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1

Impact of rainfall on microbial contamination of surface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Increased annual precipitation and more frequent episodes with heavy precipitation are expected in Norway due to climate change. The purpose of this paper is to use two case studies to investigate effects of precipitation on the amounts of faecal indicator bacteria and parasitic protozoa (Cryptosporidium and Giardia) loaded to surface waters from catchment areas exposed to different faecal

Ingun Tryland; Lucy Robertson; Anne-Grete B. Blankenberg; Markus Lindholm; Thomas Rohrlack; Helge Liltved

2011-01-01

2

Microbial activities and dissolved organic matter dynamics in oil-contaminated surface seawater from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site.  

PubMed

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill triggered a complex cascade of microbial responses that reshaped the dynamics of heterotrophic carbon degradation and the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in oil contaminated waters. Our results from 21-day laboratory incubations in rotating glass bottles (roller bottles) demonstrate that microbial dynamics and carbon flux in oil-contaminated surface water sampled near the spill site two weeks after the onset of the blowout were greatly affected by activities of microbes associated with macroscopic oil aggregates. Roller bottles with oil-amended water showed rapid formation of oil aggregates that were similar in size and appearance compared to oil aggregates observed in surface waters near the spill site. Oil aggregates that formed in roller bottles were densely colonized by heterotrophic bacteria, exhibiting high rates of enzymatic activity (lipase hydrolysis) indicative of oil degradation. Ambient waters surrounding aggregates also showed enhanced microbial activities not directly associated with primary oil-degradation (?-glucosidase; peptidase), as well as a twofold increase in DOC. Concurrent changes in fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) suggest an increase in oil-derived, aromatic hydrocarbons in the DOC pool. Thus our data indicate that oil aggregates mediate, by two distinct mechanisms, the transfer of hydrocarbons to the deep sea: a microbially-derived flux of oil-derived DOC from sinking oil aggregates into the ambient water column, and rapid sedimentation of the oil aggregates themselves, serving as vehicles for oily particulate matter as well as oil aggregate-associated microbial communities. PMID:22509359

Ziervogel, Kai; McKay, Luke; Rhodes, Benjamin; Osburn, Christopher L; Dickson-Brown, Jennifer; Arnosti, Carol; Teske, Andreas

2012-01-01

3

Microbial Activities and Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in Oil-Contaminated Surface Seawater from the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Site  

PubMed Central

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill triggered a complex cascade of microbial responses that reshaped the dynamics of heterotrophic carbon degradation and the turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in oil contaminated waters. Our results from 21-day laboratory incubations in rotating glass bottles (roller bottles) demonstrate that microbial dynamics and carbon flux in oil-contaminated surface water sampled near the spill site two weeks after the onset of the blowout were greatly affected by activities of microbes associated with macroscopic oil aggregates. Roller bottles with oil-amended water showed rapid formation of oil aggregates that were similar in size and appearance compared to oil aggregates observed in surface waters near the spill site. Oil aggregates that formed in roller bottles were densely colonized by heterotrophic bacteria, exhibiting high rates of enzymatic activity (lipase hydrolysis) indicative of oil degradation. Ambient waters surrounding aggregates also showed enhanced microbial activities not directly associated with primary oil-degradation (?-glucosidase; peptidase), as well as a twofold increase in DOC. Concurrent changes in fluorescence properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) suggest an increase in oil-derived, aromatic hydrocarbons in the DOC pool. Thus our data indicate that oil aggregates mediate, by two distinct mechanisms, the transfer of hydrocarbons to the deep sea: a microbially-derived flux of oil-derived DOC from sinking oil aggregates into the ambient water column, and rapid sedimentation of the oil aggregates themselves, serving as vehicles for oily particulate matter as well as oil aggregate-associated microbial communities.

Ziervogel, Kai; McKay, Luke; Rhodes, Benjamin; Osburn, Christopher L.; Dickson-Brown, Jennifer; Arnosti, Carol; Teske, Andreas

2012-01-01

4

Use of Negative Air Ionization for Reducing Microbial Contamination on Stainless Steel Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Microbiological concerns in food plant sanitation that relies heavily on physical and chemical methods for removing and killing bacteria could be reduced by the use of non-chemical intervention methods. This initial work on the effects of electrostatic space charge on biofilms shows promise as a viable intervention option for reducing bacterial contamination on surfaces. Natural bacterial populations from a

J. W. Arnold; B. W. Mitchell

2002-01-01

5

MICROFRACTURE SURFACE GEOCHEMISTRY AND ADHERENT MICROBIAL POPULATION METABOLISM IN TCE-CONTAMINATED COMPETENT BEDROCK  

EPA Science Inventory

A TCE-contaminated competent bedrock site in Portsmouth, NH was used to determine if a relation existed between microfracture (MF) surface geochemistry and the ecology and metabolic activity of attached microbes relative to terminal electron accepting processes (TEAPs) and TCE bi...

6

Wipe-rinse technique for quantitating microbial contamination on large surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evaluation of an improved wipe-rinse technique for the bioassay of large areas was undertaken due to inherent inadequacies in the cotton swab-rinse technique to which assay of spacecraft is currently restricted. Four types of contamination control cloths were initially tested. A polyester-bonded cloth (PBC) was selected for further evaluation because of its superior efficiency and handling characteristics. Results from comparative tests with PBC and cotton swabs on simulated spacecraft surfaces indicated a significantly higher recovery efficiency for the PBC than for the cotton (90.4 versus 75.2%). Of the sampling area sites studied, PBC was found to be most effective on surface areas not exceeding 0.74 sq m (8.0 sq ft).

Kirschner, L. E.; Puleo, J. R.

1979-01-01

7

Microbial contamination of antiseptics and disinfectants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There have been a number of reports on microbial contamination of antiseptics and disinfectants. At present, however, the necessity of measures to prevent contamination do not seem to be fully appreciated. We investigated microbial contamination of antiseptics and disinfectants that are used in our hospital.Methods: Fifty-one samples of benzaldonium chloride and chlorhexidine gluconate that were being used in the

Shigeharu Oie; Akira Kamiya

1996-01-01

8

Mathematical Estimation of the Level of Microbial Contamination on Spacecraft Surfaces by Volumetric Air Sampling  

PubMed Central

Microbiological sampling methods presently used for enumeration of microorganisms on spacecraft surfaces require contact with easily damaged components. Estimation of viable particles on surfaces using air sampling methods in conjunction with a mathematical model would be desirable. Parameters necessary for the mathematical model are the effect of angled surfaces on viable particle collection and the number of viable cells per viable particle. Deposition of viable particles on angled surfaces closely followed a cosine function, and the number of viable cells per viable particle was consistent with a Poisson distribution. Other parameters considered by the mathematical model included deposition rate and fractional removal per unit time. A close nonlinear correlation between volumetric air sampling and airborne fallout on surfaces was established with all fallout data points falling within the 95% confidence limits as determined by the mathematical model.

Oxborrow, G. S.; Roark, A. L.; Fields, N. D.; Puleo, J. R.

1974-01-01

9

Microbial populations in contaminant plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient biodegradation of subsurface contaminants requires two elements: (1) microbial populations with the necessary degradative capabilities, and (2) favorable subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions. Practical constraints on experimental design and interpretation in both the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences have resulted in limited knowledge of the interaction between hydrogeological and microbiological features of subsurface environments. These practical constraints include: (1) inconsistencies between the scales of investigation in the hydrogeological and microbiological sciences, and (2) practical limitations on the ability to accurately define microbial populations in environmental samples. However, advances in application of small-scale sampling methods and interdisciplinary approaches to site investigations are beginning to significantly improve understanding of hydrogeological and microbiological interactions. Likewise, culture-based and molecular analyses of microbial populations in subsurface contaminant plumes have revealed significant adaptation of microbial populations to plume environmental conditions. Results of recent studies suggest that variability in subsurface geochemical and hydrological conditions significantly influences subsurface microbial-community structure. Combined investigations of site conditions and microbial-community structure provide the knowledge needed to understand interactions between subsurface microbial populations, plume geochemistry, and contaminant biodegradation. La biodégradation efficace des polluants souterrains requiert deux éléments: des populations microbiennes possédant les aptitudes nécessaires à la dégradation, et des conditions géochimiques et hydrologiques souterraines favorables. Des contraintes pratiques sur la conception et l'interprétation des expériences à la fois en microbiologie et en hydrogéologie ont conduit à une connaissance limitée des interactions entre les phénomènes hydrogéologiques et microbiologiques des environnements souterrains. Ces contraintes pratiques sont dues à des contradictions entre les échelles d'étude de l'hydrogéologie et de la microbiologie et à des limitations pratiques sur la capacitéà définir avec précision les populations microbiennes dans les échantillons. Cependant, des progrès dans l'application de méthodes d'échantillonnage à l'échelle locale et des approches pluridisciplinaires des études de terrain ont commencéà améliorer de façon significative notre compréhension des interactions hydrogéologiques et microbiologiques. De plus, les analyses moléculaires et sur les cultures des populations microbiennes présentes dans les panaches de pollution souterraine ont mis en évidence une adaptation significative de ces populations aux conditions environnementales du panache. Les résultats d'études récentes laissent penser que la variabilité des conditions géochimiques et hydrologiques souterraines influence significativement la structure des communautés microbiennes souterraines. Des recherches combinées sur les conditions de terrain et sur la structure des communautés microbiennes apportent les informations nécessaires à la compréhension des interactions entre les populations microbiennes souterraines, la géochimie du panache et la biodégradation du polluant. Para que la biodegradación de los contaminantes en el subsuelo sea eficiente se requiere: (1) una población microbiana con capacidad de degradación y (2) unas condiciones hidrológicas y geoquímicas favorables. Las restricciones de tipo práctico en los diseños y la interpretación de experimentos, tanto hidrogeológicos como microbiológicos, han dado lugar a un conocimiento limitado de la interrelación entre estas dos ciencias por lo que respecta al subsuelo. Estas restricciones incluyen: (1) inconsistencias entre las escalas de investigación en ambas ciencias (hidrogeología y microbiología) y (2) limitaciones prácticas para definir poblaciones microbianas en las muestras. Sin embargo, lo

Haack, Sheridan K.; Bekins, Barbara A.

10

Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines.  

PubMed

The specific structure of dental units favours the presence of biofilm and microbial contamination of the dental unit waterlines (DUWL) water. The ability of bacteria to colonize surfaces and to form biofilm in water supply tubes, including DUWL, is a common phenomenon, which has been well documented, just as with difficulties in biofilm removal and prevention of its regrowth. Microorganisms from contaminated DUWL are transmitted with aerosol and splatter, generated by working unit handpieces. On the basis of the detailed literature review, the state-of-the art knowledge of the microflora of dental unit waterlines is presented. Most of the microorganisms isolated from DUWL are of low pathogenicity. Nevertheless, the public health significance of many of the microorganisms found in DUWL is unknown. According to current knowledge, it is not the mere presence of bacteria that is important in DUWL contamination monitoring, but their number, the presence of potential pathogens, and patients' oral cavity microflora. Numerous studies emphasize the need for effective mechanisms to reduce the microbial contamination in DUWL and highlight the risk for cross-infection in general practice, especially in view of the ever-increasing number of immunocompromised persons who present at outpatient dental clinics. PMID:19061251

Szyma?ska, Jolanta; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2008-12-01

11

Microbial processes and subsurface contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Chapman Conference entitled “Microbial Processes in the Transport, Fate, and In Situ Treatment of Subsurface Contaminants” was held in Snowbird, Utah, October 1-3, 1986. Members of the program committee and session chairmen were Lenore Clesceri (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y.), David Gibson (University of Texas, Austin), James Mercer (GeoTrans, Inc., Herndon , Va.), Donald Michelsen (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg), Fred Molz (Auburn University, Auburn, Ala.), Bruce Rittman (University of Illinois, Urbana), Gary Sayler (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), and John T. Wilson (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, Okla.). The following report attempts to highlight the six sessions that constituted the conference. For additional information, including a bound summary and abstracts, contact Fred J. Molz, Civil Engineering Department, Auburn University, AL 36849 (telephone: 205-826-4321).

Molz, Fred J.

12

Surface Characterization and Contamination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nondestructive characterization of surface contamination can play an extremely important role in improving quality in manufacturing processes. This area of interest led to the formation of a Surface Contamination Analysis Team (SCAT) at Marshall Space Fli...

G. L. Workman

1999-01-01

13

Microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines.  

PubMed

The quality of water in a dental unit is of considerable importance because patients and dental staff are regularly exposed to water and aerosol generated from the dental unit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines. Water samples were collected aseptically from the waterlines (reservoir, triple-syringe, high-speed) of 15 dental units. After serial dilution to 1:10(6) in APHA, the samples were seeded by the pour-plate technique and cultured in plate count agar (Difco) for 48 h at 32 degrees C. Analysis was based on the number of colony forming units (CFU). The Wilcoxon non-parametric test indicated that the levels of water contamination were highest in the triple-syringe (13 of 15) and in the high-speed (11 of 15); both levels were higher than those of the water reservoir. There was no significant statistical difference between the level of contamination in the triple-syringe and the high-speed as determined by the Mann-Whitney test [p(H0) = 40.98%; Z = - 0.2281]. Because biofilm forms on solid surfaces constantly bathed by liquid where microorganisms are present, these results indicate that the water in the dental unit may be contaminated by biofilm that forms in these tubules. PMID:12656466

Souza-Gugelmin, Maria Cristina Monteiro de; Lima, Carolina Della Torre; Lima, Sergio Narciso Marques de; Mian, Henis; Ito, Izabel Yoko

2003-01-01

14

Natural protection of spring and well drinking water against surface microbial contamination. II. Indicators and monitoring parameters for parasites.  

PubMed

Recent outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and reports of other newly described para-sitic diseases associated with drinking water transmission prompted a reevaluation of source water monitoring criteria for public health protection. The field of microbial indicators was reviewed and each candidate sentinel evaluated in terms of its sensitivity, specificity, and technical feasibility. In addition, a clear distinction was made between source water monitoring and monitoring in the distribution system. Of all potential candidate microbial sentinels, Escherichia coli is deemed the most efficacious for public health protection. Based on a conservative estimate of its half-life in groundwater for 8 d, it is recommended that at least two samples be obtained during this half-life. In addition to E. coli, two water quality indicator sentinels, which are not necessarily direct public health threats, should also be monitored at the same frequency. These are the total coliform group and the enterococci. If E. coli is present in any source water sample, the borehole and any directly connected borehole should be embargoed. If either total coliforms or enterococci are detected, only that individual borehole should be taken off line and not used until the situation is remediated and the cause of the fecal contamination eliminated. Clostridium perfringens spores serve as a useful long-lived indicator. However, their perseverance in a sample should not be considered a direct public health threat because spores may far outlive pathogens. As a parasite indicator, C. perfringens should have the same importance as a positive coliform or enterococcus analysis. Coliphages do not yet fulfill enough of the criteria to be routinely employed. Biological monitoring should be coupled with physicochemical monitoring to establish a long-term history of the source. Because all natural waters vary in the amounts of heterotrophic plate count bacteria, test methods should be employed that are refractory to them. A combination of rigorous source protection plus extraordinary source monitoring serve as sufficient multiple barriers for parasite protection. PMID:9226113

Edberg, S C; LeClerc, H; Robertson, J

1997-01-01

15

Microbial Contamination of Bovine Serum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Development and application of viral screening methods to detect endogenous bovine virus contaminants in bovine sera used as a medium supplement in live virus vaccine production. Methods included: (1) an ultra-centrifugation concentration technique with p...

A. Kniaziff

1976-01-01

16

A theoretical microbial contamination model for a human Mars mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination from a human presence on Mars could significantly compromise the search for extraterrestrial life. In particular, the difficulties in controlling microbial contamination, the potential for terrestrial microbes to grow, evolve, compete, and modify the Martian environment, and the likely microbial nature of putative Martian life, make microbial contamination worthy of focus as we begin to plan for a human

Mark Lewis Lupisella

2006-01-01

17

Microbial contamination of donor eyes.  

PubMed

A total number of 1,516 donor eyes received from various sources during the years 1973-1985 were subjected to the isolation of bacterial contamination. The bacterial cultures taken from the pretreatment eyeball showed culture growth in 366 (24.1%) eyes. Of the 366 positive cultures, 331 (21.8%) were bacterial and 35 (2.3%) were fungal. Amongst the bacterial the major contamination was by staphylococcus aureus and albus and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gentamicin was found to be the most sensitive antibiotic against a wider group of organisms, the next being chloramphenicol. Thus, treatment of a cadaver eye with a solution of normal saline containing 0.1-0.5 mg/ml of gentamicin is recommended before and after the donor eye is enucleated. PMID:3068389

Panda, A; Angra, S K; Venkateshwarlu, K; Mahajan, V M; Mohan, M

1988-01-01

18

GEOELECTRICAL EVIDENCE OF MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF DIESEL CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The alteration of physical properties by microbial activity in petroleum contaminated sediments was investigated using geophysical techniques in laboratory column experiments. Microbial population growth was determined by the Most Probable Number technique (MPN), community dynami...

19

Microbial characterization of a radionuclide- and metal-contaminated waste site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of nuclear processing facilities and defense-related nuclear activities has resulted in contamination of near-surface and deep-subsurface sediments with both radionuclides and metals. The presence of mixed inorganic contaminants may result in undetectable microbial populations or microbial populations that are different from those present in uncontaminated sediments. To determine the impact of mixed radionuclide and metal contaminants on sediment

H. Jr. Bolton; H. L. Lumppio; C. C. Ainsworth; A. E. Plymale

1993-01-01

20

Detection of microbial contamination in platelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the United States, approximately 100 patients develop fatal sepsis associated with platelet transfusions every year. Current culture methods take 24-48 hours to acquire results, which in turn decrease the shelf life of platelets. Many of the microorganisms that contaminate platelets can replicate easily at room temperature, which is the necessary storage temperature to keep platelets functional. Therefore, there is a need for in-situ quality control assessment of the platelet quality. For this purpose, a real time spectrophotometric technique has been developed. The Spectral Acquisition Processing Detection (SAPD) method, comprised of a UV-vis spectrophotometer and modeling algorithms, is a rapid method that can be performed prior to platelet transfusion to decrease the risk of bacterial infection to patients. The SAPD method has been used to determine changes in cell suspensions, based on size, shape, chemical composition and internal structure. Changes in these cell characteristics can in turn be used to determine microbial contamination, platelet aging and other physiologic changes. Detection limits of this method for platelet suspensions seeded with bacterial contaminants were identified to be less than 100 cfu/ml of sample. Bacterial counts below 1000 cfu/ml are not considered clinically significant. The SAPD method can provide real-time identification of bacterial contamination of platelets affording patients an increased level of safety without causing undue strain on laboratory budgets or personnel while increasing the time frame that platelets can be used by dramatically shortening contaminant detection time.

Berg, Tracy L.; Leparc, German; Huffman, Debra E.; Gennaccaro, Angela L.; Garcia-Lopez, Alicia; Klungness, Greta; Stephans, Christie; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.

2005-03-01

21

Minimizing microbial contamination of sperm samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Taken from the Methods section: With the collection and translocation of gametes from aquatic species, a potential hazard exists for microbial transfer. Contamination of semen can occur during collection, processing, storage, and transport. Some preventative measures are described below for limiting the spread and amplification of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, mycoplasmas, and parasites. Generally, sanitation during collection is essential. Materials and equipment used to freeze semen should be sterile. Following good practice guidelines for handling and processing samples collected for freezing is especially important for non-domestic animals where disease-free status cannot be guaranteed and unsophisticated technology is used (Russell et al. 1977).

Jenkins, Jill A.

2011-01-01

22

Cadmium Selenium Testing for Microbial Contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cadmium selenium Quantum Dots (QDs) are metal nanoparticles that fluoresce in a variety of colors determined by their size. QDs are solid state structures made of semiconductors or metals that confine a countable, small number of electrons into a small space. The confinement of electrons is achieved by the placement of some insulating material(s) around a central, well conducted region. Coupling QDs with antibodies can be used to make spectrally multiplexed immunoassays that test for a number of microbial contaminants using a single test.

2003-01-01

23

Are Microbial Nanowires Responsible for Geoelectrical Changes at Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances in near-surface geophysics and biogeophysics in particular, have clearly established a link between geoelectrical response and the growth and enzymatic activities of microbes in geologic media. Recent studies from hydrocarbon contaminated sites suggest that the activities of distinct microbial populations, specifically syntrophic, sulfate reducing, and dissimilatory iron reducing microbial populations are a contributing factor to elevated sediment conductivity.

C. Hager; E. A. Atekwana; Y. A. Gorby; J. W. Duris; J. P. Allen; C. Ownby; S. Rossbach

2007-01-01

24

Effect of Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide on Indoor Microbial Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional and modern techniques for bioaerosol enumeration were used to evaluate the relative efficiency of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) in reducing the indoor microbial contamination under field and laboratory conditions. The field study was performed in a highly microbially contaminated house, which had had an undetected roof leak for an extended period of time and exhibited large areas of visible

Nancy Clark Burton; Atin Adhikari; Yulia Iossifova; Sergey A. Grinshpun; Tiina Reponen; Chart Chiemchaisri; Wilai Chiemchaisri; Sayan Tudsri; Sunil Kumar; Josias Zietsman; Muhammad Bari; Aaron Rand; Bhushan Gokhale; Dominique Lord; Jenny Sanderson; Patrick Hettiaratchi; Carlos Hunte; Omar Hurtado; Alejandro Keller; Chettiyappan Visvanathan; Melissa Weitz; Jeffrey Coburn; Edgar Salinas; Ahmed Soliman; Robert Jacko; James Wilson; Maureen Mullen; Andrew Bollman; Kirstin Thesing; Manish Salhotra; Frank Divita; James Neumann; Jason Price; James DeMocker; Mae Gustin; Jody Ericksen; George Fernandez; Ryan LeBouf; Liesel Yesse; Alan Rossner; Deborah Luecken; Alan Cimorelli; Wei-Hsin Chen; Shan-Wen Du; Hsi-Hsien Yang; Jheng-Syun Wu; Diane Ivy; James Mulholland; Armistead Russell

2008-01-01

25

Field Analysis of Microbial Contamination Using Three Molecular Methods in Parallel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced technologies with the capability of detecting microbial contamination remain an integral tool for the next stage of space agency proposed exploration missions. To maintain a clean, operational spacecraft environment with minimal potential for forward contamination, such technology is a necessity, particularly, the ability to analyze samples near the point of collection and in real-time both for conducting biological scientific experiments and for performing routine monitoring operations. Multiple molecular methods for detecting microbial contamination are available, but many are either too large or not validated for use on spacecraft. Two methods, the adenosine- triphosphate (ATP) and Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assays have been approved by the NASA Planetary Protection Office for the assessment of microbial contamination on spacecraft surfaces. We present the first parallel field analysis of microbial contamination pre- and post-cleaning using these two methods as well as universal primer-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Morris, H.; Stimpson, E.; Schenk, A.; Kish, A.; Damon, M.; Monaco, L.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.

2010-01-01

26

Microbial and chemical contamination during and after flooding in the Ohio River-Kentucky, 2011.  

PubMed

Surface water contaminants in Kentucky during and after 2011 flooding were characterized. Surface water samples were collected during flood stage (May 2-4, 2011; n = 15) and after (July 25-26, 2011; n = 8) from four different cities along the Ohio River and were analyzed for the presence of microbial indicators, pathogens, metals, and chemical contaminants. Contaminant concentrations during and after flooding were compared using linear and logistic regression. Surface water samples collected during flooding had higher levels of E. coli, enterococci, Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7, adenovirus, arsenic, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to surface water samples collected 3-months post-flood (P < 0.05). These results suggest that flooding increases microbial and chemical loads in surface water. These findings reinforce commonly recommended guidelines to limit exposure to flood water and to appropriately sanitize contaminated surfaces and drinking wells after contamination by flood water. PMID:24967556

Yard, Ellen E; Murphy, Matthew W; Schneeberger, Chandra; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Hoo, Elizabeth; Freiman, Alexander; Lewis, Lauren S; Hill, Vincent R

2014-09-19

27

Italian multicenter study on infection hazards during dental practice: Control of environmental microbial contamination in public dental surgeries  

PubMed Central

Background The present study assessed microbial contamination in Italian dental surgeries. Methods An evaluation of water, air and surface microbial contamination in 102 dental units was carried out in eight Italian cities. Results The findings showed water microbial contamination in all the dental surgeries; the proportion of water samples with microbial levels above those recommended decreased during working. With regard to Legionella spp., the proportion of positive samples was 33.3%. During work activity, the index of microbial air contamination (IMA) increased. The level of microbial accumulation on examined surfaces did not change over time. Conclusion These findings confirm that some Italian dental surgeries show high biocontamination, as in other European Countries, which highlights the risk of occupational exposure and the need to apply effective measures to reduce microbial loads.

Castiglia, Paolo; Liguori, Giorgio; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Napoli, Christian; Pasquarella, Cesira; Bergomi, Margherita; Fabiani, Leila; Monarca, Silvano; Petti, Stefano

2008-01-01

28

Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines in Istanbul, Turkey.  

PubMed

The water used in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) acts as a coolant for the high-speed equipment and as an irrigant during dental treatments. There are kind of water tanks. DUWLs provide a favorable environment for microbial biofilm and multiplation primarily due to the high surface in the tubing and the character of fluid dynamics in narrow, smooth-walled waterlines. Biofilms can harbour opportunist pathogens such as Legionella sp., Pseudomonas sp. Several studies have shown that DUWLs have high levels of microbial contamination. Presence of high level of microbial contamination is an important problem for dentists and dental patients who are immunocompromised. We collected water samples from DUWLs of 20 private dental offices. We have determined that only 2 (3.4%) out of 59 dental unit water samples were found to meet the standard (<200 CFU.ml(-1)) for DUWLs water quality by American Dental Association (ADA). Of the 59 water samples examined, 14 (24%) were positive for Pseudomonas sp. and 18 (30.5%) were positive for fungi. The most common 14 bacterial strains and seven fungi were isolated. Of bacterial strains, 57.1% were identified: Majority of the bacterial species isolated from our samples was identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pasteurella haemolytica, Photobacterium damsela, Ochrobacter anthropi, Moraxella sp., Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium expansum. Legionella sp. were not detected in all water samples. PMID:18210208

Göksay, Duygu; Cotuk, Ay?in; Zeybek, Zuhal

2008-12-01

29

Materials surface contamination analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original research objective was to demonstrate the ability of optical fiber spectrometry to determine contamination levels on solid rocket motor cases in order to identify surface conditions which may result in poor bonds during production. The capability of using the spectral features to identify contaminants with other sensors which might only indicate a potential contamination level provides a real enhancement to current inspection systems such as Optical Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE). The optical fiber probe can easily fit into the same scanning fixtures as the OSEE. The initial data obtained using the Guided Wave Model 260 spectrophotometer was primarily focused on determining spectra of potential contaminants such as HD2 grease, silicones, etc. However, once we began taking data and applying multivariate analysis techniques, using a program that can handle very large data sets, i.e., Unscrambler 2, it became apparent that the techniques also might provide a nice scientific tool for determining oxidation and chemisorption rates under controlled conditions. As the ultimate power of the technique became recognized, considering that the chemical system which was most frequently studied in this work is water + D6AC steel, we became very interested in trying the spectroscopic techniques to solve a broad range of problems. The complexity of the observed spectra for the D6AC + water system is due to overlaps between the water peaks, the resulting chemisorbed species, and products of reaction which also contain OH stretching bands. Unscrambling these spectral features, without knowledge of the specific species involved, has proven to be a formidable task.

Workman, Gary L.; Arendale, William F.

1992-01-01

30

Oxidation of aromatic contaminants coupled to microbial iron reduction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

THE contamination of sub-surface water supplies with aromatic compounds is a significant environmental concern1,2. As these contaminated sub-surface environments are generally anaerobic, the microbial oxidation of aromatic compounds coupled to nitrate reduction, sulphate reduction and methane production has been studied intensively1-7. In addition, geochemical evidence suggests that Fe(III) can be an important electron acceptor for the oxidation of aromatic compounds in anaerobic groundwater. Until now, only abiological mechanisms for the oxidation of aromatic compounds with Fe(III) have been reported8-12. Here we show that in aquatic sediments, microbial activity is necessary for the oxidation of model aromatic compounds coupled to Fe(III) reduction. Furthermore, a pure culture of the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium GS-15 can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing benzoate, toluene, phenol or p-cresol with Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor. These results extend the known physiological capabilities of Fe(III)-reducing organisms and provide the first example of an organism of any type which can oxidize an aromatic hydrocarbon anaerobically. ?? 1989 Nature Publishing Group.

Lovley, D. R.; Baedecker, M. J.; Lonergan, D. J.; Cozzarelli, I. M.; Phillips, E. J. P.; Siegel, D. I.

1989-01-01

31

Microbial contamination monitoring and control during human space missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ubiquity and resilience of microorganisms makes them unavoidable in most environments including space habitats. The impaired immune system of astronauts in flight raises the level of concern about disease risk during human space missions and additionally these biological contaminants may affect life support systems and hardware. In this review, the microbial contamination observed in manned space stations and in particular the International Space Station ISS will be discussed, demonstrating that it is a microbiologically safe working and living habitat. Microbial contamination levels were in general below the implemented quality standards, although, occasional contamination hazard reports indicate that the current prevention and monitoring strategies are the strict minimum.

Van Houdt, Rob; Mijnendonckx, Kristel; Leys, Natalie

2012-01-01

32

Rhizosphere Microbial Characterization in Petroleum-Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of soil with petroleum compounds is of concern worldwide. Although there are a variety of physical and chemical technologies available to remediate petroleum waste sites, biological methods are often used due to lower cost and public acceptance. Growth and enhanced activity of microbial communities in contaminated soil is a key factor for the success of bioremediation. Establishing vegetation in

M. Katherine Banks; Hadessa Mallede; Karrie Rathbone

2003-01-01

33

MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuses sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

34

MANAGING MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION IN URBAN WATERSHEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents different approaches for controlling pathogen contamination in urban watersheds for contamination resulting from point and diffuse sources. Point sources of pathogens can be treated by a disinfection technology of known effectiveness, and a desired reduction ...

35

Surface characterization and contamination analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research activity for this first year has focussed on three distinct activities: (1) the use of an integrating sphere to improve upon the gathering of spectral data from a variety of surfaces; (2) the use of optical fiber spectrometry to determine levels of contamination from tape residues on critical bonding surfaces; and (3) an exploratory activity in the use of spectroscopic ellipsometry for the analysis of thin films of contaminants on critical surfaces has also begun.

Workman, Gary L.

1994-01-01

36

21 CFR 111.10 - What requirements apply for preventing microbial contamination from sick or infected personnel...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements apply for preventing microbial contamination from sick or infected personnel and...requirements apply for preventing microbial contamination from sick or infected personnel and...practices? (a) Preventing microbial contamination . You must take measures to...

2009-04-01

37

21 CFR 111.10 - What requirements apply for preventing microbial contamination from sick or infected personnel...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements apply for preventing microbial contamination from sick or infected personnel and...requirements apply for preventing microbial contamination from sick or infected personnel and...practices? (a) Preventing microbial contamination . You must take measures to...

2010-04-01

38

Microbial contamination detection at low levels by [125]I radiolabeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contamination of mission spacecraft is an ongoing issue. A broad diversity of microorganisms have been detected in clean rooms where spacecraft are assembled. Some of which, depicted as oligotroph, are of special regard, as they are capable of colonizing inorganic surfaces like metal, and have been shown to be a concern for forward contamination of pristine celestial bodies. Currently, the NASA standard assay is the only approved assay intended for the enumeration of spores and heterotrophic microbial populations. However, culture-based microbial detection methods underestimate the viable microbial population. More recently, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence and limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assays, which employ measure-ments of selected metabolic products as a proxy of biomass, have been used successfully to circumvent the necessity of the growth of microorganisms in order to estimate the biodurdens associated with spacecraft assembly facility. However, these methods have limitation in the amount of cells that can be detected, i.e., 103 cells, and the type of microorganisms respec-tively. This work seeks to develop a new highly sensitive method for the determination of bioburdens (and the detection of microorganisms and life) that is independant of the type of organism while preserving a good turn-around time for analysis for planetary protection purposes. The assay is based on the detection of the organism's protein by labeling them by radioiodination, 125 I, of aromatic rings on tyrosine amino acids residues. Radiolabeling techniques are inherently sensitive and 125 I, in particular, benefits from a 60 day half-life, providing greater activity and signal per unit number of labels. Furthermore, microorganisms can contain over 50% of protein by dry weight. Thus, just one label per protein increases the sensitivity, compared to the ATP and LAL assays, by one and three orders of magnitude by using standard detection methods and the use of multiphoton detection (MPD), respectively. Therefore this assay enables the detection to lower levels than previously possible, down to single cells. The method has also applicability for testing returned samples hardware and for the testing sterilization methods as well as other Astrobiological applications. Future work could extend to species such as viruses and prions.

Summers, David; Karouia, Fathi

39

The potential for catheter microbial contamination from a needleless connector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Needleless connectors have been widely introduced into clinical practice to allow the connection of syringes and luers to peripheral and central vascular catheters. The potential for microbial contamination of catheters via these devices is currently unclear. A recently introduced connector, the ‘Connecta Clave’, was assessed by various in-vitro methods. The ‘Connecta Clave’ is specifically devised to separate external components from

J. D. Brown; H. A. Moss; T. S. J. Elliott

1997-01-01

40

Microbial Contamination of Chicken Wings: An Open-Ended Laboratory Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the chicken wing project in which students assess the microbial contamination of chicken wings for the safety of foods. Uses the colony counting technique and direct wash fluid examination for determining the microbial contamination, and investigates methods to reduce the level of microbial contamination. (Contains 14 references.) (YDS)

Deutch, Charles E.

2001-01-01

41

Molecular Profiling of Microbial Communities from Contaminated  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of the research is to provide appropriate sequences and to assemble a high density DNA array of oligonucleotides that can be used for rapid profiling of microbial populations, from polluted areas and from areas of other interest. The sequences to be assigned to the DNA array are chosen from cloned genomic DNA from groundwater at DOE sites containing organic solvents. The sites, Hanford Nuclear Plant and Lawrence Livermore Site 300 (LLNL), have well characterized pollutant histories, which have been provided by our collaborators.

Robb, Frank T.

1999-06-01

42

Microbial contamination of nonsterile pharmaceuticals in public hospital settings  

PubMed Central

Purpose Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the medicines. Although sterility is not a requirement in official compendia for nonsterile pharmaceuticals, bioburdens need to be within acceptable limits. Therefore, this study investigated microbial contamination of 10 nonsterile pharmaceuticals frequently delivered to outpatients by identifying and quantifying microbial contaminants and susceptibility pattern testing on the microbes isolated. Methods The study was carried out at Amana Municipal Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The protocol for the study involved structured selection of representative tablets, syrups, and capsules from the hospital’s outpatient pharmacy. Constitutive microorganisms were elaborated and enumerated using standard microbiologic procedures. Results Results showed that 50% of all tested products were heavily contaminated, and the predominant contaminants comprised Klebsiella, Bacillus, and Candida species. Furthermore, the results showed that the isolated Bacillus and Klebsiella species were resistant to Augmentin ® and cloxacillin. The differences in means for cfu/mL and zones of inhibition among the microorganisms isolated were considered significant at P < 0.05. Conclusion The nonsterile pharmaceuticals were presumably microbiologically contaminated due to poor handling during dispensing, repackaging, and/or nonadherence to good manufacturing practice. Therefore, training and educating the dispensers, as well as patients, on the proper handling and use of medicines cannot be overemphasized, because these are key aspects in controlling cross-contamination of medicines.

Mugoyela, Veronica; Mwambete, Kennedy D

2010-01-01

43

Are Microbial Nanowires Responsible for Geoelectrical Changes at Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant advances in near-surface geophysics and biogeophysics in particular, have clearly established a link between geoelectrical response and the growth and enzymatic activities of microbes in geologic media. Recent studies from hydrocarbon contaminated sites suggest that the activities of distinct microbial populations, specifically syntrophic, sulfate reducing, and dissimilatory iron reducing microbial populations are a contributing factor to elevated sediment conductivity. However, a fundamental mechanistic understanding of the processes and sources resulting in the measured electrical response remains uncertain. The recent discovery of bacterial nanowires and their electron transport capabilities suggest that if bacterial nanowires permeate the subsurface, they may in part be responsible for the anomalous conductivity response. In this study we investigated the microbial population structure, the presence of nanowires, and microbial-induced alterations of a hydrocarbon contaminated environment and relate them to the sediments' geoelectrical response. Our results show that microbial communities varied substantially along the vertical gradient and at depths where hydrocarbons saturated the sediments, ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) revealed signatures of microbial communities adapted to hydrocarbon impact. In contrast, RISA profiles from a background location showed little community variations with depth. While all sites showed evidence of microbial activity, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of sediment from the contaminated location showed pervasive development of "nanowire-like structures" with morphologies consistent with nanowires from laboratory experiments. SEM analysis suggests extensive alteration of the sediments by microbial Activity. We conclude that, excess organic carbon (electron donor) but limited electron acceptors in these environments cause microorganisms to produce nanowires to shuttle the electrons as they seek for distant electron acceptors. Hence, electron flow via bacterial nanowires may contribute to the geoelectrical response.

Hager, C.; Atekwana, E. A.; Gorby, Y. A.; Duris, J. W.; Allen, J. P.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ownby, C.; Rossbach, S.

2007-05-01

44

A theoretical microbial contamination model for a human Mars mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contamination from a human presence on Mars could significantly compromise the search for extraterrestrial life. In particular, the difficulties in controlling microbial contamination, the potential for terrestrial microbes to grow, evolve, compete, and modify the Martian environment, and the likely microbial nature of putative Martian life, make microbial contamination worthy of focus as we begin to plan for a human mission to Mars. This dissertation describes a relatively simple theoretical model that can be used to explore how microbial contamination from a human Mars mission might survive and grow in the Martian soil environment surrounding a habitat. A user interface has been developed to allow a general practitioner to choose values and functions for almost all parameters ranging from the number of astronauts to the half-saturation constants for microbial growth. Systematic deviations from a baseline set of parameter values are explored as potential plausible scenarios for the first human Mars missions. The total viable population and population density are the primary state variables of interest, but other variables such as the total number of births and total dead and viable microbes are also tracked. The general approach was to find the most plausible parameter value combinations that produced a population density of 1 microbe/cm3 or greater, a threshold that was used to categorize the more noteworthy populations for subsequent analysis. Preliminary assessments indicate that terrestrial microbial contamination resulting from leakage from a limited human mission (perhaps lasting up to 5 months) will not likely become a problematic population in the near-term as long as reasonable contamination control measures are implemented (for example, a habitat leak rate no greater than 1% per hour). However, there appear to be plausible, albeit unlikely, scenarios that could cause problematic populations, depending in part on (a) the initial survival fraction and death rate of microbes that are leaked into the Martian environment, which depends largely on the possibility for protection from the high UV radiation environment on Mars, (b) organic nutrient availability, and (c) liquid water availability, which is likely to be the limiting survival and growth factor.

Lupisella, Mark Lewis

45

Microbial contamination of a hexetidine mouth wash.  

PubMed

Twenty different bottles of a mouth wash containing 0.05% hexetidine as an active ingredient were examined for their microbiral contents. The results showed that all the tested bottles were contaminated with bacteria. Nine out of the twenty bottles contained more than 10(4) CFU/ml. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in one bottle, while Pseudomonas species were found in four bottles. Fungi were detected in 10 bottles, a fungal count of more than 100 fungus/ml were found in 12 out of the 19. Yeasts were detected in 16 bottles, Candida species were the most predominant with a rate of 11 out of the 16, while Saccharomyces species were found in 5 out of the 16. C. albicans, a definite oral pathogen, was found in 3 bottles. PMID:3116786

Abdelaziz, A A; Ashour, M S

1987-06-01

46

Evaluation of metal and microbial contamination in botanical supplements.  

PubMed

The sale of botanical dietary supplements in the United States is on the rise. However, limited studies have been conducted on the safety of these supplements. There are reports on the presence of undesired metals in some of the botanical dietary supplements. In this study, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, grape seed extract, kava kava, saw palmetto, and St. John's wort supplements manufactured by Nature's Way, Meijer, GNC, Nutrilite, Solaray, Sundown and Natrol, have been analyzed for lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, uranium, chromium, vanadium, copper, zinc, molybdenum, palladium, tin, antimony, thallium, and tungsten using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. All samples were devoid of mercury contamination. Results indicated that the botanical supplements analyzed did not contain unacceptable concentrations of these metals. These supplements were also evaluated for microbial contamination, and most samples analyzed showed the presence of bacteria or fungi or both. Microbes were not counted nor were microbial counts determined in these samples. PMID:15612762

Raman, Priyadarshini; Patino, Lina C; Nair, Muraleedharan G

2004-12-29

47

Controlling surface contamination at SNO  

SciTech Connect

The ability of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector to measure the energy spectrum of the {sup 8}B solar neutrinos will depend on the background radiation arising from uranium and thorium contamination in the bulk material and on the surfaces of the detector. A principle surface contaminant is the ubiquitous dust found in the working nickel mine where the detector will be assembled. The thorium content of mine dust is about 6 ppm, which is a factor of 6 x 10{sup 6} greater than is present in the acrylic material that holds the heavy water. The result of this is that the detector cavity, 6800 feet underground and having a volume of about 9000 cubic meters, must become a dust-free cleanroom. (It will be one of the larger cleanrooms in the world, and certainly the lowest lying.) After an 18 month construction period, the amount of dust present on the surfaces of the detector must be less than 0.4 micrograms/cm{sup 2}. A variety of techniques has been developed to measure these small amounts of surface contamination. These will be described along with the measures planned to achieve the surface cleanliness requirements of the SNO detector.

Stokstad, R.; Garcia, A.; Zlimen, I. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

1993-10-01

48

The potential for catheter microbial contamination from a needleless connector.  

PubMed

Needleless connectors have been widely introduced into clinical practice to allow the connection of syringes and luers to peripheral and central vascular catheters. The potential for microbial contamination of catheters via these devices is currently unclear. A recently introduced connector, the 'Connecta Clave', was assessed by various in-vitro methods. The 'Connecta Clave' is specifically devised to separate external components from the fluid pathway. The compression seals of 50 devices were contaminated with 1 x 10(4) cfu Staphylococcus epidermidis, disinfected with isopropanol, and fluid passed through. Only one device allowed organisms to pass through, despite this challenge, representing a contamination rate of 2%. In comparison, when 50 connectors were challenged with 20 cfu of S. epidermidis, no organisms passed through the device during use. In the clinical situation, after manipulation, < 16 cfu of skin organisms were found associated with the compression seal of the devices. It is, therefore, likely that the contamination rates in clinical practice will be extremely low. Three methods of disinfecting the compression seals and associated rims were also evaluated. A combination of alcohol chlorhexidine spray, followed by a 70% isopropanol swab, resulted in the most efficacious disinfection. The isopropanol swabs produced an adequate disinfection rate. The overall results suggest that by use of specially designed connectors, not only are needlestick injuries reduced, but the likelihood of microbial contamination of catheters via the internal route may also be diminished. PMID:9253699

Brown, J D; Moss, H A; Elliott, T S

1997-07-01

49

Effects of PAH-Contaminated Soil on Rhizosphere Microbial Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial associations with plant roots are thought to contribute to the success of phytoremediation. We tested the effect\\u000a of addition of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil on the structure of the rhizosphere microbial communities\\u000a of wheat (Triticum aestivum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Tango), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo var. Black Beauty), and pumpkin (C. pepo spp. pepo var. Howden)

Olga Pritchina; Cairn Ely; Barth F. Smets

50

Apparatus for Sampling Surface Contamination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus denoted a swab device has been developed as a convenient means of acquiring samples of contaminants from surfaces and suspending the samples in liquids. (Thereafter, the liquids can be dispensed, in controlled volumes, into scientific instruments for analysis of the contaminants.) The swab device is designed so as not to introduce additional contamination and to facilitate, simplify, and systematize the dispensing of controlled volumes of liquid into analytical instruments. The swab device is a single apparatus into which are combined all the equipment and materials needed for sampling surface contamination. The swab device contains disposable components stacked together on a nondisposable dispensing head. One of the disposable components is a supply cartridge holding a sufficient volume of liquid for one complete set of samples. (The liquid could be clean water or another suitable solvent, depending on the application.) This supply of liquid is sealed by Luer valves. At the beginning of a sampling process, the user tears open a sealed bag containing the supply cartridge. A tip on the nondisposable dispensing head is engaged with a Luer valve on one end of the supply cartridge and rotated, locking the supply cartridge on the dispensing head and opening the valve. The swab tip includes a fabric swab that is wiped across the surface of interest to acquire a sample. A sealed bag containing a disposable dispensing tip is then opened, and the swab tip is pushed into the dispensing tip until seated. The dispensing head contains a piston that passes through a spring-loaded lip seal. The air volume displaced by this piston forces the liquid out of the supply cartridge, over the swab, and into the dispensing tip. The piston is manually cycled to enforce oscillation of the air volume and thereby to cause water to flow to wash contaminants from the swab and cause the resulting liquid suspension of contaminants to flow into the dispensing tip. After several cycles to ensure adequate mixing, liquid containing the suspended contaminant sample is dispensed. The disposable components are then removed from the dispensing head, which may then be reused with a fresh set of disposable components.

Wells, Mark

2008-01-01

51

Hydrogen Contamination of Niobium Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The presence of hydrogen is blamed for dramatic reductions in cavity Q's. Hydrogen concentration is difficult to measure, so there is a great deal of Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt (FUD) associated with the problem. This paper presents measurements of hydrogen concentration depth profiles, commenting on the pitfalls of the methods used and exploring how material handling can change the amount of hydrogen in pieces of niobium. Hydrogen analysis was performed by a forward scattering experiment with Helium used as the primary beam. This technique is variously known as FRES (Forward Recoil Elastic Scattering), FRS, HFS (Hydrogen Forward Scattering), and HRA (Hydrogen Recoil Analysis). Some measurements were also made using SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry). Both HFS and SIMS are capable of measuring a depth profile of Hydrogen. The primary difficulty in interpreting the results from these techniques is the presence of a surface peak which is due (at least in part) to contamination with either water or hydrocarbons. With HFS, the depth resolution is about 30 nm, and the maximum depth profiled is about 300 nm. (This 10-1 ratio is unusually low for ion beam techniques, and is a consequence of the compromises that must be made in the geometry of the experiment, surface roughness, and energy straggling in the absorber foil that must be used to filter out the forward scattered helium.) All the observed HFS spectra include a surface peak which includes both surface contamination and any real hydrogen uptake by the niobium surface. Some contamination occurs during the analysis. The vacuum in the analysis chamber is typically a few times 10{sup -6} torr, and some of the contamination is in the form of hydrocarbons from the pumping system. Hydrocarbons normally form a very thin (less than a monolayer) film which is in equilibrium between arrival rate and the evaporation rate. In the presence of the incoming ion beam, however, these hydrocarbons crack on the surface into non-volatile components. Equilibrium is lost, and the surface builds up a layer of carbon-based gunk.

Viet Nguyen-Tuong; Lawrence Doolittle

1993-10-01

52

On microbial contaminants, micropseudofossils, and the oldest records of life  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Microbial contaminants may be introduced on outcrop as well as en route to or in the laboratory. Micropseudofossils may be natural or man-made. It is possible to recognize such misleading objects and important that they are not allowed to dilute the growing record of authentic pre-Phanerozoic life. Filamentous microbial contaminants from minute cracks in samples of ancient carbonate rocks from Brazil (perhaps 1 Ga old) and South Africa (???2.3 Ga old) are similar to occurrences previously described as fossils. Published records of supposedly Archean microbial life also include microcontaminants and laboratory artifacts. Although microstructures from sedimentary rocks of the Swaziland system could be fossils, they are not demonstrably so. The oldest structurally preserved fossils yet known seem to be the filaments described by Lois Nagy from stromatolitic limestone in the ???2.3 Ga old Malmani Dolomite of South Africa. It will be difficult to establish unequivocal older records in the absence of definitive ultrastructural or micro-chemical evidence. ?? 1979.

Cloud, P.; Morrison, K.

1979-01-01

53

EVIDENCE FOR MICROBIAL ENHANCED ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Electrical conductivity of sediments during microbial mineralization of diesel was investigated in a mesoscale column experiment consisting of biotic contaminated and uncontaminated columns. Microbial population numbers increased with a clear pattern of depth zonation within the ...

54

[Microbial contamination of drinking water by a polyamide feedpipe].  

PubMed

An incident is described with high colony counts in the drinking water from a well. The well was disinfected with sodium hypochlorite for several times, but without permanent success. After that the search for the reason of the high colony counts started. It turned out that the polyamide rising-pipe produced the microbial growth. Besides the colony increase in the water there was a microbial growth upon the surface of the polyamide pipe as well. When a high grade steel pipe was installed instead of the polyamide pipe there was no colony increase in the water any more. PMID:2526939

Schoenen, D; Schüssler, G

1989-06-01

55

Microbial contamination of brushes used for preoperative shaving.  

PubMed

Microbial contamination of brushes used for preoperative shaving was investigated. Of the 24 brushed examined, 18 were contaminated with 10(6)-10(9) colony forming units (cfu) per brush. Non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Xanthomonas maltophilia, and yeast-like fungi such as Candida parapsilosis were the primary contaminants. The mean bacterial count on the skin after the use of contaminated brushes (having a mean bacterial count 2.2 x 10(8) cfu) in 14 subjects was 4.6 x 10(5) cfu 25 cm-2, which was about 100 times (p less than 0.001) the control level. Contaminated brushes could not be disinfected with 80% ethyl alcohol, 0.1% sodium hypochlorite or 0.5% chlorhexidine. These findings suggest that the use of brushes should be avoided for preoperative shaving with a razor, and that sterile gauze and shaving foam should be used instead of a brush and soap. PMID:1353085

Oie, S; Kamiya, A

1992-06-01

56

[Microbial contamination of cuffs lab coats during health care].  

PubMed

The study aimed to evaluate the bacterial contamination in lab coats worn by nursing students, before and after being worn in health care practices. A quantitative and descriptive study was carried out, in which the students' coats were collected, washed and ironed in a standardized way and wore for four hours in assistance activities. Subsequently, samples from the cuffs were collected with sterile cotton swabs in order to be incubated in order to analyze microbial growth through morphological analysis by Gram's Method and antibiogram. There was bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis in 50% of the collected samples and Staphylococcus aureus, found in patients with wounds in outpatient care, showed resistance to antibiotics such as Vancomycin, Chloramphenicol and Sulfonamides. The data demonstrated that the lab coats wore during assistance activities, even in short periods, are effectively contaminated by strains resistant to antibiotics and can potentially cause infection related to health care. PMID:24676079

Margarido, Carla Auxiliadora; Villas Boas, Tamires Monteiro; Mota, Valeria Siqueira; da Silva, Cristiane Karina Malvezzi; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito

2014-01-01

57

Methodology for Modeling the Microbial Contamination of Air Filters  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to simulate microbial growth on contaminated air filters and entrainment of bioaerosols from the filters to an indoor environment. Air filter filtration and antimicrobial efficiencies, and effects of dust particles on these efficiencies, were evaluated. The number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter could be characterized according to three phases: initial, transitional, and stationary. In the initial phase, the number was determined by filtration efficiency, the concentration of dust particles entering the filter, and the flow rate. During the transitional phase, the number of bioaerosols gradually increased up to the stationary phase, at which point no further increase was observed. The antimicrobial efficiency and flow rate were the dominant parameters affecting the number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter in the transitional and stationary phase, respectively. It was found that the nutrient fraction of dust particles entering the filter caused a significant change in the number of bioaerosols in both the transitional and stationary phases. The proposed model would be a solution for predicting the air filter life cycle in terms of microbiological activity by simulating the microbial contamination of the filter.

