson, D J; Whyte, R T; Harris, J A; Howell, M; Tinker, D B

    2008-05-01

    1. The present systems for cleaning the plastic crates (drawers) used to transport live poultry to the processing plant are known to be inadequate for removing microbial contamination. 2. To investigate possible improvements, a mobile experimental rig was constructed and operated in the lairage of a poultry processing plant. The cleaning rig could simulate the conditions of commercial cleaning systems and utilise freshly emptied crates from the processing plant. 3. The aim of the study was to improve cleaning by enhancing the removal of adherent organic material on the crates and by reducing microbial contamination by at least 4 log(10) units. 4. Trials showed that the most effective treatments against Campylobacter were either (a) the combination of soaking at 55 degrees C, brushing for 90 s, washing for 15 s at 60 degrees C, followed by the application of disinfectant (Virkon S in this study) or (b) the use of ultrasound (4 kW) at 65 degrees C for 3 to 6 min, with or without mechanical brushing of crates. 5. Both of these treatments also achieved a 4 log(10) reduction or more in the counts of Enterobacteriaceae but were less effective in reducing aerobic plate counts. 6. It was noted that there was little correlation between the visual assessment of crate cleanliness and microbiological counts. 7. It was concluded that the demonstrated enhanced cleaning could contribute significantly to overall hygiene control in poultry meat production. PMID:18568746

  1. Processing efficacy in relation to microbial contamination of skin allografts from 723 donors.

    PubMed

    Pianigiani, E; Ierardi, F; Cuciti, C; Brignali, S; Oggioni, M; Fimiani, M

    2010-05-01

    The Siena Skin Bank, established in 2000, processes skin from more than 130 cadaveric donors per year (about 400,000 cm(2)) and distributes it for transplants to treat burns and other types of skin loss. More than 1,500,000 cm(2) of homologous skin has been transplanted to date. At the Siena Skin Bank we conducted a retrospective study of our data to assess microbial contamination of skin specimens from 723 donors banked in the period 2000-2007. Our aim was to determine factors deleterious for skin quality, to optimize skin banking procedures and to reduce corrective actions. The factors analyzed were: type of donor (multi-organ, multi-tissue, live or cadaver), cause of death, time elapsing between death and procurement, different procurement centres and operator experience. Of the 723 donors considered, 26.55% (192/723) were positive for microbes, 22.68% (164) for bacteria and 5.39% (39) for mycetes. Of these 192 positives, 82 (42.70%) required corrective actions. The data obtained showed that the only variables significantly affecting microbial contamination of tissue were type of donor (live or cadaver) and type of processing (cryo- or glycerol preservation). PMID:19616385

  2. Subsurface Microbial Communities and Geochemistry Within a Vertical Transect of a Uranium-Contaminated Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gihring, T. M.; McKinley, J. P.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Long, P. E.

    2002-12-01

    Microbial communities and geochemistry were analyzed within floodplain alluvia of the San Juan River, New Mexico, down-gradient of a uranium mill tailings disposal cell. A multi-level sampling device was used to investigate vertical variations in geochemistry and microbial community structure within the uranium contaminant plume within this shallow aquifer. Chemical analyses indicate that the interaction of uncontaminated artesian water and contaminant fluids has resulted in three geochemically-distinct regions. Similarity comparisons of bacterial community 16S rDNA fingerprints, based on T-RFLP analyses, show a grouping of microbial populations into three assemblages. These groupings correspond to the three geochemically-defined regions of the aquifer profile, indicating a relationship between community structure and geochemistry. Combined Bacterial 16S rDNA clone library and T-RFLP analyses show a predominance of organisms related to Nitrospira and Nitrosolobus, chemolithotrophic nitrite and ammonia oxidizers respectively, in the uncontaminated region of the aquifer profile. Within the plume-impacted area, organisms related to known nitrifying bacteria were not detected. Bacteria phylogenetically related to Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Gallionella, Psuedomonas, and Thiomicrospira were identified in both the uncontaminated and plume regions. Within the contaminated region, sequences from organisms related to the metal oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix and Sphaerotilus were also found. 16S rDNA sequences with high similarity to Duganella zoogloeoides, a chemolithotrophic Mn-oxidizing bacterium known for uranyl complexation and sorption, were abundant in the clone library from the plume-impacted region. A diversity of organisms related to sulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacteria including Desulfobulbus, Desulfofrigus, Desulfosarcina, Desulfosporosinus, Desulfotomaculum, and Geobacter were present in the uncontaminated zone while less SRB diversity (Desulfobacter, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfonema) was observed in the plume region. T-RFLP results substantiate this trend, suggesting sulfate reducer populations shift from high diversity and low relative abundance to less diversity and a larger abundance over the transition from uncontaminated water into the plume region. These findings indicate that there is considerable biological potential for uranium immobilization at this site through reductive precipitation by sulfate or other metal reducing organisms or microbial uptake and sequestration. Given the diversity of microorganisms related to chemolithotrophic bacteria, growth by this mode of metabolism, and the biological oxidation of reduced metals, is also potentially an important process that may influence metal biogeochemistry at this site.

  3. Tool samples subsurface soil free of surface contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerer, W. W.; Wooley, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    Sampling device obtains pure subsurface soil that is free of any foreign substance that may exist on the surface. It is introduced through a contaminated surface area in a closed condition, opened, and a subsurface sample collected, sealed while in the subsurface position, and then withdrawn.

  4. Proximal and point detection of contaminated surfaces using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicheteau, Jason A.; Christesen, Steven D.; Tripathi, Ashish; Emmons, Erik D.; Wilcox, Phillip G.; Emge, Darren K.; Pardoe, Ian J.; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-11-01

    We are actively investigating the use of Raman spectroscopy for proximal standoff detection of chemicals and explosive materials on surfaces. These studies include Raman Chemical Imaging of contaminated fingerprints for forensic attribution and the assessments of commercial handheld or portable Raman instruments operating with near-infrared (IR) as well as ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation specifically developed for on-the-move reconnaissance of chemical contamination. As part of these efforts, we have measured the Raman cross sections of chemical agents, toxic industrial chemicals, and explosives from the UV to NIR. We have also measured and modeled the effect interrogation angle has on the Raman return from droplets on man-made surfaces. Realistic droplet distributions have been modeled and tested against variations in surface scan patterns and laser spot size for determining the optimum scan characteristics for detection of relevant surface contamination.

  5. Effects of vegetation on contaminant transport in surface flows

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.; Govindaraju, R.S.; Erickson, L.E.; Roig, L.

    1996-12-31

    It is well known that vegetation reduces off-site contamination that would result from surface flows. A significant portion of heavy metal contamination occurs at abandoned mine sites due to sediment movement. The effects of vegetation on sediment transport and surface runoff are reviewed, with an emphasis on factors that can reduce or prevent the movement of such metals in mine tailings. Several mathematical models for sediment transport in surface flows are briefly discussed, including advantages and limitations of the Universal Soil-Loss Equation and CREAMS model. Reported experimental and field data on contaminant transport in surface flows are reviewed and evaluated, as well as studies in treating the bioavailability of heavy metals in attempts to reduce metal phytotoxicity or decreasing the potential for entrance of the metals into the food chain via vegetation. Pollutants of concern include lead, zinc, and cadmium. 55 refs.

  6. The survival and transfer of microbial contamination via cloths, hands and utensils.

    PubMed

    Scott, E; Bloomfield, S F

    1990-03-01

    Survival and transfer of bacteria from laminated surfaces and cleaning cloths were investigated under laboratory conditions. Drying produced substantial reductions in numbers of recoverable organisms and achieved satisfactory decontamination of clean laminate surfaces. On soiled surfaces and on clean and soiled cloths, Gram-positive and some Gram-negative species survived for up to 4 h, and in some cases up to 24 h. Where contaminated surfaces or cloths came into contact with the fingers, a stainless steel bowl, or a clean laminate surface, organisms were transferred in sufficient numbers to represent a potential hazard if in contact with food. PMID:2111304

  7. Physicochemical and biological quality of soil in hexavalent chromium-contaminated soils as affected by chemical and microbial remediation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yingping; Min, Xiaobo; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan; Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Yangyang

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial methods are the main remediation technologies for chromium-contaminated soil. These technologies have progressed rapidly in recent years; however, there is still a lack of methods for evaluating the chemical and biological quality of soil after different remediation technologies have been applied. In this paper, microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria and chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate were used for the remediation of soils contaminated with Cr(VI) at two levels (80 and 1,276 mg kg(-1)) through a column leaching experiment. After microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria, the average concentration of water-soluble Cr(VI) in the soils was reduced to less than 5.0 mg kg(-1). Soil quality was evaluated based on 11 soil properties and the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method, including fuzzy mathematics and correlative analysis. The chemical fertility quality index was improved by one grade using microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria, and the biological fertility quality index increased by at least a factor of 6. Chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate, however, resulted in lower levels of available phosphorus, dehydrogenase, catalase and polyphenol oxidase. The result showed that microbial remediation with indigenous bacteria was more effective for remedying Cr(VI)-contaminated soils with high pH value than chemical remediation with ferrous sulphate. In addition, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method was proven to be a useful tool for monitoring the quality change in chromium-contaminated soils. PMID:23784058

  8. Electron donors and co-contaminants affect microbial community composition and activity in perchlorate degradation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiangyu; Xie, Yuxuan; Wang, Jinfeng; Wang, Jing; Liu, Fei

    2015-04-01

    Although microbial reduction of perchlorate (ClO4(-)) is a promising and effective method, our knowledge on the changes in microbial communities during ClO4(-) degradation is limited, especially when different electron donors are supplied and/or other contaminants are present. Here, we examined the effects of acetate and hydrogen as electron donors and nitrate and ammonium as co-contaminants on ClO4(-) degradation by anaerobic microcosms using six treatments. The process of degradation was divided into the lag stage (SI) and the accelerated stage (SII). Quantitative PCR was used to quantify four genes: pcrA (encoding perchlorate reductase), cld (encoding chlorite dismutase), nirS (encoding copper and cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase), and 16S rRNA. While the degradation of ClO4(-) with acetate, nitrate, and ammonia system (PNA) was the fastest with the highest abundance of the four genes, it was the slowest in the autotrophic system (HYP). The pcrA gene accumulated in SI and played a key role in initiating the accelerated degradation of ClO4(-) when its abundance reached a peak. Degradation in SII was primarily maintained by the cld gene. Acetate inhibited the growth of perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB), but its effect was weakened by nitrate (NO3(-)), which promoted the growth of PRB in SI, and therefore, accelerated the ClO4(-) degradation rate. In addition, ammonia (NH4(+)), as nitrogen sources, accelerated the growth of PRB. The bacterial communities' structure and diversity were significantly affected by electron donors and co-contaminants. Under heterotrophic conditions, both ammonia and nitrate promoted Azospira as the most dominant genera, a fact that might significantly influence the rate of ClO4(-) natural attenuation by degradation. PMID:25382499

  9. X-Ray Fluorescence Surface-Contamination Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Hudson B.; Carruth, Ralph

    1990-01-01

    X-ray spectrum of contaminating element reveals presence. Proposed x-ray fluorescence spectrometer used to detect thin layer of Conoco HD-2 (or equivalent) grease on D6-ac steel. Source-and-detector assembly mounted on remote manipulator with other contamination-detecting equipment and scanned across surface of specimen. Output of detector fed through coaxial cable to standard pulse-height-analyzing equipment and processed further by small computer to obtain x-ray energy spectrum.

  10. Use of Bacteroidales microbial source tracking to monitor fecal contamination in fresh produce production.

    PubMed

    Ravaliya, Kruti; Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Garcia, Santos; Heredia, Norma; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna; Bartz, Faith E; Leon, Juan S; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, fresh and minimally processed produce items have been associated with an increasing proportion of food-borne illnesses. Most pathogens associated with fresh produce are enteric (fecal) in origin, and contamination can occur anywhere along the farm-to-fork chain. Microbial source tracking (MST) is a tool developed in the environmental microbiology field to identify and quantify the dominant source(s) of fecal contamination. This study investigated the utility of an MST method based on Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences as a means of identifying potential fecal contamination, and its source, in the fresh produce production environment. The method was applied to rinses of fresh produce, source and irrigation waters, and harvester hand rinses collected over the course of 1 year from nine farms (growing tomatoes, jalapeño peppers, and cantaloupe) in Northern Mexico. Of 174 samples, 39% were positive for a universal Bacteroidales marker (AllBac), including 66% of samples from cantaloupe farms (3.6 log10 genome equivalence copies [GEC]/100 ml), 31% of samples from tomato farms (1.7 log10 GEC/100 ml), and 18% of samples from jalapeño farms (1.5 log10 GEC/100 ml). Of 68 AllBac-positive samples, 46% were positive for one of three human-specific markers, and none were positive for a bovine-specific marker. There was no statistically significant correlation between Bacteroidales and generic Escherichia coli across all samples. This study provides evidence that Bacteroidales markers may serve as alternative indicators for fecal contamination in fresh produce production, allowing for determination of both general contamination and that derived from the human host. PMID:24212583

  11. Use of Bacteroidales Microbial Source Tracking To Monitor Fecal Contamination in Fresh Produce Production

    PubMed Central

    Ravaliya, Kruti; Garcia, Santos; Heredia, Norma; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna; Bartz, Faith E.; Leon, Juan S.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, fresh and minimally processed produce items have been associated with an increasing proportion of food-borne illnesses. Most pathogens associated with fresh produce are enteric (fecal) in origin, and contamination can occur anywhere along the farm-to-fork chain. Microbial source tracking (MST) is a tool developed in the environmental microbiology field to identify and quantify the dominant source(s) of fecal contamination. This study investigated the utility of an MST method based on Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences as a means of identifying potential fecal contamination, and its source, in the fresh produce production environment. The method was applied to rinses of fresh produce, source and irrigation waters, and harvester hand rinses collected over the course of 1 year from nine farms (growing tomatoes, jalapeño peppers, and cantaloupe) in Northern Mexico. Of 174 samples, 39% were positive for a universal Bacteroidales marker (AllBac), including 66% of samples from cantaloupe farms (3.6 log10 genome equivalence copies [GEC]/100 ml), 31% of samples from tomato farms (1.7 log10 GEC/100 ml), and 18% of samples from jalapeño farms (1.5 log10 GEC/100 ml). Of 68 AllBac-positive samples, 46% were positive for one of three human-specific markers, and none were positive for a bovine-specific marker. There was no statistically significant correlation between Bacteroidales and generic Escherichia coli across all samples. This study provides evidence that Bacteroidales markers may serve as alternative indicators for fecal contamination in fresh produce production, allowing for determination of both general contamination and that derived from the human host. PMID:24212583

  12. A microbial fuel cell in contaminated ground delineated by electrical self-potential and normalized induced polarization data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, R.; Kulessa, B.; Ferguson, A. S.; Larkin, M. J.; Kulakov, L. A.; Kalin, R. M.

    2010-09-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods to aid investigation and monitoring of complex biogeochemical environments, for example delineation of contaminants and microbial activity related to land contamination. We combined geophysical monitoring with chemical and microbiological analysis to create a conceptual biogeochemical model of processes around a contaminant plume within a manufactured gas plant site. Self-potential, induced polarization and electrical resistivity techniques were used to monitor the plume. We propose that an exceptionally strong (>800 mV peak to peak) dipolar SP anomaly represents a microbial fuel cell operating in the subsurface. The electromagnetic and electrical geophysical data delineated a shallow aerobic perched water body containing conductive gasworks waste which acts as the abiotic cathode of microbial fuel cell. This is separated from the plume below by a thin clay layer across the site. Microbiological evidence suggests that degradation of organic contaminants in the plume is dominated by the presence of ammonium and its subsequent degradation. We propose that the degradation of contaminants by microbial communities at the edge of the plume provides a source of electrons and acts as the anode of the fuel cell. We hypothesize that ions and electrons are transferred through the clay layer that was punctured during the trial pitting phase of the investigation. This is inferred to act as an electronic conductor connecting the biologically mediated anode to the abiotic cathode. Integrated electrical geophysical techniques appear well suited to act as rapid, low cost sustainable tools to monitor biodegradation.

  13. Seasonal Dynamics of Shallow-Hyporheic-Zone Microbial Community Structure along a Heavy-Metal Contamination Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Feris, Kevin P.; Ramsey, Philip W.; Frazar, Chris; Rillig, Matthias; Moore, Johnnie N.; Gannon, James E.; Holben, William E.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals contaminate numerous freshwater streams and rivers worldwide. Previous work by this group demonstrated a relationship between the structure of hyporheic microbial communities and the fluvial deposition of heavy metals along a contamination gradient during the fall season. Seasonal variation has been documented in microbial communities in numerous terrestrial and aquatic environments, including the hyporheic zone. The current study was designed to assess whether relationships between hyporheic microbial community structure and heavy-metal contamination vary seasonally by monitoring community structure along a heavy-metal contamination gradient for more than a year. No relationship between total bacterial abundance and heavy metals was observed (R2 = 0.02, P = 0.83). However, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis pattern analysis indicated a strong and consistent linear relationship between the difference in microbial community composition (populations present) and the difference in the heavy metal content of hyporheic sediments throughout the year (R2 = 0.58, P < 0.001). Correlations between heavy-metal contamination and the abundance of four specific phylogenetic groups (most closely related to the α, β, and γ-proteobacteria and cyanobacteria) were apparent only during the fall and early winter, when the majority of organic matter is deposited into regional streams. These seasonal data suggest that the abundance of susceptible populations responds to heavy metals primarily during seasons when the potential for growth is highest. PMID:15066828

  14. Groundwater Contamination Due to Activities of an Intensive Hog Farming Operation Located on a Geologic Fault in East Mediterranean: A Study on COD, BOD5 and Microbial Load.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Liodakis, Stylianos

    2016-02-01

    The application of treated animal wastewater produced in intensive fog farming operations (IHFOs) on surface soil, leads to groundwater contamination. In this study, the contamination of a Mediterranean aquifer caused by long-term application of treated wastewater, produced by an IHFO, on a plot with a geologic fault within the IHFO boundaries, was investigated. Groundwater samples were taken from monitoring wells close to the IHFO. A significant increase of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total viable count (TVC) and total coliform (TC) concentrations was found in wells, compared to control monitoring well, which were mainly affected by the subsurface flow of contaminated water, due to the presence of the geologic fault. During the winter, significant increases in concentrations of COD, BOD5, TVC and TC were noted and attributed to increased precipitation, which assisted in the accelerated transport of organic compounds and microbial load, through geologic fault, to groundwater. PMID:26290314

  15. Spatial variations in nutrient and microbial transport from feedlot surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient and microbial transport by runoff may vary at different locations within a beef cattle feedlot. If the areas making the greatest contributions to nutrient and microbial transport can be identified, it may be possible to institute precision management practices to reduce nutrient and microbi...

  16. Validation of a numerical indicator of microbial contamination for karst springs.

    PubMed

    Butscher, Christoph; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Scheidler, Stefan; Huggenberger, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Rapid changes in spring water quality in karst areas due to rapid recharge of bacterially contaminated water are a major concern for drinking water suppliers and users. The main objective of this study was to use field experiments with fecal indicators to verify the vulnerability of a karst spring to pathogens, as determined by using a numerical modeling approach. The groundwater modeling was based on linear storage models that can be used to simulate karst water flow. The vulnerability of the karst groundwater is estimated using such models to calculate criteria that influence the likelihood of spring water being affected by microbial contamination. Specifically, the temporal variation in the vulnerability, depending on rainfall events and overall recharge conditions, can be assessed and quantified using the dynamic vulnerability index (DVI). DVI corresponds to the ratio of conduit to diffuse flow contributions to spring discharge. To evaluate model performance with respect to predicted vulnerability, samples from a spring were analyzed for Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria during and after several rainfall events. DVI was shown to be an indication of the risk of fecal contamination of spring water with sufficient accuracy to be used in drinking water management. We conclude that numerical models are a useful tool for evaluating the vulnerability of karst systems to pathogens under varying recharge conditions. PMID:20180864

  17. Using a portable mass spectrometer to measure surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, H.; Meltzer, M.; Lindsey, J.; Edberg, H.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major sources of hazardous waste and VOC air emissions throughout manufacturing industry is parts and equipment cleaning operations. Modification of the cleaning process to use non-hazardous cleaning agents may be the best way to these sources, but some operations still require the use of hazardous solvents. Monitoring the contamination levels during cleaning operations can provide useful feedback for reducing waste generation and air emissions due to over- or under-cleaning. Near real-time evaluation of cleaning operations can help reduce pollution in a wide variety of industries, including aerospace, electronics, and metal finishing industries. The authors have developed a mass spectrometry based analyzer that has similar or better sensitivity than ellipsometry or FTIR and is more tolerant of surface conditions and composition. In addition, the instrument is relatively portable and can be used to help identify unknown surface contamination. This method uses vacuum and thermal desorption to remove volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from the surface. A quadrupole mass spectrometer is used to identify and measure the contamination. A bench-scale model of this {open_quotes}contamination analysis unit{close_quotes} employs a residual gas analyzer (RGA) mated to a small, internally heated inlet that samples a surface.

  18. Antineoplastic drugs contamination of workplace surfaces in two Portuguese hospitals.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Susana; Pádua, Mário; Veiga, Ana Costa; Carolino, Elisabete; Gomes, Mário

    2014-11-01

    Despite the classification as known or suspected human carcinogens, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the antineoplastic drugs are extensively used in cancer treatment due to their specificity and efficacy. As human carcinogens, these drugs represent a serious threat to the healthcare workers involved in their preparation and administration. This work aims to contribute to better characterize the occupational exposure of healthcare professionals to antineoplastic drugs, by assessing workplace surfaces contamination of pharmacy and administration units of two Portuguese hospitals. Surface contamination was assessed by the determination of cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel. These three drugs were used as surrogate markers for surfaces contamination by cytotoxic drugs. Wipe samples were taken and analyzed by HPLC-DAD. From the total of 327 analyzed samples, in 121 (37 %) was possible to detect and quantify at least one drug. Additionally, 28 samples (8.6 %) indicate contamination by more than one antineoplastic drug, mainly in the administration unit, in both hospitals. Considering the findings in both hospitals, specific measures should be taken, particularly those related with the promotion of good practices and safety procedures and also routine monitoring of surfaces contamination in order to guarantee the appliance of safety measures. PMID:25096642

  19. MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE ALPHA CONTAMINATION USING ELECTRET ION CHAMBERS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    Electret ion chambers (EICs) are known to be inexpensive, reliable, passive, integrating devices used for measurement of ionizing radiation. Their application for measurement of alpha contamination on surfaces was recently realized. This two-year project deals with the evaluation of electret ion chambers with different types of electrets and chambers for measurement of surface alpha contamination, their demonstration at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, a cost-benefit comparison with the existing methods, and the potential deployment at DOE sites. During the first year (FY98) of the project, evaluation of the EICS was completed. It was observed that EICS could be used for measurement of free release level of alpha contamination for transuranics (100 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} fixed). DOE sites, where demonstration of EIC technology for surface alpha contamination measurements could be performed, were also identified. During FY99, demonstration and deployment of EICS at DOE sites are planned. A cost-benefit analysis of the EIC for surface alpha contamination measurement will also be performed.

  20. Measuring electric fields from surface contaminants with neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Obrecht, J. M.; Wild, R. J.; Cornell, E. A.

    2007-06-15

    In this paper we demonstrate a technique of utilizing magnetically trapped neutral {sup 87}Rb atoms to measure the magnitude and direction of stray electric fields emanating from surface contaminants. We apply an alternating external electric field that adds to (or subtracts from) the stray field in such a way as to resonantly drive the trapped atoms into a mechanical dipole oscillation. The growth rate of the oscillation's amplitude provides information about the magnitude and sign of the stray field gradient. Using this measurement technique, we are able to reconstruct the vector electric field produced by surface contaminants. In addition, we can accurately measure the electric fields generated from adsorbed atoms purposely placed onto the surface and account for their systematic effects, which can plague a precision surface-force measurement. We show that baking the substrate can reduce the electric fields emanating from adsorbate and that the mechanism for reduction is likely surface diffusion, not desorption.

