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Sample records for surface receptor aggregates

  1. Modeling multivalent ligand-receptor interactions with steric constraints on configurations of cell surface receptor aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Monine, Michael; Posner, Richard; Savage, Paul; Faeder, James; Hlavacek, William S

    2008-01-01

    Signal transduction generally involves multivalent protein-protein interactions, which can produce various protein complexes and post-translational modifications. The reaction networks that characterize these interactions tend to be so large as to challenge conventional simulation procedures. To address this challenge, a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method has been developed that can take advantage of a model specification in terms of reaction rules for molecular interactions. A set of rules implicitly defines the reactions that can occur as a result of the interactions represented by the rules. With the rule-based KMC method, explicit generation of the underlying chemical reaction network implied by rules is avoided. Here, we apply and extend this method to characterize the interactions of a trivalent ligand with a bivalent cell-surface receptor. This system is also studied experimentally. We consider the following kinetic models: an equivalent-site model, an extension of this model, which takes into account steric constraints on the configurations of receptor aggregates, and finally, a model that accounts for cyclic receptor aggregates. Simulation results for the equivalent-site model are consistent with an equilibrium continuum model. Using these models, we investigate the effects of steric constraints and the formation of cyclic aggregates on the kinetics and equilibria of small and large aggregate formation and the percolation phase transition that occurs in this system.

  2. Aggregation Limits Surface Expression of Homomeric GluA3 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Sarah K; Hou, Ying; Willibald, Marina; Semenov, Artur; Möykkynen, Tommi; Keinänen, Kari

    2016-04-15

    AMPA receptors are glutamate-gated cation channels assembled from GluA1-4 subunits and have properties that are strongly dependent on the subunit composition. The subunits have different propensities to form homomeric or various heteromeric receptors expressed on cell surface, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we examined the biochemical basis for the poor ability of GluA3 subunits to form homomeric receptors, linked previously to two amino acid residues, Tyr-454 and Arg-461, in its ligand binding domain (LBD). Surface expression of GluA3 was improved by co-assembly with GluA2 but not with stargazin, a trafficking chaperone and modulator of AMPA receptors. The secretion efficiency of GluA2 and GluA3 LBDs paralleled the transport difference between the respective full-length receptors and was similarly dependent on Tyr-454/Arg-461 but not on LBD stability. In comparison to GluA2, GluA3 homomeric receptors showed a strong and Tyr-454/Arg-461-dependent tendency to aggregate both in the macroscopic scale measured as lower solubility in nonionic detergent and in the microscopic scale evident as the preponderance of hydrodynamically large structures in density gradient centrifugation and native gel electrophoresis. We conclude that the impaired surface expression of homomeric GluA3 receptors is caused by nonproductive assembly and aggregation to which LBD residues Tyr-454 and Arg-461 strongly contribute. This aggregation inhibits the entry of newly synthesized GluA3 receptors to the secretory pathway. PMID:26912664

  3. Electron microscopic localization of receptors for aggregated beta 2-microglobulin on the surface of beta-hemolytic streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, M; Wagner, B; Kronvall, G; Björck, L

    1983-01-01

    The presence and location of receptors for aggregated human beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) on the surface of group A, C, and G streptococci were studied by electron microscopic techniques. Ferritin-conjugated aggregates of human beta 2m were used in direct binding experiments. Ferritin-conjugated antibodies against beta 2m were employed in a two-step indirect binding assay where the streptococci were incubated with unlabeled beta 2m aggregates before the addition of antibodies. Similar results were obtained with these two methods. Among tested group C and G strains, some showed binding of beta 2m, whereas others were negative. In group A streptococci, beta 2m binding was localized to filamentous structures typical of M protein. In two M protein-negative group A strains, the reactivity was heterogeneous, revealing a majority of unlabeled, but also some heavily labeled streptococci. Morphologically, these beta 2m-binding bacteria exhibited M protein-like projections in contrast to the smooth surfaces of unlabeled cells. Images PMID:6352498

  4. Implications of epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced egf receptor aggregation.

    PubMed Central

    Wofsy, C; Goldstein, B; Lund, K; Wiley, H S

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the role of receptor aggregation in EGF binding, we construct a mathematical model describing receptor dimerization (and higher levels of aggregation) that permits an analysis of the influence of receptor aggregation on ligand binding. We answer two questions: (a) Can Scatchard plots of EGF binding data be analyzed productively in terms of two noninteracting receptor populations with different affinities if EGF induced receptor aggregation occurs? No. If two affinities characterize aggregated and monomeric EGF receptors, we show that the Scatchard plot should have curvature characteristic of positively cooperative binding, the opposite of that observed. Thus, the interpretation that the high affinity population represents aggregated receptors and the low affinity population nonaggregated receptors is wrong. If the two populations are interpreted without reference to receptor aggregation, an important determinant of Scatchard plot shape is ignored. (b) Can a model for EGF receptor aggregation and EGF binding be consistent with the "negative curvature" (i.e., curvature characteristic of negatively cooperative binding) observed in most Scatchard plots of EGF binding data? Yes. In addition, the restrictions on the model parameters required to obtain negatively curved Scatchard plots provide new information about binding and aggregation. In particular, EGF binding to aggregated receptors must be negatively cooperative, i.e., binding to a receptor in a dimer (or higher oligomer) having one receptor already bound occurs with lower affinity than the initial binding event. A third question we consider is whether the model we present can be used to detect the presence of mechanisms other than receptor aggregation that are contributing to Scatchard plot curvature. For the membrane and cell binding data we analyzed, the best least squares fits of the model to each of the four data sets deviate systematically from the data, indicating that additional factors are

  5. Diffusion-limited aggregation on curved surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Crowdy, D.; Bazant, M. Z.

    2010-08-01

    We develop a general theory of transport-limited aggregation phenomena occurring on curved surfaces, based on stochastic iterated conformal maps and conformal projections to the complex plane. To illustrate the theory, we use stereographic projections to simulate diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) on surfaces of constant Gaussian curvature, including the sphere (K>0) and the pseudo-sphere (K<0), which approximate "bumps" and "saddles" in smooth surfaces, respectively. Although the curvature affects the global morphology of the aggregates, the fractal dimension (in the curved metric) is remarkably insensitive to curvature, as long as the particle size is much smaller than the radius of curvature. We conjecture that all aggregates grown by conformally invariant transport on curved surfaces have the same fractal dimension as DLA in the plane. Our simulations suggest, however, that the multifractal dimensions increase from hyperbolic (K<0) to elliptic (K>0) geometry, which we attribute to curvature-dependent screening of tip branching.

  6. Embryonic brain extract induces collagen biosynthesis in cultured muscle cells: involvement in acetylcholine receptor aggregation.

    PubMed Central

    Kalcheim, C; Vogel, Z; Duksin, D

    1982-01-01

    The involvement of extracellular matrix components in induction of the aggregation of acetylcholine (AcCho) receptors by factor(s) present in embryonic brain extract was investigated. Embryonic brain extract induced a three-fold increase in the number of AcCho receptor aggregates on the surface of cultured myotubes and a 5- to 10-fold increase in the synthesis of procollagen, which was secreted into the medium and converted to collagen. Adult brain extract, embryonic serum, and embryonic liver extract were less active in stimulating both collagen synthesis and AcCho receptor aggregation. A physiological connection between the two processes is suggested, since the number of AcCho receptor aggregates could be reduced to control levels by treating brain extract-stimulated myotubes with purified bacterial collagenase. In addition, stimulation of collagen secretion by ascorbic acid (50 micrograms/ml) promoted a 1.6-fold increase in AcCho receptor aggregation. When ascorbic acid was added together with the brain extract, further increases in both collagen synthesis and AcCho receptor aggregation were observed. Images PMID:6285338

  7. Folate-receptor-targeted delivery of doxorubicin nano-aggregates stabilized by doxorubicin-PEG-folate conjugate.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyuk Sang; Park, Tae Gwan

    2004-11-24

    For folate-receptor-targeted anti-cancer therapy, doxorubicin aggregates in a nano-scale size were produced employing doxorubicin-polyethylene glycol-folate (DOX-PEG-FOL) conjugate. Doxorubicin and folate were respectively conjugated to alpha- and omega-terminal end group of a PEG chain. The conjugates assisted to form doxorubicin nano-aggregates with an average size of 200 nm in diameter when combined with an excess amount of deprotonated doxorubicin in an aqueous phase. Hydrophobically deprotonated doxorubicin molecules were aggregated within the core, while the DOX-PEG-FOL conjugates stabilized the aggregates with exposing folate moieties on the surface. The doxorubicin nano-aggregates showed a greater extent of intracellular uptake against folate-receptor-positive cancer cells than folate-receptor-negative cells, indicating that the cellular uptake occurred via a folate-receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism. They also exhibited more potent cytotoxic effect on KB cells than free doxorubicin. In a human tumor xenograft nude mouse model, folate-targeted doxorubicin nano-aggregates significantly reduced the tumor volume compared to non-targeted doxorubicin aggregates or free doxorubicin. These results suggested that folate-targeted doxorubicin nano-aggregates could be a potentially useful delivery system for folate-receptor-positive cancer cells. PMID:15544872

  8. Receptors for fibrinogen and aggregated beta 2-microglobulin detected in strains of group B streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Schönbeck, C; Björck, L; Kronvall, G

    1981-01-01

    Binding of radiolabeled human fibrinogen and aggregated beta-microglobulin was measured in 60 strains of beta-hemolytic group B streptococci. Positive fibrinogen binding was detected in seven of the strains. Six of the group B strains showed an uptake of aggregated beta 2-microglobulin. Four individual strains carried both receptors, indicating a positive correlation between their occurrence. Inhibition studies showed that fibrinogen competed sterically with beta 2-microglobulin binding. Receptors for both proteins were trypsin sensitive. The presence of receptors did not correlate with the serological type of the 49 group B strains tested. However, all seven type II strains were negative. No uptake of fibrinogen was noted in any of 40 group D strains tested. Binding structures for fibrinogen and aggregated beta 2-microglobulin detected in group B streptococci were similar to receptors for the same proteins in group A, C, and G streptococci in terms of mutual correlation and steric interference of binding. The occasional occurrence of these receptors also in group B strains might reflect a common origin of some types of surface proteins in gram-positive cocci. PMID:6164650

  9. Hydrodynamic effects and receptor interactions of platelets and their aggregates in linear shear flow.

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, P; Diamond, S L

    1997-01-01

    We have modeled platelet aggregation in a linear shear flow by accounting for two body collision hydrodynamics, platelet activation and receptor biology. Considering platelets and their aggregates as unequal-sized spheres with DLVO interactions (psi(platelet) = -15 mV, Hamaker constant = 10(-19) J), detailed hydrodynamics provided the flow field around the colliding platelets. Trajectory calculations were performed to obtain the far upstream cross-sectional area and the particle flux through this area provided the collision frequency. Only a fraction of platelets brought together by a shearing fluid flow were held together if successfully bound by fibrinogen cross-bridging GPIIb/IIIa receptors on the platelet surfaces. This fraction was calculated by modeling receptor-mediated aggregation using the formalism of Bell (Bell, G. I. 1979. A theoretical model for adhesion between cells mediated by multivalent ligands. Cell Biophys. 1:133-147) where the forward rate of bond formation dictated aggregation during collision and was estimated from the diffusional limited rate of lateral association of receptors multiplied by an effectiveness factor, eta, to give an apparent rate. For a value of eta = 0.0178, we calculated the overall efficiency (including both receptor binding and hydrodynamics effects) for equal-sized platelets with 50,000 receptors/platelet to be 0.206 for G = 41.9 s(-1), 0.05 for G = 335 s(-1), and 0.0086 for G = 1920 s(-1), values which are in agreement with efficiencies determined from initial platelet singlet consumption rates in flow through a tube. From our analysis, we predict that bond formation proceeds at a rate of approximately 0.1925 bonds/microm2 per ms, which is approximately 50-fold slower than the diffusion limited rate of association. This value of eta is also consistent with a colloidal stability of unactivated platelets at low shear rates. Fibrinogen was calculated to mediate aggregation quite efficiently at low shear rates but not at

  10. Differential survival of solitary and aggregated bacterial cells promotes aggregate formation on leaf surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Monier, J.-M.; Lindow, S. E.

    2003-01-01

    The survival of individual Pseudomonas syringae cells was determined on bean leaf surfaces maintained under humid conditions or periodically exposed to desiccation stress. Cells of P. syringae strain B728a harboring a GFP marker gene were visualized by epifluorescence microscopy, either directly in situ or after recovery from leaves, and dead cells were identified as those that were stained with propidium iodide in such populations. Under moist, conducive conditions on plants, the proportion of total live cells was always high, irrespective of their aggregated state. In contrast, the proportion of the total cells that remained alive on leaves that were periodically exposed to desiccation stress decreased through time and was only ≈15% after 5 days. However, the fraction of cells in large aggregates that were alive on such plants in both condition was much higher than more solitary cells. Immediately after inoculation, cells were randomly distributed over the leaf surface and no aggregates were observed. However, a very aggregated pattern of colonization was apparent within 7 days, and >90% of the living cells were located in aggregates of 100 cells or more. Our results strongly suggest that, although conducive conditions favor aggregate formation, such cells are much more capable of tolerating environmental stresses, and the preferential survival of cells in aggregates promotes a highly clustered spatial distribution of bacteria on leaf surfaces. PMID:14665692

  11. Thermally induced aggregation of rigid spheres on a liquid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgoston, Eric; Hentschker, Leo; Soltau, Siobhan; Truitt, Patrick; Vaidya, Ashwin

    2016-01-01

    Fluids provide the optimal setting to explore natural patterns far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Experiments suggest that randomly dispersed particles on a liquid surface tend to aggregate on the surface of liquid over time, and the process is enhanced by an increase in the temperature of the liquid. We show that the agglomeration radii increases monotonically with temperature up until the point where all particles in the system form a single, large aggregate. The aggregation dynamics is related to changes in the material properties of the liquid including its viscosity and surface tension as well as the convection driven flow generated on the fluid surface. In this article we compare our experimental observations with analytical asymptotic results. The analytical arguments are seen to agree well with the experimental observations.

  12. Anion binding and controlled aggregation of human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Raibekas, Andrei A; Bures, Edward J; Siska, Christine C; Kohno, Tadahiko; Latypov, Ramil F; Kerwin, Bruce A

    2005-07-26

    Highly concentrated human recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) aggregates at elevated temperature without perturbation in its secondary structure. The protein aggregation can be suppressed depending on the buffer ionic strength and the type of anion present in the sample solution. Phosphate is an approximately 4-fold weaker suppressant than either citrate or pyrophosphate on the basis of the measured protein aggregation rates. This is in agreement with the strength of protein-anion interactions at the IL-1ra single anion-binding site as judged by the estimated dissociation constant values of 2.9 mM, 3.8 mM, and 13.7 mM for pyrophosphate, citrate, and phosphate, respectively. The strength of binding also correlates with the anion size and with the number of ionized groups available per molecule at a given pH. Affinity probing of IL-1ra with methyl acetyl phosphate (MAP) in combination with proteolytic digestion and mass spectral analysis show that an anion-binding site location on the IL-1ra surface is contributed by lysine-93 and lysine-96 of the loop 84-98 as well as by lysine-6 of the unstructured N-terminal region 1-7. The replacement of lysine-93 with alanine by site-directed mutagenesis results in dramatically suppressed IL-1ra aggregation. Furthermore, when the unstructured N-terminal region of IL-1ra is removed by limited proteolysis, a 2-fold increase in the time course of the aggregation lag phase is observed for the truncated protein. An anion-controlled mechanism of IL-1ra aggregation is proposed by which the anion competition for the protein cationic site prevents formation of intermolecular cation-pi interactions and, thus, interferes with the protein asymmetric self-association pathway. PMID:16026159

  13. F-actin binding regions on the androgen receptor and huntingtin increase aggregation and alter aggregate characteristics.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Suzanne; Shao, Jieya; Diamond, Marc I

    2010-01-01

    Protein aggregation is associated with neurodegeneration. Polyglutamine expansion diseases such as spinobulbar muscular atrophy and Huntington disease feature proteins that are destabilized by an expanded polyglutamine tract in their N-termini. It has previously been reported that intracellular aggregation of these target proteins, the androgen receptor (AR) and huntingtin (Htt), is modulated by actin-regulatory pathways. Sequences that flank the polyglutamine tract of AR and Htt might influence protein aggregation and toxicity through protein-protein interactions, but this has not been studied in detail. Here we have evaluated an N-terminal 127 amino acid fragment of AR and Htt exon 1. The first 50 amino acids of ARN127 and the first 14 amino acids of Htt exon 1 mediate binding to filamentous actin in vitro. Deletion of these actin-binding regions renders the polyglutamine-expanded forms of ARN127 and Htt exon 1 less aggregation-prone, and increases the SDS-solubility of aggregates that do form. These regions thus appear to alter the aggregation frequency and type of polyglutamine-induced aggregation. These findings highlight the importance of flanking sequences in determining the propensity of unstable proteins to misfold. PMID:20140226

  14. Protease Activated Receptor-1 (PAR-1) Mediated Platelet Aggregation is Dependant on Clopidogrel Response

    PubMed Central

    Kreutz, Rolf P.; Breall, Jeffrey A.; Kreutz, Yvonne; Owens, Janelle; Lu, Deshun; Bolad, Islam; von der Lohe, Elisabeth; Sinha, Anjan; Flockhart, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Clopidogrel inhibits ADP mediated platelet aggregation through inhibition of the P2Y12 receptor by its active metabolite. Thrombin induces platelet aggregation by binding to protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), and inhibition of PAR-1 has been evaluated in patients treated with clopidogrel to reduce ischemic events after acute coronary syndromes. Residual PAR-1 mediated platelet aggregation may be dependent on extent of clopidogrel response. Material and Methods Platelet aggregation was measured in 55 patients undergoing elective PCI at 16-24 hours after 600mg clopidogrel loading dose by light transmittance aggregometry using ADP 20μM and thrombin receptor agonist peptide (TRAP) at 15 μM and 25 μM as agonists. Genomic DNA was genotyped for common CYP2C19 variants. Results Increasing quartiles of 20 μM ADP induced platelet aggregation after clopidogrel loading were associated with increasing levels of TRAP mediated platelet aggregation. Patients in the highest quartile (clopidogrel non-responders) of post treatment ADP aggregation had significantly higher TRAP mediated aggregation than the patients in the lowest quartile (clopidogrel responders) [TRAP 15 μM: 79.6±5% vs. 69.5±8%, p<0.001]. Conclusions Non-responders to clopidogrel show increased residual platelet aggregation induced by TRAP, whereas clopidogrel responders exhibit attenuated response to TRAP. Addition of PAR-1 antiplatelet drugs may be most effective in patients with reduced clopidogrel response and high residual TRAP mediated platelet aggregation. PMID:22459907

  15. Reversible surface aggregation in pore formation by pardaxin.

    PubMed Central

    Rapaport, D; Peled, R; Nir, S; Shai, Y

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of leakage induced by surface active peptides is not yet fully understood. To gain insight into the molecular events underlying this process, the leakage induced by the peptide pardaxin from phosphatidylcholine/ phosphatidylserine/cholesterol large unilamellar vesicles was studied by monitoring the rate and extent of dye release and by theoretical modeling. The leakage occurred by an all-or-none mechanism: vesicles either leaked or retained all of their contents. We further developed a mathematical model that includes the assumption that certain peptides become incorporated into the vesicle bilayer and aggregate to form a pore. The current experimental results can be explained by the model only if the surface aggregation of the peptide is reversible. Considering this reversibility, the model can explain the final extents of calcein leakage for lipid/peptide ratios of > 2000:1 to 25:1 by assuming that only a fraction of the bound peptide forms pores consisting of M = 6 +/- 3 peptides. Interestingly, less leakage occurred at 43 degrees C, than at 30 degrees C, although peptide partitioning into the bilayer was enhanced upon elevation of the temperature. We deduced that the increased leakage at 30 degrees C was due to an increase in the extent of reversible surface aggregation at the lower temperature. Experiments employing fluorescein-labeled pardaxin demonstrated reversible aggregation of the peptide in suspension and within the membrane, and exchange of the peptide between liposomes. In summary, our experimental and theoretical results support reversible surface aggregation as the mechanism of pore formation by pardaxin. Images FIGURE 7 PMID:8744290

  16. Identification of aggregates for Tennessee bituminous surface courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauter, Heather Jean

    Tennessee road construction is a major venue for federal and state spending. Tax dollars each year go to the maintenance and construction of roads. One aspect of highway construction that affects the public is the safety of its state roads. There are many factors that affect the safety of a given road. One factor that was focused on in this research was the polish resistance capabilities of aggregates. Several pre-evaluation methods have been used in the laboratory to predict what will happen in a field situation. A new pre-evaluation method was invented that utilized AASHTO T 304 procedure upscaled to accommodate surface bituminous aggregates. This new method, called the Tennessee Terminal Textural Condition Method (T3CM), was approved by Tennessee Department of Transportation to be used as a pre-evaluation method on bituminous surface courses. It was proven to be operator insensitive, repeatable, and an accurate indication of particle shape and texture. Further research was needed to correlate pre-evaluation methods to the current field method, ASTM E 274-85 Locked Wheel Skid Trailer. In this research, twenty-five in-place bituminous projects and eight source evaluations were investigated. The information gathered would further validate the T3CM and find the pre-evaluation method that best predicted the field method. In addition, new sources of aggregates for bituminous surface courses were revealed. The results of this research have shown T3CM to be highly repeatable with an overall coefficient of variation of 0.26% for an eight sample repeatability test. It was the best correlated pre-evaluation method with the locked wheel skid trailer method giving an R2 value of 0.3946 and a Pearson coefficient of 0.710. Being able to predict field performance of aggregates prior to construction is a powerful tool capable of saving time, money, labor, and possibly lives.