Joe, Yun Haeng; Yoon, Ki Young; Hwang, Jungho

2014-01-01

58

Methodology for modeling the microbial contamination of air filters.  

PubMed

In this paper, we propose a theoretical model to simulate microbial growth on contaminated air filters and entrainment of bioaerosols from the filters to an indoor environment. Air filter filtration and antimicrobial efficiencies, and effects of dust particles on these efficiencies, were evaluated. The number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter could be characterized according to three phases: initial, transitional, and stationary. In the initial phase, the number was determined by filtration efficiency, the concentration of dust particles entering the filter, and the flow rate. During the transitional phase, the number of bioaerosols gradually increased up to the stationary phase, at which point no further increase was observed. The antimicrobial efficiency and flow rate were the dominant parameters affecting the number of bioaerosols downstream of the filter in the transitional and stationary phase, respectively. It was found that the nutrient fraction of dust particles entering the filter caused a significant change in the number of bioaerosols in both the transitional and stationary phases. The proposed model would be a solution for predicting the air filter life cycle in terms of microbiological activity by simulating the microbial contamination of the filter. PMID:24523908

Joe, Yun Haeng; Yoon, Ki Young; Hwang, Jungho

2014-01-01

59

Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines in Istanbul, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water used in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) acts as a coolant for the high-speed equipments and as an irrigant during\\u000a dental treatments. There are kind of water tanks. DUWLs provide a favorable environment for microbial biofilm and multiplation\\u000a primarily due to the high surface in the tubing and the character of fluid dynamics in narrow, smooth-walled waterlines. Biofilms\\u000a can

Duygu Göksay; Ay??n Çotuk; Zuhal Zeybek

2008-01-01

60

Risk factors for microbial contamination in fruits and vegetables at the preharvest level: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of risk factors for contamination of fruits and vegetables with Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 at the preharvest level. Relevant studies were identified by searching six electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CAB Abstracts, AGRIS, AGRICOLA, and FSTA, using the following thesaurus terms: L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, E. coli O157 AND fruit, vegetable. All search terms were exploded to find all related subheadings. To be eligible, studies had to be prospective controlled trials or observational studies at the preharvest level and had to show clear and sufficient information on the process in which the produce was contaminated. Of the 3,463 citations identified, 68 studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Most of these studies were on leafy greens and tomatoes. Six studies assessed produce contamination with respect to animal host-related risk factors, and 20 studies assessed contamination with respect to pathogen characteristics. Sixty-two studies assessed the association between produce contamination and factors related to produce, water, and soil, as well as local ecological conditions of the production location. While evaluations of many risk factors for preharvest-level produce contamination have been reported, the quality assessment of the reviewed studies confirmed the existence of solid evidence for only some of them, including growing produce on clay-type soil, the application of contaminated or non-pH-stabilized manure, and the use of spray irrigation with contaminated water, with a particular risk of contamination on the lower leaf surface. In conclusion, synthesis of the reviewed studies suggests that reducing microbial contamination of irrigation water and soil are the most effective targets for the prevention and control of produce contamination. Furthermore, this review provides an inventory of the evaluated risk factors, including those requiring more research. PMID:23127717

Park, Sangshin; Szonyi, Barbara; Gautam, Raju; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

2012-11-01

61

A PILOT STUDY TO COMPARE MICROBIAL AND CHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HUMAN FECAL CONTAMINATION IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Limitations exist in applying traditional microbial methods for the detection of human fecal contamination of water. A pilot study was undertaken to compare the microbial and chemical indicators of human fecal contamination of water. Sixty-four water samples were collected in O...

62

Evaluation of Unfixed Tritium Surface Contamination  

SciTech Connect

Surface unfixed radioactive contamination represents the amount of surface total radioactive contamination which can be eliminated by pure mechanical processes. This unfixed contamination represents the main risk factor for contamination of the personnel which operates in tritium laboratories. Unfixed contamination was determined using sampling smears type FPCSN-PSE-AA. Those FPCSN-PSE-AA smears are disks of expanded polystyrene which contain acrylic acid fragments superficially grafted. Sampling factor was determinated by contaminated surface wiping with moisten smears in 50 {mu}L butylic alcohol and activity measuring at liquid scintillation measuring device. Sampling factor was determined by the ratio between measured activity and initially real conventional activity. The sampling factor was determined for Tritium Laboratory existent surfaces: stainless steel, aluminum, glass, ceramics, linoleum, washable coats, epoxy resins type ALOREX LP-52.The sampling factors and the reproducibility were determined in function of surface nature.

Postolache, C.; Matei, Lidia [National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (Romania)

2005-07-15

63

Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

2002-02-26

64

The hospital vacuum cleaner: mechanism for redistributing microbial contaminants.  

PubMed

Carpeting patient care units in acute care hospitals is increasingly common. While the safety of carpeting has been heavily debated, there has been little epidemiological data to document risk to the hospitalized patient. With the report of a two-year study documenting human contamination and potential colonization by microorganisms spread from hospital carpeting, a need was established to document modes of transmission. The objective of this study was to define the potential of hospital vacuums for dispersing particles of a size comparable to the microbial cell. Both filter efficiency and vacuum exhaust turbulence are evaluated. Results document that of eight units claiming high efficiency filtration, none was capable of meeting advertising claims. In addition, exhaust air velocities for one unit reached 175 feet per minute at 30 inches above the floor. PMID:10245501

Brown, D G; Schatzle, K; Gable, T

1980-01-01

65

Interactions between subsurface microbial assemblages and mixed organic and inorganic contaminant systems  

SciTech Connect

Metals are introduced into aquatic environments as results of mining and refining of ores and other human activities, such as combustion of fossil fuels, spraying of pesticides, and disposal of domestic and industrial wastes. Synthetic chelating agents have been used for nuclear decontamination, waste processing, and detergent industry because they react with radionuclides and heavy metal ions and form stable water-soluble complexes. Co-disposal of synthetic chelating agents with radionuclides and/or heavy metals at some landfill sites for energy and industrial wastes have caused increase in organic-inorganic mixtures transport in the subsurface environment. The extensive presence and the possible persistence of these waste mixtures in those environments underlines the need to study their effects on aquatic microbial assemblages. To remediate a contaminated aquifer, the microorganisms must not be severely inhibited by the chemical pollutants. In this research, the effects of selected chemical contaminants (organic and inorganic species) on ground water bacteria and a mixture of model organic and inorganic chemicals (i.e., imidazole and copper) on surface and subsurface bacteria were determined. Adaptation of microorganisms to in situ contaminants may be the prerequisite for microbial degradation to occur. In addition, some environmental factors such as concentrations of inorganic nutrients may limit or affect biodegradation of subsurface organic pollutants. Microbial degradative activity in ground water of a chemical waste landfill site in Georgia and in ground water samples from California were the focus of this study. Effects of inorganic nutrients on microbial degradation of toluene, p-cresol, and phenol in ground waters were evaluated. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Hwang, H.M.; Loya, J.A. (Jackson State Univ., MS (United States)); Perry, D.L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Scholze, R. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

1994-11-01

66

Microbial regeneration of spent activated carbon dispersed with organic contaminants: mechanism, efficiency, and kinetic models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose  Regeneration of spent activated carbon assumes paramount importance in view of its economic reuse during adsorptive removal\\u000a of organic contaminants. Classical thermal, chemical, or electrochemical regeneration methods are constrained with several\\u000a limitations. Microbial regeneration of spent activated carbon provides a synergic combination of adsorption and biodegradation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Microorganisms regenerate the surface of activated carbon using sorbed organic substrate as

Kaushik Nath; Mathurkumar S. Bhakhar

2011-01-01

67

Speedy Acquisition of Surface-Contamination Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biological contamination of large-area surfaces can be determined quickly, inexpensively, and accurately with the aid of a polyester bonded cloth. Cloth is highly effective in removing microbes from a surface and releasing them for biological assay. In releasing contaminants, polyester bonded cloth was found to be superior to other commercial cleanroom cloths, including spun-bound polyamid cloths and cellulose cloths.

Puleo, J. R.; Kirschner, L. E.

1982-01-01

68

Surface contamination on LDEF exposed materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to study the surface composition and chemistry of Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) exposed materials including silvered Teflon (Ag/FEP), Kapton, S13GLO paint, quartz crystal monitors (QCM's), carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, and carbon fiber/Al Alloy composites. In each set of samples, silicones were the major contributors to the molecular film accumulated on the LDEF exposed surfaces. All surfaces analyzed have been contaminated with Si, O, and C; most have low levels (less than 1 atom percent) of N, S, and F. Occasionally observed contaminants included Cl, Na, K, P, and various metals. Orange/brown discoloration observed near vent slots in some Ag/FEP blankets were higher in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen relative to other contamination types. The source of contamination has not been identified, but amine/amide functionalities were detected. It is probable that this same source of contamination account for the low levels of sulfur and nitrogen observed on most LDEF exposed surfaces. XPS, which probes 50 to 100 A in depth, detected the major sample components underneath the contaminant film in every analysis. This probably indicates that the contaminant overlayer is patchy, with significant areas covered by less that 100 A of molecular film. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of LDEF exposed surfaces during secondary electron microscopy (SEM) of the samples confirmed contamination of the surfaces with Si and O. In general, particulates were not observed to develop from the contaminant overlayer on the exposed LDEF material surfaces. However, many SiO2 submicron particles were seen on a masked edge of an Ag/FEP blanket. In some cases such as the carbon fiber/organic matrix composites, interpretation of the contamination data was hindered by the lack of good laboratory controls. Examination of laboratory controls for the carbon fiber/Al alloy composites showed that preflight contamination was the most significant factor for all the contaminants generally detected at less than 1 atom percent, or detected only occasionally (i.e., all but Si, O, and C). Flight control surfaces, including sample backsides not exposed to space radiation or atomic oxygen flux, have accumulated some contamination on flight (compared to laboratory controls), but experimentally, the LDEF exposed surface contamination levels are generally higher for the contaminants Si and O. For most materials analyzed, Si contamination levels were higher on the leading edge surfaces than on the trailing edge surfaces. This was true even for the composite samples where considerable atomic oxygen erosion of the leading edge surfaces was observed by SEM. It is probable that the return flux associated with atmospheric backscatter resulted in enhanced deposition of silicones and other contaminants on the leading edge flight surfaces relative to the trailing edge. Although the Si concentration data suggested greater on-flight deposition of contaminants on the leading edge surfaces, the XPS analyses did not conclusively show different relative total thicknesses of flight deposited contamination for leading and trailing edge surfaces. It is possible that atomic oxygen reactions on the leading edge resulted in greater volatilization of the carbon component of the deposited silicones, effectively 'thinning' the leading edge deposited overlayer. Unlike other materials, exposed polymers such as Kapton and FEP-type Teflon had very low contamination on the leading edge surfaces. SEM evidence showed that undercutting of the contaminant overlayer and damaged polymer layers occurred during atomic oxygen erosion, which would enhance loss of material from the exposed surface.

Hemminger, Carol S.

1992-01-01

69

Mitigation of radiation induced surface contamination  

DOEpatents

A process for mitigating or eliminating contamination and/or degradation of surfaces having common, adventitious atmospheric contaminants adsorbed thereon and exposed to radiation. A gas or a mixture of gases is introduced into the environment of a surface(s) to be protected. The choice of the gaseous species to be introduced (typically a hydrocarbon gas, water vapor, or oxygen or mixtures thereof) is dependent upon the contaminant as well as the ability of the gaseous species to bind to the surface to be protected. When the surface and associated bound species are exposed to radiation reactive species are formed that react with surface contaminants such as carbon or oxide films to form volatile products (e.g., CO, CO.sub.2) which desorb from the surface.

Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA) [Dublin, CA; Stulen, Richard H. (Livermore, CA) [Livermore, CA

2003-01-01

70

Microbial environmental contamination in Italian dental clinics: A multicenter study yielding recommendations for standardized sampling methods and threshold values.  

PubMed

A microbiological environmental investigation was carried out in ten dental clinics in Italy. Microbial contamination of water, air and surfaces was assessed in each clinic during the five working days, for one week per month, for a three-month period. Water and surfaces were sampled before and after clinical activity; air was sampled before, after, and during clinical activity. A wide variation was found in microbial environmental contamination, both within the participating clinics and for the different sampling times. Before clinical activity, microbial water contamination in tap water reached 51,200cfu/mL (colony forming units per milliliter), and that in Dental Unit Water Systems (DUWSs) reached 872,000cfu/mL. After clinical activity, there was a significant decrease in the Total Viable Count (TVC) in tap water and in DUWSs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in 2.38% (7/294) of tap water samples and in 20.06% (59/294) of DUWS samples; Legionella spp. was found in 29.96% (89/297) of tap water samples and 15.82% (47/297) of DUWS samples, with no significant difference between pre- and post-clinical activity. Microbial air contamination was highest during dental treatments, and decreased significantly at the end of the working activity (p<0.05). The microbial buildup on surfaces increased significantly during the working hours. This study provides data for the establishment of standardized sampling methods, and threshold values for contamination monitoring in dentistry. Some very critical situations have been observed which require urgent intervention. Furthermore, the study emphasizes the need for research aimed at defining effective managing strategies for dental clinics. PMID:22335883

Pasquarella, Cesira; Veronesi, Licia; Napoli, Christian; Castiglia, Paolo; Liguori, Giorgio; Rizzetto, Rolando; Torre, Ida; Righi, Elena; Farruggia, Patrizia; Tesauro, Marina; Torregrossa, Maria V; Montagna, Maria T; Colucci, Maria E; Gallè, Francesca; Masia, Maria D; Strohmenger, Laura; Bergomi, Margherita; Tinteri, Carola; Panico, Manuela; Pennino, Francesca; Cannova, Lucia; Tanzi, Marialuisa

2012-03-15

71

Microbial Contamination of Contact Lenses, Lens Care Solutions, and Their Accessories: A Literature Review  

PubMed Central

Purpose A contact lens (CL) can act as a vector for microorganisms to adhere to and transfer to the ocular surface. Commensal microorganisms that uneventfully cohabitate on lid margins and conjunctivae and potential pathogens that are found transiently on the ocular surface can inoculate CLs in vivo. In the presence of reduced tissue resistance, these resident microorganisms or transient pathogens can invade and colonize the cornea or conjunctiva to produce inflammation or infection. Methods The literature was reviewed and used to summarize the findings over the last 30 years on the identification, enumeration, and classification of microorganisms adherent to CLs and their accessories during the course of normal wear and to hypothesize the role that these microorganisms play in CL infection and inflammation. Results Lens handling greatly increases the incidence of lens contamination, and the ocular surface has a tremendous ability to destroy organisms. However, even when removed aseptically from the eye, more than half of lenses are found to harbor microorganisms, almost exclusively bacteria. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci are most commonly cultured from worn lenses; however, approximately 10% of lenses harbor Gram-negative and highly pathogenic species, even in asymptomatic subjects. In storage cases, the incidence of positive microbial bioburden is also typically greater than 50%. All types of care solutions can become contaminated, including up to 30% of preserved products. Conclusions The process of CL-related microbial keratitis and inflammation is thought to be preceded by the presence or transfer or both of microorganisms from the lens to the ocular surface. Thus, this detailed understanding of lens-related bioburden is important in the understanding of factors associated with infectious and inflammatory complications. Promising mechanisms to prevent bacterial colonization on lenses and lens cases are forthcoming, which may decrease the incidence of microbially driven CL complications.

Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B.; Pearlman, Eric; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

2012-01-01

72

Enzyme-enabled responsive surfaces for anti-contamination materials.  

PubMed

Many real-life stains have origins from biological matters including proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates that act as gluing agents binding along with other particulates or microbes to exposed surfaces of automobiles, furniture, and fabrics. Mimicking naturally occurring self-defensive processes, we demonstrate in this work that a solid surface carrying partially exposed enzyme granules protected the surface in situ from contamination by biological stains and fingerprints. Attributed to the activities of enzymes which can be made compatible with a wide range of materials, such anti-contamination and self-cleaning functionalities are highly selective and efficient toward sticky chemicals. This observation promises a new mechanism in developing smart materials with desired anti-microbial, self-reporting, self-cleaning, or self-healing functions. PMID:23335427

Wu, Songtao; Buthe, Andreas; Jia, Hongfei; Zhang, Minjuan; Ishii, Masahiko; Wang, Ping

2013-06-01

73

Microbial monitoring of surface water in South Africa: an overview.  

PubMed

Infrastructural problems force South African households to supplement their drinking water consumption from water resources of inadequate microbial quality. Microbial water quality monitoring is currently based on the Colilert®18 system which leads to rapidly available results. Using Escherichia coli as the indicator microorganism limits the influence of environmental sources on the reported results. The current system allows for understanding of long-term trends of microbial surface water quality and the related public health risks. However, rates of false positive for the Colilert®18-derived concentrations have been reported to range from 7.4% to 36.4%. At the same time, rates of false negative results vary from 3.5% to 12.5%; and the Colilert medium has been reported to provide for cultivation of only 56.8% of relevant strains. Identification of unknown sources of faecal contamination is not currently feasible. Based on literature review, calibration of the antibiotic-resistance spectra of Escherichia coli or the bifidobacterial tracking ratio should be investigated locally for potential implementation into the existing monitoring system. The current system could be too costly to implement in certain areas of South Africa where the modified H(2)S strip test might be used as a surrogate for the Colilert®18. PMID:23066390

Luyt, Catherine D; Tandlich, Roman; Muller, Wilhelmine J; Wilhelmi, Brendan S

2012-08-01

74

High levels of microbial contamination of vegetables irrigated with wastewater by the drip method.  

PubMed Central

The public health aspects of the use of wastewater in agriculture and the effects of the drip irrigation method on the contamination of vegetables were studied. The method used was to simulate enteric microorganisms' dissemination by contaminated irrigation water in the field. The vegetables were irrigated with an effluent inoculated with a high titer of traceable microorganisms: poliovirus vaccine and a drug-resistant Escherichia coli. The dissemination of the marker organisms in the field was followed, and the effects of certain manipulations of the drip irrigation method on the contamination of the crops by the effluent were examined. It was shown that drip irrigation under plastic sheet cover with the drip lines placed either on the soil surface or buried at a depth of 10 cm significantly reduced crop contamination from inoculated irrigation water even when massive doses of bacteria and viruses were used. The microbial contamination was found to persist in the irrigation pipes and in the soil for at least 8 and 18 days, respectively. The data indicate that the recovery of the marker organisms was affected by soil texture and environmental conditions.

Sadovski, A Y; Fattal, B; Goldberg, D; Katzenelson, E; Shuval, H I

1978-01-01

75

High levels of microbial contamination of vegetables irrigated with wastewater by the drip method.  

PubMed

The public health aspects of the use of wastewater in agriculture and the effects of the drip irrigation method on the contamination of vegetables were studied. The method used was to simulate enteric microorganisms' dissemination by contaminated irrigation water in the field. The vegetables were irrigated with an effluent inoculated with a high titer of traceable microorganisms: poliovirus vaccine and a drug-resistant Escherichia coli. The dissemination of the marker organisms in the field was followed, and the effects of certain manipulations of the drip irrigation method on the contamination of the crops by the effluent were examined. It was shown that drip irrigation under plastic sheet cover with the drip lines placed either on the soil surface or buried at a depth of 10 cm significantly reduced crop contamination from inoculated irrigation water even when massive doses of bacteria and viruses were used. The microbial contamination was found to persist in the irrigation pipes and in the soil for at least 8 and 18 days, respectively. The data indicate that the recovery of the marker organisms was affected by soil texture and environmental conditions. PMID:216306

Sadovski, A Y; Fattal, B; Goldberg, D; Katzenelson, E; Shuval, H I

1978-12-01

76

DYNAMICS OF COUPLED CONTAMINANT AND MICROBIAL TRANSPORT IN HETEROGENEOUS POROUS MEDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Dynamic microbial attachment/detachment occurs in subsurface systems in response to changing environmental conditions caused by contaminant movement and degradation. Understanding the environmental conditions and mechanisms by which anaerobic bacteria partition between aqueous a...

77

DYNAMICS OF COUPLED CONTAMINANT AND MICROBIAL TRANSPORT IN HETEROGENEOUS POROUS MEDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Dynamic microbial attachment/detachment occurs in subsurface systems in response to changing environmental conditions caused by contaminant movement and degradation. Understanding the environmental conditions and mechanisms by which anaerobic bacteria partition between aqueous an...

78

MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN A SHALLOW HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED AQUIFER ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Little is known about the complex interactions between microbial communities and electrical properties in contaminated aquifers. In order to investigate possible connections between these parameters a study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that the degradation of hydr...

79

Surface contamination of titanium by abrading treatment.  

PubMed

This study investigated the contamination of abraded Ti surfaces. Using a polishing machine, specimens were abraded with waterproof SiC grit papers under water cooling. The abraded surfaces were examined using element analysis, X-ray diffraction, and hardness tests. Contaminant deposits with dimensions reaching about 30 microns were observed throughout the surface. In these deposits, Ti was apparently reduced by about 10% and replaced by Si and O. The chemical bond state of the Si was similar to that of SiC or a titanium silicide. The O was solute in Ti, which increased the surface hardness. The contaminant deposits were amorphous or very thin. The contamination of Ti, the extent of which was related to hardness, resulted from a reaction with abrasives. PMID:8940534

Miyakawa, O; Watanabe, K; Okawa, S; Kanatani, M; Nakano, S; Kobayashi, M

1996-06-01

80

Geophysical Signatures of Microbial Activity at Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites: A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms participate in a variety of geologic processes that alter the chemical and physical properties of their environment. Understanding the geophysical signatures of microbial activity in the environment has resulted in the development of a new sub-discipline in geophysics called “biogeophysics”. This review focuses primarily on literature pertaining to biogeophysical signatures of sites contaminated by light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL), as these sites provide ideal laboratories for investigating microbial-geophysical relationships. We discuss the spatial distribution and partitioning of LNAPL into different phases because the physical, chemical, and biological alteration of LNAPL and the subsequent impact to the contaminated environment is in large part due to its distribution. We examine the geophysical responses at contaminated sites over short time frames of weeks to several years when the alteration of the LNAPL by microbial activity has not occurred to a significant extent, and over the long-term of several years to decades, when significant microbial degradation of the LNAPL has occurred. A review of the literature suggests that microbial processes profoundly alter the contaminated environment causing marked changes in the petrophysical properties, mineralogy, solute concentration of pore fluids, and temperature. A variety of geophysical techniques such as electrical resistivity, induced polarization, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar, and self potential are capable of defining the contaminated zones because of the new physical properties imparted by microbial processes. The changes in the physical properties of the contaminated environment vary spatially because microbial processes are controlled by the spatial distribution of the contaminant. Geophysical studies must consider the spatial variations in the physical properties during survey design, data analysis, and interpretation. Geophysical data interpretation from surveys conducted at LNAPL-contaminated sites without a microbial and geochemical context may lead to ambiguous conclusions.

Atekwana, Estella A.; Atekwana, Eliot A.

2010-03-01

81

A combination method to study microbial communities and activities in zinc contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Zinc (Zn) plays a special role in soil ecology and fertility because it can support the growth of soil organisms or inhibit their growth depending on its concentrations. In this work, the effects of different concentrations of Zn on soil microbial communities and activities were analyzed by loading five different doses of Zn (160-6000 microg g(-1)) into a wheat surface soil. The microbial metabolic process revealed a significant bimodal pattern at high concentrations of Zn (>1920 microg g(-1)). This phenomenon suggested that soil microorganisms were very sensitive to zincous poisoning. A variety of soil quality properties were also measured and assessed. The results showed slower bacterial growth in soil cultures polluted with high levels of Zn. In addition, two kinds of fungi were identified by morphology and glomalin-related soil protein content in the Zn-contaminated soil. The growth of the first kind was inhibited with increase in Zn concentration. By contrast, the second kind could survive and continue to grow with increasing doses of Zn at 160-1920 microg g(-1) and its growth began to decline with further increase in Zn concentration. Finally, the fungus could not survive at very high (6000 microg g(-1)) Zn concentration. In this work, we conclude that soil microbial communities and activities can adapt to Zn pollution to a certain extent. PMID:19443111

Zhou, Yong; Yao, Jun; Choi, Martin M F; Chen, Yanjiao; Chen, Haiyan; Mohammad, Russel; Zhuang, Rensheng; Chen, Huilun; Wang, Fei; Maskow, Thomas; Zaray, Gyula

2009-09-30

82

Altered Geophysical Response Reflects Changes in Microbial Community Structure in Petroleum Contaminated Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microbial diversity of a petroleum contaminated site was investigated in order to further elucidate biogeophysical relationships of the subsurface. Increases in the sediment bulk conductivity at hydrocarbon contaminated sites have been suggested to result from enhanced mineral weathering due to increased microbial activity within the free-phase contamination zone. Therefore, our main objective was to characterize the microbial community structure in zones of higher and lower conductivity. Culture-independent 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed using sediment samples collected from the contaminated and background sites. Diversity indices indicated that the microbial community at the contaminated site contained fewer, more dominant populations, whereas the microbial community at the background site was much more diverse. This confirms the notion that environmental disturbances decrease the diversity of microbial communities. Pairwise comparisons of the microbial communities revealed that the communities from the contaminated versus background sites were significantly different. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the largest proportion of the microbial community from within the petroleum contaminated zone was affiliated with members of the Proteobacteria division, while the largest proportion from the vadose zone and background sediments were affiliated with members of the Acidobacteria division. Specific microbial populations detected only within the petroleum contaminated zone were related to the dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB), including Desulfitobacterium and Rhodoferax ferrireducens. Rhodoferax ferrireducens is known to reduce Fe(III) by direct contact, which could conceivably enhance mineral dissolution. Other significant populations were affiliated with the syntrophic bacteria Syntrophus and Pelotomaculum. Members of the Syntrophus genus are characteristically found in methanogenic environments, suggesting methanogenesis as the dominant terminal electron accepting process (TEAP) within the anaerobic petroleum contaminated zone. Moreover, a variety of methylo- and methanotrophic bacteria were found to be present around the plume. Thus, the microbial communities in and around the aged underground petroleum plume have become highly adapted to the available carbon source (petroleum hydrocarbons), and strongly influence the geophysical and geochemical surroundings through their catabolic activities. These results suggest that changes in microbial community structures parallel changes in the geophysical properties of contaminated sediments and provide strong evidence favoring the use of geoelectrical measurements for the monitoring of natural or engineered bioremediation processes.

Allen, J. P.; Atekwana, E. A.; Rossbach, S.

2006-05-01

83

Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

Woodmansee, Donald E. (Simpsonville, SC)

2002-01-01

84

Type of closure prevents microbial contamination of cosmetics during consumer use.  

PubMed

The dispensing closure used for containers plays an important role in protecting cosmetics from in-use microbial contamination. This hypothesis was tested by aseptically packing unpreserved shampoo and skin lotion into containers with three different closure types which provided various degrees of protection against consumer and environmental microbial insults. Shampoo was packed in containers with slit-cap (n = 25), flip-cap (n = 25), or screw-cap (n = 28) closures. Skin lotion was packed in containers with pump-top (n = 21), flip-cap (n = 18), or screw-cap (n = 21) closures. The products were then used by volunteers under actual in-use conditions for 3 (shampoo) or 2 (skin lotion) weeks. After use, the products were evaluated for microbial contamination by using standard methods for enumeration and identification. The standard screw-cap closure provided only minimal protection against microbial contamination of both the shampoo (29% contamination incidence) and the skin lotion (71%). The slit-cap closure on the shampoo container and the flip-cap closure on the skin lotion container provided slightly enhanced degrees of protection (21 and 39% contamination incidence, respectively). The greatest amount of protection (i.e., lowest contamination incidence) was provided by the flip-cap closure for the shampoo container (0%) and the pump-top closure for the skin lotion container (10%). As a result, closure type plays an important role in protecting poorly preserved products from in-use microbial contamination. PMID:2339896

Brannan, D K; Dille, J C

1990-05-01

85

Microbial community structure in a shallow hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer associated with high electrical conductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the complex interactions between microbial communities and electrical properties in contaminated aquifers. In order to investigate possible connections between these parameters a study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that the degradation of hydrocarbons by resident microbial communities causes a local increase in organic acid concentrations, which in turn cause an increase in native mineral weathering and a concurrent increase in the bulk electrical conductivity of soil. Microbial community structure was analyzed using a 96-well most probable number (MPN) method and rDNA intergenic spacer region analysis (RISA). Microbial community structure was found to change in the presence of hydrocarbon contaminants and these changes were consistently observed in regions of high electrical conductivity. We infer from this relationship that geophysical methods for monitoring the subsurface are a promising new technology for monitoring changes in microbial community structure and simultaneous changes in geochemistry that are associated with hydrocarbon degradation.

Duris, J. W.; Rossbach, S.; Atekwana, E. A.; Werkema, D., Jr.

2003-04-01

86

Did surface temperatures constrain microbial evolution?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposition that glaciation may not have occurred before the Cenozoic--albeit not yet a consensus position--nevertheless raises for reconsideration the surface temperature history of the earth. Glacial episodes, from the Huronian (2.3 billion years ago; BYA) through the late Paleozoic (320 to 250 million years ago; MYA) have been critical constraints on estimation of the upper bounds of temperature (Crowley 1983, Kasting and Toon 1989). Once removed, few if any constraints on the upper temperature limit other than life remain. Walker (1982) recognized that life provides an upper limit to temperature in the Precambrian. We propose a more radical concept: the upper temperature limit for viable growth of a given microbial group corresponds to the actual surface temperature at the time of the group's first appearance. In particular, we propose here that two major evolutionary developments--the emergence of cyanobacteria and aerobic eukaryotes--can be used to determine surface temperature in the Precambrian, and that only subsequent cooling mediated by higher plants and then angiosperms permitted what may possibly be the earth's first glaciation in the late Cenozoic.

Schwartzman, D.; McMenamin, M.; Volk, T.

1993-01-01

87

Influence of xenobiotic contaminants on landfill soil microbial activity and diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfills are often the final recipient of a range of environmentally important contaminants such as hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study the influence of these contaminants on microbial activity and diversity was assessed in a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill placed in Torrejón de Ardoz (Madrid, Spain).Soil samples were collected from four selected areas

M. I. Pérez-Leblic; A. Turmero; M. Hernández; A. J. Hernández; J. Pastor; A. S. Ball; J. Rodríguez; M. E. Arias

2010-01-01

88

Enhanced detection of groundwater contamination from a leaking waste disposal site by microbial community profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater biogeochemistry is adversely impacted when municipal solid waste leachate, rich in nutrients and anthropogenic compounds, percolates into the subsurface from leaking landfills. Detecting leachate contamination using statistical techniques is challenging because well strategies or analytical techniques may be insufficient for detecting low levels of groundwater contamination. We sampled profiles of the microbial community from monitoring wells surrounding a leaking

Paula J. Mouser; Donna M. Rizzo; Gregory K. Druschel; Sergio E. Morales; Nancy Hayden; Patrick O'Grady; Lori Stevens

2010-01-01

89

Assessment of metals distribution and microbial contamination at selected lake waters in and around Miri City, East Malaysia.  

PubMed

A baseline study was carried out to assess the metal concentrations and microbial contamination at selected Lake waters in and around Miri City, East Malaysia. Sixteen surface water samples were collected at specific Lakes in the environs of major settlement areas and recreational centers in Miri City. The Physico-chemical parameters [pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO)], metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Zn) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were analysed. The concentrations of Fe, Mn and Ni have been found to be above the permissible limits of drinking water quality standards. The metals data have also been used for the calculation of heavy metal pollution index. Higher values of E. coli indicate microbial contamination in the Lake waters. PMID:22684361

Prasanna, M V; Nagarajan, R; Chidambaram, S; Elayaraja, A

2012-09-01

90

An OSEE Based Portable Surface Contamination Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many industrial and aerospace processes involving the joining of materials, require sufficient surface cleanliness to insure proper bonding. Processes as diverse as painting, welding, or the soldering of electronic circuits will be compromised if prior inspection and removal of surface contaminants is inadequate. As process requirements become more stringent and the number of different materials and identified contaminants increases, various instruments and techniques have been developed for improved inspection. One such technique based on the principle of Optically Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE) has been explored for a number of years as a tool for surface contamination monitoring. Some of the benefits of OSEE are: it's non-contacting; requires little operator training; and has very high contamination sensitivity. This paper describes the development of a portable OSEE based surface contamination monitor. The instrument is suitable for both hand-held and robotic inspections with either manual or automated control of instrument operation. In addition, instrument output data is visually displayed to the operator and may be output to an external computer for archiving or analysis.

Perey, Daniel F.

1997-01-01

91

The Microbial Community Structure in Petroleum-Contaminated Sediments Corresponds to Geophysical Signatures? †  

PubMed Central

The interdependence between geoelectrical signatures at underground petroleum plumes and the structures of subsurface microbial communities was investigated. For sediments contaminated with light non-aqueous-phase liquids, anomalous high conductivity values have been observed. Vertical changes in the geoelectrical properties of the sediments were concomitant with significant changes in the microbial community structures as determined by the construction and evaluation of 16S rRNA gene libraries. DNA sequencing of clones from four 16S rRNA gene libraries from different depths of a contaminated field site and two libraries from an uncontaminated background site revealed spatial heterogeneity in the microbial community structures. Correspondence analysis showed that the presence of distinct microbial populations, including the various hydrocarbon-degrading, syntrophic, sulfate-reducing, and dissimilatory-iron-reducing populations, was a contributing factor to the elevated geoelectrical measurements. Thus, through their growth and metabolic activities, microbial populations that have adapted to the use of petroleum as a carbon source can strongly influence their geophysical surroundings. Since changes in the geophysical properties of contaminated sediments parallel changes in the microbial community compositions, it is suggested that geoelectrical measurements can be a cost-efficient tool to guide microbiological sampling for microbial ecology studies during the monitoring of natural or engineered bioremediation processes.

Allen, Jonathan P.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Atekwana, Eliot A.; Duris, Joseph W.; Werkema, D. Dale; Rossbach, Silvia

2007-01-01

92

Microbial Indicators of Faecal Contamination in Water: A Current Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well documented that faecal contamination of drinking water has caused numerous disease outbreaks. Because the risks of disease outbreaks correlate with the incidence of faecal contamination, faecal bacteria are used as indicators of faecal contamination and hence, the possible presence of disease-causing organisms. However, different microbiological faecal indicators are used in different countries and jurisdictions. Therefore, it is

Pam Tallon; Brenda Magajna; Cassandra Lofranco; Kam Tin Leung

2005-01-01

93

Analysis of Microbial Contamination in Military Aviation Fuel Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military aviation fuel systems can be an ideal environment for microorganisms. Microbial growth in hydrocarbon fuel systems arises because of the impracticality of keeping fuel tanks sterile and the inevitable presence of water from condensation. Microbia...

H. W. Graef

2003-01-01

94

Insect contamination protection for laminar flow surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of modern aircraft surfaces to achieve laminar flow was well-accepted in recent years. Obtaining the maximum benefit of laminar flow for aircraft drag reduction requires maintaining minimum leading-edge contamination. Previously proposed insect contamination prevention methods have proved impractical due to cost, weight, or inconvenience. Past work has shown that insects will not adhere to water-wetted surfaces, but the large volumes of water required for protection rendered such a system impractical. The results of a flight experiment conducted by NASA to evaluate the performance of a porous leading-edge fluid discharge ice protection system operated as an insect contamination protections system are presented. In addition, these flights explored the environmental and atmospheric conditions most suitable for insect accumulation.

Croom, Cynthia C.; Holmes, Bruce J.

1986-01-01

95

Cleanliness, backgrounds and surface contamination in CUORE  

SciTech Connect

CUORE is a proposed array of 988, 750 g, TeO2 crystal bolometers. The experiment has been approved by the Scientific Committee of Gran Sasso Laboratories and the special dilution refrigerator, that is intended to house the detector has been funded. The Experiment will search for the 0v-Double Beta Decay of 130Te. As in all the proposed next generation Double Beta Decay Experiments, the main task is the reduction of the radioactive background. A peculiar property of thermal detectors is that they are active over the entire volume and therefore strongly subject to radioactive surface contaminations. Unlike radioactive bulk contaminations, that can be measured through High-Purity Ge Detectors, radioactive surface contaminations are not easily measurable at very low levels. Different techniques were developed in order to reach the required sensitivity. Present results already achieved and studies that are underway are here presented and discussed.

Pirro, S.; Capelli, S.; Cremonesi, O.; Pavan, M.; Previtali, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell Universita di Milano Bicocca, Milan I-20126 (Italy); INFN Sezione di Milano, Milan I-20126 (Italy); Nisi, S. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010, Assergi, L'Aquila (Italy); Palmieri, E. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Via Romea 4 I-35020 Legnaro (Italy)

2005-09-08

96

Application of electrokinetics for stimulating microbial clean-up of contaminated soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given sufficient time there are few synthetic compounds that can resist microbial degradation, a fact exploited in environmental clean-up. Despite this the performance of micro-organisms in remedial technologies is often sub-optimal. There are many reasons for the failure of indigenous microbial communities to reduce contaminant concentrations, including issues of bioavailability and the inability of the contaminants to switch on genes (catabolic) responsible for contaminant degradation. Even if the presence of the required catabolic genes is confirmed, there continues to be a significant need to develop procedures to stimulate their activity. We have investigated the potential of soil electrokinetics (3-4 A m-2) to stimulate microbial degradation of organic pollutants and move the soil contaminants relative to the degradative microorganisms, so increasing contact between the two components. Using soils contaminated with pentachlorophenol as our model laboratory system, we have demonstrated that the technique is effective at causing gross and controlled movement of PCP through soils at the laboratory-scale. It can also stimulate rates (up to 25% over that of the control) by which introduced bacteria degrade the contaminant. The additional potential benefits of electrokinetics in regard to stimulating microbial activity and soil clean-up will be discussed.

Thompson, I.; Lear, G.

2006-05-01

97

Suction methods for assessing contamination on surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suction sampling techniques are widely used to assess particulate contamination levels on domestic and occupational surfaces such as floor coverings, but their use for dermal exposure assessment has, to date, been limited. This paper reviews the sampling techniques commonly employed and summarises the range of sampling efficiencies reported in the literature. As there are an extremely large number of key

MIRIAM A. BYRNE

2000-01-01

98

Sustainable remediation: electrochemically assisted microbial dechlorination of tetrachloroethene-contaminated groundwater  

PubMed Central

Microbial electric systems (MESs) hold significant promise for the sustainable remediation of chlorinated solvents such as tetrachlorethene (perchloroethylene, PCE). Although the bio-electrochemical potential of some specific bacterial species such as Dehalcoccoides and Geobacteraceae have been exploited, this ability in other undefined microorganisms has not been extensively assessed. Hence, the focus of this study was to investigate indigenous and potentially bio-electrochemically active microorganisms in PCE-contaminated groundwater. Lab-scale MESs were fed with acetate and carbon electrode/PCE as electron donors and acceptors, respectively, under biostimulation (BS) and BS-bioaugmentation (BS-BA) regimes. Molecular analysis of the indigenous groundwater community identified mainly Spirochaetes, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and ? and ?-Proteobacteria. Environmental scanning electron photomicrographs of the anode surfaces showed extensive indigenous microbial colonization under both regimes. This colonization and BS resulted in 100% dechlorination in both treatments with complete dechlorination occurring 4 weeks earlier in BS-BA samples and up to 11.5 ?A of current being generated. The indigenous non-Dehalococcoides community was found to contribute significantly to electron transfer with ?61% of the current generated due to their activities. This study therefore shows the potential of the indigenous non-Dehalococcoides bacterial community in bio-electrochemically reducing PCE that could prove to be a cost-effective and sustainable bioremediation practice.

Patil, Sayali S; Adetutu, Eric M; Rochow, Jacqueline; Mitchell, James G; Ball, Andrew S

2014-01-01

99

Use of disinfectants to reduce microbial contamination of hubs of vascular catheters.  

PubMed Central

The vascular catheter hub is a potential portal of entry for microorganisms that cause catheter-related sepsis. Thus, a reduction in catheter hub contamination might reduce the incidence of catheter-related sepsis. To develop a regimen suitable for reducing microbial contamination of the catheter hub, we experimentally contaminated catheter hubs and assessed the efficacies of disinfectant solutions. Catheter hubs were incubated overnight with suspensions of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Candida parapsilosis. After removal of unattached microorganisms, the catheter hubs were swabbed by rotating cotton swabs dipped in 1% chlorhexidine, 1% chlorhexidine in 70% ethanol, 70% ethanol, 97% ethanol, or normal saline. Posttreatment swabs of the catheter hub were obtained and cultured quantitatively. The cleaning regimens containing ethanol were the most effective. Seventy percent ethanol was more effective than chlorhexidine and is likely to be the safest treatment. We conclude that cleaning of the catheter hub with disinfectant can dramatically reduce microbial contamination.

Salzman, M B; Isenberg, H D; Rubin, L G

1993-01-01

100

Microbial community structure and function in a soil contaminated by heavy metals: effects of plant growth and different amendments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of in situ remediation of a heavy metal (HM) contaminated soil on some soil chemical properties, microbial function and microbial structural diversity after 18 months. The experiment was carried out at semifield scale in containers filled with HM contaminated soil from the Aznalcóllar mine accident (Southern Spain, 1998). The remediation measures consisted of the application of

Alfredo Pérez-de-Mora; Pilar Burgos; Engracia Madejón; Francisco Cabrera; Petra Jaeckel; Michael Schloter

2006-01-01

101

Microbial CO2 fixation potential in a tar-oil-contaminated porous aquifer.  

PubMed

CO(2) fixation is one of the most important processes on the Earth's surface, but our current understanding of the occurrence and importance of chemolithoautotrophy in the terrestrial subsurface is poor. Groundwater ecosystems, especially at organically polluted sites, have all the requirements for autotrophic growth processes, and CO(2) fixation is thus suggested to contribute significantly to carbon flux in these environments. We explored the potential for autotrophic CO(2) fixation in microbial communities of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer by detection of functional marker genes (cbbL, cbbM), encoding different forms of the key enzyme RubisCO of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. Quantification of (red-like) cbbL genes revealed highest numbers at the upper fringe of the contaminant plume and the capillary fringe where reduced sulphur and iron species are regularly oxidized in the course of groundwater table changes. Functional gene sequences retrieved from this area were most closely related to sequences of different thiobacilli. Moreover, several cultures could be enriched from fresh aquifer material, all of which are able to grow under chemolithoautotrophic conditions. A novel, nitrate-reducing, thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterial strain, recently described as Thiobacillus thiophilus D24TN(T) sp. nov., was shown to carry and transcribe RubisCO large-subunit genes of form I and II. Enzyme tests proved the actual activity of RubisCO in this strain. PMID:22416961

Kellermann, Claudia; Selesi, Draženka; Lee, Natuschka; Hügler, Michael; Esperschütz, Jürgen; Hartmann, Anton; Griebler, Christian

2012-07-01

102

Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants: an overview.  

PubMed

One of the major environmental problems today is hydrocarbon contamination resulting from the activities related to the petrochemical industry. Accidental releases of petroleum products are of particular concern in the environment. Hydrocarbon components have been known to belong to the family of carcinogens and neurotoxic organic pollutants. Currently accepted disposal methods of incineration or burial insecure landfills can become prohibitively expensive when amounts of contaminants are large. Mechanical and chemical methods generally used to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated sites have limited effectiveness and can be expensive. Bioremediation is the promising technology for the treatment of these contaminated sites since it is cost-effective and will lead to complete mineralization. Bioremediation functions basically on biodegradation, which may refer to complete mineralization of organic contaminants into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds, and cell protein or transformation of complex organic contaminants to other simpler organic compounds by biological agents like microorganisms. Many indigenous microorganisms in water and soil are capable of degrading hydrocarbon contaminants. This paper presents an updated overview of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms under different ecosystems. PMID:21350672

Das, Nilanjana; Chandran, Preethy

2011-01-01

103

Influence of biofilms on microbial contamination in dental unit water.  

PubMed

Water from dental units (DU), used for cooling and clearing the field of dental operations, is frequently contaminated by microorganisms. Retrograde spread of oral microbes into DU tubuing, contaminated plumbing systems and endogenous DU contamination have been implicated. This study investigated the contribution of DU tubing to this contamination in 11 randomly selected DU. The times required, under standardized conditions, for DU bacterial levels to decrease in response to the flushing caused by DU operation, or increase in response to stagnation caused by shutting down the DU, were measured. The DU tubing was then removed and similarly manipulated. The results showed similar bacterial levels and populations in the DU and their corresponding tubes. Sixteen control samples taken from the connecting plumbing system at distant locations, after periods of stagnation which result in DU bacterial contamination, were negative. This suggests the plumbing, in our system, is not an important factor. Thus, DU can endogenously contaminate the water passing through them; their tubes have the potential to generate similar magnitudes of bacterial contamination to that determined from intact DU. Scanning electron microscopy of the tube lumens showed a biofilm, characterized by microorganisms embedded in an amorphous matrix in all cases. This biofilm could act as a reservoir to facilitate rapid recontamination. Further analysis of the data indicates there could be other contributing factors. PMID:1806595

Whitehouse, R L; Peters, E; Lizotte, J; Lilge, C

1991-10-01

104

The important role of sink location in handwashing compliance and microbial sink contamination.  

PubMed

Handwashing is one of the most important means of reducing the spread of infection. In this study, we investigated how sink location and visibility influences handwashing and microbial contamination detected on clinical sinks in 3 pediatric intensive care units. We conclude that the visibility of sinks directly impacts on handwashing frequency and duration and also impacts on levels of bacterial contamination on and around the sink area. PMID:24773795

Cloutman-Green, Elaine; Kalaycioglu, Oya; Wojani, Hedieh; Hartley, John C; Guillas, Serge; Malone, Deirdre; Gant, Vanya; Grey, Colin; Klein, Nigel

2014-05-01

105

Monitoring microbial community in a subsurface soil contaminated with hydrocarbons by quinone profile.  

PubMed

A natural attenuation experiment was carried out using a lysimeter for 308 days after contaminating the subsoil with hydrocarbons (HCs) and the changes in the structures of microbial community in the hydrocarbon (HC) contaminated subsoil were monitored by quinone profile analysis. The residues of HCs remained for 217 days in the subsoil after the contamination. The amount of total quinones (TQ), an indicator of microbial biomass, significantly increased in the HC contaminated subsoil for 217 days, comparing with that of the background subsoil or the subsoil before the addition of HCs. The major quinone species and the quinone composition, indicators of community structure, were significantly different between the HC contaminated soil and the background soil for 217 days. The major increased quinine species in the HC contaminated soil were menaquinone-8(H4), menaquinone-9(H2) and ubiquinone-9, indicating the propagation of Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content and gamma-subclass of Proteobacteria and fungi. There was no significant difference in the diversity of the quinone species (DQ), an indicator of taxonomic diversity of microbial community, except for the decrease in DQ in the shallow subsoil after 35 days when a high concentration of HCs was detected. After 308 days when the HCs in the subsoil disappeared, TQ returned to the level of the background soil, and no significant difference in quinone composition were observed between the HC contaminated soil and the background soil. The results suggested that respiratory quinones are effective biomarkers for characterizing the temporal changes of microbial community in the HC contaminated subsoil. PMID:15763082

Song, Dejun; Katayama, Arata

2005-04-01

106

Characterizing public health and microbial risks due to water contaminants  

EPA Science Inventory

This research track evaluates risks associated with the occurrence of waterborne disease in the population. A clear understanding of the health burden associated with exposure to contaminated drinking water is critical to developing regulations that are protective of public healt...

107

Studies on Possible Propagation of Microbial Contamination in Planetary Clouds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Current U.S. planetary quarantine standards based on international agreements require consideration of the probability of contamination (Pc) of the outer planets, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, etc. One of the key parameters in estimation of the Pc of these plan...

M. A. Chatigny, R. L. Dimmick

1973-01-01

108

10 CFR Appendix D to Part 835 - Surface Contamination Values  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Surface Contamination Values D Appendix D to Part 835... Appendix D to Part 835âSurface Contamination Values The data presented in appendix...identifying the need for posting of contamination and high contamination areas in...

2010-01-01

109

10 CFR Appendix D to Part 835 - Surface Contamination Values  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Surface Contamination Values D Appendix D to Part 835... Appendix D to Part 835âSurface Contamination Values The data presented in appendix...identifying the need for posting of contamination and high contamination areas in...

2009-01-01

110

Microbial ecology of food contact surfaces and products of small-scale facilities producing traditional sausages.  

PubMed

The microbial status in 7 small-scale facilities (SSFs) producing traditional fermented and/or dry sausages was investigated. It was shown that the hygienic status of the processing environment and equipment plays an essential role in the microbial stability and safety of the final products. The current study revealed that the majority of the sampling sites (control points) tested were highly (>4 log CFU/cm(2)) contaminated by spoilage flora (i.e. Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae), with knives, tables and mincing machines being the most heavily contaminated surfaces. Moreover, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in 11.7%, 26.4%, and 11.7% of the food contact surfaces, respectively. The presence of these pathogens seemed to be associated with high numbers of one or more specific groups of the 'house-flora' on the sampling sites of the facilities; however, high numbers of 'house-flora' do not always suggest the presence of pathogens. With regard to product samples, batter samples were heavily contaminated with the 'house-flora' present on surfaces and equipment of the processing facilities while by the end of processing (final products) LAB constituted the predominant microbial flora of all products. The low initial levels of S. aureus and Salmonella found in batter samples as well as the combination of hurdles (mainly a(w)<0.92, average pH ca. <5.0 and competitive effect of natural flora) in the final products were able to inhibit and/or eliminate these pathogens; however, the detection of L. monocytogenes in 3 out of the 7 final products examined is indicative of cross-contamination. Our findings further indicate that inadequate hygiene practices within small-scale-processing facilities may result in loss of microbial control. Therefore, this study addresses the need for strict control measures within SSFs producing traditional fermented sausages. PMID:18206774

Gounadaki, Antonia S; Skandamis, Panagiotis N; Drosinos, Eleftherios H; Nychas, George-John E

2008-04-01

111

Soil microbial community responses to antibiotic-contaminated manure under different soil moisture regimes.  