  1. Colorimetric Method for Beryllium Surface Contamination Detection

    SciTech Connect

    MCWHORTER, CHRISTOPHER

    2004-03-11

    To address the need for real-time accurate total beryllium analyses, Savannah River Technology Center Analytical Development Section personnel evaluated and modified a colorimetric screening method developed at Los Alamos National Lab to measure beryllium on surfaces. This method was based on a color complex formed by beryllium and chromium azurol s . SRTC converted this visual method to a quantitative analysis method using spectrophotometric detection. The addition of a cationic surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) to the Be-CAS system shifted the complex absorbance away from the CAS absorbance and allowed for the detection. Assuming complete dissolution and a 10 mL rinse solution volume to remove the beryllium from the wipe, the detection limit was calculated comfortably below the free release limit. The spectrophotometric method was rugged and simple enough that it could be used as a field method.

  2. Screening Surface Contamination with BetaCage

    SciTech Connect

    Schnee, R. W.; Grant, D. R.; Poinar, K.; Ahmed, Z.; Golwala, S. R.

    2007-03-28

    Existing screening facilities are insufficiently sensitive to meet the needs of rare-event experiments for low-energy electron emitters and alpha-decaying isotopes. To provide such screening, the BetaCage will be a low-background, atmospheric-pressure neon drift chamber with unprecedented sensitivity to emitters of low-energy electrons and alpha particles. Minimization of the detector mass and use of radiopure materials reduce background events. The chamber design accepts nearly all alphas and low-energy electrons from the sample surface while allowing excellent rejection of residual backgrounds. A non-radiopure prototype is under construction to test the design. The BetaCage will provide new infrastructure for rare-event science as well as for a wider community that uses radioactive screening for areas including archaeology, biology, climatology, environmental science, geology, planetary science, and integrated-circuit quality control.

  3. Comparative evaluation of the indigenous microbial diversity vs. drilling fluid contaminants in the NEEM Greenland ice core.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Vanya; Burlingame, Caroline; Sowers, Todd; Brenchley, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Demonstrating that the detected microbial diversity in nonaseptically drilled deep ice cores is truly indigenous is challenging because of potential contamination with exogenous microbial cells. The NEEM Greenland ice core project provided a first-time opportunity to determine the origin and extent of contamination throughout drilling. We performed multiple parallel cultivation and culture-independent analyses of five decontaminated ice core samples from different depths (100-2051 m), the drilling fluid and its components Estisol and Coasol, and the drilling chips collected during drilling. We created a collection of diverse bacterial and fungal isolates (84 from the drilling fluid and its components, 45 from decontaminated ice, and 66 from drilling chips). Their categorization as contaminants or intrinsic glacial ice microorganisms was based on several criteria, including phylogenetic analyses, genomic fingerprinting, phenotypic characteristics, and presence in drilling fluid, chips, and/or ice. Firmicutes and fungi comprised the dominant group of contaminants among isolates and cloned rRNA genes. Conversely, most Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria originating from the ice were identified as intrinsic. This study provides a database of potential contaminants useful for future studies of NEEM cores and can contribute toward developing standardized protocols for contamination detection and ensuring the authenticity of the microbial diversity in deep glacial ice. PMID:24450335

  4. High voltage electrical stimulation: its effect on microbial contamination of lamb carcases in a commercial abattoir.

    PubMed

    Edwards, D S

    1999-08-01

    This study was designed to establish the effect of an abattoir's commercial high voltage electrical stimulator on lamb carcase microbial contamination, including TVC, coliform and Campylobacter colony counts. Over eight visits, batches of six lamb carcases were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique both before and after passage through a high voltage electrical stimulator. On each visit three of the carcases were sent through the electrical stimulator while it was operational (the treatment group) and three carcases were sent through when the electrical stimulator had its power turned off (the control group). The swabs were placed into maximum recovery diluent, transported 'on-ice' and held at 0°C overnight before dilutions and plating out the following day. Too few coliform colonies were recovered for a meaningful analysis and no campylobacters were recovered. The total viable counts of the electrically stimulated and the control carcases were found not to be significantly different. PMID:22062701

  5. Characterization of microbial and metal contamination in flooded New York City neighborhoods following Superstorm Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Sahajpal, R.

    2013-12-01

    Large scale flooding of waterfront neighborhoods occurred in New York City (NYC) during Superstorm Sandy. While NYC waterways commonly experience combined sewer overflow (CSO) and associated water quality degradation during rain storms, Superstorm Sandy was unique in that these potentially contaminated waters were transported over the banks and into city streets and buildings. Sampling of waterways, storm debris on city streets, and flood water trapped in building basements occurred in the days following Sandy, including in neighborhoods bordering the Gowanus Canal and Newtown Creek, which are both Superfund sites known to frequently contain high levels of sewage associated bacteria and metal contamination. Samples enumerated for the sewage indicating bacterium, Enterococcus, suggest that well-flushed waterways recovered quickly from sewage contamination in the days following the storm, with Enterococci concentrations similar to background levels measured before flooding occurred. In contrast, storm debris on city streets and waters from flooded basements had much higher levels of sewage-associated bacteria days after flooding occurred. Analysis of 180,000 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from flood water samples and flood debris confirmed the presence of bacterial genera often associated with sewage impacted samples (e.g. Escherichia, Streptococcus, Clostridium, Trichococcus, Aeromonas) and a community composition similar to CSO discharge. Elemental analysis suggests low levels of metal contamination in most flood water, but much higher levels of Cu, Pb, and Cr were found in leach from some storm debris samples found adjacent to the Newtown Creek and Gowanus Canal superfund sites. These data suggest a rapid recovery of water quality in local waterways after Superstorm Sandy, but that trapped flood water and debris samples in urban neighborhoods retained elevated levels of microbial sewage pollution, and in some cases metal pollution, days after that waterway recovery. These findings indicate a potentially significant risk to local populations exposed to trapped flood waters and debris in the aftermath of urban waterway flooding events.

  6. Environmental whole-genome amplification to access microbial populations in contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, Carl B; Wyborski, Denise L.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Podar, Mircea; Chen, Wenqiong; Chang, Sherman H.; Chang, Hwai W.; Watson, David B; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hazen, Terry; Keller, Martin

    2006-05-01

    Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using {phi}29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2% genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small-subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9% of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and 'clusters of orthologous groups' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

  7. Environmental Whole-Genome Amplification to Access Microbial Diversity in Contaminated Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, C.B.; Wyborski, D.L.; Garcia, J.; Podar, M.; Chen, W.; Chang, S.H.; Chang, H.W.; Watson, D.; Brodie,E.I.; Hazen, T.C.; Keller, M.

    2005-12-10

    Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using ?29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2 percent genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9 percent of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and ''clusters of orthologous groups'' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

  8. Microbial communities in contaminated sediments, associated with bioremediation of uranium to submicromolar levels

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Weimin; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack M; Carroll, Sue L; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David B; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew A.; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Jardine, Philip M; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig; Marsh, Terence; Tiedje, James M.

    2008-03-01

    Microbial enumeration, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and chemical analysis were used to evaluate the in situ biological reduction and immobilization of uranium(VI) in a long-term experiment (more than 2 years) conducted at a highly uranium-contaminated site (up to 60 mg/liter and 800 mg/kg solids) of the U.S. Department of Energy in Oak Ridge, TN. Bioreduction was achieved by conditioning groundwater above ground and then stimulating growth of denitrifying, Fe(III)-reducing, and sulfate-reducing bacteria in situ through weekly injection of ethanol into the subsurface. After nearly 2 years of intermittent injection of ethanol, aqueous U levels fell below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for drinking water and groundwater (<30 {micro}g/liter or 0.126 {micro}M). Sediment microbial communities from the treatment zone were compared with those from a control well without biostimulation. Most-probable-number estimations indicated that microorganisms implicated in bioremediation accumulated in the sediments of the treatment zone but were either absent or in very low numbers in an untreated control area. Organisms belonging to genera known to include U(VI) reducers were detected, including Desulfovibrio, Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, Desulfosporosinus, and Acidovorax spp. The predominant sulfate-reducing bacterial species were Desulfovibrio spp., while the iron reducers were represented by Ferribacterium spp. and Geothrix spp. Diversity-based clustering revealed differences between treated and untreated zones and also within samples of the treated area. Spatial differences in community structure within the treatment zone were likely related to the hydraulic pathway and to electron donor metabolism during biostimulation.

  9. Microbial bioavailability of pyrene in three laboratory-contaminated soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravecek, Tasha L.; Christman, Russell F.; Pfaender, Frederic K.

    2006-06-01

    Changes in bioavailability of pyrene in three uncontaminated soils were examined under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Three soils were aerobically aged with pyrene and [ 14C]pyrene for 63 days, then incubated with water, nitrate, or sulfate under aerobic or anaerobic conditions for one year. Under aerobic conditions, microorganisms in two soils mineralized 58-82% of the added [ 14C]pyrene. The two soils amended with nitrate were seen to have enhanced aerobic mineralization rates. In one of these soils, non-extractable pyrene was seen to decrease over the course of the study due to desorption and mineralization, nitrate amendment enhanced this effect. Under anaerobic conditions, generated with a N 2 : CO 2(g) headspace, two soils with nitrate or sulfate amendment showed an increase in extractable [ 14C]pyrene at 365 days relative to inhibited controls, presumably due to microbially mediated oxidation-reduction potential and pH alteration of the soil environment. These observations in different soils incubated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions have important implications relative to the impact of microbial electron acceptors on bioavailability and transport of non-polar organic compounds in the environment suggesting that, given enough time, under the appropriate environmental conditions, non-extractable material becomes bioavailable. This information should be considered when assessing site specific exposure risks at PAH contaminated locations.

  10. Biodegradation of phenanthrene using adapted microbial consortium isolated from petrochemical contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Janbandhu, Anjali; Fulekar, M H

    2011-03-15

    In developing countries like India, there are many industrial areas discharging effluent containing large amount of polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) which causes hazardous effect on the soil-water environment. The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize high-efficiency PAH-degrading microbial consortium from 3 decade old petrochemical refinery field located in Nagpur, Maharashtra with history of PAH disposal. Based on biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis the consortium was identified as Sphingobacterium sp., Bacillus cereus and a novel bacterium Achromobacter insolitus MHF ENV IV with effective phenanthrene-degrading ability. The biodegradation data of phenanthrene indicates about 100%, 56.9% and 25.8% degradation at the concentration of 100mg/l, 250 mg/l and 500 mg/l respectively within 14 days. The consortium and its monoculture isolates also utilized variety of other hydrocarbons for growth. To best of our knowledge this is the first time that Achromobacter insolitus has been reported to mineralize phenanthrene effectively. GC-MS analysis of phenanthrene degradation confirmed biodegradation by detection of intermediates like salicylaldehyde, salicylic acid and catechol. All the results indicated that the microbial consortium have a promising application in bioremediation of petrochemical contaminated environments and could be potentially useful for the study of PAH degradation and for bioremediation purposes. PMID:21281999

  11. Management of risk of microbial cross-contamination from uncooked frozen hamburgers by alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, Donald W; Schaffner, Kristin M

    2007-01-01

    This research was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands contaminated with a nonpathogen surrogate for Escherichia coli O157:H7, where the source of the contamination was frozen hamburger patties. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant food-grade strain of Enterobacter aerogenes was used to inoculate frozen hamburger patties composed of 76% lean beef and 24% fat. Thirty-two individuals participated to produce the data used in this study. Each participant handled nine patties at least three times, a sample for microbiological analysis was collected from the surface of one hand, the participant sanitized both hands, and a sample was collected from the other hand. Burger handling created perceptible and visible food debris on the hands of most participants. Computer simulations also were used to perform a variety of risk calculations. The average reduction in bacteria from the use of sanitizer on hands contaminated by frozen burgers containing E. aerogenes was 2.6 +/- 0.7 log CFU per hand. An experiment designed to simultaneously test the effect of sanitizer on E. aerogenes and E. coli O157:H7 also revealed no significant difference in sanitizer effectiveness against the two organisms. The results of the real-world risk estimation calculations (using the actual prevalence and concentration of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef) predict that once in 1 million trials, a single pathogen cell will be transferred to a single lettuce piece. The effectiveness of this sanitizer intervention was similar to that for hand washing and glove use previously reported. The person-to-person microbial reduction variability from sanitizer use is similar to published data for glove use and was less variable than published data on hand washing effectiveness. PMID:17265868

  12. Explosive Contamination from Substrate Surfaces: Differences and Similarities in Contamination Techniques using RDX and C-4

    SciTech Connect

    C.J. Miller; T.S. Yoder

    2010-06-01

    The amount of time that an explosive is present on the surface of a material is dependent upon the original amount of explosive on the surface, temperature, humidity, rain, etc. This laboratory study focused on looking at similarities and differences in three different surface contamination techniques that are used when performance testing explosive trace detection equipment in an attempt to determine how effective the techniques are at replicating actual field samples. The three techniques used were dry transfer deposition of solutions using the Transportation Security Laboratory (TSL) patented dry transfer techniques (US patent 6470730), direct deposition of explosive standards, and fingerprinting of actual explosives. Explosives were deposited on the surface of one of five substrates using one of the three different deposition techniques. The process was repeated for each surface type using each contamination technique. The surface types used were: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that found on canvas or denim, suede leather such as might be found on jackets, purses, or shoes, and metal obtained from a car hood at a junk yard. The samples were not pre-cleaned prior to testing and contained sizing agents, and in the case of the metal, oil and dirt. The substrates were photographed using a Zeiss Discover V12 stereoscope with Axiocam ICc1 3 megapixel digital camera to determine the difference in the crystalline structure and surface contamination in an attempt to determine differences and similarities associated with current contamination techniques.

  13. MOLECULAR PROFILING OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES FROM CONTAMINATED SOURCES: USE OF SUBTRACTIVE CLONING METHODS AND RDNA SPACER SEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research addresses the development and testing of molecular methods that will allow rapid characterization of microbial communities in perturbed or contaminated ecosystems. The major objective of the research is to provide appropriate sequences and to assemble a high-density...

  14. Microbial contamination detection in water resources: interest of current optical methods, trends and needs in the context of climate change.

    PubMed

    Jung, Aude-Valérie; Le Cann, Pierre; Roig, Benoit; Thomas, Olivier; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Marie-Florence

    2014-04-01

    Microbial pollution in aquatic environments is one of the crucial issues with regard to the sanitary state of water bodies used for drinking water supply, recreational activities and harvesting seafood due to a potential contamination by pathogenic bacteria, protozoa or viruses. To address this risk, microbial contamination monitoring is usually assessed by turbidity measurements performed at drinking water plants. Some recent studies have shown significant correlations of microbial contamination with the risk of endemic gastroenteresis. However the relevance of turbidimetry may be limited since the presence of colloids in water creates interferences with the nephelometric response. Thus there is a need for a more relevant, simple and fast indicator for microbial contamination detection in water, especially in the perspective of climate change with the increase of heavy rainfall events. This review focuses on the one hand on sources, fate and behavior of microorganisms in water and factors influencing pathogens' presence, transportation and mobilization, and on the second hand, on the existing optical methods used for monitoring microbiological risks. Finally, this paper proposes new ways of research. PMID:24747537

  15. Microbial Contamination Detection in Water Resources: Interest of Current Optical Methods, Trends and Needs in the Context of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Aude-Valérie; Le Cann, Pierre; Roig, Benoit; Thomas, Olivier; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Marie-Florence

    2014-01-01

    Microbial pollution in aquatic environments is one of the crucial issues with regard to the sanitary state of water bodies used for drinking water supply, recreational activities and harvesting seafood due to a potential contamination by pathogenic bacteria, protozoa or viruses. To address this risk, microbial contamination monitoring is usually assessed by turbidity measurements performed at drinking water plants. Some recent studies have shown significant correlations of microbial contamination with the risk of endemic gastroenteresis. However the relevance of turbidimetry may be limited since the presence of colloids in water creates interferences with the nephelometric response. Thus there is a need for a more relevant, simple and fast indicator for microbial contamination detection in water, especially in the perspective of climate change with the increase of heavy rainfall events. This review focuses on the one hand on sources, fate and behavior of microorganisms in water and factors influencing pathogens’ presence, transportation and mobilization, and on the second hand, on the existing optical methods used for monitoring microbiological risks. Finally, this paper proposes new ways of research. PMID:24747537

  16. 21 CFR 111.10 - What requirements apply for preventing microbial contamination from sick or infected personnel...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply for preventing microbial contamination from sick or infected personnel and for hygienic practices? 111.10 Section 111.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD...

  17. Composition suitable for decontaminating a porous surface contaminated with cesium

    DOEpatents

    Kaminski, Michael D.; Finck, Martha R.; Mertz, Carol J.

    2010-06-15

    A method of decontaminating porous surfaces contaminated with water soluble radionuclides by contacting the contaminated porous surfaces with an ionic solution capable of solubilizing radionuclides present in the porous surfaces followed by contacting the solubilized radionuclides with a gel containing a radionuclide chelator to bind the radionuclides to the gel, and physically removing the gel from the porous surfaces. A dry mix is also disclosed of a cross-linked ionic polymer salt, a linear ionic polymer salt, a radionuclide chelator, and a gel formation controller present in the range of from 0% to about 40% by weight of the dry mix, wherein the ionic polymer salts are granular and the non cross-linked ionic polymer salt is present as a minor constituent.

  18. Controlling microbial contamination during hydrolysis of AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass: Effects on hydrolysate composition, microbial response and fermentation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Serate, Jose; Xie, Dan; Pohlmann, Edward; Donald, Jr., Charles; Shabani, Mahboubeh; Hinchman, Li; Higbee, Alan; Mcgee, Mick; La Reau, Alex; Klinger, Grace E.; et al

    2015-11-14

    Microbial conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into biofuels remains an attractive means to produce sustainable energy. It is essential to produce lignocellulosic hydrolysates in a consistent manner in order to study microbial performance in different feedstock hydrolysates. Because of the potential to introduce microbial contamination from the untreated biomass or at various points during the process, it can be difficult to control sterility during hydrolysate production. In this study, we compared hydrolysates produced from AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass using two different methods to control contamination: either by autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, or by introducing antibiotics duringmore » the hydrolysis of non-autoclaved feedstocks. We then performed extensive chemical analysis, chemical genomics, and comparative fermentations to evaluate any differences between these two different methods used for producing corn stover and switchgrass hydrolysates. Autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks could eliminate the contamination for a variety of feedstocks, whereas the antibiotic gentamicin was unable to control contamination consistently during hydrolysis. Compared to the addition of gentamicin, autoclaving of biomass before hydrolysis had a minimal effect on mineral concentrations, and showed no significant effect on the two major sugars (glucose and xylose) found in these hydrolysates. However, autoclaving elevated the concentration of some furanic and phenolic compounds. Chemical genomics analyses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains indicated a high correlation between the AFEX-pretreated hydrolysates produced using these two methods within the same feedstock, indicating minimal differences between the autoclaving and antibiotic methods. Comparative fermentations with S. cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis also showed that autoclaving the AFEX-pretreated feedstocks had no significant effects on microbial performance in these hydrolysates. In conclusion, our results showed that autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks offered advantages over the addition of antibiotics for hydrolysate production. The autoclaving method produced a more consistent quality of hydrolysate.« less

  19. Controlling microbial contamination during hydrolysis of AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass: Effects on hydrolysate composition, microbial response and fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Serate, Jose; Xie, Dan; Pohlmann, Edward; Donald, Jr., Charles; Shabani, Mahboubeh; Hinchman, Li; Higbee, Alan; Mcgee, Mick; La Reau, Alex; Klinger, Grace E.; Li, Sheena; Myers, Chad L.; Boone, Charles; Bates, Donna M.; Cavalier, Dave; Eilert, Dustin; Oates, Lawrence G.; Sanford, Gregg; Sato, Trey K.; Dale, Bruce; Landick, Robert; Piotrowski, Jeff; Ong, Rebecca Garlock; Zhang, Yaoping

    2015-11-14

    Microbial conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks into biofuels remains an attractive means to produce sustainable energy. It is essential to produce lignocellulosic hydrolysates in a consistent manner in order to study microbial performance in different feedstock hydrolysates. Because of the potential to introduce microbial contamination from the untreated biomass or at various points during the process, it can be difficult to control sterility during hydrolysate production. In this study, we compared hydrolysates produced from AFEX-pretreated corn stover and switchgrass using two different methods to control contamination: either by autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, or by introducing antibiotics during the hydrolysis of non-autoclaved feedstocks. We then performed extensive chemical analysis, chemical genomics, and comparative fermentations to evaluate any differences between these two different methods used for producing corn stover and switchgrass hydrolysates. Autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks could eliminate the contamination for a variety of feedstocks, whereas the antibiotic gentamicin was unable to control contamination consistently during hydrolysis. Compared to the addition of gentamicin, autoclaving of biomass before hydrolysis had a minimal effect on mineral concentrations, and showed no significant effect on the two major sugars (glucose and xylose) found in these hydrolysates. However, autoclaving elevated the concentration of some furanic and phenolic compounds. Chemical genomics analyses using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains indicated a high correlation between the AFEX-pretreated hydrolysates produced using these two methods within the same feedstock, indicating minimal differences between the autoclaving and antibiotic methods. Comparative fermentations with S. cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis also showed that autoclaving the AFEX-pretreated feedstocks had no significant effects on microbial performance in these hydrolysates. In conclusion, our results showed that autoclaving the pretreated feedstocks offered advantages over the addition of antibiotics for hydrolysate production. The autoclaving method produced a more consistent quality of hydrolysate.

  20. Individual-Based Model of Microbial Life on Hydrated Rough Soil Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minsu; Or, Dani

    2016-01-01

    Microbial life in soil is perceived as one of the most interesting ecological systems, with microbial communities exhibiting remarkable adaptability to vast dynamic environmental conditions. At the same time, it is a notoriously challenging system to understand due to its complexity including physical, chemical, and biological factors in synchrony. This study presents a spatially-resolved model of microbial dynamics on idealised rough soil surfaces represented as patches with different (roughness) properties that preserve the salient hydration physics of real surfaces. Cell level microbial interactions are considered within an individual-based formulation including dispersion and various forms of trophic dependencies (competition, mutualism). The model provides new insights into mechanisms affecting microbial community dynamics and gives rise to spontaneous formation of microbial community spatial patterns. The framework is capable of representing many interacting species and provides diversity metrics reflecting surface conditions and their evolution over time. A key feature of the model is its spatial scalability that permits representation of microbial processes from cell-level (micro-metric scales) to soil representative volumes at sub-metre scales. Several illustrative examples of microbial trophic interactions and population dynamics highlight the potential of the proposed modelling framework to quantitatively study soil microbial processes. The model is highly applicable in a wide range spanning from quantifying spatial organisation of multiple species under various hydration conditions to predicting microbial diversity residing in different soils. PMID:26807803

  1. Individual-Based Model of Microbial Life on Hydrated Rough Soil Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsu; Or, Dani

    2016-01-01

    Microbial life in soil is perceived as one of the most interesting ecological systems, with microbial communities exhibiting remarkable adaptability to vast dynamic environmental conditions. At the same time, it is a notoriously challenging system to understand due to its complexity including physical, chemical, and biological factors in synchrony. This study presents a spatially-resolved model of microbial dynamics on idealised rough soil surfaces represented as patches with different (roughness) properties that preserve the salient hydration physics of real surfaces. Cell level microbial interactions are considered within an individual-based formulation including dispersion and various forms of trophic dependencies (competition, mutualism). The model provides new insights into mechanisms affecting microbial community dynamics and gives rise to spontaneous formation of microbial community spatial patterns. The framework is capable of representing many interacting species and provides diversity metrics reflecting surface conditions and their evolution over time. A key feature of the model is its spatial scalability that permits representation of microbial processes from cell-level (micro-metric scales) to soil representative volumes at sub-metre scales. Several illustrative examples of microbial trophic interactions and population dynamics highlight the potential of the proposed modelling framework to quantitatively study soil microbial processes. The model is highly applicable in a wide range spanning from quantifying spatial organisation of multiple species under various hydration conditions to predicting microbial diversity residing in different soils. PMID:26807803

  2. RESUSPENSION OF PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATED LAND SURFACES: METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature review is presented in a discussion of the relevance of meteorological factors on the resuspension of plutonium from contaminated land surfaces. The physical processes of resuspension based on soil erosion work are described. Some of the models developed to simulate ...