  17. Aggregation of macrophages and fibroblasts is inhibited by a monoclonal antibody to the hyaluronate receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Green, S.J.; Underhill, C.B. ); Tarone, G. )

    1988-10-01

    To examine the role of the hyaluronate receptor in cell to cell adhesion, the authors have employed the K-3 monoclonal antibody (MAb) which specifically binds to the hyaluronate receptor and blocks its ability to interact with hyaluronate. In the first set of experiments, they investigated the spontaneous aggregation of SV-3T3 cells, which involves two distinct mechanisms, one of which is dependent upon the presence of divalent cation and the other is independent. The divalent cation-independent aggregation was found to be completely inhibited by both intact and Fab fragments of the K-3 MAb. In contrast, the K-3 MAb had no effect on the divalent cation-dependent aggregation of cells. In a second set of experiments, we examined alveolar macrophages. The presence of hyaluronate receptors on alveolar macrophages was demonstrated by the fact that detergent extracts of these cells could bind ({sup 3})hyaluronate, and this binding was blocked by the K-3 MAb. Immunoblot analysis of alveolar macrophages showed that the hyaluronate receptor had a M{sub r} of 99,500, which is considerably larger than the 85,000 M{sub r} for that on BHK cells. When hyaluronate was added to suspensions of alveolar macrophages, the cells were induced to aggregate. This effect was inhibited by the K-3 MAb, suggesting that the hyaluronate-induced aggregation was mediated by the receptor.

  18. A Human Platelet Receptor Protein Microarray Identifies the High Affinity Immunoglobulin E Receptor Subunit α (FcεR1α) as an Activating Platelet Endothelium Aggregation Receptor 1 (PEAR1) Ligand*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi; Vandenbriele, Christophe; Kauskot, Alexandre; Verhamme, Peter; Hoylaerts, Marc F.; Wright, Gavin J.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies to identify loci responsible for platelet function and cardiovascular disease susceptibility have repeatedly identified polymorphisms linked to a gene encoding platelet endothelium aggregation receptor 1 (PEAR1), an “orphan” cell surface receptor that is activated to stabilize platelet aggregates. To investigate how PEAR1 signaling is initiated, we sought to identify its extracellular ligand by creating a protein microarray representing the secretome and receptor repertoire of the human platelet. Using an avid soluble recombinant PEAR1 protein and a systematic screening assay designed to detect extracellular interactions, we identified the high affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor subunit α (FcεR1α) as a PEAR1 ligand. FcεR1α and PEAR1 directly interacted through their membrane-proximal Ig-like and 13th epidermal growth factor domains with a relatively strong affinity (KD ∼ 30 nm). Precomplexing FcεR1α with IgE potently inhibited the FcεR1α-PEAR1 interaction, and this was relieved by the anti-IgE therapeutic omalizumab. Oligomerized FcεR1α potentiated platelet aggregation and led to PEAR1 phosphorylation, an effect that was also inhibited by IgE. These findings demonstrate how a protein microarray resource can be used to gain important insight into the function of platelet receptors and provide a mechanistic basis for the initiation of PEAR1 signaling in platelet aggregation. PMID:25713122

  19. Reduced receptor aggregation and altered cytoskeleton in cultured myocytes after space-flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, R.; Roberts, R.; Reitstetter, R.

    1994-01-01

    We carried out parallel experiments first on the slow clinostat and then in space-flight to examine the effects of altered gravity on the aggregation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the structure of the cytoskeleton in cultured Xenopus embryonic muscle cells. By examining the concordance between results from space flight and the clinostat, we tested whether the slow clinostat is a relevant simulation paradigm. Space-flown cells showed marked changes in the distribution and organization of actin filaments and had a reduced incidence of acetylcholine receptor aggregates at the site of contact with polystyrene beads. Similar effects were found after clinostat rotation. The sensitivity of synaptic receptor aggregation and cytoskeletal morphology suggests that in the microgravity of space cell behavior may be importantly altered.

  20. Studies of the cAMP mediated aggregation in Dictyostelium discoideum: receptor mediated activation of the adenylate cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Theibert, W.E.A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum, a eukaryotic amoeba of the cellular slime mold family, provides an interesting paradigm in developmental biology. During development, hundreds of thousands of cells aggregate to form a multicellular aggregate. Aggregation is mediated by chemotaxis and chemical signaling. Waves of adenosine 3'-5' cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) propagate through the monolayer and provide transient gradients for chemotaxis. The author has used a reversible inhibitor of the cAMP signaling response to demonstrate that adaptation to cAMP is independent of the activation of the adenylate cyclase and therefore is not caused by the rise in intracellular cAMP. Next, it is shown that adenosine inhibits the cAMP signaling response. Inhibition is rapid, reversible, and depends on the cAMP stimulus concentration. Then the specificity of the cAMP receptors which mediates signaling is determined and compared with the receptors which mediate chemotaxis, the cGMP response, and cAMP binding antagonism. The cAMP surface receptor has been identified by photoaffinity labeling intact cells with (/sup 32/P)-8-N/sub 3/-cAMP using an ammonium sulfate binding stabilization technique. The photoactivated ligand specifically labels a polypeptide, localized to the membrane fraction, which migrates as a closely spaced doublet on SDS Page.

  1. Cell surface receptors for CCN proteins.

    PubMed

    Lau, Lester F

    2016-06-01

    The CCN family (CYR61; CTGF; NOV; CCN1-6; WISP1-3) of matricellular proteins in mammals is comprised of six homologous members that play important roles in development, inflammation, tissue repair, and a broad range of pathological processes including fibrosis and cancer. Despite considerable effort to search for a high affinity CCN-specific receptor akin to growth factor receptors, no such receptor has been found. Rather, CCNs bind several groups of multi-ligand receptors as characteristic of other matricellular proteins. The most extensively documented among CCN-binding receptors are integrins, including αvβ3, αvβ5, α5β1, α6β1, αIIbβ3, αMβ2, and αDβ2, which mediate diverse CCN functions in various cell types. CCNs also bind cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), low density liproprotein receptor-related proteins (LRPs), and the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) receptor, which are endocytic receptors that may also serve as co-receptors in cooperation with other cell surface receptors. CCNs have also been reported to bind FGFR-2, Notch, RANK, and TrkA, potentially altering the affinities of these receptors for their ligands. The ability of CCNs to bind a multitude of receptors in various cell types may account for the remarkable versatility of their functions, and underscore the diverse signaling pathways that mediate their activities. PMID:27098435

  2. Cytoplasmic Localization and the Choice of Ligand Determine Aggregate Formation by Androgen Receptor with Amplified Polyglutamine Stretch

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Matthias; Martin, Elke; Schneikert, Jean; Krug, Harald F.; Cato, Andrew C.B.

    2000-01-01

    Polyglutamine tract expansion in androgen receptor is a recognized cause of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), an X-linked motor neuronopathy. Similar mutations have been identified in proteins associated with other neurodegenerative diseases. Recent studies have shown that amplified polyglutamine repeat stretches form cellular aggregates that may be markers for these neurodegenerative diseases. Here we describe conditions that lead to aggregate formation by androgen receptor with polyglutamine stretch amplification. In transfection experiments, the mutant, compared with the wild-type receptor, was delayed in its cytoplasmic–nuclear translocation and formed large cytoplasmic aggregates in the presence of androgen. The cytoplasmic environment appears crucial for this aggregation, since retention of both the wild-type and mutant receptors in this cellular compartment by the deletion of their nuclear localization signals resulted in massive aggregation. Conversely, rapid nuclear transport of both receptors brought about by deletion of their ligand binding domains did not result in aggregate formation. However, androgen antagonists that altered the conformation of the ligand binding domain and promoted varying rates of cytoplasmic–nuclear translocation all inhibited aggregate formation. This demonstrates that in addition to the cytoplasmic localization, a distinct contribution of the ligand binding domain of the receptor is necessary for the aggregation. The finding that antiandrogens inhibit aggregate formation may provide the basis for in vivo determination of the role of these structures in SBMA. PMID:10769019

  3. Antipsychotic Drugs Inhibit Platelet Aggregation via P2Y1 and P2Y12 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chang-Chieh; Tsai, Fu-Ming; Chen, Mao-Liang; Wu, Semon; Lee, Ming-Cheng; Tsai, Tzung-Chieh; Wang, Lu-Kai; Wang, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) used to treat clinical psychotic syndromes cause a variety of blood dyscrasias. APDs suppress the aggregation of platelets; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We first analyzed platelet aggregation and clot formation in platelets treated with APDs, risperidone, clozapine, or haloperidol, using an aggregometer and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM). Our data indicated that platelet aggregation was inhibited, that clot formation time was increased, and that clot firmness was decreased in platelets pretreated with APDs. We also examined the role two major adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptors, P2Y1 and P2Y12, play in ADP-mediated platelet activation and APD-mediated suppression of platelet aggregation. Our results show that P2Y1 receptor stimulation with ADP-induced calcium influx was inhibited by APDs in human and rats' platelets, as assessed by in vitro or ex vivo approach, respectively. In contrast, APDs, risperidone and clozapine, alleviated P2Y12-mediated cAMP suppression, and the release of thromboxane A2 and arachidonic acid by activated platelets decreased after APD treatment in human and rats' platelets. Our data demonstrate that each APD tested significantly suppressed platelet aggregation via different mechanisms. PMID:27069920

  4. Mechanism for benzyl alcohol-induced aggregation of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Roy, Shouvik; Jones, Latoya S; Krishnan, Sampathkumar; Kerwin, Bruce A; Chang, Byeong S; Manning, Mark C; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F

    2004-12-01

    Benzyl alcohol, an antimicrobial preservative, accelerates aggregation and precipitation of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1ra) in aqueous solution. The loss of native monomer during incubation at 37 degrees C was determined by analysis of sample aliquots with size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC). Benzyl alcohol caused minor perturbation of the tertiary structure of the protein without changing its secondary structure, documenting that the preservative caused a minor shift in the protein molecular population toward partially unfolded species. Consistent with this conclusion, in the presence of benzyl alcohol the rate of H-D exchange was accelerated and the fluorescence of 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid in the presence of rhIL1ra was increased. Benzyl alcohol did not alter the free energy of unfolding based on unfolding experiments in urea or guanidine HCl. With differential scanning calorimetry it was determined that benzyl alcohol reduced the apparent Tm of rhIL-1ra, but this effect occurred because the preservative lowered the temperature at which the protein aggregated during heating. Isothermal calorimetry documented that the interaction of benzyl alcohol with rhIL-1ra is relatively weak and hydrophobically driven. Thus, benzyl alcohol accelerates protein aggregation by binding to the protein and favoring an increase in the level of partially unfolded, aggregation-competent species. Sucrose partially inhibited benzyl alcohol-induced aggregation and tertiary structural change. Sucrose is preferentially excluded from the surface of the protein, favoring most compact native state species over expanded aggregation-prone forms. PMID:15514986

  5. The Rhone-Aggregation Land Surface Scheme Intercomparison Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boone, A. A.; Habets, F.; Noilhan and Working Group, J.

    2002-05-01

    The Rhone-AGGregation (Rhone-AGG) Land Surface Scheme intercomparison project is an initiative within the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Global Land-Atmosphere System Study (GLASS)/Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP) panel of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). This project makes use of the Rhone modeling system, which was developed in recent years by the French research community in order to study the continental water cycle on a regional scale. Three distinct components comprise this system: an analysis system to determine the near-surface atmospheric forcing, a Land Surface Scheme (LSS) interface and a distributed hydrological model. The coupling between the three components of the system is 1-way. It was created in an attempt to ensure a consistent dialogue between the atmosphere (precipitation, radiative fluxes, state variables) and the hydrological variables (evaporation, soil moisture, runoff, ground water and river flow). The atmospheric data, which have been mapped to an 8 km grid, consist of standard screen level observations at approximately 60 Météo-France weather network sites within the domain, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis, climatological data and total daily precipitation data from over 1500 gauges. The system utilizes high spatial resolution European soil and vegetation databases, but it has been designed such that it is transferable to other regions. The size of the entire Rhone basin (86,996 km 2) is comparable to the area of a typical coarse-resolution Global atmospheric Climate Model (GCM) grid element, so that it is of interest to examine how the simulations from a wide range of LSSs, which are used in GCMs, numerical weather prediction models, mesoscale atmospheric models or hydrological models, are impacted by changing the spatial resolution over the domain from 8 km to approximately 69 km (1 degree). The main issues addressed by the Rhone-AGG project are how various state of

  6. Characterization of nanoparticle formation and aggregation on mineral surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn Waychunas; Young-Shin Jun

    2007-04-19

    The research effort in the Waychunas group is focused on the characterization and measurement of processes at the mineral-water interfaces specifically related to the onset of precipitation. This effort maps into one of the main project groups with the Penn State University EMSI (CEKA) known as PIG (Precipitation Interest Group), and involves collaborations with several members of that group. Both synchrotron experimentation and technique development are objectives, with the goals of allowing precipitation from single molecule attachment to sub-monolayer coverage to be detected and analyzed. The problem being addressed is the change in reactivity of mineral interfaces due to passivation or activation by precipitates or sorbates. In the case of passivation, fewer active sites may be involved in reactions with environmental fluids, while in the activated case the precipitate may be much more reactive than the substrate, or result in the creation of a higher density of active sites. We approach this problem by making direct measurements of several types of precipitation reactions: iron-aluminum oxide formation on quartz and other substrates from both homogeneous (in solution) nucleation, and heterogeneous (on the surface) nucleation; precipitation and sorption of silicate monomers and polymers on Fe oxide surfaces; and development of grazing-incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) as a tool for in-situ measurement of precipitate growth, morphology and aggregation. We expect that these projects will produce new fundamental information on reactive interface growth, passivation and activation, and be applicable to a wide range of environmental interfaces.

  7. Thrombin action decreases acetylcholine receptor aggregate number and stability in cultured mouse myotubes.

    PubMed

    Davenport, R W; Lanuza, M; Kim, S; Jia, M; Snyder, E; Nelson, P G

    2000-08-30

    Neurons develop and make very stable, long-term synaptic connections with other nerve cells and with muscle. Synaptic stability at the neuromuscular junction changes over development in that a proliferation of synaptic input are made to individual myotubes and synapses from all but one neuron are lost during development. In an established co-culture paradigm in which spinal motoneurons synaptically contact myotubes, thrombin and associated protease inhibitors have been shown to affect the loss of functional synaptic contacts [6]. Evidence has not been provided which clearly demonstrate whether protease/protease inhibitors affect either the pre- or postsynaptic terminal, or both. In an effort to determine whether these reagents directly affect postsynaptic receptors on myotubes, myotubes were cultured in the absence of neurons and the spontaneous presence and stability of aggregates of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) in control and thrombin-containing media were evaluated. In dishes fixed after treatment and in dishes in which individual aggregates were observed live, thrombin action appeared to increase loss of AChR aggregates over time. Hirudin, a specific inhibitor of the thrombin protease, diminished this loss. Neither reagent affected the overall incorporation or degradation of AChR; therefore, it appears these protease/protease inhibitors affect the state of AChR aggregation. PMID:10960680

  8. Frequency, Size, and Localization of Bacterial Aggregates on Bean Leaf Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Monier, J.-M.; Lindow, S. E.