PubMed

Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is an antibiotic frequently administered to livestock, and it alters microbial communities when entering soils with animal manure, but understanding the interactions of these effects to the prevailing climatic regime has eluded researchers. A climatic factor that strongly controls microbial activity is soil moisture. Here, we hypothesized that the effects of SDZ on soil microbial communities will be modulated depending on the soil moisture conditions. To test this hypothesis, we performed a 49-day fully controlled climate chamber pot experiments with soil grown with Dactylis glomerata (L.). Manure-amended pots without or with SDZ contamination were incubated under a dynamic moisture regime (DMR) with repeated drying and rewetting changes of >20 % maximum water holding capacity (WHCmax) in comparison to a control moisture regime (CMR) at an average soil moisture of 38 % WHCmax. We then monitored changes in SDZ concentration as well as in the phenotypic phospholipid fatty acid and genotypic 16S rRNA gene fragment patterns of the microbial community after 7, 20, 27, 34, and 49 days of incubation. The results showed that strongly changing water supply made SDZ accessible to mild extraction in the short term. As a result, and despite rather small SDZ effects on community structures, the PLFA-derived microbial biomass was suppressed in the SDZ-contaminated DMR soils relative to the CMR ones, indicating that dynamic moisture changes accelerate the susceptibility of the soil microbial community to antibiotics. PMID:24743980

Reichel, Rüdiger; Radl, Viviane; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Albert, Andreas; Amelung, Wulf; Schloter, Michael; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören

2014-07-01

112

Microbial Contamination of Seven Major Weaning Foods in Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Five million children aged less than five years die annually due to diarrhoea. The aim of the study was to identify some possible contributing factors for persistent diarrhoea. Seven weaning foods, including a locally-made food, were evaluated by estimating the microbial load using the most probable number method and aflatoxin levels (AFM1, AFG1, AFG2, and AFB2) by immunoaffinity column extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection of fluorescence. The results showed that the locally-made weaning food had the highest microbial count (2,000 cfu/g) and faecal streptococcal count (25 cfu/g). Moulds isolated were mainly Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. glaucus, Cladosporium sp., and Penicillium sp. The home-made weaning food recorded the highest fungal count (6,500 cfu/g). AFM1 of the weaning foods was 4.6-530 ng/mL. One weaning food had AFB1 level of 4,806 ng/g. Aflatoxin metabolites, apart from AFM1 and AFB1 present in the weaning foods, were AFG1 and AFG2. There were low microbial counts in commercial weaning foods but had high levels of aflatoxins (AFM1, AFG1, AFG2, AFB1, and AFB2). Growth and development of the infant is rapid, and it is, thus, possible that exposure to aflatoxins in weaning foods might have significant health effects.

Ibeh, I. Nnanna

2011-01-01

113

Surface contamination analysis technology team overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A team was established which consisted of representatives from NASA (Marshall Space Flight Center and Langley Research Center), Thiokol Corporation, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, AC Engineering, SAIC, Martin Marietta, and Aerojet. The team's purpose was to bring together the appropriate personnel to determine what surface inspection techniques were applicable to multiprogram bonding surface cleanliness inspection. In order to identify appropriate techniques and their sensitivity to various contaminant families, calibration standards were developed. Producing standards included development of consistent low level contamination application techniques. Oxidation was also considered for effect on inspection equipment response. Ellipsometry was used for oxidation characterization. Verification testing was then accomplished to show that selected inspection techniques could detect subject contaminants at levels found to be detrimental to critical bond systems of interest. Once feasibility of identified techniques was shown, selected techniques and instrumentation could then be incorporated into a multipurpose inspection head and integrated with a robot for critical surface inspection. Inspection techniques currently being evaluated include optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE); near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy utilizing fiber optics; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy; and ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence. Current plans are to demonstrate an integrated system in MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex within five years from initiation of this effort in 1992 assuming appropriate funding levels are maintained. This paper gives an overview of work accomplished by the team and future plans.

Burns, H. Dewitt

1995-01-01

114

IN SITU APPARENT CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENTS AND MICROBIAL POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AT A HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATED SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

We investigated the bulk electrical conductivity and microbial population distribution in sediments at a site contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL). The bulk conductivity was measured using in situ vertical resistivity probes, while the most probable number met...

115

Microbial Biofilm Formation and Contamination of Dental-Unit Water Systems in General Dental Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental-unit water systems (DUWS) harbor bacterial biofilms, which may serve as a haven for pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial load of water from DUWS in general dental practices and the biofouling of DUWS tubing. Water and tube samples were taken from 55 dental surgeries in southwestern England. Contamination was determined by viable counts on

JAMES T. WALKER; DAVID J. BRADSHAW; ALLAN M. BENNETT; MARTIN R. FULFORD; MICHAEL V. MARTIN; PHILIP D. MARSH

2000-01-01

116

Monitoring source water for microbial contamination: evaluation of water quality measures.  

PubMed

Watershed management programs often rely on monitoring for a large number of water quality parameters to define contaminant issues. While coliforms have traditionally been used to identify microbial contamination, these indicators cannot discriminate among potential contaminant sources. Microbial source tracking (MST) can provide the missing link that implicates the sources of contamination. The objective of this study was to use a weight-of-evidence approach (land use analysis using GIS, sanitary surveys, traditional water quality monitoring, and MST targets) to identify sources of pollution within a watershed that contains a raw drinking water source. For the study watersheds, statistical analyses demonstrated that one measure each of particulate matter (turbidity, particle counts), organic matter (total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, UV(254) absorbance), and indicator organisms (fecal coliforms, enterococci) were adequate for characterizing water quality. While these traditional parameters were useful for assessing overall water quality, they were not intended to differentiate between microbial sources at different locations. In contrast, the MST targets utilized (Rhodococcus coprophilus, sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, and male-specific coliphages) pinpointed specific sources of microbial pollution. However, these targets could not be used for routine monitoring due to a high percentage of non-detects. PMID:17560623

Plummer, Jeanine D; Long, Sharon C

2007-08-01

117

Alkane biodegradation by a microbial community from contaminated sediments in Patagonia, Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of a mix of normal alkanes (decane, dodecane, tetradecane, hexadecane, octadecane and eicosane) was studied in batch cultures after inoculating with microbial communities from pristine and hydrocarbon contaminated sediments. Analysis showed that the community from polluted sediments reduced the concentrations of all alkanes to < 5 mg l?1 after a 240-h incubation period (< 5% initial concentration), while the

Nelda L. Olivera; José L. Esteves; Marta G. Commendatore

1997-01-01

118

BIOGEOCHEMICAL EVIDENCE FOR MICROBIAL COMMUNITY CHANGE IN A JET FUEL HYDROCARBONS-CONTAMINATED AQUIFER  

EPA Science Inventory

A glacio-fluvial aquifer located at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan, had been contaminated with JP-4 fuel hydrocarbons released after the crash of a tanker aircraft in October of 1988 Microbial biomass and community structure, associated with the aquifer sediments, were chara...

119

Determination of microbial contamination sources at a Frankfurter sausage processing line  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine microbial contamination sources during sausage processing. The samples were taken at 6 different stages of the sausage processing line in a local plant. Minced meat, sausage batter, stuffed sausage, cooked sausage, peeled sausage, and pasteurized sausage samples were examined microbiologically. Moreover, spices and ice water used in production, personnel hands, and equipment were examined.

Ebru GÜNGÖR

2010-01-01

120

Validation studies on an online monitoring system for reducing faecal and microbial contamination on beef carcasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to establish the reduction in the incidence of carcass faecal contamination and microbial counts that could be achieved in a beef slaughter plant using a novel information technology based online monitoring system. On 18 separate visits over the course of 6 months, every carcass (approximately 500 per day) was examined at the final inspection

A. Tergney; D. J. Bolton

2006-01-01

121

Assessing the Microbial Community and Functional Genes in a Vertical Soil Profile with Long-Term Arsenic Contamination  

PubMed Central

Arsenic (As) contamination in soil and groundwater has become a serious problem to public health. To examine how microbial communities and functional genes respond to long-term arsenic contamination in vertical soil profile, soil samples were collected from the surface to the depth of 4 m (with an interval of 1 m) after 16-year arsenic downward infiltration. Integrating BioLog and functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0) technologies, we showed that microbial metabolic potential and diversity substantially decreased, and community structure was markedly distinct along the depth. Variations in microbial community functional genes, including genes responsible for As resistance, carbon and nitrogen cycling, phosphorus utilization and cytochrome c oxidases were detected. In particular, changes in community structures and activities were correlated with the biogeochemical features along the vertical soil profile when using the rbcL and nifH genes as biomarkers, evident for a gradual transition from aerobic to anaerobic lifestyles. The C/N showed marginally significant correlations with arsenic resistance (p?=?0.069) and carbon cycling genes (p?=?0.073), and significant correlation with nitrogen fixation genes (p?=?0.024). The combination of C/N, NO3? and P showed the highest correlation (r?=?0.779, p?=?0.062) with the microbial community structure. Contradict to our hypotheses, a long-term arsenic downward infiltration was not the primary factor, while the spatial isolation and nutrient availability were the key forces in shaping the community structure. This study provides new insights about the heterogeneity of microbial community metabolic potential and future biodiversity preservation for arsenic bioremediation management.

Xiong, Jinbo; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Luo, Guosheng; Tu, Shuxin; Zhou, Jizhong; Wang, Gejiao

2012-01-01

122

Impact of Long-Term Diesel Contamination on Soil Microbial Community Structure  

PubMed Central

Microbial community composition and diversity at a diesel-contaminated railway site were investigated by pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene fragments to understand the interrelationships among microbial community composition, pollution level, and soil geochemical and physical properties. To this end, 26 soil samples from four matrix types with various geochemical characteristics and contaminant concentrations were investigated. The presence of diesel contamination significantly impacted microbial community composition and diversity, regardless of the soil matrix type. Clean samples showed higher diversity than contaminated samples (P < 0.001). Bacterial phyla with high relative abundances in all samples included Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi. High relative abundances of Archaea, specifically of the phylum Euryarchaeota, were observed in contaminated samples. Redundancy analysis indicated that increased relative abundances of the phyla Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Euryarchaeota correlated with the presence of contamination. Shifts in the chemical composition of diesel constituents across the site and the abundance of specific operational taxonomic units (OTUs; defined using a 97% sequence identity threshold) in contaminated samples together suggest that natural attenuation of contamination has occurred. OTUs with sequence similarity to strictly anaerobic Anaerolineae within the Chloroflexi, as well as to Methanosaeta of the phylum Euryarchaeota, were detected. Anaerolineae and Methanosaeta are known to be associated with anaerobic degradation of oil-related compounds; therefore, their presence suggests that natural attenuation has occurred under anoxic conditions. This research underscores the usefulness of next-generation sequencing techniques both to understand the ecological impact of contamination and to identify potential molecular proxies for detection of natural attenuation.

Maphosa, Farai; Morillo, Jose A.; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Langenhoff, Alette A. M.; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H. M.; Smidt, Hauke

2013-01-01

123

Antibiotic, pesticide, and microbial contaminants of honey: human health hazards.  

PubMed

Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's pathogens. Many cases of infant botulisms have been attributed to contaminated honey. Honey may be very toxic when produced from certain plants. Ingestion of honey without knowing its source and safety might be problematic. Honey should be labeled to explore its origin, composition, and clear statement that it is free from contaminants. Honey that is not subjected for analysis and sterilization should not be used in infants, and should not be applied to wounds or used for medicinal purposes. This article reviews the extent and health impact of honey contamination and stresses on the introduction of a strict monitoring system and validation of acceptable minimal concentrations of pollutants or identifying maximum residue limits for bee products, in particular, honey. PMID:23097637

Al-Waili, Noori; Salom, Khelod; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Ansari, Mohammad Javed

2012-01-01

124

Antibiotic, Pesticide, and Microbial Contaminants of Honey: Human Health Hazards  

PubMed Central

Agricultural contamination with pesticides and antibiotics is a challenging problem that needs to be fully addressed. Bee products, such as honey, are widely consumed as food and medicine and their contamination may carry serious health hazards. Honey and other bee products are polluted by pesticides, heavy metals, bacteria and radioactive materials. Pesticide residues cause genetic mutations and cellular degradation and presence of antibiotics might increase resistant human or animal's pathogens. Many cases of infant botulisms have been attributed to contaminated honey. Honey may be very toxic when produced from certain plants. Ingestion of honey without knowing its source and safety might be problematic. Honey should be labeled to explore its origin, composition, and clear statement that it is free from contaminants. Honey that is not subjected for analysis and sterilization should not be used in infants, and should not be applied to wounds or used for medicinal purposes. This article reviews the extent and health impact of honey contamination and stresses on the introduction of a strict monitoring system and validation of acceptable minimal concentrations of pollutants or identifying maximum residue limits for bee products, in particular, honey.

Al-Waili, Noori; Salom, Khelod; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed; Ansari, Mohammad Javed

2012-01-01

125

Contemporary strategies in combating microbial contamination in food chain.  

PubMed

The objective of this review has been to disclose collected information on benefits and risks of selected "less-than - sterilizing" processes applied to control microbial hazards in food that was meticulously collected and critically reviewed during five years of EU Sixth framework project "Pathogen Combat". The target organisms of the project, and thus of this review, too, were Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni. Due to their specific response and high relevancy to the food safety, foodborne viruses and spores, were also discussed within the scope of this review. Selected treatments comprised High Pressure Processing, Intense Light Pulses, treatments with organic acids, treatments with chlorine dioxide and for their relevancy also mild heat treatments and Pulsed Electric Field processing were included. The main aspects included in this review were principles of the processes used and their application, sub-lethal injury and its consequences on microbial food safety, and legal platform and its impact on wide use of the treatments. Finally a reflection has been made to combined application of different hurdles and accompanying risks. PMID:20056287

Rajkovic, Andreja; Smigic, Nada; Devlieghere, Frank

2010-07-31

126

Diamond Shaving of Contaminated Concrete Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Decommissioning and decontamination of existing facilities presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of surface contamination from concrete floors and walls while eliminating the spread of contamination and volumetric reduction of the waste stream. Numerous methods have been tried with a varying degree of success. Recent technology has made this goal achievable and has been used successfully. This new technology is the Diamond Floor Shaver and Diamond Wall shaver. The Diamond Floor Shaver is a self-propelled, walk behind machine that literally shaves the contaminated concrete surface to specified depths. This is accomplished by using a patented system of 100 dry cutting diamond blades with offset diamond segments that interlock to provide complete shaving of the concrete surface. Grooves are eliminated which allows for a direct frisk reading to analyze results. When attached to an appropriate size vacuum, the dust produced is 100% contained. Dust is collected in drums ready for disposition and disposal. The waste produced in shaving 7,500 square feet at 1/8 inch thickness would fill a single 55 gallon drum. Production is dependent on depth of shaving but averages 100 square feet per hour. The wall shaver uses the same patented diamond drum and blades but is hydraulically driven and is deployed using a robotic arm allowing its operation to be to totally remote. It can reach ceilings as high as 20 feet. Numerous small projects were successfully completed using this technology. Large scale deployment came in 2003. Bluegrass, in conjunction with Bartlett Services, deployed this technology to support decontamination activities for closing of the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons site. Up to six floor shavers and one wall shaver were deployed in buildings B371 and B374. These buildings had up to one half-inch, fixed plutonium and beryllium contamination. Hundred-thousands of square feet of floors and walls were shaved successfully to depths of up to one half inch. Decontamination efforts were so successful the balance of the buildings could be demolished using conventional methods. The shavers helped keep the project on schedule while the vacuum system eliminated the potential for contaminants becoming airborne.

Mullen, Lisa K. [Bluegrass Concrete Cutting Inc., 107 Mildred Street PO Box 427, Greenville, Alabama 36037 (United States)

2008-01-15

127

Early warning system for detection of microbial contamination of source waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ensuring chemical and microbial water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, determination of microbial water quality is a time (and money) consuming manual laboratory process. We have developed and field-tested an online and real-time sensor for measuring the microbial water quality of a wide range of source waters. The novel optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the microbial content present in the sample. This gives a fast and reliable detection capability of microbial contamination of the source. Sample acquisition and analysis is performed real-time where objects in suspension are differentiated into e.g. organic/inorganic subgroups. The detection system is a compact, low power, reagentless device and thus ideal for applications where long service intervals and remote operations are desired. Due to the very large dynamic range in measured parameters, the system is able to monitor process water in industry and food production as well as monitor waste water, source water and water distribution systems. The applications envisioned for this system includes early warning of source water contamination and/or variation. This includes: water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, waste water effluent, and industry in general.

Mogensen, Claus Tilsted; Bentien, Anders; Lau, Mogens; Højris, Bo; Iversen, Kåre; Klinting, Mette; Berg, Tommy Winter; Agersnap, Niels; Valvik, Martin

2011-05-01

128

Recovery of microbial diversity and activity during bioremediation following chemical oxidation of diesel contaminated soils.  

PubMed

To improve the coupling of in situ chemical oxidation and in situ bioremediation, a systematic analysis was performed of the effect of chemical oxidation with Fenton's reagent, modified Fenton's reagent, permanganate, or persulfate, on microbial diversity and activity during 8 weeks of incubation in two diesel-contaminated soils (peat and fill). Chemical oxidant and soil type affected the microbial community diversity and biodegradation activity; however, this was only observed following treatment with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent, and in the biotic control without oxidation. Differences in the highest overall removal efficiencies of 69 % for peat (biotic control) and 59 % for fill (Fenton's reagent) were partially explained by changes in contaminant soil properties upon oxidation. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA and alkane monooxygenase (alkB) gene abundances indicated that oxidation with Fenton's reagent and modified Fenton's reagent negatively affected microbial abundance. However, regeneration occurred, and final relative alkB abundances were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher in chemically treated microcosms than in the biotic control. 16S rRNA gene fragment fingerprinting with DGGE and prominent band sequencing illuminated microbial community composition and diversity differences between treatments and identified a variety of phylotypes within Alpha-, Beta-, and Gammaproteobacteria. Understanding microbial community dynamics during coupled chemical oxidation and bioremediation is integral to improved biphasic field application. PMID:24092007

Sutton, Nora B; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Lasso, Daniel Hidalgo; van der Zaan, Bas; van Gaans, Pauline; Maphosa, Farai; Smidt, Hauke; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

2014-03-01

129

On-farm sources of microbial contamination of persimmon fruit in Japan.  

PubMed

Potential sources of microbial contamination for persimmon fruit during growing and harvesting in the 2005 season were investigated to provide a baseline to design the good agricultural practices program for persimmons in Japan. Microbial counts in the peel of persimmon fruit during production season were close to or below 2.4 log CFU/g for bacteria and 3.0 log CFU/g for fungi but were above these values on harvested fruit. The counts in the flesh were below the detection level with all fruit. Bacteria and molds isolated from peel and flesh of persimmons during growing were phytopathogenic and soilborne organisms such as bacteria genera Enterobacter and Bacillus and mold genera Fusarium and Cladosporium, which were found in soil, weeds, agricultural water, and pesticide solution throughout the production season. The agricultural water was one of the most important potential preharvest sources, because Escherichia coli O157:H7 was identified from agricultural water in May, and Salmonella was detected in agricultural water, pesticide solution containing the agricultural water for the mixture, and soil after application of the pesticide solution in June. Neither of the two pathogenic bacteria was detected in any of the fruit samples. Microbial counts and diversity in the peel of persimmons at harvest increased after contact with plastic harvest basket and container, which could be sources of contamination during harvesting. Therefore, monitoring and management on-farm should focus on agricultural water and harvest equipment as important control points to reduce microbial contamination on persimmons. PMID:18236662

Izumi, Hidemi; Tsukada, Yumi; Poubol, Jutatip; Hisa, Kazuo

2008-01-01

130

Microbial rhodopsins on leaf surfaces of terrestrial plants.  

PubMed

The above-ground surfaces of terrestrial plants, the phyllosphere, comprise the main interface between the terrestrial biosphere and solar radiation. It is estimated to host up to 10(26) microbial cells that may intercept part of the photon flux impinging on the leaves. Based on 454-pyrosequencing-generated metagenome data, we report on the existence of diverse microbial rhodopsins in five distinct phyllospheres from tamarisk (Tamarix nilotica), soybean (Glycine max), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), clover (Trifolium repens) and rice (Oryza sativa). Our findings, for the first time describing microbial rhodopsins from non-aquatic habitats, point towards the potential coexistence of microbial rhodopsin-based phototrophy and plant chlorophyll-based photosynthesis, with the different pigments absorbing non-overlapping fractions of the light spectrum. PMID:21883799

Atamna-Ismaeel, Nof; Finkel, Omri M; Glaser, Fabian; Sharon, Itai; Schneider, Ron; Post, Anton F; Spudich, John L; von Mering, Christian; Vorholt, Julia A; Iluz, David; Béjà, Oded; Belkin, Shimshon

2012-01-01

131

Faecal contamination of greywater and associated microbial risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The faecal contamination of greywater in a local treatment system at Vibyåsen, north of Stockholm, Sweden was quantified using faecal indicator bacteria and chemical biomarkers. Bacterial indicator densities overestimated the faecal load by 100–1000-fold when compared to chemical biomarkers. Based on measured levels of coprostanol, the faecal load was estimated to be 0.04gperson?1day?1. Prevalence of pathogens in the population and

Jakob Ottoson; Thor Axel Stenström

2003-01-01

132

A microbial fuel cell in contaminated ground delineated by electrical self-potential and normalized induced polarization data  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods to aid investigation and monitoring of complex biogeochemical environments, for example delineation of contaminants and microbial activity related to land contamination. We combined geophysical monitoring with chemical and microbiological analysis to create a conceptual biogeochemical model of processes around a contaminant plume within a manufactured gas plant site. Self-potential,

R. Doherty; B. Kulessa; A. S. Ferguson; M. J. Larkin; L. A. Kulakov; R. M. Kalin

2010-01-01

133

Effect of contaminant concentration on aerobic microbial mineralization of DCE and VC in stream-bed sediments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Discharge of DCE and VC to an aerobic surface water system simultaneously represents a significant environmental concern and, potentially, a non-engineered opportunity for efficient contaminant bioremediation. The potential for bioremediation, however, depends on the ability of the stream-bed microbial community to efficiently and completely degrade DCE and VC over a range of contaminant concentrations. The purposes of the studies reported here were to assess the potential for aerobic DCE and VC mineralization by stream-bed microorganisms and to evaluate the effects of DCE and VC concentrations on the apparent rates of aerobic mineralization. Bed-sediment microorganisms indigenous to a creek, where DCE-contaminated groundwater continuously discharges, demonstrated rapid mineralization of DCE and VC under aerobic conditions. Over 8 days, the recovery of [1,2-14C]DCE radioactivity as 14CO2 ranged from 17% to 100%, and the recovery of [1,2- 14C]VC radioactivity as 14CO2 ranged from 45% to 100%. Rates of DCE and VC mineralization increased significantly with increasing contaminant concentration, and the response of apparent mineralization rates to changes in DCE and VC concentrations was adequately described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics.Discharge of DCE and VC to an aerobic surface water system simultaneously represents a significant environmental concern and, potentially, a non-engineered opportunity for efficient contaminant bioremediation. The potential for bioremediation, however, depends on the ability of the stream-bed microbial community to efficiently and completely degrade DCE and VC over a range of contaminant concentrations. The purposes of the studies reported here were to assess the potential for aerobic DCE and VC mineralization by stream-bed microorganisms and to evaluate the effects of DCE and VC concentrations on the apparent rates of aerobic mineralization. Bed-sediment microorganisms indigenous to a creek, where DCE-contaminated groundwater continuously discharges, demonstrated rapid mineralization of DCE and VC under aerobic conditions. Over 8 days, the recovery of [1,2-14C]DCE radioactivity as 14CO2 ranged from 17% to 100%, and the recovery of [1,2-14C]VC radioactivity as 14CO2 ranged from 45% to 100%. Rates of DCE and VC mineralization increased significantly with increasing contaminant concentration, and the response of apparent mineralization rates to changes in DCE and VC concentrations was adequately described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

Bradley, P. M.; Chapelle, F. H.

1998-01-01

134

Microbial Community Structure and Function at an Aquifer Contaminated with Landfill Leachate (Norman,OK)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemical research at an aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate (Norman, OK) has shown that contaminated areas have significant increases in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and persistent anaerobic conditions as compared to uncontaminated areas. As a result, sulfate is depleted in the center of the contaminant plume with concomitant increases in Fe(II) and methane. These observations have been used to infer the dominant biogeochemical processes in this ecosystem which include Fe reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. Because each of these processes is microbially-mediated, the goal of this study was to use a combination of culture-based and molecular methods to determine the composition and diversity of the microbial community in the contaminant plume. Groundwater and sediment samples were collected along the flow path of contamination in June 2005. We used most probable number (MPN) analyses to determine the abundances of key functional groups of bacteria including methanogens, sulfate-reducers (SRB), and iron-reducers (FeRB). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was performed to determine abundances of functional genes of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsr) and methyl coenzyme M-reductase (mcr) genes and the 16 rRNA genes targeting Geobacter spp. Results from the MPN analyses confirmed the presence of a relatively abundant and diverse anaerobic community in the groundwater at the landfill (e.g. 102 SRB, FeRB ml-1. In general, with increasing distance from the source of contamination, abundances of FeRB, SRB, and methanogens decreased to < 101 cells ml-1 groundwater and < 102 cells g soil. In fact, most of these groups were undetectable throughout much of the sampling transect, particularly in the groundwater. For example, methanogens were largely absent despite the presence of high concentrations of methane. In contrast to these estimates obtained with MPN analyses, the results of qPCR indicated that there were measurable, and many times substantial numbers of mcr and dsr genes and Geobacter spp. in the vast majority of the samples. This indicates that qPCR may be a more sensitive screening tool for quantifying abundances of functional groups. Collectively, these results suggest that the lack of an abundant microbial community in some parts of the contaminant plume may limit biogeochemical activity, even in the presence of adequate electron donors and/or acceptors. Furthermore, the complex relationship between the composition of the microbial community and the geochemistry of this aquifer indicate that obtaining both geochemical and microbial information may be necessary to adequately understand the controls on subsurface biogeochemical processes.

Weiss, J. V.; Voytek, M. A.; Lowit, M. B.; Cozzarelli, I. M.; Kirshtein, J. D.

2006-05-01

135

Control of Microbial Contaminants and Biological Agents in Small Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Small surface water utilities in the United States are faced with a challenge to meet the demands of the forthcoming Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2 ESWTR) and to protect against the threat of terrorism via water-borne biological ag...

M. A. Page

2005-01-01

136

Microbial cycling of mercury in contaminated pelagic and wetland sediments of San Pablo Bay, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

San Pablo Bay is an estuary, within northern San Francisco Bay, containing elevated sediment mercury (Hg) levels because of historic loading of hydraulic mining debris during the California gold-rush of the late 1800s. A preliminary investigation of benthic microbial Hg cycling was conducted in surface sediment (0-4 cm) collected from one salt-marsh and three open-water sites. A deeper profile (0-26 cm) was evaluated at one of the open-water locations. Radiolabeled model Hg-compounds were used to measure rates of both methylmercury (MeHg) production and degradation by bacteria. While all sites and depths had similar total-Hg concentrations (0.3-0.6 ppm), and geochemical signatures of mining debris (as eNd, range: -3.08 to -4.37), in-situ MeHg was highest in the marsh (5.4??3.5 ppb) and ??? 0.7 ppb in all open-water sites. Microbial MeHg production (potential rate) in 0-4 surface sediments was also highest in the marsh (3.1 ng g-1 wet sediment day-1) and below detection (<0.06 ng g-1 wet sediment day-1) in open-water locations. The marsh exhibited a methylation/demethylation (M/D) ratio more than 25x that of all open-water locations. Only below the surface 0-4-cm horizon was significant MeHg production potential evident in the open-water sediment profile (0.2-1.1 ng g-1 wet sediment day-1). In-situ Hg methylation rates, calculated from radiotracer rate constants, and in-situ inorganic Hg(II) concentrations compared well with potential rates. However, similarly calculated in-situ rates of MeHg degradation were much lower than potential rates. These preliminary data indicate that wetlands surrounding San Pablo Bay represent important zones of MeHg production, more so than similarly Hg-contaminated adjacent open-water areas. This has significant implications for this and other Hg-impacted systems, where wetland expansion is currently planned.

Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Agee, J. L.; Bouse, R. M.; Jaffe, B. E.

2003-01-01

137

Atomic force microscopy: a nanoscopic view of microbial cell surfaces.  

PubMed

The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful instrument for microbiological investigation. It has evolved from an imaging tool used to investigate microbial surfaces at high resolution in their physiological environment into a lab-on-a-tip device, which allows more quantitative analysis of biological samples (from molecules to cells) in aqueous liquids. Atomic force microscopy provides information about the nanoscale architecture of microbes and about the localization and interactions of their individual constituents. Microbial interactions play essential roles in biology, medicine, ecology, biotechnology, food science and contribute to phenomena as varied as bacterial infections, biofilm formation, and bacterial adhesion to surfaces. In this review, we focus on recent developments offered by the rapid advances in AFM imaging and force spectroscopy with emphasizes on microbial research. PMID:22673001

Dorobantu, Loredana S; Goss, Greg G; Burrell, Robert E

2012-12-01

138

Factors affecting microbial 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene mineralization in contaminated soil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The influence of selected environmental factors on microbial TNT mineralization in soils collected from a TNT-contaminated site at Weldon Spring, MO, was examined using uniformly ring-labeled [14C]TNT. Microbial TNT mineralization was significantly inhibited by the addition of cellobiose and syringate. This response suggests that the indigenous microorganisms are capable of metabolizing TNT but preferentially utilize less recalcitrant substrates when available. The observed inhibition of TNT mineralization by TNT concentrations higher than 100 ??mol/kg of soil and by dry soil conditions suggests that toxic inhibition of microbial activity at high TNT concentrations and the periodic drying of these soils have contributed to the long-term persistence of TNT at Weldon Spring. In comparison to aerobic microcosms, mineralization was inhibited in anaerobic microcosms and in microcosms with a headspace of air amended with oxygen, suggesting that a mosaic of aerobic and anaerobic conditions may optimize TNT degradation at this site.

Bradley, P. M.; Chapelle, F. H.

1995-01-01

139

Microbially Supported Phytoremediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils: Strategies and Applications.  

PubMed

: Heavy metal contamination of soil as a result of, for example, mining operations, evokes worldwide concern. The use of selected metal-accumulating plants to clean up heavy metal contaminated sites represents a sustainable and inexpensive method for remediation approaches and, at the same time, avoids destruction of soil function. Within this scenario, phytoremediation is the use of plants (directly or indirectly) to reduce the risks of contaminants in soil to the environment and human health. Microbially assisted bioremediation strategies, such as phytoextraction or phytostabilization, may increase the beneficial aspects and can be viewed as potentially useful methods for application in remediation of low and heterogeneously contaminated soil. The plant-microbe interactions in phytoremediation strategies include mutually beneficial symbiotic associations such as mycorrhiza, plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB), or endophytic bacteria that are discussed with respect to their impact on phytoremediation approaches. PMID:23719709

Phieler, René; Voit, Annekatrin; Kothe, Erika

2013-05-30

140

Microbial biomass and activities associated with subsurface environments contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Soil microcosms and enrichment cultures from subsurface sediments and ground waters contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) were examined. Total lipids, (1-C{sub 14})acetate incorporation into lipids, and (Me{sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation into DNA were determined in these subsurface environments. In heavily TCE-contaminated zones radioisotopes were not incorporated into lipids or DNA. Radioisotope incorporation occurred in sediments both above and below the TCE plume. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) were not detected, i.e., < 0.5 pmol/L in heavily contaminated groundwater samples. In less contaminated waters, extracted PLFA concentrations were greater than 100 pmol/L and microbial isolates were readily obtained. Degradation of 30-100 mg/L TCE was observed when sediments were amended with a variety of energy sources. Microorganisms in these subsurface sediments have adapted to degrade TCE at concentrations greater than 50 mg/L. 34 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Phelps, T.J.; Ringelberg, D.; Hedrick, D.; Davis, J.; Fliermans, C.B. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

1988-01-01

141

Genotypic and phenotypic responses of a riverine microbial community to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination  

SciTech Connect

The phenotypic and genotypic adaptation of a freshwater sedimentary microbial community to elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined by using an integrated biomolecular approach. Central to the approach was the use of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles to characterize the microbial community structure and nucleic acid analysis to quantify the frequency of degradative genes. The study site was the Little Scioto River, a highly impacted, channelized riverine system located in central Ohio. This study site is a unique lotic system, with all sampling stations having similar flow and sediment characteristics both upstream and downstream from the source of contamination. These characteristics allowed for the specific analysis of PAH impact on the microbial community. PAH concentrations in impacted sediments ranged from 22 to 217 {micro}g g(dry weight) of sediment{sup {minus}1}, while PAH concentrations in ambient sediments ranged from below detection levels to 1.5 {micro}g g (dry weight) of sediment{sup {minus}1}. Total microbial biomass measured by phospholipid phosphate (PLP) analysis ranged from 95 to 345 nmol of PLP g(dry weight) of sediment{sup {minus}1}. Nucleic acid analysis showed the presence of PAH-degradative genes at all sites, although observed frequencies were typically higher at contaminated sites. Principal component analysis of PLFA profiles indicated that moderate to high PAH concentrations altered microbial community structure and that seasonal changes were comparable in magnitude to the effects of PAH pollution. These data indicate that this community responded to PAH contamination at both the phenotypic and the genotypic level.

Langworthy, D.E.; Findlay, R.H. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Stapleton, R.D.; Sayler, G.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology

1998-09-01

142

Tracking microbial contamination in retail environments using fluorescent powder--a retail delicatessen environment example.  

PubMed

Cross contamination of foodborne pathogens in the retail environment is a significant public health issue contributing to an increased risk for foodborne illness. Ready-to-eat (RTE) processed foods such as deli meats, cheese, and in some cases fresh produce, have been involved in foodborne disease outbreaks due to contamination with pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. With respect to L. monocytogenes, deli slicers are often the main source of cross contamination. The goal of this study was to use a fluorescent compound to simulate bacterial contamination and track this contamination in a retail setting. A mock deli kitchen was designed to simulate the retail environment. Deli meat was inoculated with the fluorescent compound and volunteers were recruited to complete a set of tasks similar to those expected of a food retail employee. The volunteers were instructed to slice, package, and store the meat in a deli refrigerator. The potential cross contamination was tracked in the mock retail environment by swabbing specific areas and measuring the optical density of the swabbed area with a spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the refrigerator (i.e. deli case) grip and various areas on the slicer had the highest risk for cross contamination. The results of this study may be used to develop more focused training material for retail employees. In addition, similar methodologies could also be used to track microbial contamination in food production environments (e.g. small farms), hospitals, nursing homes, cruise ships, and hotels. PMID:24637553

Sirsat, Sujata A; Kim, Kawon; Gibson, Kristen E; Crandall, Phillip G; Ricke, Steven C; Neal, Jack A

2014-01-01

143

Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines: current preventive measures and emerging options.  

PubMed

Various approaches to prevention and control of microbial contamination of dental unit water are evolving. Currently available methods and emerging technologies are reviewed here in the context of contemporary federal regulatory and advisory agency positions on water quality in the dental operatory. Clean water systems, fully autoclavable systems, and a variety of devices designed to provide physical barriers to the influx and accumulation of microbial contaminants can all be used to assure satisfactory quality for coolant and irrigant water. There is one important proviso: all require a commitment to maintenance if they are to be deployed successfully. Stricter adherence to American Dental Association/American National Standards Institute standards in manufacturing and production and compliance with federal regulatory marketing procedures for equipment and devices would do much to advance the cause of dental unit water quality control. PMID:9051941

Williams, J F; Andrews, N; Santiago, J I

1996-07-01

144

Surface interactions relevant to space station contamination problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical and chemical processes at solid surfaces which can contribute to Space Station contamination problems are reviewed. Suggested areas for experimental studies to provide data to improve contamination modeling efforts are presented.

Dickinson, J. T.

1988-01-01

145

Microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants in lead contaminated soil.  

PubMed

The goals of this study were to evaluate the microbial activity, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and inoculation of woody plants (Caesalpinia ferrea, Mimosa tenuiflora and Erythrina velutina) in lead contaminated soil from the semi-arid region of northeastern of Brazil (Belo Jardim, Pernambuco). Dilutions were prepared by adding lead contaminated soil (270 mg Kg(-1)) to uncontaminated soil (37 mg Pb Kg soil(-1)) in the proportions of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (v:v). The increase of lead contamination in the soil negatively influenced the amount of carbon in the microbial biomass of the samples from both the dry and rainy seasons and the metabolic quotient only differed between the collection seasons in the 30% contaminated soil. The average value of the acid phosphatase activity in the dry season was 2.3 times higher than observed during the rainy season. There was no significant difference in the number of glomerospores observed between soils and periods studied. The most probable number of infective propagules was reduced for both seasons due to the excess lead in soil. The mycorrhizal colonization rate was reduced for the three plant species assayed. The inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi benefited the growth of Erythrina velutina in lead contaminated soil. PMID:24031701

Gattai, Graziella S; Pereira, Sônia V; Costa, Cynthia M C; Lima, Cláudia E P; Maia, Leonor C

2011-07-01

146

Enhanced detection of groundwater contamination from a leaking waste disposal site by microbial community profiles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater biogeochemistry is adversely impacted when municipal solid waste leachate, rich in nutrients and anthropogenic compounds, percolates into the subsurface from leaking landfills. Detecting leachate contamination using statistical techniques is challenging because well strategies or analytical techniques may be insufficient for detecting low levels of groundwater contamination. We sampled profiles of the microbial community from monitoring wells surrounding a leaking landfill using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Results show in situ monitoring of bacteria, archaea, and the family Geobacteraceae improves characterization of groundwater quality. Bacterial T-RFLP profiles showed shifts correlated to known gradients of leachate and effectively detected changes along plume fringes that were not detected using hydrochemical data. Experimental sediment microcosms exposed to leachate-contaminated groundwater revealed a shift from a ?-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria dominated community to one dominated by Firmicutes and ?-Proteobacteria. This shift is consistent with the transition from oxic conditions to an anoxic, iron-reducing environment as a result of landfill leachate-derived contaminants and associated redox conditions. We suggest microbial communities are more sensitive than hydrochemistry data for characterizing low levels of groundwater contamination and thus provide a novel source of information for optimizing detection and long-term monitoring strategies at landfill sites.

Mouser, Paula J.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Druschel, Gregory K.; Morales, Sergio E.; Hayden, Nancy; O'Grady, Patrick; Stevens, Lori

2010-12-01

147

Culturable microbial groups and thallium-tolerant fungi in soils with high thallium contamination.  

PubMed

Thallium (Tl) contamination in soil exerts a significant threat to the ecosystem health due to its high toxicity. However, little is known about the effect of Tl on the microbial community in soil. The present study aimed at characterizing the culturable microbial groups in soils which experience for a long time high Tl contamination and elevated Hg and As. The contamination originates from As, Hg and Tl sulfide mineralization and the associated mining activities in the Guizhou Province, Southwest China. Our investigation showed the existence of culturable bacteria, filamentous fungi and actinomyces in long-term Tl-contaminated soils. Some fungal groups grow in the presence of high Tl level up to 1000 mg kg?¹. We have isolated and identified nine Tl-tolerant fungal strains based on the morphological traits and ITS analysis. The dominant genera identified were Trichoderma, Penicillium and Paecilomyces. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggested that certain microbes were able to face high Tl pollution in soil and maintain their metabolic activities and resistances. The highly Tl-tolerant fungi that we have isolated are potentially useful in the remediation of Tl-contaminated sites. PMID:23142416

Sun, Jialong; Zou, Xiao; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Peng, Jingquan; Xiao, Tangfu

2012-12-15

148

Development of a microbial contamination susceptibility model for private domestic groundwater sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Groundwater quality analyses were carried out on samples from 262 private sources in the Republic of Ireland during the period from April 2008 to November 2010, with microbial quality assessed by thermotolerant coliform (TTC) presence. Assessment of potential microbial contamination risk factors was undertaken at all sources, and local meteorological data were also acquired. Overall, 28.9% of wells tested positive for TTC, with risk analysis indicating that source type (i.e., borehole or hand-dug well), local bedrock type, local subsoil type, groundwater vulnerability, septic tank setback distance, and 48 h antecedent precipitation were all significantly associated with TTC presence (p < 0.05). A number of source-specific design parameters were also significantly associated with bacterial presence. Hierarchical logistic regression with stepwise parameter entry was used to develop a private well susceptibility model, with the final model exhibiting a mean predictive accuracy of >80% (TTC present or absent) when compared to an independent validation data set. Model hierarchies of primary significance are source design (20%), septic tank location (11%), hydrogeological setting (10%), and antecedent 120 h precipitation (2%). Sensitivity analysis shows that the probability of contamination is highly sensitive to septic tank setback distance, with probability increasing linearly with decreases in setback distance. Likewise, contamination probability was shown to increase with increasing antecedent precipitation. Results show that while groundwater vulnerability category is a useful indicator of aquifer susceptibility to contamination, its suitability with regard to source contamination is less clear. The final model illustrates that both localized (well-specific) and generalized (aquifer-specific) contamination mechanisms are involved in contamination events, with localized bypass mechanisms dominant. The susceptibility model developed here could be employed in the appropriate location, design, construction, and operation of private groundwater wells, thereby decreasing the contamination risk, and hence health risk, associated with these sources.

Hynds, Paul D.; Misstear, Bruce D.; Gill, Laurence W.

2012-12-01

149

Cold Spots in Neonatal Incubators Are Hot Spots for Microbial Contamination?  

PubMed Central

Thermal stability is essential for the survival and well-being of preterm neonates. This is achieved in neonatal incubators by raising the ambient temperature and humidity to sufficiently high levels. However, potentially pathogenic microorganisms also can thrive in such warm and humid environments. We therefore investigated whether the level of microbial contamination (i.e., the bacterial load) inside neonatal incubators can be predicted on the basis of their average temperature and relative humidity settings, paying special attention to local temperature differences. Swab samples were taken from the warmest and coldest spots found within Caleo incubators, and these were plated to determine the number of microbial CFU per location. In incubators with high average temperature (?34°C) and relative humidity (?60%) values, the level of microbial contamination was significantly higher at cold spots than at hot spots. This relates to the fact that the local equilibrium relative humidity at cold spots is sufficiently high to sustain microbial growth. The abundance of staphylococci, which are the main causative agents of late-onset sepsis in preterm neonates, was found to be elevated significantly in cold areas. These findings can be used to improve basic incubator hygiene.

de Goffau, Marcus C.; Bergman, Klasien A.; de Vries, Hendrik J.; Meessen, Nico E. L.; Degener, John E.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

2011-01-01

150

Microbial in situ degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer monitored by carbon isotope fractionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an approach for characterizing in situ microbial degradation using the 13C\\/12C isotope fractionation of contaminants as an indicator of biodegradation. The 13C\\/12C isotope fractionation of aromatic hydrocarbons was studied in anoxic laboratory soil percolation columns with toluene or o-xylene as the sole carbon and electron source, and sulfate as electron acceptor. After approximately 2 months' of incubation, the

Hans H. Richnow; Eva Annweiler; Walter Michaelis; Rainer U. Meckenstock

2003-01-01

151

Microbial Communities Associated with Anaerobic Benzene Degradation in a Petroleum-Contaminated Aquifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial community composition associated with benzene oxidation under in situ Fe(III)-reducing condi- tions in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer located in Bemidji, Minn., was investigated. Community structure associated with benzene degradation was compared to sediment communities that did not anaerobically oxidize benzene which were obtained from two adjacent Fe(III)-reducing sites and from methanogenic and uncon- taminated zones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of

JULIETTE N. ROONEY-VARGA; ROBERT T. ANDERSON; JOCELYN L. FRAGA; DEREK R. LOVLEY

1999-01-01

152

Microbial Communities in Contaminated Sediments, Associated with Bioremediation of Uranium to Submicromolar Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial enumeration, S rRNA gene clone libraries, and chemical analysis were used to evaluate the in situ biological reduction and immobilization of uranium(VI) in a long-term experiment (more than 2 years) conducted at a highly uranium-contaminated site (up to 60 mg\\/liter and 800 mg\\/kg solids) of the U.S. Department of Energy in Oak Ridge, TN. Bioreduction was achieved by conditioning

Erick Cardenas; Wei-Min Wu; Mary Beth Leigh; Jack M Carley; Sue L Carroll; Terry Gentry; Jian Luo; David B Watson; Matthew Ginder-Vogel; Peter K. Kitanidis; Philip M. Jardine; Jizhong Zhou; Craig S. Criddle; Terence L. Marsh; James M. Tiedje

2008-01-01

153

Microbial treatment of a styrene-contaminated air stream in a biofilter with high elimination capacities  

Microsoft Academic Search

  A styrene-utilizing mixed microbial culture was isolated and utilized in a biofilter for the biological treatment of a contaminated\\u000a air stream. Biofilter media consisted of composted wood bark and yard waste. The biofilters were acclimated at 120 s residence\\u000a time and further evaluated at 60 and 30 s gas residence times. The biofilters received organic loading rates of up to

C Juneson; O P Ward; A Singh

2001-01-01

154

Geophysical Signatures of Microbial Activity at Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms participate in a variety of geologic processes that alter the chemical and physical properties of their environment.\\u000a Understanding the geophysical signatures of microbial activity in the environment has resulted in the development of a new\\u000a sub-discipline in geophysics called “biogeophysics”. This review focuses primarily on literature pertaining to biogeophysical\\u000a signatures of sites contaminated by light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL),

Estella A. Atekwana; Eliot A. Atekwana

2010-01-01

155

Evaluation of the role of environmental contamination in the microbial degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken to determine the effect of environmental contamination upon the potential for degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by the microbial populations in freshwater sediments. Naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and benzo(a)pyrene(BP) were employed as substrates for PAH biodegradation. Biodegradation was assessed by mineralization of the ¹⁴C-PAH substrates incubated in sediment slurries. Mineralization rate constants and substrate turnover times were

Sherrill

1982-01-01

156

Influence of topsoil of pyroclastic origin on microbial contamination of groundwater in fractured carbonate aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the research was to analyse the influence of a topsoil of pyroclastic origin on microbial contamination of groundwater\\u000a in a carbonate aquifer and verify the reliability of thermotolerant coliforms and fecal enterococci as bacterial indicators.\\u000a The research was carried out through hydrogeological and microbiological monitoring at an experimental field site in Italy\\u000a during two hydrologic years and

Gino Naclerio; Emma Petrella; Valentina Nerone; Vincenzo Allocca; Pantaleone De Vita; Fulvio Celico

2008-01-01

157

Microbial communities along biogeochemical gradients in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer.  

PubMed

Micro-organisms are known to degrade a wide range of toxic substances. How the environment shapes microbial communities in polluted ecosystems and thus influences degradation capabilities is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated microbial communities in a highly complex environment: the capillary fringe and subjacent sediments in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer. Sixty sediment sections were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting, cloning and sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, complemented by chemical analyses of petroleum hydrocarbons, methane, oxygen and alternative terminal electron acceptors. Multivariate statistics revealed concentrations of contaminants and the position of the water table as significant factors shaping the microbial community composition. Micro-organisms with highest T-RFLP abundances were related to sulphate reducers belonging to the genus Desulfosporosinus, fermenting bacteria of the genera Sedimentibacter and Smithella, and aerobic hydrocarbon degraders of the genus Acidovorax. Furthermore, the acetoclastic methanogens Methanosaeta, and hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanocella and Methanoregula were detected. Whereas sulphate and sulphate reducers prevail at the contamination source, the detection of methane, fermenting bacteria and methanogenic archaea further downstream points towards syntrophic hydrocarbon degradation. PMID:23809669

Tischer, Karolin; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Fetzer, Ingo; Spott, Oliver; Stange, Florian; Lohse, Ute; Franz, Janett; Neumann, Franziska; Gerling, Sarah; Schmidt, Christian; Hasselwander, Eyk; Harms, Hauke; Wendeberg, Annelie

2013-09-01

158

The roles of biological interactions and pollutant contamination in shaping microbial benthic community structure.  

PubMed

Biological interactions between metazoans and the microbial community play a major role in structuring food webs in aquatic sediments. Pollutants can also strongly affect the structure of meiofauna and microbial communities. This study aims investigating, in a non-contaminated sediment, the impact of meiofauna on bacteria facing contamination by a mixture of three PAHs (fluoranthene, phenanthrene and pyrene). Sediment microcosms were incubated in the presence or absence of meiofauna during 30 days. Bioremediation treatments, nutrient amendment and addition of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium, were also tested to enhance PAH biodegradation. Results clearly show the important role of meiofauna as structuring factor for bacterial communities with significant changes observed in the molecular fingerprints. However, these structural changes were not concomitant with changes in biomass or function. PAH contamination had a severe impact on total meiofaunal abundance with a strong decrease of nematodes and the complete disappearance of polychaetes and copepods. In contrast, correspondence analysis, based on T-RFLP fingerprints, showed that contamination by PAH resulted in small shifts in microbial composition, with or without meiofauna, suggesting a relative tolerance of bacteria to the PAH cocktail. The PAH bioremediation treatments were highly efficient with more than 95% biodegradation. No significant difference was observed in presence or absence of meiofauna. Nutrient addition strongly enhanced bacterial and meiofaunal abundances as compared to control and contaminated microcosms, as well as inducing important changes in the bacterial community structure. Nutrients thus were the main structural factor in shaping bacterial community composition, while the role of meiofauna was less evident. PMID:24206831

Louati, Hela; Said, Olfa Ben; Soltani, Amel; Got, Patrice; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Duran, Robert; Aissa, Patricia; Pringault, Olivier

2013-11-01

159

Microbial surface thermodynamics and interactions in aqueous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial surface thermodynamics and interactions in aqueous media were investigated for seven typical rod-shaped bacterial strains of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceas, and Bacillaceae, which included Echerichia coli HB101, Echerichia coli JM109, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas sp., and Bacillus subtilis. All the microorganisms studied exhibited a monopolar and predominant hydrophilic surface and a negative ?G132tot, total free energy of interactions

Gang Chen; Keith A. Strevett

2003-01-01

160

Surface cleaning by plasma-enhanced desorption of contaminants (PEDC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-pressure plasma processes were applied for cleaning the surface of glass, metals, carbon and polymers from contaminants such as air pollutants, fingerprints, coupling agents, oxide layers, weakly bonded surface layers, slip agents, light stabilizer or additive enrichments at the surface. It is possible to remove contaminations by simple plasma sputtering (particle bombardment) in plasmas of noble gases, by oxidation of

P. Krüger; R. Knes; J. Friedrich

1999-01-01

161

Quantitative analysis of microbial contamination in private drinking water supply systems.  