  3. Method for in-situ cleaning of carbon contaminated surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Grunow, Philip; Graham, Jr., Samuel

    2006-12-12

    Activated gaseous species generated adjacent a carbon contaminated surface affords in-situ cleaning. A device for removing carbon contamination from a surface of the substrate includes (a) a housing defining a vacuum chamber in which the substrate is located; (b) a source of gaseous species; and (c) a source of electrons that are emitted to activate the gaseous species into activated gaseous species. The source of electrons preferably includes (i) a filament made of a material that generates thermionic electron emissions; (ii) a source of energy that is connected to the filament; and (iii) an electrode to which the emitted electrons are attracted. The device is particularly suited for photolithography systems with optic surfaces, e.g., mirrors, that are otherwise inaccessible unless the system is dismantled. A method of removing carbon contaminants from a substrate surface that is housed within a vacuum chamber is also disclosed. The method employs activated gaseous species that react with the carbon contaminants to form carbon containing gaseous byproducts.

  4. Chemical disinfection of human rotavirus-contaminated inanimate surfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd-Evans, N.; Springthorpe, V. S.; Sattar, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    Fomites may play a role in the transmission of rotavirus infections, and in view of this, 27 disinfectants were evaluated for their ability to inactivate human rotavirus (HRV) on contaminated non-porous inanimate surfaces. Disks of stainless steel, glass and two types of plastics were contaminated with about 10(7) plaque-forming units of HRV suspended in faecal matter. The inoculum was allowed to dry and an equal volume of the product under test was applied to the contaminated surface. After contact for 1 min, the action of the disinfectant was stopped by dilution. Surviving infectious virus on the disks was determined by plaque assay in MA-104 cells. A product was considered to be effective if it could reduce the virus titre by at least 3 log10. Only 33.3% (9/27) of the formulations tested proved to be effective. Further testing of the effective products, which included antiseptics, instrument soaks and hard-surface disinfectants, showed that all of them could, in fact, reduce the virus titre on contaminated surfaces by at least 6 log10. These findings show the relative resistance of HRV to a wide range of chemical disinfectants in common use, and also emphasize the need for a more thorough evaluation of the virucidal potential of formulations regularly employed in attempts to prevent and control outbreaks of rotaviral diarrhoea. PMID:3016082

  5. An Exercise in Evaluating the Contamination Potential of Surface Impoundments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, John R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines a laboratory procedure which enables students to evaluate the contamination potential of surface impoundments and apply basic principles of hydrogeology to the land disposal of waste material. Includes a list of materials needed and directions for the instructor. (Author/DC)

  6. Surface display of redox enzymes in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Fishilevich, Simon; Amir, Liron; Fridman, Yearit; Aharoni, Amir; Alfonta, Lital

    2009-09-01

    A novel concept for a biofuel cell is presented. Enzyme based fuel cells suffer from enzyme instability when a long time of operation is required. Hence, a system that will continuously produce the biocatalyst needed for the system is necessary. A hybrid of an enzyme-based microbial fuel cell was developed. The redox enzyme glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger was displayed on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the Yeast Surface Display System in a high copy number and as an active enzyme. We have demonstrated its activity both biochemically and electrochemically and observed much higher activity over yeast cells not displaying glucose oxidase as well as over purified glucose oxidase from Aspergillus niger. Further, we were able to construct a biofuel cell, where the anode was comprised of the yeast cells displaying glucose oxidase in the presence of a mediator (methylene blue) and the cathode compartment was comprised of the oxygen reducing enzyme laccase from Trametes versicolor and a redox mediator. Our constructed biofuel cell displayed higher power outputs and current densities than those observed for unmodified yeast and a much longer time of operation in comparison with a similar cell where the anode is comprised of purified glucose oxidase. PMID:19663383

  7. Atomic Force Microscopy in Microbiology: New Structural and Functional Insights into the Microbial Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial cells sense and respond to their environment using their surface constituents. Therefore, understanding the assembly and biophysical properties of cell surface molecules is an important research topic. With its ability to observe living microbial cells at nanometer resolution and to manipulate single-cell surface molecules, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a powerful tool in microbiology. Here, we survey major breakthroughs made in cell surface microbiology using AFM techniques, emphasizing the most recent structural and functional insights. PMID:25053785

  8. Stanols as a tool to track the origin of microbial contamination of oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in shellfish areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrault, Loïc; Jardé, Emilie; Jeanneau, Laurent; Petitjean, Patrice

    2013-04-01

    Runoff of cattle manures (cows, pigs, sheeps) or discharge of effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) into aquatic ecosystems can lead to microbiological contamination of waters and living organisms. In coastal ecosystems and particularly in shellfish harvesting areas, the presence of pathogen microorganisms in waters induces fecal contamination of filter feeding bivalves (oysters, mussels, scallops…), therefore leading to human health risks associated to the consumption of these contaminated organisms. Watershed management plans that aim at limiting these risks require the development of tools able to identify fecal contamination sources. The fecal indicator bacteria used in the regulations to determine fecal contamination are not source specific since they are found in the feces of most warm-blooded animals. Thus, microbiological biomarkers have been developed in association with chemical biomarkers as Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods. Fecal stanols, by-products of sterols obtained by human and animal microbial gut flora, are found in considerable amounts in feces with different relative proportions depending on their animal or human source. Recently, in association with microbiological biomarkers, the stanol fingerprint of contaminated waters has been successfully used to determine the main source of fecal contamination (cow, pig or human sources) in rural watersheds (Brittany, France). Up to now, the use of the stanol fingerprint to track the fecal contamination in shellfish tissues, especially bivalves, has been limited to the analysis of coprostanol, a stanol commonly associated to human contamination. Therefore, whether the stanol fingerprint can be used as a MST method in bivalves or not is still unknown. The first aim of this study was to compare several organic extraction procedures of stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas to determine a reliable method for stanol fingerprint analysis in bivalves. Solvent extraction and purification steps have been carried out with attention as they are critical for stanol quantification. Secondly, the evolution of the stanol fingerprint of oysters with time was evaluated during 6 days by artificially contaminating microcosms with two concentrations of a WWTP effluent. In the microcosms, the fingerprint of stanols as a chemical biomarkers of fecal (human) contamination was compared to counts of Escherichia coli, a commonly used microbial indicator. In association with microbial markers, the method developed from the two previous steps will be applied at the watershed scale in order to identify sources of fecal contamination in Brittany and Normandy (France).

  9. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for the study of microbial cell surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Mei, H. C.; de Vries, J.; Busscher, H. J.

    2000-07-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is well known for the characterisation of material surfaces, but at first glance, is an unexpected technique to study the composition of microbial cell surfaces. Despite the fact that intimate contact between materials and microbial cell surfaces occurs in many situations, such as on oil-platforms, in water pipelines and bioreactors or on biomedical implants, XPS studies on the composition of microbial cell surfaces are less known, but equally relevant. In this review, microbial sample preparations are discussed, as well as relationships between microbial compositions using XPS. Biochemical and physical properties, such as microbial cell surface charge and hydrophobicity are also discussed. A reference guide, giving the overall cell surface composition of 210 strains determined by XPS, as collected from the literature is given. Hierarchical cluster analysis on these data reveals interesting new insights on staphylococcal cell surfaces, as well as a distinction between staphylococci, yeasts and other microorganisms. It is concluded that XPS on microbial cell surfaces yields useful information, complementing other biochemical and physical cell surface characterisations.

  10. Development of surrogate correlation models to predict trace organic contaminant oxidation and microbial inactivation during ozonation.

    PubMed

    Gerrity, Daniel; Gamage, Sujanie; Jones, Darryl; Korshin, Gregory V; Lee, Yunho; Pisarenko, Aleksey; Trenholm, Rebecca A; von Gunten, Urs; Wert, Eric C; Snyder, Shane A

    2012-12-01

    The performance of ozonation in wastewater depends on water quality and the ability to form hydroxyl radicals (·OH) to meet disinfection or contaminant transformation objectives. Since there are no on-line methods to assess ozone and ·OH exposure in wastewater, many agencies are now embracing indicator frameworks and surrogate monitoring for regulatory compliance. Two of the most promising surrogate parameters for ozone-based treatment of secondary and tertiary wastewater effluents are differential UV(254) absorbance (?UV(254)) and total fluorescence (?TF). In the current study, empirical correlations for ?UV(254) and ?TF were developed for the oxidation of 18 trace organic contaminants (TOrCs), including 1,4-dioxane, atenolol, atrazine, bisphenol A, carbamazepine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, meprobamate, naproxen, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), phenytoin, primidone, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan, trimethoprim, and tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP) (R(2) = 0.50-0.83) and the inactivation of three microbial surrogates, including Escherichia coli, MS2, and Bacillus subtilis spores (R(2) = 0.46-0.78). Nine wastewaters were tested in laboratory systems, and eight wastewaters were evaluated at pilot- and full-scale. A predictive model for OH exposure based on ?UV(254) or ?TF was also proposed. PMID:23062789

  11. Influence of topsoil of pyroclastic origin on microbial contamination of groundwater in fractured carbonate aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naclerio, Gino; Petrella, Emma; Nerone, Valentina; Allocca, Vincenzo; de Vita, Pantaleone; Celico, Fulvio

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the research was to analyse the influence of a topsoil of pyroclastic origin on microbial contamination of groundwater in a carbonate aquifer and verify the reliability of thermotolerant coliforms and fecal enterococci as bacterial indicators. The research was carried out through hydrogeological and microbiological monitoring at an experimental field site in Italy during two hydrologic years and through column tests in a laboratory. The taxonomic classification of fecal indicators detected in spring water samples was performed using API20 galleries. Fecal enterococci were also identified by means of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The topsoil of pyroclastic origin significantly retains both thermotolerant coliforms and fecal enterococci. Results of column tests carried out in soil blocks collected randomly within the test site suggest that Escherichia coli was more retained than Enterococcus faecalis, even though this difference is statistically significant in only two out of six soil samples. Thus, a non-uniform difference in retention is expected at field scale. This suggestion is in agreement with the results of the microbiological monitoring. In fact, fecal enterococci were a more reliable indicator than thermotolerant coliforms for detecting contamination at both seasonal springs of the aquifer system, while no significant differences were observed at the perennial spring.

  12. Microbial Contamination of Drinking Water and Human Health from Community Water Systems.

    PubMed

    Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2015-03-01

    A relatively short list of reference viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens appears adequate to assess microbial risks and inform a system-based management of drinking waters. Nonetheless, there are data gaps, e.g. human enteric viruses resulting in endemic infection levels if poorly performing disinfection and/or distribution systems are used, and the risks from fungi. Where disinfection is the only treatment and/or filtration is poor, cryptosporidiosis is the most likely enteric disease to be identified during waterborne outbreaks, but generally non-human-infectious genotypes are present in the absence of human or calf fecal contamination. Enteric bacteria may dominate risks during major fecal contamination events that are ineffectively managed. Reliance on culture-based methods exaggerates treatment efficacy and reduces our ability to identify pathogens/indicators; however, next-generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction approaches are on the cusp of changing that. Overall, water-based Legionella and non-tuberculous mycobacteria probably dominate health burden at exposure points following the various societal uses of drinking water. PMID:25821716

  13. Biostimulation of metal-resistant microbial consortium to remove zinc from contaminated environments.

    PubMed

    Mejias Carpio, Isis E; Franco, Diego Castillo; Zanoli Sato, Maria Inês; Sakata, Solange; Pellizari, Vivian H; Seckler Ferreira Filho, Sidney; Frigi Rodrigues, Debora

    2016-04-15

    Understanding the diversity and metal removal ability of microorganisms associated to contaminated aquatic environments is essential to develop metal remediation technologies in engineered environments. This study investigates through 16S rRNA deep sequencing the composition of a biostimulated microbial consortium obtained from the polluted Tietê River in São Paulo, Brazil. The bacterial diversity of the biostimulated consortium obtained from the contaminated water and sediment was compared to the original sample. The results of the comparative sequencing analyses showed that the biostimulated consortium and the natural environment had γ-Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and uncultured bacteria as the major classes of microorganisms. The consortium optimum zinc removal capacity, evaluated in batch experiments, was achieved at pH=5 with equilibrium contact time of 120min, and a higher Zn-biomass affinity (KF=1.81) than most pure cultures previously investigated. Analysis of the functional groups found in the consortium demonstrated that amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and phosphate groups present in the consortium cells were responsible for zinc uptake. PMID:26849331

  14. Clayey materials in river basin enhancing microbial contamination of river water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Barnard, T. G.

    Mineral constituents of clay materials may promote interaction, adsorption and attachment of microorganisms, often resulting in biofilms' formation. In this study investigation is made to determine how littoral clayey materials on the shores of a river promote accumulation of bacteria and increase contamination of river water. Clayey samples were collected at various points along the shore of a river around Mondeor in Johannesburg and the mineralogical composition was determined using XRD and XRF. Microorganisms in clay-biofilm and river water were identified by DNA sequencing and plate count. Results showed that total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and presumptive indigenous microorganisms attached to littoral clayey materials containing the mineral muscovite (characterising argillaceous soils). Bacteria number on clayey materials was significantly higher than on overlying water especially before rainy season. However a decrease of the number of bacteria in clayey materials concurrent with an increase in the number of suspended bacteria after rain events, was the result of the action of high and fast flows in the basin, eroding the biofilms. Attachment of microorganisms in clayey material as observed in this study could be ascribed to the glue-like aspect of soil (due to muscovite) that facilitates adhesion. It therefore demonstrates the potential of clayey materials to encourage biofilm formation and enhance microbial contamination of river water as shown here.

  15. Biocontainment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on flat concrete surfaces by microbial carbonate precipitation.

    PubMed

    Okwadha, George D O; Li, Jin

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a biosealant obtained from microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP) was evaluated as an alternative to an epoxy-coating system. A bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii strain ATCC 11859, which metabolizes urea and precipitates calcite in a calcium-rich environment, was used in this study to generate the biosealant on a PCB-contaminated concrete surface. Concrete cylinders measuring 3 in (76.2 mm) by 6 in (152.4 mm) were made in accordance with ASTM C33 and C192 and used for this purpose. The PCB, urea, Ca(2+), and bacterial cell concentrations were set at 10 ppm, 666 mM, 250 mM, and about 2.1 × 10(8) cells mL(-1), respectively. The results indicate that the biosealed surfaces reduced water permeability by 1-5 orders of magnitude, and had a high resistance to carbonation. Since the MCP biosealant is thermally stable under temperatures of up to 840 °C, the high temperatures that normally exist in the surrounding equipment, which may contain PCB-based fluids, have no effect on the biosealed surfaces. Consequently, there is greater potential to obtain a stronger, coherent, and durable surface by MCP. No measurable amount of PCBs was detected in the permeating water, indicating that the leaching water, if any, will have a minimum impact on the surrounding environment. PMID:21696884

  16. Microbial activity and diversity in long-term mixed contaminated soils with respect to polyaromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Thavamani, Palanisami; Malik, Seidu; Beer, Michael; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2012-05-30

    The co-occurrence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with heavy metals and their effect on soil microbial activity have not been systematically investigated. In this study a holistic approach was employed by combining physico-chemical, biological and advanced molecular methods to determine the soil microbial activities of long-term mixed contaminated soils collected from a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site. Concentrations of PAHs in MGP soils ranged from 335 to 8645 mg/kg. Of the potentially toxic metals, concentrations of lead were found to be highest, ranging from 88 to 671 mg/kg, cadmium 8 to 112 mg/kg, while zinc varied from 64 to 488 mg/kg. The enzyme activities were severely inhibited in soils that were contaminated with both PAHs and heavy metals. The presence of heavy metals in PAH-contaminated soils not only reduced the diversity of microbial population but also showed a few distinctive species by exerting selective pressure. The multivariate analysis revealed that there is an association between PAHs and heavy metals which influenced biological properties in mixed contaminated soils. The findings of this study have major implications for the bioremediation of organic pollutants in metal-organic mixed contaminated sites. PMID:22306081

  17. Microbial ecological response of the intestinal flora of Peromyscus maniculatus and P. leucopus to heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Coolon, Joseph D; Jones, Kenneth L; Narayanan, Sanjeev; Wisely, Samantha M

    2010-03-01

    Heavy metal contamination negatively affects natural systems including plants, birds, fish and bacteria by reducing biodiversity at contaminated sites. At the Tri-State Mining District, efforts have been made to remediate sites to mitigate the detrimental effects that contamination has caused on human health. While the remediation effort has returned the site to within federal safety standards, it is unclear if this effort is sufficient to restore floral and faunal communities. Intrinsic to ecosystem and organism health is the biodiversity and composition of microbial communities. We have taken advantage of recent advances in sequencing technology and surveyed the bacterial community of remediated and reference soils as well as the intestinal microbial community of two ubiquitous rodent species to provide insight on the impacts of residual heavy metal contamination on the ecosystem. Rodents found on the remediated site had reduced body mass, smaller body size and lower body fat than animals on reference sites. Using bar-coded, massively parallel sequencing, we found that bacterial communities in both the soil and Peromyscus spp. gastrointestinal tracts had no difference in diversity between reference and remediated sites but assemblages differed in response to contamination. These results suggest that niche voids left by microbial taxa that were unable to deal with the remnant levels of heavy metals on remediated sites were replaced by taxa that could persist in this environment. Whether this replacement provided similar ecosystem services as ancestral bacterial communities is unknown. PMID:20331771

  18. Influence of surface contamination on the wettability of heat transfer surfaces

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Forrest, Eric Christopher; Schulze, Roland; Liu, Cheng; Dombrowski, David

    2015-08-08

    In this study, the wettability of heat transfer surfaces plays an important role in liquid–vapor phase change phenomena, including boiling incipience, the critical heat flux, the Leidenfrost transition, and condensation. The influence of adsorbed surface contamination at the nanoscale, though seldom considered, can have a profound impact on wetting behavior. This study quantitatively investigates the impact of contaminant layer thickness on wettability. Various cleaning treatments are explored on zirconium and 6061 aluminum to determine the effect on contaminant and oxide layer thickness. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used to measure the thickness of oxide and contaminant layers, which ismore » then correlated to wettability by measuring the equilibrium contact angle. Results indicate that even after solvent cleaning, the contact angle of water on practical heat transfer surfaces is dominated by a hydrocarbon contaminant overlayer around five nanometers thick.« less

  19. Influence of surface contamination on the wettability of heat transfer surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Eric Christopher; Schulze, Roland; Liu, Cheng; Dombrowski, David

    2015-08-08

    In this study, the wettability of heat transfer surfaces plays an important role in liquid–vapor phase change phenomena, including boiling incipience, the critical heat flux, the Leidenfrost transition, and condensation. The influence of adsorbed surface contamination at the nanoscale, though seldom considered, can have a profound impact on wetting behavior. This study quantitatively investigates the impact of contaminant layer thickness on wettability. Various cleaning treatments are explored on zirconium and 6061 aluminum to determine the effect on contaminant and oxide layer thickness. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy can be used to measure the thickness of oxide and contaminant layers, which is then correlated to wettability by measuring the equilibrium contact angle. Results indicate that even after solvent cleaning, the contact angle of water on practical heat transfer surfaces is dominated by a hydrocarbon contaminant overlayer around five nanometers thick.

  20. Characterization of the Cell Surface Properties of Drinking Water Pathogens by Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon and Electrophoretic Mobility Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The surface characteristics of microbial cells directly influence their mobility and behavior within aqueous environments. The cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of microbial cells impact a number of interactions and processes including aggregati...

  1. Influence of diesel contamination on the benthic microbial/meiofaunal food web of a Louisiana salt marsh

    SciTech Connect

    Carman, K.R.; Fleeger, J.W.; Pomarico, S.

    1994-12-31

    The authors studied the influence of diesel-contaminated sediments on the benthic microbial/meiofaunal food web from a Louisiana salt marsh. Diesel-contaminated sediment was added to microcosms (intact cores of marsh mud) in a range of doses, and a suite of microbial and meiofaunal responses were measured over a 28-day period. The authors measured bacterial and microalgal (Chl a) abundance, bacterial and microalgal activity using radiotracers ({sup 14}C-acetate and {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, respectively), meiofaunal grazing on microalgae, meiofaunal community structure, and meiofaunal physiological condition. Preliminary results indicate that diesel-contaminated sediments influence microalgal biomass and activity, as well as the life histories of benthic copepod species.

  2. Characterization of Archaeal Community in Contaminated and Uncontaminated Surface Stream Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Porat, Iris; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Mosher, Jennifer J; Brandt, Craig C; Yang, Zamin; Brooks, Scott C; Liang, Liyuan; Drake, Meghan M; Podar, Mircea; Brown, Steven D; Palumbo, Anthony Vito

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Archaeal communities from mercury and uranium-contaminated freshwater stream sediments were characterized and compared to archaeal communities present in an uncontaminated stream located in the vicinity of Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The distribution of the Archaea was determined by pyrosequencing analysis of the V4 region of 16S rRNA amplified from 12 streambed surface sediments. Crenarchaeota comprised 76% of the 1,670 archaeal sequences and the remaining 24% were from Euryarchaeota. Phylogenetic analysis further classified the Crenarchaeota as a Freshwater Group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota group, Group I3, Rice Cluster VI and IV, Marine Group I and Marine Benthic Group B; and the Euryarchaeota into Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteriales, Rice Cluster III, Marine Benthic Group D, Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeota 1 and Eury 5. All groups were previously described. Both hydrogen- and acetate-dependent methanogens were found in all samples. Most of the groups (with 60% of the sequences) described in this study were not similar to any cultivated isolates, making it difficult to discern their function in the freshwater microbial community. A significant decrease in the number of sequences, as well as in the diversity of archaeal communities was found in the contaminated sites. The Marine Group I, including the ammonia oxidizer Nitrosopumilus maritimus, was the dominant group in both mercury and uranium/nitrate-contaminated sites. The uranium-contaminated site also contained a high concentration of nitrate, thus Marine Group I may play a role in nitrogen cycle.