    2004-01-01

    Using epifluorescence microscopy and image analysis, we have quantitatively described the frequency, size, and spatial distribution of bacterial aggregates on leaf surfaces of greenhouse-grown bean plants inoculated with the plant-pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain B728a. Bacterial cells were not randomly distributed on the leaf surface but occurred in a wide range of cluster sizes, ranging from single cells to over 104 cells per aggregate. The average cluster size increased through time, and aggregates were more numerous and larger when plants were maintained under conditions of high relative humidity levels than under dry conditions. The large majority of aggregates observed were small (less than 100 cells), and aggregate sizes exhibited a strong right-hand-skewed frequency distribution. While large aggregates are not frequent on a given leaf, they often accounted for the majority of cells present. We observed that up to 50% of cells present on a leaf were located in aggregates containing 103 cells or more. Aggregates were associated with several different anatomical features of the leaf surface but not with stomates. Aggregates were preferentially associated with glandular trichomes and veins. The biological and ecological significance of aggregate formation by epiphytic bacteria is discussed. PMID:14711662

  9. Membrane lipid heterogeneity associated with acetylcholine receptor particle aggregates in Xenopus embryonic muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bridgman, P C; Nakajima, Y

    1981-01-01

    Filipin, digitonin, and saponin react with membrane cholesterol to produce unique membrane alterations (sterol-specific complexes) that are easily discernible in freeze-fracture replicas. We have treated both noninnervated and innervated Xenopus embryonic muscle cells in culture with these agents. Freeze-fracture of these treated muscle cells showed that most areas of the muscle plasma membrane contain sterol-specific complexes (19- to 40-nm protuberances and dimples with filipin, a scalloped appearance with digitonin, or an irregular, rough appearance with saponin). However, these complexes were virtually absent from membrane areas of junctional and nonjunctional aggregates of acetylcholine receptor particles. This result suggests that the membrane matrix of these aggregates is low in cholesterol and that this membrane lipid heterogeneity may be linked to the mechanisms involved in their formation and stabilization on muscle cells in culture. Images PMID:6940140

  10. Surface properties of heat-induced soluble soy protein aggregates of different molecular masses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fengxian; Xiong, Youling L; Qin, Fang; Jian, Huajun; Huang, Xiaolin; Chen, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Suspensions (2% and 5%, w/v) of soy protein isolate (SPI) were heated at 80, 90, or 100 °C for different time periods to produce soluble aggregates of different molecular sizes to investigate the relationship between particle size and surface properties (emulsions and foams). Soluble aggregates generated in these model systems were characterized by gel permeation chromatography and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Heat treatment increased surface hydrophobicity, induced SPI aggregation via hydrophobic interaction and disulfide bonds, and formed soluble aggregates of different sizes. Heating of 5% SPI always promoted large-size aggregate (LA; >1000 kDa) formation irrespective of temperature, whereas the aggregate size distribution in 2% SPI was temperature dependent: the LA fraction progressively rose with temperature (80→90→100 °C), corresponding to the attenuation of medium-size aggregates (MA; 670 to 1000 kDa) initially abundant at 80 °C. Heated SPI with abundant LA (>50%) promoted foam stability. LA also exhibited excellent emulsifying activity and stabilized emulsions by promoting the formation of small oil droplets covered with a thick interfacial protein layer. However, despite a similar influence on emulsion stability, MA enhanced foaming capacity but were less capable of stabilizing emulsions than LA. The functionality variation between heated SPI samples is clearly related to the distribution of aggregates that differ in molecular size and surface activity. The findings may encourage further research to develop functional SPI aggregates for various commercial applications. PMID:25586667

  11. Influence of surface potential on aggregation and transport of titania nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Katherine A Dunphy; Finnegan, Michael P; Banfield, Jillian F

    2006-12-15

    To investigate the effect of pH on nanoparticle aggregation and transport in porous media, we quantified nanoparticle transport in two-dimensional structures. Titania was used as a model compound to explore the effects of surface potential on particle mobility in the subsurface. Results show that pH, and therefore, surface potential and aggregate size, dominate nanoparticle interactions with each other and surfaces. In each solution, nanoparticle aggregate size distributions were bimodal or trimodal, and aggregate sizes increased as the pH approached the pH of the point of zero charge (pHzpc). Over 80% of suspended particles and aggregates were mobile over the pH range of 1-12, except close to the pHzpc of the surfaces, where the particles are highly aggregated. The effect of pH on transport is not symmetric around the pHzpc of the particles due to charging of the channel surfaces. However, transport speed of nanoparticle aggregates did not vary with pH. The surface element integration technique, which takes into account the effect of curvature of particles on interaction energy, was used to evaluate the ability of theory to predict nanoparticle transport. PMID:17256514

  12. Biophysical Insights into How Surfaces, Including Lipid Membranes, Modulate Protein Aggregation Related to Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Kathleen A.; Yates, Elizabeth A.; Legleiter, Justin

    2013-01-01

    There are a vast number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Huntington’s disease (HD), associated with the rearrangement of specific proteins to non-native conformations that promotes aggregation and deposition within tissues and/or cellular compartments. These diseases are commonly classified as protein-misfolding or amyloid diseases. The interaction of these proteins with liquid/surface interfaces is a fundamental phenomenon with potential implications for protein-misfolding diseases. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies indicate that significant conformational changes can be induced in proteins encountering surfaces, which can play a critical role in nucleating aggregate formation or stabilizing specific aggregation states. Surfaces of particular interest in neurodegenerative diseases are cellular and subcellular membranes that are predominately comprised of lipid components. The two-dimensional liquid environments provided by lipid bilayers can profoundly alter protein structure and dynamics by both specific and non-specific interactions. Importantly for misfolding diseases, these bilayer properties can not only modulate protein conformation, but also exert influence on aggregation state. A detailed understanding of the influence of (sub)cellular surfaces in driving protein aggregation and/or stabilizing specific aggregate forms could provide new insights into toxic mechanisms associated with these diseases. Here, we review the influence of surfaces in driving and stabilizing protein aggregation with a specific emphasis on lipid membranes. PMID:23459674

  13. Requirement of aggregation propensity of Alzheimer amyloid peptides for neuronal cell surface binding

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, David A; McLaurin, JoAnne; Chakrabartty, Avijit

    2007-01-01

    Background Aggregation of the amyloid peptides, Aβ40 and Aβ42, is known to be involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we investigate the relationship between peptide aggregation and cell surface binding of three forms of Aβ (Aβ40, Aβ42, and an Aβ mutant). Results Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry with fluorescently labelled Aβ, we demonstrate a correlation between the aggregation propensity of the Alzheimer amyloid peptides and their neuronal cell surface association. We find that the highly aggregation prone Aβ42 associates with the surface of neuronal cells within one hour, while the less aggregation prone Aβ40 associates over 24 hours. We show that a double mutation in Aβ42 that reduces its aggregation propensity also reduces its association with the cell surface. Furthermore, we find that a cell line that is resistant to Aβ cytotoxicity, the non-neuronal human lymphoma cell line U937, does not bind either Aβ40 or Aβ42. Conclusion Taken together, our findings reveal that amyloid peptide aggregation propensity is an essential determinant of neuronal cell surface association. We anticipate that our approach, involving Aβ imaging in live cells, will be highly useful for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic drugs that prevent toxic Aβ association with neuronal cells. PMID:17475015

  14. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by vanilloid-like agents is not mediated by transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 channels or cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Almaghrabi, Safa; Geraghty, Dominic; Ahuja, Kiran; Adams, Murray

    2016-06-01

    Vanilloid-like agents, including capsaicin, N-arachidonoyl-dopamine and N-oleoyldopamine inhibit platelet aggregation, however little is known about the precise mechanism(s) of action. The authors have previously shown that blocking of the capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1), does not interfere with capsaicin action during adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation. This research is extended to investigate the effect of these vanilloid-like-agents on platelet count, and to test whether the effect of these agents is mediated through TRPV1 and/or cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors in the presence of other agonists, including collagen and arachidonic acid. Incubation of platelets with each of the individual vanilloids, or with receptor antagonists of TRPV1 (SB452533), CB1 (AM251) and CB2 (AM630), for up to 2 h did not significantly affect the platelet count. Similarly, the effect of individual vanilloids on the inhibition of platelet aggregation was not significantly different in the presence of receptor agonists compared to control, irrespective of the agonist used, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of vanilloids on platelet aggregation is independent of TRPV1, CB1 and CB2 receptors. Further research on the antiplatelet activity of vanilloids should focus on mechanisms other than those associated with vanilloid receptors. PMID:26991025

  15. Surface Pressure Study of Lipid Aggregates at the Air Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shew, Woody; Ploplis Andrews, Anna

    1996-11-01

    Qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the growth of fatty acid aggregates on a water/air interface were made by analyzing surface pressure measurements taken with a Langmuir Balance. High concentrations of palmitic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, and also phosphatidylethanolamine in solution with chloroform were applied with a syringe to the surface of the Langmuir Balance and surface pressure was monitored as aggregates assembled spontaneously. The aggregation process for palmitic acid was determined to consist of three distinct parts. Exponential curves were fit to the individual regions of the data and growth and decay constants were determined. Surface pressure varied in very complex ways for lauric acid, myristic acid, and phosphatidylethanolamine yet kinetic measurements yield qualitative information about assembly of those aggregates. This research was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-93-22301.

  16. Diffusion limited aggregation. The role of surface diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ruiz, Juan M.; Otálora, Fermín

    1991-11-01

    We present a growth model in which the hitting particles are able to diffuse to more stable growth sites in the perimeter of a cluster growing by diffusion limited aggregation. By tuning the diffusion path Ls, the morphological output - from disordered fractal to perfect single crystals - can be controlled. Instabilities appear when the mean length of the crystal faces Lf are greater than 2 Ls.

  17. Monolayers of charged particles in a Langmuir trough: Could particle aggregation increase the surface pressure?

    PubMed

    Petkov, Plamen V; Danov, Krassimir D; Kralchevsky, Peter A

    2016-01-15

    The effect of aggregation on the surface pressure, Π, of monolayers from charged micrometer-sized colloidal particles on the air/water interface is investigated. Π is completely due to the long-range electrostatic repulsion between the particles mediated by their electrostatic field in the air. The most probable origin of particle aggregation is the attraction between capillary quadrupoles due to undulated contact lines on particle surfaces. Aggregates have higher charge and repel each other stronger than single particles. The data analysis by means of a theoretical model implies that Π linearly increases with n(1/2); n is the mean aggregation number, which can be determined from the experimental Π vs. area curves. The presence of electrolyte promotes aggregation, which tends to increase Π, but simultaneously reduces the surface charge that leads to lower Π. For our system, the first effect prevails and apparently paradoxical behavior is observed: the addition of salt in water enhances the electrostatic surface pressure. The data indicate limited aggregation: the rise of the electrostatic barrier prevents the further coalescence of aggregates if they have become sufficiently large. The results contribute for a better understanding of the factors that control the interactions in monolayers of charged particles at liquid interfaces. PMID:26454382

  18. Soft electrostatic repulsion in particle monolayers at liquid interfaces: surface pressure and effect of aggregation.

    PubMed

    Kralchevsky, Peter A; Danov, Krassimir D; Petkov, Plamen V

    2016-07-28

    Non-densely packed interfacial monolayers from charged micrometre-sized colloid particles find applications for producing micropatterned surfaces. The soft electrostatic repulsion between the particles in a monolayer on an air/water (or oil/water) interface is mediated by the non-polar fluid, where Debye screening is absent and the distances between the particles are considerably greater than their diameters. Surface pressure versus area isotherms were measured at the air/water interface. The experiments show that asymptotically the surface pressure is inversely proportional to the third power of the interparticle distance. A theoretical model is developed that predicts not only the aforementioned asymptotic law but also the whole surface pressure versus area dependence. An increase in the surface pressure upon aggregation of charged particles in the interfacial monolayers is experimentally established. This effect is explained by the developed theoretical model, which predicts that the surface pressure should linearly increase with the square root of the particle mean aggregation number. The effect of added electrolyte on the aggregation is also investigated. The data lead to the conclusion that 'limited aggregation' exists in the monolayers of charged particles. In brief, the stronger electrostatic repulsion between the bigger aggregates leads to a higher barrier to their coalescence that, in turn, prevents any further aggregation, i.e. negative feedback is present.This article is part of the themed issue 'Soft interfacial materials: from fundamentals to formulation'. PMID:27298437

  19. Effects of Ocean Acidification on the Ballast of Surface Aggregates Sinking through the Twilight Zone

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Mendes, Pedro A.; Thomsen, Laurenz

    2012-01-01

    The dissolution of CaCO3 is one of the ways ocean acidification can, potentially, greatly affect the ballast of aggregates. A diminution of the ballast could reduce the settling speed of aggregates, resulting in a change in the carbon flux to the deep sea. This would mean lower amounts of more refractory organic matter reaching the ocean floor. This work aimed to determine the effect of ocean acidification on the ballast of sinking surface aggregates. Our hypothesis was that the decrease of pH will increase the dissolution of particulate inorganic carbon ballasting the aggregates, consequently reducing their settling velocity and increasing their residence time in the upper twilight zone. Using a new methodology for simulation of aggregate settling, our results suggest that future pCO2 conditions can significantly change the ballast composition of sinking aggregates. The change in aggregate composition had an effect on the size distribution of the aggregates, with a shift to smaller aggregates. A change also occurred in the settling velocity of the particles, which would lead to a higher residence time in the water column, where they could be continuously degraded. In the environment, such an effect would result in a reduction of the carbon flux to the deep-sea. This reduction would impact those benthic communities, which rely on the vertical flow of carbon as primary source of energy. PMID:23272075

  20. SIZE AND SURFACE AREA OF ICY DUST AGGREGATES AFTER A HEATING EVENT AT A PROTOPLANETARY NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Sirono, Sin-iti

    2013-03-01

    The activity of a young star rises abruptly during an FU Orionis outburst. This event causes a temporary temperature increase in the protoplanetary nebula. H{sub 2}O icy grains are sublimated by this event, and silicate cores embedded inside the ice are ejected. During the high-temperature phase, the silicate grains coagulate to form silicate core aggregates. After the heating event, the temperature drops, and the ice recondenses onto the aggregates. I determined numerically the size distribution of the ice-covered aggregates. The size of the aggregates exceeds 10 {mu}m around the snow line. Because of the migration of the ice to large aggregates, only a small fraction of the silicate core aggregate is covered with H{sub 2}O ice. After the heating event, the surface of an ice-covered aggregate is totally covered by silicate core aggregates. This might reduce the fragmentation velocity of aggregates when they collide. It is possible that the covering silicate cores shield the UV radiation field which induces photodissociation of H{sub 2}O ice. This effect may cause the shortage of cold H{sub 2}O vapor observed by Herschel.

  1. Self-assembly of thiolated cyanine aggregates on Au(111) and Au nanoparticle surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, Guillermo O.; Cortés, Emiliano; Grumelli, Doris; Méndez de Leo, Lucila P.; Williams, Federico J.; Tognalli, Nicolás G.; Fainstein, Alejandro; Vela, María Elena; Jares-Erijman, Elizabeth A.; Salvarezza, Roberto C.

    2012-01-01

    Heptamethinecyanine J-aggregates display sharp, intense fluorescence emission making them attractive candidates for developing a variety of chem-bio-sensing applications. They have been immobilized on planar thiol-covered Au surfaces and thiol-capped Au nanoparticles by weak molecular interactions. In this work the self-assembly of novel thiolated cyanine (CNN) on Au(111) and citrate-capped AuNPs from solutions containing monomers and J-aggregates has been studied by using STM, XPS, PM-IRRAS, electrochemical techniques and Raman spectroscopy. Data show that CNN species adsorb on the Au surfaces by forming thiolate-Au bonds. We found that the J-aggregates are preferentially adsorbed on the Au(111) surface directly from the solution while adsorbed CNN monomers cannot organize into aggregates on the substrate surface. These results indicate that the CNN-Au interaction is not able to disorganize the large J-aggregates stabilized by π-π stacking to optimize the S-Au binding site but it is strong enough to hinder the π-π stacking when CNNs are chemisorbed as monomers. The optical properties of the J-aggregates remain active after adsorption. The possibility of covalently bonding CNN J-aggregates to Au planar surfaces and Au nanoparticles controlling the J-aggregate/Au distance opens a new path regarding their improved stability and the wide range of biological applications of both CNN and AuNP biocompatible systems.Heptamethinecyanine J-aggregates display sharp, intense fluorescence emission making them attractive candidates for developing a variety of chem-bio-sensing applications. They have been immobilized on planar thiol-covered Au surfaces and thiol-capped Au nanoparticles by weak molecular interactions. In this work the self-assembly of novel thiolated cyanine (CNN) on Au(111) and citrate-capped AuNPs from solutions containing monomers and J-aggregates has been studied by using STM, XPS, PM-IRRAS, electrochemical techniques and Raman spectroscopy. Data show

  2. A novel thromboxane receptor antagonist, nstpbp5185, inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in animal models.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiu-Wen; Kuo, Heng-Lan; Hsu, Ming-Tsung; Tseng, Yufeng Jane; Lin, Shu-Wha; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Peng, Hui-Chin; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Huang, Tur-Fu

    2016-08-01

    A novel benzimidazole derivative, nstpbp5185, was discovered through in vitro and in vivo evaluations for antiplatelet activity. Thromaboxane receptor (TP) is important in vascular physiology, haemostasis and pathophysiological thrombosis. Nstpbp5185 concentration-dependently inhibited human platelet aggregation caused by collagen, arachidonic acid and U46619. Nstpbp5185 caused a right-shift of the concentration-response curve of U46619 and competitively inhibited the binding of 3H-SQ-29548 to TP receptor expressed on HEK-293 cells, with an IC50 of 0.1 µM, indicating that nstpbp5185 is a TP antagonist. In murine thrombosis models, nstpbp5185 significantly prolonged the latent period in triggering platelet plug formation in mesenteric and FeCl3-induced thrombi formation, and increased the survival rate in pulmonary embolism model with less bleeding than aspirin. This study suggests nstpbp5185, an orally selective anti-thrombotic agent, acting through blockade of TXA2 receptor, may be efficacious for prevention or treatment of pathologic thrombosis. PMID:27173725

  3. Phenotypes of Non-Attached Pseudomonas aeruginosa Aggregates Resemble Surface Attached Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Alhede, Morten; Kragh, Kasper Nørskov; Qvortrup, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Marie; van Gennip, Maria; Christensen, Louise D.; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Parsek, Matt; Wozniak, Dan; Molin, Søren; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    For a chronic infection to be established, bacteria must be able to cope with hostile conditions such as low iron levels, oxidative stress, and clearance by the host defense, as well as antibiotic treatment. It is generally accepted that biofilm formation facilitates tolerance to these adverse conditions. However, microscopic investigations of samples isolated from sites of chronic infections seem to suggest that some bacteria do not need to be attached to surfaces in order to establish chronic infections. In this study we employed scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, RT-PCR as well as traditional culturing techniques to study the properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates. We found that non-attached aggregates from stationary-phase cultures have comparable growth rates to surface attached biofilms. The growth rate estimations indicated that, independently of age, both aggregates and flow-cell biofilm had the same slow growth rate as a stationary phase shaking cultures. Internal structures of the aggregates matrix components and their capacity to survive otherwise lethal treatments with antibiotics (referred to as tolerance) and resistance to phagocytes were also found to be strikingly similar to flow-cell biofilms. Our data indicate that the tolerance of both biofilms and non-attached aggregates towards antibiotics is reversible by physical disruption. We provide evidence that the antibiotic tolerance is likely to be dependent on both the physiological states of the aggregates and particular matrix components. Bacterial surface-attachment and subsequent biofilm formation are considered hallmarks of the capacity of microbes to cause persistent infections. We have observed non-attached aggregates in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients; otitis media; soft tissue fillers and non-healing wounds, and we propose that aggregated cells exhibit enhanced survival in the hostile host environment, compared with non-aggregated bacterial

  4. Aggregation of nanoparticles in endosomes and lysosomes produces surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Leanne J.; Chen, Xiaoke K.; Smith, Aaron J.; Korbelik, Mladen; Zeng, Haishan; Lee, Patrick W. K.; Hewitt, Kevin Cecil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to image the distribution of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cells. To accomplish this task, 30-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) tagged with antibodies to EGFR (1012 per mL) were incubated with cells (106 per mL) of the A431 human epidermoid carcinoma and normal human bronchial epithelial cell lines. Using the 632.8-nm excitation line of a He-Ne laser, Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed using a point mapping scheme. Normal cells show little to no enhancement. SERS signals were observed inside the cytoplasm of A431 cells with an overall enhancement of 4 to 7 orders of magnitude. Raman intensity maps of the 1450 and 1583 cm-1 peaks correlate well with the expected distribution of EGFR and AuNPs, aggregated following uptake by endosomes and lysosomes. Spectral features from tyrosine and tryptophan residues dominate the SERS signals.