PubMed

Over one million households rely on private water supplies (e.g. well, spring, cistern) in the Commonwealth of Virginia, USA. The present study tested 538 private wells and springs in 20 Virginia counties for total coliforms (TCs) and Escherichia coli along with a suite of chemical contaminants. A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate potential correlations between TC contamination and chemical parameters (e.g. NO3(-), turbidity), as well as homeowner-provided survey data describing system characteristics and perceived water quality. Of the 538 samples collected, 41% (n = 221) were positive for TCs and 10% (n = 53) for E. coli. Chemical parameters were not statistically predictive of microbial contamination. Well depth, water treatment, and farm location proximate to the water supply were factors in a regression model that predicted presence/absence of TCs with 74% accuracy. Microbial and chemical source tracking techniques (Bacteroides gene Bac32F and HF183 detection via polymerase chain reaction and optical brightener detection via fluorometry) identified four samples as likely contaminated with human wastewater. PMID:23708572

Allevi, Richard P; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Hagedorn, Charles; Benham, Brian; Lawrence, Annie H; Ling, Erin J; Ziegler, Peter E

2013-06-01

162

Comparative efficiency of microbial systems for destroying carbon tetrachloride contamination in Hanford groundwater  

SciTech Connect

Past waste disposal practices at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford site have resulted in carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) and nitrate contamination in the groundwater. In situ bioremediation is currently being investigated as a cost effective means to destroy these groundwater contaminants. The cost effectiveness of bioremediation is significantly influenced by the nutrient amendments required to sustain the contaminant destruction reactions. This is particularly important for bioremediation of CCl{sub 4} because its biodestruction is the result of a cometabolic process. Nutrient amendments are also important in controlling the growth characteristics of the bacteria to prevent biofouling. Current and previous research has focused on determining the reaction kinetics and microbial processes for CCl{sub 4} destruction using acetate as the electron donor for indigenous microbes. This study was conducted to determine if electron donors other than acetate may be more cost effective, or may provide a better means of process control, for in situ bioremediation of CCl{sub 4} contamination. Three alternative electron donors, glycerol, methanol, and ethanol, were screened for their ability to stimulate CCl{sub 4} destruction. Detailed reaction kinetic experiments using an indigenous microbial consortium with these substrates and with acetate were conducted to determine the efficiency of each in destroying CCl{sub 4}.

Truex, M.J.; Skeen, R.S.; Caley, S.M.; Workman, D.J.

1993-04-01

163

Dynamics of coupled contaminant and microbial transport in heterogeneous porous media. 1997 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'Dynamic microbial attachment/detachment occurs in subsurface systems in response to changing environmental conditions caused by contaminant movement and degradation. Understanding the environmental conditions and mechanisms by which anaerobic bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases is a critical requirement for designing and evaluating in situ bioremediation efforts. This interdisciplinary research project will provide fundamental information on the attachment/detachment dynamics of anaerobic bacteria in heterogeneous porous media under growth and growth-limiting conditions. Experiments will provide information on passive and active attachment/detachment mechanisms used by growing anaerobes capable of reductive dechlorination. Theoretical representations of these attachment/detachment mechanisms will be incorporated into existing groundwater flow and contaminant transport models that incorporate heterogeneity effects and can be used to predict behavior at field scales. These mechanistic-based models will be tested against experimental data provided through controlled laboratory experiments in heterogeneous porous media in large (meter-scale) 2-D flow cells. In addition to a mechanistic-based predictive model, this research will lead to new theories for the transient spatial distribution of microbial populations and contaminant plumes in heterogeneous porous media, improving the capability for designing staged remediation strategies for dealing with mixed contaminants.'

Ginn, T.R.; Boone, D.R.; Fletcher, M.M.; Friedrich, D.M.; Murphy, E.M.

1997-06-01

164

Microbial Contamination of Clinical Islet Transplant Preparations Is Associated with Very Low Risk of Infection  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Several published studies have analyzed microbial contamination rates of islet products, ranging from 0% to 16%. However, few studies make reference to potential clinical consequences for transplant recipients and possible impact on islet survival. Materials and Methods The current study defines rates of microbiological contamination of islet products under current good manufacturing practice conditions in 164 patients receiving 343 transplants at a single institution. Results Nineteen (5.5%) islet preparations showed positive microbial growth with a majority (79.4%) due to Gram-positive organisms. The most frequently identified microorganism was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (nine of 19 [47.3%]), followed by polymicrobial organisms (eight of 19 [42.1%]). No patient developed signs of clinical infection, and there were no hepatic abscesses evident on imaging by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (none of 19 [0%]), despite the use of potent T-depletional induction. Finally, we could not demonstrate any negative impact of microbiological contamination on long-term islet graft survival. Conclusions Microbiological contamination of the final islet preparation appears to have little or no effect on patients or on islet survival when appropriate antibiotics are given. However, preparation sterility should be guaranteed at all cost in order maximize patient safety and avoid potential complications in immunosuppressed patients.

Gala-Lopez, Boris; Kin, Tatsuya; O'Gorman, Doug; Pepper, Andrew R.; Senior, Peter; Humar, Atul

2013-01-01

165

Analysis of surface contaminants on beryllium and aluminum windows  

SciTech Connect

An effort has been made to document the types of contamination which form on beryllium window surfaces due to interaction with a synchrotron radiation beam. Beryllium windows contaminated in a variety of ways (exposure to water and air) exhibited surface powders, gels, crystals and liquid droplets. These contaminants were analyzed by electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and wet chemical methods. Materials found on window surfaces include beryllium oxide, amorphous carbon, cuprous oxide, metallic copper and nitric acid. Aluminum window surface contaminants were also examined.

Gmur, N.F.

1987-06-01

166

Engineering microbial surfaces to degrade lignocellulosic biomass.  

PubMed

Renewable lignocellulosic plant biomass is a promising feedstock from which to produce biofuels, chemicals, and materials. One approach to cost-effectively exploit this resource is to use consolidating bioprocessing (CBP) microbes that directly convert lignocellulose into valuable end products. Because many promising CBP-enabling microbes are non-cellulolytic, recent work has sought to engineer them to display multi-cellulase containing minicellulosomes that hydrolyze biomass more efficiently than isolated enzymes. In this review, we discuss progress in engineering the surfaces of the model microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We compare the distinct approaches used to display cellulases and minicellulosomes, as well as their surface enzyme densities and cellulolytic activities. Thus far, minicellulosomes have only been grafted onto the surfaces of B. subtilis and S. cerevisiae, suggesting that the absence of an outer membrane in fungi and Gram-positive bacteria may make their surfaces better suited for displaying the elaborate multi-enzyme complexes needed to efficiently degrade lignocellulose. PMID:24430239

Huang, Grace L; Anderson, Timothy D; Clubb, Robert T

2014-01-01

167

Origin of fecal contamination in waters from contrasted areas: stanols as Microbial Source Tracking markers.  

PubMed

Improving the microbiological quality of coastal and river waters relies on the development of reliable markers that are capable of determining sources of fecal pollution. Recently, a principal component analysis (PCA) method based on six stanol compounds (i.e. 5?-cholestan-3?-ol (coprostanol), 5?-cholestan-3?-ol (epicoprostanol), 24-methyl-5?-cholestan-3?-ol (campestanol), 24-ethyl-5?-cholestan-3?-ol (sitostanol), 24-ethyl-5?-cholestan-3?-ol (24-ethylcoprostanol) and 24-ethyl-5?-cholestan-3?-ol (24-ethylepicoprostanol)) was shown to be suitable for distinguishing between porcine and bovine feces. In this study, we tested if this PCA method, using the above six stanols, could be used as a tool in "Microbial Source Tracking (MST)" methods in water from areas of intensive agriculture where diffuse fecal contamination is often marked by the co-existence of human and animal sources. In particular, well-defined and stable clusters were found in PCA score plots clustering samples of "pure" human, bovine and porcine feces along with runoff and diluted waters in which the source of contamination is known. A good consistency was also observed between the source assignments made by the 6-stanol-based PCA method and the microbial markers for river waters contaminated by fecal matter of unknown origin. More generally, the tests conducted in this study argue for the addition of the PCA method based on six stanols in the MST toolbox to help identify fecal contamination sources. The data presented in this study show that this addition would improve the determination of fecal contamination sources when the contamination levels are low to moderate. PMID:22673347

Derrien, M; Jardé, E; Gruau, G; Pourcher, A M; Gourmelon, M; Jadas-Hécart, A; Pierson Wickmann, A C

2012-09-01

168

Distribution of microbial physiologic types in an aquifer contaminated by crude oil  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted a plume-scale study of the microbial ecology in the anaerobic portion of an aquifer contaminated by crude-oil compounds. The data provide insight into the patterns of ecological succession, microbial nutrient demands, and the relative importance of free-living versus attached microbial populations. The most probable number (MPN) method was used to characterize the spatial distribution of six physiologic types: aerobes, denitrifiers, iron-reducers, heterotrophic fermenters, sulfate-reducers, and methanogens. Both free-living and attached numbers were determined over a broad cross-section of the aquifer extending horizontally from the source of the plume at a nonaqueous oil body to 66 m downgradient, and vertically from above the water table to the base of the plume below the water table. Point samples from widely spaced locations were combined with three closely spaced vertical profiles to create a map of physiologic zones for a cross-section of the plume. Although some estimates suggest that less than 1% of the subsurface microbial population can be grown in laboratory cultures, the MPN results presented here provide a comprehensive qualitative picture of the microbial ecology at the plume scale. Areas in the plume that are evolving from iron-reducing to methanogenic conditions are clearly delineated and generally occupy 25-50% of the plume thickness. Lower microbial numbers below the water table compared to the unsaturated zone suggest that nutrient limitations may be important in limiting growth in the saturated zone. Finally, the data indicate that an average of 15% of the total population is suspended.

Bekins, B. A.; Godsy, E. M.; Warren, E.

1999-01-01

169

Contrasting microbial functional genes in two distinct saline-alkali and slightly acidic oil-contaminated sites.  

PubMed

To compare the functional gene structure and diversity of microbial communities in saline-alkali and slightly acidic oil-contaminated sites, 40 soil samples were collected from two typical oil exploration sites in North and South China and analyzed with a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0). The overall microbial pattern was significantly different between the two sites, and a more divergent pattern was observed in slightly acidic soils. Response ratio was calculated to compare the microbial functional genes involved in organic contaminant degradation and carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur cycling. The results indicated a significantly low abundance of most genes involved in organic contaminant degradation and in the cycling of nitrogen and phosphorus in saline-alkali soils. By contrast, most carbon degradation genes and all carbon fixation genes had similar abundance at both sites. Based on the relationship between the environmental variables and microbial functional structure, pH was the major factor influencing the microbial distribution pattern in the two sites. This study demonstrated that microbial functional diversity and heterogeneity in oil-contaminated environments can vary significantly in relation to local environmental conditions. The limitation of nitrogen and phosphorus and the low degradation capacity of organic contaminant should be carefully considered, particularly in most oil-exploration sites with saline-alkali soils. PMID:24784752

Liang, Yuting; Zhao, Huihui; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Guanghe

2014-07-15

170

Relationship between microbial diversity and chemical contamination along a 50-year-old sediment core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential use of sediment microbial diversity (community structure) as an indicator of the impact of anthropogenic activities within an estuarine ecosystem. The diversity of microbial communities was investigated along a 5-m-long sediment core collected in an anthropized European estuary (Seine, France), giving an evolution of trace metal, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations over the last 50 years. An increase of trace metal and PCB concentrations are observed with depth, with an enrichment of these contaminants in the 1970s. The concentration profiles of light, intermediate and heavy PAHs showed distinct peaks, but the highest total PAH concentration was also detected in the sediment from the 1970s. We first investigated the bacterial community resistant to cobalt, zinc and cadmium by analyzing the diversity of the czcA gene encoding an RND efflux pump (Heavy Metal Efflux-RND) in 5-year and 33-year-old sediment samples displaying contrasted concentrations in these trace metals. The diversity of the czcA gene was reduced in the 33-year-old and more contaminated sediments suggesting a selection of resistant bacterial species. A molecular fingerprinting method (DGGE) was used to study the evolution of total microbial (Bacteria and Archaea) community structures for samples selected along the sediment core. A correlation is observed between the bacterial community structures, the sediment age, the trace metal and PAH concentrations. The metabolically active and total microbial communities were further characterized by a microarray approach (Phylochips) in sediment samples selected according to the DGGE results. Bacterial diversity was found dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes in all analyzed samples. Diversity of phylotypes corresponds to changes in PAH and trace metal concentrations in sediment, suggesting that chemical contaminants have selected for well-adapted taxa. In addition, the taxa able to survive and remain active within the contaminated sediments have been identified by characterizing the metabolically active fraction of the microbial communities. This metabolically active community is dominated by the same phyla but different classes are observed.

Berthe, T.; Petit, F.; Boust, D.; Lesueur, P.; Roose-Amsaleg, C.; Cécillon, S.; Kaci-Benaicha, A.

2013-12-01

171

Study on contaminants on flight and other critical surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The control of surface contamination in the manufacture of space hardware can become a critical step in the production process. Bonded surfaces have been shown to be affected markedly by contamination. It is important to insure surface cleanliness by preventing contamination prior to bonding. In this vein techniques are needed in which the contamination which may affect bonding are easily found and removed. Likewise, if materials which are detrimental to bonding are not easily removed, then they should not be used in the manufacturing process. This study will address the development of techniques to locate and quantify contamination levels of particular contaminants. With other data becoming available from MSFC and its contractors, this study will also quantify how certain contaminants affect bondlines and how easily they are removed in manufacturing.

Workman, Gary L.; Hughes, Charles; Arendale, William F.

1994-01-01

172

Microbial contamination associated with consumption and the growth in plastic bottled beverage.  

PubMed

Plastic bottles enable the storage of unfinished beverages, and most of microbial contamination has occurred in the unfinished beverage that was left. Therefore, we investigated microorganisms in various beverages contaminated by pouring and drinking directly by mouth from the bottle, and analyzed the growth of microorganisms in the beverages at room temperature. In the pouring test, microbial growth was detected in 60 of 320 samples, and 13 bacterial strains, 49 mold strains, and 8 yeast strains were isolated. Molds including Cladosporium spp., Tramets spp., Bjerkandera spp., and Penicillium spp. accounted for the majority of isolated microorganisms. In the drinking test, microbial growth was detected in 181 of 352 samples, and 225 bacterial strains, 27 mold strains and 77 yeast strains were isolated. Bacteria including Streptococcus spp. such as S. salivarius and Staphylococcus spp. such as S. aureus accounted for the majority of isolated microorganisms. Enterotoxin-producing S. aureus and Bacillus cereus were also isolated. The pH of the beverage influenced the growth of bacteria. The Brix values of the beverage did not correlate with the growth of microorganisms. These results revealed that various microorganisms including foodborne pathogens were able to grow in numerous types of beverages and that the storage of unfinished beverage in inappropriate condition, such as the storage at room temperature led microorganism to grow easily in beverage. Therefore, it is necessary to consume beverages as soon as possible after opening the bottle. PMID:23445421

Ohnishi, Takahiro; Goto, Keiichi; Kanda, Takashi; Kanazawa, Yuji; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Sugiyama, Kanji; Watanabe, Maiko; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

2013-01-01

173

Metal impacts on microbial biomass in the anoxic sediments of a contaminated lake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the long-term impacts of metal contamination on the microbiota of anoxic lake sediments. In this study, we examined microbial biomass and metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, and zinc) in the sediments of Lake DePue, a backwater lake located near a former zinc smelter. Sediment core samples were examined using two independent measures for microbial biomass (total microscopic counts and total phospholipid phosphate concentrations) and for various fractions of each metal (pore water extracts, sequential extractions, and total extracts of all studied metals and zinc speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure). Zinc concentrations were up to 1000 times higher than reported for sediments in the adjacent Illinois River and ranged from 21,400 mg/kg near the source to 1,680 mg/kg near the river. However, solid metal fractions were not well correlated with pore water concentrations and were not good predictors of biomass concentrations. Instead, biomass, which varied among sites by as much as 2 times, was inversely correlated with concentrations of pore water zinc and arsenic as established by multiple linear regression. Monitoring of other parameters known to naturally influence biomass in sediments (e.g., organic carbon concentrations, nitrogen concentrations, pH, sediment texture, and macrophytes) revealed no differences that could explain observed biomass trends. This study provides strong support for control of microbial abundance by pore water metal concentrations in contaminated freshwater sediments.

Gough, Heidi L.; Dahl, Amy L.; Nolan, Melissa A.; Gaillard, Jean-FrançOis; Stahl, David A.

2008-06-01

174

Evaluation of Sterilox for controlling microbial biofilm contamination of dental water.  

PubMed

The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of Sterilox, a sterilizing unit that produces a hydrochlorous acid solution that controls microbial contamination as well as reduces biofilms and endotoxin in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs). A total of 15 dental units were used: 10 in the Sterilox group and 5 in the control group (treatment with Bio2000). Distilled water was used as source water. Samples were collected at the baseline, 1-day, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. A scanning electron microscope was used to evaluate the biofilm in dental tubing before and after the treatment. The content of endotoxin was analyzed using the Chromogenic Limulus Method. The baseline CFU revealed high microbial counts (> 39,000 CFU/mL) in all DUWLs. After the treatment and throughout the study, the Sterilox practically eliminated the CFU in the waterlines, while the control group remained at high CFU counts similar to the baseline values. The differences between the 2 groups were significant (P < .05). The endotoxin analysis of the DUWL samples indicated that the average amount of endotoxin per milliliter increased immediately after the Sterilox shock treatment, indicating the lysis of gram-negative bacteria. Endotoxin content then quickly declined and remained at an acceptable level throughout the study Endotoxin in controls fluctuated in higher levels. It was concluded that Sterilox is effective at controlling microbial contamination and reducing biofilms and endotoxin in DUWLs. PMID:18064783

Zhang, Wu; Onyango, Omari; Lin, Zhi; Lee, Sean S; Li, Yiming

2007-11-01

175

Structure of Sediment-Associated Microbial Communities along a Heavy-Metal Contamination Gradient in the Marine Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial community composition and structure were characterized in marine sediments contaminated for >80 years with cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. Four sampling sites that encompass a wide range of sediment metal loads were compared in a Norwegian fjord (Sørfjord). HCl-extractable metals and organic matter constantly decreased from the most contaminated site (S1) to the control site (S4). All sampling sites

David C. Gillan; Bruno Danis; Philippe Pernet; Guillemette Joly; Philippe Dubois

2005-01-01

176

Microcosm and experimental pond evaluation of microbial community response to synthetic oil contamination in freshwater sediments.  

PubMed

A multivariate approach was used to evaluate the significance of synthetic oil-induced perturbations in the functional activity of sediment microbial communities. Total viable cell densities, ATP-biomass, alkaline phosphatase and dehydrogenase activity, and mineralization rates of glucose, protein, oleic acid, starch, naphthalene, and phenanthrene were monitored on a periodic basis in microcosms and experimental ponds for 11 months, both before and after exposure to synthetic oil. All variables contributed to significant discrimination between sediment microbial responses in control communities and communities exposed to a gradient of synthetic oil contamination. At high synthetic oil concentrations (4,000 ml/12 m), a transient reduction in sediment ATP concentrations and increased rates of oleic acid mineralization were demonstrated within 1 week of exposure. These transient effects were followed within 1 month by a significant increase in rates of naphthalene and phenanthrene mineralization. After initial construction, both control and synthetic oil-exposed microbial communities demonstrated wide variability in community activity. All experimental microbial communities approached equilibrium and demonstrated good replication. However, synthetic oil perturbation was demonstrated by wide transient variability in community activity. This variability was primarily the result of the stimulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbon mineralization rates. In general, microcosms and pond communities demonstrated sufficient resiliency to recover from the effects of synthetic oil exposure within 3 months, although polyaromatic hydrocarbon mineralization rates remained significantly elevated. PMID:16346341

Sayler, G S; Perkins, R E; Sherrill, T W; Perkins, B K; Reid, M C; Shields, M S; Kong, H L; Davis, J W

1983-07-01

177

Microbial Community Responses to Organophosphate Substrate Additions in Contaminated Subsurface Sediments  

PubMed Central

Background Radionuclide- and heavy metal-contaminated subsurface sediments remain a legacy of Cold War nuclear weapons research and recent nuclear power plant failures. Within such contaminated sediments, remediation activities are necessary to mitigate groundwater contamination. A promising approach makes use of extant microbial communities capable of hydrolyzing organophosphate substrates to promote mineralization of soluble contaminants within deep subsurface environments. Methodology/Principal Findings Uranium-contaminated sediments from the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC) Area 2 site were used in slurry experiments to identify microbial communities involved in hydrolysis of 10 mM organophosphate amendments [i.e., glycerol-2-phosphate (G2P) or glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P)] in synthetic groundwater at pH 5.5 and pH 6.8. Following 36 day (G2P) and 20 day (G3P) amended treatments, maximum phosphate (PO43?) concentrations of 4.8 mM and 8.9 mM were measured, respectively. Use of the PhyloChip 16S rRNA microarray identified 2,120 archaeal and bacterial taxa representing 46 phyla, 66 classes, 110 orders, and 186 families among all treatments. Measures of archaeal and bacterial richness were lowest under G2P (pH 5.5) treatments and greatest with G3P (pH 6.8) treatments. Members of the phyla Crenarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria demonstrated the greatest enrichment in response to organophosphate amendments and the OTUs that increased in relative abundance by 2-fold or greater accounted for 9%–50% and 3%–17% of total detected Archaea and Bacteria, respectively. Conclusions/Significance This work provided a characterization of the distinct ORFRC subsurface microbial communities that contributed to increased concentrations of extracellular phosphate via hydrolysis of organophosphate substrate amendments. Within subsurface environments that are not ideal for reductive precipitation of uranium, strategies that harness microbial phosphate metabolism to promote uranium phosphate precipitation could offer an alternative approach for in situ sequestration.

Martinez, Robert J.; Wu, Cindy H.; Beazley, Melanie J.; Andersen, Gary L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Hazen, Terry C.; Taillefert, Martial; Sobecky, Patricia A.

2014-01-01

178

Microbial Detoxification of Bifenthrin by a Novel Yeast and Its Potential for Contaminated Soils Treatment  

PubMed Central

Bifenthrin is one the most widespread pollutants and has caused potential effect on aquatic life and human health, yet little is known about microbial degradation in contaminated regions. A novel yeast strain ZS-02, isolated from activated sludge and identified as Candida pelliculosa based on morphology, API test and 18S rDNA gene analysis, was found highly effective in degrading bifenthrin over a wide range of temperatures (20–40°C) and pH (5–9). On the basis of response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal degradation conditions were determined to be 32.3°C and pH 7.2. Under these conditions, the yeast completely metabolized bifenthrin (50 mg·L?1) within 8 days. This strain utilized bifenthrin as the sole carbon source for growth as well as co-metabolized it in the presence of glucose, and tolerated concentrations as high as 600 mg·L?1 with a qmax, Ks and Ki of 1.7015 day?1, 86.2259 mg·L?1 and 187.2340 mg·L?1, respectively. The yeast first degraded bifenthrin by hydrolysis of the carboxylester linkage to produce cyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 2-methyl-3-biphenylyl methanol. Subsequently, 2-methyl-3-biphenylyl methanol was further transformed by biphenyl cleavage to form 4-trifluoromethoxy phenol, 2-chloro-6-fluoro benzylalcohol, and 3,5-dimethoxy phenol, resulting in its detoxification. Eventually, no persistent accumulative product was detected by gas chromatopraphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. This is the first report of a novel pathway of degradation of bifenthrin by hydrolysis of ester linkage and cleavage of biphenyl in a microorganism. Furthermore, strain ZS-02 degraded a variety of pyrethroids including bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, and fenpropathrin. In different contaminated soils introduced with strain ZS-02, 65–75% of the 50 mg·kg?1 bifenthrin was eliminated within 10 days, suggesting the yeast could be a promising candidate for remediation of environments affected by bifenthrin. Finally, this is the first described yeast capable of degrading bifenthrin.

Hu, Meiying; Geng, Peng; Zhang, Yanbo

2012-01-01

179

Microbial detoxification of bifenthrin by a novel yeast and its potential for contaminated soils treatment.  

PubMed

Bifenthrin is one the most widespread pollutants and has caused potential effect on aquatic life and human health, yet little is known about microbial degradation in contaminated regions. A novel yeast strain ZS-02, isolated from activated sludge and identified as Candida pelliculosa based on morphology, API test and 18S rDNA gene analysis, was found highly effective in degrading bifenthrin over a wide range of temperatures (20-40 °C) and pH (5-9). On the basis of response surface methodology (RSM), the optimal degradation conditions were determined to be 32.3 °C and pH 7.2. Under these conditions, the yeast completely metabolized bifenthrin (50 mg · L(-1)) within 8 days. This strain utilized bifenthrin as the sole carbon source for growth as well as co-metabolized it in the presence of glucose, and tolerated concentrations as high as 600 mg · L(-1) with a q(max), K(s) and K(i) of 1.7015 day(-1), 86.2259 mg · L(-1) and 187.2340 mg · L(-1), respectively. The yeast first degraded bifenthrin by hydrolysis of the carboxylester linkage to produce cyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 2-methyl-3-biphenylyl methanol. Subsequently, 2-methyl-3-biphenylyl methanol was further transformed by biphenyl cleavage to form 4-trifluoromethoxy phenol, 2-chloro-6-fluoro benzylalcohol, and 3,5-dimethoxy phenol, resulting in its detoxification. Eventually, no persistent accumulative product was detected by gas chromatopraphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. This is the first report of a novel pathway of degradation of bifenthrin by hydrolysis of ester linkage and cleavage of biphenyl in a microorganism. Furthermore, strain ZS-02 degraded a variety of pyrethroids including bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, and fenpropathrin. In different contaminated soils introduced with strain ZS-02, 65-75% of the 50 mg · kg(-1) bifenthrin was eliminated within 10 days, suggesting the yeast could be a promising candidate for remediation of environments affected by bifenthrin. Finally, this is the first described yeast capable of degrading bifenthrin. PMID:22348025

Chen, Shaohua; Luo, Jianjun; Hu, Meiying; Geng, Peng; Zhang, Yanbo

2012-01-01

180

Microbial Community Acquisition of Nutrients from Mineral Surfaces. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Minerals and microbes undergo complex interactions in nature that impact broad aspects of near-surface Earth chemistry. Our primary objective in this project was to gain insight into how microbial species and communities acquire critical but tightly held nutrients residing on or within minerals common in rocks and soils, and to quantitatively study related microbe-mineral interactions including cell adhesion, electron transfer, and siderophore-mineral interaction processes.

Hochella, M. F.

2003-06-03

181

Dynamics of coupled contaminant and microbial transport in heterogeneous porous media. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'Dynamic microbial attachment/detachment occurs in subsurface systems in response to changing environmental conditions caused by contaminant movement and degradation. Understanding the environmental conditions and mechanisms by which anaerobic bacteria partition between aqueous and solid phases is a critical requirement for designing and evaluating in-situ bioremediation efforts. This interdisciplinary research project will provide fundamental information on the attachment/detachment dynamics of anaerobic bacteria in heterogeneous porous media under growth and growth-limiting conditions. Experiments will provide information on passive and active attachment/detachment mechanisms used by growing anaerobes capable of reductive dechlorination. Theoretical representations of these attachment/detachment mechanisms will be incorporated into existing flow and transport models that incorporate heterogeneity effects and can be used to predict behavior at field scales. These mechanistic-based models will be tested against experimental data provided through controlled laboratory experiments in heterogeneous porous media in large (meter-scale) 2-D flow cells. In addition to a mechanistic-based predictive model, this research will lead to new theories for the transient spatial distribution of microbial populations and contaminant plumes in heterogeneous porous media, improving the capability for designing staged remediation strategies for dealing with mixed contaminants.'

Ginn, T.R.; Cushman, J.H.; Murphy, E.M.; Fletcher, M.

1998-06-01

182

Evaluation of microbial contamination and distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria in dental units.  

PubMed

Although bacterial contamination is widely researched in dental unit water systems, we have been unable to find any published reports to date about the presence and distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs). The aim of this study was to evaluate microbial contamination and to determine the presence and distribution of SRB in DUWLs. One hundred twenty-three water samples were collected from the air-water syringes, high-speed drills and water sources from 41 dental units in Istanbul, Turkey. The counts of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and SRB were investigated in the water samples. In addition, the presence of free-living amoebae (FLA) was examined. In this work, we evaluated microbial contamination and reported for the first time the distribution of SRB in DUWLs. We determined that only ten out of 123 water samples were able to meet the American Dental Association's limit (?200 CFU ml(?-?1)). SRB were observed in 102 out of 123 samples (82.9%). In addition, SRB were detected in all of the air-water syringes and high-speed drills. FLA were established in 103 out of 123 samples (83.7%). PMID:21384117

Dogruöz, Nihal; Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Göksay, Duygu; Türetgen, Irfan

2012-01-01

183

An Auger electron spectroscopy study of surface-preparation contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are many cleaning techniques that are presently being employed for surface preparation of materials that are subsequently exposed to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Unfortunately, there are virtually no comparative measurements which establish the residual contaminant level of each method. In this report, eleven different cleaning methods, ranging from only detergent cleaning to electrochemical polishing, were applied to identical samples of 347 stainless steel. Two surface conditions, a standard machined surface and a mechanically polished surface, were studied. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) within a UHV environment was then used to detect the types of contaminants and the magnitudes found on the sample surfaces. It was found that the electrochemical polishing gave the least contaminated surface of all metals studied and that mechanically polished surfaces were significantly cleaner than the as-machined surfaces for any given cleaning method. Furthermore, it was also found that the residual contaminations left by methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, and freon finishing rinses are almost the same.

Wu, D.; Stephens, R. M.; Outlaw, R. A.; Hopson, P.

1990-01-01

184

An Auger electron spectroscopy study of surface-preparation contaminants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many cleaning techniques that are presently being employed for surface preparation of materials that are subsequently exposed to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Unfortunately, there are virtually no comparative measurements which establish the residual contaminant level of each method. In this report, eleven different cleaning methods, ranging from only detergent cleaning to electrochemical polishing, were applied to identical samples of 347 stainless steel. Two surface conditions, a standard machined surface and a mechanically polished surface, were studied. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) within a UHV environment was then used to detect the types of contaminants and the magnitudes found on the sample surfaces. It was found that the electrochemical polishing gave the least contaminated surface of all metals studied and that mechanically polished surfaces were significantly cleaner than the as-machined surfaces for any given cleaning method. Furthermore, it was also found that the residual contaminations left by methanol, ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, and freon finishing rinses are almost the same.

Wu, D.; Stephens, R. M.; Outlaw, R. A.; Hopson, P.

1990-02-01

185

Microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances from laboratories and impact of clinical storage.  

PubMed

Decontamination of dental instruments has recently been the subject of considerable debate. However, little information is available on the potential bacterial colonisation of dental appliances returning from dental laboratories and their need for decontamination. This study investigated the extent and nature of microbial contamination of removable prosthodontic appliances produced at different dental laboratories and stored in two clinical teaching units (CTU 1 and CTU 2) of a dental hospital and school. Forty consecutive dental prosthodontic appliances that were being stored under varying conditions in the two clinical teaching units were selected for study; the appliances having been produced 'in-house' (hospital laboratory) or 'out-of-house' (external commercial laboratory). Two appliances, that were known to have undergone decontamination before storage, were used as controls. Swabs were taken according to a standard protocol and transferred to the microbiological laboratory with bacterial growth expressed as colony forming units (cfu) per cm(2). Microbial sampling yielded growth from 23 (58%) of the 40 appliances studied (CTU 1, n = 22; CTU 2, n = 18), with 38% of these having a high level of contamination (>42,000 cfu/cm(2)). The predominant bacteria isolated were Bacillus spp. (57%), pseudomonads (22%) and staphylococci (13%). Fungi of the genus Candida were detected in 38% of the samples. There was no significant difference in contamination of the appliances in relation to either their place of production or the CTU (p >0.05). However, the level of contamination was significantly higher (p = 0.035) for those appliances stored in plastic bag with fluid (n = 16) compared to those stored on models (n = 19). No growth was recovered from the two appliances that had undergone decontamination before storage. The research showed that appliances received from laboratories are often contaminated and therefore there is a need for routine disinfection of such items before use and a review of storage conditions required. PMID:21869790

Williams, D W; Chamary, N; Lewis, M A O; Milward, P J; McAndrew, R

2011-08-01

186

Metal contamination disturbs biochemical and microbial properties of calcareous agricultural soils of the Mediterranean area.  

PubMed

Mediterranean climate characteristics and carbonate are key factors governing soil heavy-metal accumulation, and low organic matter (OM) content could limit the ability of microbial populations to cope with resulting stress. We studied the effects of metal contamination on a combination of biological parameters in soils having these characteristics. With this aim, soils were spiked with a mixture of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc, at the two limit values proposed by current European legislation, and incubated for ?12 months. Then we measured biochemical (phosphatase, urease, ?-galactosidase, arylsulfatase, and dehydrogenase activities) and microbial (fungal and bacterial DNA concentration by quantitative polymerase chain reaction) parameters. All of the enzyme activities were strongly affected by metal contamination and showed the following inhibition sequence: phosphatase (30-64 %) < arylsulfatase (38-97 %) ? urease (1-100 %) ? ?-galactosidase (30-100 %) < dehydrogenase (69-100 %). The high variability among soils was attributed to the different proportion of fine mineral fraction, OM, crystalline iron oxides, and divalent cations in soil solution. The decrease of fungal DNA concentration in metal-spiked soils was negligible, whereas the decrease of bacterial DNA was ~1-54 % at the lowest level and 2-69 % at the highest level of contamination. The lowest bacterial DNA decrease occurred in soils with the highest OM, clay, and carbonate contents. Finally, regarding the strong inhibition of the biological parameters measured and the alteration of the fungal/bacterial DNA ratio, we provide strong evidence that disturbance on the system, even within the limiting values of contamination proposed by the current European Directive, could alter key soil processes. These limiting values should be established according to soil characteristics and/or revised when contamination is produced by a mixture of heavy metals. PMID:23183935

de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Cheviron, Natalie; Quintana, Jose R; González, Concepción; Lafuente, Antonio L; Mougin, Christian

2013-04-01

187

Microbial in situ degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer monitored by carbon isotope fractionation.  

PubMed

We present an approach for characterizing in situ microbial degradation using the 13C/12C isotope fractionation of contaminants as an indicator of biodegradation. The 13C/12C isotope fractionation of aromatic hydrocarbons was studied in anoxic laboratory soil percolation columns with toluene or o-xylene as the sole carbon and electron source, and sulfate as electron acceptor. After approximately 2 months' of incubation, the soil microbial community degraded 32 mg toluene l(-1) and 44 mg o-xylene l(-1) to less than 0.05 mg l(-1), generating a stable concentration gradient in the column. The 13C/12C isotope ratio in the residual non-degraded fraction of toluene and o-xylene increased significantly, corresponding to isotope fractionation factors (alphaC) of 1.0015 and 1.0011, respectively. When the extent of biodegradation in the soil column was calculated based on the measured isotope ratios (R(t)) and an isotope fractionation factor (alphaC=1.0017) obtained from a sulfate-reducing batch culture the theoretical residual substrate concentrations (C(t)) matched the measured toluene concentrations in the column. This indicated that a calculation of biodegradation based on isotope fractionation could work in systems like soil columns. In a field study, a polluted, anoxic aquifer was analyzed for BTEX and PAH contaminants. These compounds were found to exhibit a significant concentration gradient along an 800-m groundwater flow path downstream of the source of contamination. A distinct increase in the carbon isotope ratio (delta13C) was observed for the residual non-degraded toluene (7.2 per thousand ), o-xylene (8.1 per thousand ) and naphthalene fractions (1.2 per thousand ). Based on the isotope values and the laboratory-derived isotope fractionation factors for toluene and o-xylene, the extent to which the residual substrate fraction in the monitoring wells had been degraded by microorganisms was calculated. The results revealed significant biodegradation along the groundwater flow path. In the wells at the end of the plume, the bioavailable toluene and o-xylene fractions had been almost completely reduced by in situ microbial degradation. Although indane and indene showed decreasing concentrations downstream of the groundwater flow path, suggesting microbial degradation, their carbon isotope ratios remained constant. As the physical properties of these compounds are similar to those of BTEX compounds, the constant isotope values of indane and indene indicated that microbial degradation did not lead to isotope fractionation of all aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, physical interaction with the aquifer material during the groundwater passage did not significantly alter the carbon isotope composition of aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:12855203

Richnow, Hans H; Annweiler, Eva; Michaelis, Walter; Meckenstock, Rainer U

2003-08-01

188

Microbial in situ degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in a contaminated aquifer monitored by carbon isotope fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach for characterizing in situ microbial degradation using the 13C/ 12C isotope fractionation of contaminants as an indicator of biodegradation. The 13C/ 12C isotope fractionation of aromatic hydrocarbons was studied in anoxic laboratory soil percolation columns with toluene or o-xylene as the sole carbon and electron source, and sulfate as electron acceptor. After approximately 2 months' of incubation, the soil microbial community degraded 32 mg toluene l -1 and 44 mg o-xylene l -1 to less than 0.05 mg l -1, generating a stable concentration gradient in the column. The 13C/ 12C isotope ratio in the residual non-degraded fraction of toluene and o-xylene increased significantly, corresponding to isotope fractionation factors (?C) of 1.0015 and 1.0011, respectively. When the extent of biodegradation in the soil column was calculated based on the measured isotope ratios ( Rt) and an isotope fractionation factor (?C=1.0017) obtained from a sulfate-reducing batch culture the theoretical residual substrate concentrations ( Ct) matched the measured toluene concentrations in the column. This indicated that a calculation of biodegradation based on isotope fractionation could work in systems like soil columns. In a field study, a polluted, anoxic aquifer was analyzed for BTEX and PAH contaminants. These compounds were found to exhibit a significant concentration gradient along an 800-m groundwater flow path downstream of the source of contamination. A distinct increase in the carbon isotope ratio ( ?13C) was observed for the residual non-degraded toluene (7.2‰), o-xylene (8.1‰) and naphthalene fractions (1.2‰). Based on the isotope values and the laboratory-derived isotope fractionation factors for toluene and o-xylene, the extent to which the residual substrate fraction in the monitoring wells had been degraded by microorganisms was calculated. The results revealed significant biodegradation along the groundwater flow path. In the wells at the end of the plume, the bioavailable toluene and o-xylene fractions had been almost completely reduced by in situ microbial degradation. Although indane and indene showed decreasing concentrations downstream of the groundwater flow path, suggesting microbial degradation, their carbon isotope ratios remained constant. As the physical properties of these compounds are similar to those of BTEX compounds, the constant isotope values of indane and indene indicated that microbial degradation did not lead to isotope fractionation of all aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, physical interaction with the aquifer material during the groundwater passage did not significantly alter the carbon isotope composition of aromatic hydrocarbons.

Richnow, Hans H.; Annweiler, Eva; Michaelis, Walter; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

2003-08-01

189

Microbial Diversity and Bioremediation of a Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer (Vega Baja, Puerto Rico)  

PubMed Central

Hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater resources has become a major environmental and human health concern in many parts of the world. Our objectives were to employ both culture and culture-independent techniques to characterize the dynamics of microbial community structure within a fluidized bed reactor used to bioremediate a diesel-contaminated groundwater in a tropical environment. Under normal operating conditions, 97 to 99% of total hydrocarbons were removed with only 14 min hydraulic retention time. Over 25 different cultures were isolated from the treatment unit (96% which utilized diesel constituents as sole carbon source). Approximately 20% of the isolates were also capable of complete denitrification to nitrogen gas. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA demonstrated ample diversity with most belonging to the ?, ? and ? subdivision of the Proteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria groups. Moreover, the genetic constitution of the microbial community was examined at multiple time points with a Functional Gene Array (FGA) containing over 12,000 probes for genes involved in organic degradation and major biogeochemical cycles. Total community DNA was extracted and amplified using an isothermal ?29 polymerase-based technique, labeled with Cy5 dye, and hybridized to the arrays in 50% formimide overnight at 50°C. Cluster analysis revealed comparable profiles over the course of treatment suggesting the early selection of a very stable microbial community. A total of 270 genes for organic contaminant degradation (including naphthalene, toluene [aerobic and anaerobic], octane, biphenyl, pyrene, xylene, phenanthrene, and benzene); and 333 genes involved in metabolic activities (nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases [nirS, nirK, and nosZ], dissimilatory sulfite reductases [dsrAB], potential metal reducing C-type cytochromes, and methane monooxygenase [pmoA]) were repeatedly detected. Genes for degradation of MTBE, nitroaromatics and chlorinated compounds were also present, indicating a broad catabolic potential of the treatment unit. FGA’s demonstrated the early establishment of a diverse community with concurrent aerobic and anaerobic processes contributing to the bioremediation process.

Rodriguez-Martinez, Enid M.; Perez, Ernie X.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Zhou, Jizhong; Massol-Deya, Arturo A.

2006-01-01

190

Changes in developing plant microbial community structure as affected by contaminated water.  

PubMed

The effects of sand and clay soils and water contaminated by Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the development of rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities were analyzed to determine the influence of plant age on microbial community structure and composition. Community bacterial nucleic acids were extracted from lettuce rhizosphere and phyllosphere samples at different stages of plant development after the soils were irrigated with water contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 at planting and 15 days after planting. PCR was used to amplify 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) for total bacterial community composition and the products were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Prominent DGGE bands were excised and sequenced to gain insight into the identities of predominant bacterial populations. The majority of DGGE band sequences were related to bacterial genera previously associated with the rhizosphere and phyllosphere, such as Pseudomonas, Acidobacterium, Bacillus and Agrobacterium. The PCR-DGGE patterns observed for rhizosphere samples were more complex than those obtained from the bulk soil and the phyllosphere. The Shannon index of diversity (H) was used to determine the complexity of the DGGE bands from the phyllosphere, rhizosphere and the bulk soils at different growth stages. A higher diversity was observed in the clay soil than sandy soil during the first week. Few changes in diversity were observed after the first week. The results show that microbial community development in lettuce may take about 7-12 days and this may be the most likely period for maximum pathogen contamination in plants. PMID:19712407

Ibekwe, A M; Grieve, C M

2004-05-01

191

Microbial Diversity and Bioremediation of a Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer (Vega Baja, Puerto Rico)  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater resources has become a major environmental and human health concern in many parts of the world. Our objectives were to employ both culture and culture-independent techniques to characterize the dynamics of microbial community structure within a fluidized bed reactor used to bioremediate a diesel-contaminated groundwater in a tropical environment. Under normal operating conditions, 97 to 99% of total hydrocarbons were removed with only 14 min hydraulic retention time. Over 25 different cultures were isolated from the treatment unit (96% which utilized diesel constituents as sole carbon source). Approximately 20% of the isolates were also capable of complete denitrification to nitrogen gas. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA demonstrated ample diversity with most belonging to the {infinity}, {beta} and {gamma} subdivision of the Proteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria groups. Moreover, the genetic constitution of the microbial community was examined at multiple time points with a Functional Gene Array (FGA) containing over 12,000 probes for genes involved in organic degradation and major biogeochemical cycles. Total community DNA was extracted and amplified using an isothermal {phi}29 polymerase-based technique, labeled with Cy5 dye, and hybridized to the arrays in 50% formimide overnight at 50 C. Cluster analysis revealed comparable profiles over the course of treatment suggesting the early selection of a very stable microbial community. A total of 270 genes for organic contaminant degradation (including naphthalene, toluene [aerobic and anaerobic], octane, biphenyl, pyrene, xylene, phenanthrene, and benzene); and 333 genes involved in metabolic activities (nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases [nirS, nirK, and nosZ], dissimilatory sulfite reductases [dsrAB], potential metal reducing C-type cytochromes, and methane monooxygenase [pmoA]) were repeatedly detected. Genes for degradation of MTBE, nitroaromatics and chlorinated compounds were also present, indicating a broad catabolic potential of the treatment unit. FGA's demonstrated the early establishment of a diverse community with concurrent aerobic and anaerobic processes contributing to the bioremediation process.

Rodriguez-Martinex, Enid M. [University of Puerto Rico; Perez, Ernie [University of Puerto Rico; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma; Massol-Deya, Arturo A. [University of Puerto Rico

2006-01-01

192

Characterization of nonpoint source microbial contamination in an urbanizing watershed serving as a municipal water supply.  

PubMed

Inland watersheds in the southeastern United States are transitioning from agricultural and forested land uses to urban and exurban uses at a rate greater than the national average. This study sampled creeks representing a variety of land use factors in a rapidly urbanizing watershed that also serves as a drinking water supply. Samples were collected bimonthly under dry-weather conditions and four times during each of three storm events and assessed for microbial indicators of water quality. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) including fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were measured using standard membrane filtration techniques. Results showed that FIB concentrations varied between 10(0) and 10(4) colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mL. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that FIB were generally higher in more developed watersheds (p < 0.01). Concentrations were also significantly greater during storm events than during dry-weather conditions (p < 0.02), although concentrations demonstrated both intra and inter-storm variability. These results indicate that the magnitude of microbial contamination is influenced by intensity of watershed development, streamflow and antecedent precipitation. Dry-weather FIB loads showed considerable seasonal variation, but the average storm event delivered contaminant loads equivalent to months of dry-weather loading. Analysis of intra-storm loading patterns provided little evidence to support "first-flush" loading of either FIB, results that are consistent with environmental reservoirs of FIB. These findings demonstrate that single sampling monitoring efforts are inadequate to capture the variability of microbial contaminants in a watershed, particularly if sampling is conducted during dry weather. This study also helps to identify timing and conditions for public health vulnerabilities, and for effective management interventions. PMID:23021518

Rowny, Jakob G; Stewart, Jill R

2012-11-15

193

Direct Quantification of Microbial Community Respiration along a Contamination Gradient using a novel Hydrologic Smart Tracer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metal contamination in lotic ecosystems is a major health and environmental concern worldwide. The Resazurin Resorufin (Raz Rru) Smart Tracer system (Haggerty et al., 2008) provides a novel approach to test current models of microbial ecosystem response to chronic stressors such as heavy metals. These models predict that functional redundancy of metabolic capabilities of community members (e.g. respiration rate and enzyme activity) will compensate for decreases in species diversity until a stress threshold is reached. At this point, species diversity and function are expected to decline rapidly. Contrary to this model, microbial communities of the Clark Fork River (CF), Montana, demonstrate high levels of species diversity along the contamination gradient, whereas community function is inversely proportional to the level of contamination. The Raz Rru tool, a metabolically reactive hydrologic tracer, allows for direct quantification of in-situ microbial respiration rates. Therefore, this tool provides an opportunity to build upon studies of ecosystem response to contamination previously limited to extrapolation of point scale measurements to reach scale processes. The Raz Rru tool is used here to quantify the magnitude of metal induced limits on heterotrophic microbial respiration in communities that have evolved to different levels of chronic metal exposure. In this way we propose to be able to test a novel hypothesis concerning the nature of evolution of community processes to chronic stress and persistent environmental pollutants. Specifically, we hypothesize that metal contamination produces a measureable metabolic cost to both tolerant and intolerant communities. To test this hypothesis, rates of respiration associated with hyporheic sediments, supporting intact microbial communities, were quantified in the presence and absence of an acute Cd exposure in column experiments. Hyporheic sediment was collected from differently contaminated locations within the CF and compared to sediment from pristine reference sites. The biological reduction rate of Raz to Rru, K_12 in the Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE) below, represents rates of sediment associated heterotrophic respiration. ?C_Raz}/{?t} = {?_L?}/{R} {?^2C_Raz}/{?x^2} - {?}/{R} {?C_Raz}/{?x} - k_1C_Raz -k_12C_Raz [/tex] {?C_Rru}/{?t} = {?_L?}/{R} {?^2C_Rru}/{?x^2} -{?}/{R} {?C_Rru}/{?x} - k_2C_Rru + k_12 {M_Rru}/{M_Raz}CRaz [/tex] The Raz-Rru ADE will be optimized through the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Preliminary analysis of Cl^- tracer data provides input estimation of physical parameters, populating the hydrological terms of the ADE necessary for elucidation of K_12. It is expected that sediment metal content and K_12 are inversely related and that acute Cd exposure will negatively affect K_12 of both communities, with communities inhabiting metal contaminated sediments demonstrating a smaller reduction in K_12. This project has the potential to contribute to a revised theory of community response to metal induced chronic ecosystem stress, while contributing to the further development and application of the Raz Rru Smart Tracer system.

Stanaway, D. J.; Haggerty, R.; Feris, K. P.

2010-12-01

194

Microbial Biofilm Formation and Contamination of Dental-Unit Water Systems in General Dental Practice  

PubMed Central

Dental-unit water systems (DUWS) harbor bacterial biofilms, which may serve as a haven for pathogens. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial load of water from DUWS in general dental practices and the biofouling of DUWS tubing. Water and tube samples were taken from 55 dental surgeries in southwestern England. Contamination was determined by viable counts on environmentally selective, clinically selective, and pathogen-selective media, and biofouling was determined by using microscopic and image analysis techniques. Microbial loading ranged from 500 to 105 CFU · ml?1; in 95% of DUWS water samples, it exceeded European Union drinking water guidelines and in 83% it exceeded American Dental Association DUWS standards. Among visible bacteria, 68% were viable by BacLight staining, but only 5% of this “viable by BacLight” fraction produced colonies on agar plates. Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium spp., Candida spp., and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in one, five, two, and nine different surgeries, respectively. Presumptive oral streptococci and Fusobacterium spp. were detected in four and one surgeries, respectively, suggesting back siphonage and failure of antiretraction devices. Hepatitis B virus was never detected. Decontamination strategies (5 of 55 surgeries) significantly reduced biofilm coverage but significantly increased microbial numbers in the water phase (in both cases, P < 0.05). Microbial loads were not significantly different in DUWS fed with soft, hard, deionized, or distilled water or in different DUWS (main, tank, or bottle fed). Microbiologically, no DUWS can be considered “cleaner” than others. DUWS deliver water to patients with microbial levels exceeding those considered safe for drinking water.

Walker, James T.; Bradshaw, David J.; Bennett, Allan M.; Fulford, Martin R.; Martin, Michael V.; Marsh, Philip D.

2000-01-01

195

Characterization of Microbial Communities in TCE-Contaminated Seep Zone Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Hundreds of sites across the United States contain trichloroethene (TCE) contamination, including the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. Previous studies have indicated that microorganisms are capable of efficiently degrading TCE to nonhazardous end products. In this project, molecular and growth based methods were used for microbial characterization of a TCE impacted seepzone where TCE degradation is naturally occurring. The results from this work provide clear evidence that the SRB may play a significant role in TCE degradation along the Twin Lakes seepline.

ROBIN, BRIGMON

2005-03-07

196

ISSUES IN UNDERSTANDING DERMAL EXPOSURES RESULTING FROM CONTACT WITH CONTAMINATED SURFACES, MEASURING SURFACE CONTAMINATION, AND CHARACTERIZING TRANSFERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Although monitoring for surface contamination in work with radioactive materials and dermal monitoring of pesticide exposure to agricultural workers have been standard practice for 50 years, regular surface sampling and dermal monitoring methods have only been applied to indust...

197

Microbial transformations of azaarenes in creosite-contaminated soil and ground water: Laboratory and field studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Azaarenes or aromatic nitrogen heterocycles are a class of compounds found in wood-preservative wastes containing creosote. The fate and movement of these compounds in contaminated aquifers is not well understood. Water-quality studies in an aquifer contaminated with creosote near Pensacola, Florida, indicated that ground water was contaminated with several azaarenes and their oxygenated and alkylated derivatives, suggesting that these oxygenated compounds may be products of microbial transformation reactions. Accordingly, laboratory studies were designed to investigate the fate of these compounds. Under aerobic conditions, soil pseudomonads isolated from creosote-contaminated soil converted quinoline to 2(1H)quinoline that subsequently was degraded to unknown products. A methanogenic consortium isolated from an anaerobic sewage digestor, in presence of ground-water and creosote-contaminated soil, converted quinoline, isoquinoline, and 4-methylquinoline to their respective oxygenated analogs. In addition, N-, C-, and O-methylated analogs of oxygenated azaarenes were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in aerobic cultures. Under the experimental conditions, 2-methylquinoline was biorefractory. Presence of similar biotransformation products in anaerobic cultures and contaminated ground water from the Pensacola site provided further evidence that these compounds indeed were mivrobial transformation products. Stable isotope labeling studies indicated that the source of the oxygen atom for this hydroxylation reaction under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was water. A mechanism was proposed for this hydroxylation reaction. Whereas parent azaarenes are biodegradable in both anaerobic and aerobic zones, oxygenated and alkylated analogs are more biorefractory and, hence, persistent in anaerobic zones of contaminated aquifers.