  3. [Investigation of nitrogen, phosphorus and microbial contamination in Laolongdong underground river system of Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Lan, Jia-Cheng; Yang, Ping-Heng; Ren, Kun; Chen, Xue-Bin; Xu, Xin; Hu, Ning

    2014-04-01

    With urbanization, groundwater in China has been widely polluted. Karst groundwater is important in southwest China, and would be difficult to recover once contaminated. NO3(-), PO4(3), NH4(+), total coliform, total E. coli and fecal coliform were chosen as indexes in the study of groundwater of Laolongdong Underground River System in Nanshan Mountain, Chongqing. After a few years of survey, the results showed that NO3(-), NH4(+) and PO4(3-) concentrations in the water were all above the nature value, especially NH4(+) and PO4(3-). The NO3(-) concentration of Guihuawan spring ranged from 19.78-68.55 mg x L(-1), in some months, above the recommended water quality guideline (50 mg x L(-1)) according to Standards for Drinking Water Quality set by World Health Organization. NH4(+) and PO4(3-) concentrations in Laolongdong underground river varied from 2.71-12.92 mg x L(-1) and 0.16-11.22 mg x L(-1). The NO3(-) concentration in Laolongdong underground river was lower than in karst spring; however, the concentrations of NH4(+) and PO4(3-) were higher than in the spring. It seemed that the NO3(-) concentration tended to decrease from 2008 to 2013 in the underground river caused by urbanization, reduction of farmland and reducing environment. However, waste water with a high PO4(3-) concentration led to an increasing trend in the PO4(3-) concentration in underground river. Microbial contamination was extremely serious, and even far exceeded class V of water quality standards of China. For example, the concentration of fecal coliform in the groundwater ranged from 3.4 x 10(4)-3.68 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1). Because of the special hydrogeological structure, karst depressions, skylights and sinkholes can lead pollutants easily to the underground water. Agriculture activity, sewage from towns, enterprises and residential areas were the major sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and microbial contamination. PMID:24946579

  4. Microbial Surfaces and their Effects on Carbonate Mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappuccio, J. A.; Pillar, V. D.; Lui, G. V.; Ajo-Franklin, C.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration, the underground storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), will be an essential component of climate change mitigation. Carbonate minerals are a promising form of stable CO2 storage, but their geologic formation is slow. Many microbes can increase the rate of carbonate mineral formation; however the mechanisms of such mineralization are largely unknown. Hypothesized mechanisms include metabolic processes that alter pH and supersaturation, as well as cell surface properties that induce mineral nucleation. This work systematically investigates these mechanisms by allowing calcium carbonate (CaCO3) to form in the presence or absence of microbes with various surfaces features included Escherichia coli, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Caulobacter vibrioides, and Lysinibacilllus sphaericus. Surprisingly, formation of stable crystalline CaCO3 was accelerated by the presence of all microbes relative to abiotic solutions. This rate acceleration also occurred for metabolically inactive bacteria, indicating that metabolic activity was not the operating mechanism. Rather, since the CaCO3 crystals increased in number as the cell density increased, these results indicate that many bacterial species accelerate the nucleation of CaCO3 crystals. To understand the role of specific biomolecules on nucleation, we used genetic mutants with altered lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and crystalline surface layer proteins (S-layers). Bacterial surface charge and cation binding was assessed using zeta potential measurements and correlated to the bacterial surface chemistry and biomineralization experiments with varying Ca2+ concentrations. From these results, we postulate that the S-layer surfaces can selectively attract Ca2+ ions, serving as nucleation sites for CaCO3, thereby accelerating crystal formation. These observations provide substantive evidence for a non-specific nucleation mechanism, and stress the importance of microbes, even dead ones, on the rate of formation of carbonate minerals. This work also indicates that additional microbial engineering specifically targeted to S-layer proteins could optimize these interactions and be used to implement the sequestration of CO2 as stable mineral carbonates on an accelerated timescale.

  5. Detection of atmospheric contaminants adsorbed on surfaces using static SIMS

    SciTech Connect

    Groenewold, G.S.; Harrison, E.M.; Delmore, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The sensitivity of static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to the detection of adsorbed atmospheric contaminants has long been recognized, but not exploited. Early in the history of static SIMS, Benninghoven noted that many of the ions observed in static SIMS spectra originated from contaminants which were probably of atmospheric origin. Cooks and coworkers had attributed much of the observed hydrocarbon-type ion signal to pump oil present in the vacuum housing of most organic SIMS spectrometers. In research conducted in this laboratory, it was noted that many compounds (e.g., tri-n-butyl phosphate) may adsorb to a variety of surfaces, and are readily detectable using SIMS.

  6. Detecting liquid contamination on surfaces using hyperspectral imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Russell E.; Cohn, David B.; Gagnon, Marc-André; Farley, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    Over the past two years we have developed a new approach for detecting and identifying the presence of liquid chemical contamination on surfaces using hyperspectral imaging data. This work requires an algorithm for unmixing the data to separate the liquid contamination component of the data from all other possible spectral effects, such as the illumination and reflectance spectra of the pure background. The contamination components from S and P polarized reflectance data are then used to estimate the complex refractive index. We retain the index estimates within spectral windows chosen for each of a set of candidate contaminant materials based on their optical extinction. Spectral estimates within those windows are characteristic of the liquid material, and can be passed on to an algorithm for chemical detection and identification. The resulting algorithm is insensitive to the composition of the surface material, and requires no prior measurements of the uncontaminated surface. In a series of field tests, data from the Telops Hyper-Cam sensor were used to develop and validate our approach. We discuss our hyperspectral unmixing and index estimation approaches, and show results from tests conducted at the Telops facility in Québec under a contract with the U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center.

  7. Microbial Diversity and Bioremediation of aHydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer (Vega Baja, Puerto Rico)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Martinez, E.M.; Perez, Ernie X.; Schadt, ChristopherW.; Zhou, Jizhong; Massol-Deya, Arturo A.

    2006-09-30

    Hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater resources hasbecome a major environmental and human health concern in many parts ofthe world. Our objectives were to employ both culture andculture-independent techniques to characterize the dynamics of microbialcommunity structure within a fluidized bed reactor used to bioremediate adiesel-contaminated groundwater in a tropical environment. Under normaloperating conditions, 97 to 99 percent of total hydrocarbons were removedwith only 14 min hydraulic retention time. Over 25 different cultureswere isolated from the treatment unit (96 percent which utilized dieselconstituents as sole carbon source). Approximately 20 percent of theisolates were also capable of complete denitrification to nitrogen gas.Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA demonstrated ample diversity with mostbelonging to the infinity, beta and gamma subdivision of theProteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria groups. Moreover, the geneticconstitution of the microbial community was examined at multiple timepoints with a Functional Gene Array (FGA) containing over 12,000 probesfor genes involved in organic degradation and major biogeochemicalcycles. Total community DNA was extracted and amplified using anisothermal phi29 polymerase-based technique, labeled with Cy5 dye, andhybridized to the arrays in 50 percent formimide overnight at 50 degreesC. Cluster analysis revealed comparable profiles over the course oftreatment suggesting the early selection of a very stable microbialcommunity. A total of 270 genes for organic contaminant degradation(including naphthalene, toluene [aerobic and anaerobic], octane,biphenyl, pyrene, xylene, phenanthrene, and benzene); and 333 genesinvolved in metabolic activities (nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases[nirS, nirK, and nosZ], dissimilatory sulfite reductases [dsrAB],potential metal reducing C-type cytochromes, and methane monooxygenase[pmoA]) were repeatedly detected. Genes for degradation of MTBE,nitroaromatics and chlorinated compounds werealso present, indicating abroad catabolic potential of the treatment unit. FGA's demonstrated theearly establishment of a diverse community with concurrent aerobic andanaerobic processes contributing to the bioremediationprocess.

  8. Can volatile organic metabolites be used to simultaneously assess microbial and mite contamination level in cereal grains and coffee beans?

    PubMed

    Salvador, Angelo C; Baptista, Inês; Barros, António S; Gomes, Newton C M; Cunha, Angela; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Silvia M

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS) was developed for the simultaneous screening of microbial and mite contamination level in cereals and coffee beans. The proposed approach emerges as a powerful tool for the rapid assessment of the microbial contamination level (ca. 70 min versus ca. 72 to 120 h for bacteria and fungi, respectively, using conventional plate counts), and mite contamination (ca. 70 min versus ca. 24 h). A full-factorial design was performed for optimization of the SPME experimental parameters. The methodology was applied to three types of rice (rough, brown, and white rice), oat, wheat, and green and roasted coffee beans. Simultaneously, microbiological analysis of the samples (total aerobic microorganisms, moulds, and yeasts) was performed by conventional plate counts. A set of 54 volatile markers was selected among all the compounds detected by GC×GC-ToFMS. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied in order to establish a relationship between potential volatile markers and the level of microbial contamination. Methylbenzene, 3-octanone, 2-nonanone, 2-methyl-3-pentanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and 2-hexanone were associated to samples with higher microbial contamination level, especially in rough rice. Moreover, oat exhibited a high GC peak area of 2-hydroxy-6-methylbenzaldehyde, a sexual and alarm pheromone for adult mites, which in the other matrices appeared as a trace component. The number of mites detected in oat grains was correlated to the GC peak area of the pheromone. The HS-SPME/GC×GC-ToFMS methodology can be regarded as the basis for the development of a rapid and versatile method that can be applied in industry to the simultaneous assessment the level of microbiological contamination and for detection of mites in cereals grains and coffee beans. PMID:23613710

  9. Can Volatile Organic Metabolites Be Used to Simultaneously Assess Microbial and Mite Contamination Level in Cereal Grains and Coffee Beans?

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Ângelo C.; Baptista, Inês; Barros, António S.; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Cunha, Ângela; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Silvia M.

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC–ToFMS) was developed for the simultaneous screening of microbial and mite contamination level in cereals and coffee beans. The proposed approach emerges as a powerful tool for the rapid assessment of the microbial contamination level (ca. 70 min versus ca. 72 to 120 h for bacteria and fungi, respectively, using conventional plate counts), and mite contamination (ca. 70 min versus ca. 24 h). A full-factorial design was performed for optimization of the SPME experimental parameters. The methodology was applied to three types of rice (rough, brown, and white rice), oat, wheat, and green and roasted coffee beans. Simultaneously, microbiological analysis of the samples (total aerobic microorganisms, moulds, and yeasts) was performed by conventional plate counts. A set of 54 volatile markers was selected among all the compounds detected by GC×GC–ToFMS. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied in order to establish a relationship between potential volatile markers and the level of microbial contamination. Methylbenzene, 3-octanone, 2-nonanone, 2-methyl-3-pentanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and 2-hexanone were associated to samples with higher microbial contamination level, especially in rough rice. Moreover, oat exhibited a high GC peak area of 2-hydroxy-6-methylbenzaldehyde, a sexual and alarm pheromone for adult mites, which in the other matrices appeared as a trace component. The number of mites detected in oat grains was correlated to the GC peak area of the pheromone. The HS-SPME/GC×GC–ToFMS methodology can be regarded as the basis for the development of a rapid and versatile method that can be applied in industry to the simultaneous assessment the level of microbiological contamination and for detection of mites in cereals grains and coffee beans. PMID:23613710

  10. X-ray fluorescence surface contaminant analyzer: A feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Hudson B.

    1988-01-01

    The bonding of liner material to the inner metal surfaces of solid rocket booster cases is adversely affected by minute amounts of impurities on the metal surface. Suitable non-destructive methods currently used for detecting these surface contaminants do not provide the means of identifying their elemental composition. The feasibility of using isotopic source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence as a possible technique for elemental analysis of such contaminants is investigated. A survey is made of the elemental compositions of both D-6ac steel, a common construction material for the booster cases, and Conoco HD-2 grease, a common surface contamination. Source and detector choices that maximize signal to noise ratio in a Recessed Source Geometry are made. A Monte Carlo simulation is then made of the optimized device incorporating the latest available X-ray constants at the energy of the chosen source to determine the device's response to a D-6ac steel surface contained with Conoco HD-2 grease.

  11. Apparatus for in situ cleaning of carbon contaminated surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Grunow, Philip; Graham, Jr., Samuel

    2004-08-10

    Activated gaseous species generated adjacent a carbon contaminated surface affords in-situ cleaning. A device for removing carbon contamination from a surface of the substrate includes (a) a housing defining a vacuum chamber in which the substrate is located; (b) a source of gaseous species; and (c) a source of electrons that are emitted to activate the gaseous species into activated gaseous species. The source of electrons preferably includes (i) a filament made of a material that generates thermionic electron emissions; (ii) a source of energy that is connected to the filament; and (iii) an electrode to which the emitted electrons are attracted. The device is particularly suited for photolithography systems with optic surfaces, e.g., mirrors, that are otherwise inaccessible unless the system is dismantled.

  12. Microbial Diversity in Hydrothermal Surface to Sub-surface Environment of Suiyo Seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashi, Y.; Sunamura, M.; Kitamura, K.; Kurusu, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Maruyama, A.

    2002-12-01

    After excavation trials to a hydrothermal subsurface biosphere of the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, microbial diversity was examined using samples collected from drilled boreholes and natural vents with an catheter-type in situ microbial entrapment/incubator. This instrument consisted of a heat-tolerant cylindrical pipe with entrapment of a titanium-mesh capsule, containing sterilized inorganic porous grains, on the tip. After 3-10 day deployment in venting fluids with the maximum temperatures from 156 to 305degC, Microbial DNA was extracted from the grains and a 16S rDNA region was amplified and sequenced. Through the phylogenetic analysis of total 72 Bacteria and 30 Archaea clones, we found three novel phylogenetic groups in this hydrothermal surface to subsurface biosphere. Some new clades within the epsilon-Proteobacteria, which seemed to be microaerophilic, moderate thermophilic, and/or sulfur oxidizing, were detected. Clones related to moderate thermophilic and photosynthetic microbes were found in grain-attached samples at collapsed borehole and natural vent sites. We also detected a new clade closely related to a hyperthermophilic Archaea, Methanococcus jannashii, which has the capability of growing autotrophically on hydrogen and producing methane. However, the later two phylogroups were estimated as below a detection limit in microscopic cell counting, i.e., fluorescence in situ hybridization and direct counting. Most of microbes in venting fluids were assigned to be Bacteria, but difficult in specifying them using any known probes. The environment must be notable in microbial and genetic resources, while the ecosystem seems to be mainly supported by chemosynthetic products through the microbial sulfur oxidation, as in most deep-sea hydrothermal systems.

  13. Trophic interactions induce spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Or, Dani

    2014-01-01

    The spatial context of microbial interactions common in natural systems is largely absent in traditional pure culture-based microbiology. The understanding of how interdependent microbial communities assemble and coexist in limited spatial domains remains sketchy. A mechanistic model of cell-level interactions among multispecies microbial populations grown on hydrated rough surfaces facilitated systematic evaluation of how trophic dependencies shape spatial self-organization of microbial consortia in complex diffusion fields. The emerging patterns were persistent irrespective of initial conditions and resilient to spatial and temporal perturbations. Surprisingly, the hydration conditions conducive for self-assembly are extremely narrow and last only while microbial cells remain motile within thin aqueous films. The resulting self-organized microbial consortia patterns could represent optimal ecological templates for the architecture that underlie sessile microbial colonies on natural surfaces. Understanding microbial spatial self-organization offers new insights into mechanisms that sustain small-scale soil microbial diversity; and may guide the engineering of functional artificial microbial consortia. PMID:25343307

  14. Influence of anode surface chemistry on microbial fuel cell operation.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Carlo; Babanova, Sofia; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Cornejo, Jose A; Ista, Linnea; Bretschger, Orianna; Marsili, Enrico; Atanassov, Plamen; Schuler, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) modified gold anodes are used in single chamber microbial fuel cells for organic removal and electricity generation. Hydrophilic (N(CH3)3(+), OH, COOH) and hydrophobic (CH3) SAMs are examined for their effect on bacterial attachment, current and power output. The different substratum chemistry affects the community composition of the electrochemically active biofilm formed and thus the current and power output. Of the four SAM-modified anodes tested, N(CH3)3(+) results in the shortest start up time (15 days), highest current achieved (225 μA cm(-2)) and highest MFC power density (40 μW cm(-2)), followed by COOH (150 μA cm(-2) and 37 μW cm(-2)) and OH (83 μA cm(-2) and 27 μW cm(-2)) SAMs. Hydrophobic SAM decreases electrochemically active bacteria attachment and anode performance in comparison to hydrophilic SAMs (CH3 modified anodes 7 μA cm(-2) anodic current and 1.2 μW cm(-2) MFC's power density). A consortium of Clostridia and δ-Proteobacteria is found on all the anode surfaces, suggesting a synergistic cooperation under anodic conditions. PMID:26025340

  15. Detection of microbial biofilms on food processing surfaces: hyperspectral fluorescence imaging study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Won; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kaunglin; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Roberts, Michael S.; McNaughton, James L.

    2009-05-01

    We used a portable hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system to evaluate biofilm formations on four types of food processing surface materials including stainless steel, polypropylene used for cutting boards, and household counter top materials such as formica and granite. The objective of this investigation was to determine a minimal number of spectral bands suitable to differentiate microbial biofilm formation from the four background materials typically used during food processing. Ultimately, the resultant spectral information will be used in development of handheld portable imaging devices that can be used as visual aid tools for sanitation and safety inspection (microbial contamination) of the food processing surfaces. Pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella cells were grown in low strength M9 minimal medium on various surfaces at 22 +/- 2 °C for 2 days for biofilm formation. Biofilm autofluorescence under UV excitation (320 to 400 nm) obtained by hyperspectral fluorescence imaging system showed broad emissions in the blue-green regions of the spectrum with emission maxima at approximately 480 nm for both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella biofilms. Fluorescence images at 480 nm revealed that for background materials with near-uniform fluorescence responses such as stainless steel and formica cutting board, regardless of the background intensity, biofilm formation can be distinguished. This suggested that a broad spectral band in the blue-green regions can be used for handheld imaging devices for sanitation inspection of stainless, cutting board, and formica surfaces. The non-uniform fluorescence responses of granite make distinctions between biofilm and background difficult. To further investigate potential detection of the biofilm formations on granite surfaces with multispectral approaches, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using the hyperspectral fluorescence image data. The resultant PCA score images revealed distinct contrast between biofilms and granite surfaces. This investigation demonstrated that biofilm formations on food processing surfaces, even for background materials with heterogeneous fluorescence responses, can be detected. Furthermore, a multispectral approach in developing handheld inspection devices may be needed to inspect surface materials that exhibit non-uniform fluorescence.

  16. Characterisation of CFRP surface contamination by laser induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Pawel H.; Sawczak, Miroslaw; Wandowski, Tomasz; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw M.; Cenian, Adam

    2014-03-01

    The application of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) in aeronautics has been increasing. The CFRP elements are joint using rivets and adhesive bonding. The reliability of the bonding limits the use of adhesive bonding for primary aircraft structures, therefore it is important to assess the bond quality. The performance of adhesive bonds depends on the physico-chemical properties of the adhered surfaces. This research is focused on characterization of surfaces before bonding. In-situ examination of large surface materials, determine the group of methods that are preferred. The analytical methods should be non-destructive, enabling large surface analysis in relatively short time. In this work a spectroscopic method was tested that can be potentially applied for surface analysis. Four cases of surface condition were investigated that can be encountered either in the manufacturing process or during aircraft service. The first case is related to contamination of CFRP surface with hydraulic fluid. This fluid reacts with water forming a phosphoric acid that can etch the CFRP. Second considered case was related to silicone-based release agent contamination. These agents are used during the moulding process of composite panels. Third case involved moisture content in CFRP. Moisture content lowers the adhesion quality and leads to reduced performance of CFRP resulting in reduced performance of the adhesive bond. The last case concentrated on heat damage of CFRP. It was shown that laser induced fluorescence method can be useful for non-destructive evaluation of CFRP surface and some of the investigated contaminants can be easily detected.

  17. Reactor surface contamination stabilization. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    Contaminated surfaces, such as the face of a nuclear reactor, need to be stabilized (fixed) to avoid airborne contamination during decontamination and decommissioning activities, and to prepare for interim safe storage. The traditional (baseline) method of fixing the contamination has been to spray a coating on the surfaces, but ensuring complete coverage over complex shapes, such as nozzles and hoses, is difficult. The Hanford Site C Reactor Technology Demonstration Group demonstrated innovative technologies to assess stabilization properties of various coatings and to achieve complete coverage of complex surfaces on the reactor face. This demonstration was conducted in two phases: the first phase consisted of a series of laboratory assessments of various stabilization coatings on metal coupons. For the second phase, coatings that passed the laboratory tests were applied to the front face of the C Reactor and evaluated. The baseline coating (Rust-Oleum No. 769) and one of the innovative technologies did not completely cover nozzle assemblies on the reactor face, the most critical of the second-phase evaluation criteria. However, one of the innovative coating systems, consisting of a base layer of foam covered by an outer layer of a polymeric film, was successful. The baseline technology would cost approximately 33% as much as the innovative technology cost of $64,000 to stabilize an entire reactor face (196 m{sup 2} or 2116 ft{sup 2}) with 2,004 nozzle assemblies, but the baseline system failed to provide complete surface coverage.

  18. Microbial Contamination on Used Surgical Masks among Hospital Personnel and Microbial Air Quality in their Working Wards: A Hospital in Bangkok

    PubMed Central

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Aiempradit, Natkitta; Vatanasomboon, Pisit

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship of bacterial and fungal contamination on used surgical masks worn by the hospital personnel and microbial air quality in their working wards. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 230 used surgical masks collected from 214 hospital personnel, and 215 indoor air samples collected from their working wards to culture for bacterial and fungal counts. This study was carried out at the hospital in Bangkok. Group or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram’s stain and lacto-phenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient at the significant level of p<0.050. Results Means and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal contamination on inside area of the used masks were 47 ± 56 and 15 ± 9 cfu/ml/piece, and on outside area were 166 ± 199 and 34 ± 18 cfu/ml/piece, respectively, p<0.001. The bacterial and fungal contamination on used masks from hospital personnel working in the male and female medical wards and out-patient department, as well as the bacterial and fungal counts of the indoor air sample collected from the same area were relatively higher than the other wards. The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi contaminated on inside and outside areas of the used masks and air samples were similar (Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp.; respectively). For its relationship, results found that bacterial and fungal counts in air samples showed significantly positive correlation with the bacterial contamination load on outside area of the used masks, r=0.16, p=0.018 and r=0.21, p=0.003, respectively. Conclusion High bacterial contamination on outside area of the used masks was demonstrated, and it showed a significant correlation with microbial air quality of working wards. PMID:25337311

  19. Bioremediation of diesel contamination at an underground storage tank site: a spatial analysis of the microbial community.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Albertarelli, Nicola; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Khoei, Nazaninalsadat Seyed; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports on a real case of contamination due to the chronic leakage of diesel fuel from an underground tank at a dismissed service station. Speciation of the microbial community according to both lateral and vertical gradients from the origin of the contaminant release was analyzed by means of the PCR-DGGE technique. Moreover, the effects of a landfarming treatment on both the microbial community structure and the abatement of contamination were analyzed. The concentration of total petrol hydrocarbons (TPHs) decreased along the horizontal gradient (from 7042.2 ± 521.9 to 112.2 ± 24.3 mg kg(-1)), while increased downwards from the position of the tank (from 502.6 ± 43.7 to 4972.5 ± 275.3 mg kg(-1)). PCR-DGGE analyses and further statistical treatment of the data indicated a correlation between structure of the bacterial communities and amount of diesel fuel contamination. On the other hand, level of contamination, soil texture and depth were shown to affect the fungal community. Chloroflexi and Ascomycota were the most abundant microbes ascertained through culture-independent procedures. Landfarming promoted 91.6 % reduction of TPHs in 75 days. Furthermore, PCR-DGGE analyses evidenced that both bacterial and fungal communities of the treated soil were restored to the pristine conditions of uncontaminated topsoil. The present study demonstrated that bacterial and fungal communities were affected differently by soil factors such as level of hydrocarbon contamination as well as soil depth and texture. This report shows that a well-planned landfarming treatment can drive the restoration of the soil in terms of both abatement of the contaminants and resilience of the microbial community structure. PMID:26712621

  20. Microbial responses to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in temporary river sediments: Experimental insights.