  5. Two cell surface proteins bind the sponge Microciona prolifera aggregation factor.

    PubMed

    Varner, J A; Burger, M M; Kaufman, J F

    1988-06-15

    Two extracellular matrix cell surface proteins which bind the proteoglycan-like aggregation factor from the marine sponge Microciona prolifera (MAF) and which may function as physiological receptors for MAF were identified and characterized for the first time. By probing nitrocellulose blots of nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate gels containing whole sponge cell protein with iodinated MAF, a 210- and a 68-kDa protein, which have native molecular masses of approximately 200-400 and 70 kDa, were identified. MAF binding to blots is species-specific. It is also sensitive to reduction and is completely abolished by pretreatment of live cells with proteases, as was cellular aggregation, indicating that the 210- and 68-kDa proteins may be located on the cell surface. The additional observations that the 68 kDa is an endoglycosidase F-sensitive glycoprotein and that antisera against whole sponge cells or membranes can immunoprecipitate the 210 kDa when prebound to intact cells are consistent with a cell surface location. Both proteins can be isolated from sponge cell membranes and from the sponge skeleton (insoluble extracellular matrix), but the 210-kDa MAF-binding protein can also be found in the soluble extracellular matrix (buffer washes of cells and skeleton) as well. A third MAF-binding protein of molecular mass 95 kDa was also found in the sponge extracellular matrix but rarely on cells. Both of the cell-associated 210- and 68-kDa proteins are nonintegral membrane proteins, based on Triton X-114 phase separation, flotation of liposomes containing sponge membrane lysates, and their extraction from membranes by buffer washes. Both proteins bind MAF affinity resins, indicating that they each exhibit a moderate affinity for MAF under native conditions. They can also be separated from each other and from the bulk of the protein in an octylpolyoxyethylene extract of membranes by fast protein liquid chromatography Mono Q anion exchange chromatography, as assessed by native

  6. Influence of surface modification on structure formation and micromechanical properties of spray-dried silica aggregates.

    PubMed

    Zellmer, Sabrina; Lindenau, Maylin; Michel, Stephanie; Garnweitner, Georg; Schilde, Carsten

    2016-02-15

    Spray drying processes were utilized for the production of hierarchical materials with defined structures. The structure formation during the spray drying process and the micromechanical properties of the obtained aggregates depend on the particle-particle interactions, the primary particle size and morphology as well as the process parameters of the spray drying process. Hence, the effect of different primary particle systems prepared as stable dispersions with various surface modifications were investigated on the colloidal structure formation and the micromechanical properties of silica particles as model aggregates and compared to theoretical considerations. The obtained results show that the structure formation of aggregates during the spray drying process for stable suspensions is almost independent on the functional groups present at the particle surface. Further, the mechanical properties of these aggregates differ considerably with the content of the bound ligand. This allows the defined adjustment of the aggregate properties, such as the strength and surface properties, as well as the formation of defined hierarchical aggregate structures. PMID:26619128

  7. Protein structural and surface water rearrangement constitute major events in the earliest aggregation stages of tau

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Anna; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Kinnebrew, Maia; Lew, John; Dahlquist, Frederick W.; Han, Songi

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, and the mechanism of its progression is poorly understood. Here, we examine the structural and dynamic characteristics of transiently evolving protein aggregates under ambient conditions by directly probing protein surface water diffusivity, local protein segment dynamics, and interprotein packing as a function of aggregation time, along the third repeat domain and C terminus of Δtau187 spanning residues 255–441 of the longest isoform of human tau. These measurements were achieved with a set of highly sensitive magnetic resonance tools that rely on site-specific electron spin labeling of Δtau187. Within minutes of initiated aggregation, the majority of Δtau187 that is initially homogeneously hydrated undergoes structural transformations to form partially structured aggregation intermediates. This is reflected in the dispersion of surface water dynamics that is distinct around the third repeat domain, found to be embedded in an intertau interface, from that of the solvent-exposed C terminus. Over the course of hours and in a rate-limiting process, a majority of these aggregation intermediates proceed to convert into stable β-sheet structured species and maintain their stacking order without exchanging their subunits. The population of β-sheet structured species is >5% within 5 min of aggregation and gradually grows to 50–70% within the early stages of fibril formation, while they mostly anneal block-wisely to form elongated fibrils. Our findings suggest that the formation of dynamic aggregation intermediates constitutes a major event occurring in the earliest stages of tau aggregation that precedes, and likely facilitates, fibril formation and growth. PMID:26712030

  8. Microstructured block copolymer surfaces for control of microbe capture and aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ryan R; Shubert, Katherine R; Morrell, Jennifer L.; Lokitz, Bradley S; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Retterer, Scott T

    2014-01-01

    The capture and arrangement of surface-associated microbes is influenced by biochemical and physical properties of the substrate. In this report, we develop lectin-functionalized substrates containing patterned, three-dimensional polymeric structures of varied shapes and densities and use these to investigate the effects of topology and spatial confinement on lectin-mediated microbe capture. Films of poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block-4,4-dimethyl-2-vinylazlactone (PGMA-b-PVDMA) were patterned on silicon surfaces into line or square grid patterns with 5 m wide features and varied edge spacing. The patterned films had three-dimensional geometries with 900 nm film thickness. After surface functionalization with wheat germ agglutinin, the size of Pseudomonas fluorescens aggregates captured was dependent on the pattern dimensions. Line patterns with edge spacing of 5 m or less led to the capture of individual microbes with minimal formation of aggregates, while grid patterns with the same spacing also captured individual microbes with further reduction in aggregation. Both geometries allowed for increases in aggregate size distribution with increased in edge spacing. These engineered surfaces combine spatial confinement with affinity-based microbe capture based on exopolysaccharide content to control the degree of microbe aggregation, and can also be used as a platform to investigate intercellular interactions and biofilm formation in microbial populations of controlled sizes.

  9. Effects of TRA-418, a novel TP-receptor antagonist, and IP-receptor agonist, on human platelet activation and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Mitsuko; Yamada, Naohiro; Ikezawa, Shiho; Ohno, Michihiro; Otake, Atsushi; Umemura, Kazuo; Matsushita, Teruo

    2003-11-01

    [4-[2-(1,1-Diphenylethylsulfanyl)-ethyl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-8-yloxy]-acetic acid N-Methyl-d-glucamine salt (TRA-418) has both thromboxane A2 (TP)-receptor antagonist and prostacyclin (IP)-receptor agonist properties. The present study examined the advantageous effects of TRA-418 based on the dual activities, over an agent having either activity alone and also the difference in the effects of TRA-418 and a glycoprotein alphaIIb/beta3 integrin (GPIIb/IIIa) inhibitor. TRA-418 inhibited platelet GPIIb/IIIa activation as well as P-selectin expression induced by adenosine 5'-diphosphate, thrombin receptor agonist peptide 1-6 (Ser-Phe-Leu-Leu-Arg-Asn-NH2), and U-46619 in the presence of epinephrine (U-46619+ epinephrine). TRA-418 also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by those platelet-stimulants in Ca2+ chelating anticoagulant, citrate and in nonchelating anticoagulant, d-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-arginyl-chloromethyl ketone (PPACK). The TP-receptor antagonist SQ-29548 inhibited only U-46619+epinephrine-induced GPIIb/IIIa activation, P-selectin expression, and platelet aggregation. The IP-receptor agonist beraprost sodium inhibited platelet activation. Beraprost also inhibited platelet aggregation induced by platelet stimulants we tested in citrate and in PPACK. The GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor abciximab blocked GPIIb/IIIa activation and platelet aggregation. However, abciximab showed slight inhibitory effects on P-selectin expression. TRA-418 is more advantageous as an antiplatelet agent than TP-receptor antagonists or IP-receptor agonists separately used. TRA-418 showed a different inhibitory profile from abciximab in the effects on P-selectin expression. PMID:14504133

  10. Aggregate breakdown and surface seal development influenced by rain intensity, slope gradient and soil particle size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjmand Sajjadi, S.; Mahmoodabadi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Aggregate breakdown is an important process which controls infiltration rate (IR) and the availability of fine materials necessary for structural sealing under rainfall. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different slope gradients, rain intensities and particle size distributions on aggregate breakdown and IR to describe the formation of surface sealing. To address this issue, 60 experiments were carried out in a 35 cm x 30 cm x 10 cm detachment tray using a rainfall simulator. By sieving a sandy loam soil, two sub-samples with different maximum aggregate sizes of 2 mm (Dmax 2 mm) and 4.75 mm (Dmax 4.75 mm) were prepared. The soils were exposed to two different rain intensities (57 and 80 mm h-1) on several slopes (0.5, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20%) each at three replications. The result showed that the most fraction percentages in soils Dmax 2 mm and Dmax 4.75 mm were in the finest size classes of 0.02 and 0.043 mm, respectively for all slope gradients and rain intensities. The soil containing finer aggregates exhibited higher transportability of pre-detached material than the soil containing larger aggregates. Also, IR increased with increasing slope gradient, rain intensity and aggregate size under unsteady state conditions because of less development of surface seal. But under steady state conditions, no significant relationship was found between slope and IR. The finding of this study revealed the importance of rain intensity, slope steepness and soil aggregate size on aggregate breakdown and seal formation, which can control infiltration rate and the consequent runoff and erosion rates.

  11. Measurement of receptor cross-linking at the cell surface via multiparameter flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posner, Richard G.; Bold, Jennifer; Bernstein, Yael; Rasor, Joe; Braslow, Joshua; Hlavacek, William S.; Perelson, Alan S.

    1998-05-01

    Many cellular responses, particularly in the immune system, are triggered by ligand binding to a cell-surface receptor. However, as indicated by bell-shaped dose-response curves, ligand binding alone is sometimes insufficient to trigger a response. Often, ligand binding must also induce the aggregation of cell-surface receptors through crosslinking, which occurs when a ligand binds simultaneously to two or more receptors. Thus, an important goal in cell biology has been to establish quantitative relationships between the amount of ligand present on a cell surface and the number of crosslinked ligand-specific cell-surface receptors. To better understand ligand-induced receptor aggregation, we have been investigating the binding of a model multivalent antigen (DNP25PE) to cell-surface anti-DNP FITC-labeled IgE (FITC- IgE). To determine the kinetic and equilibrium parameters that characterize crosslinking in this system, we have developed a combined theoretical and experimental approach that is based on multiparameter flow cytometry. With this approach, we can measure both the average number of ligand molecules that are bound per cell and the average number of receptor binding sites that are bound per cell. The average number of DNP25PE per cell is determined by measuring the fluorescence of phycoerythrin. The average number of occupied IgE sites per cell is determined by measuring the fluorescence of FITC, which is quenched upon ligand binding. This novel approach, together with conventional methods for changes in intracellular calcium, allows us to correlate for the first time the dynamics of IgE crosslinking with cell activation.

  12. Real-time protein aggregation monitoring with a Bloch surface wave-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santi, Sara; Barakat, Elsie; Descrovi, Emiliano; Neier, Reinhard; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2014-05-01

    The misfolding and aggregation of amyloid proteins has been associated with incurable diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease. In the specific case of Alzheimer's disease, recent studies have shown that cell toxicity is caused by soluble oligomeric forms of aggregates appearing in the early stages of aggregation, rather than by insoluble fibrils. Research on new strategies of diagnosis is imperative to detect the disease prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Here, we propose the use of an optical method for protein aggregation dynamic studies using a Bloch surface wave based approach. A one dimension photonic crystal made of a periodic stack of silicon oxide and silicon nitride layers is used to excite a Bloch surface wave, which is sensitive to variation of the refractive index of an aqueous solution. The aim is to detect the early dynamic events of protein aggregation and fibrillogenesis of the amyloid-beta peptide Aβ42, which plays a central role in the onset of the Alzheimer's disease. The detection principle relies on the refractive index changes caused by the depletion of the Aβ42 monomer concentration during oligomerization and fibrillization. We demonstrate the efficacy of the Bloch surface wave approach by monitoring in real-time the first crucial steps of Aβ42 oligomerization.

  13. Response to platelet-activating factor in human platelets stored and aged in plasma. Decrease in aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and receptor affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, S.D.; Morrison, W.J.; Klachko, D.M.

    1989-07-01

    Human platelet concentrates were stored in polyolefin bags at 22 to 24 degrees C on a horizontal shaker for up to 8 days. At different intervals, aliquots of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were removed aseptically and five variables, i.e., platelet counts, morphology, platelet-activating factor (PAF)-stimulated aggregation, phosphoinositide turnover, and (3H)PAF binding to platelet receptors, were studied. The number of platelets did not change during the 8 days of storage. Scanning electron microscopy of the platelets revealed a gradual morphologic change from biconcave flat discs to irregular, crenated forms. The PAF-induced aggregation of platelets declined with time of storage. A decrease to 50 percent of the Day 1 aggregatory response to PAF was evident on Day 2, and there was a further decline to about 20 percent by Day 6. Similarly, PAF receptor-coupled phosphoinositide turnover, as monitored by 32P incorporation into individual phosphoinositides, decreased dramatically with storage. After 2 to 3 days of storage, the phosphoinositide turnover was reduced to 50 percent of the original response, and it continued to decline to about 25 percent of original response by Day 5 or 6. The binding of (3H)PAF to washed human platelets indicated subtle changes between Days 2 and 4, which became more noticeable by Day 6. These results have raised the possibility of changes in the number of the receptors and/or their affinity for the ligand during storage. We conclude that although the number of platelets was maintained during storage for 8 days, a general deterioration of their responses to PAF occurred at the levels of cell surface receptor, transmembrane signaling (phosphoinositide turnover), and response (aggregation).

  14. Influence of radioactivity on surface charging and aggregation kinetics of particles in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Lee, Ida; McFarlane, Joanna; Tsouris, Costas

    2014-01-01

    Radioactivity can influence surface interactions, but its effects on particle aggregation kinetics have not been included in transport modeling of radioactive particles. In this research, experimental and theoretical studies have been performed to investigate the influence of radioactivity on surface charging and aggregation kinetics of radioactive particles in the atmosphere. Radioactivity-induced charging mechanisms have been investigated at the microscopic level, and heterogeneous surface potential caused by radioactivity is reported. The radioactivity-induced surface charging is highly influenced by several parameters, such as rate and type of radioactive decay. A population balance model, including interparticle forces, has been employed to study the effects of radioactivity on particle aggregation kinetics in air. It has been found that radioactivity can hinder aggregation of particles because of similar surface charging caused by the decay process. Experimental and theoretical studies provide useful insights into the understanding of transport characteristics of radioactive particles emitted from severe nuclear events, such as the recent accident of Fukushima or deliberate explosions of radiological devices. PMID:24308778

  15. Aggregation process of optical properties and temperature over heterogeneous surfaces in infrared domain

    SciTech Connect

    Fontanilles, Guillaume; Briottet, Xavier; Fabre, Sophie; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Vandenhaute, Pierre-Francois

    2010-08-20

    We propose a modeling of the aggregation processes of optical properties and temperature over the heterogeneous landscape in the infrared domain (3-14{mu}m). The main objectives of the modeling are to understand how these parameters aggregate and to study their links at different spatial scales. As the landscape is described at each scale by its radiative parameters, general equations linking the radiative parameters at a given high spatial scale to those at a rough scale are proposed. Then these equations are applied to several synthetic landscapes. An analysis based on a design of experiments is conducted to point out the influence of each of the input factors. The results show the importance of the intrinsic parameters (reflectance, emissivity, and surface temperature) of each surface element and also the directional and spectral behaviors of the aggregated parameters.

  16. Highly Oriented J-Aggregates of Nitroazo Dye and Its Surface-Induced Chromism.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Toshihiko; Ishitobi, Masamitsu; Aoyama, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Shinya

    2016-05-17

    Highly oriented J-aggregates of a nitroazo dye were obtained in solid thin films on aligned poly(tetrafluoroethylene) surfaces. During film deposition on a friction-transferred poly(tetrafluoroethylene) layer, a sharp peak grew in the polarized absorption spectra around 613 nm, which was red-shifted 117 nm from the peak in dilute dichloromethane solution. The peak showed remarkable optical anisotropy: dichroic ratios D of up to 22 were observed, and the intrinsic D value should substantially exceed this value. These results indicate that the peak is attributable to highly oriented J-aggregates. On glass, however, H-like aggregates grew, exhibiting an absorption peak at 410 nm. Hence, the substrate surface induced the remarkable chromism observed as a 203 nm red shift. PMID:27088848

  17. Design of peptidyl compounds that affect beta-amyloid aggregation: importance of surface tension and context.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Todd J; Murphy, Regina M

    2005-06-21

    Self-association of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide into cross-beta-sheet fibrils induces cellular toxicity in vitro and is linked with progression of Alzheimer's disease. Previously, we demonstrated that hybrid peptides, containing a recognition domain that binds to Abeta and a disrupting domain consisting of a chain of charged amino acids, inhibited Abeta-associated toxicity in vitro and increased the rate of Abeta aggregation. In this work we examine the design parameter space of the disrupting domain. Using KLVFFKKKKKK as a base case, we tested hybrid compounds with a branched rather than linear lysine oligomer, with l-lysine replaced by d-lysine, and with lysine replaced by diaminopropionic acid. We synthesized a compound with a novel anionic disrupting domain that contained cysteine thiols oxidized to sulfates, as well as other compounds in which alkyl or ether chains were appended to KLVFF. In all cases, the hybrid compound's ability to increase solvent surface tension was the strongest predictor of its effect on Abeta aggregation kinetics. Finally, we investigated the effects of arginine on Abeta aggregation. Arginine is a well-known chaotrope but increases surface tension of water. Arginine modestly decreased Abeta aggregation. In contrast, RRRRRR slightly, and KLVFFRRRRRR greatly, increased Abeta aggregation. Thus, the influence of arginine on Abeta aggregation depends strongly on the context in which it is presented. The effect of arginine, RRRRRR, and KLVFFRRRRRR on Abeta aggregation was examined in detail using laser light scattering, circular dichroism spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thioflavin T fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. PMID:15952797

  18. Mapping Surface Cover Parameters Using Aggregation Rules and Remotely Sensed Cover Classes. Version 1.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arain, Altaf M.; Shuttleworth, W. James; Yang, Z-Liang; Michaud, Jene; Dolman, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    A coupled model, which combines the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) with an advanced atmospheric boundary-layer model, was used to validate hypothetical aggregation rules for BATS-specific surface cover parameters. The model was initialized and tested with observations from the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observational Study and used to simulate surface fluxes for rain forest and pasture mixes at a site near Manaus in Brazil. The aggregation rules are shown to estimate parameters which give area-average surface fluxes similar to those calculated with explicit representation of forest and pasture patches for a range of meteorological and surface conditions relevant to this site, but the agreement deteriorates somewhat when there are large patch-to-patch differences in soil moisture. The aggregation rules, validated as above, were then applied to remotely sensed 1 km land cover data set to obtain grid-average values of BATS vegetation parameters for 2.8 deg x 2.8 deg and 1 deg x 1 deg grids within the conterminous United States. There are significant differences in key vegetation parameters (aerodynamic roughness length, albedo, leaf area index, and stomatal resistance) when aggregate parameters are compared to parameters for the single, dominant cover within the grid. However, the surface energy fluxes calculated by stand-alone BATS with the 2-year forcing, data from the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) CDROM were reasonably similar using aggregate-vegetation parameters and dominant-cover parameters, but there were some significant differences, particularly in the western USA.