Pereira, W. E.; Rostad, C. E.; Updegraff, D. M.; Bennett, J. L.

1988-01-01

198

Changing patterns of microbial contamination and antimicrobial sensitivity in donor eyes.  

PubMed

Contaminating microbial flora and their in vitro antibiotic sensitivity pattern was determined for 1557 eyes from donor cadavers collected during five years. Positive cultures were obtained in 42.77% of the eyes; bacterial growth was observed in 39.17% of the eyes and fungal growth, in 3.6%. There was significant variation in the rate of contamination from year to year during the study period. Staphylococcus albus was the most frequently isolated organism (28.10%), followed by Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Alcaligenes faecalis, respectively. Most of the organisms were resistant to commonly used antibiotics with a low weighted index of effectiveness, particularly toward gentamicin (resistance, 50.82%). The findings were compared with previous data from the same eye bank, and the variations are discussed. PMID:8129326

Satpathy, G; Angra, S K

1993-12-01

199

A surface swab method for culturing Foley catheters assays the pericatheter (urethral) but not the urine (luminal) microbial population.  

PubMed

Assessment of the urethral flora in patients with indwelling bladder catheters is problematic in the presence of urinary tract infection (UTI). A new surface swab method that samples the external catheter surface without interference from contaminated luminal contents is described. In vitro, recovery of adherent bacteria from the external catheter surface by the surface swab method was proportional to the bacterial density as measured by a comparison scrape method. In a prospective longitudinal assessment of three chronically catheterized subjects with polymicrobial catheter-associated UTI, a conventional roll plate catheter culture method suggested substantial overlap between the urethral and urine microbial populations, possibly a result of contamination of catheter cultures by infected urine. In contrast, the surface swab method revealed little overlap between these floras, evidence suggesting a predominantly luminal (rather than meatal) route of UTI acquisition. The new surface swab method should prove useful in future studies of the pathogenesis and prevention of catheter-associated UTI. PMID:9242372

Johnson, J R; Dykstra, D; Brown, J J; Kringstad, B; Pryor, J L

1997-07-01

200

Factors That Influence Microbial Contamination of Fluids Associated with Hemodialysis Machines  

PubMed Central

Studies were conducted on the microbiological quality of fluids associated with different types of dialysis systems located in six dialysis centers and 14 homes. Included were (i) single-pass systems employing either parallel flow (Kiil or Gambro) or capillary cartridge dialyzers and (ii) recirculating single-pass and batch recirculating systems using coil dialyzers. Microbiological assays were performed on the water used to prepare dialysis fluid, the concentrated dialysate, and either pre- and postdialyzer dialysate (single-pass systems) or the dialysate contained in storage reservoirs and recirculating cannisters (recirculating systems). The levels of microbial contamination consisting of gram-negative bacteria were directly related to the type of dialysis system, method of water treatment, distribution system, and in some instances, the type of dialyzer. Recirculating single-pass and batch recirculating systems consistently contained significantly higher levels of contamination than single-pass systems. These results were directly related to the design of recirculating systems which permits carbon- and nitrogen-containing waste products dialyzed from the patient to accumulate, be used as nutrients by microorganisms, and subsequently allow for 2- to 4-log increases in contamination levels during a dialysis treatment. In contrast, levels of contamination in single-pass machines were related more to the quality of the water used to prepare dialysis fluid and the adequacy of cleaning and disinfection procedures than to the design of the system. Images

Favero, Martin S.; Carson, Loretta A.; Bond, Walter W.; Petersen, Norman J.

1974-01-01

201

Subsurface Microbial Communities and Geochemistry Within a Vertical Transect of a Uranium-Contaminated Aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial communities and geochemistry were analyzed within floodplain alluvia of the San Juan River, New Mexico, down-gradient of a uranium mill tailings disposal cell. A multi-level sampling device was used to investigate vertical variations in geochemistry and microbial community structure within the uranium contaminant plume within this shallow aquifer. Chemical analyses indicate that the interaction of uncontaminated artesian water and contaminant fluids has resulted in three geochemically-distinct regions. Similarity comparisons of bacterial community 16S rDNA fingerprints, based on T-RFLP analyses, show a grouping of microbial populations into three assemblages. These groupings correspond to the three geochemically-defined regions of the aquifer profile, indicating a relationship between community structure and geochemistry. Combined Bacterial 16S rDNA clone library and T-RFLP analyses show a predominance of organisms related to Nitrospira and Nitrosolobus, chemolithotrophic nitrite and ammonia oxidizers respectively, in the uncontaminated region of the aquifer profile. Within the plume-impacted area, organisms related to known nitrifying bacteria were not detected. Bacteria phylogenetically related to Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Gallionella, Psuedomonas, and Thiomicrospira were identified in both the uncontaminated and plume regions. Within the contaminated region, sequences from organisms related to the metal oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix and Sphaerotilus were also found. 16S rDNA sequences with high similarity to Duganella zoogloeoides, a chemolithotrophic Mn-oxidizing bacterium known for uranyl complexation and sorption, were abundant in the clone library from the plume-impacted region. A diversity of organisms related to sulfate- and sulfur-reducing bacteria including Desulfobulbus, Desulfofrigus, Desulfosarcina, Desulfosporosinus, Desulfotomaculum, and Geobacter were present in the uncontaminated zone while less SRB diversity (Desulfobacter, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfonema) was observed in the plume region. T-RFLP results substantiate this trend, suggesting sulfate reducer populations shift from high diversity and low relative abundance to less diversity and a larger abundance over the transition from uncontaminated water into the plume region. These findings indicate that there is considerable biological potential for uranium immobilization at this site through reductive precipitation by sulfate or other metal reducing organisms or microbial uptake and sequestration. Given the diversity of microorganisms related to chemolithotrophic bacteria, growth by this mode of metabolism, and the biological oxidation of reduced metals, is also potentially an important process that may influence metal biogeochemistry at this site.

Gihring, T. M.; McKinley, J. P.; Fredrickson, J. K.; Long, P. E.

2002-12-01

202

Processing efficacy in relation to microbial contamination of skin allografts from 723 donors.  

PubMed

The Siena Skin Bank, established in 2000, processes skin from more than 130 cadaveric donors per year (about 400,000 cm(2)) and distributes it for transplants to treat burns and other types of skin loss. More than 1,500,000 cm(2) of homologous skin has been transplanted to date. At the Siena Skin Bank we conducted a retrospective study of our data to assess microbial contamination of skin specimens from 723 donors banked in the period 2000-2007. Our aim was to determine factors deleterious for skin quality, to optimize skin banking procedures and to reduce corrective actions. The factors analyzed were: type of donor (multi-organ, multi-tissue, live or cadaver), cause of death, time elapsing between death and procurement, different procurement centres and operator experience. Of the 723 donors considered, 26.55% (192/723) were positive for microbes, 22.68% (164) for bacteria and 5.39% (39) for mycetes. Of these 192 positives, 82 (42.70%) required corrective actions. The data obtained showed that the only variables significantly affecting microbial contamination of tissue were type of donor (live or cadaver) and type of processing (cryo- or glycerol preservation). PMID:19616385

Pianigiani, E; Ierardi, F; Cuciti, C; Brignali, S; Oggioni, M; Fimiani, M

2010-05-01

203

Characterization of the relationship between microbial degradation processes at a hydrocarbon contaminated site using isotopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decisions to employ monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as a remediation strategy at contaminated field sites require a comprehensive characterization of the site-specific biodegradation processes. In the present study, compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSIA) was used to investigate intrinsic biodegradation of benzene and ethylbenzene in an aquifer with high levels of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon contamination. Hydrochemical data and isotope fractionation analysis of sulfate and methane was used complementarily to elucidate microbial degradation processes over the course of a three year period, consisting of six sampling campaigns, in the industrial area of Weißandt-Gölzau (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany). Enrichment of 13C and 2H isotopes in the residual benzene and ethylbenzene pool downgradient from the pollution sources provided evidence of biodegradation of BTEX compounds at this site, targeting both compounds as the key contaminants of concern. The enrichment of heavy sulfur isotopes accompanied by decreasing sulfate concentrations and the accumulation of isotopically light methane suggested that sulfate-reducing and methanogenic processes are the major contributors to overall biodegradation in this aquifer. Along the contaminant plume, the oxidation of methane with ?13CCH4 values of up to + 17.5‰ was detected. This demonstrates that methane formed in the contaminant source can be transported along groundwater flow paths and be oxidized in areas with higher redox potentials, thereby competing directly with the pollutants for electron acceptors. Hydrochemical and isotope data was summarized in a conceptual model to assess whether MNA can be used as viable remediation strategy in Weißandt-Gölzau. The presented results demonstrate the benefits of combining different isotopic methods and hydrochemical approaches to evaluate the fate of organic pollutants in contaminated aquifers.

Feisthauer, Stefan; Seidel, Martin; Bombach, Petra; Traube, Sebastian; Knöller, Kay; Wange, Martin; Fachmann, Stefan; Richnow, Hans H.

2012-05-01

204

Characterization and microbial utilization of dissolved organic carbon in groundwater contaminated with chlorophenols.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize the labile part of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) present in groundwater by identification of natural organic carbon substrates and to assess their microbial utilization during aeration of the groundwater. The studied chlorophenol (CP) contaminated groundwater contained 60-2650 micromoll(-1) of DOC of which up to 98.0% were CPs; 1.7% were low-molecular weight organic acids and 0.2% were dissolved free amino acids. Traces of following natural organic carbon substrates were identified: L-alanine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-serine, L-threonine, L-tyrosine, L-valine, L-aspartic, acetic, citric, formic, lactic, malic and oxalic acid. Dissolved oxygen concentration inside the CP-plume was lower (mean 25 micromoll(-1)) than outside of the plume (mean 102 micromoll(-1)). Over a monitoring period of four years the concentrations of CPs, Fe(II) and NH4+ were higher inside than outside of the CP-plume. Oxygen availability within the CP-plume limits in situ biological oxidation of CPs, DOC, NH4+ and Fe(II). The microbial enzymatic hydrolysis rates of 4-methylumbelliferyl and 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin-linked substrates varied from 0.01 to 52 micromoll(-1)h(-1) and was slightly higher inside than outside the plume. Microbial uptake rates of 14C-acetate, 14C-glucose and 14C-leucine were on average 28, 4 and 4 pmoll(-1)h(-1) outside and 17, 25 and 8 pmoll(-1)h(-1) inside the plume, respectively. The indigenous microorganisms were shown able of hydrolysis of dissolved organic matter, uptake and utilization of natural organic carbon substrates. Therefore, the labile part of DOC serves as a pool of secondary substrates beside the CP-contaminants in the groundwater and possibly help in sustaining the growth of CP-degrading bacteria. PMID:15823332

Langwaldt, J H; Münster, U; Puhakka, J A

2005-05-01

205

[Formation of microbial populations on the surface of protective coatings].  

PubMed

Formation of microbial cenosis on the surface of polyethylene-, polyurethane- and oil-bitumen-based protective coatings was studied in dynamics during 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. It has been shown that the biofilm was formed on the protective materials during 14 days and consisted of ammonifying, denitrifying, hydrocarbon-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria referred to Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Bacillus and Kesulfovibrio genera. The bacteria which form the biofilm on coatings possess high denitrifying and sulphate-reducing activities. Corrosion inhibitors-biocydes, introduced in composition of oil-bitumen coatings suppressed growth and metabolic activity of corrosion-active bacteria. PMID:11558243

Kopteva, Zh P; Zanina, V V; Piliashenko-Novokhatny?, A I; Kopteva, A E; Kozlova, I A

2001-01-01

206

Microbial surface thermodynamics and interactions in aqueous media.  

PubMed

Microbial surface thermodynamics and interactions in aqueous media were investigated for seven typical rod-shaped bacterial strains of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceas, and Bacillaceae, which included Escherichia coli HB101, Escherichia coli JM109, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas sp., and Bacillus subtilis. All the microorganisms studied exhibited a monopolar and predominant hydrophilic surface and a negative Delta G132tot, total free energy of interactions between microbes (1) and silica gel or Canadian River Alluvium (CRA) (2) immersed in water (3) at the equilibrium distance, which accounted for their attachment on the medium surface. The microbial attachment was proportional to the corresponding Delta G132tot values. Among the microorganisms studied, B. subtilis had the most attachment on both silica gel and CRA because it had the smallest Delta G132tot values (-17.14kT for silica gel and -21.84kT for CRA). The origins of Lifshitz-van der Waals, Lewis acid/base, and electrostatic interactions were discussed and related to experimental observations. PMID:16256533

Chen, Gang; Strevett, Keith A

2003-05-15

207

High surface area electrode for high efficient microbial electrosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial electrosynthesis, a process in which microorganisms directly accept electrons from an electrode to convert carbon dioxide and water into multi carbon organic compounds, affords a novel route for the generation of valuable products from electricity or even wastewater. The surface area of the electrode is critical for high production. A biocompatible, highly conductive, three-dimensional cathode was fabricated from a carbon nanotube textile composite to support the microorganism to produce acetate from carbon dioxide. The high surface area and macroscale porous structure of the intertwined CNT coated textile ?bers provides easy microbe access. The production of acetate using this cathode is 5 fold larger than that using a planar graphite electrode with the same volume. Nickel-nanowire-modified carbon electrodes, fabricated by microwave welding, increased the surface area greatly, were able to absorb more bacteria and showed a 1.5 fold increase in performance

Nie, Huarong; Cui, Mengmeng; Lu, Haiyun; Zhang, Tian; Russell, Thomas; Lovley, Derek

2012-02-01

208

A microbial fuel cell in contaminated ground delineated by electrical self-potential and normalized induced polarization data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods to aid investigation and monitoring of complex biogeochemical environments, for example delineation of contaminants and microbial activity related to land contamination. We combined geophysical monitoring with chemical and microbiological analysis to create a conceptual biogeochemical model of processes around a contaminant plume within a manufactured gas plant site. Self-potential, induced polarization and electrical resistivity techniques were used to monitor the plume. We propose that an exceptionally strong (>800 mV peak to peak) dipolar SP anomaly represents a microbial fuel cell operating in the subsurface. The electromagnetic and electrical geophysical data delineated a shallow aerobic perched water body containing conductive gasworks waste which acts as the abiotic cathode of microbial fuel cell. This is separated from the plume below by a thin clay layer across the site. Microbiological evidence suggests that degradation of organic contaminants in the plume is dominated by the presence of ammonium and its subsequent degradation. We propose that the degradation of contaminants by microbial communities at the edge of the plume provides a source of electrons and acts as the anode of the fuel cell. We hypothesize that ions and electrons are transferred through the clay layer that was punctured during the trial pitting phase of the investigation. This is inferred to act as an electronic conductor connecting the biologically mediated anode to the abiotic cathode. Integrated electrical geophysical techniques appear well suited to act as rapid, low cost sustainable tools to monitor biodegradation.

Doherty, R.; Kulessa, B.; Ferguson, A. S.; Larkin, M. J.; Kulakov, L. A.; Kalin, R. M.

2010-09-01

209

The Effects of Microbial Surfaces on Mineral Trapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic carbon sequestration, the underground storage of CO2, will be an essential component of global climate change mitigation. Carbonate minerals are a stable form of CO2 storage, but their geologic formation is slow. Many microbes are known to affect carbonate mineral formation; however the mechanisms of such mineralization are largely unknown. Suggested mechanisms include metabolic processes that alter pH and supersaturation, as well as cell surface properties that induce mineral nucleation. This work systematically investigates how diverse bacterial surface alter the rates and transformations of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Under low supersaturation conditions, several diverse species accelerated the formation of CaCO3 relative to silicate containing solutions. These rate changes also occurred for metabolically inactive bacteria, indicating that metabolic activity was not the operating mechanism. Rather, since the number of CaCO3 crystals increased in number as the cell density increased, these results indicate that many bacterial species accelerate the nucleation of CaCO3. Bacterial surface charge and cation binding was assessed using zeta potential measurements and correlated to the bacterial surface chemistry and biomineralization experiments with varying Ca2+ concentrations. To understand the role of specific biomolecules on nucleation, we engineered surface layer proteins (S-layers) to affect their charge and displayed functional groups. From these results combined, we postulate that microbial surfaces can selectively attract Ca2+ ions, serving as nucleation sites for CaCO3, thereby accelerating crystal formation. These observations provide substantive evidence for a non-specific nucleation mechanism, and stress the importance of microbes, on the rate of formation of carbonate minerals. This work also indicates that additional microbial engineering specifically targeted to S-layer proteins could optimize these interactions and be used to implement the sequestration of CO2 as stable mineral carbonates on an accelerated timescale.

Ajo-Franklin, C.; Cappuccio, J. A.

2012-12-01

210

Manual for Evaluating Contamination Potential of Surface Impoundments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual was specifically prepared for implementing a standardized evaluation system for the EPA Office of Drinking Water Surface Impoundment Assessment. The manual describes a first round evaluation system for rating the ground water contamination pote...

L. R. Silka T. L. Swearingen

1978-01-01

211

TRACE ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN ANTHROPOGENICALLY ACIDIFIED SURFACE WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

The biological effects of trace organic contaminants in anthropogenically acidified surface waters are mediated by the nature of the association of trace organics with dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOC and POC). his paper (1) briefly reviews available deposition estim...

212

Use of Bacteroidales Microbial Source Tracking To Monitor Fecal Contamination in Fresh Produce Production  

PubMed Central

In recent decades, fresh and minimally processed produce items have been associated with an increasing proportion of food-borne illnesses. Most pathogens associated with fresh produce are enteric (fecal) in origin, and contamination can occur anywhere along the farm-to-fork chain. Microbial source tracking (MST) is a tool developed in the environmental microbiology field to identify and quantify the dominant source(s) of fecal contamination. This study investigated the utility of an MST method based on Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences as a means of identifying potential fecal contamination, and its source, in the fresh produce production environment. The method was applied to rinses of fresh produce, source and irrigation waters, and harvester hand rinses collected over the course of 1 year from nine farms (growing tomatoes, jalapeño peppers, and cantaloupe) in Northern Mexico. Of 174 samples, 39% were positive for a universal Bacteroidales marker (AllBac), including 66% of samples from cantaloupe farms (3.6 log10 genome equivalence copies [GEC]/100 ml), 31% of samples from tomato farms (1.7 log10 GEC/100 ml), and 18% of samples from jalapeño farms (1.5 log10 GEC/100 ml). Of 68 AllBac-positive samples, 46% were positive for one of three human-specific markers, and none were positive for a bovine-specific marker. There was no statistically significant correlation between Bacteroidales and generic Escherichia coli across all samples. This study provides evidence that Bacteroidales markers may serve as alternative indicators for fecal contamination in fresh produce production, allowing for determination of both general contamination and that derived from the human host.

Ravaliya, Kruti; Garcia, Santos; Heredia, Norma; Fabiszewski de Aceituno, Anna; Bartz, Faith E.; Leon, Juan S.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

2014-01-01

213

Organic surface film contamination of Vitallium implants  

SciTech Connect

Conventional finishing and polishing techniques used to prepare Vitallium subperiosteal dental implant castings were found to produce low energy surfaces as measured by critical surface tension. Standard metallographic preparation gave slightly higher values. Glow discharge cleaning of both types of polished surface gave much higher critical surface tension values. This suggests the presence of an organic film after surface polishing of the implant which may later affect tissue reaction, in particular attachment, as has been noticed in related animal studies.

Carter, J.M.; Flynn, H.E.; Meenaghan, M.A.; Natiella, J.R.; Akers, C.K.; Baier, R.E.

1981-11-01

214

Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels.

Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

1997-04-01

215

Microbial source tracking and spatial analysis of E. coli contaminated private well waters in southeastern Ontario.  

PubMed

Private water supplies, which are the primary source of drinking water for rural communities in developed countries, are at risk of becoming fecally contaminated. It is important to identify the source of contamination in order to better understand and address this human health risk. Microbial source tracking methods using human, bovine and general Bacteroidales markers were performed on 716 well water samples from southeastern Ontario, which had previously tested positive for Escherichia coli. The results were then geospatially analyzed in order to elucidate contamination patterns. Markers for human feces were found in nearly half (49%) of all samples tested, and a statistically significant spatial cluster was observed. A quarter of the samples tested positive for only general Bacteroidales markers (25.7%) and relatively few bovine specific marker positives (12.6%) were found. These findings are fundamental to the understanding of pathogen dynamics and risk in the context of drinking well water and will inform future research regarding host-specific pathogens in private well water samples. PMID:24937229

Krolik, Julia; Evans, Gerald; Belanger, Paul; Maier, Allison; Hall, Geoffrey; Joyce, Alan; Guimont, Stephanie; Pelot, Amanda; Majury, Anna

2014-06-01

216

Evaluation of the role of environmental contamination in the microbial degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

Studies were undertaken to determine the effect of environmental contamination upon the potential for degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by the microbial populations in freshwater sediments. Naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and benzo(a)pyrene(BP) were employed as substrates for PAH biodegradation. Biodegradation was assessed by mineralization of the /sup 14/C-PAH substrates incubated in sediment slurries. Mineralization rate constants and substrate turnover times were calculated for PAH mineralization studies. Sediment microcosms treated with individual, unlabeled PAH or a synthetic oil (SO) were sampled for the mineralization assay after various periods of acclimation. NAP and PHE treatments enhanced PAH mineralization rates while BP was inhibitory. The SO treatment caused a substantial enhancement of PAH mineralization rates. A PAH-degrading bacterial population added to various sediment systems did not significantly enhance PAH mineralizaion rates. Studies with natural sediment samples also indicated that previous environmental contamination tends to enhance the potential for PAH biodegradation. Studies indicated PAH mineralization in sediments was related to the length of incubation time, temperature, molecular size of the substrate and prior exposure to PAH or related contaminants.

Sherrill, T.W.

1982-01-01

217

Detection of organic contamination on surfaces by infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic contamination control at ESA is based on the infrared spectroscopy method described in the PSS-01-705. The method is used to verify the organic contamination levels during integration and thermal vacuum tests. The detection limits are in the 10-8 g/cm2 range or below, depending on the equipment and sampling method. Quantification is performed with common space contaminants, with the possibility to include a new calibration standard when a specific contaminant is occurring more often. Sampling is done with witness sensors of 15 cm2 or infrared transparent windows to verify the cleanliness after specific events. When no witness sensor has been used, solvent compatible surfaces can be analyzed by a solvent wash or by wiping the surface using dry or wetted tissues. Calibration curves with detection limits are presented, with an examples of a contamination event found on a retrieved space hardware.

Guyt, Jaco M.; Van Eesbeek, Marc; Van Papendrecht, G.

2002-09-01

218

LASER CLEANING OF CONTAMINATED PAINTED SURFACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several techniques are available or under development for surface decontamination in nuclear facilities. Each technique has its merits; however, none of them is universally the best choice for all surface decontamination applications. Because of the multitude of factors which influence the environmental and economic aspects of selecting a surface decontamination technique, it is difficult to select the best method in

Ames A. Grisanti; Charlene R. Crocker; Robert R. Jensen

1999-01-01

219

Radon induced surface contaminations in low background experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through careful material selection and production, minimizing the background contributions. In order to achieve the required, extremely low, counting rates, very stringent requirements must be fulfilled in terms of bulk material radiopurity. As the experimental sensitivity increases, the bulk impurities in the detector components decrease, and surface contaminations start to play an increasingly significant role In fully active detectors, like cryogenic particle detectors, surface contaminations are a critical issue (as shown by the CUORICINO experiment). 222Rn is by far the most intense source of airborne radioactivity, and if a radio-pure material is exposed to environment where the Radon concentration is not minimized, 210Pb and 210Po contaminations can occur. The mechanisms and the dynamics of Radon-induced surface contaminations are reviewed, and specific solutions to prevent and to reject the induced background are presented.

Pattavina, L.

2013-08-01

220

Radon induced surface contaminations in low background experiments  

SciTech Connect

In neutrinoless double-beta decay and dark matter searches, one of the main issues is to increase the experimental sensitivity through careful material selection and production, minimizing the background contributions. In order to achieve the required, extremely low, counting rates, very stringent requirements must be fulfilled in terms of bulk material radiopurity. As the experimental sensitivity increases, the bulk impurities in the detector components decrease, and surface contaminations start to play an increasingly significant role In fully active detectors, like cryogenic particle detectors, surface contaminations are a critical issue (as shown by the CUORICINO experiment). {sup 222}Rn is by far the most intense source of airborne radioactivity, and if a radio-pure material is exposed to environment where the Radon concentration is not minimized, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po contaminations can occur. The mechanisms and the dynamics of Radon-induced surface contaminations are reviewed, and specific solutions to prevent and to reject the induced background are presented.

Pattavina, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)] [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, I-67010 Assergi (AQ) (Italy)

2013-08-08

221

The Effect of Microbial Activity on Flow and Transport of an Organic Contaminant in Naturally Fractured Chalk Cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-permeability rock formations, such as chalk, are being selected as hydrogeological barriers for waste disposal sites and industrial areas throughout the world. Many sites constructed on chalk formations have failed due to existing fractures. Subsurface natural or enhanced microbial activity is the main biological process that causes transformation of organic contaminants in groundwater. However, this beneficial activity may result in

S. Arnon; E. Adar; Z. Ronen; A. Yakirevich; R. Nativ

2001-01-01

222

Microbial Contamination Detection in Water Resources: Interest of Current Optical Methods, Trends and Needs in the Context of Climate Change  

PubMed Central

Microbial pollution in aquatic environments is one of the crucial issues with regard to the sanitary state of water bodies used for drinking water supply, recreational activities and harvesting seafood due to a potential contamination by pathogenic bacteria, protozoa or viruses. To address this risk, microbial contamination monitoring is usually assessed by turbidity measurements performed at drinking water plants. Some recent studies have shown significant correlations of microbial contamination with the risk of endemic gastroenteresis. However the relevance of turbidimetry may be limited since the presence of colloids in water creates interferences with the nephelometric response. Thus there is a need for a more relevant, simple and fast indicator for microbial contamination detection in water, especially in the perspective of climate change with the increase of heavy rainfall events. This review focuses on the one hand on sources, fate and behavior of microorganisms in water and factors influencing pathogens’ presence, transportation and mobilization, and on the second hand, on the existing optical methods used for monitoring microbiological risks. Finally, this paper proposes new ways of research.

Jung, Aude-Valerie; Le Cann, Pierre; Roig, Benoit; Thomas, Olivier; Baures, Estelle; Thomas, Marie-Florence

2014-01-01

223

Taxonomic profiling and metagenome analysis of a microbial community from a habitat contaminated with industrial discharges.  

PubMed

Industrial units, manufacturing dyes, chemicals,solvents, and xenobiotic compounds, produce liquid and solid wastes, which upon conventional treatment are released in the nearby environment and thus are the major cause of pollution. Soil collected from contaminated Kharicut Canalbank (N 22°57.878?; E 072°38.478?), Ahmeda bad, Gujarat,India was used for metagenomic DNA preparation to study the capabilities of intrinsic microbial community in dealing with xenobiotics. Sequencing of metagenomic DNA on the Genome Sequencer FLX System using titanium chemistry resulted in 409,782 reads accounting for 133,529,997 bases of sequence information. Taxonomic analyses and gene annotations were carried out using the bioinformatics platform Sequence Analysis and Management System for Metagenomic Datasets. Taxonomic profiling was carried out by three different complementary approaches: (a) 16S rDNA, (b) environmental gene tags, and (c) lowest common ancestor. The most abundant phylum and genus were found to be “Proteobacteria”and “Pseudomonas,” respectively. Metagenome reads were mapped on sequenced microbial genomes and the highest numbers of reads were allocated to Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501. Assignment of obtained metagenome reads to Gene Ontology terms, Clusters of Orthologous Groups of protein categories, protein family numbers, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes hits revealed genomic potential of indigenous microbial community. In total, 157,024 reads corresponded to 37,028 different KEGG hits, and amongst them, 11,574 reads corresponded to 131 different enzymes potentially involved in xenobiotic biodegradation. These enzymes were mapped on biodegradation pathways of xenobiotics to elucidate their roles in possible catalytic reactions. Consequently, information obtained from the present study will act as a baseline which, subsequently along with other“-omic” studies, will help in designing future bioremediation strategies in effluent treatment plants and environmental cleanup projects. PMID:23728164

Shah, Varun; Zakrzewski, Martha; Wibberg, Daniel; Eikmeyer, Felix; Schlüter, Andreas; Madamwar, Datta

2013-10-01

224

Environmental Whole-Genome Amplification to Access Microbial Diversity in Contaminated Sediments  

SciTech Connect

Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using ?29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2 percent genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9 percent of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and ''clusters of orthologous groups'' (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

Abulencia, C.B.; Wyborski, D.L.; Garcia, J.; Podar, M.; Chen, W.; Chang, S.H.; Chang, H.W.; Watson, D.; Brodie,E.I.; Hazen, T.C.; Keller, M.

2005-12-10

225

Environmental Whole-Genome Amplification To Access Microbial Populations in Contaminated Sediments  

PubMed Central

Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using ?29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils were made possible. The MDA method was validated by analyzing amplified genome coverage from approximately five Escherichia coli cells, resulting in 99.2% genome coverage. The method was further validated by confirming overall representative species coverage and also an amplification bias when amplifying from a mix of eight known bacterial strains. We extracted DNA from samples with extremely low cell densities from a U.S. Department of Energy contaminated site. After amplification, small-subunit rRNA analysis revealed relatively even distribution of species across several major phyla. Clone libraries were constructed from the amplified gDNA, and a small subset of clones was used for shotgun sequencing. BLAST analysis of the library clone sequences showed that 64.9% of the sequences had significant similarities to known proteins, and “clusters of orthologous groups” (COG) analysis revealed that more than half of the sequences from each library contained sequence similarity to known proteins. The libraries can be readily screened for native genes or any target of interest. Whole-genome amplification of metagenomic DNA from very minute microbial sources, while introducing an amplification bias, will allow access to genomic information that was not previously accessible.

Abulencia, Carl B.; Wyborski, Denise L.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Podar, Mircea; Chen, Wenqiong; Chang, Sherman H.; Chang, Hwai W.; Watson, David; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Keller, Martin

2006-01-01

226

LASER CLEANING OF CONTAMINATED PAINTED SURFACES  

SciTech Connect

Several techniques are available or under development for surface decontamination in nuclear facilities. Each technique has its merits; however, none of them is universally the best choice for all surface decontamination applications. Because of the multitude of factors which influence the environmental and economic aspects of selecting a surface decontamination technique, it is difficult to select the best method in a given situation; an objective basis for comparing techniques is needed. The objective of this project was to develop a software tool for use by personnel selecting a surface decontamination technique. The software incorporates performance data for available surface decontamination techniques. The beta release version of the Surface Decontamination Assistant Software has been completed and has undergone testing at the Energy and Environmental Research Center. Minor modifications to the software were completed, and a final release version of the software is ready to be issued.

Ames A. Grisanti; Charlene R. Crocker; Robert R. Jensen

1999-11-19

227

Management of risk of microbial cross-contamination from uncooked frozen hamburgers by alcohol-based hand sanitizer.  

PubMed

This research was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands contaminated with a nonpathogen surrogate for Escherichia coli O157:H7, where the source of the contamination was frozen hamburger patties. A nonpathogenic nalidixic acid-resistant food-grade strain of Enterobacter aerogenes was used to inoculate frozen hamburger patties composed of 76% lean beef and 24% fat. Thirty-two individuals participated to produce the data used in this study. Each participant handled nine patties at least three times, a sample for microbiological analysis was collected from the surface of one hand, the participant sanitized both hands, and a sample was collected from the other hand. Burger handling created perceptible and visible food debris on the hands of most participants. Computer simulations also were used to perform a variety of risk calculations. The average reduction in bacteria from the use of sanitizer on hands contaminated by frozen burgers containing E. aerogenes was 2.6 +/- 0.7 log CFU per hand. An experiment designed to simultaneously test the effect of sanitizer on E. aerogenes and E. coli O157:H7 also revealed no significant difference in sanitizer effectiveness against the two organisms. The results of the real-world risk estimation calculations (using the actual prevalence and concentration of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef) predict that once in 1 million trials, a single pathogen cell will be transferred to a single lettuce piece. The effectiveness of this sanitizer intervention was similar to that for hand washing and glove use previously reported. The person-to-person microbial reduction variability from sanitizer use is similar to published data for glove use and was less variable than published data on hand washing effectiveness. PMID:17265868

Schaffner, Donald W; Schaffner, Kristin M

2007-01-01

228

Stanols as a tool to track the origin of microbial contamination of oysters, Crassostrea gigas, in shellfish areas.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Runoff of cattle manures (cows, pigs, sheeps) or discharge of effluent from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) into aquatic ecosystems can lead to microbiological contamination of waters and living organisms. In coastal ecosystems and particularly in shellfish harvesting areas, the presence of pathogen microorganisms in waters induces fecal contamination of filter feeding bivalves (oysters, mussels, scallops…), therefore leading to human health risks associated to the consumption of these contaminated organisms. Watershed management plans that aim at limiting these risks require the development of tools able to identify fecal contamination sources. The fecal indicator bacteria used in the regulations to determine fecal contamination are not source specific since they are found in the feces of most warm-blooded animals. Thus, microbiological biomarkers have been developed in association with chemical biomarkers as Microbial Source Tracking (MST) methods. Fecal stanols, by-products of sterols obtained by human and animal microbial gut flora, are found in considerable amounts in feces with different relative proportions depending on their animal or human source. Recently, in association with microbiological biomarkers, the stanol fingerprint of contaminated waters has been successfully used to determine the main source of fecal contamination (cow, pig or human sources) in rural watersheds (Brittany, France). Up to now, the use of the stanol fingerprint to track the fecal contamination in shellfish tissues, especially bivalves, has been limited to the analysis of coprostanol, a stanol commonly associated to human contamination. Therefore, whether the stanol fingerprint can be used as a MST method in bivalves or not is still unknown. The first aim of this study was to compare several organic extraction procedures of stanols in the oyster Crassostrea gigas to determine a reliable method for stanol fingerprint analysis in bivalves. Solvent extraction and purification steps have been carried out with attention as they are critical for stanol quantification. Secondly, the evolution of the stanol fingerprint of oysters with time was evaluated during 6 days by artificially contaminating microcosms with two concentrations of a WWTP effluent. In the microcosms, the fingerprint of stanols as a chemical biomarkers of fecal (human) contamination was compared to counts of Escherichia coli, a commonly used microbial indicator. In association with microbial markers, the method developed from the two previous steps will be applied at the watershed scale in order to identify sources of fecal contamination in Brittany and Normandy (France).

Harrault, Loïc; Jardé, Emilie; Jeanneau, Laurent; Petitjean, Patrice

2013-04-01

229

Microbial community response to petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the unsaturated zone at the experimental field site Vaerløse, Denmark.  

PubMed

This study investigates the influence of petroleum hydrocarbons on a microbial community in the vadose zone under field conditions. An artificial hydrocarbon mixture consisting of volatile and semi-volatile compounds similar to jet-fuel was emplaced in a previously uncontaminated vadose zone in nutrient-poor glacial melt water sand. The experiment included monitoring of microbial parameters and CO(2) concentrations in soil gas over 3 months in and outside the hydrocarbon vapor plume that formed around the buried petroleum. Microbial and chemical analyses of soil and vadose zone samples were performed on samples from cores drilled to 3.3 m depth on three dates and three lateral distances from the buried petroleum mass. Significantly elevated CO(2) concentrations were observed after contamination. Total cell numbers as determined by fluorescence microscopy were strongly correlated with soil organic carbon and nitrogen content but varied little with contamination. Redundancy analysis (RDA) allowed direct analysis of effects of selected environmental variables or the artificial contamination on microbiological parameters. Variation in biomass and CO(2) production was explained by soil parameters, to 46%, and by the duration of contamination, to 39.8%. The microbial community structure was assessed by community level physiological profiles (CLPP) analysis using Biolog(TM) Eco-Plates. In the CLPP data only 35.9% of the variation could be linked to soil parameters and contamination, however, the samples with greatest exposure to hydrocarbons grouped together on RDA plots. It is concluded that, at this nutrient-poor site, the microbial community was dominated by natural heterogeneity and that the influence of petroleum hydrocarbon vapors was weak. PMID:19712308

Kaufmann, Karin; Christophersen, Mette; Buttler, Alexandre; Harms, Hauke; Höhener, Patrick

2004-06-01

230

Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines in dental practices in Hesse, Germany: A cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

The quality of water from dental units is of considerable importance since patients and dental staff are regularly exposed to water and aerosols generated from the dental unit. This study analyzed the microbial quality of water obtained for periodical monitoring from 56 dental units in different dental practices in Hesse. Contamination by Legionella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and increased total colony counts were detected in 27.8%, 3.5%, and 17% of samples. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 accounted for 28% of Legionella isolates. The Legionella concentration was >100 cfu/100 ml in 84% of contaminated samples. Samples collected from an instrument channel were more frequently contaminated by Legionella than those from cup filler (41.7% vs. 18.6%, p = 0.02). After release of these results, decontamination measures were performed in units that had revealed unsatisfactory results. The outcome of the intervention was followed-up by microbiological analysis. At follow-up, 65.2% and 72.7% of waterlines that had previously been contaminated by Legionella or had shown increased total colony counts were free of contamination. Our results show a high rate of contamination of water from dental units in dental practices in Hesse. They highlight the risk of exposure for patients and personnel and the need for effective strategies to reduce microbial contamination.

Hack, Alfons

2013-01-01

231

Microbial contamination of dental unit waterlines in dental practices in Hesse, Germany: A cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

The quality of water from dental units is of considerable importance since patients and dental staff are regularly exposed to water and aerosols generated from the dental unit. This study analyzed the microbial quality of water obtained for periodical monitoring from 56 dental units in different dental practices in Hesse. Contamination by Legionella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and increased total colony counts were detected in 27.8%, 3.5%, and 17% of samples. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 accounted for 28% of Legionella isolates. The Legionella concentration was >100 cfu/100 ml in 84% of contaminated samples. Samples collected from an instrument channel were more frequently contaminated by Legionella than those from cup filler (41.7% vs. 18.6%, p = 0.02). After release of these results, decontamination measures were performed in units that had revealed unsatisfactory results. The outcome of the intervention was followed-up by microbiological analysis. At follow-up, 65.2% and 72.7% of waterlines that had previously been contaminated by Legionella or had shown increased total colony counts were free of contamination. Our results show a high rate of contamination of water from dental units in dental practices in Hesse. They highlight the risk of exposure for patients and personnel and the need for effective strategies to reduce microbial contamination. PMID:24265918

Arvand, Mardjan; Hack, Alfons

2013-03-01

232

SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN NUTRIENT AND MICROBIAL TRANSPORT FROM FEEDLOT SURFACES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrient and microbial transport by runoff may vary at different locations within a beef cattle feedlot. If the areas making the largest contributions to nutrient and microbial transport can be identified, it may be possible to institute site-specific management practices to reduce runoff nutrient and microbial transport. The objectives of this study were to: (1) measure selected feedlot soil properties

J. E. Gilley; E. D. Berry; R. A. Eigenberg; D. B. Mar; B. L. Woodbury

233

Clayey materials in river basin enhancing microbial contamination of river water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral constituents of clay materials may promote interaction, adsorption and attachment of microorganisms, often resulting in biofilms' formation. In this study investigation is made to determine how littoral clayey materials on the shores of a river promote accumulation of bacteria and increase contamination of river water. Clayey samples were collected at various points along the shore of a river around Mondeor in Johannesburg and the mineralogical composition was determined using XRD and XRF. Microorganisms in clay-biofilm and river water were identified by DNA sequencing and plate count. Results showed that total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp. and presumptive indigenous microorganisms attached to littoral clayey materials containing the mineral muscovite (characterising argillaceous soils). Bacteria number on clayey materials was significantly higher than on overlying water especially before rainy season. However a decrease of the number of bacteria in clayey materials concurrent with an increase in the number of suspended bacteria after rain events, was the result of the action of high and fast flows in the basin, eroding the biofilms. Attachment of microorganisms in clayey material as observed in this study could be ascribed to the glue-like aspect of soil (due to muscovite) that facilitates adhesion. It therefore demonstrates the potential of clayey materials to encourage biofilm formation and enhance microbial contamination of river water as shown here.

Fosso-Kankeu, E.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A. F.; Barnard, T. G.

234

Effects of the contamination environment on surfaces and materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In addition to the issues that have always existed, demands are being placed on space systems for increased contamination prevention/control. Optical surveillance sensors are required to detect low radiance targets. This increases the need for very low scatter surfaces in the optical system. Particulate contamination levels typically experienced in today's working environments/habits will most likely compromise these sensors. Contamination (molecular and particulate) can also affect the survivability of space sensors in both the natural and hostile space environments. The effects of di-octyl phthalate (DOP) on sensors are discussed.

Maag, Carl R.

1989-01-01

235

Can volatile organic metabolites be used to simultaneously assess microbial and mite contamination level in cereal grains and coffee beans?  

PubMed

A novel approach based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToFMS) was developed for the simultaneous screening of microbial and mite contamination level in cereals and coffee beans. The proposed approach emerges as a powerful tool for the rapid assessment of the microbial contamination level (ca. 70 min versus ca. 72 to 120 h for bacteria and fungi, respectively, using conventional plate counts), and mite contamination (ca. 70 min versus ca. 24 h). A full-factorial design was performed for optimization of the SPME experimental parameters. The methodology was applied to three types of rice (rough, brown, and white rice), oat, wheat, and green and roasted coffee beans. Simultaneously, microbiological analysis of the samples (total aerobic microorganisms, moulds, and yeasts) was performed by conventional plate counts. A set of 54 volatile markers was selected among all the compounds detected by GC×GC-ToFMS. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied in order to establish a relationship between potential volatile markers and the level of microbial contamination. Methylbenzene, 3-octanone, 2-nonanone, 2-methyl-3-pentanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and 2-hexanone were associated to samples with higher microbial contamination level, especially in rough rice. Moreover, oat exhibited a high GC peak area of 2-hydroxy-6-methylbenzaldehyde, a sexual and alarm pheromone for adult mites, which in the other matrices appeared as a trace component. The number of mites detected in oat grains was correlated to the GC peak area of the pheromone. The HS-SPME/GC×GC-ToFMS methodology can be regarded as the basis for the development of a rapid and versatile method that can be applied in industry to the simultaneous assessment the level of microbiological contamination and for detection of mites in cereals grains and coffee beans. PMID:23613710

Salvador, Angelo C; Baptista, Inês; Barros, António S; Gomes, Newton C M; Cunha, Angela; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Silvia M

2013-01-01

236

[Investigation of nitrogen, phosphorus and microbial contamination in Laolongdong underground river system of Chongqing].  

PubMed

With urbanization, groundwater in China has been widely polluted. Karst groundwater is important in southwest China, and would be difficult to recover once contaminated. NO3(-), PO4(3), NH4(+), total coliform, total E. coli and fecal coliform were chosen as indexes in the study of groundwater of Laolongdong Underground River System in Nanshan Mountain, Chongqing. After a few years of survey, the results showed that NO3(-), NH4(+) and PO4(3-) concentrations in the water were all above the nature value, especially NH4(+) and PO4(3-). The NO3(-) concentration of Guihuawan spring ranged from 19.78-68.55 mg x L(-1), in some months, above the recommended water quality guideline (50 mg x L(-1)) according to Standards for Drinking Water Quality set by World Health Organization. NH4(+) and PO4(3-) concentrations in Laolongdong underground river varied from 2.71-12.92 mg x L(-1) and 0.16-11.22 mg x L(-1). The NO3(-) concentration in Laolongdong underground river was lower than in karst spring; however, the concentrations of NH4(+) and PO4(3-) were higher than in the spring. It seemed that the NO3(-) concentration tended to decrease from 2008 to 2013 in the underground river caused by urbanization, reduction of farmland and reducing environment. However, waste water with a high PO4(3-) concentration led to an increasing trend in the PO4(3-) concentration in underground river. Microbial contamination was extremely serious, and even far exceeded class V of water quality standards of China. For example, the concentration of fecal coliform in the groundwater ranged from 3.4 x 10(4)-3.68 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1). Because of the special hydrogeological structure, karst depressions, skylights and sinkholes can lead pollutants easily to the underground water. Agriculture activity, sewage from towns, enterprises and residential areas were the major sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and microbial contamination. PMID:24946579

Lan, Jia-Cheng; Yang, Ping-Heng; Ren, Kun; Chen, Xue-Bin; Xu, Xin; Hu, Ning

2014-04-01

237

Microbial communities of the Costa Rica Margin: contamination controls and community analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most microbiology work in marine subsurface sediments has been focused in the upper 100-200 meters of sediment, as the switchover from advanced piston coring (APC) to extended core barrel coring (XCB) generally occurs around this depth. This leads to large increases in drilling-induced contamination and interferes in molecular studies. Here, we utilized deep 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA from both the subsurface sediments and the drilling fluid as a strategy for separating sequence information originating from drill-fluid contamination from that which represents the indigenous microbial communities of the sediments. This permitted a characterization of both sediment microbial communities and drilling-fluid communities that was thorough enough to confidently show the differences in the communities. Examination of the results suggests that sequences originating from drilling fluid may be only a minor portion of the data obtained from even the deepest XCB cores examined, and further that the different community composition of the drilling fluid should permit the subtraction of contaminating lineages from the analysis. As part of this work, we also show an extensive community composition analysis of multiple samples from two drilling sites of IODP Expedition 334, on the upper plate of the subduction zone between the Cocos plate and the Caribbean plate, off the Costa Rica Margin. Preliminary analysis of the sequence data suggests that the bacterial communities at both the upper slope site (1379) and the mid-slope site (1378) are dominated by Chloroflexi, Nitrospirae, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Proteobacteria, while Archaeal communities are dominated by the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group. Using universal primers revealed that the relative dominance of Bacteria to Archaea differs between the two sites, and the trends of increasing and decreasing abundance with depth are nearly opposite between the sites. At site 1379, the Bacterial to Archaeal relationship seems to be controlled largely by Nitrospirae and the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group, suggesting a possible connection to nitrogen chemistry. From around 45 meters below seafloor (mbsf) to around 212 mbsf, the two groups have an inverse linear relationship (R2=0.96), and together account for 45×5% of the classified sequences.

Martino, A. J.; Biddle, J.; House, C. H.

2013-12-01

238

Cleaning surface contamination of Langmuir probes using Ultraviolet light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Langmuir probe is a standard instrument for in-situ measurements of the plasma density and temperature, as well as an indicator of spacecraft charging. It is well known that the probe characteristics are distorted by surface contamination effects leading to erroneous measurements of plasma parameters. This not only affects swept Langmuir probes, where this problem is clearly visible in the data with a properly chosen sweep function, but it also modifies the spectrum of fixed-bias probes, where the contamination is not immediately seen in the data. Several approaches to remove the water layer, which causes the contamination, have been undertaken. These include removing the contamination by ion bombardment and internal heating, as well as sweeping at higher rates to bypass the contamination. One method that is frequently used in vacuum systems, and has never been used on a sounding rocket, is using ultra-violet (UV) light to desorb the water layer from the surface. UV light has sufficient energy to also desorb water layers with stronger bonds, and not just the outermost layer that is easily removed via heating. We present here a concept that uses UV light to clear surface contamination on Langmuir probes in sounding rockets.

Barjatya, A.; Steigies, C. T.

2013-12-01

239

Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water of contact lens wearers.  

PubMed

Contact lenses have been widely used as an alternative to spectacles both in developed and developing countries. However, under certain circumstances, adverse responses can occur during contact lens wear and several microorganisms--including bacteria, fungi, and free living amoebae--can cause several eye infections in wearers. Extended wear of contact lenses is the major risk factor of eye infections such as microbial keratitis, besides contaminated contact lens storage case, contaminated lens care solutions, and inaccurate contact lens handling. In this study, we collected contact lens storage case and domestic tap water samples from 50 asymptomatic contact lens wearers. We determined that total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 45 (90 %), Gram negative rod bacteria were isolated in 20 (40 %), Pseudomonas spp. were isolated in 2 (4 %) and fungi were isolated in 18 (36 %) out of 50 contact lens storage cases. Free living amoebae were not detected in investigated contact lens storage cases. At the same time, out of 50, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 34 (68 %), fungi were isolated in 15 (30 %) and free living amoebae were isolated in 15 (30 %) domestic tap water samples. No Gram-negative rod bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in investigated water samples. Two contact lens case samples and two tap water samples were excluded from the analysis for Pseudomonas spp. for technical reasons. According to our findings, inadequate contact lens maintenance during lens wear may result in the contamination of contact lens storage cases. This situation can lead to severe eye infections in contact lens wearers over time. PMID:23064864

Üstüntürk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

2012-11-01

240

Microbial Diversity and Bioremediation of aHydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer (Vega Baja, Puerto Rico)  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater resources hasbecome a major environmental and human health concern in many parts ofthe world. Our objectives were to employ both culture andculture-independent techniques to characterize the dynamics of microbialcommunity structure within a fluidized bed reactor used to bioremediate adiesel-contaminated groundwater in a tropical environment. Under normaloperating conditions, 97 to 99 percent of total hydrocarbons were removedwith only 14 min hydraulic retention time. Over 25 different cultureswere isolated from the treatment unit (96 percent which utilized dieselconstituents as sole carbon source). Approximately 20 percent of theisolates were also capable of complete denitrification to nitrogen gas.Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA demonstrated ample diversity with mostbelonging to the infinity, beta and gamma subdivision of theProteobacteria, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria groups. Moreover, the geneticconstitution of the microbial community was examined at multiple timepoints with a Functional Gene Array (FGA) containing over 12,000 probesfor genes involved in organic degradation and major biogeochemicalcycles. Total community DNA was extracted and amplified using anisothermal phi29 polymerase-based technique, labeled with Cy5 dye, andhybridized to the arrays in 50 percent formimide overnight at 50 degreesC. Cluster analysis revealed comparable profiles over the course oftreatment suggesting the early selection of a very stable microbialcommunity. A total of 270 genes for organic contaminant degradation(including naphthalene, toluene [aerobic and anaerobic], octane,biphenyl, pyrene, xylene, phenanthrene, and benzene); and 333 genesinvolved in metabolic activities (nitrite and nitrous oxide reductases[nirS, nirK, and nosZ], dissimilatory sulfite reductases [dsrAB],potential metal reducing C-type cytochromes, and methane monooxygenase[pmoA]) were repeatedly detected. Genes for degradation of MTBE,nitroaromatics and chlorinated compounds werealso present, indicating abroad catabolic potential of the treatment unit. FGA's demonstrated theearly establishment of a diverse community with concurrent aerobic andanaerobic processes contributing to the bioremediationprocess.