    PubMed

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Capri, Silvio; Casella, Patrizia; Fazi, Stefano; Marxsen, Juergen; Patrolecco, Luisa

    2016-01-15

    Temporary rivers are characterized by dry-wet phases and represent an important water resource in semi-arid regions worldwide. The fate and effect of contaminants have not been firmly established in temporary rivers such as in other aquatic environments. In this study, we assessed the effects of sediment amendment with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on benthic microbial communities. Experimental microcosms containing natural (Control) and amended sediments (2 and 20 mg PAHs kg(-1) were incubated for 28 days. The PAH concentrations in sediments were monitored weekly together with microbial community structural (biomass and phylogenetic composition by TGGE and CARD-FISH) and functional parameters (ATP concentration, community respiration rate, bacterial carbon production rate, extracellular enzyme activities). The concentration of the PAH isomers did not change significantly with the exception of phenanthrene. No changes were observed in the TGGE profiles, whereas the occurrence of Alpha- and Beta-Proteobacteria was significantly affected by the treatments. In the amended sediments, the rates of carbon production were stimulated together with aminopeptidase enzyme activity. The community respiration rates showed values significantly lower than the Control after 1 day from the amendment then recovering the Control values during the incubation. A negative trend between the respiration rates and ATP concentration was observed only in the amended sediments. This result indicates a potential toxic effect on the oxidative phosphorylation processes. The impoverishment of the energetic resources that follows the PAH impact may act as a domino on the flux of energy from prokaryotes to the upper level of the trophic chain, with the potential to alter the temporary river functioning. PMID:26479910

  1. Microbial Communities Associated with Anaerobic Benzene Degradation in a Petroleum-Contaminated Aquifer

    PubMed Central

    Rooney-Varga, Juliette N.; Anderson, Robert T.; Fraga, Jocelyn L.; Ringelberg, David; Lovley, Derek R.

    1999-01-01

    Microbial community composition associated with benzene oxidation under in situ Fe(III)-reducing conditions in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer located in Bemidji, Minn., was investigated. Community structure associated with benzene degradation was compared to sediment communities that did not anaerobically oxidize benzene which were obtained from two adjacent Fe(III)-reducing sites and from methanogenic and uncontaminated zones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA sequences amplified with bacterial or Geobacteraceae-specific primers indicated significant differences in the composition of the microbial communities at the different sites. Most notable was a selective enrichment of microorganisms in the Geobacter cluster seen in the benzene-degrading sediments. This finding was in accordance with phospholipid fatty acid analysis and most-probable-number–PCR enumeration, which indicated that members of the family Geobacteraceae were more numerous in these sediments. A benzene-oxidizing Fe(III)-reducing enrichment culture was established from benzene-degrading sediments and contained an organism closely related to the uncultivated Geobacter spp. This genus contains the only known organisms that can oxidize aromatic compounds with the reduction of Fe(III). Sequences closely related to the Fe(III) reducer Geothrix fermentans and the aerobe Variovorax paradoxus were also amplified from the benzene-degrading enrichment and were present in the benzene-degrading sediments. However, neither G. fermentans nor V. paradoxus is known to oxidize aromatic compounds with the reduction of Fe(III), and there was no apparent enrichment of these organisms in the benzene-degrading sediments. These results suggest that Geobacter spp. play an important role in the anaerobic oxidation of benzene in the Bemidji aquifer and that molecular community analysis may be a powerful tool for predicting a site’s capacity for anaerobic benzene degradation. PMID:10388703

  2. Evaluation of the vitreous microbial contamination rate in office-based three-port microincision vitrectomy surgery using Retrector technology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To perform a microbiological contamination analysis of the vitreous during office-based micro-incision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) assessing whether the bacteria detected correlated with patient's ocular conjunctival flora. Methods This is a prospective, interventional, nonrandomized case series of patients undergoing office-based MIVS, anti-VEGF, and dexamethasone intravitreal injections (triple therapy) for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME). All patients were operated at a small procedure room in an ambulatory clinic of the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Conjunctival samples were done before placing the sclerotomies. The MIVS was done with a 23-gauge retractable vitrector, a 27-gauge infusion line, and a 29-gauge chandelier. Undiluted and diluted vitreous were collected for aerobic, anaerobic and fungal cultures. Outcomes measured were bacterial species identification within samples collected from the conjunctiva and the vitreous. Results Thirty-seven patients (37 eyes) were recruited and completed over 17 months of follow-up. Twenty-eight had wet AMD and nine had DME. There were 13 men and 24 women, with a mean age of 78 years. Eighteen patients (46%) had culture positive conjunctival flora. Twenty-six bacterial colonies were tabulated in total from the conjunctival swabs. All bacteria detected were gram-positive bacteria (100%), most commonly: Staphylococcus epidermitis in 11 (42%) and Corynebacterium sp. in 6 (23%). Only 1/18 patients had more than 3 species isolated, 6/18 patients had 2 species and 11/18 patients had 1 species identified on the conjunctival swab. Only 1 of the 37 undiluted midvitreous samples was culture positive, equating to a contamination rate of 2.7%. None of the diluted vitreous samples were culture positive. All cultures were negative for fungus. No serious postoperative complications occurred, including bacterial endophthalmitis, choroidal detachment, and retinal detachment. Conclusion This preliminary study of office-based MIVS gives us insights on the ocular surface microbial profile and vitreous contamination rate of performing such procedures outside the OR-controlled environment. Our initial results seem to indicate that there is little risk of bacterial translocation and contamination from the conjunctiva into the vitreous. Therefore, if endophthalmitis occurs post-operatively, the source may likely arise after the procedure. Larger studies are needed to confirm our data. PMID:24886149

  3. Microbial contamination of the environment after the irradiation of Er:YAG laser in infected root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Sampaio Moura, Marcelo; Heredia Seixas, Fabio; Rodrigues de Araujo Estrela, Cyntia; Estrela, Carlos; Djalma Pecora, Jesus

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the environment microbial contamination produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation in infected root canals. A total of 20 human anterior teeth were prepared, sterilized and, then, inoculated with a mixture of the following microorganisms: S. Aureus, E. Faecalis, P. Aeruginosa, B. Subtilis and C. Albicans. After the contamination period (28 days), the teeth were irrigated with sterile distilled water or 1% sodium hypochlorite and, then, irradiated with an Er:YAG laser with two different laser parameters: 52 mJ or 110 mJ output at the fiber tip. Eighteen Petri dishes with 20 ml of BHI Agar were used in the study. For each group, 3 plates with BHIA were used for the analysis of the microbial contamination of the environment during the activation of the laser in infected root canals. The plates were positioned in differing distances away from the irradiated tooth (plate 1 - distance of 15 cm, plate 2 - distance of 50 cm and plate 3 - distance of 3 meters). After the analysis of the results, it was observed that the larger microbial contamination occurred in Group 1 (teeth irrigated with sterile distilled water and irradiated with Er:YAG laser with 52 mJ output at the fiber tip), plate 1 (positioned 15 cm away from the irradiated tooth), with values greater than 30 Colony-Forming Units (CFU).

  4. Effect of organic contamination upon microbial distributions and heterotrophic uptake in a cape cod, mass., aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Smith, R.L.; George, L.

    1984-01-01

    Bacterial abundance, distribution, and heterotrophic uptake in a freshwater aquifer contaminated by treated sewage were determined from analyses of groundwater and sediment-core samples. The number of free-living (unattached) bacteria in contaminated groundwater declined steadily with increasing distance from the source of sewage infiltration, from 1.94 ?? (?? 0.20) x 106 ml-1 at 0.21 km to 0.25 (?? 0.02) x 106 ml-1 at 0.97 km. Bacterial abundance in groundwater sampled at 0.31 km correlated strongly with specific conductance and increased sharply from 4.0 (?? 0.3) x 104 ml-1 at a depth of 6 m to 1.58 (?? 0.12) x 106 ml-1 at 14 m, then declined at 20 and 31 m to 1.29 (?? 0.12) x 106 and 0.96 (?? 0.12) x 106 ml-1, respectively. A majority of the bacteria in contaminated and uncontaminated zones of the aquifer were bound to the surfaces of particulates, <60 ??m in diameter. The glucose uptake rate, assayed at in situ and 5 ??M concentrations, declined steadily in contaminated groundwater sampled along a transect. A preparative wet-sieving technique for use in processing core samples for bacterial enumeration is described and evaluated.

  5. Molecular-Scale Characterization of Natural Organic Matter From A Uranium Contaminated Aquifer and its Utilization by Native Microbial Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouser, P. J.; Wilkins, M. J.; Williams, K. H.; Smith, D. F.; Paša-Tolić, L.

    2011-12-01

    The availability and form of natural organic matter (NOM) strongly influences rates of microbial metabolism and associated redox processes in subsurface environments. This is an important consideration in metal-contaminated aquifers, such as the DOE's Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, where naturally occurring suboxic conditions in groundwater may play an important function in controlling uranium mobility, and therefore the long-term stewardship of the site. Currently, the biophysiochemical processes surrounding the nature of the aquifer and its role in controlling the fate and transport of uranium are poorly understood. Using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI), we characterized dissolved organic matter (DOM) chemistry for three surface and groundwater sources at Rifle and assessed microbial utilization in batch incubation experiments. FT-ICR-MS uniquely offers ultrahigh mass measurement accuracy and resolving power for polar organics, in addition to enabling elemental composition assignments of these compounds. Samples were collected from the Colorado River, a shallow groundwater aquifer adjacent to the river, and a spring/seep discharge point upgradient from the aquifer. DOM was concentrated and purified from each source and analyzed using FT-ICR-MS with ESI. We identified between 6,000 and 7,000 formulae at each location, with the river sample having the smallest and the spring sample having the largest number of identified peaks. The groundwater and spring samples contained DOM with a large percentage of formulae containing nitrogen and sulfur species, while the river sample was dominated by carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen species. Less than 38% of the formulae were shared between any two samples, indicating a significant level of uniqueness across the samples. Unsaturated hydrocarbons, cellulose, and lipids were rapidly utilized by indigenous bacteria during a 24-day incubation period, and presumably transformed to more recalcitrant lignins and protein-type molecules. These findings indicate that FT-ICR-MS with ESI is an effective method for characterizing molecular-scale differences in DOM from complex environments. We also provide preliminary evidence that certain DOM fractions are more efficiently utilized by indigenous microbial communities and likely play an important role in controlling reducing conditions in heterogeneous subsurface environments.

  6. Impacts on microbial communities and cultivable isolates from groundwater contaminated with high levels of nitric acid-uranium waste.

    PubMed

    Fields, Matthew W; Yan, Tingfen; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Carroll, Susan L; Jardine, Phil M; Watson, David B; Criddle, Craig S; Zhou, Jizhong

    2005-08-01

    Microbial communities were characterized at contaminated sites that had elevated levels of nitrate, nickel, aluminum, and uranium (up to 690 mM, 310 microM, 42 mM, and 30 microM, respectively). The bacterial community structure based upon clonal libraries of the SSU rRNA genes (screened clones = 876) was diverse at the background site, but the three acidic samples had decreased diversity and the majority of clones were closely related to Azoarcus and Pseudomonas species. Arthrobacter and Novosphingobium sequences were recovered from the background samples but not the acidic sites, and similar pseudomonad populations were present at the background and acidic sites albeit at different relative abundances. Heterologous sequence coverage analyses indicated the microbial communities at the contaminated sites were very similar (p = 0.001) but different from the background site. Bacterial isolates (n = 67) classified as beta-or gamma-Proteobacteria, high G+C Gram-positive or low G+C Gram-positive were obtained from the background and one contaminated sample, and some of the isolates had less than 95% sequence identity with previously observed microorganisms. Despite variations in nitrate and heavy metal levels and different proximities to the source ponds, the three acidic samples had similar microbial populations. However, the least contaminated site (lowest nitrate and aluminum) had increased diversity compared to the other acidic samples. The results suggested that the combined contamination has decreased the microbial diversity, and Azoarcus populations were observed at a drastically increased frequency compared to the background site that had a more even distribution of multiple taxa. PMID:16329960

  7. Stable isotope fractionation related to microbial nitrogen turnover in constructed wetlands treating contaminated groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voloshchenko, O.; Knoeller, K.

    2013-12-01

    To improve the efficiency of ground- and wastewater treatment in constructed wetlands (CWs), better understanding of the occurring processes is necessary. This research explores N-isotope fractionations associated with the removal of ammonium from contaminated groundwater in pilot-scale CWs downstream of the chemical industrial area Leuna, Germany. The groundwater at the site is contaminated mainly by organic (BTEX, MTBE) and inorganic compounds (ammonium). We assume that the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) plays an important role in nitrogen removal in these CWs. However, to date, interactions between processes of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in CWs still have not been well explored. Especially, the importance of the ANAMMOX process for the nitrogen removal is generally accepted, but its role in CWs is quite unknown. For this aim, three CWs were chosen: planted horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF); unplanted HSSF, and floating plant root mat (FPRM). Water samples were taken at the inflow and outflow as well as from the pore space at different distances (1, 2.5 and 4 m) from the inlet and at different depths (20, 30 and 40 cm in the HSSF-CWs, 30 cm in the FPRM). Samples were collected in a time interval of 1 to 6 weeks during 1 year with the exception of the winter season. Physicochemical parameters, nitrogen isotope signatures of ammonium, as well as nitrogen and oxygen isotope signatures of nitrate were analysed. Within the CWs, spatial concentration gradients of the nitrogen species (ammonium and nitrate) are observed. N-isotope variations of ammonium and nitrate are interpreted according to the prevailing processes of the N-transformations. Based on isotope mass-balance approach microbial processes such as nitrification, denitrification, and ANAMMOX are quantified. DNA from biofilms at roots and gravel was extracted using FastDNA Spin Kit For Soil (MP Biomedicals). PCR, quantitative PCR, cloning, and sequencing were applied with the purpose of getting information about the abundance and the community of key players of the N-cycle. Pyrosequencing and specific FISH probes in connection with confocal laser scanning microscopy will give information about structure and spatial distribution of the microbial nitrogen transforming community.

  8. Modeling Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction and Contaminant Transport of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yimer Ebrahim, Girma; Jonoski, Andreja; van Griensven, Ann; Dujardin, Juliette; Baetelaan, Okke; Bronders, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorinated-solvent form one of the largest groups of environmental chemicals. Their use and misuse in industry have lead to a large entry of these chemicals into the environment, resulting in widespread dissemination and oftentimes environmental contamination. Chlorinated solvent contamination of groundwater resources has been widely reported. For instance, there has been much interest in the assessment of these contaminant levels and their evolutions with time in the groundwater body below the Vilvoorde-Machelen industrial area (Belgium). The long industrial history of the area has lead to complex patterns of pollution from multiple sources and the site has been polluted to the extent that individual plumes are not definable any more. Understanding of groundwater/surface water interaction is a critical component for determining the fate of contaminant both in streams and ground water due to the fact that groundwater and surface water are in continuous dynamic interaction in the hydrologic cycle. The interaction has practical consequences in the quantity and quality of water in either system in the sense that depletion and/or contamination of one of the system will eventually affect the other one. The transition zone between a stream and its adjacent aquifer referred to as the hyporheic zone plays a critical role in governing contaminant exchange and transformation during water exchange between the two water bodies. The hyporheic zone of Zenne River ( the main receptor ) is further complicated due to the fact that the river banks are artificially trained with sheet piles along its reach extending some 12 m below the surface. This study demonstrates the use of MODFLOW, a widely used modular three-dimensional block-centred finite difference, saturated flow model for simulating the flow and direction of movement of groundwater through aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction and the use of transport model RT3D, a three-dimensional multi-species reactive transport model capable of incorporating multiple chemical and biological reactions to model the movement and chemical alteration of chlorinated solvents as they move with groundwater through the subsurface and reach to the surface water of the Zenne River . Keywords: MODFLOW, RT3D, Chlorinated-solvent; groundwater/surface water interaction ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors would like to thank the EU/FP7 AQUAREHAB Project for the financial support.

  9. Validation of techniques to mitigate copper surface contamination in CUORE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandria, F.; Ardito, R.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T., III; Azzolini, O.; Balata, M.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Bloxham, T.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Cai, X. Z.; Canonica, L.; Capelli, S.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carrettoni, M.; Casali, N.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Dafinei, I.; Dally, A.; Datskov, V.; De Biasi, A.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; di Vacri, M. L.; Ejzak, L.; Faccini, R.; Fang, D. Q.; Farach, H. A.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Goett, J.; Goodsell, A.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Guardincerri, E.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Heeger, K. M.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Kazkaz, K.; Keppel, G.; Kogler, L.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lenz, D.; Li, Y. L.; Ligi, C.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maiano, C.; Maino, M.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Napolitano, T.; Newman, S.; Nisi, S.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; Orio, F.; Orlandi, D.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pedretti, M.; Pessina, G.; Pirro, S.; Previtali, E.; Rampazzo, V.; Reil, R.; Rimondi, F.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N. D.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Sparks, L.; Stivanello, F.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Tian, W. D.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Ventura, G.; Vignati, M.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Whitten, C. A., Jr.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zarra, C.; Zhu, B. X.; Zucchelli, S.

    2013-05-01

    In this article we describe the background challenges for the CUORE experiment posed by surface contamination of inert detector materials such as copper, and present three techniques explored to mitigate these backgrounds. Using data from a dedicated test apparatus constructed to validate and compare these techniques we demonstrate that copper surface contamination levels better than 10-7- 10-8 Bq/cm2 are achieved for 238U and 232Th. If these levels are reproduced in the final CUORE apparatus the projected 90% C.L. upper limit on the number of background counts in the region of interest is 0.02-0.03 counts/keV/kg/y depending on the adopted mitigation technique.

  10. Surface scattering characteristics and the measurement of particulate contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carosso, Paolo A.; Carosso, Nancy J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Surface scattering measurement techniques can be adopted for use in spacecraft contamination control programs. A witness mirror measurement program was developed and implemented for the NASA Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft. Scattering measurements were obtained before and after a qualification level vibration test for several COBE prototype instruments. The measurements indicate that a significant amount of particle redistribution occurred during the vibration test. The methodology used and the results obtained from this monitoring program are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of microbial contamination of tomatoes and peppers at retail markets in Monterrey, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Carmen; Molina, Karina; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos

    2013-08-01

    The source of a large outbreak of foodborne disease related to Salmonella-contaminated jalapeño peppers has been traced to Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of tomatoes and jalapeño peppers from markets and supermarkets from the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. One hundred sixty samples (40 bola tomatoes, 40 saladette [Roma] tomatoes, 40 serrano peppers, and 40 jalapeño peppers) were purchased. Stems from peppers were removed and analyzed separately. Samples were analyzed for indicator organisms and Salmonella, following the Mexican Official Methods. The results showed that the presence of indicator organisms varied among samples and origins, and levels were relatively high in peppers (average 4.4 to 4.7 log CFU/g for total mesophilic, 3.25 to 3.73 log CFU/g for total coliforms, and 1.69 log CFU/g for fecal coliforms). Saladette tomatoes and serrano peppers showed the greatest microorganism levels (∼1 log CFU/g higher) in comparison with the other varieties. Pepper stems typically had indicator microbial levels ∼1 to 2 log CFU/g higher than levels in smooth flesh. Only one tomato and one jalapeño sample were positive for Salmonella. However, in the case of the pepper, the contamination was found in the stem. Although the microbiological quality of tomatoes and peppers sampled was similar to that found in markets from developed countries, the presence of pathogens causes a risk of infection for consumers. PMID:23905810

  12. Combining hierarchical surface roughness with fluorinated surface chemistry to preserve superhydrophobicity after organic contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chih-Feng; Hung, Shih-Wei; Kuo, Shiao-Wei; Chang, Chi-Jung

    2014-11-01

    Surfaces exhibiting superhydrophobicity are attracting commercial and academic attention because of their potential applications in, for example, self-cleaning utensils, microfluidic systems, and microelectronic devices. In this study, we prepared a fluorinated superhydrophobic surface displaying nanoscale roughness, a superhydrophobic surface possessing a micro- and nanoscale binary structure, and a fluorinated superhydrophobic surface possessing such a binary structure. We investigated the effects of the (i) hierarchy of the surface topography and (ii) the surface chemical composition of the superhydrophobic carbon nanotube/polybenzoxazine coatings on their ability to retain superhydrophobicity upon contamination with particles and organic matter, an important characteristic for maintaining non-wetting properties under outdoor conditions. We have found that the topographical microstructure and the surface chemical composition are both important factors for preservation of the non-wetting properties of such superhydrophobic surfaces upon contamination with organic matter.

  13. Microbial contamination of indoor air due to leakages from crawl space: a field study.

    PubMed

    Airaksinen, M; Pasanen, P; Kurnitski, J; Seppänen, O

    2004-02-01

    Mechanical exhaust ventilation system is typical in apartment buildings in Finland. In most buildings the base floor between the first floor apartments and crawl space is not air tight. As the apartments have lower pressure than the crawl space due to ventilation, contaminated air may flow from the crawl space to the apartments. The object of this study was to find out whether a potential air flow from crawl space has an influence on the indoor air quality. The results show that in most cases the concentration of fungal spores was clearly higher in the crawl space than inside the building. The size distribution of fungal spores depended on the fungal species. Correlation between the fungal spores in the crawl space and indoors varied with microbial species. Some species have sources inside the building, which confounds the possible relation between crawl pace and indoor concentrations. Some species, such as Acremonium, do not normally have a source indoors, but its concentration in the crawl space was elevated; our measurements showed also elevated concentrations of Acremonium in the air of the apartments. This consistent finding shows a clear linkage between fungal spores in the indoor air and crawl space. We conclude that a building with a crawl space and pressure difference over the base floor could be a potential risk for indoor air quality in the first floor apartments. PMID:14756846

  14. Microbially assisted phytoremediation approaches for two multi-element contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Langella, Francesca; Grawunder, Anja; Stark, Romy; Weist, Aileen; Merten, Dirk; Haferburg, Götz; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an environmental friendly, cost-effective technology for a soft restoration of abandoned mine sites. The grasses Agrostis capillaris, Deschampsia flexuosa and Festuca rubra, and the annual herb Helianthus annuus were combined with microbial consortia in pot experiments on multi-metal polluted substrates collected at a former uranium mine near Ronneburg, Germany, and a historic copper mine in Kopparberg, Sweden, to test for phytoextraction versus phytostabilization abilities. Metal uptake into plant biomass was evaluated to identify optimal plant-microbe combinations for each substrate. Metal bioavailability was found to be plant species and element specific, and influenced by the applied bacterial consortia of 10 strains, each isolated from the same soil to which it was applied. H. annuus showed high extraction capacity for several metals on the German soil independent of inoculation. Our study could also show a significant enhancement of extraction for F. rubra and A. capillaris when combined with the bacterial consortium, although usually grasses are considered metal excluder species. On the Swedish mixed substrate, due to its toxicity, with 30 % bark compost, A. capillaris inoculated with the respective consortium was able to extract multi-metal contaminants. PMID:24081921

  15. Anaerobic microbial dechlorination: an approach to on-site treatment of toxaphene-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mirsatari, S.G.; McChesney, M.M.; Craigmill, A.C.; Winterlin, W.L.; Seiber, J.N.

    1987-12-01

    Enhanced microbial degradation of toxaphene by natural microorganisms occurred in soil and sediment amended with organic matter kept under anaerobic (flooded) conditions. Laboratory experiments yielded a dissipation half-life of approximately 3 and 1 week for soil and sediment, respectively, containing 10 ppm of technical toxaphene and a 1% alfalfa meal amendment. Dissipation was accompanied by an increase in early eluting gas chromatographic peaks and a decrease in later eluting peaks, indicating that dechlorination had occurred. Enhanced anaerobic dissipation also took place in soil containing 500 ppm of toxaphene, although at a lesser rate than at 10 ppm, and when cotton gin waste was used as amendment in place of alfalfa meal. Sediment in a toxaphene-contaminated pesticide waste disposal ditch was amended with 10% steer manure and flooded to ascertain field utility of the technique for on-site decontamination. Toxaphene residues were reduced from 63 to 23 ppm in 120 days, and some degradation activity still occurred up to 8 months after this single treatment.