  19. Genetic Variation in the Platelet Endothelial Aggregation Receptor 1 Gene Results in Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Fisch, Adam S.; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Backman, Joshua D.; Wang, Hong; Donnelly, Patrick; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Parihar, Ankita; Pavlovich, Mary A.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Herzog, William; Harman, Christopher R.; Wren, Jonathan D.; Lewis, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    Platelet Endothelial Aggregation Receptor 1 (PEAR1) is a newly identified membrane protein reported to be involved in multiple vascular and thrombotic processes. While most studies to date have focused on the effects of this receptor in platelets, PEAR1 is located in multiple tissues including the endothelium, where it is most highly expressed. Our first objective was to evaluate the role of PEAR1 in endothelial function by examining flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery in 641 participants from the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention Heart Study. Our second objective was to further define the impact of PEAR1 on cardiovascular disease computationally through meta-analysis of 75,000 microarrays, yielding insights regarding PEAR1 function, and predictions of phenotypes and diseases affected by PEAR1 dysregulation. Based on the results of this meta-analysis we examined whether genetic variation in PEAR1 influences endothelial function using an ex vivo assay of endothelial cell migration. We observed a significant association between rs12041331 and flow-mediated dilation in participants of the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention Heart Study (P = 0.02). Meta-analysis results revealed that PEAR1 expression is highly correlated with several genes (e.g. ANG2, ACVRL1, ENG) and phenotypes (e.g. endothelial cell migration, angiogenesis) that are integral to endothelial function. Functional validation of these results revealed that PEAR1 rs12041331 is significantly associated with endothelial migration (P = 0.04). Our results suggest for the first time that genetic variation of PEAR1 is a significant determinant of endothelial function through pathways implicated in cardiovascular disease. PMID:26406321

  20. Capsaicin-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation is not mediated by transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1.

    PubMed

    Mittelstadt, Scott W; Nelson, Richard A; Daanen, Jerome F; King, Andrew J; Kort, Michael E; Kym, Philip R; Lubbers, Nathan L; Cox, Bryan F; Lynch, James J

    2012-01-01

    Capsaicin is an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), in which it can act as a neuronal stimulant and result in nociception. Capsaicin also affects a variety of nonneuronal tissues, in which its mechanisms of action are less certain. The present study investigated whether the inhibitory effects of capsaicin on platelet aggregation are mediated via TRPV1. Venous whole blood obtained from beagle dogs (n = 6) was preincubated with capsaicin and/or the potent and selective competitive TRPV1 antagonist, A-993610 and then exposed to collagen (2 μg/ml). An aggregometer was used to quantify the platelet response. Capsaicin exposure inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner, with significant effects at 10 and 30 μg capsaicin per millilitre. A-993610 alone (0.1-1.0 μg/ml) had no effects on collagen-induced platelet aggregation, nor did it have any effects on capsaicin's ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. The current results agree with previous findings that capsaicin can inhibit platelet aggregation. In addition, the present study demonstrates that capsaicin's inhibitory effect on collagen-induced canine platelet aggregation is not mediated by TRPV1. PMID:22089942

  1. Density functional theory of equilibrium random copolymers: application to surface adsorption of aggregating peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiqiang; Forsman, Jan; Woodward, Clifford E.

    2016-06-01

    We generalize a recently developed polymer density functional theory (PDFT) for polydisperse polymer fluids to the case of equilibrium random copolymers. We show that the generalization of the PDFT to these systems allows us to obtain a remarkable simplification compared to the monodispersed polymers. The theory is used to treat a model for protein aggregation into linear filaments in the presence of surfaces. Here we show that, for attractive surfaces, there is evidence of significant enhancement of protein aggregation. This behaviour is a consequence of a surface phase transition, which has been shown to occur with ideal equilibrium polymers in the presence of sufficiently attractive surfaces. For excluding monomers, this transition is suppressed, though an echo of the underlying ideal transition is present in the sudden change in the excess adsorption.

  2. Density functional theory of equilibrium random copolymers: application to surface adsorption of aggregating peptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiqiang; Forsman, Jan; Woodward, Clifford E

    2016-06-22

    We generalize a recently developed polymer density functional theory (PDFT) for polydisperse polymer fluids to the case of equilibrium random copolymers. We show that the generalization of the PDFT to these systems allows us to obtain a remarkable simplification compared to the monodispersed polymers. The theory is used to treat a model for protein aggregation into linear filaments in the presence of surfaces. Here we show that, for attractive surfaces, there is evidence of significant enhancement of protein aggregation. This behaviour is a consequence of a surface phase transition, which has been shown to occur with ideal equilibrium polymers in the presence of sufficiently attractive surfaces. For excluding monomers, this transition is suppressed, though an echo of the underlying ideal transition is present in the sudden change in the excess adsorption. PMID:27115518

  3. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor Activation Attenuates Platelet Aggregation and Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Cameron-Vendrig, Alison; Reheman, Adili; Siraj, M Ahsan; Xu, Xiaohong Ruby; Wang, Yiming; Lei, Xi; Afroze, Talat; Shikatani, Eric; El-Mounayri, Omar; Noyan, Hossein; Weissleder, Ralph; Ni, Heyu; Husain, Mansoor

    2016-06-01

    Short-term studies in subjects with diabetes receiving glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)-targeted therapies have suggested a reduced number of cardiovascular events. The mechanisms underlying this unexpectedly rapid effect are not known. We cloned full-length GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) mRNA from a human megakaryocyte cell line (MEG-01), and found expression levels of GLP-1Rs in MEG-01 cells to be higher than those in the human lung but lower than in the human pancreas. Incubation with GLP-1 and the GLP-1R agonist exenatide elicited a cAMP response in MEG-01 cells, and exenatide significantly inhibited thrombin-, ADP-, and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Incubation with exenatide also inhibited thrombus formation under flow conditions in ex vivo perfusion chambers using human and mouse whole blood. In a mouse cremaster artery laser injury model, a single intravenous injection of exenatide inhibited thrombus formation in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic mice in vivo. Thrombus formation was greater in mice transplanted with bone marrow lacking a functional GLP-1R (Glp1r(-/-)), compared with those receiving wild-type bone marrow. Although antithrombotic effects of exenatide were partly lost in mice transplanted with bone marrow from Glp1r(-/-) mice, they were undetectable in mice with a genetic deficiency of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. The inhibition of platelet function and the prevention of thrombus formation by GLP-1R agonists represent potential mechanisms for reduced atherothrombotic events. PMID:26936963

  4. Distribution of type I Fc epsilon-receptors on the surface of mast cells probed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Kubitscheck, U; Schweitzer-Stenner, R; Arndt-Jovin, D J; Jovin, T M; Pecht, I

    1993-01-01

    The aggregation state of type I Fc epsilon-receptors (Fc epsilon RI) on the surface of single living mast cells was investigated by resonance fluorescence energy transfer. Derivatization of Fc epsilon RI specific ligands, i.e., immunoglobulin E or Fab fragments of a Fc epsilon RI specific monoclonal antibody, with donor and acceptor fluorophores provided a means for measuring receptor clustering through energy transfer between the receptor probes. The efficiency of energy transfer between the ligands carrying distinct fluorophores was determined on single cells in a microscope by analyzing the photobleaching kinetics of the donor fluorophore in the presence and absence of receptor ligands labeled with acceptor fluorophores. To rationalize the energy transfer data, we developed a theoretical model describing the dependence of the energy transfer efficiency on the geometry of the fluorescently labeled macromolecular ligands and their aggregation state on the cell surface. To this end, the transfer process was numerically calculated first for one pair and then for an ensemble of Fc epsilon RI bound ligands on the cell surface. The model stipulates that the aggregation state of the Fc epsilon RI is governed by an attractive lipid-protein mediated interaction potential. The corresponding pair-distribution function characterizes the spatial distribution of the ensemble. Using this approach, the energy transfer efficiency of the ensemble was calculated for different degrees of receptor aggregation. Comparison of the theoretical modeling results with the experimental energy transfer data clearly suggests that the Fc epsilon RI are monovalent, randomly distributed plasma membrane proteins. The method provides a novel approach for determining the aggregation state of cell surface components. PMID:8431535

  5. Asp-Gly based peptides confined at the surface of cationic gemini surfactant aggregates.

    PubMed

    Brizard, Aurélie; Dolain, Christel; Huc, Ivan; Oda, Reiko

    2006-04-11

    Cationic gemini surfactants complexed with anionic oligoglycine-aspartate (called gemini peptides hereafter) were synthesized, and their aggregation behaviors were studied. The effects of the hydrophobic chain length (C10-C22) and the length of the oligoglycine (0-4) were investigated, and it was clearly shown by critical micellar concentration, Krafft temperature, and isothermal surface pressure measurements that the hydrophobic effect and interpeptidic interaction influence the aggregation behavior in a cooperative manner. Below their Krafft temperatures, some of them formed both hydro- and organogels with three-dimensional networks and the Fourier transform infrared measurements show the presence of interpeptidic hydrogen bonds. PMID:16584231

  6. Surfaces modulate beta-amyloid peptide aggregation associated with Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Elizabeth Anne

    A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, a late onset neurodegenerative disease, is the presence of neuritic amyloid plaques deposited within the brain composed of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide aggregates. Abeta can aggregate into a variety of polymorphic aggregate structures under different chemical environments, specifically affected by the presence of differing surfaces. There are several point mutations clustered around the central hydrophobic core of Abeta (E22G Arctic mutation, E22K Italian mutation, D23N Iowa mutation, and A21G Flemish mutation). These mutations are associated with hereditary diseases ranging from almost pure cerebral amyloid angiopathy to typical Alzheimer's disease pathology with both plaques and tangles. To determine how these different point mutations, which modify both peptide charge and hydrophobic character, altered Abeta aggregation and morphology under free solution conditions, at an anionic surface/liquid interface and in the presence of supported lipid bilayers, atomic force microscopy was used. Additionally, the non-native conformation of Abeta leads to the formation of nanoscale, toxic aggregates which have been shown to strongly interact with supported lipid bilayers, which may represent a key step in potential toxic mechanisms. Understanding how specific regions of Abeta regulate its aggregation in the absence and presence of surfaces can provide insight into the fundamental interaction of Abeta with cellular surfaces. Specific fragments of Abeta (Abeta1-11, Abeta 1-28, Abeta10-26, Abeta12-24, Abeta 16-22, Abeta22-35, and Abeta1-40), represent a variety of chemically unique regions along Abeta, i.e., the extracellular domain, the central hydrophobic core, and transmembrane domain. Using various scanning probe microscopic techniques, the interaction of these Abeta sequences with lipid membranes was shown to alter aggregate morphology and induce mechanical changes of lipid bilayers compared to aggregates formed under free solution

  7. Aggregation and resuspension of graphene oxide in simulated natural surface aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Hua, Zulin; Tang, Zhiqiang; Bai, Xue; Zhang, Jianan; Yu, Lu; Cheng, Haomiao

    2015-10-01

    A series of experiments were performed to simulate the environmental behavior and fate of graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONPs) involved in the surface environment relating to divalent cations, natural organic matter (NOM), and hydraulics. The electrokinetic properties and hydrodynamic diameters of GONPs was systematically determined to characterize GONPs stability and the results indicated Ca(2+) (Mg(2+)) significantly destabilized GONPs with high aggregate strength factors (SF) and fractal dimension (FD), whereas NOM decreased aggregate SF with lower FD and improved GONPs stability primarily because of increasing steric repulsion and electrostatic repulsion. Furthermore, the GONPs resuspension from the sand bed into overlying water with shear flow confirmed that the release would be restricted by Ca(2+) (Mg(2+)), however, enhanced by NOM. The interaction energy based on Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory verifies the aggregation and resuspension well. Overall, these experiments provide an innovative look and more details to study the behavior and fate of GONPs. PMID:26071942

  8. Challenges in imaging cell surface receptor clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medda, Rebecca; Giske, Arnold; Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta Ada

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution microscopy offers unique tools for visualizing and resolving cellular structures at the molecular level. STED microscopy is a purely optical method where neither complex sample preparation nor mathematical post-processing is required. Here we present the use of STED microscopy for imaging receptor cluster composition. We use two-color STED to further determine the distribution of two different receptor subunits of the family of receptor serine/threonine kinases in the presence or absence of their ligands. The implications of receptor clustering on the downstream signaling are discussed, and future challenges are also presented.

  9. Methyl-methacrylate bone cement surface does not promote platelet aggregation or plasma coagulation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Blinc, Ales; Bozic, Mojca; Vengust, Rok; Stegnar, Mojca

    2004-01-01

    Leakage of viscous bone cement into venous blood possibly resulting in pulmonary embolism may occur during percutaneous vertebroplasty. Our aim was to study if bone cement surface or cement liquid component could induce platelet aggregation or plasma coagulation in vitro. Two types of commonly used methyl-methacrylate bone cement, Palacos (Heraeus Kulzer, Germany) and Vertebroplastic (DePuy, Acro Med, England), were smeared on thin glass slides that were inserted over the bottom of cuvettes immediately or after 24 h, and platelet aggregation was recorded over 10 min. Bone cement liquid component, containing methyl-methacrylate monomer and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, was tested in 2% and 4% final concentration. Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) was determined by the hook method in the presence of bone cement-smeared glass slides or 6% bone cement liquid. Both types of bone cement, either fresh or aged, did not promote platelet aggregation, whereas collagen-coated glass slides induced substantial platelet aggregation (65 +/- 37%). On the other hand, bone cement liquids reduced platelet aggregation induced by collagen solution to an average of less than 15% (p < 0.01). Bone cement, fresh or aged, had no effect on PTT, but bone cement liquids significantly prolonged PTT: median and 1st-3rd interquartile range 149 (96-171) s for Vertebroplastic and 132 (99-194) s for Palacos, p = 0.03 for both comparisons with normal pool plasma without additives that had PTT of 69 (62-71) s. We conclude that the surface of fresh or aged bone cement is not thrombogenic in vitro. The bone cement liquid inhibits platelet aggregation and plasma clotting in relatively high concentrations that cannot be expected in vivo. PMID:15342214

  10. Fabrication and surface properties of hydrophobic barium sulfate aggregates based on sodium cocoate modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Linna; Wang, Guangxiu; Cao, Rong; Yang, Chun; Chen, Xi

    2014-10-01

    Hydrophobic barium sulfate aggregates were fabricated by the direction of cocoate anions. At 30 °C, when the weight ratio of sodium cocoate to BaSO4 particles was 2.0 wt.%, the active ratio of the product reached 99.43% and the contact angle was greater than 120°. This method could not only simplify the complex modification process, but reduce energy consumption. The surface morphology, chemical structure and composition of BaSO4 aggregates were characterized by SEM, XRD, and FTIR. The results indicated that the as-synthesized BaSO4 particles were almond-liked and were composed of many interconnected nanoballs and that their surfaces were affected by cocoate anions. The adsorption of cocoate anions reversed the charge and weakened the surface polarity of BaSO4 particles, driving the formation of aggregates. And cocoate anions induced a change of the BaSO4 particles surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic by a self-assembly and transformation process. Due to the self-assembled structure and the surface hydrophobicity, when adding the hydrophobic BaSO4 into PVC, the mechanical properties of PVC composite materials were significantly improved.

  11. Spatial Organization of Dual-Species Bacterial Aggregates on Leaf Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Monier, J.-M.; Lindow, S. E.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial organization of cells within bacterial aggregates on leaf surfaces was determined for pair-wise mixtures of three different bacterial species commonly found on leaves, Pseudomonas syringae, Pantoea agglomerans, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Cells were coinoculated onto bean plants and allowed to grow under moist conditions, and the resulting aggregates were examined in situ by epifluorescence microscopy. Each bacterial strain could be localized because it expressed either the green or the cyan fluorescent protein constitutively, and the viability of individual cells was assessed by propidium iodide staining. Each pair of bacterial strains that was coinoculated onto leaves formed mixed aggregates. The degree of segregation of cells in mixed aggregates differed between the different coinoculated pairs of strains and was higher in mixtures of P. fluorescens A506 and P. agglomerans 299R and mixtures of P. syringae B728a and P. agglomerans 299R than in mixtures of two isogenic strains of P. agglomerans 299R. The fractions of the total cell population that were dead in mixed and monospecific aggregates of a gfp-marked strain of P. agglomerans 299R and a cfp-marked strain of P. agglomerans 299R, or of P. fluorescens A506 and P. agglomerans 299R, were similar. However, the proportion of dead cells in mixed aggregates of P. syringae B728a and P. agglomerans 299R was significantly higher (13.2% ± 8.2%) than that in monospecific aggregates of these two strains (1.6% ± 0.7%), and it increased over time. While dead cells in such mixed aggregates were preferentially found at the interface between clusters of cells of these strains, cells of these two strains located at the interface did not exhibit equal probabilities of mortality. After 9 days of incubation, about 77% of the P. agglomerans 299R cells located at the interface were dead, while only about 24% of the P. syringae B728a cells were dead. The relevance of our results to understanding bacterial interactions

  12. Hyperthermia restores apoptosis induced by death receptors through aggregation-induced c-FLIP cytosolic depletion.

    PubMed

    Morlé, A; Garrido, C; Micheau, O

    2015-01-01

    TRAIL is involved in immune tumor surveillance and is considered a promising anti-cancer agent owing to its limited side effects on healthy cells. However, some cancer cells display resistance, or become resistant to TRAIL-induced cell death. Hyperthermia can enhance sensitivity to TRAIL-induced cell death in various resistant cancer cell lines, including lung, breast, colon or prostate carcinomas. Mild heat shock treatment has been proposed to restore Fas ligand or TRAIL-induced apoptosis through c-FLIP degradation or the mitochondrial pathway. We demonstrate here that neither the mitochondria nor c-FLIP degradation are required for TRAIL-induced cell death restoration during hyperthermia. Our data provide evidence that insolubilization of c-FLIP, alone, is sufficient to enhance apoptosis induced by death receptors. Hyperthermia induced c-FLIP depletion from the cytosolic fraction, without apparent degradation, thereby preventing c-FLIP recruitment to the TRAIL DISC and allowing efficient caspase-8 cleavage and apoptosis. Hyperthermia-induced c-FLIP depletion was independent of c-FLIP DED2 FL chain assembly motif or ubiquitination-mediated c-FLIP degradation, as assessed using c-FLIP point mutants on lysine 167 and 195 or threonine 166, a phosphorylation site known to regulate ubiquitination of c-FLIP. Rather, c-FLIP depletion was associated with aggregation, because addition of glycerol not only prevented the loss of c-FLIP from the cytosol but also enabled c-FLIP recruitment within the TRAIL DISC, thus inhibiting TRAIL-induced apoptosis during hyperthermia. Altogether our results demonstrate that c-FLIP is a thermosensitive protein whose targeting by hyperthermia allows restoration of apoptosis induced by TNF ligands, including TRAIL. Our findings suggest that combining TRAIL agonists with whole-body or localized hyperthermia may be an interesting approach in cancer therapy. PMID:25675293

  13. Tetracene Aggregation on Polar and Nonpolar Surfaces: Implications for Singlet Fission.

    PubMed

    Strong, Steven E; Eaves, Joel D

    2015-04-01

    In molecular crystals that exhibit singlet fission, quantum yields depend strongly on intermolecular configurations that control the relevant electronic couplings. Here, we explore how noncovalent interactions between molecules and surfaces stabilize intermolecular structures with strong singlet fission couplings. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we studied the aggregation patterns of tetracene molecules on a solid surface as a function of surface polarity. Even at low surface concentrations, tetracene self-assembled into nanocrystallites where about 10-20% of the clustered molecules were part of at least one herringbone structure. The herringbone structure is the native structure of crystalline tetracene, which exhibits a high singlet fission quantum yield. Increasing the polarity of the surface reduced both the amount of clustering and the relative number of herringbone configurations, but only when the dipoles on the surface were orientationally disordered. These results have implications for the application of singlet fission in dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:26262973

  14. Static and Dynamic Aspects of Surfactant Surface Aggregates studied by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schniepp, Hannes; Saville, Dudley; Aksay, Ilhan

    2006-03-01

    Using AFM, we show that surfactants form micellar aggregates of varying morphology, depending on the surface structure. While all previous studies were limited to atomically flat substrates, we achieve imaging the micelles on rough gold. By gradually annealing these surfaces, we show the influence of roughness on the aggregate structures. For crystalline gold (111), aligned, hemi-cylindrical micelles that recognize the symmetry axes of the gold lattice are found. With increasing roughness, the degree of organization of the aggregates decreases. We also show that the micellar pattern on HOPG and gold(111) surfaces changes with time and responds to perturbations in a self-healing way. Our results suggest that this organization happens at the molecular scale. Theoretical analysis for HOPG, however, show that the micelle orientation cannot be explained on the molecular level, but the anisotropic van der Waals interaction between micelles and HOPG has to be considered as well [1]. [1] Saville, D. A.; Chun, J.; Li, J.-L.; Schniepp, H. C.; Car, R.; Aksay, I. A., accepted by Physical Review Letters.