Rodriguez-Martinez, E.M.; Perez, Ernie X.; Schadt, ChristopherW.; Zhou, Jizhong; Massol-Deya, Arturo A.

2006-09-30

241

Aquatic Surface Microlayer Contamination in Chesapeake Bay.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The boundary between the atmosphere and the aquatic environment is an important biological habitat and a collection point for pollutants. The eggs and larvae of many fish and shellfish species float on, or come in contact with, the water surface throughou...

J. T. Hardy B. A. Crecelius L. D. Antrim S. L. Kiesser V. L. Broadhurst

1987-01-01

242

MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE ALPHA CONTAMINATION USING ELECTRET ION CHAMBERS  

SciTech Connect

Electret ion chambers (EICs) are known to be inexpensive, reliable, passive, integrating devices used for measurement of ionizing radiation. Their application for measurement of alpha contamination on surfaces was recently realized. This two-year project deals with the evaluation of electret ion chambers with different types of electrets and chambers for measurement of surface alpha contamination, their demonstration at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, a cost-benefit comparison with the existing methods, and the potential deployment at DOE sites. During the first year (FY98) of the project, evaluation of the EICS was completed. It was observed that EICS could be used for measurement of free release level of alpha contamination for transuranics (100 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} fixed). DOE sites, where demonstration of EIC technology for surface alpha contamination measurements could be performed, were also identified. During FY99, demonstration and deployment of EICS at DOE sites are planned. A cost-benefit analysis of the EIC for surface alpha contamination measurement will also be performed.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01

243

Selection of an Effective Biocide and Toxicity Evaluation for a Specific MEOR (Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery) Microbial Formulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two major environmental impacts associated with microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) are possible contamination of surface and groundwater and contamination of agricultural land. Other potential environmental problems associated with MEOR processes ...

K. L. Chase R. S. Bryant K. M. Bertus A. K. Stepp

1989-01-01

244

Use of Spatial Sampling and Microbial Source-Tracking Tools for Understanding Fecal Contamination at Two Lake Erie Beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Source-tracking tools were used to identify potential sources of fecal contamination at two Lake Erie bathing beaches: an urban beach (Edgewater in Cleveland, Ohio) and a beach in a small city (Lakeshore in Ashtabula, Ohio). These tools included identifying spatial patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations in each area, determining weather patterns that caused elevated E. coli, and applying microbial source tracking (MST) techniques to specific sites. Three MST methods were used during this study: multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indexing of E. coli isolates and the presence of human-specific genetic markers within two types of bacteria, the genus Bacteroides and the species Enterococcus faecium. At Edgewater, sampling for E. coli was done during 2003-05 at bathing-area sites, at nearshore lake sites, and in shallow ground water in foreshore and backshore areas. Spatial sampling at nearshore lake sites showed that fecal contamination was most likely of local origin; E. coli concentrations near the mouths of rivers and outfalls remote to the beach were elevated (greater than 235 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL)) but decreased along transport pathways to the beach. In addition, E. coli concentrations were generally highest in bathing-area samples collected at 1- and 2-foot water depths, midrange at 3-foot depths, and lowest in nearshore lake samples typically collected 150 feet from the shoreline. Elevated E. coli concentrations at bathing-area sites were generally associated with increased wave heights and rainfall, but not always. E. coli concentrations were often elevated in shallow ground-water samples, especially in samples collected less than 10 feet from the edge of water (near foreshore area). The interaction of shallow ground water and waves may be a mechanism of E. coli storage and accumulation in foreshore sands. Infiltration of bird feces through sand with surface water from rainfall and high waves may be concentrating E. coli in shallow ground water in foreshore and backshore sands. At Lakeshore, sampling for E. coli was done at bathing-area, nearshore lake, and parking-lot sites during 2004-05. Low concentrations of E. coli at nearshore lake sites furthest from the shoreline indicated that fecal contamination was most likely of local origin. High concentrations of E. coli in water and bed sediments at several nearshore lake sites showed that contamination was emanating from several points along the shoreline during wet and dry weather, including the boat ramp, an area near the pond drainage, and parking-lot sediments. Physical evidence confirmed that runoff from the parking lot leads to degradation of water quality at the beach. MST samples were collected to help interpret spatial findings and determine whether sources of fecal contamination were from wastewater or bird feces and if a human-specific marker was present. MAR indices were useful in distinguishing between bird feces and wastewater sources because they were about 10 times higher in the latter. The results from MAR indices agreed with results from the two human-specific markers in some but not all of the samples tested. Bacteroides and enterococci human-specific markers were found on one day at Edgewater and two days at Lakeshore. On three days at Edgewater and two days at Lakeshore, the MAR index indicated a mixed source, but neither marker was found in bathing-water samples; this may be because bacterial indicator concentrations were too low to detect a marker. Multiple tools are needed to help identify sources of fecal contamination at coastal beaches. Spatial sampling identified patterns in E. coli concentrations and yielded information on the physical pathways of contamination. MST methods provided information on whether the source was likely of human or nonhuman origin only; however, MST did not provide information on the pathways of contamination.

Francy, Donna S.; Bertke, Erin E.; Finnegan, Dennis P.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Sheets, Rodney A.; Rhoades, John; Stumpe, Lester

2006-01-01

245

Characterization of the Cell Surface Properties of Drinking Water Pathogens by Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon and Electrophoretic Mobility Measurements  

EPA Science Inventory

The surface characteristics of microbial cells directly influence their mobility and behavior within aqueous environments. The cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and electrophoretic mobility (EPM) of microbial cells impact a number of interactions and processes including aggregati...

246

Microbial contamination of the environment after the irradiation of Er:YAG laser in infected root canals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the environment microbial contamination produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation in infected root canals. A total of 20 human anterior teeth were prepared, sterilized and, then, inoculated with a mixture of the following microorganisms: S. Aureus, E. Faecalis, P. Aeruginosa, B. Subtilis and C. Albicans. After the contamination period (28 days), the teeth were irrigated with sterile distilled water or 1% sodium hypochlorite and, then, irradiated with an Er:YAG laser with two different laser parameters: 52 mJ or 110 mJ output at the fiber tip. Eighteen Petri dishes with 20 ml of BHI Agar were used in the study. For each group, 3 plates with BHIA were used for the analysis of the microbial contamination of the environment during the activation of the laser in infected root canals. The plates were positioned in differing distances away from the irradiated tooth (plate 1 distance of 15 cm, plate 2 distance of 50 cm and plate 3 distance of 3 meters). After the analysis of the results, it was observed that the larger microbial contamination occurred in Group 1 (teeth irrigated with sterile distilled water and irradiated with Er:YAG laser with 52 mJ output at the fiber tip), plate 1 (positioned 15 cm away from the irradiated tooth), with values greater than 30 Colony-Forming Units (CFU).

Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanin, Fátima A. A.; Sampaio Moura, Marcelo; Heredia Seixas, Fábio; Rodrigues de Araujo Estrela, Cyntia; Estrela, Carlos; Djalma Pécora, Jesus

2003-06-01

247

A Limited Microbial Consortium Is Responsible for Extended Bioreduction of Uranium in a Contaminated Aquifer ?†  

PubMed Central

Subsurface amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g., emulsified vegetable oil [EVO]) are thought to be a pragmatic alternative to using short-lived, labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within contaminated groundwater systems. Spatial and temporal dynamics of subsurface microbial communities during EVO amendment are unknown and likely differ significantly from those of populations stimulated by soluble substrates, such as ethanol and acetate. In this study, a one-time EVO injection resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations that remained below initial levels for approximately 4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in groundwater bacterial community richness and diversity after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group of taxa rather than a broad community stimulation. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for long-chain fatty acid oxidation to acetate, also dominated after EVO amendment. Acetate and H2 production during EVO degradation appeared to stimulate NO3?, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO42? reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late to comprise over 25% of the total microbial community. Bacterial diversity rebounded after 9 months, although community compositions remained distinct from the preamendment conditions. These results demonstrated that a one-time EVO amendment served as an effective electron donor source for in situ U(VI) bioreduction and that subsurface EVO degradation and metal reduction were likely mediated by successive identifiable guilds of organisms.

Gihring, Thomas M.; Zhang, Gengxin; Brandt, Craig C.; Brooks, Scott C.; Campbell, James H.; Carroll, Susan; Criddle, Craig S.; Green, Stefan J.; Jardine, Phil; Kostka, Joel E.; Lowe, Kenneth; Mehlhorn, Tonia L.; Overholt, Will; Watson, David B.; Yang, Zamin; Wu, Wei-Min; Schadt, Christopher W.

2011-01-01

248

Microbial communities associated with anaerobic benzene degradation in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer.  

PubMed

Microbial community composition associated with benzene oxidation under in situ Fe(III)-reducing conditions in a petroleum-contaminated aquifer located in Bemidji, Minn., was investigated. Community structure associated with benzene degradation was compared to sediment communities that did not anaerobically oxidize benzene which were obtained from two adjacent Fe(III)-reducing sites and from methanogenic and uncontaminated zones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA sequences amplified with bacterial or Geobacteraceae-specific primers indicated significant differences in the composition of the microbial communities at the different sites. Most notable was a selective enrichment of microorganisms in the Geobacter cluster seen in the benzene-degrading sediments. This finding was in accordance with phospholipid fatty acid analysis and most-probable-number-PCR enumeration, which indicated that members of the family Geobacteraceae were more numerous in these sediments. A benzene-oxidizing Fe(III)-reducing enrichment culture was established from benzene-degrading sediments and contained an organism closely related to the uncultivated Geobacter spp. This genus contains the only known organisms that can oxidize aromatic compounds with the reduction of Fe(III). Sequences closely related to the Fe(III) reducer Geothrix fermentans and the aerobe Variovorax paradoxus were also amplified from the benzene-degrading enrichment and were present in the benzene-degrading sediments. However, neither G. fermentans nor V. paradoxus is known to oxidize aromatic compounds with the reduction of Fe(III), and there was no apparent enrichment of these organisms in the benzene-degrading sediments. These results suggest that Geobacter spp. play an important role in the anaerobic oxidation of benzene in the Bemidji aquifer and that molecular community analysis may be a powerful tool for predicting a site's capacity for anaerobic benzene degradation. PMID:10388703

Rooney-Varga, J N; Anderson, R T; Fraga, J L; Ringelberg, D; Lovley, D R

1999-07-01

249

Measuring electric fields from surface contaminants with neutral atoms  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we demonstrate a technique of utilizing magnetically trapped neutral {sup 87}Rb atoms to measure the magnitude and direction of stray electric fields emanating from surface contaminants. We apply an alternating external electric field that adds to (or subtracts from) the stray field in such a way as to resonantly drive the trapped atoms into a mechanical dipole oscillation. The growth rate of the oscillation's amplitude provides information about the magnitude and sign of the stray field gradient. Using this measurement technique, we are able to reconstruct the vector electric field produced by surface contaminants. In addition, we can accurately measure the electric fields generated from adsorbed atoms purposely placed onto the surface and account for their systematic effects, which can plague a precision surface-force measurement. We show that baking the substrate can reduce the electric fields emanating from adsorbate and that the mechanism for reduction is likely surface diffusion, not desorption.

Obrecht, J. M.; Wild, R. J.; Cornell, E. A. [JILA, National Institute of Standards and Technology and University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States) and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0390 (United States)

2007-06-15

250

Molecular-Scale Characterization of Natural Organic Matter From A Uranium Contaminated Aquifer and its Utilization by Native Microbial Communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The availability and form of natural organic matter (NOM) strongly influences rates of microbial metabolism and associated redox processes in subsurface environments. This is an important consideration in metal-contaminated aquifers, such as the DOE's Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site, where naturally occurring suboxic conditions in groundwater may play an important function in controlling uranium mobility, and therefore the long-term stewardship of the site. Currently, the biophysiochemical processes surrounding the nature of the aquifer and its role in controlling the fate and transport of uranium are poorly understood. Using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI), we characterized dissolved organic matter (DOM) chemistry for three surface and groundwater sources at Rifle and assessed microbial utilization in batch incubation experiments. FT-ICR-MS uniquely offers ultrahigh mass measurement accuracy and resolving power for polar organics, in addition to enabling elemental composition assignments of these compounds. Samples were collected from the Colorado River, a shallow groundwater aquifer adjacent to the river, and a spring/seep discharge point upgradient from the aquifer. DOM was concentrated and purified from each source and analyzed using FT-ICR-MS with ESI. We identified between 6,000 and 7,000 formulae at each location, with the river sample having the smallest and the spring sample having the largest number of identified peaks. The groundwater and spring samples contained DOM with a large percentage of formulae containing nitrogen and sulfur species, while the river sample was dominated by carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen species. Less than 38% of the formulae were shared between any two samples, indicating a significant level of uniqueness across the samples. Unsaturated hydrocarbons, cellulose, and lipids were rapidly utilized by indigenous bacteria during a 24-day incubation period, and presumably transformed to more recalcitrant lignins and protein-type molecules. These findings indicate that FT-ICR-MS with ESI is an effective method for characterizing molecular-scale differences in DOM from complex environments. We also provide preliminary evidence that certain DOM fractions are more efficiently utilized by indigenous microbial communities and likely play an important role in controlling reducing conditions in heterogeneous subsurface environments.

Mouser, P. J.; Wilkins, M. J.; Williams, K. H.; Smith, D. F.; Paša-Toli?, L.

2011-12-01

251

Evaluation of the vitreous microbial contamination rate in office-based three-port microincision vitrectomy surgery using Retrector technology  

PubMed Central

Background To perform a microbiological contamination analysis of the vitreous during office-based micro-incision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) assessing whether the bacteria detected correlated with patient's ocular conjunctival flora. Methods This is a prospective, interventional, nonrandomized case series of patients undergoing office-based MIVS, anti-VEGF, and dexamethasone intravitreal injections (triple therapy) for the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic macular edema (DME). All patients were operated at a small procedure room in an ambulatory clinic of the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Conjunctival samples were done before placing the sclerotomies. The MIVS was done with a 23-gauge retractable vitrector, a 27-gauge infusion line, and a 29-gauge chandelier. Undiluted and diluted vitreous were collected for aerobic, anaerobic and fungal cultures. Outcomes measured were bacterial species identification within samples collected from the conjunctiva and the vitreous. Results Thirty-seven patients (37 eyes) were recruited and completed over 17 months of follow-up. Twenty-eight had wet AMD and nine had DME. There were 13 men and 24 women, with a mean age of 78 years. Eighteen patients (46%) had culture positive conjunctival flora. Twenty-six bacterial colonies were tabulated in total from the conjunctival swabs. All bacteria detected were gram-positive bacteria (100%), most commonly: Staphylococcus epidermitis in 11 (42%) and Corynebacterium sp. in 6 (23%). Only 1/18 patients had more than 3 species isolated, 6/18 patients had 2 species and 11/18 patients had 1 species identified on the conjunctival swab. Only 1 of the 37 undiluted midvitreous samples was culture positive, equating to a contamination rate of 2.7%. None of the diluted vitreous samples were culture positive. All cultures were negative for fungus. No serious postoperative complications occurred, including bacterial endophthalmitis, choroidal detachment, and retinal detachment. Conclusion This preliminary study of office-based MIVS gives us insights on the ocular surface microbial profile and vitreous contamination rate of performing such procedures outside the OR-controlled environment. Our initial results seem to indicate that there is little risk of bacterial translocation and contamination from the conjunctiva into the vitreous. Therefore, if endophthalmitis occurs post-operatively, the source may likely arise after the procedure. Larger studies are needed to confirm our data.

2014-01-01

252

Explosive Contamination from Substrate Surfaces: Differences and Similarities in Contamination Techniques using RDX and C-4  

SciTech Connect

The amount of time that an explosive is present on the surface of a material is dependent upon the original amount of explosive on the surface, temperature, humidity, rain, etc. This laboratory study focused on looking at similarities and differences in three different surface contamination techniques that are used when performance testing explosive trace detection equipment in an attempt to determine how effective the techniques are at replicating actual field samples. The three techniques used were dry transfer deposition of solutions using the Transportation Security Laboratory (TSL) patented dry transfer techniques (US patent 6470730), direct deposition of explosive standards, and fingerprinting of actual explosives. Explosives were deposited on the surface of one of five substrates using one of the three different deposition techniques. The process was repeated for each surface type using each contamination technique. The surface types used were: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that found on canvas or denim, suede leather such as might be found on jackets, purses, or shoes, and metal obtained from a car hood at a junk yard. The samples were not pre-cleaned prior to testing and contained sizing agents, and in the case of the metal, oil and dirt. The substrates were photographed using a Zeiss Discover V12 stereoscope with Axiocam ICc1 3 megapixel digital camera to determine the difference in the crystalline structure and surface contamination in an attempt to determine differences and similarities associated with current contamination techniques.

C.J. Miller; T.S. Yoder

2010-06-01

253

Screening Surface Contamination with BetaCage  

SciTech Connect

Existing screening facilities are insufficiently sensitive to meet the needs of rare-event experiments for low-energy electron emitters and alpha-decaying isotopes. To provide such screening, the BetaCage will be a low-background, atmospheric-pressure neon drift chamber with unprecedented sensitivity to emitters of low-energy electrons and alpha particles. Minimization of the detector mass and use of radiopure materials reduce background events. The chamber design accepts nearly all alphas and low-energy electrons from the sample surface while allowing excellent rejection of residual backgrounds. A non-radiopure prototype is under construction to test the design. The BetaCage will provide new infrastructure for rare-event science as well as for a wider community that uses radioactive screening for areas including archaeology, biology, climatology, environmental science, geology, planetary science, and integrated-circuit quality control.

Schnee, R. W.; Grant, D. R.; Poinar, K. [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Ahmed, Z.; Golwala, S. R. [Department of Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2007-03-28

254

Effect of organic contamination upon microbial distributions and heterotrophic uptake in a Cape Cod, Mass., aquifer.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial abundance, distribution, and heterotrophic uptake in a freshwater aquifer contaminated by treated sewage were determined from analyses of groundwater and sediment-core samples. The number of free-living (unattached) bacteria in contaminated groundwater declined steadily with increasing distance from the source of sewage infiltration, from 1.94 (+/- 0.20) X 10(6) ml-1 at 0.21 km to 0.25 (+/- 0.02) X 10(6) ml-1 at 0.97 km. Bacterial abundance in groundwater sampled at 0.31 km correlated strongly with specific conductance and increased sharply from 4.0 (+/- 0.3) X 10(4) ml-1 at a depth of 6 m to 1.58 (+/- 0.12) X 10(6) ml-1 at 14 m, then declined at 20 and 31 m to 1.29 (+/- 0.12) X 10(6) and 0.96 (+/- 0.12) X 10(6) ml-1, respectively. A majority of the bacteria in contaminated and uncontaminated zones of the aquifer were bound to the surfaces of particulates, less than 60 micron in diameter. The glucose uptake rate, assayed at in situ and 5 microM concentrations, declined steadily in contaminated groundwater sampled along a transect. A preparative wet-sieving technique for use in processing core samples for bacterial enumeration is described and evaluated. Images

Harvey, R W; Smith, R L; George, L

1984-01-01

255

Microbial community gene expression in ocean surface waters  

PubMed Central

Metagenomics is expanding our knowledge of the gene content, functional significance, and genetic variability in natural microbial communities. Still, there exists limited information concerning the regulation and dynamics of genes in the environment. We report here global analysis of expressed genes in a naturally occurring microbial community. We first adapted RNA amplification technologies to produce large amounts of cDNA from small quantities of total microbial community RNA. The fidelity of the RNA amplification procedure was validated with Prochlorococcus cultures and then applied to a microbial assemblage collected in the oligotrophic Pacific Ocean. Microbial community cDNAs were analyzed by pyrosequencing and compared with microbial community genomic DNA sequences determined from the same sample. Pyrosequencing-based estimates of microbial community gene expression compared favorably to independent assessments of individual gene expression using quantitative PCR. Genes associated with key metabolic pathways in open ocean microbial species—including genes involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation, and nitrogen acquisition—and a number of genes encoding hypothetical proteins were highly represented in the cDNA pool. Genes present in the variable regions of Prochlorococcus genomes were among the most highly expressed, suggesting these encode proteins central to cellular processes in specific genotypes. Although many transcripts detected were highly similar to genes previously detected in ocean metagenomic surveys, a significant fraction (?50%) were unique. Thus, microbial community transcriptomic analyses revealed not only indigenous gene- and taxon-specific expression patterns but also gene categories undetected in previous DNA-based metagenomic surveys.

Frias-Lopez, Jorge; Shi, Yanmei; Tyson, Gene W.; Coleman, Maureen L.; Schuster, Stephan C.; Chisholm, Sallie W.; DeLong, Edward F.

2008-01-01

256

Electrical conductivity and emerging contaminant as markers of surface freshwater contamination by wastewater.  

PubMed

The use of chemical markers of undoubted anthropogenic sources for surface freshwater contamination by wastewaters was evaluated employing correlations observed between measured physico-chemical parameters as the electrical conductivity and the concentration of different emerging organic compounds. During the period from April/2011 to April/2012 spatial-temporal variations and contamination patterns of two rivers (Piraí and Jundiaí rivers), São Paulo state, Brazil were evaluated. Seven physico-chemical parameters and concentrations of different classes of emerging contaminants were determined in samples collected in seven field campaigns. The high linear correlation coefficients obtained for the compounds diclofenac (r=0.9085), propanolol (r=0.8994), ibuprofen (r=0.8720) and atenolol (r=0.7811) with electrical conductivity, also corroborated by principal component analysis (PCA), point to the potential use of these compounds as markers of investigated surface water contamination by wastewaters. Due to specific inputs, these environmental markers showed very good effectiveness for the identification and differentiation of water body contamination by discharges of treated and untreated urban sewage. PMID:24686141

de Sousa, Diana Nara Ribeiro; Mozeto, Antonio Aparecido; Carneiro, Renato Lajarim; Fadini, Pedro Sergio

2014-06-15

257

RESUSPENSION OF PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATED LAND SURFACES: METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

A literature review is presented in a discussion of the relevance of meteorological factors on the resuspension of plutonium from contaminated land surfaces. The physical processes of resuspension based on soil erosion work are described. Some of the models developed to simulate ...

258

An Exercise in Evaluating the Contamination Potential of Surface Impoundments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a laboratory procedure which enables students to evaluate the contamination potential of surface impoundments and apply basic principles of hydrogeology to the land disposal of waste material. Includes a list of materials needed and directions for the instructor. (Author/DC)

Tinker, John R., Jr.

1982-01-01

259

Effects of petroleum contamination on soil microbial numbers, metabolic activity and urease activity.  

PubMed

The influence of petroleum contamination on soil microbial activities was investigated in 13 soil samples from sites around an injection water well (Iw-1, 2, 3, 4) (total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH): 7.5-78 mg kg(-1)), an oil production well (Op-1, 2, 3, 4, 5) (TPH: 149-1110 mg kg(-1)), and an oil spill accident well (Os-1, 2, 3, 4) (TPH: 4500-34600 mg kg(-1)). The growth rate constant (?) of glucose stimulated organisms, determined by microcalorimetry, was higher in Iw soil samples than in Op and Os samples. Total cultivable bacteria and fungi and urease activity also decreased with increasing concentration of TPH. Total heat produced demonstrated that TPH at concentrations less than about 1 g kg(-1) soil stimulated anaerobic respiration. A positive correlation between TPH and soil organic matter (OM) and stimulation of fungi-bacteria-urease at low TPH doses suggested that TPH is bound to soil OM and slowly metabolized in Iw soils during OM consumption. These methods can be used to evaluate the potential of polluted soils to carry out self-bioremediation by metabolizing TPH. PMID:22336736

Guo, Huan; Yao, Jun; Cai, Minmin; Qian, Yiguang; Guo, Yue; Richnow, Hans H; Blake, Ruth E; Doni, Serena; Ceccanti, Brunello

2012-06-01

260

Microbially assisted phytoremediation approaches for two multi-element contaminated sites.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation is an environmental friendly, cost-effective technology for a soft restoration of abandoned mine sites. The grasses Agrostis capillaris, Deschampsia flexuosa and Festuca rubra, and the annual herb Helianthus annuus were combined with microbial consortia in pot experiments on multi-metal polluted substrates collected at a former uranium mine near Ronneburg, Germany, and a historic copper mine in Kopparberg, Sweden, to test for phytoextraction versus phytostabilization abilities. Metal uptake into plant biomass was evaluated to identify optimal plant-microbe combinations for each substrate. Metal bioavailability was found to be plant species and element specific, and influenced by the applied bacterial consortia of 10 strains, each isolated from the same soil to which it was applied. H. annuus showed high extraction capacity for several metals on the German soil independent of inoculation. Our study could also show a significant enhancement of extraction for F. rubra and A. capillaris when combined with the bacterial consortium, although usually grasses are considered metal excluder species. On the Swedish mixed substrate, due to its toxicity, with 30 % bark compost, A. capillaris inoculated with the respective consortium was able to extract multi-metal contaminants. PMID:24081921

Langella, Francesca; Grawunder, Anja; Stark, Romy; Weist, Aileen; Merten, Dirk; Haferburg, Götz; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

2014-06-01

261

On-Line Detection of Microbial Contaminations in Animal Cell Reactor Cultures Using an Electronic Nose Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic nose (EN) device was used to detect microbial and viral contaminations in a variety of animal cell culture systems.\\u000a The emission of volatile components from the cultures accumulated in the bioreactor headspace, was sampled and subsequently\\u000a analysed by the EN device. The EN, which was equipped with an array of 17 chemical gas sensors of varying selectivity towards

Karl Kreij; Carl-Fredrik Mandenius; João J. Clemente; António Eduardo Cunha; Sandra M. S. Monteiro; Manuel J. T. Carrondo; Friedemann Hesse; Maria Milagros Bassani de los Molinas; Roland Wagner; Otto-Wilhelm Merten; Cécile Gény-Fiamma; Wolfgang Leger; Herbert Wiesinger-Mayr; Dethard Müller; Hermann Katinger; Per Mårtensson; Thomas Bachinger; Jan Mitrovics

2005-01-01

262

Total viable counts, ATP, and endotoxin levels as potential markers of microbial contamination of dental unit water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine if either ATP or endotoxin concentrations in water supplied by dental unit water systems (DUWS) correlated with total viable counts (TVC), and therefore could be used as a rapid, chairside measure of levels of microbial contamination.Design A prospective trial.Method Fifty-seven water samples were taken from the 'triple spray', air rotor and source water supplies from 25 dental

M R Fulford; M V Martin; P D Marsh; J T Walker

2004-01-01

263

Factors influencing the transfer of oil from contaminated surfaces to surface sample media  

SciTech Connect

This study examines the effect of surface concentration, contact time, and contact pressure on the transfer (collection) of oil from a contaminated surface to wipe sample media as described by the Washburn equation and contributes to the understanding of the transfer mechanisms. The mass of oil transferred from a contaminated work surface to a clean surface was found to be controlled by several factors including: the mass of contaminant on the surface (concentration); the length of time the clean surface is in contact with the contaminated surface (contact time); and the force with which the clean surface contacts the contaminated surface (contact pressure). The current lack of knowledge with respect to the influence of sampling parameters on the transfer of a liquid contaminant to surface sample media make the interpretation of surface sample results difficult at best. A factorial study was designed in which the effect of three surface concentrations, three contact times, and three contact pressures were investigated. This study demonstrated that with increasing either the contact time or contact pressure the mass of oil transferred to the porous sample media (filter papers) increased until a plateau in transfer was reached. A maximum contact time and pressure were found at which there was no longer a statistically significant increase in the mass of oil transferred to the porous sample media as either of these two parameters were increased. These results indicate that contact time and pressure have a significant effect on the transfer of oil to porous sample media. In addition, the composition of the sample media is an equally important factor in oil transfer. Therefore, when using surface sampling methods to determine the mass of contaminant on a work surface the composition of the collection media as well as the contact time and contact pressure must be specified.

McArthur, B.R.

1992-01-01

264

IDENTIFYING THE SIGNATURE OF THE NATURAL ATTENUATION IN THE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER USING MOLECULAR METHODS AND &LDQUO;BUG TRAPS&RDQUO;  

EPA Science Inventory

These related projects have combined biological molecular methods and a novel passive sampling system (bio-trap) to produce a technology that will allow the active component of any contaminated groundwater microbial community to be investigated. Conventional sampling methods c...

265

Microbial Surfaces and their Effects on Carbonate Mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration, the underground storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), will be an essential component of climate change mitigation. Carbonate minerals are a promising form of stable CO2 storage, but their geologic formation is slow. Many microbes can increase the rate of carbonate mineral formation; however the mechanisms of such mineralization are largely unknown. Hypothesized mechanisms include metabolic processes that alter pH and supersaturation, as well as cell surface properties that induce mineral nucleation. This work systematically investigates these mechanisms by allowing calcium carbonate (CaCO3) to form in the presence or absence of microbes with various surfaces features included Escherichia coli, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Caulobacter vibrioides, and Lysinibacilllus sphaericus. Surprisingly, formation of stable crystalline CaCO3 was accelerated by the presence of all microbes relative to abiotic solutions. This rate acceleration also occurred for metabolically inactive bacteria, indicating that metabolic activity was not the operating mechanism. Rather, since the CaCO3 crystals increased in number as the cell density increased, these results indicate that many bacterial species accelerate the nucleation of CaCO3 crystals. To understand the role of specific biomolecules on nucleation, we used genetic mutants with altered lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and crystalline surface layer proteins (S-layers). Bacterial surface charge and cation binding was assessed using zeta potential measurements and correlated to the bacterial surface chemistry and biomineralization experiments with varying Ca2+ concentrations. From these results, we postulate that the S-layer surfaces can selectively attract Ca2+ ions, serving as nucleation sites for CaCO3, thereby accelerating crystal formation. These observations provide substantive evidence for a non-specific nucleation mechanism, and stress the importance of microbes, even dead ones, on the rate of formation of carbonate minerals. This work also indicates that additional microbial engineering specifically targeted to S-layer proteins could optimize these interactions and be used to implement the sequestration of CO2 as stable mineral carbonates on an accelerated timescale.

Cappuccio, J. A.; Pillar, V. D.; Lui, G. V.; Ajo-Franklin, C.

2011-12-01

266

Effect of two aerosolization methods on the release of fungal propagules from a contaminated agar surface.  

PubMed

The effect of perpendicular and swirling aerozolization methods on the release of fungal fragments and spores from agar surface was studied. Three fungal species (Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Penicillium chrysogenum) were selected for the tests as they commonly occur indoors, create different hyphae structure when they grow on surfaces, and have different spore shapes, aerodynamic sizes, and formation mechanisms. As the tested surface, Petri dishes filled with malt extract agar, separately inoculated with fungal strains and cultivated to obtain an abundant and even growth were used. For the purpose of these experiments, a new aerosolization chamber was built in which HEPA-filtered air stream responsible for fungal propagule release was either perpendicularly directed towards the contaminated surface or set in swirling motion above it. The experiments were conducted at 2 air velocities, typical for outdoor environment (11.6 m/s) and ventilation ducts (29.1 m/s). Concentrations and size distributions of released fragments and spores were measured using an optical particle counter. The results showed that the propagule release depends on the direction (swirling motion was able to release up to 3.4 × 10(5) fragments and 3 × 10(5) spores from 1 cm( 2) of contaminated surface, i.e. significantly more than the perpendicularly directed air stream), velocity (the higher the swirling air velocity applied, the higher the number of released propagules) of the air stream above the contaminated surface, and varied due to the taxonomical species origin (the higher number of particulates was released by Aspergillus colonies). Hence, the efficient control of both microbial fragments and spores, not only in the air, but also in their source should be an integral part of the quality control procedure. PMID:22742802

Górny, Rafa? L; ?awniczek-Wa?czyk, Anna

2012-01-01

267

Detection of shifts in microbial community structure and diversity in soil caused by copper contamination using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) was used for assessing the effect of copper contamination on the microbial community in soil. ARDRA is a DNA fingerprinting technique based on PCR amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA using primers for conserved regions, followed by restriction enzyme digestions and agarose gel electrophoresis. This results in distinguishable fingerprints for different bacterial species. Microbial community

Eric Smit; Paula Leeflang; Karel Wernars

1997-01-01

268

A novel automated waterline cleaning system that facilitates effective and consistent control of microbial biofilm contamination of dental chair unit waterlines: A one-year study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial contamination of dental chair unit (DCU) output water caused by biofilm growth in dental unit waterlines (DUWs) is a universal problem and a potentially significant source of cross-infection. The microbial quality of output water from a Planmeca Compact i DCU equipped with the novel Water Management System (WMS), an integrated and automated DUW cleaning system, was investigated over a

M. J. O’Donnell; A. C. Shore; D. C. Coleman

2006-01-01

269

Surface Contaminants Inhibit Osseointegration in a Novel Murine Model  

PubMed Central

Surface contaminants, such as bacterial debris and manufacturing residues, may remain on orthopaedic implants after sterilization procedures and affect osseointegration. The goals of this study were to develop a murine model of osseointegration in order to determine whether removing surface contaminants enhances osseointegration. To develop the murine model, titanium alloy implants were implanted into a unicortical pilot hole in the mid-diaphysis of the femur and osseointegration was measured over a five week time course. Histology, backscatter scanning electron microscopy and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy showed areas of bone in intimate physical contact with the implant, confirming osseointegration. Histomorphometric quantification of bone-to-implant contact and peri-implant bone and biomechanical pullout quantification of ultimate force, stiffness and work to failure increased significantly over time, also demonstrating successful osseointegration. We also found that a rigorous cleaning procedure significantly enhances bone-to-implant contact and biomechanical pullout measures by two-fold compared with implants that were autoclaved, as recommended by the manufacturer. The most likely interpretation of these results is that surface contaminants inhibit osseointegration. The results of this study justify the need for the development of better detection and removal techniques for contaminants on orthopaedic implants and other medical devices.

Bonsignore, Lindsay A.; Colbrunn, Robb W.; Tatro, Joscelyn M.; Messerschmitt, Patrick J.; Hernandez, Christopher J.; Goldberg, Victor M.; Stewart, Matthew C.; Greenfield, Edward M.

2011-01-01

270

X-ray fluorescence surface contaminant analyzer: A feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bonding of liner material to the inner metal surfaces of solid rocket booster cases is adversely affected by minute amounts of impurities on the metal surface. Suitable non-destructive methods currently used for detecting these surface contaminants do not provide the means of identifying their elemental composition. The feasibility of using isotopic source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence as a possible technique for elemental analysis of such contaminants is investigated. A survey is made of the elemental compositions of both D-6ac steel, a common construction material for the booster cases, and Conoco HD-2 grease, a common surface contamination. Source and detector choices that maximize signal to noise ratio in a Recessed Source Geometry are made. A Monte Carlo simulation is then made of the optimized device incorporating the latest available X-ray constants at the energy of the chosen source to determine the device's response to a D-6ac steel surface contained with Conoco HD-2 grease.

Eldridge, Hudson B.

1988-01-01

271

Water sources and their protection from the impact of microbial contamination in rural areas of Beijing, China.  

PubMed

Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drinking water was serious in areas north of Beijing, with the total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in some water samples reaching 88,000 CFU/mL, 1,600 MPN/100 mL and 1,600 MPN/100 mL, respectively. Water source types, well depth, whether the well was adequately sealed and housed, and whether wellhead is above or below ground were the main factors influencing bacterial contamination levels in drinking water. The bacterial contamination was serious in the water of shallow wells and wells that were not closed, had no well housing or had a wellhead below ground level. The contamination sources around wells, including village dry toilets and livestock farms, were well correlated with bacterial contamination. Total bacterial counts were affected by proximity to sewage ditches and polluting industries, however, proximity to landfills did not influence the microbial indicators. PMID:23462436

Ye, Bixiong; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Yonghua; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Hairong

2013-03-01

272

Microbial Community Structure Responses to Long-Term Acid-Mine Drainage Contamination in a Coastal Salt Marsh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constructed wetlands for in situ bioremediation of metals and acid mine drainage (AMD) require the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to sequester dissolved metals into metal-sulfide precipitates (e.g. Webb et al. 1998). Factors such as low pH and high dissolved [Cu] will constrain the growth of SRB (Sani et al. 2001). Unintentional stimulation of the growth of sulfuric acid-generating microbes, such as Thiomicrospira, would also decrease bioremediation efficiency. Few studies of natural wetlands under long-term forcing by AMD and metals have been performed. We characterized the microbial diversity, mineralogy and geochemistry of a contaminated salt marsh at the Richmond Field Station along the East San Francisco Bay. For over 50 years, this marsh has received pH ˜2, metal-rich groundwaters from near-surface pyrite tailings and paint and explosives manufacturers. Sediment cores (30-40 cm long) were taken from contaminated sites with pH ˜2 and ˜8. Whole-sediment analyses showed As, Cd, Cu, Se, Zn, and Pb are present at 100s of ppm (URS Corp. 2001). ICP-AES analyses of pore waters showed 10-50 ppb As. All cores contained fine-grained black muds and exhibited a noticeable sulfide odor. Transmission electron microscope studies of marsh sediments support the sequestration of metals into aggregates of nanocrystalline sulfides. Isotopic analyses of pore-water sulfate taken at several depths within cores of AMD pool (SMR-1) and tidal slough sediments (SM148-1) at pHs 2-3 and 7-8, respectively, all yielded significant negative ? 34S values (-25 to -35 ‰ ) consistent with bacterial sulfate reduction. However, values of the upper 10 cm of SMR-1 are roughly 10 ‰ heavier than seawater and support a significant contribution of dissolved sulfate from direct oxidation of pyrite tailings. 16S gene clone libraries revealed significantly different microbial community structures in cores SMR-1 and SM148-1. Roughly 40% of the library from SMR-1 consisted of Thiomicrospira denitrificans (22%) and several other bacteria capable of oxidizing reduced sulfur species (18%). SRB were present (15%), however, and probably reflect contributions from core depths at which acidity is attenuated by tidal flushing. In contrast, SM148-1 contained ˜25% SRB, and aero- and halo-tolerant SRB were enriched from this core by cultivation. The dominance of Thiomicrospira and other sulfur-/sulfide-oxidizing bacteria, in combination with isotopic results, showed microbially-mediated pyrite oxidation in SMR-1. In contrast, Desulfobacterium spp. dominated the community in SM148-1 and reduced dissolved metals to near or below EPA action levels. References: Webb et al. 1998, J. Appl. Microbio., 84, 240-248; Sani et al. 2001, Applied Env. Microbio., 67, 4765-4772; URS Corp. 2001, Report 51.09967067.00.

Moreau, J. W.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Banfield, J. F.

2004-12-01

273

Erosion and contamination of the surface of Vesta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The data supplied by the Dawn mission revealed us that Vesta is a small world whose surface underwent a complex and violent evolution. Moreover, the ancient age of Vesta revealed by the HED (Howardite, Eucrite, Diogenite) meteorites indicates that Vesta crossed the whole history of the Solar System and suggests that its surface should have undergone an intense reprocessing due to the interplay of erosion, ejecta blanketing and contamination by exogenous material. Here we discuss how these processes could have affected the surface of Vesta during the different phases of the evolution of the Solar System.

Turrini, D.

2012-09-01

274

Characterisation of CFRP surface contamination by laser induced fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) in aeronautics has been increasing. The CFRP elements are joint using rivets and adhesive bonding. The reliability of the bonding limits the use of adhesive bonding for primary aircraft structures, therefore it is important to assess the bond quality. The performance of adhesive bonds depends on the physico-chemical properties of the adhered surfaces. This research is focused on characterization of surfaces before bonding. In-situ examination of large surface materials, determine the group of methods that are preferred. The analytical methods should be non-destructive, enabling large surface analysis in relatively short time. In this work a spectroscopic method was tested that can be potentially applied for surface analysis. Four cases of surface condition were investigated that can be encountered either in the manufacturing process or during aircraft service. The first case is related to contamination of CFRP surface with hydraulic fluid. This fluid reacts with water forming a phosphoric acid that can etch the CFRP. Second considered case was related to silicone-based release agent contamination. These agents are used during the moulding process of composite panels. Third case involved moisture content in CFRP. Moisture content lowers the adhesion quality and leads to reduced performance of CFRP resulting in reduced performance of the adhesive bond. The last case concentrated on heat damage of CFRP. It was shown that laser induced fluorescence method can be useful for non-destructive evaluation of CFRP surface and some of the investigated contaminants can be easily detected.

Malinowski, Pawel H.; Sawczak, Miroslaw; Wandowski, Tomasz; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw M.; Cenian, Adam

2014-03-01

275

Influence of microbial transport processes on in-situ biodegradation of ground-water contaminants. Technical progress report (Final)  

SciTech Connect

A fundamental understanding of both transport and transformation processes is essential to the development of technically sound remediation strategies for groundwater contamination. Accordingly, the goal of the project is to enhance the rate and efficiency of in situ microbial degradation of subsurface contaminants through an improved understanding of processes which govern transport, attachment, growth and activity of microorganisms in porous media. The report is organized into the following sections: Transport Processes: contains experimental methods and results which document the effect of biofilm accumulation on the transport of water, nutrients and suspended cells in one-dimensional porous media flow reactions (objective 1); Effects of Cell Starvation and Motility: presents experimental procedures and results describing transport characteristics of starved vs. growing and motile vs. nonmotile cells in porous media (objective 2); Modeling Microbial Transport and Activity: describes development of a mathematical model which simulates contaminant biodegradation/biosorption, nutrient depletion and biomass accumulation in one-dimensional porous media flow (objective 3); Bioremediation Guidelines: summarizes relevant information in the form of guidelines useful to decision makers concerned with bioremediation of contaminated water and soil (objective 4).

Cunningham, A.B.; Characklis, W.G.

1991-01-01

276

Reactor surface contamination stabilization. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated surfaces, such as the face of a nuclear reactor, need to be stabilized (fixed) to avoid airborne contamination during decontamination and decommissioning activities, and to prepare for interim safe storage. The traditional (baseline) method of fixing the contamination has been to spray a coating on the surfaces, but ensuring complete coverage over complex shapes, such as nozzles and hoses, is difficult. The Hanford Site C Reactor Technology Demonstration Group demonstrated innovative technologies to assess stabilization properties of various coatings and to achieve complete coverage of complex surfaces on the reactor face. This demonstration was conducted in two phases: the first phase consisted of a series of laboratory assessments of various stabilization coatings on metal coupons. For the second phase, coatings that passed the laboratory tests were applied to the front face of the C Reactor and evaluated. The baseline coating (Rust-Oleum No. 769) and one of the innovative technologies did not completely cover nozzle assemblies on the reactor face, the most critical of the second-phase evaluation criteria. However, one of the innovative coating systems, consisting of a base layer of foam covered by an outer layer of a polymeric film, was successful. The baseline technology would cost approximately 33% as much as the innovative technology cost of $64,000 to stabilize an entire reactor face (196 m{sup 2} or 2116 ft{sup 2}) with 2,004 nozzle assemblies, but the baseline system failed to provide complete surface coverage.

NONE

1998-11-01

277

Use of Microarray-based Genomic Technologies for Assessing Microbial Community Composition and Dynamics in Contaminated Groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To effectively monitor microbial populations involved in various important processes, a 50-mer-based oligonucleotide microarray was developed based on known genes and pathways involved in: biodegradation, metal resistance and reduction, denitrification, nitrification, nitrogen fixation, methane oxidation, methanogenesis, carbon polymer decomposition, and sulfate reduction. This array contains approx 2000 unique and group-specific probes with <85% similarity to their non-target sequences. Based on artificial probes, our results showed that at hybridization conditions of 50oC and 50% formamide, the 50-mer microarray hybridization can differentiate sequences having <88% similarity. Specificity tests with representative pure cultures indicated that the designed probes on the arrays appeared to be specific to their corresponding target genes. Detection limits were about 5-10ng genomic DNA in the absence of background DNA, and 50-100ng ( ˜1.3 ¡A107 cells) in the presence background DNA. Strong linear relationships between signal intensity and target DNA and RNA concentration were observed (r2 = 0.95-0.99). Real-time PCR analysis of 12 representative genes was consistent with microarray-based quantification (r2 = 0.95). Also novel approaches were developed and used to increase microarray detection sensitivity of both DNA and mRNA. Application of these array-based technologies to analyze microbial communities in contaminated groundwaters from the US Department of Energy¡_s Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research Program (NABIR) Field Research Center at Oak Ridge, TN, demonstrated that it is feasible to biostimulate the indigenous microbial populations for contaminant remediation but the process could be very complicated due to highly spatial heterogeneous microbial distributions. Based on these results, more comprehensive functional gene arrays containing ˜27,000 probes from the genes important for biogeochemical cycling of C, N, S, P, metal resistance and contaminant degradation have been designed and constructed. This is the most comprehensive array available so far for environmental studies and will also be useful for biogeochemistry studies in general.

Zhou, J.; Schadt, C.; Gentry, T.; He, Z.; Wu, L.; Rhee, S.; Liu, X.; Liebich, J.; Chong, S.; Yang, Z.; Gao, H.

2004-12-01

278

Utility of Microbial Source-Tracking Markers for Assessing Fecal Contamination in the Portage River Watershed, Northwestern Ohio, 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An influx of concentrated animal feeding operations in northwest Ohio has prompted local agencies to examine the effects of these industrial farms on water quality in the upper Portage River watershed. The utility of microbial source-tracking (MST) tools as a means of characterizing sources of fecal contamination in the watershed was evaluated. From 2007 to 2008, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey, Bowling Green State University, and the Wood County Health Department collected and analyzed 17 environmental samples and 13 fecal source samples for Bacteroides-based host-associated DNA markers. At many of the environmental sites tested, MST marker results corroborated the presumptive fecal contamination sources. Results from this demonstration study support the utility of using MST with host-specific molecular markers to characterize the sources of fecal contamination in the Portage River watershed.

Kephart, Christopher M.; Bushon, Rebecca N.

2010-01-01

279

Microbial Contamination of Date Rutab Collected from the Markets of Al-Hofuf City in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The microbial contamination of 60 samples from six date cultivars in the rutab stage purchased from different retail outlets in AL-Hofuf City, Saudi Arabia was studied. All samples were found contaminated with aerobic mesophilic bacteria at loads in the order 102 to 105?cfu/cm2 with some significant differences among varieties that can be attributed to differences in the weather conditions during rutab season. Also all samples, except only one, were contaminated with molds and yeasts at loads in the order 102 to 103?cfu/cm2. Potentially pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 57 samples and A. flavus/parasiticus in 13 samples, while coliforms were detected in 39 samples.

Hamad, Siddig H.; Saleh, Farag A.; Al-Otaibi, Mutlag M.

2012-01-01

280

Diversity, Abundance, and Consistency of Microbial Oxygenase Expression and Biodegradation in a Shallow Contaminated Aquifer? †  

PubMed Central

The diversity of Rieske dioxygenase genes and short-term temporal variability in the abundance of two selected dioxygenase gene sequences were examined in a naphthalene-rich, coal tar waste-contaminated subsurface study site. Using a previously published PCR-based approach (S. M. Ní Chadhain, R. S. Norman, K. V. Pesce, J. J. Kukor, and G. J. Zylstra, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:4078-4087, 2006) a broad suite of genes was detected, ranging from dioxygenase sequences associated with Rhodococcus and Sphingomonas to 32 previously uncharacterized Rieske gene sequence clone groups. The nag genes appeared frequently (20% of the total) in two groundwater monitoring wells characterized by low (?102 ppb; ?1 ?M) ambient concentrations of naphthalene. A quantitative competitive PCR assay was used to show that abundances of nag genes (and archetypal nah genes) fluctuated substantially over a 9-month period. To contrast short-term variation with long-term community stability, in situ community gene expression (dioxygenase mRNA) and biodegradation potential (community metabolism of naphthalene in microcosms) were compared to measurements from 6 years earlier. cDNA sequences amplified from total RNA extracts revealed that nah- and nag-type genes were expressed in situ, corresponding well with structural gene abundances. Despite evidence for short-term (9-month) shifts in dioxygenase gene copy number, agreement in field gene expression (dioxygenase mRNA) and biodegradation potential was observed in comparisons to equivalent assays performed 6 years earlier. Thus, stability in community biodegradation characteristics at the hemidecadal time frame has been documented for these subsurface microbial communities.

Yagi, Jane M.; Madsen, Eugene L.

2009-01-01

281

When Is a Microbial Culture "Pure"? Persistent Cryptic Contaminant Escapes Detection Even with Deep Genome Sequencing  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Geobacter sulfurreducens strain KN400 was recovered in previous studies in which a culture of the DL1 strain of G. sulfurreducens served as the inoculum in investigations of microbial current production at low anode potentials (?400 mV versus Ag/AgCl). Differences in the genome sequences of KN400 and DL1 were too great to have arisen from adaptive evolution during growth on the anode. Previous deep sequencing (80-fold coverage) of the DL1 culture failed to detect sequences specific to KN400, suggesting that KN400 was an external contaminant inadvertently introduced into the anode culturing system. In order to evaluate this further, a portion of the gene for OmcS, a c-type cytochrome that both KN400 and DL1 possess, was amplified from the DL1 culture. HiSeq-2000 Illumina sequencing of the PCR product detected the KN400 sequence, which differs from the DL1 sequence at 14 bp, at a frequency of ca. 1 in 105 copies of the DL1 sequence. A similar low frequency of KN400 was detected with quantitative PCR of a KN400-specific gene. KN400 persisted at this frequency after intensive restreaking of isolated colonies from the DL1 culture. However, a culture in which KN400 could no longer be detected was obtained by serial dilution to extinction in liquid medium. The KN400-free culture could not grow on an anode poised at ?400 mV. Thus, KN400 cryptically persisted in the culture dominated by DL1 for more than a decade, undetected by even deep whole-genome sequencing, and was only fortuitously uncovered by the unnatural selection pressure of growth on a low-potential electrode.

Shrestha, Pravin Malla; Nevin, Kelly P.; Shrestha, Minita; Lovley, Derek R.

2013-01-01

282

Chemical and microbial community analysis during aerobic biostimulation assays of non-sulfonated alkyl-benzene-contaminated groundwater.  