  16. Horizontal arrangement of anodes of microbial fuel cells enhances remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueyong; Wang, Xin; Li, Xiaojing; Cheng, Lijuan; Wan, Lili; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-02-01

    With the aim of in situ bioremediation of soil contaminated by hydrocarbons, anodes arranged with two different ways (horizontal or vertical) were compared in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Charge outputs as high as 833 and 762C were achieved in reactors with anodes horizontally arranged (HA) and vertically arranged (VA). Up to 12.5 % of the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was removed in HA after 135 days, which was 50.6 % higher than that in VA (8.3 %) and 95.3 % higher than that in the disconnected control (6.4 %). Hydrocarbon fingerprint analysis showed that the degradation rates of both alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in HA were higher than those in VA. Lower mass transport resistance in the HA than that of the VA seems to result in more power and more TPH degradation. Soil pH was increased from 8.26 to 9.12 in HA and from 8.26 to 8.64 in VA, whereas the conductivity was decreased from 1.99 to 1.54 mS/cm in HA and from 1.99 to 1.46 mS/cm in VA accompanied with the removal of TPH. Considering both enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbon and generation of charge in HA, the MFC with anodes horizontally arranged is a promising configuration for future applications. PMID:25189807

  17. Bioremediation of 1,2-dichloroethane contaminated groundwater: Microcosm and microbial diversity studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, S Y; Kuo, Y C; Huang, Y Z; Huang, C W; Kao, C M

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of bioremediating 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA)-contaminated groundwater under different oxidation-reduction processes was evaluated. Microcosms were constructed using indigenous bacteria and activated sludge as the inocula and cane molasses and a slow polycolloid-releasing substrate (SPRS) as the primary substrates. Complete DCA removal was obtained within 30 days under aerobic and reductive dechlorinating conditions. In anaerobic microcosms with sludge and substrate addition, chloroethane, vinyl chloride, and ethene were produced. The microbial communities and DCA-degrading bacteria in microcosms were characterized by 16S rRNA-based denatured-gradient-gel electrophoresis profiling and nucleotide sequence analyses. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to evaluate the variations in Dehalococcoides spp. and Desulfitobacterium spp. Increase in Desulfitobacterium spp. indicates that the growth of Desulfitobacterium might be induced by DCA. Results indicate that DCA could be used as the primary substrate under aerobic conditions. The increased ethene concentrations imply that dihaloelimination was the dominate mechanism for DCA biodegradation. PMID:25863886

  18. Survey of microbial contamination and characterization of Escherichia coli in kiwifruit orchards in Shaanxi, China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuqing; Yang, Qinnan; Wang, Lingfang; Li, Guanghui; Lv, Xiaoying; Han, Qi'an; Liu, Xiaobo; Xia, Xiaodong

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to survey three foodborne pathogens in kiwifruit orchards as a continuous monitoring program. A total of 193 samples were collected from 11 kiwifruit orchards in Shaanxi province in October 2013. Among the 193 samples, 68 Escherichia coli isolates were recovered, while no Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella was recovered. All E. coli isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of virulence genes, and the ability to produce biofilm formation. The isolates were further examined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. E. coli isolates displayed resistance most frequently to tetracycline (48.5%). Two E. coli isolates (2.9%) were positive for the eae gene (the intimin gene). All E. coli isolates lacked the ability to make biofilm formation. Multilocus sequence typing analysis demonstrated that one isolate in kiwifruit orchards shared the same sequence type with a human clinical isolate. RAPD results showed a close relationship among E. coli isolates from fresh fruit, fallen fruit, soil, air, and irrigation water. This study could provide a further understanding of microbial contamination in kiwifruit orchards based on our previous study and help growers take appropriate measures for prevention. PMID:26267480

  19. Biodegradation of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in contaminated groundwater using microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Hedbavna, Petra; Rolfe, Stephen A; Huang, Wei E; Thornton, Steven F

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study demonstrating the biodegradation of phenolic compounds and their organic metabolites in contaminated groundwater using bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). The phenols were biodegraded anaerobically via 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methylbenzoic acid, which were retained by electromigration in the anode chamber. Oxygen, nitrate, iron(III), sulfate and the electrode were electron acceptors for biodegradation. Electro-active bacteria attached to the anode, producing electricity (~1.8mW/m(2)), while utilizing acetate as an electron donor. Electricity generation started concurrently with iron reduction; the anode was an electron acceptor as thermodynamically favorable as iron(III). Acetate removal was enhanced by 40% in the presence of the anode. However, enhanced removal of phenols occurred only for a short time. Field-scale application of BESs for in situ bioremediation requires an understanding of the regulation and kinetics of biodegradation pathways of the parent compounds to relevant metabolites, and the syntrophic interactions and carbon flow in the microbial community. PMID:26512868

  20. Fate of physical, chemical, and microbial contaminants in domestic wastewater following treatment by small constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hench, Keith R; Bissonnette, Gary K; Sexstone, Alan J; Coleman, Jerry G; Garbutt, Keith; Skousen, Jeffrey G

    2003-02-01

    In order to evaluate the efficacy of constructed wetlands for treatment of domestic wastewater for small communities located in rural areas, small-scale wetland mesocosms (400 L each) containing two treatment designs (a mixture of Typha, Scirpus, and Juncus species; control without vegetation) were planted into two depths (45 or 60 cm) with pea gravel. Each mesocosm received 19 L/day of primary-treated domestic sewage. Mesocosms were monitored (inflow and outflow samples) on a monthly basis over a 2-year period for pH, total suspended solids (TSS), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), dissolved oxygen (DO), and conductivity. Microbiological analyses included enumeration of fecal coliforms, enterococci, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and coliphage. Significant differences between influent and effluent water quality for the vegetated wetlands (p<0.05) were observed in TSS, BOD(5), and TKN. Increased DO and reduction in fecal coliform, enterococcus, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and coliphage populations also were observed in vegetated wetlands. Greatest microbial reductions were observed in the planted mesocosms compared to those lacking vegetation. Despite marked reduction of several contaminants, wetland-treated effluents did not consistently meet final discharge limits for receiving bodies of water. Removal efficiencies for bacteria and several chemical parameters were more apparent during the initial year compared to the second year of operation, suggesting concern for long-term efficiency and stability of such wetlands. PMID:12531275

  1. A hybrid biocathode: surface display of O2-reducing enzymes for microbial fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Szczupak, Alon; Kol-Kalman, Dan; Alfonta, Lital

    2012-01-01

    Laccase and bilirubin oxidase were successfully displayed on the surface of yeast cells. Subsequently, these modified yeast cells were used in the cathode compartment of a microbial fuel cell. The performance of the fuel cells is compared. PMID:22075939

  2. Explosive Contamination from Substrate Surfaces: Differences and Similarities in Contamination Techniques Using RDX and C-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. J.; Yoder, T. S.

    2010-06-01

    Explosive trace detection equipment has been deployed to airports for more than a decade. During this time, the need for standardized procedures and calibrated trace amounts for ensuring that the systems are operating properly and detecting the correct explosive has been apparent but a standard representative of a fingerprint has been elusive. Standards are also necessary to evaluate instrumentation in the laboratories during development and prior to deployment to determine sample throughput, probability of detection, false positive/negative rates, ease of use by operator, mechanical and/or software problems that may be encountered, and other pertinent parameters that would result in the equipment being unusable during field operations. Since many laboratories do not have access to nor are allowed to handle explosives, the equipment is tested using techniques aimed at simulating the actual explosives fingerprint. This laboratory study focused on examining the similarities and differences in three different surface contamination techniques that are used to performance test explosive trace detection equipment in an attempt to determine how effective the techniques are at replicating actual field samples and to offer scenarios where each contamination technique is applicable. The three techniques used were dry transfer deposition of standard solutions using the Transportation Security Laboratory’s (TSL) patented dry transfer techniques (US patent 6470730), direct deposition of explosive standards onto substrates, and fingerprinting of actual explosives onto substrates. RDX was deposited on the surface of one of five substrates using one of the three different deposition techniques. The process was repeated for each substrate type using each contamination technique. The substrate types used were: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that found on canvas or denim, suede leather such as might be found on jackets, purses, or shoes, and painted metal obtained from a car hood at a junk yard. The samples were not pre-cleaned prior to testing and contained sizing agents, and in the case of the metal, oil and dirt. The substrates were photographed using a Zeiss Discover V12 stereoscope with Axiocam ICc1 3 megapixel digital camera to determine the difference in the crystalline structure and surface contamination in an attempt to determine differences and similarities associated with current contamination deposition techniques. Some samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and some were extracted and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) to quantify the data.

  3. Surface tailored organobentonite enhances bacterial proliferation and phenanthrene biodegradation under cadmium co-contamination.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Asit; Biswas, Bhabananda; Sarkar, Binoy; Patra, Ashok K; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-04-15

    Co-contamination of soil and water with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and heavy metals makes biodegradation of the former extremely challenging. Modified clay-modulated microbial degradation provides a novel insight in addressing this issue. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth and phenanthrene degradation performance of Mycobacterium gilvum VF1 in the presence of a palmitic acid (PA)-grafted Arquad® 2HT-75-based organobentonite in cadmium (Cd)-phenanthrene co-contaminated water. The PA-grafted organobentonite (ABP) adsorbed a slightly greater quantity of Cd than bentonite at up to 30mgL(-1) metal concentration, but its highly negative surface charge imparted by carboxylic groups indicated the potential of being a significantly superior adsorbent of Cd at higher metal concentrations. In systems co-contained with Cd (5 and 10mgL(-1)), the Arquad® 2HT-75-modified bentonite (AB) and PA-grafted organobentonite (ABP) resulted in a significantly higher (72-78%) degradation of phenanthrene than bentonite (62%) by the bacterium. The growth and proliferation of bacteria were supported by ABP which not only eliminated Cd toxicity through adsorption but also created a congenial microenvironment for bacterial survival. The macromolecules produced during ABP-bacteria interaction could form a stable clay-bacterial cluster by overcoming the electrostatic repulsion among individual components. Findings of this study provide new insights for designing clay modulated PAH bioremediation technologies in mixed-contaminated water and soil. PMID:26849325

  4. Spatial and temporal changes in microbial community structure associated with recharge-influenced chemical gradients in a contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Fogarty, L.R.; West, T.G.; Alm, E.W.; McGuire, J.T.; Long, D.T.; Hyndman, D.W.; Forney, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    In a contaminated water-table aquifer, we related microbial community structure on aquifer sediments to gradients in 24 geochemical and contaminant variables at five depths, under three recharge conditions. Community amplified ribsosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using universal 16S rDNA primers and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) using bacterial 16S rDNA primers indicated: (i) communities in the anoxic, contaminated central zone were similar regardless of recharge; (ii) after recharge, communities at greatest depth were similar to those in uncontaminated zones; and (iii) after extended lack of recharge, communities at upper and lower aquifer margins differed from communities at the same depths on other dates. General aquifer geochemistry was as important as contaminant or terminal electron accepting process (TEAP) chemistry in discriminant analysis of community groups. The Shannon index of diversity (H) and the evenness index (E), based on DGGE operational taxonomic units (OTUs), were statistically different across community groups and aquifer depths. Archaea or sulphate-reducing bacteria 16S rRNA abundance was not clearly correlated with TEAP chemistry indicative of methanogenesis or sulphate reduction. Eukarya rRNA abundance varied by depth and date from 0 to 13% of the microbial community. This contaminated aquifer is a dynamic ecosystem, with complex interactions between physical, chemical and biotic components, which should be considered in the interpretation of aquifer geochemistry and in the development of conceptual or predictive models for natural attenuation or remediation.

  5. Catalytic surface effects on contaminated space shuttle tile in a dissociated nitrogen stream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, O. L.; Stewart, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Visual inspection revealed contamination on the surface of tiles removed from the lower section of the space shuttle orbiter after the second flight of Columbia (STS-2). Possible sources of this contamination and the effect on surface catalycity are presented.

  6. Characterization of sea surface chemical contamination after shipping accidents.

    PubMed

    Guitart, Carlos; Frickers, Patricia; Horrillo-Caraballo, Jose; Law, Robin J; Readman, James W

    2008-04-01

    A contamination survey was conducted after the beaching of the stricken cargo ship MSC Napoli in Lyme Bay on the south coast of Devon (UK). A grid of 22 coastal and offshore stations was sampled to investigate the extent of spilled oil and to screen for chemical contamination, as well as to evaluate the behavior of the oil at the air-sea interface. Samples were collected from the sea surface microlayer (SML) and from subsurface waters (SSW) at each station. The fuel oil spilled (IFO 380) was also analyzed. The determination of oil-related hydrocarbons (aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), terpanes, and steranes) and the screening for other harmful chemicals on the inventory of the MSC Napoli in the seawater samples, was performed by PTV-GC/ MS using large volume injection (LVI) techniques. Screening did not reveal the presence of any harmful chemicals other than petroleum-related compounds. Results afforded investigation of oil sources and spatial distributions of total PAH concentrations and enrichments in the sea surface microlayer (SML). Rather than a single source, oil fingerprinting analyses of the samples revealed a mixture of three types of oil: heavy fuel oil, lubricating oil, and a lighter oil (probably diesel oil). Enrichment factors (EF) in the SML (EF = C(SML)/C(SSW)) were calculated and, in the vicinity of the ship, approached 2000, declining with distance away from the wreck. These factors represent approximately a 1000-fold enrichment over typical coastal total PAH enrichments in the SML and reflected a clear petrogenic origin of the contamination (as demonstrated, for example, by a Fl/Pgamma ratio < 1). In addition, the spatial transport and fate (i.e., air-sea exchange processes and water column diffusion) of the oil-related hydrocarbons in the sea surface were investigated. Essentially, near the wreck, the SML was highly enriched in oil forming a visible sheen, both disrupting the normal air-seawater exchange processes and generating a downward diffusion flux of contaminants from the SML to the SSW. This was reflected by a higher occurrence of naphthalene relative to alkyl-naphthalenes in the SSW compared to the SML. The higher concentrations and different sources of oil found in the SML in comparison to those found in the SSW indicate that, if only subsurface water samples are investigated in isolation, the true extent and impact of a spill could be underestimated. It is important to simultaneously evaluate contamination in the sea surface during emergency response. PMID:18504953

  7. Insights into biodegradation through depth-resolved microbial community functional and structural profiling of a crude-oil contaminant plume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fahrenfeld, Nicole; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Bailey, Zach; Pruden, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale geochemical gradients are a key feature of aquifer contaminant plumes, highlighting the need for functional and structural profiling of corresponding microbial communities on a similar scale. The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial functional and structural diversity with depth across representative redox zones of a hydrocarbon plume and an adjacent wetland, at the Bemidji Oil Spill site. A combination of quantitative PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and pyrosequencing were applied to vertically sampled sediment cores. Levels of the methanogenic marker gene, methyl coenzyme-M reductase A (mcrA), increased with depth near the oil body center, but were variable with depth further downgradient. Benzoate degradation N (bzdN) hydrocarbon-degradation gene, common to facultatively anaerobic Azoarcus spp., was found at all locations, but was highest near the oil body center. Microbial community structural differences were observed across sediment cores, and bacterial classes containing known hydrocarbon degraders were found to be low in relative abundance. Depth-resolved functional and structural profiling revealed the strongest gradients in the iron-reducing zone, displaying the greatest variability with depth. This study provides important insight into biogeochemical characteristics in different regions of contaminant plumes, which will aid in improving models of contaminant fate and natural attenuation rates.

  8. Microbial communities on flower surfaces act as signatures of pollinator visitation

    PubMed Central

    Ushio, Masayuki; Yamasaki, Eri; Takasu, Hiroyuki; Nagano, Atsushi J.; Fujinaga, Shohei; Honjo, Mie N.; Ikemoto, Mito; Sakai, Shoko; Kudoh, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Microbes are easily dispersed from one place to another, and immigrant microbes might contain information about the environments from which they came. We hypothesized that part of the microbial community on a flower's surface is transferred there from insect body surfaces and that this community can provide information to identify potential pollinator insects of that plant. We collected insect samples from the field, and found that an insect individual harbored an average of 12.2 × 105 microbial cells on its surface. A laboratory experiment showed that the microbial community composition on a flower surface changed after contact with an insect, suggesting that microbes are transferred from the insect to the flower. Comparison of the microbial fingerprint approach and direct visual observation under field condition suggested that the microbial community on a flower surface could to some extent indicate the structure of plant–pollinator interactions. In conclusion, species-specific insect microbial communities specific to insect species can be transferred from an insect body to a flower surface, and these microbes can serve as a “fingerprint” of the insect species, especially for large-bodied insects. Dispersal of microbes is a ubiquitous phenomenon that has unexpected and novel applications in many fields and disciplines. PMID:25733079

  9. Characterization of the Deltaproteobacteria in Contaminated and Uncontaminated Surface Stream Sediments and Identification of Potential Mercury Methylators

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, Jennifer J; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Elias, Dwayne A; Podar, Mircea; Brooks, Scott C; Brown, Steven D; Brandt, Craig C; Palumbo, Anthony Vito

    2012-01-01

    Microbial communities were examined in surface stream sediments at five contaminated sites and one control site near Oak Ridge, TN in order to identify bacteria that could be contributing to mercury methylation. The phylogenetic composition of the sediment bacterial community was examined over three quarterly sampling periods (36 samples) using 16s rRNA pyrosequencing. Only 3064 sequences (0.85 % of the total community) were identified as Deltaproteobacteria by the RDP classifier at the 99% confidence threshold. Constrained ordination techniques indicated significant positive correlations between Desulfobulbus spp., Desulfonema spp. and Desulfobacca spp. and methyl mercury concentrations in the contaminated sites. On the contrary, the distribution of organisms related to Byssovorax was significantly correlated to inorganic carbon, nitrate and uranium concentrations. Overall, the abundance and richness of Deltaproteobacteria sequences were higher in the sediments of the site, while the majority of the members present at the contaminated sites were either known metal reducers/methylators or metal tolerant species.

  10. Sea surface: fate and biological effects of mixed contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.T.; Crecelius, E.A.; Long, E.; Kiesser, S.L.; Stubin, A.I.; Gurtisen, J.M.; Apts, C.W.

    1985-09-01

    This research on the microlayer (upper 50 micrometers of the sea surface) confirms that many contaminants partition at this interface. High concentrations of polynuclear aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons were found in the microlayer of urban bays in Puget Sound. In some cases, concentrations exceeded water quality criteria by several orders of magnitude. At the same sites, subsurface bulk water showed no detectable contamination. Fertilized neustonic eggs of sand sole (Psettichthys melanostictus), were exposed to collected microlayer samples during their first week of embryonic and larval development. Compared to the rural site and/or central Puget Sound, exposure of embryos to microlayer from several urban bay sites resulted in delayed hatching, increased embryo mortality, and kyphosis (bent spine abnormalities) in hatched larvae. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Water Sources and Their Protection from the Impact of Microbial Contamination in Rural Areas of Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Bixiong; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Hairong

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drinking water was serious in areas north of Beijing, with the total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some water samples reaching 88,000 CFU/mL, 1,600 MPN/100 mL and 1,600 MPN/100 mL, respectively. Water source types, well depth, whether the well was adequately sealed and housed, and whether wellhead is above or below ground were the main factors influencing bacterial contamination levels in drinking water. The bacterial contamination was serious in the water of shallow wells and wells that were not closed, had no well housing or had a wellhead below ground level. The contamination sources around wells, including village dry toilets and livestock farms, were well correlated with bacterial contamination. Total bacterial counts were affected by proximity to sewage ditches and polluting industries, however, proximity to landfills did not influence the microbial indicators. PMID:23462436

  12. Water sources and their protection from the impact of microbial contamination in rural areas of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Bixiong; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Hairong

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drinking water was serious in areas north of Beijing, with the total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some water samples reaching 88,000 CFU/mL, 1,600 MPN/100 mL and 1,600 MPN/100 mL, respectively. Water source types, well depth, whether the well was adequately sealed and housed, and whether wellhead is above or below ground were the main factors influencing bacterial contamination levels in drinking water. The bacterial contamination was serious in the water of shallow wells and wells that were not closed, had no well housing or had a wellhead below ground level. The contamination sources around wells, including village dry toilets and livestock farms, were well correlated with bacterial contamination. Total bacterial counts were affected by proximity to sewage ditches and polluting industries, however, proximity to landfills did not influence the microbial indicators. PMID:23462436

  13. Experimental evidence that microbial activity lowers the albedo of glacier surfaces: the cryoconite casserole experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musilova, M.; Tranter, M.; Takeuchi, N.; Anesio, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Darkened glacier and ice sheet surfaces have lower albedos, absorb more solar radiation and consequently melt more rapidly. The increase in glacier surface darkening is an important positive feedback to warming global temperatures, leading to ever growing world-wide ice mass loss. Most studies focus primarily on glacial albedo darkening caused by the physical properties of snow and ice surfaces, and the deposition of dark impurities on glaciers. To date, however, the important effects of biological activity have not been included in most albedo reduction models. This study provides the first experimental evidence that microbial activity can significantly decrease the albedo of glacier surfaces. An original laboratory experiment, the cryoconite casserole, was designed to test the microbial darkening of glacier surface debris (cryoconite) under simulated Greenlandic summer conditions. It was found that minor fertilisation of the cryoconite (at nutrient concentrations typical of glacial ice melt) stimulated extensive microbial activity. Microbes intensified their organic carbon fixation and even mined phosphorous out of the glacier surface sediment. Furthermore, the microbial organic carbon production, accumulation and transformation caused the glacial debris to darken further by 17.3% reflectivity (albedo analogue). These experiments are consistent with the hypothesis that enhanced fertilisation by anthropogenic inputs results in substantial amounts of organic carbon fixation, debris darkening and ultimately to a considerable decrease in the ice albedo of glacier surfaces on global scales. The sizeable amounts of microbially produced glacier surface organic matter and nutrients can thus be a vital source of bioavailable nutrients for subglacial and downstream environments.

  14. Forced-air warming design: evaluation of intake filtration, internal microbial buildup, and airborne-contamination emissions.

    PubMed

    Reed, Mike; Kimberger, Oliver; McGovern, Paul D; Albrecht, Mark C

    2013-08-01

    Forced-air warming devices are effective for the prevention of surgical hypothermia. However, these devices intake nonsterile floor-level air, and it is unknown whether they have adequate filtration measures to prevent the internal buildup or emission of microbial contaminants. We rated the intake filtration efficiency of a popular current-generation forced-air warming device (Bair Hugger model 750, Arizant Healthcare) using a monodisperse sodium chloride aerosol in the laboratory. We further sampled 23 forced-air warming devices (same model) in daily hospital use for internal microbial buildup and airborne-contamination emissions via swabbing and particle counting. Laboratory testing found the intake filter to be 63.8% efficient. Swabbing detected microorganisms within 100% of the forced-air warming blowers sampled, with isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci, mold, and micrococci identified. Particle counting showed 96% of forced-air warming blowers to be emitting significant levels of internally generated airborne contaminants out of the hose end. These findings highlight the need for upgraded intake filtration, preferably high-efficiency particulate air filtration (99.97% efficient), on current-generation forced-air warming devices to reduce contamination buildup and emission risks. PMID:24133849

  15. Versatile microbial surface-display for environmental remediation and biofuels production

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Cindy H.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, wilfred

    2008-02-14

    Surface display is a powerful technique that utilizes natural microbial functional components to express proteins or peptides on the cell exterior. Since the reporting of the first surface-display system in the mid-1980s, a variety of new systems have been reported for yeast, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Non-conventional display methods are emerging, eliminating the generation of genetically modified microorganisms. Cells with surface display are used as biocatalysts, biosorbents and biostimulants. Microbial cell-surface display has proven to be extremely important for numerous applications ranging from combinatorial library screening and protein engineering to bioremediation and biofuels production.