  15. Analysis of the cell surface expression of cytokine receptors using the surface protein biotinylation method.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Mahmud Arif; Lam, Clarissa; Kashyap, Parul; Salehi-Najafabadi, Zahra; Singh, Gurpreet; Yu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are pleiotropic, low-molecular-weight proteins that regulate the immune responses to infection and inflammation. They stimulate the immune responses by binding to cytokine receptors on the cell plasma membrane. Thus, knowledge of the expression level of particular cytokine receptors on cell surface is crucial for understanding the cytokine function and regulation. One of the techniques to explore the membrane embedded cytokine receptors is cell surface biotinylation. Biotinylated surface proteins can be rapidly purified through the strong interaction between biotin and streptavidin. Here, we describe the procedure for surface biotinylation and purification of biotinylated cytokine receptors for further downstream analysis. PMID:24908305

  16. Solid-State Synthesized Nanostructured Au Dendritic Aggregates Towards Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, A.; Ruffino, F.; D'Andrea, C.; Gucciardi, P. G.; Reitano, R.; Grimaldi, M. G.

    2016-06-01

    Micrometric Au structures, presenting a dendritic nano-structure, have been fabricated on a Si-based substrate. The fabrication method involves the deposition of a thin Au film on the substrate and a high-temperature annealing (1100°C) using fast heating and cooling ramps. The thermal process produces the growth, from the substrate, of Si micro-pillars whose top surfaces, covered by a crystalline Au layer, present a nanodendritic morphology. In addition to the micro-pillars, the sample surface presents a complex structural and chemical composition including Si3N4 regions due to the silicon-nitrogen intermixing during the heating stage. By studying the kinetic processes at the Au-Si interface during the thermal treatment, we describe the stages involved in the micro-pillars growth, in the dendritic morphology development, and in the Au atoms entrapment at the top of the dendritic surfaces. Finally, we present the analyses of the optical and surface enhanced Raman scattering properties of the Au dendritic aggregates. We show, in particular, that: (1) the Au dendrites aggregates act as effective scattering elements for the electromagnetic radiation in the infrared spectral region; and (2) the higher surface area due to the branched dendritic structure is responsible for the improvement in the sensitivity of the surface enhanced Raman scattering activity.

  17. Chemokine Detection Using Receptors Immobilized on an SPR Sensor Surface.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Frade, José Miguel; Martínez-Muñoz, Laura; Villares, Ricardo; Cascio, Graciela; Lucas, Pilar; Gomariz, Rosa P; Mellado, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Chemokines and their receptors take part in many physiological and pathological processes, and their dysregulated expression is linked to chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, immunodeficiencies, and cancer. The chemokine receptors, members of the G protein-coupled receptor family, are integral membrane proteins, with seven-transmembrane domains that bind the chemokines and transmit signals through GTP-binding proteins. Many assays used to study the structure, conformation, or activation mechanism of these receptors are based on ligand-binding measurement, as are techniques to detect new agonists and antagonists that modulate chemokine function. Such methods require labeling of the chemokine and/or its receptor, which can alter their binding characteristics. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a powerful technique for analysis of the interaction between immobilized receptors and ligands in solution, in real time, and without labeling. SPR measurements nonetheless require expression and purification steps that can alter the conformation, stability, and function of the chemokine and/or the chemokine receptor. In this review, we focus on distinct methods to immobilize chemokine receptors on the surface of an optical biosensor. We expose the advantages and disadvantages of different protocols used and describe in detail the method to retain viral particles as receptor carriers that can be used for SPR determinations. PMID:26921939

  18. Interactions between human serum proteins and oral streptococci reveal occurrence of receptors for aggregated beta 2-microglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, D; Bratthall, D; Björck, L; Myhre, E; Kronvall, G

    1979-01-01

    A total of 31 strains of oral streptococci representing Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitior, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus milleri were tested for possible binding of human immunoglobulins G, G1, G2, G3, G4, A1, A2, M1, and M2 and haptoglobin, hemoglobin, fibrinogen, and aggregated beta 2-microglobulin. Radiolabeled beta 2-microglobulin in aggregated form showed affinity for 20 of the 31 strains tested. Binding activity for the protein was found in strains belonging to all five species. The bacterial receptor was resistant to trypsin. Monomeric, unlabeled beta 2-microglobulin did not interfere with the binding of the aggregated form. Of the other proteins tested, only the immunoglobulin A1 protein showed positive binding, and that was only with a single strain of S. milleri. beta 2-Microglobulin is present on all nucleated cell membranes in vivo. The reaction between aggregated beta 2-microglobulin and oral streptococci is a new type of human-bacterium interaction which should be considered in studies of bacterial adherence. PMID:90015

  19. Pyocyanin facilitates extracellular DNA binding to Pseudomonas aeruginosa influencing cell surface properties and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Das, Theerthankar; Kutty, Samuel K; Kumar, Naresh; Manefield, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Pyocyanin is an electrochemically active metabolite produced by the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is a recognized virulence factor and is involved in a variety of significant biological activities including gene expression, maintaining fitness of bacterial cells and biofilm formation. It is also recognized as an electron shuttle for bacterial respiration and as an antibacterial and antifungal agent. eDNA has also been demonstrated to be a major component in establishing P. aeruginosa biofilms. In this study we discovered that production of pyocyanin influences the binding of eDNA to P. aeruginosa PA14 cells, mediated through intercalation of pyocyanin with eDNA. P. aeruginosa cell surface properties including cell size (hydrodynamic diameter), hydrophobicity and attractive surface energies were influenced by eDNA in the presence of pyocyanin, affecting physico-chemical interactions and promoting aggregation. A ΔphzA-G PA14 mutant, deficient in pyocynain production, could not bind with eDNA resulting in a reduction in hydrodynamic diameter, a decrease in hydrophobicity, repulsive physico-chemical interactions and reduction in aggregation in comparison to the wildtype strain. Removal of eDNA by DNase I treatment on the PA14 wildtype strain resulted in significant reduction in aggregation, cell surface hydrophobicity and size and an increase in repulsive physico-chemical interactions, similar to the level of the ΔphzA-G mutant. The cell surface properties of the ΔphzA-G mutant were not affected by DNase I treatment. Based on these findings we propose that pyocyanin intercalation with eDNA promotes cell-to-cell interactions in P. aeruginosa cells by influencing their cell surface properties and physico-chemical interactions. PMID:23505483

  20. Self-assembled nanoparticle aggregates: Organizing disorder for high performance surface-enhanced spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasolato, C.; Domenici, F.; Brasili, F.; Mura, F.; Sennato, S.; De Angelis, L.; Mazzi, E.; Bordi, F.; Postorino, P.

    2015-06-01

    The coherent oscillations of the surface electron gas, known as surface plasmons, in metal nanostructures can give rise to the localization of intense electromagnetic fields at the metal-dielectric interface. These strong fields are exploited in surface enhanced spectroscopies, such as Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), for the detection and characterization of molecules at very low concentration. Still, the implementation of SERS-based biosensors requires a high level of reproducibility, combined with cheap and simple fabrication methods. For this purpose, SERS substrates based on self-assembled aggregates of commercial metallic nanoparticles (Nps) can meet all the above requests. Following this line, we report on a combined micro-Raman and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis of the SERS efficiency of micrometric silver Np aggregates (enhancement factors up to 109) obtained by self-assembly. Despite the intrinsic disordered nature of these Np clusters, we were able to sort out some general rules relating the specific aggregate morphology to its plasmonic response. We found strong evidences of cooperative effects among the NPs within the cluster and namely a clear dependence of the SERS-efficiency on both the cluster area (basically linear) and the number of stacked NPs layers. A cooperative action among the superimposed layers has been proved also by electromagnetic simulations performed on simplified nanostructures consisting of stacking planes of ordered Nps. Being clear the potentialities of these disordered self-assembled clusters, in terms of both easy fabrication and signal enhancement, we developed a specific nanofabrication protocol, based on electron beam lithography and molecular functionalization, that allowed for a fine control of the Np assemblies into designed shapes fixing their area and height. In particular, we fabricated 2D ordered arrays of disordered clusters choosing gold Nps owing to their high stability. AFM measurements confirmed

  1. Self-assembled nanoparticle aggregates: Organizing disorder for high performance surface-enhanced spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fasolato, C.; Domenici, F.; Brasili, F.; Mazzi, E.; Postorino, P.; Mura, F.; Sennato, S.; De Angelis, L.; Bordi, F.

    2015-06-23

    The coherent oscillations of the surface electron gas, known as surface plasmons, in metal nanostructures can give rise to the localization of intense electromagnetic fields at the metal-dielectric interface. These strong fields are exploited in surface enhanced spectroscopies, such as Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), for the detection and characterization of molecules at very low concentration. Still, the implementation of SERS-based biosensors requires a high level of reproducibility, combined with cheap and simple fabrication methods. For this purpose, SERS substrates based on self-assembled aggregates of commercial metallic nanoparticles (Nps) can meet all the above requests. Following this line, we report on a combined micro-Raman and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis of the SERS efficiency of micrometric silver Np aggregates (enhancement factors up to 10{sup 9}) obtained by self-assembly. Despite the intrinsic disordered nature of these Np clusters, we were able to sort out some general rules relating the specific aggregate morphology to its plasmonic response. We found strong evidences of cooperative effects among the NPs within the cluster and namely a clear dependence of the SERS-efficiency on both the cluster area (basically linear) and the number of stacked NPs layers. A cooperative action among the superimposed layers has been proved also by electromagnetic simulations performed on simplified nanostructures consisting of stacking planes of ordered Nps. Being clear the potentialities of these disordered self-assembled clusters, in terms of both easy fabrication and signal enhancement, we developed a specific nanofabrication protocol, based on electron beam lithography and molecular functionalization, that allowed for a fine control of the Np assemblies into designed shapes fixing their area and height. In particular, we fabricated 2D ordered arrays of disordered clusters choosing gold Nps owing to their high stability. AFM measurements

  2. Beyond the cell surface: new mechanisms of receptor function.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Carlos F

    2010-05-21

    The text book view of cell surface receptors depicts them at the top of a vertical chain of command that starts with ligand binding and proceeds in a lineal fashion towards the cell nucleus. Although pedagogically useful, this view is incomplete and recent findings suggest that the extracellular domain of cell surface receptors can be a transmitter as much as a receiver in intercellular communication. GFRalpha1 is a GPI-anchored receptor for GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), a neuronal growth factor with widespread functions in the developing and adult nervous system. GFRalpha1 partners with transmembrane proteins, such as the receptor tyrosine kinase RET or the cell adhesion molecule NCAM, for intracellular transmission of the GDNF signal. In addition to this canonical role, GFRalpha1 can also engage in horizontal interactions and thereby modify the function of other cell surface components. GFRalpha1 can also function as a ligand-induced adhesion cell molecule, mediating homophilic cell-cell interactions in response to GDNF. Finally, GFRalpha1 can also be released from the cell surface and act at a distance as a soluble factor together with its ligand. This plethora of unconventional mechanisms is likely to be a feature common to several other receptors and considerably expands our view of cell surface receptor function. PMID:20494105

  3. Ionizing Radiation Induces Macrophage Foam Cell Formation and Aggregation Through JNK-Dependent Activation of CD36 Scavenger Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Ikuo; Hotokezaka, Yuka; Matsuyama, Toshifumi; Sumi, Tadateru; Nakamura, Takashi

    2008-03-01

    Purpose: Irradiated arteries of cancer patients can be associated with atherosclerosis-like lesions containing cholesterol-laden macrophages (foam cells). Endothelial cell damage by irradiation does not completely explain the foam cell formation. We investigated the possible underlying mechanisms for ionizing radiation (IR)-induced foam cell formation. Methods and Materials: Human peripheral blood monocytes were activated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor and then treated with varying doses of IR in vitro in the absence of endothelial cells. Scavenger receptor expression and foam cell formation of IR-treated macrophages were investigated in the presence or absence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. We also assessed the importance of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in the macrophage colony-stimulating factor-activated human monocytes (macrophages) for the foam cell formation. Results: We found that IR treatment of macrophage colony-stimulating factor-activated human peripheral blood monocytes resulted in the enhanced expression of CD36 scavenger receptors and that cholesterol accumulated in the irradiated macrophages with resultant foam cell formation in the presence of oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Furthermore, when cultured on collagen gels, human macrophages formed large foam cell aggregates in response to IR. Antibodies against CD36 inhibited the IR-induced foam cell formation and aggregation, indicating that the IR-induced foam cell formation and the subsequent aggregation are dependent on functional CD36. In addition, we found that IR of human macrophages resulted in c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation and that c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibition suppressed IR-induced CD36 expression and the subsequent foam cell formation and aggregation. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that IR-induced foam cell formation is mediated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent CD36 activation.

  4. A pancake-shaped nano-aggregate for focusing surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying Huang, Shao; Cho Chew, Weng; Liu, Yang G.; Wu, Bae-Ian; Choi, H. W.

    2012-02-01

    We proposed a pancake-shaped nano-aggregate that highly focuses surface plasmons. The structure is a superposition of bowtie-shaped dimers, where surface plasmons are excited, resonated with the structure, and coupled. Surface integral equation method (Poggio-Miller-Chang-Harrington-Wu-Tsai method) is used to predict the performance of the proposed structure. It is a method which can accurately calculate the near-fields of nanoparticles. Based on the numerical prediction, the proposed structure shows an electric field (E-field) enhancement of more than 400 times, which is equivalent to a Raman enhancement factor of more than 2.5e10 times. It is promising for single molecule detections using surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The physics of the proposed structure are revealed. It is useful to design nanostructures for high E-field enhancement.

  5. Protein PEGylation attenuates adsorption and aggregation on a negatively charged and moderately hydrophobic polymer surface.

    PubMed

    Pai, Sheetal S; Przybycien, Todd M; Tilton, Robert D

    2010-12-01

    Covalent grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) chains to proteins ("PEGylation") is emerging as an effective technique to increase the in vivo circulation time and efficacy of protein drugs. PEGylated protein adsorption at a variety of solid/aqueous interfaces is a critical aspect of their manufacture, storage, and delivery. A special category of block copolymer, PEGylated proteins have one or more water-soluble linear polymer (PEG) blocks and a single globular protein block that each exert distinct intermolecular and surface interaction forces. We report the impact of PEGylation on protein adsorption at the interface between aqueous solutions and solid films of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG), a moderately hydrophobic and negatively charged polymer. Using the model protein lysozyme with controlled degrees of PEGylation, we employ total internal reflection fluorescence techniques to measure adsorption isotherms, adsorption reversibility, and the extent of surface-induced aggregation. Lysozyme PEGylation reduces the extent of protein adsorption and surface-induced aggregation and increases the reversibility of adsorption compared to the unconjugated protein. Results are interpreted in terms of steric forces among grafted PEG chains and their effects on protein-protein interactions and protein orientation on the surface. PMID:21067142

  6. Cell-surface translational dynamics of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes, Francisco J.

    2014-01-01

    Synapse efficacy heavily relies on the number of neurotransmitter receptors available at a given time. In addition to the equilibrium between the biosynthetic production, exocytic delivery and recycling of receptors on the one hand, and the endocytic internalization on the other, lateral diffusion and clustering of receptors at the cell membrane play key roles in determining the amount of active receptors at the synapse. Mobile receptors traffic between reservoir compartments and the synapse by thermally driven Brownian motion, and become immobilized at the peri-synaptic region or the synapse by: (a) clustering mediated by homotropic inter-molecular receptor–receptor associations; (b) heterotropic associations with non-receptor scaffolding proteins or the subjacent cytoskeletal meshwork, leading to diffusional “trapping,” and (c) protein-lipid interactions, particularly with the neutral lipid cholesterol. This review assesses the contribution of some of these mechanisms to the supramolecular organization and dynamics of the paradigm neurotransmitter receptor of muscle and neuronal cells -the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Currently available information stemming from various complementary biophysical techniques commonly used to interrogate the dynamics of cell-surface components is critically discussed. The translational mobility of nAChRs at the cell surface differs between muscle and neuronal receptors in terms of diffusion coefficients and residence intervals at the synapse, which cover an ample range of time regimes. A peculiar feature of brain α7 nAChR is its ability to spend much of its time confined peri-synaptically, vicinal to glutamatergic (excitatory) and GABAergic (inhibitory) synapses. An important function of the α7 nAChR may thus be visiting the territories of other neurotransmitter receptors, differentially regulating the dynamic equilibrium between excitation and inhibition, depending on its residence time in each domain. PMID

  7. Estradiol signaling via sequestrable surface receptors.

    PubMed

    Benten, W P; Stephan, C; Lieberherr, M; Wunderlich, F

    2001-04-01

    Estradiol (E(2))-signaling is widely considered to be exclusively mediated through the transcription-regulating intracellular estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and ERbeta. The aim of this study was to investigate transcription-independent E(2)-signaling in mouse IC-21 macrophages. E(2) and E(2)-BSA induce a rapid rise in the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) of Fura-2 loaded IC-21 cells as examined by spectrofluorometry. These changes in [Ca(2+)](i) can be inhibited by pertussis toxin, but not by the ER-blockers tamoxifen and raloxifene. The E(2)-signaling initiated at the plasma membrane is mediated through neither ERalpha nor ERbeta, but rather through a novel G protein-coupled membrane E(2)-receptor as revealed by RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. A special feature of this E(2)-receptor is its sequestration upon agonist stimulation. Sequestration depends on energy and temperature, and it proceeds through a clathrin- and caveolin-independent pathway. PMID:11250949

  8. Low density lipoprotein aged in plasma forms clusters resembling subendothelial droplets: aggregation via surface sites.