PubMed

A chemical and microbial characterization of lab-scale biostimulation assays with groundwater samples taken from an industrial site in which the aquifer had been contaminated by linear non-sulfonate alkyl benzenes (LABs) was carried out for further field-scale bioremediation purposes. Two lab-scale biodegradability assays were performed, one with a previously obtained gas-oil-degrading consortium and another with the native groundwater flora. Results for the characterization of the groundwater microbial population of the site revealed the presence of an important LAB-degrading microbial population with a strong degrading capacity. Among the microorganisms identified at the site, the detection of Parvibaculum lavamentivorans, which have been described in other studies as alkyl benzene sulfonates degraders, is worth mentioning. Incubation of P. lavamentivorans DSMZ13023 with LABs as reported in this study shows for the first time the metabolic capacity of this strain to degrade such compounds. Results from the biodegradation assays in this study showed that the indigenous microbial population had a higher degrading capacity than the gas-oil-degrading consortium, indicating the strong ability of the native community to adapt to the presence of LABs. The addition of inorganic nutrients significantly improved the aerobic biodegradation rate, achieving levels of biodegradation close to 90%. The results of this study show the potential effectiveness of oxygen and nutrients as in situ biostimulation agents as well as the existence of a complex microbial community that encompasses well-known hydrocarbon- and LAS-degrading microbial populations in the aquifer studied. PMID:20714718

Martínez-Pascual, Eulàlia; Jiménez, Nuria; Vidal-Gavilan, Georgina; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, A M

2010-10-01

283

Sustained Reduction of Microbial Burden on Common Hospital Surfaces through Introduction of Copper  

PubMed Central

The contribution of environmental surface contamination with pathogenic organisms to the development of health care-associated infections (HAI) has not been well defined. The microbial burden (MB) associated with commonly touched surfaces in intensive care units (ICUs) was determined by sampling six objects in 16 rooms in ICUs in three hospitals over 43 months. At month 23, copper-alloy surfaces, with inherent antimicrobial properties, were installed onto six monitored objects in 8 of 16 rooms, and the effect that this application had on the intrinsic MB present on the six objects was assessed. Census continued in rooms with and without copper for an additional 21 months. In concert with routine infection control practices, the average MB found for the six objects assessed in the clinical environment during the preintervention phase was 28 times higher (6,985 CFU/100 cm2; n = 3,977 objects sampled) than levels proposed as benign immediately after terminal cleaning (<250 CFU/100 cm2). During the intervention phase, the MB was found to be significantly lower for both the control and copper-surfaced objects. Copper was found to cause a significant (83%) reduction in the average MB found on the objects (465 CFU/100 cm2; n = 2714 objects) compared to the controls (2,674 CFU/100 cm2; n = 2,831 objects [P < 0.0001]). The introduction of copper surfaces to objects formerly covered with plastic, wood, stainless steel, and other materials found in the patient care environment significantly reduced the overall MB on a continuous basis, thereby providing a potentially safer environment for hospital patients, health care workers (HCWs), and visitors.

Attaway, Hubert H.; Sharpe, Peter A.; John, Joseph; Sepkowitz, Kent A.; Morgan, Andrew; Fairey, Sarah E.; Singh, Susan; Steed, Lisa L.; Cantey, J. Robert; Freeman, Katherine D.; Michels, Harold T.; Salgado, Cassandra D.

2012-01-01

284

Microbial Communities in the Surface Mucopolysaccharide Layer and the Black Band Microbial Mat of Black Band-Diseased Siderastrea siderea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial community profiles and species composition associated with two black band-diseased colonies of the coral Siderastrea siderea were studied by 16S rRNA-targeted gene cloning, sequencing, and amplicon-length heter- ogeneity PCR (LH-PCR). Bacterial communities associated with the surface mucopolysaccharide layer (SML) of apparently healthy tissues of the infected colonies, together with samples of the black band disease (BBD) infections, were analyzed

Raju Sekar; DeEtta K. Mills; Elizabeth R. Remily; Joshua D. Voss; Laurie L. Richardson

2006-01-01

285

Explosive Contamination from Substrate Surfaces: Differences and Similarities in Contamination Techniques Using RDX and C-4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Explosive trace detection equipment has been deployed to airports for more than a decade. During this time, the need for standardized procedures and calibrated trace amounts for ensuring that the systems are operating properly and detecting the correct explosive has been apparent but a standard representative of a fingerprint has been elusive. Standards are also necessary to evaluate instrumentation in the laboratories during development and prior to deployment to determine sample throughput, probability of detection, false positive/negative rates, ease of use by operator, mechanical and/or software problems that may be encountered, and other pertinent parameters that would result in the equipment being unusable during field operations. Since many laboratories do not have access to nor are allowed to handle explosives, the equipment is tested using techniques aimed at simulating the actual explosives fingerprint. This laboratory study focused on examining the similarities and differences in three different surface contamination techniques that are used to performance test explosive trace detection equipment in an attempt to determine how effective the techniques are at replicating actual field samples and to offer scenarios where each contamination technique is applicable. The three techniques used were dry transfer deposition of standard solutions using the Transportation Security Laboratory’s (TSL) patented dry transfer techniques (US patent 6470730), direct deposition of explosive standards onto substrates, and fingerprinting of actual explosives onto substrates. RDX was deposited on the surface of one of five substrates using one of the three different deposition techniques. The process was repeated for each substrate type using each contamination technique. The substrate types used were: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that found on canvas or denim, suede leather such as might be found on jackets, purses, or shoes, and painted metal obtained from a car hood at a junk yard. The samples were not pre-cleaned prior to testing and contained sizing agents, and in the case of the metal, oil and dirt. The substrates were photographed using a Zeiss Discover V12 stereoscope with Axiocam ICc1 3 megapixel digital camera to determine the difference in the crystalline structure and surface contamination in an attempt to determine differences and similarities associated with current contamination deposition techniques. Some samples were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and some were extracted and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) to quantify the data.

Miller, C. J.; Yoder, T. S.

2010-06-01

286

GeoChip-based analysis of microbial functional gene diversity in a landfill leachate-contaminated aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The functional gene diversity and structure of microbial communities in a shallow landfill leachate-contaminated aquifer were assessed using a comprehensive functional gene array (GeoChip 3.0). Water samples were obtained from eight wells at the same aquifer depth immediately below a municipal landfill or along the predominant downgradient groundwater flowpath. Functional gene richness and diversity immediately below the landfill and the closest well were considerably lower than those in downgradient wells. Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggested that various geochemical parameters had a significant impact on the subsurface microbial community structure. That is, leachate from the unlined landfill impacted the diversity, composition, structure, and functional potential of groundwater microbial communities as a function of groundwater pH, and concentrations of sulfate, ammonia, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Historical geochemical records indicate that all sampled wells chronically received leachate, and the increase in microbial diversity as a function of distance from the landfill is consistent with mitigation of the impact of leachate on the groundwater system by natural attenuation mechanisms.

Lu, Zhenmei; He, Zhili; Parisi, Victoria A.; Kang, Sanghoon; Deng, Ye; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Masoner, Jason R.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Suflita, Joseph M.; Zhou, Jizhong

2012-01-01

287

Genotypic and phenotypic responses of a riverine microbial community to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenotypic and genotypic adaptation of a freshwater sedimentary microbial community to elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined by using an integrated biomolecular approach. Central to the approach was the use of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles to characterize the microbial community structure and nucleic acid analysis to quantify the frequency of degradative genes. The study site

DONALD E. LANGWORTHY; R. H. Findlay; R. D. Stapleton; G. S. Sayler

1998-01-01

288

Microbial growth on partially saturated rough surfaces: Simulations in idealized roughness networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new model is developed to study the effect of aqueous phase configuration on microbial growth on rough surfaces under different hydration conditions. Surface roughness is idealized using a network of conical pits (sites) on a regular lattice connected by v-shaped channels (bonds) with prescribed geometry that vary spatially. Aqueous phase distribution and connectivity within the surface network are calculated

Tao Long; Dani

2007-01-01

289

Impact of Substratum Surface on Microbial Community Structure and Treatment Performance in Biological Aerated Filters  

PubMed Central

The impact of substratum surface property change on biofilm community structure was investigated using laboratory biological aerated filter (BAF) reactors and molecular microbial community analysis. Two substratum surfaces that differed in surface properties were created via surface coating and used to develop biofilms in test (modified surface) and control (original surface) BAF reactors. Microbial community analysis by 16S rRNA gene-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the surface property change consistently resulted in distinct profiles of microbial populations during replicate reactor start-ups. Pyrosequencing of the bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons surveyed more than 90% of the microbial diversity in the microbial communities and identified 72 unique bacterial species within 19 bacterial orders. Among the 19 orders of bacteria detected, Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales of the Betaproteobacteria class were numerically dominant and accounted for 90.5 to 97.4% of the sequence reads, and their relative abundances in the test and control BAF reactors were different in consistent patterns during the two reactor start-ups. Three of the five dominant bacterial species also showed consistent relative abundance changes between the test and control BAF reactors. The different biofilm microbial communities led to different treatment efficiencies, with consistently higher total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the test reactor than in the control reactor. Further understanding of how surface properties affect biofilm microbial communities and functional performance would enable the rational design of new generations of substrata for the improvement of biofilm-based biological treatment processes.

Kim, Lavane; Pagaling, Eulyn; Zuo, Yi Y.

2014-01-01

290

Microbial Monitoring of Common Opportunistic Pathogens by Comparing Multiple Real-Time PCR Platforms for Potential Space Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Because the International Space Station is a closed environment with rotations of astronauts and equipment that each introduce their own microbial flora, it is necessary to monitor the air, surfaces, and water for microbial contamination. Current microbia...

A. Singhal A. S. Johnston C. M. Ott C. M. Oubre D. X. Jett K. J. Venkateswaran K. U. Jones M. C. Roman M. N. Birmele M. S. Roberts P. A. Vaishampayan T. A. Ozbolt V. A. Castro

2013-01-01

291

Microbial contamination of groundwater at small community water supplies in Finland.  

PubMed

The raw water quality and associations between the factors considered as threats to water safety were studied in 20 groundwater supplies in central Finland in 2002-2004. Faecal contaminations indicated by the appearance of Escherichia coli or intestinal enterococci were present in five small community water supplies, all these managed by local water cooperatives. Elevated concentrations of nutrients in raw water were linked with the presence of faecal bacteria. The presence of on-site technical hazards to water safety, such as inadequate well construction and maintenance enabling surface water to enter into the well and the insufficient depth of protective soil layers above the groundwater table, showed the vulnerability of the quality of groundwater used for drinking purposes. To minimize the risk of waterborne illnesses, the vulnerable water supplies need to be identified and appropriate prevention measures such as disinfection should be applied. PMID:21809781

Pitkänen, Tarja; Karinen, Päivi; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Lettojärvi, Heidi; Heikkilä, Annika; Maunula, Reetta; Aula, Vesa; Kuronen, Henry; Vepsäläinen, Asko; Nousiainen, Liina-Lotta; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

2011-06-01

292

Electrochemical detection of harmful algae and other microbial contaminants in coastal waters using hand-held biosensors.  

PubMed

Standard methods to identify microbial contaminants in the environment are slow, laborious, and can require specialized expertise. This study investigated electrochemical detection of microbial contaminants using commercially available, hand-held instruments. Electrochemical assays were developed for a red tide dinoflagellate (Karenia brevis), fecal-indicating bacteria (Enterococcus spp.), markers indicative of human sources of fecal pollution (human cluster Bacteroides and the esp gene of Enterococcus faecium), bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus), and a viral pathogen (adenovirus). For K. brevis, two assay formats (Rapid PCR-Detect and Hybrid PCR-Detect) were tested and both provided detection limits of 10 genome equivalents for DNA isolated from K. brevis culture and amplified by PCR. Sensitivity with coastal water samples was sufficient to detect K. brevis that was "present" (microbial contaminants and have the potential to be integrated into semi-automated detection platforms. PMID:17328925

LaGier, Michael J; Fell, Jack W; Goodwin, Kelly D

2007-06-01

293

Microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation on the surface of glaciers and ice sheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the microbial sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (via net autochthonous production) and nitrogen (via nitrogen fixation) into organic matter on the surface of glaciers and ice sheets is important for three main reasons. First, they can provide essential nutrients for supporting microbial ecosystems in these cold, typically nutrient-poor environments. Second, nutrients formed in the supraglacial environment may be important for sustaining hydrologically connected subglacial and downstream (e.g. fjords, near-shore marine) ecosystems. Third, organic matter produced or transformed by microbial activity can alter the albedo of ice, either directly by the production of dark pigments, or indirectly through the trapping and agglutination of dark mineral via the production of exopolysaccharides. Here, we present recent results of microbial carbon and nitrogen fixation in surface sediment (cryoconite) on Arctic and Antarctic glaciers and the Greenland Ice Sheet ablation zone. Results suggest that the fixation and recycling of autochthonous carbon in cryoconite on glaciers and ice sheets can support a significant fraction of the total microbial activity in the supraglacial environment during the ablation season. Nitrogen fixation can be important as a nitrogen source for microbial communities on both Arctic and Antarctic glaciers during the main ablation season. Nitrogen fixation could feasibly exceed precipitation as a source of nitrogen to microbial communities in debris rich zones on the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet, aiding the colonization and subsequent 'greening' of subglacial and moraine derived debris.

Telling, J.; Anesio, A. M.; Stibal, M.; Hawkings, J.; Bellas, C. M.; Tranter, M.; Wadham, J. L.; Cook, J.; Hodson, A. J.; Yallop, M.; Barker, G.; Butler, C. E.; Fountain, A. G.; Nylen, T.; Irvine-Fynn, T. D.; Sole, A. J.; Nienow, P. W.

2012-12-01

294

Geochemistry and microbial diversity of a trichloroethene-contaminated Superfund site undergoing intrinsic in situ reductive dechlorination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the geochemistry and microbial diversity of a Superfund site containing trichloroethene (TCE) and an unusual co-pollutant, tetrakis(2-ethylbutoxy)silane. Geochemical analysis of contaminated groundwater indicated subsurface anaerobiosis, reductive dechlorination of TCE to predominantly cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and (transient) accumulation of 2-ethylbutanol and 2-ethylbutyrate as a result of tetrakis(2-ethylbutoxy)silane breakdown. Comparative analysis of 106 16S rDNA and 61 16S–23S rDNA intergenic spacer

Mary Lowe; Eugene L. Madsen; Karen Schindler; Courtney Smith; Scott Emrich; Frank Robb; Rolf U. Halden

2002-01-01

295

Characterization of Archaeal Community in Contaminated and Uncontaminated Surface Stream Sediments  

PubMed Central

Archaeal communities from mercury and uranium-contaminated freshwater stream sediments were characterized and compared to archaeal communities present in an uncontaminated stream located in the vicinity of Oak Ridge, TN, USA. The distribution of the Archaea was determined by pyrosequencing analysis of the V4 region of 16S rRNA amplified from 12 streambed surface sediments. Crenarchaeota comprised 76% of the 1,670 archaeal sequences and the remaining 24% were from Euryarchaeota. Phylogenetic analysis further classified the Crenarchaeota as a Freshwater Group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota group, Group I3, Rice Cluster VI and IV, Marine Group I and Marine Benthic Group B; and the Euryarchaeota into Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteriales, Rice Cluster III, Marine Benthic Group D, Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent Euryarchaeota 1 and Eury 5. All groups were previously described. Both hydrogen- and acetate-dependent methanogens were found in all samples. Most of the groups (with 60% of the sequences) described in this study were not similar to any cultivated isolates, making it difficult to discern their function in the freshwater microbial community. A significant decrease in the number of sequences, as well as in the diversity of archaeal communities was found in the contaminated sites. The Marine Group I, including the ammonia oxidizer Nitrosopumilus maritimus, was the dominant group in both mercury and uranium/nitrate-contaminated sites. The uranium-contaminated site also contained a high concentration of nitrate, thus Marine Group I may play a role in nitrogen cycle. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00248-010-9734-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Porat, Iris; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Mosher, Jennifer J.; Brandt, Craig C.; Yang, Zamin K.; Brooks, Scott C.; Liang, Liyuan; Drake, Meghan M.; Podar, Mircea; Brown, Steven D.

2010-01-01

296

Comparative efficiency of microbial systems for destroying carbon tetrachloride contamination in Hanford groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past waste disposal practices at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford site have resulted in carbon tetrachloride (CClâ) and nitrate contamination in the groundwater. In situ bioremediation is currently being investigated as a cost effective means to destroy these groundwater contaminants. The cost effectiveness of bioremediation is significantly influenced by the nutrient amendments required to sustain the contaminant destruction

M. J. Truex; R. S. Skeen; S. M. Caley; D. J. Workman

1993-01-01

297

Estimation of microbial contamination of food from prevalence and concentration data: application to Listeria monocytogenes in fresh vegetables.  

PubMed

A normal distribution and a mixture model of two normal distributions in a Bayesian approach using prevalence and concentration data were used to establish the distribution of contamination of the food-borne pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes in unprocessed and minimally processed fresh vegetables. A total of 165 prevalence studies, including 15 studies with concentration data, were taken from the scientific literature and from technical reports and used for statistical analysis. The predicted mean of the normal distribution of the logarithms of viable L. monocytogenes per gram of fresh vegetables was -2.63 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g, and its standard deviation was 1.48 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g. These values were determined by considering one contaminated sample in prevalence studies in which samples are in fact negative. This deliberate overestimation is necessary to complete calculations. With the mixture model, the predicted mean of the distribution of the logarithm of viable L. monocytogenes per gram of fresh vegetables was -3.38 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g and its standard deviation was 1.46 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g. The probabilities of fresh unprocessed and minimally processed vegetables being contaminated with concentrations higher than 1, 2, and 3 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g were 1.44, 0.63, and 0.17%, respectively. Introducing a sensitivity rate of 80 or 95% in the mixture model had a small effect on the estimation of the contamination. In contrast, introducing a low sensitivity rate (40%) resulted in marked differences, especially for high percentiles. There was a significantly lower estimation of contamination in the papers and reports of 2000 to 2005 than in those of 1988 to 1999 and a lower estimation of contamination of leafy salads than that of sprouts and other vegetables. The interest of the mixture model for the estimation of microbial contamination is discussed. PMID:17098926

Crépet, Amélie; Albert, Isabelle; Dervin, Catherine; Carlin, Frédéric

2007-01-01

298

Estimation of Microbial Contamination of Food from Prevalence and Concentration Data: Application to Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Vegetables?  

PubMed Central

A normal distribution and a mixture model of two normal distributions in a Bayesian approach using prevalence and concentration data were used to establish the distribution of contamination of the food-borne pathogenic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes in unprocessed and minimally processed fresh vegetables. A total of 165 prevalence studies, including 15 studies with concentration data, were taken from the scientific literature and from technical reports and used for statistical analysis. The predicted mean of the normal distribution of the logarithms of viable L. monocytogenes per gram of fresh vegetables was ?2.63 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g, and its standard deviation was 1.48 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g. These values were determined by considering one contaminated sample in prevalence studies in which samples are in fact negative. This deliberate overestimation is necessary to complete calculations. With the mixture model, the predicted mean of the distribution of the logarithm of viable L. monocytogenes per gram of fresh vegetables was ?3.38 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g and its standard deviation was 1.46 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g. The probabilities of fresh unprocessed and minimally processed vegetables being contaminated with concentrations higher than 1, 2, and 3 log viable L. monocytogenes organisms/g were 1.44, 0.63, and 0.17%, respectively. Introducing a sensitivity rate of 80 or 95% in the mixture model had a small effect on the estimation of the contamination. In contrast, introducing a low sensitivity rate (40%) resulted in marked differences, especially for high percentiles. There was a significantly lower estimation of contamination in the papers and reports of 2000 to 2005 than in those of 1988 to 1999 and a lower estimation of contamination of leafy salads than that of sprouts and other vegetables. The interest of the mixture model for the estimation of microbial contamination is discussed.

Crepet, Amelie; Albert, Isabelle; Dervin, Catherine; Carlin, Frederic

2007-01-01

299

Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

1996-01-01

300

Investigation of Microbial Populations in the Extremely Metal-Contaminated Coeur d'Alene River Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deposition of mine tailings generated from 125 years of sulfidic ore mining resulted in the enrichment of Coeur d'Alene\\u000a River (CdAR) sediments with significant amounts of toxic heavy metals. A review of literature suggests that microbial populations\\u000a play a pivotal role in the biogeochemical cycling of elements in such mining-impacted sedimentary environments. To assess\\u000a the indigenous microbial communities associated with

Gurdeep Rastogi; Sutapa Barua; Rajesh K. Sani; Brent M. Peyton

301

The role of microbial mats in the movement of stones on playa lake surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper sheds light into the debated mechanisms that move rocks across low gradient surfaces during storm episodes. Microbial mats are recognised to play a crucial role in sediment destabilisation and the subsequent motion of rocks in a playa lake from central Spain. Widespread countless scars are present on the playa lake sediment surface, each terminating at a stone, and/or a mound of overfolded fragments of microbial mats. All available objects, including cobble-sized stones, on the surface were transported for several metres leaving behind furrow-like tracks.

Sanz-Montero, M. E.; Rodríguez-Aranda, J. P.

2013-12-01

302

Evaluation of imputation methods for microbial surface water quality studies.  

PubMed

Longitudinal studies of microbial water quality are subject to missing observations. This study evaluates multiple imputation (MI) against data deletion, mean or median imputation for replacing missing microbial water quality data. The specific context is data collected in Chicago Area Waterway System (2007-2009), where 45% of Escherichia coli and 53% of enterococci densities were missing owing to sample analysis deficiencies. Imputation methods were compared performing a simulation study using complete observations with introduced missing values and subsequently compared with the original data with missing observations. Coefficients for E. coli densities in linear regression models predicting somatic coliphages density show that MI introduces the least bias among other methods while controlling Type I error. Further exploration of utilizing different MI implementations is recommended to address the influence of missing percentage on MI performance and to explore sensitivity to the degree of violation of the missing completely at random assumption. PMID:24705739

Nieh, Chiping; Dorevitch, Samuel; Liu, Li C; Jones, Rachael M

2014-05-01

303

Application of an imaging plate system to the direct measurement of a fixed surface contamination.  

PubMed

An imaging plate (IP) system was used as an effective detector for direct measurement of radioactive surface contamination. The IP system displayed images designating the locations and extent of fixed surface contamination of uranyl acetate. The amount of radioactive waste produced during decontamination was reduced because the contaminated spots could be isolated; furthermore, creation of radioactive dust during removal of contamination was prevented because the contaminated spots could be removed without being pulverized. The images were used in efficiently and safely isolating the location of fixed surface contamination. The IP system surface contamination detection limit for uranyl acetate was 2.5 × 10 Bq cm, a value much lower than the surface contamination limit and the clearance level. PMID:24978288

Hirota, Masahiro; Kimura, Keiji; Sato, Rumi; Koike, Yuya; Iimoto, Takeshi; Tanaka, Satoru

2014-08-01

304

GeoChip-based analysis of functional microbial communities in a bioreduced uranium-contaminated aquifer during reoxidation by oxygen  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale system was established for in situ biostimulation of U(VI) reduction by ethanol addition at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Field Research Center (Oak Ridge, TN). After achieving U(VI) reduction, stability of the bioreduced U(IV) was evaluated under conditions of (i) resting (no ethanol injection), (ii) reoxidation by introducing dissolved oxygen (DO), and (iii) reinjection of ethanol. GeoChip, a functional gene array with probes for N, S and C cycling, metal resistance and contaminant degradation genes, was used for monitoring groundwater microbial communities. High diversity of all major functional groups was observed during all experimental phases. The microbial community was extremely responsive to ethanol, showing a substantial change in community structure with increased gene number and diversity after ethanol injections resumed. While gene numbers showed considerable variations, the relative abundance (i.e. percentage of each gene category) of most gene groups changed little. During the reoxidation period, U(VI) increased, suggesting reoxidation of reduced U(IV). However, when introduction of DO was stopped, U(VI) reduction resumed and returned to pre-reoxidation levels. These findings suggest that the community in this system can be stimulated and that the ability to reduce U(VI) can be maintained by the addition of electron donors. This biostimulation approach may potentially offer an effective means for the bioremediation of U(VI)-contaminated sites.

Van Nostrand, J.D.; Wu, W.-M.; Wu, L.; Deng, Y.; Carley, J.; Carroll, S.; He, Z.; Gu, B.; Luo, J.; Criddle, C. S.; Watson, D. B.; Jardine, P. M.; Tiedje, J. M.; Hazen, T. C.; Zhou, J.

2009-07-15

305

Bioremediation of the tobacco waste-contaminated soil by Pseudomonas sp. HF-1: nicotine degradation and microbial community analysis.  

PubMed

The highly effective nicotine-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas sp. HF-1 was augmented into the tobacco waste-contaminated soil to degrade nicotine and evaluate the effect of the bioremediation. Comparing with non-adding (NA) systems, the treatments with addition of strain HF-1 (TA) exhibited considerably stronger pollution disposal abilities and higher stability of pH value and moisture content, especially in groups containing a large quantity of tobacco waste. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles showed that the Shannon-Wiener index decreased with increasing wastes in the NA treatments, while a gradual increase was found in the TA groups. A comparison of sequences from DGGE bands demonstrated that there were differences in the dominant microbial species between the two treatments, suggesting that strain HF-1 could persist in the soil and enhance the efficiency of tobacco waste disposal. The results of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) also indicated that strain HF-1 existed in the TA systems and grew with relative high quantities. In conclusion, the nicotine-degrading strain HF-1 played a leading role in the bioremediation of the tobacco waste-contaminated soil and influenced the dynamics and structure of the microbial community. PMID:23053086

Wang, Xin; Tang, Lu; Yao, Yanlai; Wang, Haixia; Min, Hang; Lu, Zhenmei

2013-07-01

306

Comparison of indigenous and exogenous microbial populations during slurry phase biodegradation of long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

In this study, a number of slurry-phase strategies were trialled over a 42 day period in order to determine the efficacy of bioremediation for long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (145 g kg(-1) C(10)-C(40)). The addition of activated sludge and nutrients to slurries (bioaugmentation) resulted in enhanced hydrocarbon removal (51.6 ± 8.5 %) compared to treatments receiving only nutrients (enhanced natural attenuation [ENA]; 41.3 ± 6.4 %) or no amendments (natural attenuation; no significant hydrocarbon removal, P < 0.01). This data suggests that the microbial community in the activated sludge inoculum contributed to the enhanced removal of hydrocarbons in ENA slurries. Microbial diversity in slurries was monitored using DGGE with dominant bands excised and sequenced for identification. Applying the different bioremediation strategies resulted in the formation of four distinct community clusters associated with the activated sludge (inoculum), bioaugmentation strategy at day 0, bioaugmentation strategy at weeks 2-6 and slurries with autoclaved sludge and nutrient additions (bioaugmentation negative control). While hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria genera (e.g. Aquabacterium and Haliscomenobacter) were associated with the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, bioaugmentation of soil slurries with activated sludge resulted in the introduction of bacteria associated with hydrocarbon degradation (Burkholderiales order and Klebsiella genera) which presumably contributed to the enhanced efficacy for this slurry strategy. PMID:22684213

Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Adetutu, Eric M; Aleer, Sam; Weber, John; Patil, Sayali S; Sheppard, Petra J; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

2012-11-01

307

Jamu Gendong, a kind of traditional medicine in Indonesia: the microbial contamination of its raw materials and endproduct.  

PubMed

An examination on the microbiological quality of seven kinds of Jamu Gendong (JG) and their raw materials has been conducted according to the requirements of microbial contamination in traditional medicine, issued by the Department of Health of Indonesia in 1986. Samples of JG and their raw materials were taken from producers in three districts of Surabaya. The samples were subject to the following examinations: total plate count (TPC), MPN coliform, the enumeration of molds and yeasts, the presence or absence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Vibrio. Each time the JG samples were taken from different producers together with their raw materials. The results of this investigation showed that most of the JG samples were heavily contaminated with bacteria, yeasts and molds. For bacteria, taken from the TPC results, their numbers were ranging from 7.7 x 10(2) microorganisms/ml to too many to count (TMTC). For yeasts and molds the numbers showed variations from 0 microorganisms/ml to TMTC. Contamination with Coliform in 1 ml of JG were ranged from 0 to > 2.4 x 10(6) microorganisms. In most of the samples pathogenic Staphylococci, Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were not detected, so that a conclusion can be drawn that most of the contamination in JG are saprophytic, only a few pathogenic. The results also show that it is possible to have JG which fulfill the government's requirements. Similar results were obtained with the plant material constituents of JG such as rhizomes, leaves, herbs and fruits of Piper nigrum and Piper retrofractum, with the exception of Piper betle leaves and P. retrofractum fruits, both showing low contamination of Coliform bacteria. However, the fruits of Citrus aurantifolia and Morinda citrifolia were less contaminated, just like seeds of Oryza sativa, Parkia roxburghii, bulbs of Allium sativum and the pulp of Tamarindus indica. With these plant constituents of JG, it might be of interest to screen their antibacterial and antifungal activities. PMID:10030724

Limyati, D A; Juniar, B L

1998-12-01

308

Laser-ion acceleration through controlled surface contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion acceleration from interaction of intense laser pulses with solid targets was dominated by protons. This phenomenon is attributed to the presence of protons in the water and hydrocarbon residue on the target surface. Substitution of the contaminant layer on the target surface with a desired species can lead to selection of accelerated ion species and enhancement of acceleration. With a focal intensity of ˜4x10^18W/cm^2 at 0.5 kHz repetition rate, deuterons up to 75 keV are accelerated from a glass target simply by placing 1 mL of heavy water inside the experimental chamber prior to vacuum-pumping to generate a deuterated contamination layer on the target. Using the same technique with a deuterated-polystyrene-coated target also enhances deuteron yield by a factor of three to five while increasing the maximum energy of the generated deuterons to 140 keV. This technique was further developed by other researchers; the solid target is cryogenic-cooled to produce an ice layer of heavy water for deuteron acceleration.

Hou, Bixue; He, Zhaohan; Nees, John; Petrov, George; Davis, Jack; Thomas, Alexander; Krushelnick, Karl

2012-10-01

309

Surface Deposition of Ionic Contaminants on Silicon Wafers in a Cleanroom Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption and desorption behaviors of ionic micro-contaminants on the silicon wafers in a cleanroom environment were investigated in this study. The experimental measurements showed that the surface density of ionic contaminants was significantly affected by both the exposure time and the properties of contaminants. The rate parameters of a kinetic model for surface deposition were determined by numerical optimization

I-Kai Lin; Hsunling Bai; Bi-Jun Wu

2009-01-01

310

Environmental whole-genome amplification to access microbial populations in contaminated sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-biomass samples from nitrate and heavy metal contaminated soils yield DNA amounts that have limited use for direct, native analysis and screening. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using 29 DNA polymerase was used to amplify whole genomes from environmental, contaminated, subsurface sediments. By first amplifying the genomic DNA (gDNA), biodiversity analysis and gDNA library construction of microbes found in contaminated soils

Carl B. Abulencia; Denise L. Wyborski; Joseph A. Garcia; Mircea Podar; Wenqiong Chen; Sherman H. Chang; Hwai W. Chang; David B Watson; Eoin L. Brodie; Terry C. Hazen; Martin Keller

2006-01-01

311

Remediation aspect of microbial changes of plant rhizosphere in mercury contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation, an approach that uses plants to remediate contaminated soil through degradation, stabilization or accumulation,\\u000a may provide an efficient solution to some mercury contamination problems. This paper presents growth chamber experiments that\\u000a tested the ability of plant species to stabilize mercury in soil. Several indigenous herbaceous species and Salix viminalis were grown in soil collected from a mercury-contaminated site in

Aleksandra Sas-Nowosielska; Regina Galimska-Stypa; Rafa? Kucharski; Urszula Zielonka; Eugeniusz Ma?kowski; Laymon Gray

2008-01-01

312

Further biogeochemical characterization of a trichloroethene-contaminated fractured dolomite aquifer: Electron source and microbial communities involved in reductive dechlorination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A recent article presented geochemical and microbial evidence establishing metabolic adaptation to and in-situ reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in a fractured dolomite aquifer. This study was designed to further explore site conditions and microbial populations and to explain previously reported enhancement of reductive dechlorination by the addition of pulverized dolomite to laboratory microcosms. A survey of groundwater geochemical parameters (chlorinated ethenes, ethene, H2, CH4, DIC, DOC, and ??13C values for CH4, DIC, and DOC) indicated that in situ reductive dechlorination was ongoing and that an unidentified pool of organic carbon was contributing, likely via microbial respiration, to the large and relatively light onsite DIC pool. Petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the dolomite rock were analyzed by GC/MS and featured a characteristically low ??13C value. Straight chain hydrocarbons were extracted from the dolomite previously found to stimulate reductive dechlorination; these were particularly depleted in hexadecane (HD). Thus, we hypothesized that HD and related hydrocarbons might be anaerobically respired and serve both as the source of onsite DIC and support reductive dechlorination of TCE. Microcosms amended with pulverized dolomite demonstrated reductive dechlorination, whereas a combusted dolomite amendment did not. HD-amended microcosms were also inactive. Therefore, the stimulatory factor in the pulverized dolomite was heat labile, but that component was not HD. Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) of the microbial populations in well waters indicated that a relatively low diversity, sulfur-transforming community outside the plume was shifted toward a high diversity community including Dehalococcoides ethenogenes-type microorganisms inside the zone of contamination. These observations illustrate biogeochemical intricacies of in situ reductive dechlorination reactions.

Hohnstock-Ashe, A. M.; Plummer, S. M.; Yager, R. M.; Baveye, P.; Madsen, E. L.

2001-01-01

313

Dynamics of microbial community composition and function during in situ bioremediation of a uranium-contaminated aquifer.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale system was established to examine the feasibility of in situ U(VI) immobilization at a highly contaminated aquifer (U.S. DOE Integrated Field Research Challenge site, Oak Ridge, TN). Ethanol was injected intermittently as an electron donor to stimulate microbial U(VI) reduction, and U(VI) concentrations fell to below the Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard (0.03 mg liter(-1)). Microbial communities from three monitoring wells were examined during active U(VI) reduction and maintenance phases with GeoChip, a high-density, comprehensive functional gene array. The overall microbial community structure exhibited a considerable shift over the remediation phases examined. GeoChip-based analysis revealed that Fe(III)-reducing bacterial (FeRB), nitrate-reducing bacterial (NRB), and sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) functional populations reached their highest levels during the active U(VI) reduction phase (days 137 to 370), in which denitrification and Fe(III) and sulfate reduction occurred sequentially. A gradual decrease in these functional populations occurred when reduction reactions stabilized, suggesting that these functional populations could play an important role in both active U(VI) reduction and maintenance of the stability of reduced U(IV). These results suggest that addition of electron donors stimulated the microbial community to create biogeochemical conditions favorable to U(VI) reduction and prevent the reduced U(IV) from reoxidation and that functional FeRB, SRB, and NRB populations within this system played key roles in this process. PMID:21498771

Van Nostrand, Joy D; Wu, Liyou; Wu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhijian; Gentry, Terry J; Deng, Ye; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; He, Zhili; Gu, Baohua; Luo, Jian; Criddle, Craig S; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip M; Marsh, Terence L; Tiedje, James M; Hazen, Terry C; Zhou, Jizhong

2011-06-01

314

Removal of hydrocarbon contaminant film from spacecraft optical surfaces using a radiofrequency-excited oxygen plasma.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a study on the feasibility of removing contaminant films from optical surfaces in vacuum, using an oxygen plasma, are discussed. Contaminant films were deposited onto optical surfaces from butadiene and methane gases at a pressure of about 4 torr in the presence of ultraviolet radiation. Optical surfaces evaluated included ultraviolet-reflecting mirrors, gratings, quartz disks, and spacecraft thermal control surfaces. In general, it was found that contaminants could be removed successfully from surfaces using an oxygen plasma. Exceptions were the white-paint thermal control surfaces, which, when contaminated, degraded further during exposure to the oxygen plasma.

Beverly, W. D.; Gillete, R. B.; Cruz, G. A.

1973-01-01

315

Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a practical, environmentally benigh technology for the surface decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive waste. A low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed with initial support from the DOE, Environmental Management Sciences Program. This devise selectively etches radioactive metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. The technology shows a great potential for accelerating the clean-up effort for the equipment and structures contaminated with radioactive materials within the DOE complex. The viability of this technology has been demonstrated by selectively and rapidly stripping uranium from stainless steel surfaces at low temperature. Studies on uranium oxide have shown that etch rates of 4.0 microns per minute can be achieved at temperature below 473 K. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the atmospheric pressure plasma source. We are now able to scale up the plasma source to treat large surface areas.

Robert F. Hicks; Hans W. Herrmann

2003-12-15

316

MICROBIAL REDUCTION OF IONIC MERCURY FOR THE REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A mercury-contaminated freshwater pond, Reality Lake (RL), was investigated in the vicinity of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. he original source of contamination was a nuclear weapons plant where elemental mercury was used from the 1950s to 1970s to enrich lithium isotopes for the product...

317

Efficacy of simple hand-washing in reduction of microbial hand contamination of Iranian food handlers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foods are likely to be faecally contaminated during preparation or dissemination by the Iranian Muslim food handler that their religion enjoins the mechanical cleaning of themselves after defecation. The current study was designed to determine the actual rate of hand contamination of Iranian food handlers with pathogenic flora of faeces or nose and to evaluate the efficacy of simple hand-washing

Hasan Shojaei; Jafar Shooshtaripoor; Masoud Amiri

2006-01-01

318

Short-term microbial release during rain events from on-site sewers and cattle in a surface water source.  

PubMed

The protection of drinking water from pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia requires an understanding of the short-term microbial release from faecal contamination sources in the catchment. Flow-weighted samples were collected during two rainfall events in a stream draining an area with on-site sewers and during two rainfall events in surface runoff from a bovine cattle pasture. Samples were analysed for human (BacH) and ruminant (BacR) Bacteroidales genetic markers through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and for sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria through culturing as a complement to traditional faecal indicator bacteria, somatic coliphages and the parasitic protozoa Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. analysed by standard methods. Significant positive correlations were observed between BacH, Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, sulphite-reducing Clostridia, turbidity, conductivity and UV254 in the stream contaminated by on-site sewers. For the cattle pasture, no correlation was found between any of the genetic markers and the other parameters. Although parasitic protozoa were not detected, the analysis for genetic markers provided baseline data on the short-term faecal contamination due to these potential sources of parasites. Background levels of BacH and BacR makers in soil emphasise the need to including soil reference samples in qPCR-based analyses for Bacteroidales genetic markers. PMID:23981872

Aström, Johan; Pettersson, Thomas J R; Reischer, Georg H; Hermansson, Malte

2013-09-01

319

AUTOMATED RESPIROMETER METHOD FOR MICROBIAL TOXICITY ASSESSMENT OF LOW-LEVEL ZINC CONTAMINATION IN SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Zinc is an essential trace element for all living organisms including humans. ecause microbial-based toxicity approaches to assess the changes in ecosystem processes are not well defined for soil application, this laboratory has developed an automated respirometer capable of meas...

320

Extent and Predictors of Microbial Hand Contamination in a Tertiary Care Ophthalmic Outpatient Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To measure the extent of microbial hand contamina- tion among ophthalmologists during routine clinic practice and examine its association with hand cleansing practices and beliefs, glove use, and patient load. METHODS. This was a single-masked analysis of resident and transient flora of ophthalmologists before and after patient examination and after handwashing by agar imprints of the dominant hand. Standardized

Robert F. Lam; Mamie Hui; Dexter Y. L. Leung; Viola C. Y. Chow; Ben N. M. Lam; Gabriel M. Leung; Dennis S. C. Lam

2005-01-01

321

Surface plasmon sensing of gas phase contaminants using optical fiber.  

SciTech Connect

Fiber-optic gas phase surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection of several contaminant gases of interest to state-of-health monitoring in high-consequence sealed systems has been demonstrated. These contaminant gases include H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and moisture using a single-ended optical fiber mode. Data demonstrate that results can be obtained and sensitivity is adequate in a dosimetric mode that allows periodic monitoring of system atmospheres. Modeling studies were performed to direct the design of the sensor probe for optimized dimensions and to allow simultaneous monitoring of several constituents with a single sensor fiber. Testing of the system demonstrates the ability to detect 70mTorr partial pressures of H{sub 2} using this technique and <280 {micro}Torr partial pressures of H{sub 2}S. In addition, a multiple sensor fiber has been demonstrated that allows a single fiber to measure H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2}O without changing the fiber or the analytical system.

Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Rumpf, Arthur Norman; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant

2009-10-01

322

Microbial corrosion monitoring by an amperometric microbial biosensor developed using whole cell of Pseudomonas sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microbial biosensor was developed for monitoring microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of metallic materials in industrial systems. The Pseudomonas sp. isolated from corroded metal surface was immobilized on acetylcellulose membrane and its respiratory activity was estimated by measuring oxygen consumption. The microbial biosensor was used for the measurement of sulfuric acid in a batch culture medium contaminated by microorganisms. A

R. S Dubey; S. N Upadhyay

2001-01-01

323

MULTIPLE IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEMONSTRATE THE MANIPULATION OF SURFACES TO REDUCE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Surface imaging techniques were combined to determine appropriate manipulation of technologically important surfaces for commercial applications. Stainless steel surfaces were engineered to reduce bacterial contamination, biofilm formation, and corrosion during product processing...

324

A comparison of DNA profiling techniques for monitoring nutrient impact on microbial community composition during bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplicon length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (TRFLP) were used to monitor the impact that nutrient amendments had on microbial community dynamics and structural diversity during bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils. Slurried soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons were treated in airlift bench-scale bioreactors and were either amended with optimal inorganic nutrients or left unamended. Direct DNA extraction

DeEtta K Mills; Kristin Fitzgerald; Carol D Litchfield; Patrick M Gillevet

2003-01-01

325

Dental handpiece contamination: a proteomics and surface analysis approach.  

PubMed

Dental handpieces (DHPs) become biofouled internally with patient derived material that is difficult to access for removal and inactivation. This study undertook a quantitative and qualitative investigation of protein contamination of internal components from three different types of DHP: the turbine, slow speed contra-angle and surgical. Eluates from the high speed turbine, low speed spray channels and surgical gear were assayed for protein using an orthophthaldehyde assay. Eluates concentrated by Amicon ultrafiltration were also analysed by SDS-PAGE, mass spectroscopy, Western blotting and ELISA. The surfaces of handpiece components were also investigated by SEM, EFSCAN and EDAX microscopy. Surgical gears contained highest levels of protein (403??g), followed by low speed spray channels (17.7??g) and the high speed turbine (<5??g). Mass spectroscopy of surgical gears demonstrated mostly serum derived proteins. Decontamination of the DHPs using an automated washer disinfector and handpiece irrigator showed a significant reduction in residual protein levels. PMID:24138163

Smith, Andrew; Smith, Gordon; Lappin, David F; Baxter, Helen C; Jones, Anita; Baxter, Robert L

2014-01-01

326

Microbial population and functional dynamics associated with surface potential and carbon metabolism.  

PubMed

Microbial extracellular electron transfer (EET) to solid surfaces is an important reaction for metal reduction occurring in various anoxic environments. However, it is challenging to accurately characterize EET-active microbial communities and each member's contribution to EET reactions because of changes in composition and concentrations of electron donors and solid-phase acceptors. Here, we used bioelectrochemical systems to systematically evaluate the synergistic effects of carbon source and surface redox potential on EET-active microbial community development, metabolic networks and overall electron transfer rates. The results indicate that faster biocatalytic rates were observed under electropositive electrode surface potential conditions, and under fatty acid-fed conditions. Temporal 16S rRNA-based microbial community analyses showed that Geobacter phylotypes were highly diverse and apparently dependent on surface potentials. The well-known electrogenic microbes affiliated with the Geobacter metallireducens clade were associated with lower surface potentials and less current generation, whereas Geobacter subsurface clades 1 and 2 were associated with higher surface potentials and greater current generation. An association was also observed between specific fermentative phylotypes and Geobacter phylotypes at specific surface potentials. When sugars were present, Tolumonas and Aeromonas phylotypes were preferentially associated with lower surface potentials, whereas Lactococcus phylotypes were found to be closely associated with Geobacter subsurface clades 1 and 2 phylotypes under higher surface potential conditions. Collectively, these results suggest that surface potentials provide a strong selective pressure, at the species and strain level, for both solid surface respirators and fermentative microbes throughout the EET-active community development. PMID:24351938

Ishii, Shun'ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M; Phan, Tony; Wanger, Greg; Nealson, Kenneth H; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Gorby, Yuri A; Bretschger, Orianna

2014-05-01

327

Hydride Compressor Sorption Cooler and Surface Contamination Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous-duty hydrogen sorption cryocooler is being developed for the Planck spacecraft, a mission to map the cosmic microwave background beginning in 2007. This cryocooler uses six individual compressor elements (CEs) filled with the hydriding alloy LaNi4.78Sn0.22 to provide high-pressure (50 bar) hydrogen to a Joule-Thomson (J-T) expander and to absorb low-pressure (~0.3 bar) gas from liquid hydrogen reservoirs cooled to ~18K. Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (QMS) showed methane in these hydride beds after cycling during initial operation of laboratory tests of the Planck engineering breadboard (EBB) cooler. These contaminants have caused problems involving plugged J-T expanders. The contaminants probably come from reactions with residual hydrocarbon species on surfaces inside the hydride bed. The hydride bed in each CE is contained in an annular volume called a ``gas-gap heat switch,'' which serves as a reversible, intermittent thermal path to the spacecraft radiator. The gas-gap is either ``off'' (i.e., its pressure <1.3 Pa), or ``on'' (i.e., hydrogen gas at ~4 kPa). The hydrogen pressure is varied with an independent hydride actuator containing ZrNiHx. Early EBB cooler tests showed increasing parasitic heat losses from the inner beds, suggesting residual pressures in the gas gap during its ``off'' state. The pressure was shown to be due to hydrogen from outgassing from metallic surfaces in the gas gap and hydrogen permeation through the inner sorbent bed wall. This gas accumulation has serious end-of-life implications, as the ZrNi actuator has limited storage capacity and any excess hydrogen would necessarily affect its operation. This paper summarizes experiments on the behavior of hydrogen in the gas gap switch and formation of methane in the CE sorbent beds.

Bowman, R. C.; Reiter, J. W.; Prina, M.; Kulleck, J. G.; Lanford, W. A.

2003-07-01

328

Implications of microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons for evaluating cell surface hydrophobicity 1. Zeta potentials of hydrocarbon droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) is generally considered to be a measure of the organisms cell surface hydrophobicity. As microbial adhesion is a complicated interplay of long-range van der Waals and electrostatic forces and various short-range interactions, the above statement only holds when the MATH test is carried out under conditions where the interacting surfaces are uncharged. In the present

H. J. Busscher; B. van de Belt-Gritter; H. C. van der Mei

1995-01-01

329

Microbial communities in a chlorinated solvent contaminated tidal freshwater wetland: molecular techniques for assessing potentially important biodegrading organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aberdeen Proving Ground MD (APG) is a hazardous waste site where a chlorinated solvent plume discharges into anaerobic sediments in a tidal freshwater wetland. Wetlands can be ideal sites for intrinsic remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) due to availability of organic substrates and the wide range of redox zones. And indeed natural attenuation of these compounds appears to be an important process at this site. The biodegradation of chlorinated VOCs such as PCA can follow several pathways: 1) sequential hydrogenolysis of PCA to ethane or ethene via TCA 2) dichloroelimation of TCA to vinyl chloride (VC) or 3) dichloroelimination of PCA to DCE, and hydrogenolysis of DCE to VC. Pathways 2 and 3 can result in the accumulation of VC which is considered more hazardous than the original parent compounds. Identifying microbial components involved in the series of degradation steps of each pathway can provide a better understanding of factors controlling the intrinsic bioremediation of these compounds. PCA-amended microcosm experiments were conducted during two seasons, March-April, and July-August 1999 at APG using wetland sediments collected from two distinct sites (one is methanogenic and one is both iron reducing and methanogenic). During the course of the experiments, VOCs, methane, ferrous iron and sulfate were measured. Terminal restriction fragment polymorphism (tRFLP) analysis provides a molecularly-derived microbial "fingerprint" and was used to document the total microbial abundance and characterize the diversity of the bacterial and methanogen communities. Higher rates of degradation observed during the spring sampling were associated with higher biomass and microbial diversity. As the microcosm proceeded, shifts in redox conditions and associated degradation rates and pathways were observed. These shifts were tracked by changes in the microbial community. Three phylotypes were identified that appear to be important in controlling the accumulation of VC; the production (2 phylotypes) and degradation (1 phylotype). Identification of these phylotypes is underway. Sediments along two transects in the wetland were also analyzed and at least one of these phylotypes appears to vary in its relative dominance, which may indicate "hot spots" of potential VC production in the wetland. Information from these studies could provide a predictive tool for biodegradation potential at other contaminated sites.

Kirshtein, J. D.; Voytek, M. A.; Lorah, M m

2001-05-01

330

Critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis - surface water transport for nonradioactive contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The health risks for an individual exposed to contaminants released from SRS outfalls from 1989 to 1995 were estimated. The exposure pathways studied are ingestion of drinking water, ingestion of contaminated fish and dermal contact with contaminants in water while swimming. The estimated incremental risks for an individual developing cancer vary from 3.E-06 to 1.0E-05. The estimated total exposure chronic noncancer hazard indices vary from 6.E-02 to 1.E-01. The critical contaminants were ranked based on their cancer risks and chronic noncarcinogenic hazard quotients. For cancer risks, the critical contaminants released from SRS outfalls are arsenic, tetrachloroethylene, and benzene. For chronic noncarcinogenic risks, the critical contaminants released from srs outfalls are cadmium, arsenic, silver, chromium, mercury, selenium, nitrate, manganese, zinc, nickel, uranium, barium, copper, tetrachloroethylene, cyanide, and phenol. The critical pathways in decreasing risk order are ingestion of contaminated fish, ingestion of drinking water and dermal contact with contaminants in water while swimming.

Chen, Kuo-Fu

1996-11-01

331

Effects of Microbial Trophic Interactions on the Fate and Mobility of Soil Contaminants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project will be initiated by the establishment of a culture collection isolated from contaminated drag strip soil (DSS) and clean Hudson River Sediment (HRS). Careful isolation, characterization, and long term maintenance of these bacteria and protis...

R. A. Snyder

1998-01-01

332

Molecular Characterization Of A Microbial Community From Uranium-Contaminated Acidic Sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Field Research Center (FRC) in Oak Ridge, TN, was established by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program to develop strategies for bioremediation of contaminant metals and radionuclides. The FRC is centered on groundwater plumes that originate from former S-3 Waste Disposal Ponds located at the Y-12 Plant where acidic nitrate- and uranium-contaminated waste

Nadia North

2003-01-01

333

Distribution and Composition of Microbial Populations in a Landfill Leachate Contaminated Aquifer (Grindsted, Denmark)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether landfill leachates affected the microbial biomass and\\/or community composition of the extant microbiota,\\u000a 37 samples were collected along a 305-m transect of a shallow landfill-leachate polluted aquifer. The samples were analyzed\\u000a for total numbers of bacteria by use of the acridine orange direct count method (AODC). Numbers of dominant, specific groups\\u000a of bacteria and total numbers of

L. Ludvigsen; H.-J. Albrechtsen; D. B. Ringelberg; F. Ekelund; T. H. Christensen

1999-01-01

334

Microbial Communities in Long-Term Heavy Metal Contaminated Ombrotrophic Peats  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of heavy metals are known to be toxic to many soil organisms. The effects of long-term exposure to lower\\u000a levels of metals on the soil microbial community are, however, less well understood. The southern Pennines of the U.K. are\\u000a characterised by expanses of ombrotrophic peat soils that have experienced deposition of high levels of heavy metals since\\u000a the

Patricia E. Linton; Laura Shotbolt; Andrew D. Thomas

2007-01-01

335

Soil heavy metal concentrations, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in a contaminated grassland ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass were measured in a grassland ecosystem with a wide range of heavy metal concentrations ranging from 7.2 to 48.1 mmol kg?1 (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in portions of the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, U.S.A. Total and fluorescein diacetate active (FDA) fungal biomass, FDA-active bacterial biomass, substrate-induced respiration (SIR),

Roman G. Kuperman; Margaret M. Carreiro

1997-01-01

336

Microbial activity and distribution during enhanced contaminant dissolution from a NAPL source zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted to assess microbial reductive dechlorination in one-dimensional sand columns containing a 10cm long source zone of uniformly distributed residual tetrachloroethene (PCE) nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL), a 10cm long transition zone directly down-gradient of the source zone containing some nonuniformly distributed NAPL ganglia, and a 40cm long plume region down-gradient of the transition zone. The activity and

Benjamin K. Amos; Eric J. Suchomel; Kurt D. Pennella; Frank E. Löffler

2008-01-01

337

Microbial populations associated with the surface of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microorganisms on the surface of the brown algaAscophyllum nodosum, collected from an intertidal area in Nahant, Massachusetts, were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Differences in the microbial populations on the holdfast, internodal regions of the stipe, and the apical tips were apparent. The populations ranged from a lawn of end-attached bacteria above the holdfast to microcolonies of yeast cells

A. M. Cundell; T. D. Sleeter; R. Mitchell

1977-01-01

338

EFFECT OF IMPACT STRESS ON MICROBIAL RECOVERY ON AN AGAR SURFACE  

EPA Science Inventory

Microbial stress due to the impaction of microorganisms onto an agar collection surface was studied experimentally. he relative recovery rates of aerosolized Pseudomonas fluorescens and Micrococcus luteus were determined as a function of the impaction velocity by using a moving a...