  16. Impact of Substratum Surface on Microbial Community Structure and Treatment Performance in Biological Aerated Filters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Lavane; Pagaling, Eulyn; Zuo, Yi Y.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of substratum surface property change on biofilm community structure was investigated using laboratory biological aerated filter (BAF) reactors and molecular microbial community analysis. Two substratum surfaces that differed in surface properties were created via surface coating and used to develop biofilms in test (modified surface) and control (original surface) BAF reactors. Microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the surface property change consistently resulted in distinct profiles of microbial populations during replicate reactor start-ups. Pyrosequencing of the bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons surveyed more than 90% of the microbial diversity in the microbial communities and identified 72 unique bacterial species within 19 bacterial orders. Among the 19 orders of bacteria detected, Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales of the Betaproteobacteria class were numerically dominant and accounted for 90.5 to 97.4% of the sequence reads, and their relative abundances in the test and control BAF reactors were different in consistent patterns during the two reactor start-ups. Three of the five dominant bacterial species also showed consistent relative abundance changes between the test and control BAF reactors. The different biofilm microbial communities led to different treatment efficiencies, with consistently higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the test reactor than in the control reactor. Further understanding of how surface properties affect biofilm microbial communities and functional performance would enable the rational design of new generations of substrata for the improvement of biofilm-based biological treatment processes. PMID:24141134

  17. Impact of substratum surface on microbial community structure and treatment performance in biological aerated filters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Lavane; Pagaling, Eulyn; Zuo, Yi Y; Yan, Tao

    2014-01-01

    The impact of substratum surface property change on biofilm community structure was investigated using laboratory biological aerated filter (BAF) reactors and molecular microbial community analysis. Two substratum surfaces that differed in surface properties were created via surface coating and used to develop biofilms in test (modified surface) and control (original surface) BAF reactors. Microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the surface property change consistently resulted in distinct profiles of microbial populations during replicate reactor start-ups. Pyrosequencing of the bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons surveyed more than 90% of the microbial diversity in the microbial communities and identified 72 unique bacterial species within 19 bacterial orders. Among the 19 orders of bacteria detected, Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales of the Betaproteobacteria class were numerically dominant and accounted for 90.5 to 97.4% of the sequence reads, and their relative abundances in the test and control BAF reactors were different in consistent patterns during the two reactor start-ups. Three of the five dominant bacterial species also showed consistent relative abundance changes between the test and control BAF reactors. The different biofilm microbial communities led to different treatment efficiencies, with consistently higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the test reactor than in the control reactor. Further understanding of how surface properties affect biofilm microbial communities and functional performance would enable the rational design of new generations of substrata for the improvement of biofilm-based biological treatment processes. PMID:24141134

  18. Latin American and Caribbean intercomparison of surface contamination monitoring equipment.

    PubMed

    Cabral, T S; Ramos, M M O; Laranjeira, A S; Santos, D S; Suarez, R C

    2011-03-01

    In October 2009, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored an intercomparison exercise of surface contamination monitoring equipment, which was held at the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from the Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro. This intercomparison was performed to evaluate the calibration accessibility in Latin America and the Caribbean. Thirteen countries within the region and IAEA have sent instruments to be compared, but only five countries and IAEA were considered apt to participate. Analysis of instruments, results and discussions are presented and recommendations are drawn. PMID:21051429

  19. Measurement of total hemispherical emissivity of contaminated mirror surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Facey, T. A.; Nonnenmacher, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dust contamination on the total hemispherical emissivity (THE) of a 1.5-inch-diameter Al/MgF2-coated telescope mirror are investigated experimentally. The THE is determined by means of cooling-rate measurements in the temperature range 10-14.5 C in a vacuum of 100 ntorr or better. Photographs and drawings of the experimental setup are provided, and results for 11 dust levels are presented in tables and graphs. It is shown that dust has a significant effect on THE, but the experimental losses are only about half those predicted for perfectly black dust in perfect thermal contact with the mirror surface.

  20. Long term effect of methylparathion contamination on soil microbial community diversity estimated by 16S rRNA gene cloning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruifu; Jiang, Jiandong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Li, Shunpeng

    2006-08-01

    The long-term effects of methylparathion contamination on the diversity of soil microbial community was investigated by a culture-independent approach using small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene-based cloning. Microbial DNA extracted from both the control soil sample and methylparathion contaminated soil sample was subjected to PCR amplification with primers specific for bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. From the PCR amplification product, clone libraries were constructed for both samples. Phylotypes were defined by performing a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences with the enzymes RsaI and HhaI. A total of 603 phylotypes were identified among the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clones, the phylotype richness, frequency distribution (evenness) of the two clone libraries were compared by using a variety of diversity indices. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the dominant phylotypes revealed that the bacterial communities changed noticeably. In the control soil, the dominant bacterial groups included a member of a novel bacterial division, the bacillus genus, and a member of alpha-proteobacteria, while in methylparathion contaminated soil, the dominant phylotypes were replaced by a member of the flexibactera-cytophaga-bacteroides division and two members of the gamma-proteobacteria subdivision. This is the first report of the long-term effects of methylparathion (one of the major pesticides widely used in developing countries) on soil microbial community diversity and structure by a culture-independent method, and provides the evidences to assess the long-term environmental toxicological effects of methylparathion from the microbial community viewpoint. PMID:16816989

  1. Diversity, abundance, and consistency of microbial oxygenase expression and biodegradation in a shallow contaminated aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, J.M.; Madsen, E.L.

    2009-10-15

    The diversity of Rieske dioxygenase genes and short-term temporal variability in the abundance of two selected dioxygenase gene sequences were examined in a naphthalene-rich, coal tar waste-contaminated subsurface study site. Using a previously published PCR-based approach (S. M. Ni Chadhain, R. S. Norman, K. V. Pesce, J. J. Kukor, and G. J. Zylstra, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 4078-4087, 2006) a broad suite of genes was detected, ranging from dioxygenase sequences associated with Rhodococcus and Sphingomonas to 32 previously uncharacterized Rieske gene sequence clone groups. The nag genes appeared frequently (20% of the total) in two groundwater monitoring wells characterized by low (similar to 10{sup 2} ppb; similar to 1 {mu} M) ambient concentrations of naphthalene. A quantitative competitive PCR assay was used to show that abundances of nag genes (and archetypal nah genes) fluctuated substantially over a 9-month period. To contrast short-term variation with long-term community stability, in situ community gene expression (dioxygenase mRNA) and biodegradation potential (community metabolism of naphthalene in microcosms) were compared to measurements from 6 years earlier. cDNA sequences amplified from total RNA extracts revealed that nah- and nag-type genes were expressed in situ, corresponding well with structural gene abundances. Despite evidence for short-term (9-month) shifts in dioxygenase gene copy number, agreement in field gene expression (dioxygenase mRNA) and biodegradation potential was observed in comparisons to equivalent assays performed 6 years earlier. Thus, stability in community biodegradation characteristics at the hemidecadal time frame has been documented for these subsurface microbial communities.

  2. Microbial diversity in a hydrocarbon- and chlorinated-solvent- contaminated aquifer undergoing intrinsic bioremediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dojka, M.A.; Hugenholtz, P.; Haack, S.K.; Pace, N.R.

    1998-01-01

    A culture-independent molecular phylogenetic approach was used to survey constituents of microbial communities associated with an aquifer contaminated with hydrocarbons (mainly jet fuel) and chlorinated solvents undergoing intrinsic bioremediation. Samples were obtained from three redox zones: methanogenic, methanogenic-sulfate reducing, and iron or sulfate reducing. Small-subunit rRNA genes were amplified directly from aquifer material DNA by PCR with universally conserved or Bacteria- or Archaea-specific primers and were cloned. A total of 812 clones were screened by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), approximately 50% of which were unique. All RFLP types that occurred more than once in the libraries, as well as many of the unique types, were sequenced. A total of 104 (94 bacterial and 10 archaeal) sequence types were determined. Of the 94 bacterial sequence types, 10 have no phylogenetic association with known taxonomic divisions and are phylogenetically grouped in six novel division level groups (candidate divisions WS1 to WS6); 21 belong to four recently described candidate divisions with no cultivated representatives (OPS, OP8, OP10, and OP11); and 63 are phylogenetically associated with 10 well-recognized divisions. The physiology of two particularly abundant sequence types obtained from the methanogenic zone could be inferred from their phylogenetic association with groups of microorganisms with a consistent phenotype. One of these sequence types is associated with the genus Syntrophus; Syntrophus spp. produce energy from the anaerobic oxidation of organic acids, with the production of acetate and hydrogen. The organism represented by the other sequence type is closely related to Methanosaeta spp., which are known to be capable of energy generation only through aceticlastic methanogenesis. We hypothesize, therefore, that the terminal step of hydrocarbon degradation in the methanogenic zone of the aquifer is aceticlastic methanogenesis and that the microorganisms represented by these two sequence types occur in syntrophic association.

  3. Enhancement and inhibition of microbial activity in hydrocarbon- contaminated arctic soils: Implications for nutrient-amended bioremediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braddock, J.F.; Ruth, M.L.; Catterall, P.H.; Walworth, J.L.; McCarthy, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (<1%) end low moisture (1-3%) contents. We examined the effects of nutrient additions on microorganisms in contaminated soil from this site in laboratory microcosms and in mesocosms incubated for 6 weeks in the field. Nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient in this system, but microbial populations and activity were maximally enhanced by additions of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When nutrients were added to soil in the field at three levels of N:P (100:45, 200:90, and 300:135 mg/kg soil), the greatest stimulation in microbial activity occurred at the lowest, rather than the highest, level of nutrient addition. The total soil-water potentials ranged from -2 to -15 bar with increasing levels of fertilizer. Semivolatile hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly only in the soils treated at the low fertilizer level. These results indicate that an understanding of nutrient effects at a specific site is essential for successful bioremediation.Bioremediation is being used or proposed as a treatment option at many hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. One such site is a former bulk-fuel storage facility near Barrow, AK, where contamination persists after approximately 380 m3 of JP-5 was spilled in 1970. The soil at the site is primarily coarse sand with low organic carbon (<1%) and low moisture (1-3%) contents. We examined the effects of nutrient additions on microorganisms in contaminated soil from this site in laboratory microcosms and in mesocosms incubated for 6 weeks in the field. Nitrogen was the major limiting nutrient in this system, but microbial populations and activity were maximally enhanced by additions of both nitrogen and phosphorus. When nutrients were added to soil in the field at three levels of N:P (100:45, 200:90, and 300:135 mg/kg soil), the greatest stimulation in microbial activity occurred at the lowest, rather than the highest, level of nutrient addition. The total soil-water potentials ranged from -2 to -15 bar with increasing levels of fertilizer. Semi-volatile hydrocarbon concentrations declined significantly only in the soils treated at the low fertilizer level. These results indicate that an understanding of nutrient effects at a specific site is essential for successful bioremediation.

  4. [Effects of Festuca arundinacea on the microbial community in crude oil-contaminated saline-alkaline soil].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Yue, Bing-Bing; Xu, Nan; Zhu, Wen-Xu; Hu, Ju-Wei; Sun, Guang-Yu

    2012-12-01

    By using the routine soil physical and chemical analysis methods and the Biolog technique, this paper studied the effects of Festuca arundinacea growth on the pH value, total salt content, and microbial community in the rhizosphere of crude dil-contaminated saline-alkaline soil in Songnen Plain of Northeast China. Crude oil contamination resulted in the increases of average well color development (AWCD), Shannon index (H), and carbon source utilization richness index (S), and altered the utilization patterns of carbon sources by the microbes. F. arundinacea had greater potential to remediate crude oil-contaminated soil. This plant could decrease the soil pH and soil total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content, and increase the soil water content. The AWCD and S in F. arundinacea rhizosphere soil were obviously higher than those in the soil of naked land, providing a suitable environment for the growth and development of rhizosphere soil microbes. PMID:23479885

  5. Trajectories of Microbial Community Function in Response to Accelerated Remediation of Subsurface Metal Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Mary

    2015-01-14

    Objectives of proposed research were to; Determine if the trajectories of microbial community composition and function following organic carbon amendment can be related to, and predicted by, key environmental determinants; Assess the relative importance of the characteristics of the indigenous microbial community, sediment, groundwater, and concentration of organic carbon amendment as the major determinants of microbial community functional response and bioremediation capacity; and Provide a fundamental understanding of the microbial community ecology underlying subsurface metal remediation requisite to successful application of accelerated remediation and long-term stewardship of DOE-IFC sites.

  6. Microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation on the surface of glaciers and ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telling, J.; Anesio, A. M.; Stibal, M.; Hawkings, J.; Bellas, C. M.; Tranter, M.; Wadham, J. L.; Cook, J.; Hodson, A. J.; Yallop, M.; Barker, G.; Butler, C. E.; Fountain, A. G.; Nylen, T.; Irvine-Fynn, T. D.; Sole, A. J.; Nienow, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    Studying the microbial sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (via net autochthonous production) and nitrogen (via nitrogen fixation) into organic matter on the surface of glaciers and ice sheets is important for three main reasons. First, they can provide essential nutrients for supporting microbial ecosystems in these cold, typically nutrient-poor environments. Second, nutrients formed in the supraglacial environment may be important for sustaining hydrologically connected subglacial and downstream (e.g. fjords, near-shore marine) ecosystems. Third, organic matter produced or transformed by microbial activity can alter the albedo of ice, either directly by the production of dark pigments, or indirectly through the trapping and agglutination of dark mineral via the production of exopolysaccharides. Here, we present recent results of microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation in surface sediment (cryoconite) on Arctic and Antarctic glaciers and the Greenland Ice Sheet ablation zone. Results suggest that the fixation and recycling of autochthonous carbon in cryoconite on glaciers and ice sheets can support a significant fraction of the total microbial activity in the supraglacial environment during the ablation season. Nitrogen fixation can be important as a nitrogen source for microbial communities on both Arctic and Antarctic glaciers during the main ablation season. Nitrogen fixation could feasibly exceed precipitation as a source of nitrogen to microbial communities in debris rich zones on the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet, aiding the colonization and subsequent 'greening' of subglacial and moraine derived debris.

  7. Insight into the prevalence and distribution of microbial contamination to evaluate water management in the fresh produce processing industry.

    PubMed

    Holvoet, Kevin; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Sampers, Imca; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-04-01

    This study provided insight into the degree of microbial contamination in the processing chain of prepacked (bagged) lettuce in two Belgian fresh-cut produce processing companies. The pathogens Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected. Total psychrotrophic aerobic bacterial counts (TPACs) in water samples, fresh produce, and environmental samples suggested that the TPAC is not a good indicator of overall quality and best manufacturing practices during production and processing. Because of the high TPACs in the harvested lettuce crops, the process water becomes quickly contaminated, and subsequent TPACs do not change much throughout the production process of a batch. The hygiene indicator Escherichia coli was used to assess the water management practices in these two companies in relation to food safety. Practices such as insufficient cleaning and disinfection of washing baths, irregular refilling of the produce wash baths with water of good microbial quality, and the use of high product/water ratios resulted in a rapid increase in E. coli in the processing water, with potential transfer to the end product (fresh-cut lettuce). The washing step in the production of fresh-cut lettuce was identified as a potential pathway for dispersion of microorganisms and introduction of E. coli to the end product via cross-contamination. An intervention step to reduce microbial contamination is needed, particularly when no sanitizers are used as is the case in some European Union countries. Thus, from a food safety point of view proper water management (and its validation) is a critical point in the fresh-cut produce processing industry. PMID:22488054

  8. An empirical approach for quantifying modern surface sediment contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. E.; Hunt, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    Estuarine bottom sediments frequently remain impacted by anthropogenic activities over decade time scales and longer. Many known contaminants, such as metals, stick to particles that are rapidly removed from the water column by deposition. Within depositional zones of estuaries, the sediments contain a record of particle-associated contaminants from the overlying water column. These records are accessible through sediment core profiling. An empirical space-time model was developed based on sediment core analyses to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of metal fluxes to the sediment surface. High density sediment coring investigations were carried out at two dissimilar sites in the San Francisco Bay region: the geometrically and hydrodynamically well-defined Seaplane Lagoon at the Alameda Naval Air Station, and the inter-tidal mudflat at the mouth of Walker Creek in Tomales Bay. The geochronology and mixing effects within individual cores were established by Cs-137 and Pb-210 activity profiles. Mercury profiles for Walker Creek cores were established by traditional techniques and Copper and Zinc profiles were obtained by synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence for cores from the Seaplane Lagoon. Trace metal profiling at a synchrotron allowed for high resolution corresponding to sub-annual time scales and fast sample throughput. The 2-D spatial variability was estimated by kriging between sample locations. These results were integrated into the model that reconstructs trace metal concentrations in the surface sediment over the last 50+ years for each site.

  9. Health care workers' mobile phones: a potential cause of microbial cross-contamination between hospitals and community.

    PubMed

    Ustun, Cemal; Cihangiroglu, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the microbial contamination of health care workers' (HCWs) mobile phones. The study was conducted at a secondary referral hospital in July 2010. Samples were taken from all surfaces of the mobile phones using a sterile swab, and incubated on Brain Heart Infusion agar at 37.5°C for 24 hr. Any isolated microorganisms were grown aerobically on 5% sheep blood agar and eosin methylene-blue agar medium at 37.5°C for 24-48 hr. The Sceptor microdilution system was used to identify the microorganisms, together with conventional methods. The oxacillin disc diffusion test and double-disc synergy test were used to identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and expanded-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Gram-negative bacilli, respectively. The mobile phones were also categorized according to whether the HCWs used them in the intensive care unit (ICU). Overall, 183 mobile phones were screened: 94 (51.4%) from nurses, 32 (17.5%) from laboratory workers, and 57 (31.1%) from health care staff. In total, 179 (97.8%) culture-positive specimens were isolated from the 183 mobile phones, including 17 (9.5%) MRSA and 20 (11.2%) ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, which can cause nosocomial infections. No statistical difference was observed in the recovery of MRSA (p = 0.3) and ESBL-producing E. coli (p = 0.6) between the HCW groups. Forty-four (24.6%) of the 179 specimens were isolated from mobile phones of ICU workers, including two MRSA and nine ESBL-producing E. coli. A significant (p = 0.02) difference was detected in the isolation of ESBL-producing E. coli between ICU workers and non-ICU workers. HCWs' mobile phones are potential vectors for transferring nosocomial pathogens between HCWs, patients, and the community. PMID:22793671

  10. Microbial sewage contamination associated with Superstorm Sandy flooding in New York City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mullan, G.; Dueker, M.; Sahajpal, R.; Juhl, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    The lower Hudson River Estuary commonly experiences degraded water quality following precipitation events due to the influence of combined sewer overflows. During Super-storm Sandy large scale flooding occurred in many waterfront areas of New York City, including neighborhoods bordering the Gowanus Canal and Newtown Creek Superfund sites known to frequently contain high levels of sewage associated bacteria. Water, sediment, and surface swab samples were collected from Newtown Creek and Gowanus Canal flood impacted streets and basements in the days following the storm, along with samples from the local waterways. Samples were enumerated for the sewage indicating bacterium, Enterococcus, and DNA was extracted and amplified for 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequence analysis. Waterways were found to have relatively low levels of sewage contamination in the days following the storm. In contrast, much higher levels of Enterococci were detected in basement and storm debris samples and these bacteria were found to persist for many weeks in laboratory incubations. These data suggest that substantial sewage contamination occurred in some flood impacted New York City neighborhoods and that the environmental persistence of flood water associated microbes requires additional study and management attention.

  11. The role of microbial mats in the movement of stones on playa lake surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Rodríguez-Aranda, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    This paper sheds light into the debated mechanisms that move rocks across low gradient surfaces during storm episodes. Microbial mats are recognised to play a crucial role in sediment destabilisation and the subsequent motion of rocks in a playa lake from central Spain. Widespread countless scars are present on the playa lake sediment surface, each terminating at a stone, and/or a mound of overfolded fragments of microbial mats. All available objects, including cobble-sized stones, on the surface were transported for several metres leaving behind furrow-like tracks.

  12. GeoChip-based analysis of microbial functional gene diversity in a landfill leachate-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhenmei; He, Zhili; Parisi, Victoria A.; Kang, Sanghoon; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2012-01-01

    The functional gene diversity and structure of microbial communities in a shallow landfill leachate-contaminated aquifer were assessed using a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0). Water samples were obtained from eight wells at the same aquifer depth immediately below a municipal landfill or along the predominant downgradient groundwater flowpath. Functional gene richness and diversity immediately below the landfill and the closest well were considerably lower than those in downgradient wells. Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggested that various geochemical parameters had a significant impact on the subsurface microbial community structure. That is, leachate from the unlined landfill impacted the diversity, composition, structure, and functional potential of groundwater microbial communities as a function of groundwater pH, and concentrations of sulfate, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Historical geochemical records indicate that all sampled wells chronically received leachate, and the increase in microbial diversity as a function of distance from the landfill is consistent with mitigation of the impact of leachate on the groundwater system by natural attenuation mechanisms.

  13. Effects of Nitrate Exposure on the Functional Structure of a Microbial Community in a Uranium-contaminated Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, Joy; Waldron, P.; Wu, W.; Zhou, B.; Wu, Liyou; Deng, Ye; Carley, J.; He, Zhili; Gu, B.; Luo, J.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P.; Hazen, Terry; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-05-17

    Increasing nitrogen deposition, increasing atmospheric CO2, and decreasing biodiversity are three main environmental changes occurring on a global scale. The BioCON (Biodiversity, CO2, and Nitrogen) ecological experiment site at the University of Minnesota's Cedar Creek Ecosystem Science Reserve started in 1997, to better understand how these changes would affect soil systems. To understand how increasing nitrogen deposition affects the microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure impact soil microbial communities, 12 samples were collected from the BioCON plots in which nitrogenous fertilizer was added to simulate the effect of increasing nitrogen deposition and 12 samples from without added fertilizer. DNA from the 24 samples was extracted using a freeze-grind protocol, amplified, labeled with a fluorescent dye, and then hybridized to GeoChip, a functional gene array containing probes for genes involved in N, S and C cycling, metal resistance and organic contaminant degradation. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) of all genes detected was performed to analyze microbial community patterns. The first two axes accounted for 23.5percent of the total variation. The samples fell into two major groups: fertilized and non-fertilized, suggesting that nitrogenous fertilizer had a significant impact on soil microbial community structure and diversity. The functional gene numbers detected in fertilized samples was less that detected in non-fertilizer samples. Functional genes involving in the N cycling were mainly discussed.

  14. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  15. Robotic Radionuclide Inspection and Mapping of Surface Contamination On Building Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Mauer, G.F.; Kawa, Ch.

    2007-07-01

    The mapping of localized regions of radionuclide contamination in a building can be a time consuming and costly task. Humans moving hand-held radiation detectors over the target areas are subject to fatigue. A contamination map based on manual surveys can contain significant operator-induced inaccuracies. A Fanuc M16i light industrial robot has been configured for installation on a mobile aerial work platform, such as a tall forklift. When positioned in front of a surface, the robot can map the radiation levels over a surface area of up to 2 m by 2 m. The robot's end effector is a commercial alpha-beta radiation sensor, augmented with range and collision avoidance sensors to ensure operational safety as well as to maintain a constant gap between surface and radiation sensors. A graphical user interface guides the robot operator to position the robot at the desired wall segments, and to select an area for surveying. After the operator has entered the required parameters, the custom surveying software plans the scan sequence, alerts of any potential problems, such as unreachable singularities, and creates a contamination map of the surveyed region. Maps of multiple regions can be combined into a single map of the entire region. The survey data are stored in a data base file. In addition to automated surface scans, operators can manually select regions for further inspection, as well as control the end effector motion manually. In comparison to manual contamination surveys, the robotic approach is more accurate, reliable, and faster. (authors)

  16. The influence of feedlot pen surface layers on microbial community structure and diversity.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological and chemical characteristics of feedyard pen surfaces have the potential to affect environmental conditions with respect to air and water quality. Little is known about feedyard pen surface chemistry and biology, especially that of the underlying microbial community structure. The f...