    PubMed

    De Spirito, Marco; Brunelli, Roberto; Mei, Giampiero; Bertani, Francesca R; Ciasca, Gabriele; Greco, Giulia; Papi, Massimiliano; Arcovito, Giuseppe; Ursini, Fulvio; Parasassi, Tiziana

    2006-06-01

    In early phases of atherogenesis, droplets and vesicles accumulate in the subendothelial extracellular space of arterial intima. There is much evidence to suggest that these droplets, ranging between 100 and 400 nm, derive from modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In investigations of the formation mechanism of these droplets, LDL fusion was previously induced in vitro by proteolysis, lipolysis, oxidation, and vigorous shaking, but all treatments failed to reproduce the size distribution range of in vivo droplets, mostly resulting, instead, in particles with a diameter intermediate between that of one and two LDL. Our approach was meant to mimic LDL aging in plasma. LDL isolated from plasma that was incubated overnight at 37 degrees C is slightly modified in the secondary structure of its protein component and is primed to form very large aggregates according to a reaction-limited mechanism. This mechanism requires interactions between selected surface sites, whereas massive fusion is ruled out. In the frame of the general theory for colloids, the aggregation of LDL aged in plasma fulfills all the requirements of the reaction-limited mechanism, encompassing 1), exponential growth; 2), fractal structure, with the dimension of elementary constituent still consistent with a single LDL; and 3), extreme polydispersity of aggregates, with shape and dimension very close to that of droplets observed in vivo. PMID:16533854

  9. Low Density Lipoprotein Aged in Plasma Forms Clusters Resembling Subendothelial Droplets: Aggregation via Surface Sites

    PubMed Central

    De Spirito, Marco; Brunelli, Roberto; Mei, Giampiero; Bertani, Francesca R.; Ciasca, Gabriele; Greco, Giulia; Papi, Massimiliano; Arcovito, Giuseppe; Ursini, Fulvio; Parasassi, Tiziana

    2006-01-01

    In early phases of atherogenesis, droplets and vesicles accumulate in the subendothelial extracellular space of arterial intima. There is much evidence to suggest that these droplets, ranging between 100 and 400 nm, derive from modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In investigations of the formation mechanism of these droplets, LDL fusion was previously induced in vitro by proteolysis, lipolysis, oxidation, and vigorous shaking, but all treatments failed to reproduce the size distribution range of in vivo droplets, mostly resulting, instead, in particles with a diameter intermediate between that of one and two LDL. Our approach was meant to mimic LDL aging in plasma. LDL isolated from plasma that was incubated overnight at 37°C is slightly modified in the secondary structure of its protein component and is primed to form very large aggregates according to a reaction-limited mechanism. This mechanism requires interactions between selected surface sites, whereas massive fusion is ruled out. In the frame of the general theory for colloids, the aggregation of LDL aged in plasma fulfills all the requirements of the reaction-limited mechanism, encompassing 1), exponential growth; 2), fractal structure, with the dimension of elementary constituent still consistent with a single LDL; and 3), extreme polydispersity of aggregates, with shape and dimension very close to that of droplets observed in vivo. PMID:16533854

  10. Enhanced hydrophobicity of polyurethane via non-solvent induced surface aggregation of silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Seyfi, Javad; Hejazi, Iman; Jafari, Seyed Hassan; Khonakdar, Hossein Ali; Simon, Frank

    2016-09-15

    Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces from hydrophilic polymers has always been regarded as a challenge. In this study, to achieve superhydrophobic polyurethane (PU) surfaces, silica nanoparticles and ethanol as non-solvent were simultaneously utilized during a solution casting-based process. Such modified version of phase separation process was found to be highly efficient, and also it required much lower concentration of nanoparticles to achieve superhydrophobicity as compared to the previously reported methods in the literature. According to the proposed mechanism, non-solvent induces a more profound aggregation of silica nanoparticles at the surface's top layer causing the surface energy to be highly diminished, and thus, the water repellency is improved. Morphology and topography results showed that a unique "triple-sized" structure was formed on the surface of superhydrophobic samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results proved that both PU macromolecules and silica nanoparticles were concurrently present at the surface layer of the superhydrophobic sample. It was concluded that surface composition and roughness could be regarded as competing factors in achieving superhydrophobicity. Based on the obtained results, the proposed method exhibits a promising potential in large-scale fabrication of surface layers with superhydrophobic property. Moreover, a mechanism was also presented to further explicate the physics behind the suggested method. PMID:27288577

  11. A physical scaling model for aggregation and disaggregation of field-scale surface soil moisture dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Richa; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2015-07-01

    Scaling relationships are needed as measurements and desired predictions are often not available at concurrent spatial support volumes or temporal discretizations. Surface soil moisture values of interest to hydrologic studies are estimated using ground based measurement techniques or utilizing remote sensing platforms. Remote sensing based techniques estimate field-scale surface soil moisture values, but are unable to provide the local-scale soil moisture information that is obtained from local measurements. Further, obtaining field-scale surface moisture values using ground-based measurements is exhaustive and time consuming. To bridge this scale mismatch, we develop analytical expressions for surface soil moisture based on sharp-front approximation of the Richards equation and assumed log-normal distribution of the spatial surface saturated hydraulic conductivity field. Analytical expressions for field-scale evolution of surface soil moisture to rainfall events are utilized to obtain aggregated and disaggregated response of surface soil moisture evolution with knowledge of the saturated hydraulic conductivity. The utility of the analytical model is demonstrated through numerical experiments involving 3-D simulations of soil moisture and Monte-Carlo simulations for 1-D renderings—with soil moisture dynamics being represented by the Richards equation in each instance. Results show that the analytical expressions developed here show promise for a principled way of scaling surface soil moisture.

  12. Input of 137Cs and 90Sr into plants from the surface of soil aggregates and the intraped space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokin, A. D.; Torshin, S. P.; Bebneva, Yu. M.; Gadzhiagaeva, R. A.; Zolotareva, Yu. I.; Umer, M. I.

    2014-12-01

    Soil aggregates with different localization of radionuclides—(a) only on the aggregate surface, (b) only in the intraped space, and (c) uniformly distributed throughout the aggregate volume—have been obtained under laboratory conditions, which has allowed separately assessing the roles of different aggregate parts in the uptake of radionuclides by plant roots and the reaggregation rate of the soil material. The uptake rate of the radionuclides localized on the surface of soil aggregates, especially 137Cs, by plants manifold exceeds their uptake observed at the localization of pollutants throughout the aggregate volume or only in their intraped material. The input rate of radionuclides into plants decreases with time. For 137Cs, this decrease is due to the strengthening of the sorption fixation of the radionuclide (about 15%) and the reaggregation of the soil material (85%). Under natural conditions, at a depth of 10 cm in the dark gray forest soil of a forest belt, aggregates 7-10 mm in size are subjected to 40-75% destruction and reaggregation on the average within a year, which corresponds, with consideration for the statistical dispersion of the initial data, to the aggregate lifetime of 1.5 to 3 years.

  13. Probing surface characteristics of diffusion-limited-aggregation clusters with particles of variable size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshutin, A. Yu.; Shchur, L. N.; Vinokur, V. M.

    2007-01-01

    We develop a technique for probing the harmonic measure of a diffusion-limited-aggregation (DLA) cluster surface with variable-size particles and generate 1000 clusters with 50×106 particles using an original off-lattice killing-free algorithm. Taking, in sequence, the limit of the vanishing size of the probing particles and then sending the growing cluster size to infinity, we achieve unprecedented accuracy in determining the fractal dimension D=1.7100(2) crucial to the characterization of the geometric properties of DLA clusters.

  14. Aggregation and antigenicity of virus like particle in salt solution--A case study with hepatitis B surface antigen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Zhang, Yan; Quan, Can; Luo, Jian; Yang, Yanli; Yu, Mengran; Kong, Yingjun; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2015-08-20

    The phenomenon of aggregation of virus-like particles (VLPs) in salt solution and the corresponding effect upon antigenicity was reported. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) combined with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) was used to characterize the size and the aggregation behavior of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The average diameter of HBsAg VLP was 22.8±0.4 nm and it tended to aggregate in salt solution to form large particles and the antigenicity changed accordingly. In 0-4 M NaCl solution, part of HBsAg molecules aggregated rapidly into oligomeric particles (OP), whose diameter distributed from 25 to 40 nm, and the antigenicity slightly decreased about 10%. The aggregation reaction is reversible. After removing NaCl, both size and antigenicity could recover to normal level (92-96%). By contrast, the aggregation process is more complicated in (NH4)2SO4 solution. Most of HBsAg particles aggregated into OP and further aggregated into polymeric particles (PP). The diameter of the PP could reach 40 to 140 nm. The concentration of (NH4)2SO4 had remarkable influence upon the rate of aggregation. When concentration of (NH4)2SO4 was below 1 M, most of HBsAg aggregated only into OP in 1 h. While with concentration of (NH4)2SO4 above 1 M, most of particles formed PP within 1 h. The aggregation process to PP was irreversible. After removing (NH4)2SO4, the large aggregates could not recover to normal particles and the remaining antigenicity was below 30%. PMID:25862298

  15. Time-dependent inhibition by glyceryl trinitrate of platelet aggregation caused by U46619 (a thromboxane/endoperoxide receptor agonist).

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Ritter, J M

    1994-07-01

    Glyceryl trinitrate is a weak inhibitor of platelet aggregation in vitro. Its effect on platelet aggregation in response to U46619 (a thromboxane/endoperoxide receptor agonist) was studied turbidometrically in platelet-rich plasma from healthy volunteers. The object was to determine whether inhibition was influenced by a period of preincubation between preparation of platelet-rich plasma and addition of glyceryl trinitrate. Incubation was performed at 37 degrees C and 22 degrees C. Samples were removed at intervals and transferred to an aggregometer cuvette at 37 degrees C. Glyceryl trinitrate (100 microM) or an equal volume of distilled water was added 5 min before U46619 (2 microM), and aggregation recorded as change in light transmission. Inhibition by glyceryl trinitrate was markedly time and temperature dependent, with a progressive increase in inhibitory potency between 120 and 300 min preincubation at 37 degrees C but not at 22 degrees C. The explanation of this is unknown but the effect was not influenced by lipopolysaccharide or by cycloheximide, so it does not appear to be due to exposure to endotoxin or to enzyme induction in vitro. PMID:7946941

  16. Antiplatelet aggregation and platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonistic activities of the essential oils of five Goniothalamus species.

    PubMed

    Moharam, Bushra Abdulkarim; Jantan, Ibrahim; Ahmad, Fasihuddin bin; Jalil, Juriyati

    2010-08-01

    Nine essential oils, hydrodistilled from different parts of five Goniothalamus species (G. velutinus Airy-Shaw, G. woodii Merr., G. clemensii Ban, G. tapis Miq. and G. tapisoides Mat Salleh) were evaluated for their ability to inhibit platelet aggregation in human whole blood using an electrical impedance method and their inhibitory effects on platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor binding with rabbit platelets using 3H-PAF as a ligand. The chemical composition of the oils was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The bark oil of G. velutinus was the most effective sample as it inhibited both arachidonic acid (AA) and ADP-induced platelet aggregation with IC(50) values of 93.6 and 87.7 microg/mL, respectively. Among the studied oils, the bark oils of G. clemensii, G. woodii, G. velutinus and the root oil of G. tapis showed significant inhibitory effects on PAF receptor binding, with IC(50 )values ranging from 3.5 to 10.5 microg/mL. The strong PAF antagonistic activity of the active oils is related to their high contents of sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenoids, and the individual components in the oils could possibly produce a synergistic effect in the overall antiplatelet activity of the oils. PMID:20714290

  17. Construction aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tepordei, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Part of the 1994 Industrial Minerals Review. The production, consumption, and applications of construction aggregates are reviewed. In 1994, the production of construction aggregates, which includes crushed stone and construction sand and gravel combined, increased 7.7 percent to 2.14 Gt compared with the previous year. These record production levels are mostly a result of funding for highway construction work provided by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Demand is expected to increase for construction aggregates in 1995.

  18. Kinin B1 receptor homo-oligomerization is required for receptor trafficking to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Sandén, Caroline; Leeb-Lundberg, L M Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The kinin B1 receptor (B1R) is a G protein-coupled receptor with pro-inflammatory activity that is latent in healthy tissues but induced by tissue insult. Here, we investigated if B1R homo-oligomerization is a possible mechanism regulating the presentation of this receptor at the level of maturation and trafficking to the cell surface. To this end, we used HEK293 cells stably expressing N-terminal FLAG and HA epitope-tagged wild-type human B1R and an N-terminal receptor fragment, B1stop135, which terminates at the C-terminal end of the third transmembrane domain and has previously been shown to oligomerize with B1R. Receptors were monitored by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation, receptor function by agonist binding and agonist-promoted phosphoinositide hydrolysis, and receptor trafficking by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. When expressed alone, B1R is core N-glycosylated and forms oligomers localized intracellularly and on the cell surface. B1stop135 also exists as core N-glycosylated oligomers but is localized exclusively intracellularly. When co-expressed, B1stop135 prevents specifically B1R homo-oligomerization by forming nonfunctional B1R-B1stop135 hetero-oligomers, retains B1R intracellularly at least in part in the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), increases calnexin binding to the receptor, and increases receptor degradation. We conclude that B1R homo-oligomerization is necessary for B1R maturation and trafficking to the cell surface. Modulating this mechanism may be a novel therapeutic avenue in inflammatory disease. PMID:23201435

  19. The Effect of Surface Induced Flows on Bubble and Particle Aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guelcher, Scott A.; Solomentsev, Yuri E.; Anderson, John L.; Boehmer, Marcel; Sides, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    Almost 20 years have elapsed since a phenomenon called "radial specific coalescence" was identified. During studies of electrolytic oxygen evolution from the back side of a vertically oriented, transparent tin oxide electrode in alkaline electrolyte, one of the authors (Sides) observed that large "collector" bubbles appeared to attract smaller bubbles. The bubbles moved parallel to the surface of the electrode, while the electric field was normal to the electrode surface. The phenomenon was reported but not explained. More recently self ordering of latex particles was observed during electrophoretic deposition at low DC voltages likewise on a transparent tin oxide electrode. As in the bubble work, the field was normal to the electrode while the particles moved parallel to it. Fluid convection caused by surface induced flows (SIF) can explain these two apparently different experimental observations: the aggregation of particles on an electrode during electrophoretic deposition, and a radial bubble coalescence pattern on an electrode during electrolytic gas evolution. An externally imposed driving force (the gradient of electrical potential or temperature), interacting with the surface of particles or bubbles very near a planar conducting surface, drives the convection of fluid that causes particles and bubbles to approach each other on the electrode.

  20. Folate Receptor-targeted Aggregation-enhanced Near-IR Emitting Silica Nanoprobe for One-photon in vivo and Two-photon ex vivo Fluorescence Bioimaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuhua; Morales, Alma R.; Urakami, Takeo; Zhang, Lifu; Bondar, Mykhailo V.; Komatsu, Masanobu; Belfield, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    A two-photon absorbing (2PA) and aggregation-enhanced near infrared (NIR) emitting pyran derivative, encapsulated in and stabilized by silica nanoparticles (SiNPs), is reported as a nanoprobe for two-photon fluorescence microscopy (2PFM) bioimaging that overcomes fluorescence quenching associated with high chromophore loading. The new SiNP probe exhibited aggregate-enhanced emission producing nearly twice as strong signal as the unaggregated dye, a three-fold increase in two-photon absorption relative to the DFP in solution, and approx. four-fold increase in photostability. The surface of the nanoparticles was functionalized with a folic acid (FA) derivative for folate-mediated delivery of the nanoprobe for 2PFM bioimaging. Surface modification of SiNPs with the FA derivative was supported by zeta potential variation and 1H NMR spectral characterization of the SiNPs as a function of surface modification. In vitro studies using HeLa cells expressing folate receptor (FR) indicated specific cellular uptake of the functionalized nanoparticles. The nanoprobe was demonstrated for FRtargeted one-photon in vivo imaging of HeLa tumor xenograft in mice upon intravenous injection of the probe. The FR-targeting nanoprobe not only exhibited highly selective tumor targeting but also readily extravasated from tumor vessels, penetrated into the tumor parenchyma, and was internalized by the tumor cells. Two-photon fluorescence microscopy bioimaging provided three-dimensional (3D) cellular-level resolution imaging up to 350 µm deep in the HeLa tumor. PMID:21688841

  1. A Generalizable Platform for the Photoactivation of Cell Surface Receptors.

    PubMed

    Duc, Thinh Nguyen; Huse, Morgan

    2015-11-20

    Polarized signal transduction from cell surface receptors plays a central role in the development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms, and it also contributes to cellular dysfunction in many disease states. Understanding the molecular and cellular bases of polarized signaling requires experimental methods that provide precise spatiotemporal control of receptor activation. However, we currently lack strategies for inducing both sustained and spatially constrained signal transduction. In the present study, we combined synthetic and cell biological tools to develop a generalizable photoactivation approach for the stimulation of cell surface receptors. Our system, which is based upon the local decaging of a "universal" peptide ligand, is particularly well suited for the live imaging of single cells. We anticipate that it will greatly facilitate future mechanistic analyses of polarized signal transduction in a variety of cell types. PMID:26295186

  2. Purification of the surface cAMP receptor in Dictyostelium

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, P.; Knox, B.; Borleis, J.; Devreotes, P.

    1987-01-05

    We have previously identified and demonstrated reversible ligand-induced modification of the major cell surface cAMP receptor in Dictyostelium discoideum. The receptor, or a subunit of it, has been purified to homogeneity by hydroxylapatite chromatography followed by two-dimensional preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purification was monitored by following /sup 32/Pi incorporated by photoaffinity labeling with 8-azido-(/sup 32/P)cAMP or by in vivo labeling with /sup 32/Pi. Two interconvertible forms of the receptor, designated R (Mr 40,000) and D (Mr 43,000), co-purified. Two-dimensional peptide maps of independently purified and /sup 125/I-iodinated R and D forms of the receptor were nearly identical but did have several distinct peptides. The estimated 6000-fold purification required is consistent with the number of cell surface binding sites assuming there are not multiple binding sites/polypeptide. In the accompanying article we report the generation of a monospecific polyclonal antiserum which has helped to further elucidate the physical properties and developmental regulation of the cAMP receptor.