339

Solid\\/solution Cu fractionations\\/speciation of a Cu contaminated soil after pilot-scale electrokinetic remediation and their relationships with soil microbial and enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed metal speciation\\/fractionations of a Cu contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic remediation as well as their relationships with the soil microbial and enzyme activities. Significant changes in the exchangeable and adsorbed-Cu fractionations occurred after electrokinetic treatment, while labile soil Cu in the solution had a tendency to decrease from the

Quan-Ying Wang; Dong-Mei Zhou; Long Cang; Lian-Zhen Li; Peng Wang

2009-01-01

340

Microbial specificity of metallic surfaces exposed to ambient seawater  

SciTech Connect

High-molecular-weight materials associated with the extracellular matrix and film found on titanium and aluminum surfaces after exposure to flowing coastal seawater were isolated. This material was purified by hydroxylapatite chromatography and subsequently employed to produce antibodies in the toad, Bufo marinus. The antibodies were immobilized on a solid support and employed to isolate adhesion-enhancing, high-molecular-weight materials from the laboratory culture media of bacterial strains recovered from the respective metallic surfaces during the course of their exposure to seawater. The adhesion-enhancing materials produced by the surface-associated bacterial strains were immunologically related to the extracellular biofouling matrix material found on the surfaces from which these bacteria were isolated. The surface selectivity of these bacterial strains appeared to be based on the specificity of the interaction between adhesion-enhancing macromolecules produced by these bacteria and the surfaces in question. 30 references, 6 tables.

Zaidi, B.R.; Bard, R.F.; Tosteson, T.R.

1984-09-01

341

Science and technology objective (STO) to develop tests for detecting microbial and chemical contaminants in food and water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assurance of safe food and water is paramount to the health and performance of the warfighter. Any technology to assess the chemical and microbial purity of food and water under field conditions must meet rigorous criteria: it must be readily portable, provide timely results (no more than 4 hours), have adequate sensitivity (1 cfu/100 mL for potable water), be compatible with military power sources, and be of complexity appropriate for operation by a Preventive Medicine Specialist. The nomination of an Army Science and Technology Objective (STO) leads to assessment of existing technologies and commercial products; identification of users, regulators and developers; definition of essential capabilities; and consideration of potential obstructions. The U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research has identified a number of technologies for detecting microbial contaminants in food and water and has pursued development of the more promising examples. This paper examines developmental risks in the context of the STO and offers some insight and strategies to manage them.

Knechtges, Paul L.; Gargan, Thomas P.; Burrows, William D.

2002-02-01

342

Subsurface microbial community structure correlates with uranium redox phases during in situ field manipulation in a contaminated aquifer  

SciTech Connect

Long-term field manipulation experiments investigating the effects of subsurface redox conditions on the fate and transport of soluble uranium(VI) were conducted over a 3 year period at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Center (OR-IFRC) in Oak Ridge, TN. In the highly contaminated source zone, introduction of ethanol to the subsurface stimulated native denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, iron-reducing and fermentative microorganisms and reduced U to below 0.03 mg/L. Subsequently, oxygen and nitrate were experimentally re-introduced into the subsurface to examine the potential for re-oxidation and re-mobilization of U(IV). Introduction of oxygen or nitrate caused changes in subsurface geochemistry and re-oxidation of U. After reoxidation, the subsurface experienced several months of starvation conditions before ethanol injection was restored to reduce the treatment zone. Subsurface microorganisms were characterized by community fingerprinting, targeted population analyses, and quantitative PCR of key functional groups in 50 samples taken during multiple phases of field manipulation. Statistical analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the microbial community would co-vary with the shifts in the subsurface geochemistry. The level of hydraulic connectivity of sampling wells to the injection well was readily tracked by microbial community analysis. We demonstrate quantitatively that specific populations, especially Desulfosporosinus, are heavily influenced by geochemical conditions and positively correlate with the immobilization of uranium. Following nitrate reoxidation, populations of Fe(II)-oxidizing, nitrate reducing organisms (Thiobacillus) showed an increase in relative abundance.

Kostka, Joel [Florida State University; Green, Stefan [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Wu, Wei-min [Stanford University; Criddle, Craig [Stanford University; Watson, David B [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL

2009-07-01

343

Microbial community structure and biodegradation activity of particle-associated bacteria in a coal tar contaminated creek.  

PubMed

The Chattanooga Creek Superfund site (Chattanooga, TN) is one of the most polluted waterways in the southeastern U.S. with high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the sediments. PAHs associate with suspended solids in the water column, and may be redeposited onto the floodplain. These suspended particles represent an interesting but understudied environment for PAH-degrading microbial communities. This study tested the hypotheses that particle-associated bacterial (PAB) communities have genotypic potential (PAH-dioxygenase genes) and activity (naphthalene and pyrene mineralization), and can contribute to natural attenuation of PAHs in Chattanooga Creek. Upstream of the Superfund site, mineralization ranged from 0.2 to 2.0% of added 14C-naphthalene and 0 to 0.1% 14C-pyrene (after 40 h), with first order biodegradation rate constants (k1) ranging from 1.09 to 9.18 x 10(-5) h(-1) and 0 to 1.13 x 10(-6) h(-1), respectively. Mineralization was significantly greater in PAB communities within the contaminated zone, with 11.8 to 31.2% 14C-naphthalene (k1 5.34 to 14.2 x 10(-4) h(-1)) and 1.3 to 6.6% 14C-pyrene mineralized (k1 2.89 to 15.0 x 10(-5) h(-1)). Abundances of nagAc (naphthalene dioxygenase) and nidA (pyrene dioxygenase) genes indicated that PAB communities harbored populations with genetic potential for both low- and high-molecularweight PAH degradation, and quantification of Mycobacterium 16S rDNA genes indicated that PAH-degrading mycobacteria are also prevalent in this environment. Phylogenetic comparisons (T-RFLPs) between PAB and sediments indicated these microbial communities were taxonomically distinct, but shared some functional similarities, namely PAH catabolic genotypes, mineralization capabilities, and community structuring along a contamination gradient PMID:19534112

Debruyn, Jennifer M; Sayler, Gary S

2009-05-01

344

Increased hand washing reduces influenza virus surface contamination in Bangkok households, 2009-2010.  

PubMed

Within a hand-washing clinical trial, we evaluated factors associated with fomite contamination in households with an influenza-infected child. Influenza virus RNA contamination was higher in households with low absolute humidity and in control households, suggesting that hand washing reduces surface contamination. PMID:24373290

Levy, Jens W; Suntarattiwong, Piyarat; Simmerman, James M; Jarman, Richard G; Johnson, Kara; Olsen, Sonja J; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee

2014-01-01

345

Contamination of soils with microbial pathogens originating from effluent water used for agricultural irrigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of wastewater for agricultural irrigation is steadily increasing world-wide and due to shortages of fresh water is common today in most arid regions of the world. The use of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation may result in soil exposure to pathogens, creating potential public health problems. A variety of human pathogens are present in raw sewage water. Although their concentrations decrease during the wastewater reclamation process, the secondary treated effluents most commonly used for irrigation today still contain bacterial human pathogens. A range of bacterial pathogens, introduced through contaminated irrigation water or manure, are capable of surviving for long periods in soil and water where they have the potential to contaminate crops in the field. Therefore, there is a risk of direct contamination of crops by human pathogens from the treated effluents used for irrigation, as well as a risk of indirect contamination of the crops from contaminated soil at the agricultural site. Contradictory to previous notion, recent studies have demonstrated that human pathogens can enter plants through their roots and translocate and survive in edible, aerial plant tissues. The practical implications of these new findings for food safety are still not clear, but no doubt reflect the pathogenic microorganisms' ability to survive and multiply in the irrigated soil, water, and the harvested edible crop.

Bernstein, N.

2009-04-01

346

Effects of heavy metal contamination upon soil microbes: lead-induced changes in general and denitrifying microbial communities as evidenced by molecular markers.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) is a common environmental contaminant found in soils. Unlike other metals, Pb has no biological role, and is potentially toxic to microorganisms. Effects of low (1 ppm) and high (500-2000) levels of lead (Pb) upon the soil microbial community was investigated by the PCR/DGGE analysis of the 16S and nirK gene markers, indicative of general microbial community and denitrifying community, respectively. Community analysis by use of those markers had shown that Pb has detectable effects upon the community diversity even at the lowest concentration tested. Analysis of sample diversity and similarity between the samples suggested that there are several thresholds crossed as metal concentration increase, each causing a substantial change in microbial diversity. Preliminary data obtained in this study suggest that the denitrifying microbial community adapts to elevated levels of Pb by selecting for metal-resistant forms of nitrite reductases. PMID:19151442

Sobolev, Dmitri; Begonia, Maria F T

2008-12-01

347

Fecal contamination and diarrheal pathogens on surfaces and in soils among Tanzanian households with and without improved sanitation.  

PubMed

Little is known about the extent or pattern of environmental fecal contamination among households using low-cost, on-site sanitation facilities, or what role environmental contamination plays in the transmission of diarrheal disease. A microbial survey of fecal contamination and selected diarrheal pathogens in soil (n = 200), surface (n = 120), and produce samples (n = 24) was conducted in peri-urban Bagamoyo, Tanzania, among 20 households using private pit latrines. All samples were analyzed for E. coli and enterococci. A subset was analyzed for enterovirus, rotavirus, norovirus GI, norovirus GII, diarrheagenic E. coli, and general and human-specific Bacteroidales fecal markers using molecular methods. Soil collected from the house floor had significantly higher concentrations of E. coli and enterococci than soil collected from the latrine floor. There was no significant difference in fecal indicator bacteria levels between households using pit latrines with a concrete slab (improved sanitation) versus those without a slab. These findings imply that the presence of a concrete slab does not affect the level of fecal contamination in the household environment in this setting. Human Bacteroidales, pathogenic E. coli, enterovirus, and rotavirus genes were detected in soil samples, suggesting that soil should be given more attention as a transmission pathway of diarrheal illness in low-income countries. PMID:22545817

Pickering, Amy J; Julian, Timothy R; Marks, Sara J; Mattioli, Mia C; Boehm, Alexandria B; Schwab, Kellogg J; Davis, Jennifer

2012-06-01

348

Impacts of Mineralogy and Competing Microbial Respiration Pathways on the Fate of Uranium in Contaminated Groundwater  

SciTech Connect

This is a field-oriented project designed to elucidate the microbiological and geochemical factors controlling U(VI) reduction/immobilization in subsurface environments at the NABIR FRC. Efforts focused on acidic sediments, (1) to characterize the dominant minerals likely to limit U speciation, (2) to directly quantify microbial respiration processes controlling U subsurface chemistry, and (3) to identify and enumerate the responsible organisms. Results indicate that the activities and growth of bacteria are limited in this acidic subsurface. The relevant geochemical parameters have now been characterized, and respiration rates quantified.

Kostka, Joel E.

2003-06-01

349

Role of environmental fluctuations and microbial diversity in degradation of hydrocarbons in contaminated sludge.  

PubMed

Little is known about microbial communities involved in hydrocarbon degradation, whether it be their structural and functional diversity or their response to environmental constraints such as oxygen fluctuation. Here, current knowledge of the impact of diversity and redox oscillations upon ecosystem processes is reviewed. In addition, we present the main conclusions of our studies in this field. Oxic/anoxic oscillations had a strong impact upon bacterial community structures, influencing their ability to degrade hydrocarbons and their capacity to reduce hydrocarbon toxicity. Furthermore, a decrease in functional diversity has a strong impact on pollutant degradation. PMID:21530651

Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina; Vitte, Isabelle; Jézéquel, Ronan; Bellet, Virginie; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Caumette, Pierre; Balaguer, Patrick; Duran, Robert

2011-11-01

350

Seasonal dynamics of a cyanobacteria-dominated microbial community in surface sediments of a shallow, eutrophic lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal variation of microbial biomass and activity in the surface sediments (0–10 cm) of the shallow, eutrophic Lake Vallentunasjön was followed during one year. “Overwintering”Microcystis colonies dominated the microbial community during all seasons, constituting 60–90% of the total microbial biomass. Expressed on an areal basis, the benthic biomass was, throughout the year, larger than or similar to the planktonic

Bengt Boström; Anna-Kristina Pettersson; Ingemar Ahlgren

1989-01-01

351

The selection of mixed microbial inocula in environmental biotechnology: Example using petroleum contaminated tropical soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of inorganic N and P additions on a tropical soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons was investigated using molecular and culture techniques. Microcosms were incubated for 42 days and sampled at 0, 1, 7, 28 and 42 days. Changes in bacterial community structure were determined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the rRNA following reverse transcription PCR using

Savaporn Supaphol; Supamard Panichsakpatana; Savitr Trakulnaleamsai; Nipon Tungkananuruk; Pinnapar Roughjanajirapa; Anthony Gerard O'Donnell

2006-01-01

352

Cleaning Characteristics of Vacuum Arc for Organic Contaminant on Metal Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An arc in a vacuum was applied to clean a metal surface contaminated with organic matter and its cleaning characteristics were investigated. The cleaning began in the central region of a round area covered with a small vacuum chamber and gradually moved to the peripheral region. The cleaning velocities, defined as the cleaned surface area and the weight of the removed contaminant per second, were measured for various surface densities of the contaminant. The surface layer of the metal was stripped simultaneously during cleaning, and it was revealed that the total erosion rate of the contaminant and the metal is constant and that the thickness of the stripped surface layer is not dependent on the surface density of the contaminant but on the discharge current.

Sugimoto, Masaya; Takeda, Koichi

353

Bioremediation of contaminated surface water by immobilized Micrococcus roseus.  

PubMed

The problems caused by contaminated surface water have gradually become more serious in recent years. Although various remediation technologies were investigated, unfortunately, no efficient method was developed. In this paper, a new bioremediation technology was studied using Micrococcus roseus, which was immobilized in porous spherical beads by an improved polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) - sodium alginate (SA) embedding method. The experimental results indicated that COD removal rate could reach 64.7 % within 72 hours when immobilized M. roseus beads were used, which was ten times as high as that of free cells. The optimum inoculation rate of immobilized M. roseus beads was 10 % (mass percent of the beads in water sample, g g(-1)). Suitable aeration was proved necessary to enhance the bioremediation process. The immobilized cells had an excellent tolerance to pH and temperature changes, and were also more resistant to heavy metal stress compared with free cells. The immobilized M. roseus beads had an excellent regeneration capacity and could be reused after 180-day continuous usage. The Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the bead microstructure was suitable for M. roseus growth, however, some defect structures should still be improved. PMID:16128392

Li, H; Li, P; Hua, T; Zhang, Y; Xiong, X; Gong, Z

2005-08-01

354

Recovery of bacillus spore contaminants from rough surfaces: a challenge to space mission cleanliness control.  

PubMed

Microbial contaminants on spacecraft can threaten the scientific integrity of space missions due to probable interference with life detection experiments. Therefore, space agencies measure the cultivable spore load ("bioburden") of a spacecraft. A recent study has reported an insufficient recovery of Bacillus atrophaeus spores from Vectran fabric, a typical spacecraft airbag material (A. Probst, R. Facius, R. Wirth, and C. Moissl-Eichinger, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:5148-5158, 2010). Here, 10 different sampling methods were compared for B. atrophaeus spore recovery from this rough textile, revealing significantly different efficiencies (0.5 to 15.4%). The most efficient method, based on the wipe-rinse technique (foam-spatula protocol; 13.2% efficiency), was then compared to the current European Space Agency (ESA) standard wipe assay in sampling four different kinds of spacecraft-related surfaces. Results indicate that the novel protocol out-performed the standard method with an average efficiency of 41.1% compared to 13.9% for the standard method. Additional experiments were performed by sampling Vectran fabric seeded with seven different spore concentrations and five different Bacillus species (B. atrophaeus, B. anthracis Sterne, B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis, and B. safensis). Among these, B. atrophaeus spores were recovered with the highest (13.2%) efficiency and B. anthracis Sterne spores were recovered with the lowest (0.3%) efficiency. Different inoculation methods of seeding spores on test surfaces (spotting and aerosolization) resulted in different spore recovery efficiencies. The results of this study provide a step forward in understanding the spore distribution on and recovery from rough surfaces. The results presented will contribute relevant knowledge to the fields of astrobiology and B. anthracis research. PMID:21216908

Probst, Alexander; Facius, Rainer; Wirth, Reinhard; Wolf, Marco; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2011-03-01

355

Recovery of Bacillus Spore Contaminants from Rough Surfaces: a Challenge to Space Mission Cleanliness Control?  

PubMed Central

Microbial contaminants on spacecraft can threaten the scientific integrity of space missions due to probable interference with life detection experiments. Therefore, space agencies measure the cultivable spore load (“bioburden”) of a spacecraft. A recent study has reported an insufficient recovery of Bacillus atrophaeus spores from Vectran fabric, a typical spacecraft airbag material (A. Probst, R. Facius, R. Wirth, and C. Moissl-Eichinger, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:5148-5158, 2010). Here, 10 different sampling methods were compared for B. atrophaeus spore recovery from this rough textile, revealing significantly different efficiencies (0.5 to 15.4%). The most efficient method, based on the wipe-rinse technique (foam-spatula protocol; 13.2% efficiency), was then compared to the current European Space Agency (ESA) standard wipe assay in sampling four different kinds of spacecraft-related surfaces. Results indicate that the novel protocol out-performed the standard method with an average efficiency of 41.1% compared to 13.9% for the standard method. Additional experiments were performed by sampling Vectran fabric seeded with seven different spore concentrations and five different Bacillus species (B. atrophaeus, B. anthracis Sterne, B. megaterium, B. thuringiensis, and B. safensis). Among these, B. atrophaeus spores were recovered with the highest (13.2%) efficiency and B. anthracis Sterne spores were recovered with the lowest (0.3%) efficiency. Different inoculation methods of seeding spores on test surfaces (spotting and aerosolization) resulted in different spore recovery efficiencies. The results of this study provide a step forward in understanding the spore distribution on and recovery from rough surfaces. The results presented will contribute relevant knowledge to the fields of astrobiology and B. anthracis research.

Probst, Alexander; Facius, Rainer; Wirth, Reinhard; Wolf, Marco; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

2011-01-01

356

PARAMETERS OF TREATED STAINLESS STEEL SURFACES IMPORTANT FOR RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Use of materials that are resistant to bacterial contamination could enhance food safety during processing. Common finishing treatments of stainless steel surfaces used for components of poultry processing equipment were tested for resistance to bacterial attachment. Surface char...

357

Microbial community genomics in eastern Mediterranean Sea surface waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore waters of the eastern Mediterranean Sea are one of the most oligotrophic regions on Earth in which the primary productivity is phosphorus limited. To study the unexplored function and physiology of microbes inhabiting this system, we have analyzed a genomic library from the eastern Mediterranean Sea surface waters by sequencing both termini of nearly 5000 clones. Genome recruitment strategies

Roi Feingersch; Marcelino T Suzuki; Michael Shmoish; Itai Sharon; Gazalah Sabehi; Frédéric Partensky; Oded Béjà

2010-01-01

358

[Microbial contamination of water by pipe and tubing material. 2. Growth of Legionella pneumophila].  

PubMed

In the 1st communication it was possible to show that some hoses and insufficiently cleaned high grade steel pipe can produce a microbial growth. The growth-promoting effect of materials in the water distribution system for Legionella pneumophila has been discussed before. In this investigation it was tested how L. pneumophila behaves in pipes and hoses with narrow diameter, at temperatures from 35 degrees C to 40 degrees C and over a time of half a year. L. pneumophila could be found in high numbers in the water from PVC, PE, PTFE, rubber and silicon hoses all over the time and regularly in low numbers or occasionally in glass, high-grade steel pipes and PA hose. L. pneumophila could be found only for the first 4 weeks in the copper pipe. PMID:3140536

Schoenen, D; Schulze-Röbbecke, R; Schirdewahn, N

1988-07-01

359

A method for selectively enriching microbial DNA from contaminating vertebrate host DNA.  

PubMed

DNA samples derived from vertebrate skin, bodily cavities and body fluids contain both host and microbial DNA; the latter often present as a minor component. Consequently, DNA sequencing of a microbiome sample frequently yields reads originating from the microbe(s) of interest, but with a vast excess of host genome-derived reads. In this study, we used a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) to separate methylated host DNA from microbial DNA based on differences in CpG methylation density. MBD fused to the Fc region of a human antibody (MBD-Fc) binds strongly to protein A paramagnetic beads, forming an effective one-step enrichment complex that was used to remove human or fish host DNA from bacterial and protistan DNA for subsequent sequencing and analysis. We report enrichment of DNA samples from human saliva, human blood, a mock malaria-infected blood sample and a black molly fish. When reads were mapped to reference genomes, sequence reads aligning to host genomes decreased 50-fold, while bacterial and Plasmodium DNA sequences reads increased 8-11.5-fold. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was calculated for 149 bacterial species in saliva before and after enrichment. Unenriched saliva had an index of 4.72, while the enriched sample had an index of 4.80. The similarity of these indices demonstrates that bacterial species diversity and relative phylotype abundance remain conserved in enriched samples. Enrichment using the MBD-Fc method holds promise for targeted microbiome sequence analysis across a broad range of sample types. PMID:24204593

Feehery, George R; Yigit, Erbay; Oyola, Samuel O; Langhorst, Bradley W; Schmidt, Victor T; Stewart, Fiona J; Dimalanta, Eileen T; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Davis, Theodore; Quail, Michael A; Pradhan, Sriharsa

2013-01-01

360

A Method for Selectively Enriching Microbial DNA from Contaminating Vertebrate Host DNA  

PubMed Central

DNA samples derived from vertebrate skin, bodily cavities and body fluids contain both host and microbial DNA; the latter often present as a minor component. Consequently, DNA sequencing of a microbiome sample frequently yields reads originating from the microbe(s) of interest, but with a vast excess of host genome-derived reads. In this study, we used a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) to separate methylated host DNA from microbial DNA based on differences in CpG methylation density. MBD fused to the Fc region of a human antibody (MBD-Fc) binds strongly to protein A paramagnetic beads, forming an effective one-step enrichment complex that was used to remove human or fish host DNA from bacterial and protistan DNA for subsequent sequencing and analysis. We report enrichment of DNA samples from human saliva, human blood, a mock malaria-infected blood sample and a black molly fish. When reads were mapped to reference genomes, sequence reads aligning to host genomes decreased 50-fold, while bacterial and Plasmodium DNA sequences reads increased 8–11.5-fold. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was calculated for 149 bacterial species in saliva before and after enrichment. Unenriched saliva had an index of 4.72, while the enriched sample had an index of 4.80. The similarity of these indices demonstrates that bacterial species diversity and relative phylotype abundance remain conserved in enriched samples. Enrichment using the MBD-Fc method holds promise for targeted microbiome sequence analysis across a broad range of sample types.

Feehery, George R.; Yigit, Erbay; Oyola, Samuel O.; Langhorst, Bradley W.; Schmidt, Victor T.; Stewart, Fiona J.; Dimalanta, Eileen T.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Davis, Theodore; Quail, Michael A.; Pradhan, Sriharsa

2013-01-01

361

Process and apparatus for microbial filtration and bacterial injection for one or more environmental contaminants  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Scaleable bacterial injection, aeration and filtration system to effectively control microbial community function of aquatic systems. The present invention is a substantially simplified system with respect to handling growth and dispersion of microorganisms in solution and is also adaptable to many different end-use applications, including treatment of ornamental fish and aquaculture, pond and streams and sewage treatment systems. Initial microorganism materials are provided in the form of aqueous suspensions, which are incorporated into a large volume of water in a vessel. Microorganisms are entrapped inside a carrier that serves as a physical enclosure for cell retention. It has a porous structure to facilitate the diffusion of substances, such as ammonia, nitrate, nutrients, fuels and organic carbon, into its internal void volume, where substrate reduction is accomplished by entrapped cells. Specific species of microbes are injected into a filtration matrix that is bathed in oxygenated effluent and a portion of which is dispensed into an aqueous environment. The apparatus can be electronic, air or fluid driven and injected with the desired microbial species, preferably multiple time per day. Multi-stage media can be placed into packed filter units of convenient sizes for wastewater regeneration as well as natural water pollution reduction. The reactor canisters containing entrapped cells are portable and can be assembled off-site and then delivered to the field for installation and immediate operation. Bio-solid reduction, odor reduction, unplugging of leaching fields, conversion and reduction of nitrogen species in natural waters such as lakes and ponds, etc. can be accomplished.

2007-01-23

362

Effectiveness of bioremediation of crude oil contaminated subantarctic intertidal sediment: the microbial response.  

PubMed

A field study was initiated in February 1996 in a remote sandy beach of The Grande Terre (Kerguelen Archipelago, 69 degrees 42 degrees E, 49 degrees 19 degrees S) with the objective of determining the long-term effects of some bioremediation agents on the biodegradation rate and the toxicity of oil residues under severe subantarctic conditions. A series of 10 experimental plots were settled firmly into sediment. Each plot received 2L of Arabian light crude oil and some of them were treated with bioremediation agents: slow release fertilizer Inipol EAP-22 (Elf Atochem) or fish composts. Plots were sampled on a regular basis over a 3-year period. A two-order of magnitude increase of saprophytic and hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms occurred during the first month of the experiment in all treated enclosures, but no clear differences appeared between the plots. Very high microbial populations were present during the experiment. Biodegradation within treated spots was faster than within the untreated ones and appeared almost complete after 6 months as indicated by the degradation index of aliphatic hydrocarbons within all plots. The analysis of interstitial water collected below the oily residues presented no toxicity. However, a high toxicity signal, using Microtox solid phase, appeared for all oiled sand samples with a noticeable reduction with time even if the toxicity signal remained present and strong after 311 days of oil exposition. As a conclusion, it is clear that the microbial response was rapid and efficient in spite of the severe weather conditions, and the rate of degradation was improved in presence of bioremediation agents. However, the remaining residues had a relatively high toxicity. PMID:12060863

Delille, D; Delille, B; Pelletier, E

2002-08-01

363

Materials SIG quantification and characterization of surface contaminants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When LDEF entered orbit its cleanliness was approximately a MIL-STD-1246B Level 2000C. Its burden of contaminants included particles from every part of its history including a relatively small contribution from the shuttle bay itself. Although this satellite was far from what is normally considered clean in the aerospace industry, contaminating events in orbit and from processing after recovery were easily detected. The molecular contaminants carried into orbit were dwarfed by the heavy deposition of UV polymerized films from outgassing urethane paints and silicone based materials. Impacts by relatively small objects in orbit could create particulate contaminants that easily dominated the particle counts within a centimeter of the impact site. During the recovery activities LDEF was 'sprayed' with a liquid high in organics and water soluble salts. With reentry turbulence, vibration, and gravitational loading particulate contaminants were redistributed about LDEF and the shuttle bay.

Crutcher, E. Russ

1992-01-01

364

Development of equations to estimate microbial contamination in ruminal incubation residues of forage produced under tropical conditions using 15N as a label.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to use (15)N to label microbial cells to allow development of equations for estimating the microbial contamination in ruminal in situ incubation residues of forage produced under tropical conditions. A total of 24 tropical forages were ruminal incubated in 3 steers at 3 separate times. To determine microbial contamination of the incubated residues, ruminal bacteria were labeled with (15)N by continuous intraruminal infusion 60 h before the first incubation and continued until the last day of incubation. Ruminal digesta was collected for the isolation of bacteria before the first infusion of (15)N on adaptation period and after the infusion of (15)N on collection period. To determine the microbial contamination of CP fractions, restricted models were compared with the full model using the model identity test. A value of the corrected fraction "A" was estimated from the corresponding noncorrected fraction by this equation: Corrected "A" fraction (A(CP)C) = 1.99286 + 0.98256 × A" fraction without correction (A(CP)WC). The corrected fraction "B" was estimated from the corresponding noncorrected fraction and from CP, NDF, neutral detergent insoluble protein (NDIP), and indigestible NDF (iNDF) using the equation corrected "B" fraction (B(CP)C) = -17.2181 - 0.0344 × fraction "B" without correction (B(CP)WC) + 0.65433 × CP + 1.03787 × NDF + 2.66010 × NDIP - 0.85979 × iNDF. The corrected degradation rate of "B" fraction (kd)was estimated using the equation corrected degradation rate of "B" fraction (kd(CP)C) = 0.04667 + 0.35139 × degradation rate of "B" fraction without correction (kd(CP)WC) + 0.0020 × CP - 0.00055839 × NDF - 0.00336 × NDIP + 0.00075089 × iNDF. This equation was obtained to estimate the contamination using CP of the feeds: %C = 79.21 × (1 - e(-0.0555t)) × e(-0.0874CP). It was concluded that A and B fractions and kd of CP could be highly biased by microbial CP contamination, and therefore these corrected values could be obtained mathematically, replacing the use of microbial markers. The percentage of contamination and the corrected apparent degradability of CP could be obtained from values of CP and time of incubation for each feed, which could reduce cost and labor involved when using (15)N. PMID:23658352

Machado, P A S; Valadares Filho, S C; Detmann, E; Santos, S A; Valadares, R F D; Ducatti, C; Rotta, P P; Costa e Silva, L F

2013-08-01

365

Microbial Links between Sulfate Reduction and Metal Retention in Uranium- and Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil?  

PubMed Central

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can affect metal mobility either directly by reductive transformation of metal ions, e.g., uranium, into their insoluble forms or indirectly by formation of metal sulfides. This study evaluated in situ and biostimulated activity of SRB in groundwater-influenced soils from a creek bank contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides within the former uranium mining district of Ronneburg, Germany. In situ activity of SRB, measured by the 35SO42? radiotracer method, was restricted to reduced soil horizons with rates of ?142 ± 20 nmol cm?3 day?1. Concentrations of heavy metals were enriched in the solid phase of the reduced horizons, whereas pore water concentrations were low. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements demonstrated that ?80% of uranium was present as reduced uranium but appeared to occur as a sorbed complex. Soil-based dsrAB clone libraries were dominated by sequences affiliated with members of the Desulfobacterales but also the Desulfovibrionales, Syntrophobacteraceae, and Clostridiales. [13C]acetate- and [13C]lactate-biostimulated soil microcosms were dominated by sulfate and Fe(III) reduction. These processes were associated with enrichment of SRB and Geobacteraceae; enriched SRB were closely related to organisms detected in soils by using the dsrAB marker. Concentrations of soluble nickel, cobalt, and occasionally zinc declined ?100% during anoxic soil incubations. In contrast to results in other studies, soluble uranium increased in carbon-amended treatments, reaching ?1,407 nM in solution. Our results suggest that (i) ongoing sulfate reduction in contaminated soil resulted in in situ metal attenuation and (ii) the fate of uranium mobility is not predictable and may lead to downstream contamination of adjacent ecosystems.

Sitte, Jana; Akob, Denise M.; Kaufmann, Christian; Finster, Kai; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Burkhardt, Eva-Maria; Kostka, Joel E.; Scheinost, Andreas C.; Buchel, Georg; Kusel, Kirsten

2010-01-01

366

Surface-film microbial populations: diel amino acid metabolism, carbon utilization, and growth rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microheterotrophic dissolved free amino acid (DFAA) utilization, and microbial community and bacterial community carbon production and growth were studied using 3H-labeled organics as tracers in marine surface-film and subsurface (10 cm) waters off Baja California in November 1983. DFAA utilization was generally more rapid during the day (0.14 to 0.38 nM h-1) than at night (0.04 to 0.14 nM h-1)

A. F. Carlucci; D. B. Craven; K. J. Robertson; P. M. Williams

1986-01-01

367

Surface area measurements of marine basalts: Implications for the subseafloor microbial biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

These first measurements of specific surface area (SSA) of bulk samples of subsurface marine basalts were undertaken to determine the potential area available for microbial colonization. SSA ranged from 0.3 to 52 m2\\/g of basalt with the lowest value coming from pillow basalt and the highest value from breccia. The average for massive and pillow basalts combined was 2.3 m2\\/g.

Mark E. Nielsen; Martin R. Fisk

2010-01-01

368

Effect of Impact Stress on Microbial Recovery on an Agar Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial stress due to the impaction of microorganisms onto an agar collection surface was studied experimentally. The relative recovery rates of aerosolizedPseudomonasfluorescensandMicrococcus luteuswere determined as a function of the impaction velocity by using a moving agar slide impactor operating over aflow rate range from 3.8 to 40 liters\\/min yielding impaction velocities from 24 to 250 m\\/s. As a reference, the

SHELBY L. STEWART; SERGEY A. GRINSHPUN; KLAUS WILLEKE; SILVA TERZIEVA; VIDMANTAS ULEVICIUS; ANDJEAN DONNELLY

1995-01-01

369

Efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) for reducing microbial contamination on minimally-processed vegetables.  

PubMed

Consumption of minimally-processed, or fresh-cut, fruit and vegetables has rapidly increased in recent years, but there have also been several reported outbreaks associated with the consumption of these products. Sodium hypochlorite is currently the most widespread disinfectant used by fresh-cut industries. Neutral electrolyzed water (NEW) is a novel disinfection system that could represent an alternative to sodium hypochlorite. The aim of the study was to determine whether NEW could replace sodium hypochlorite in the fresh-cut produce industry. The effects of NEW, applied in different concentrations, at different treatment temperatures and for different times, in the reduction of the foodborne pathogens Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and against the spoilage bacterium Erwinia carotovora were tested in lettuce. Lettuce was artificially inoculated by dipping it in a suspension of the studied pathogens at 10(8), 10(7) or 10(5) cfu ml(-1), depending on the assay. The NEW treatment was always compared with washing with deionized water and with a standard hypochlorite treatment. The effect of inoculum size was also studied. Finally, the effect of NEW on the indigenous microbiota of different packaged fresh-cut products was also determined. The bactericidal activity of diluted NEW (containing approximately 50 ppm of free chlorine, pH 8.60) against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, L. innocua and E. carotovora on lettuce was similar to that of chlorinated water (120 ppm of free chlorine) with reductions of 1-2 log units. There were generally no significant differences when treating lettuce with NEW for 1 and 3 min. Neither inoculation dose (10(7) or 10(5) cfu ml(-1)) influenced the bacterial reduction achieved. Treating fresh-cut lettuce, carrot, endive, corn salad and 'Four seasons' salad with NEW 1:5 (containing about 50 ppm of free chlorine) was equally effective as applying chlorinated water at 120 ppm. Microbial reduction depended on the vegetable tested: NEW and sodium hypochlorite treatments were more effective on carrot and endive than on iceberg lettuce, 'Four seasons' salad and corn salad. The reductions of indigenous microbiota were smaller than those obtained with the artificially inoculated bacteria tested (0.5-1.2 log reduction). NEW seems to be a promising disinfection method as it would allow to reduce the amount of free chlorine used for the disinfection of fresh-cut produce by the food industry, as the same microbial reduction as sodium hypochlorite is obtained. This would constitute a safer, 'in situ', and easier to handle way of ensuring food safety. PMID:18237810

Abadias, Maribel; Usall, Josep; Oliveira, Márcia; Alegre, Isabel; Viñas, Inmaculada

2008-03-31

370

Microbial community structure and biodegradation activity of particle-associated bacteria in a coal tar contaminated creek  

SciTech Connect

The Chattanooga Creek Superfund site (Chattanooga, TN) is one of the most polluted waterways in the southeastern U.S. with high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the sediments. PAHs associate with suspended solids in the water column, and may be redeposited onto the floodplain. These suspended particles represent an interesting but understudied environment for PAH-degrading microbial communities. This study tested the hypotheses that particle-associated bacterial (PAB) communities have genotypic potential (PAH-dioxygenase genes) and activity (naphthalene and pyrene mineralization), and can contribute to natural attenuation of PAHs in Chattanooga Creek. Upstream of the Superfund site, mineralization ranged from 0.2 to 2.0% of added {sup 14}C-naphthalene and 0 to 0.1% {sup 14}C-pyrene (after 40 h), with first order biodegradation rate constants (k{sub 1}) ranging from 1.09 to 9.18 x 10{sup -5} h{sup -1} and 0 to 1.13 x 10{sup -6} h{sup -1}, respectively. Mineralization was significantly greater in PAB communities within the contaminated zone, with 11.8 to 31.2% {sup 14}C-naphthalene (k{sup 1} 5.34 to 14.2 x 10-4 h{sup -1}) and 1.3 to 6.6% {sup 14}C-pyrene mineralized (k{sub 1} 2.89 to 15.0 x 10{sup -5} h{sup -1}). Abundances of nagAc (naphthalene dioxygenase) and nidA (pyrene dioxygenase) genes indicated that PAB communities harbored populations with genetic potential for both low- and high-molecular weight PAH degradation, and quantification of Mycobacterium 16S rDNA genes indicated that PAH-degrading mycobacteria are also prevalent in this environment. Phylogenetic comparisons (T-RFLPs) between PAB and sediments indicated these microbial communities were taxonomically distinct, but shared some functional similarities, namely PAH catabolic genotypes, mineralization capabilities, and community structuring along a contamination gradient. 38 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Jennifer M. DeBruyn; Gary S. Sayler [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology and Department of Microbiology

2009-05-01

371

Microbial Populations in Surface Films: Amino Acid Dynamics in Nearshore and Offshore Waters Off Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial biomass and utilization (incorporation plus respiration) of dissolved free amino acids (DFAA) were studied in sea surface films or microlayers in nearshore and offshore waters off the coast of southern California during 1988 (September) and 1989 (October). Microbial biomass (bacterial numbers via cell counts and total microbial biomass via adenosine triphosphate concentrations), DFAA, and dissolved combined amino acids (DCAA) were always enriched in films compared with subsurface waters, with enrichment factors (ratio of microlayer value compared to 10-cm control value) often exceeding those measured previously in microlayers from diverse Atlantic and Pacific coastal and island environments. Higher enrichment factors were generally obtained for offshore stations than for nearshore sites. Glutamic acid utilization was greater in microlayers than in control waters at 9 of 13 stations. At those sites where higher utilization occurred in the 10-cm waters, the microbial populations were highly active and had been subjected to substantial wind mixing prior to sampling. Glutamic acid concentrations were increased in subsurface waters at these sites relative to other stations, apparently by the input of dissolved film constituents. Calculated turnover times were longer for films than for 10-cm waters, in large pan because of the substantially larger glutamic acid pools in the films. Individual amino acids were not enriched in films compared with 10-cm waters to the same degree in both the DFAA and DCAA. The relative levels of the individual amino acids in the free and combined pools may have been influenced by their differential production or preferential utilization.

Carlucci, A. F.; Wolgast, D. M.; Craven, D. B.

1992-04-01

372

Foodborne illness outbreaks from microbial contaminants in spices, 1973-2010.  

PubMed

This review identified fourteen reported illness outbreaks attributed to consumption of pathogen-contaminated spice during the period 1973-2010. Countries reporting outbreaks included Canada, Denmark, England and Wales, France, Germany, New Zealand, Norway, Serbia, and the United States. Together, these outbreaks resulted in 1946 reported human illnesses, 128 hospitalizations and two deaths. Infants/children were the primary population segments impacted by 36% (5/14) of spice-attributed outbreaks. Four outbreaks were associated with multiple organisms. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica was identified as the causative agent in 71% (10/14) of outbreaks, accounting for 87% of reported illnesses. Bacillus spp. was identified as the causative agent in 29% (4/10) of outbreaks, accounting for 13% of illnesses. 71% (10/14) of outbreaks were associated with spices classified as fruits or seeds of the source plant. Consumption of ready-to-eat foods prepared with spices applied after the final food manufacturing pathogen reduction step accounted for 70% of illnesses. Pathogen growth in spiced food is suspected to have played a role in some outbreaks, but it was not likely a contributing factor in three of the larger Salmonella outbreaks, which involved low-moisture foods. Root causes of spice contamination included contributions from both early and late stages of the farm-to-table continuum. PMID:24010629

Van Doren, Jane M; Neil, Karen P; Parish, Mickey; Gieraltowski, Laura; Gould, L Hannah; Gombas, Kathy L

2013-12-01

373

Microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines: comparison between Er:YAG laser and turbine lines.  

PubMed

The investigation was carried out by evaluating the microbiological characteristics of the water before and after treatment with Er:YAG laser and turbine. The study was carried out in 2 dental surgeries. In both cases the laser and dental units were served by two independent circuits, fed by the same potable tap water. Samples were taken from the water supplying and the water leaving the turbine and laser before and after treatment on the same patient. Total heterotrophic plate count was measured at 36 degrees C and at 22 degrees C, and the presence of Staphylococcus species and non-fermenting Gram negative bacteria was investigated. Bacterial contamination was found within the circuit, especially in the laser device. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected in only 1 sample of supply water, in 11.1 % and in 19.4 % of the samples from the turbine and the laser respectively. No evidence of Staphylococcus aureus was found. The contamination of supply water was low, whereas that of the water leaving the handpieces of the 2 devices was high, especially in the laser. Attention should be paid to the control of the water leaving laser devices, given the increasingly wide use of such instruments in dental treatment exposed to risk of infection. PMID:17196001

Sacchetti, Rossella; Baldissarri, Augusto; De Luca, Giovanna; Lucca, Paola; Stampi, Serena; Zanetti, Franca

2006-01-01

374

Reduction of Contaminants (Physical, Chemical, and Microbial) in Domestic Wastewater through Hybrid Constructed Wetland.  

PubMed

The current research was focused mainly on the designing and construction of efficient laboratory scale hybrid constructed wetland (HCW) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. Parameters like COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and pathogenic indicator microbes were monitored after hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 days. Treatment efficiency of HCW kept on increasing with the increase in hydraulic retention time. Maximum efficiency of HCW was observed with a 20-day HRT, that is, 97.55, 97.5, 89.35, 80.75, 96.04, 91.52, and 98.6% reduction from the zero time value for COD, BOD5, PO4, SO4, NO3, NO2, and fecal coliforms, respectively. After 20 days' time, the treated water was free of almost all nutrients and microbial pollutants. Hence, increasing hydraulic retention time was found to ameliorate the operational competence of HCW. Thus HCW can serve as a promising technology for wastewater treatment and can be scaled up for small communities in the developing countries. PMID:23724336

Sehar, Shama; Aamir, Rabia; Naz, Iffat; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia

2013-01-01

375

Isolation of PCR quality microbial community DNA from heavily contaminated environments.  

PubMed

Asphalts, biochemically degraded oil, contain persistent, water-soluble compounds that pose a significant challenge to the isolation of PCR quality DNA. The adaptation of existing DNA purification protocols and commercial kits proved unsuccessful at overcoming this hurdle. Treatment of aqueous asphalt extracts with a polyamide resin afforded genomic microbial DNA templates that could readily be amplified by PCR. Physicochemically distinct asphalt samples from five natural oil seeps successfully generated the expected 291bp amplicons targeting a region of the 16S rRNA gene, illustrating the robustness of the method. DNA recovery yields were in the 50-80% range depending on how the asphalt sample was seeded with exogenous DNA. The scope of the new method was expanded to include soil with high humic acid content. DNA from soil samples spiked with a range of humic acid concentrations was extracted with a commercial kit followed by treatment with the polyamide resin. The additional step significantly improved the purity of the DNA templates, especially at high humic acid concentrations, based on qPCR analysis of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The new method has the advantages of being inexpensive, simple, and rapid and should provide a valuable addition to protocols in the field of petroleum and soil microbiology. PMID:24769406

Gunawardana, Manjula; Chang, Simon; Jimenez, Abraham; Holland-Moritz, Daniel; Holland-Moritz, Hannah; La Val, Taylor P; Lund, Craig; Mullen, Madeline; Olsen, John; Sztain, Terra A; Yoo, Jennifer; Moss, John A; Baum, Marc M

2014-07-01

376

Surface dopant concentration measurement using the Surface Charge Profiler (SCP) method: characterization of hydrogen and metallic contamination in silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron deactivation by pairing with contaminants and boron compensation are studied in silicon wafers from various IC manufacturing processes using the Surface Charge Profiler (SCP) method. Dissociation energies of pairs formed due to noble metals contamination in HF chemistries are the same independently of the noble metal and correspond to the one of B–H pairs. This suggests that metals are

A. Danel; F. Tardif; G. Kamarinos

1999-01-01

377

Evaluation of Two Library-Independent Microbial Source Tracking Methods To Identify Sources of Fecal Contamination in French Estuaries?  

PubMed Central

In order to identify the origin of the fecal contamination observed in French estuaries, two library-independent microbial source tracking (MST) methods were selected: (i) Bacteroidales host-specific 16S rRNA gene markers and (ii) F-specific RNA bacteriophage genotyping. The specificity of the Bacteroidales markers was evaluated on human and animal (bovine, pig, sheep, and bird) feces. Two human-specific markers (HF183 and HF134), one ruminant-specific marker (CF193?), and one pig-specific marker (PF163) showed a high level of specificity (>90%). However, the data suggest that the proposed ruminant-specific CF128 marker would be better described as an animal marker, as it was observed in all bovine and sheep feces and 96% of pig feces. F RNA bacteriophages were detected in only 21% of individual fecal samples tested, in 60% of pig slurries, but in all sewage samples. Most detected F RNA bacteriophages were from genotypes II and III in sewage samples and from genotypes I and IV in bovine, pig, and bird feces and from pig slurries. Both MST methods were applied to 28 water samples collected from three watersheds at different times. Classification of water samples as subject to human, animal, or mixed fecal contamination was more frequent when using Bacteroidales markers (82.1% of water samples) than by bacteriophage genotyping (50%). The ability to classify a water sample increased with increasing Escherichia coli or enterococcus concentration. For the samples that could be classified by bacteriophage genotyping, 78% agreed with the classification obtained from Bacteroidales markers.

Gourmelon, Michele; Caprais, Marie Paule; Segura, Raphael; Le Mennec, Cecile; Lozach, Solen; Piriou, Jean Yves; Rince, Alain

2007-01-01

378

Effects of cleaning and disinfection in reducing the spread of Norovirus contamination via environmental surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay was used to study the transfer of Norovirus (NV) from contaminated faecal material via fingers and cloths to other hand-contact surfaces. The results showed that, where fingers come into contact with virus-contaminated material, NV is consistently transferred via the fingers to melamine surfaces and from there to other typical hand-contact surfaces, such as

J. Barker; I. B. Vipond; S. F. Bloomfield

2004-01-01

379

Microbial surface display of glucose dehydrogenase for amperometric glucose biosensor.  

PubMed

A genetically engineered Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain displaying glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) with ice-nucleation protein (INP) as the anchoring motif was first constructed. The surface localization and functionality of the fusion protein containing GDH were verified by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and enzymatic activity assay. The fusion of INP had no effects on the functionality of GDH cofactor binding domain. The activity assay showed that 74.6% of the cell lysate GDH activity was detected in the outer membrane fractions. Compared with the crude enzyme solution from E. coli expressing intracellular GDH, the GDH-displaying bacteria (GDH-bacteria) was stable within pH 6-10 below 40°C. Further, a novel electrochemical glucose biosensor was developed by construction of Nafion/GDH-bacteria/multiwalled-carbon-nanotube modified electrode. The as-prepared biosensor is linear with the concentration of d-glucose within the range of 50-800 ?M and a low detection limit of 4 ?M D-glucose (S/N=3). Excess saccharides including D-galactose, D-fructose, D-cellbiose, L-arabinose and D-sucrose, D-maltose, D-mannose and D-xylose as well as common interfering substances (acetaminophen, ascorbic acid and uric acid) did not affect the detection of D-glucose (0.1mM). The proposed biosensor is stable, specific, reproducible, simple, rapid and cost-effective, which can be used for detection of real samples. It is envisioned that this GDH-bacteria will be found promising applications in biofuel cell, glucose detection and cofactor reproduction system. PMID:23454338

Liang, Bo; Li, Liang; Tang, Xiangjiang; Lang, Qiaolin; Wang, Hongwei; Li, Feng; Shi, Jianguo; Shen, Wei; Palchetti, Ilaria; Mascini, Marco; Liu, Aihua

2013-07-15

380

Microbial biosafety of pilot-scale bioreactor treating MTBE and TBA-contaminated drinking water supply  

PubMed Central

A pilot-scale sand-based fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was utilized to treat both methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) from a contaminated aquifer. To evaluate the potential for re-use of the treated water, we tested for a panel of water quality indicator microorganisms and potential waterborne pathogens including total coliforms, E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolytica and Mycobacterium avium in both influent and treated waters from the bioreactor. Total bacteria decreased during FBBR treatment. E. coli, Salmonella and Shigella spp., C. jejuni, V. cholerae, Y. enterocolytica and M. avium were not detected in aquifer water or bioreactor treated water samples. For those pathogens detected, including total coliforms, L. pneumophila and A. hydrophila, numbers were usually lower in treated water than influent samples, suggesting removal during treatment. The detection of particular bacterial species reflected their presence or absence in the influent waters.

Schmidt, Radomir; Klemme, David A.; Scow, Kate; Hristova, Krassimira

2012-01-01

381

Transport of E. coli in Aquifer Sediments of Bangladesh: Implications for Widespread Microbial Contamination of Groundwater  

PubMed Central

Fecal bacteria are frequently found at much greater distances than would be predicted by laboratory studies, indicating that improved models that incorporate more complexity are might be needed to explain the widespread contamination of many shallow aquifers. In this study, laboratory measurements of breakthrough and retained bacteria in columns of intact and repacked sediment cores from Bangladesh were fit using a two-population model with separate reversible and irreversible attachment sites that also incorporated bacterial decay rates. Separate microcosms indicated an average first order decay rate of 0.03 log10 / day for free bacteria in both the liquid phase and bacteria attached to the solid phase. Although two-thirds of the column results could be well fit with a dual deposition site, single population model, fitting of one third of the results required a two-population model with a high irreversible attachment rate (between 5 and 60 hr-1) for one population of bacteria and a much lower rate (from 5 hr-1 to essentially zero) for the second. Inferred attachment rates for the reversible sites varied inversely with grain size (varying from 1 - 20 hr-1 for grain sizes between 0.1 and 0.3 mm) while reversible detachment rates were found to be nearly constant (approximately 0.5 hr-1). Field simulations based on the fitted two-population model parameters predict only a two-fold reduction in fecal source concentration ov