  17. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Hicks; Hans W. Herrmann

    2003-12-15

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a practical, environmentally benigh technology for the surface decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive waste. A low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed with initial support from the DOE, Environmental Management Sciences Program. This devise selectively etches radioactive metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. The technology shows a great potential for accelerating the clean-up effort for the equipment and structures contaminated with radioactive materials within the DOE complex. The viability of this technology has been demonstrated by selectively and rapidly stripping uranium from stainless steel surfaces at low temperature. Studies on uranium oxide have shown that etch rates of 4.0 microns per minute can be achieved at temperature below 473 K. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the atmospheric pressure plasma source. We are now able to scale up the plasma source to treat large surface areas.

  18. Removal of hydrocarbon contaminant film from spacecraft optical surfaces using a radiofrequency-excited oxygen plasma.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beverly, W. D.; Gillete, R. B.; Cruz, G. A.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a study on the feasibility of removing contaminant films from optical surfaces in vacuum, using an oxygen plasma, are discussed. Contaminant films were deposited onto optical surfaces from butadiene and methane gases at a pressure of about 4 torr in the presence of ultraviolet radiation. Optical surfaces evaluated included ultraviolet-reflecting mirrors, gratings, quartz disks, and spacecraft thermal control surfaces. In general, it was found that contaminants could be removed successfully from surfaces using an oxygen plasma. Exceptions were the white-paint thermal control surfaces, which, when contaminated, degraded further during exposure to the oxygen plasma.

  19. FTIR Study on Molecular Contamination on Surface of Optical Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, Masahiro; Okano, Nobuaki; Horikawa, Toshihide; Tomida, Tahei; Itoh, Nobunari

    The IR spectra of the molecular contaminants on surface of optical materials were measured. The optical disks used were SiO2, BK7 (SiO2 70%, B2O3 10%, K2O 8%, N2O 8%), CaF2, ZnSe and Al2O3. N2, O2, H2O, and CO2 were adopted as contamination gases. IR spectra of H2O (2.7kPa) on BK7 at 373K showed two absorption bands (OH stretching vibration: around 4000cm-1-3500cm-1 and OH bending vibration: around 2000cm-1-1500cm-1). The absorption intensity decreased with a decrease in temperature and a new band (around 3250cm-1) appeared at 173K. The new band was attributed to phase transition of H2O. These phenomena were also observed on the other three discs, except for SiO2. IR spectra of SiO2 showed OH stretching band (3676cm-1). The absorption intensity decreased with a decrease in temperature. But two new bands (3720cm-1 and 3620cm-1) appeared under an atmosphere of N2 (66.5kPa), O2 (66.5kPa), H2O (2.7kPa) or CO2 (0.7 or 13.3kPa). A similar phenomenon was also observed for BK7, which has OH group. These results suggested the functional group of SiOH interacted with contamination molecules.

  20. Evaluation of bacterial contamination rate of the anterior chamber during phacoemulsification surgery using an automated microbial detection system

    PubMed Central

    Kocak, Ibrahim; Kocak, Funda; Teker, Bahri; Aydin, Ali; Kaya, Faruk; Baybora, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    AIM To assess the incidence of anterior chamber bacterial contamination during phacoemulsification surgery using an automated microbial detection system (BacT/Alert). METHODS Sixty-nine eyes of 60 patients who had uneventful phacoemulsification surgery, enrolled in this prospective study. No prophylactic topical or systemic antibiotics were used before surgery. After antisepsis with povidone-iodine, two intraoperative anterior chamber aqueous samples were obtained, the first whilst entering anterior chamber, and the second at the end of surgery. BacT/Alert culture system was used to detect bacterial contamination in the aqueous samples. RESULTS Neither aqueous samples obtained at the beginning nor conclusion of the surgery was positive for microorganisms on BacT/Alert culture system. The rate of bacterial contamination during surgery was 0%. None of the eyes developed acute-onset endophthalmitis after surgery. CONCLUSION In this study, no bacterial contamination of anterior chamber was observed during cataract surgery. This result shows that meticulous surgical preparation and technique can prevent anterior chamber contamination during phacoemulsification cataract surgery. PMID:25161944

  1. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces and microbial safety of fresh produce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of fresh produce is a central component of a healthy diet. However, contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables such as leafy greens, tomatoes, cantaloupes is a source of ongoing concern for consumers. Growers, packers, processors and retailers work to control the incidenc...

  2. EFFECTS OF ORGANIC AMENDMENTS ON MICROBIAL PROPERTIES IN LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Environmental Protection Agency lists more than 17,000 contaminated sites in the United States, many of which are contaminated with heavy metals including lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Lead contamination in soil has been shown to be a threat to human health and ecosystem functioning through adverse e...

  3. Surface plasmon sensing of gas phase contaminants using optical fiber.

    SciTech Connect

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Rumpf, Arthur Norman; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant

    2009-10-01

    Fiber-optic gas phase surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection of several contaminant gases of interest to state-of-health monitoring in high-consequence sealed systems has been demonstrated. These contaminant gases include H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and moisture using a single-ended optical fiber mode. Data demonstrate that results can be obtained and sensitivity is adequate in a dosimetric mode that allows periodic monitoring of system atmospheres. Modeling studies were performed to direct the design of the sensor probe for optimized dimensions and to allow simultaneous monitoring of several constituents with a single sensor fiber. Testing of the system demonstrates the ability to detect 70mTorr partial pressures of H{sub 2} using this technique and <280 {micro}Torr partial pressures of H{sub 2}S. In addition, a multiple sensor fiber has been demonstrated that allows a single fiber to measure H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2}O without changing the fiber or the analytical system.

  4. Inactivation of internalized and surface contaminated enteric viruses in green onions.

    PubMed

    Hirneisen, Kirsten A; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2013-09-01

    With increasing outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with produce, it is important to assess interventions to reduce the risk of illness. UV, ozone and high pressure are non-thermal processing technologies that have potential to inactivate human pathogens on produce and allow the retention of fresh-like organoleptic properties. The objective of this study was to determine if UV, ozone, and high pressure are effective technologies compared to traditional chlorine spray on green onions to reduce enteric viral pathogens and to determine the effect of location of the virus (surface or internalized) on the efficacy of these processes. Mature green onion plants were inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human adenovirus type 41 (Ad41) either on the surface through spot inoculation or through inoculating contaminated hydroponic solution allowing for uptake of the virus into the internal tissues. Inoculated green onions were treated with UV (240 mJ s/cm(2)), ozone (6.25 ppm for 10 min), pressure (500 MPa, for 5 min at 20°C), or sprayed with calcium hypochlorite (150 ppm, 4°C). Viral inactivation was determined by comparing treated and untreated inoculated plants using cell culture infectivity assays. Processing treatments were observed to greatly affect viral inactivation. Viral inactivation for all three viruses was greatest after pressure treatment and the lowest inactivation was observed after chlorine and UV treatment. Both surface inoculated viruses and viruses internalized in green onions were inactivated to some extent by these post-harvest processing treatments. These results suggest that ozone and high pressure processes aimed to reduce the level of microbial contamination of produce have the ability to inactivate viruses if they become localized in the interior portions of produce. PMID:23973828

  5. Effect of biostimulation on the microbial community in PCB-contaminated sediments through periodic amendment of sediment with iron.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Varadhan, A; Khodadoust, Amid P; Brenner, Richard C

    2011-10-01

    Reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by indigenous dehalorespiring microorganisms in contaminated sediments may be enhanced via biostimulation by supplying hydrogen generated through the anaerobic corrosion of elemental iron added to the sediment. In this study, the effect of periodic amendment of sediment with various dosages of iron on the microbial community present in sediment was investigated using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) over a period of 18 months. Three PCB-contaminated sediments (two freshwater lake sediments and one marine sediment) were used. Signature biomarker analysis of the microbial community present in all three sediments revealed the enrichment of Dehalococcoides species, the population of which was sustained for a longer period of time when the sediment microcosms were amended with the lower dosage of iron (0.01 g iron per g dry sediment) every 6 months as compared to the blank system (without iron). Lower microbial stress levels were reported for the system periodically amended with 0.01 g of iron per g dry sediment every 6 months, thus reducing the competition from other hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms like methanogens, iron reducers, and sulfate reducers. The concentration of hydrogen in the system was found to be an important factor influencing the shift in microbial communities in all sediments with time. Periodic amendment of sediment with larger dosages of iron every 3 months resulted in the early prevalence of Geobacteraceae and sulfate-reducing bacteria followed by methanogens. An average pH of 8.4 (range of 8.2-8.6) and an average hydrogen concentration of 0.75% (range of 0.3-1.2%) observed between 6 and 15 months of the study were found to be conducive to sustaining the population of Dehalococcoides species in the three sediments amended with 0.01 g iron per g dry sediment. Biostimulation of indigenous PCB dechlorinators by the periodic amendment of contaminated sediments with low dosages of iron metal may therefore be an effective technology for remediation of PCB-contaminated sediments. PMID:21528414

  6. Water Protects Graphitic Surface from Airborne Hydrocarbon Contamination.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiting; Kozbial, Andrew; Nioradze, Nikoloz; Parobek, David; Shenoy, Ganesh Jagadeesh; Salim, Muhammad; Amemiya, Shigeru; Li, Lei; Liu, Haitao

    2016-01-26

    The intrinsic wettability of graphitic materials, such as graphene and graphite, can be readily obscured by airborne hydrocarbon within 5-20 min of ambient air exposure. We report a convenient method to effectively preserve a freshly prepared graphitic surface simply through a water treatment technique. This approach significantly inhibits the hydrocarbon adsorption rate by a factor of ca. 20×, thus maintaining the intrinsic wetting behavior for many hours upon air exposure. Follow-up characterization shows that a nanometer-thick ice-like water forms on the graphitic surface, which remains stabilized at room temperature for at least 2-3 h and thus significantly decreases the adsorption of airborne hydrocarbon on the graphitic surface. This method has potential implications in minimizing hydrocarbon contamination during manufacturing, characterization, processing, and storage of graphene/graphite-based devices. As an example, we show that a water-treated graphite electrode maintains a high level of electrochemical activity in air for up to 1 day. PMID:26673269

  7. EVALUATION OF CONSTRUCTED WETLAND AND RETENTION POND BMPS FOR ATTENUATING MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project investigated the use of constructed wetlands and retention ponds for decreasing microbial concentrations from urban stormwater runoff. Increased urbanization has resulted in a larger percentage of impervious areas which cause large quantities of stormwater runoff an...

  8. MULTIPLE IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEMONSTRATE THE MANIPULATION OF SURFACES TO REDUCE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface imaging techniques were combined to determine appropriate manipulation of technologically important surfaces for commercial applications. Stainless steel surfaces were engineered to reduce bacterial contamination, biofilm formation, and corrosion during product processing...

  9. Mobility and distribution of arsenic in contaminated mine soils and its effects on the microbial pool.

    PubMed

    Marabottini, R; Stazi, S R; Papp, R; Grego, S; Moscatelli, M C

    2013-10-01

    Three soils, coming from a former mining site and characterized by a different degree of pollution, were analysed in terms of Arsenic (As) content, using three different analytical approaches, and its distribution in various soil fractions. The effect of As on soil microbial biomass (size, respiration and microbial quotients) was also analysed. Total arsenic concentration between soil fractions was significantly different and ranged from 189 to 4357mgkg(-1), indicating a high level of pollution. Soil sequential fractioning showed that more than 60 percent of total As was bound to Fe-Al oxides, suggesting a minor availability and environmental risk regardless the total concentration of As in the sample. On the contrary, water soluble As fraction showed a significant difference among the three samples. The largest water soluble As concentration was found in the sample with intermediate total As amount. As far as microbial biomass is concerned, it was found that bioavailable As negatively impacted microbial metabolism in terms of basal and cumulative respiration, and microbial quotients, suggesting a strong selection within microbial pool. PMID:23856118

  10. Microbial Contamination of Allende and Murchison Carbonaceous Chondrites; Developing a Protocol for Life Detection in Extraterrestrial Materials Using Biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, A.; Whitby, C.; Griffin, C.; Toporski, J. K. W.; Westall, F.; Saunders, J. R.; McKay, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The arguments used to refute the McKay et al., (1996) hypothesis of possible Martian life in ALH84001 failed to use contamination of the meteorite as a source. This has worrying implications for our ability to detect terrestrial microbiota in meteorites and therefore any potential extraterrestrial biosignatures in both meteorites and possible returned samples. We report on imaging and microbial culturing of both Allende and Murchison carbonaceous chondrites and on the use of molecular biology techniques on a sample of Allende. Contaminating fungi and bacteria were observed (in the case of Murchison) and cultured from both meteorites. DNA was successfully extracted and subsequent PCR showed the presence of both bacterial and fungal DNA although no Archaea were detected. These results show that it is possible to use molecular biological techniques on very small quantities (300 mg) of extraterrestrial material.

  11. MOLECULAR TRACKING FECAL CONTAMINATION IN SURFACE WATERS: 16S RDNA VERSUS METAGENOMICS APPROACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking methods need to be sensitive and exhibit temporal and geographic stability in order to provide meaningful data in field studies. The objective of this study was to use a combination of PCR-based methods to track cow fecal contamination in two watersheds....

  12. Investigating the Influence of Remedial Capping on the Hydrological, Geochemical, and Microbial Processes that Control Subsurface Contaminant Migration at WAG 5 on the Oak Ridge Reservation: Implications toward Long-Term Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, P. M.; Mehlhorn, T. L.

    2006-05-01

    The following research investigated the effectiveness of an aggressive, large scale remedial action that is occurring to subsurface waste trenches containing radioactive and organic waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The site is being remediated as one of the top cleanup prioritization for the Oak Ridge Accelerated Remediation endeavor. Site landlords, Bechtel Jacobs Co., LLC (BJC) are installing a minimal RCRA cap with the primary objective of controlling the infiltration of storm water into the hundreds of unconfined waste trenches containing radioactive and organic waste. The site now offers a unique scientific opportunity to track the kinetic evolution of post-cap processes influencing contaminant migration and immobilization, because we have many years of pre-cap coupled processes information and knowledge. Since the cap is certain to disrupt the near steady-state contaminant discharge profiles that have existed for many years from the site, we have been quantifying the influence of post-cap hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes on contaminant discharge as a function of scale and time in an effort to assess local-scale cap influences versus regional scale groundwater flow influences on contaminant discharge. We have been allowed to maintain numerous groundwater monitoring wells at a field site and these have a rich historical data set with regard to hydrology, geochemistry, microbiology, and contaminant flux. Our objectives are to investigate cap induced changes in (1) groundwater and surface hydrology and contaminant flux, (2) geochemistry and contaminant speciation, and (3) microbial community structure and organic contaminant degradation and inorganic contaminant immobilization. Our approach monitors coupled processes during base-flow and during storm events in both the groundwater and surface water discharge from the site and the surrounding watershed. Pre- and post-cap data will than be modeled with a multiprocess, multicomponent, transport model which is linked to pre- and post-cap surface water hydrograph analysis from the site and the surrounding watershed. Our goal is to provide an improved fundamental understanding of the long-term fate and transport of contaminants and an improved ability to predict system response to remedial actions. The experimental and numerical results from this investigation will provide knowledge and information in previously unexplored areas of cap performance with regard to coupled hydrology, geochemistry, microbiology, and contaminant flux in humid regimes. The products will support DOE's mission of long-term stewardship of contaminated environments and be transferable to other site where similar remediation exists or is planned.

  13. Critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis - surface water transport for nonradioactive contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kuo-Fu

    1996-11-01

    The health risks for an individual exposed to contaminants released from SRS outfalls from 1989 to 1995 were estimated. The exposure pathways studied are ingestion of drinking water, ingestion of contaminated fish and dermal contact with contaminants in water while swimming. The estimated incremental risks for an individual developing cancer vary from 3.E-06 to 1.0E-05. The estimated total exposure chronic noncancer hazard indices vary from 6.E-02 to 1.E-01. The critical contaminants were ranked based on their cancer risks and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard quotients. For cancer risks, the critical contaminants released from SRS outfalls are arsenic, tetrachloroethylene, and benzene. For chronic noncarcinogenic risks, the critical contaminants released from srs outfalls are cadmium, arsenic, silver, chromium, mercury, selenium, nitrate, manganese, zinc, nickel, uranium, barium, copper, tetrachloroethylene, cyanide, and phenol. The critical pathways in decreasing risk order are ingestion of contaminated fish, ingestion of drinking water and dermal contact with contaminants in water while swimming.

  14. Short-term microbial release during rain events from on-site sewers and cattle in a surface water source.

    PubMed

    Aström, Johan; Pettersson, Thomas J R; Reischer, Georg H; Hermansson, Malte

    2013-09-01

    The protection of drinking water from pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia requires an understanding of the short-term microbial release from faecal contamination sources in the catchment. Flow-weighted samples were collected during two rainfall events in a stream draining an area with on-site sewers and during two rainfall events in surface runoff from a bovine cattle pasture. Samples were analysed for human (BacH) and ruminant (BacR) Bacteroidales genetic markers through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and for sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria through culturing as a complement to traditional faecal indicator bacteria, somatic coliphages and the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. analysed by standard methods. Significant positive correlations were observed between BacH, Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, sulphite-reducing Clostridia, turbidity, conductivity and UV254 in the stream contaminated by on-site sewers. For the cattle pasture, no correlation was found between any of the genetic markers and the other parameters. Although parasitic protozoa were not detected, the analysis for genetic markers provided baseline data on the short-term faecal contamination due to these potential sources of parasites. Background levels of BacH and BacR makers in soil emphasise the need to including soil reference samples in qPCR-based analyses for Bacteroidales genetic markers. PMID:23981872

  15. Microbial specificity of metallic surfaces exposed to ambient seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Zaidi, B.R.; Bard, R.F.; Tosteson, T.R.

    1984-09-01

    High-molecular-weight materials associated with the extracellular matrix and film found on titanium and aluminum surfaces after exposure to flowing coastal seawater were isolated. This material was purified by hydroxylapatite chromatography and subsequently employed to produce antibodies in the toad, Bufo marinus. The antibodies were immobilized on a solid support and employed to isolate adhesion-enhancing, high-molecular-weight materials from the laboratory culture media of bacterial strains recovered from the respective metallic surfaces during the course of their exposure to seawater. The adhesion-enhancing materials produced by the surface-associated bacterial strains were immunologically related to the extracellular biofouling matrix material found on the surfaces from which these bacteria were isolated. The surface selectivity of these bacterial strains appeared to be based on the specificity of the interaction between adhesion-enhancing macromolecules produced by these bacteria and the surfaces in question. 30 references, 6 tables.

  16. Microbial Specificity of Metallic Surfaces Exposed to Ambient Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, B. R.; Bard, R. F.; Tosteson, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    High-molecular-weight materials associated with the extracellular matrix and film found on titanium and aluminum surfaces after exposure to flowing coastal seawater were isolated. This material was purified by hydroxylapatite chromatography and subsequently employed to produce antibodies in the toad, Bufo marinus. The antibodies were immobilized on a solid support and employed to isolate adhesion-enhancing, high-molecular-weight materials from the laboratory culture media of bacterial strains recovered from the respective metallic surfaces during the course of their exposure to seawater. The adhesion-enhancing materials produced by the surface-associated bacterial strains were immunologically related to the extracellular biofouling matrix material found on the surfaces from which these bacteria were isolated. The surface selectivity of these bacterial strains appeared to be based on the specificity of the interaction between adhesion-enhancing macromolecules produced by these bacteria and the surfaces in question. PMID:16346622

  17. Microbial population and functional dynamics associated with surface potential and carbon metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Shun'ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M; Phan, Tony; Wanger, Greg; Nealson, Kenneth H; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Gorby, Yuri A; Bretschger, Orianna

    2014-01-01

    Microbial extracellular electron transfer (EET) to solid surfaces is an important reaction for metal reduction occurring in various anoxic environments. However, it is challenging to accurately characterize EET-active microbial communities and each member's contribution to EET reactions because of changes in composition and concentrations of electron donors and solid-phase acceptors. Here, we used bioelectrochemical systems to systematically evaluate the synergistic effects of carbon source and surface redox potential on EET-active microbial community development, metabolic networks and overall electron transfer rates. The results indicate that faster biocatalytic rates were observed under electropositive electrode surface potential conditions, and under fatty acid-fed conditions. Temporal 16S rRNA-based microbial community analyses showed that Geobacter phylotypes were highly diverse and apparently dependent on surface potentials. The well-known electrogenic microbes affiliated with the Geobacter metallireducens clade were associated with lower surface potentials and less current generation, whereas Geobacter subsurface clades 1 and 2 were associated with higher surface potentials and greater current generation. An association was also observed between specific fermentative phylotypes and Geobacter phylotypes at specific surface potentials. When sugars were present, Tolumonas and Aeromonas phylotypes were preferentially associated with lower surface potentials, whereas Lactococcus phylotypes were found to be closely associated with Geobacter subsurface clades 1 and 2 phylotypes under higher surface potential conditions. Collectively, these results suggest that surface potentials provide a strong selective pressure, at the species and strain level, for both solid surface respirators and fermentative microbes throughout the EET-active community development. PMID:24351938

  18. Retrospective analysis of a listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in raw milk goat cheese using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Delhalle, L; Ellouze, M; Yde, M; Clinquart, A; Daube, G; Korsak, N

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the Belgian authorities reported a Listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in cheese made from raw goat's milk. The presence of an asymptomatic shedder goat in the herd caused this contamination. On the basis of data collected at the time of the episode, a retrospective study was performed using an exposure assessment model covering the production chain from the milking of goats up to delivery of cheese to the market. Predictive microbiology models were used to simulate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the cheese process in relation with temperature, pH, and water activity. The model showed significant growth of L. monocytogenes during chilling and storage of the milk collected the day before the cheese production (median increase of 2.2 log CFU/ml) and during the addition of starter and rennet to milk (median increase of 1.2 log CFU/ml). The L. monocytogenes concentration in the fresh unripened cheese was estimated to be 3.8 log CFU/g (median). This result is consistent with the number of L. monocytogenes in the fresh cheese (3.6 log CFU/g) reported during the cheese contamination episode. A variance-based method sensitivity analysis identified the most important factors impacting the cheese contamination, and a scenario analysis then evaluated several options for risk mitigation. Thus, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools, this study provides reliable information to identify and control critical steps in a local production chain of cheese made from raw goat's milk. PMID:23212008

  19. Microbial degradation of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone in surface water and bacteria responsible for the process.

    PubMed

    R?ži?ka, Jan; Fusková, Jana; K?ížek, Karel; M?rková, Markéta; ?ernotová, Alena; Sm?lík, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Due to widespread utilization in many industrial spheres and agrochemicals, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is a potential contaminant of different surface water ecosystems. Hence, investigation was made into its aerobic microbial degradability in samples of water from a river, wetland area and spring. The results showed that the compound was degradable in all water types, and that the fastest NMP removal occurred in 4 days in river water, while in the wetland and spring samples the process was relatively slow, requiring several months to complete. Key bacterial degraders were successfully isolated in all cases, and their identification proved that pseudomonads played a major role in NMP degradation in river water, while the genera Rhodococcus a