  3. Progress in detecting cell-surface protein receptors: the erythropoietin receptor example.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Steve; Sinclair, Angus; Collins, Helen; Rice, Linda; Jelkmann, Wolfgang

    2014-02-01

    Testing for the presence of specific cell-surface receptors (such as EGFR or HER2) on tumor cells is an integral part of cancer care in terms of treatment decisions and prognosis. Understanding the strengths and limitations of these tests is important because inaccurate results may occur if procedures designed to prevent false-negative or false-positive outcomes are not employed. This review discusses tests commonly used to identify and characterize cell-surface receptors, such as the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR). First, a summary is provided on the biology of the Epo/EpoR system, describing how EpoR is expressed on erythrocytic progenitors and precursors in the bone marrow where it mediates red blood cell production in response to Epo. Second, studies are described that investigated whether erythropoiesis-stimulating agents could stimulate tumor progression in cancer patients and whether EpoR is expressed and functional on tumor cells or on endothelial cells. The methods used in these studies included immunohistochemistry, Northern blotting, Western blotting, and binding assays. This review summarizes the strengths and limitations of these methods. Critically analyzing data from tests for cell-surface receptors such as EpoR requires understanding the techniques utilized and demonstrating that results are consistent with current knowledge about receptor biology. PMID:24337485

  4. Cell-Surface Receptors Transactivation Mediated by G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, Fabio; Guerra, Germano; Parisi, Melania; De Marinis, Marta; Tafuri, Domenico; Cinelli, Mariapia; Ammendola, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins belonging to a large family of cell-surface receptors involved in many intracellular signaling cascades. Despite GPCRs lack intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, tyrosine phosphorylation of a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK) occurs in response to binding of specific agonists of several such receptors, triggering intracellular mitogenic cascades. This suggests that the notion that GPCRs are associated with the regulation of post-mitotic cell functions is no longer believable. Crosstalk between GPCR and RTK may occur by different molecular mechanism such as the activation of metalloproteases, which can induce the metalloprotease-dependent release of RTK ligands, or in a ligand-independent manner involving membrane associated non-receptor tyrosine kinases, such as c-Src. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also implicated as signaling intermediates in RTKs transactivation. Intracellular concentration of ROS increases transiently in cells stimulated with GPCR agonists and their deliberated and regulated generation is mainly catalyzed by enzymes that belong to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family. Oxidation and/or reduction of cysteine sulfhydryl groups of phosphatases tightly controls the activity of RTKs and ROS-mediated inhibition of cellular phosphatases results in an equilibrium shift from the non-phosphorylated to the phosphorylated state of RTKs. Many GPCR agonists activate phospholipase C, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate to produce inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglicerol. The consequent mobilization of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum leads to the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. PKCα mediates feedback inhibition of RTK transactivation during GPCR stimulation. Recent data have expanded the coverage of transactivation to include Serine/Threonine kinase receptors and Toll-like receptors. Herein, we

  5. A Rapid Method for Refolding Cell Surface Receptors and Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Lu; Wu, Ling; Li, Feng; Burnham, Robert S.; Pizarro, Juan C.; Xu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Production of membrane-associated cell surface receptors and their ligands is often a cumbersome, expensive, and time-consuming process that limits detailed structural and functional characterization of this important class of proteins. Here we report a rapid method for refolding inclusion-body-based, recombinant cell surface receptors and ligands in one day, a speed equivalent to that of soluble protein production. This method efficiently couples modular on-column immobilized metal ion affinity purification and solid-phase protein refolding. We demonstrated the general utility of this method for producing multiple functionally active immunoreceptors, ligands, and viral decoys, including challenging cell surface proteins that cannot be produced using typical dialysis- or dilution-based refolding approaches. PMID:27215173

  6. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy on dielectrophoresis induced diffusion limited aggregation of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Faisal Khair

    Wires formed by diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) induced by dielectrophoresis (DEP) of gold nanoparticles were investigated as an effective sample preparation method for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Thymine was used as a test molecule and its SERS was measured to investigate the effectiveness of this technique that reproducibly resulted in x10 9 enhancement. It is known that molecules adsorbed near or at the surface of certain nanostructures produce strongly increased Raman signals and such phenomena is attributed to the concentration of electromagnetic (EM) optical fields at "hotspots" that usually occur at nanoscale junctions or clefts in metal nanostructures. Similarly, the enhancement obtained is attributed to the localized surface Plasmon's of the gold nanoparticles and the formation of "hotspots" in DEP wires. There are other methods that reproducibly yield in excess of x108 enhancement in SERS using tunable lasers and very elaborate Raman spectroscopy. The results presented here are obtained using a fixed laser excitation source at 785 nm and a simple spectrometer (5 cm-1 resolution).

  7. Deletion of vitamin D receptor leads to premature emphysema/COPD by increased matrix metalloproteinases and lymphoid aggregates formation

    SciTech Connect

    Sundar, Isaac K.; Hwang, Jae-Woong; Wu, Shaoping; Sun, Jun; Rahman, Irfan

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Vitamin D deficiency is linked to accelerated decline in lung function. {yields} Levels of vitamin D receptor (VDR) are decreased in lungs of patients with COPD. {yields} VDR knock-out mouse showed increased lung inflammation and emphysema. {yields} This was associated with decline in lung function and increased MMPs. {yields} VDR knock-out mouse model is useful for studying the mechanisms of lung diseases. -- Abstract: Deficiency of vitamin D is associated with accelerated decline in lung function. Vitamin D is a ligand for nuclear hormone vitamin D receptor (VDR), and upon binding it modulates various cellular functions. The level of VDR is reduced in lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which led us to hypothesize that deficiency of VDR leads to significant alterations in lung phenotype that are characteristics of COPD/emphysema associated with increased inflammatory response. We found that VDR knock-out (VDR{sup -/-}) mice had increased influx of inflammatory cells, phospho-acetylation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) associated with increased proinflammatory mediators, and up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-12 in the lung. This was associated with emphysema and decline in lung function associated with lymphoid aggregates formation compared to WT mice. These findings suggest that deficiency of VDR in mouse lung can lead to an early onset of emphysema/COPD because of chronic inflammation, immune dysregulation, and lung destruction.

  8. Theory and simulations of adhesion receptor dimerization on membrane surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yinghao; Honig, Barry; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam

    2013-03-19

    The equilibrium constants of trans and cis dimerization of membrane bound (2D) and freely moving (3D) adhesion receptors are expressed and compared using elementary statistical-thermodynamics. Both processes are mediated by the binding of extracellular subdomains whose range of motion in the 2D environment is reduced upon dimerization, defining a thin reaction shell where dimer formation and dissociation take place. We show that the ratio between the 2D and 3D equilibrium constants can be expressed as a product of individual factors describing, respectively, the spatial ranges of motions of the adhesive domains, and their rotational freedom within the reaction shell. The results predicted by the theory are compared to those obtained from a novel, to our knowledge, dynamical simulations methodology, whereby pairs of receptors perform realistic translational, internal, and rotational motions in 2D and 3D. We use cadherins as our model system. The theory and simulations explain how the strength of cis and trans interactions of adhesive receptors are affected both by their presence in the constrained intermembrane space and by the 2D environment of membrane surfaces. Our work provides fundamental insights as to the mechanism of lateral clustering of adhesion receptors after cell-cell contact and, more generally, to the formation of lateral microclusters of proteins on cell surfaces. PMID:23528081

  9. Detection of CXCR2 cytokine receptor surface expression using immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Lam, Clarissa; Pavel, Mahmud Arif; Kashyap, Parul; Salehi-Najafabadi, Zahra; Valentino, Victoria; Yu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) chemokine, also known as the neutrophil chemotactic factor, is a cytokine that plays a key role in inflammatory response, cell proliferation, migration, and survival. IL-8 expression is increased not only in inflammatory disorders, but also in many types of cancer, including prostate cancer. IL-8 acts as a ligand for the C-X-C chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) protein present on the cell plasma membrane. Binding of the IL-8 ligand to the CXCR2 receptor results in an intracellular signaling pathway mediated by GTP binding proteins coupled to the receptor itself. Knowledge of the CXCR2 expression levels facilitates the understanding of the role and function of IL-8. In this chapter, we describe a protocol that uses the immunofluorescence method and confocal microscopy to analyze the CXCR2 surface expression in human prostate cancer cells. However, this protocol is easily adaptable to analyze the surface expression of other cytokine receptors in different cell types. PMID:24908306

  10. Erythrocyte Aggregation due to Surface Nanobubble Interactions During the Onset of Thermal Burn Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidner, Harrison S.

    Red Blood Cell (RBC) aggregation is an important hemorheological phenomenon especially in microcirculation. In healthy individuals, RBCs are known to aggregate and gravitate toward the faster flow in the center of vessels to increase their throughput for more efficient oxygen delivery. Their aggregation is known to occur during a variety of environmental, pathological, and physiological conditions and is reversible when aggregates are subject to the relatively high shear forces in the circulation. The likelihood that aggregates will monodisperse in flow is dependent on the conditions during which they form. In situations where such aggregates are not sheared to monodispersion their presence can impact the perfusion of microvascular networks. More specifically, aggregates subject to the low shear rates in the zone of stasis near regions of thermal burn injury are capable of occluding vessels in the microcirculation and inhibiting the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissue downstream. The basic mechanism leading to erythrocyte aggregation at the onset of thermal injury is unknown. This dissertation investigates parameters involved in erythrocyte aggregation, methods of measuring and testing erythrocyte aggregation, and incorporates modeling based on first principles ultimately to propose a mechanism of this phenomenon.

  11. Surface microhardness of three thicknesses of mineral trioxide aggregate in different setting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jafargholizadeh, Leila; Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam; Nekoofar, Mohammad Hossein; Raoof, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to compare the surface microhardness of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) samples having different thicknesses and exposed to human blood from one side and with or without a moist cotton pellet on the other side. Materials and Methods Ninety cylindrical molds with three heights of 2, 4, and 6 mm were fabricated. In group 1 (dry condition), molds with heights of 2, 4, and 6 mm (10 molds of each) were filled with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental), and the upper surface of the material was not exposed to any additional moisture. In groups 2 and 3, a distilled water- or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-moistened cotton pellet was placed on the upper side of MTA, respectively. The lower side of the molds in all the groups was in contact with human blood-wetted foams. After 4 day, the Vickers microhardness of the upper surface of MTA was measured. Results In the dry condition, the 4 and 6 mm-thick MTA samples showed significantly lower microhardness than the 2 mm-thick samples (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001, respectively). However, when a distilled water- or PBS-moistened cotton pellet was placed over the MTA, no significant difference was found between the surface microhardness of samples having the abovementioned three thicknesses of the material (p = 0.210 and p = 0.112, respectively). Conclusions It could be concluded that a moist cotton pellet must be placed over the 4 to 6 mm-thick MTA for better hydration of the material. However, this might not be necessary when 2 mm-thick MTA is used. PMID:25383342

  12. Surface Modification of ZnO Nanorods with Hamilton Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zeininger, Lukas; Klaumünzer, Martin; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A new prototype of a Hamilton receptor suitable for the functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles was synthesized and characterized. The hydrogen bonding receptor was coupled to a catechol moiety, which served as anchor group for the functionalization of metal oxides, in particular zinc oxide. Synthesized zinc oxide nanorods [ZnO] were used for surface functionalization. The wet-chemical functionalization procedure towards monolayer-grafted particles [ZnO-HR] is described and a detailed characterization study is presented. In addition, the detection of specific cyanurate molecules is demonstrated. The hybrid structures [ZnO-HR-CA] were stable towards agglomeration and exhibited enhanced dispersability in apolar solvents. This observation, in combination with several spectroscopic experiments gave evidence of the highly directional supramolecular recognition at the surface of nanoparticles. PMID:25872141

  13. Surface modification of ZnO nanorods with Hamilton receptors.

    PubMed

    Zeininger, Lukas; Klaumünzer, Martin; Peukert, Wolfgang; Hirsch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    A new prototype of a Hamilton receptor suitable for the functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles was synthesized and characterized. The hydrogen bonding receptor was coupled to a catechol moiety, which served as anchor group for the functionalization of metal oxides, in particular zinc oxide. Synthesized zinc oxide nanorods [ZnO] were used for surface functionalization. The wet-chemical functionalization procedure towards monolayer-grafted particles [ZnO-HR] is described and a detailed characterization study is presented. In addition, the detection of specific cyanurate molecules is demonstrated. The hybrid structures [ZnO-HR-CA] were stable towards agglomeration and exhibited enhanced dispersability in apolar solvents. This observation, in combination with several spectroscopic experiments gave evidence of the highly directional supramolecular recognition at the surface of nanoparticles. PMID:25872141

  14. Surface plasmon delocalization in silver nanoparticle aggregates revealed by subdiffraction supercontinuum hot spots

    PubMed Central

    Borys, Nicholas J.; Shafran, Eyal; Lupton, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The plasmonic resonances of nanostructured silver films produce exceptional surface enhancement, enabling reproducible single-molecule Raman scattering measurements. Supporting a broad range of plasmonic resonances, these disordered systems are difficult to investigate with conventional far-field spectroscopy. Here, we use nonlinear excitation spectroscopy and polarization anisotropy of single optical hot spots of supercontinuum generation to track the transformation of these plasmon modes as the mesoscopic structure is tuned from a film of discrete nanoparticles to a semicontinuous layer of aggregated particles. We demonstrate how hot spot formation from diffractively-coupled nanoparticles with broad spectral resonances transitions to that from spatially delocalized surface plasmon excitations, exhibiting multiple excitation resonances as narrow as 13 meV. Photon-localization microscopy reveals that the delocalized plasmons are capable of focusing multiple narrow radiation bands over a broadband range to the same spatial region within 6 nm, underscoring the existence of novel plasmonic nanoresonators embedded in highly disordered systems. PMID:23807624

  15. TGF-β induces TIAF1 self-aggregation via type II receptor-independent signaling that leads to generation of amyloid β plaques in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, M-H; Lin, S-R; Chang, J-Y; Schultz, L; Heath, J; Hsu, L-J; Kuo, Y-M; Hong, Q; Chiang, M-F; Gong, C-X; Sze, C-I; Chang, N-S

    2010-01-01

    The role of a small transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-induced TIAF1 (TGF-β1-induced antiapoptotic factor) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was investigated. TIAF1 physically interacts with mothers against DPP homolog 4 (Smad4), and blocks SMAD-dependent promoter activation when overexpressed. Accordingly, knockdown of TIAF1 by small interfering RNA resulted in spontaneous accumulation of Smad proteins in the nucleus and activation of the promoter governed by the SMAD complex. TGF-β1 and environmental stress (e.g., alterations in pericellular environment) may induce TIAF1 self-aggregation in a type II TGF-β receptor-independent manner in cells, and Smad4 interrupts the aggregation. Aggregated TIAF1 induces apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner. By filter retardation assay, TIAF1 aggregates were found in the hippocampi of nondemented humans and AD patients. Total TIAF1-positive samples containing amyloid β (Aβ) aggregates are 17 and 48%, respectively, in the nondemented and AD groups, suggesting that TIAF1 aggregation occurs preceding formation of Aβ. To test this hypothesis, in vitro analysis showed that TGF-β-regulated TIAF1 aggregation leads to dephosphorylation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) at Thr668, followed by degradation and generation of APP intracellular domain (AICD), Aβ and amyloid fibrils. Polymerized TIAF1 physically interacts with amyloid fibrils, which would favorably support plaque formation in vivo. PMID:21368882

  16. Regional Study of No-Till Impacts on Near-Surface Aggregate Properties that Influence Soil Erodibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The extent to which tillage systems modify the near-surface soil aggregate properties affecting soil’s susceptibility to erosion by water and wind is not well understood. We hypothesized that an increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) content with conservation tillage systems, particularly NT, may imp...

  17. Research Resource: Androgen Receptor Activity Is Regulated Through the Mobilization of Cell Surface Receptor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Jordy J.; Ng, Brandon H.; Smits, Melinda M.; Martinez, Harryl D.; Jasavala, Rohini J.; Hinkson, Izumi V.; Fermin, Damian; Eng, Jimmy K.; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.

    2015-01-01

    The aberrant expression of androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transcriptional programs is a defining pathology of the development and progression of prostate cancers. Transcriptional cofactors that bind AR are critical determinants of prostate tumorigenesis. To gain a deeper understanding of the proteins linked to AR-dependent gene transcription, we performed a DNA-affinity chromatography-based proteomic screen designed to identify proteins involved in AR-mediated gene transcription in prostate tumor cells. Functional experiments validated the coregulator roles of known AR-binding proteins in AR-mediated transcription in prostate tumor cells. More importantly, novel coregulatory functions were detected in components of well-established cell surface receptor-dependent signal transduction pathways. Further experimentation demonstrated that components of the TNF, TGF-β, IL receptor, and epidermal growth factor signaling pathways modulated AR-dependent gene transcription and androgen-dependent proliferation in prostate tumor cells. Collectively, our proteomic dataset demonstrates that the cell surface receptor- and AR-dependent pathways are highly integrated, and provides a molecular framework for understanding how disparate signal-transduction pathways can influence AR-dependent transcriptional programs linked to the development and progression of human prostate cancers. PMID:26181434

  18. G-Protein Coupled Receptors: Surface Display and Biosensor Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurchie, Edward; Leifert, Wayne

    Signal transduction by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) underpins a multitude of physiological processes. Ligand recognition by the receptor leads to the activation of a generic molecular switch involving heterotrimeric G-proteins and guanine nucleotides. With growing interest and commercial investment in GPCRs in areas such as drug targets, orphan receptors, high-throughput screening of drugs and biosensors, greater attention will focus on assay development to allow for miniaturization, ultrahigh-throughput and, eventually, microarray/biochip assay formats that will require nanotechnology-based approaches. Stable, robust, cell-free signaling assemblies comprising receptor and appropriate molecular switching components will form the basis of future GPCR/G-protein platforms, which should be able to be adapted to such applications as microarrays and biosensors. This chapter focuses on cell-free GPCR assay nanotechnologies and describes some molecular biological approaches for the construction of more sophisticated, surface-immobilized, homogeneous, functional GPCR sensors. The latter points should greatly extend the range of applications to which technologies based on GPCRs could be applied.

  19. Protein aggregates stimulate macropinocytosis facilitating their propagation.

    PubMed

    Yerbury, Justin J

    2016-03-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of pathological changes such as loss of neurons and presence of pathological protein aggregates are characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Frontotemporal Dementia, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. These patterns are consistent with the propagation of protein misfolding and aggregation reminiscent of the prion diseases. There is a surge of evidence that suggests that large protein aggregates of a range of proteins are able to enter cells via macropinocytosis. Our recent work suggests that this process is activated by the binding of aggregates to the neuron cell surface. The current review considers the potential role of cell surface receptors in the triggering of macropinocytosis by protein aggregates and the possibility of utilizing macropinocytosis pathways as a therapeutic target. PMID:26963158

  20. Effect of Surface Curvature and Chemistry on Protein Stability, Adsorption and Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun

    Enzyme immobilization has been of great industrial importance because of its use in various applications like bio-fuel cells, bio-sensors, drug delivery and bio-catalytic films. Although research on enzyme immobilization dates back to the 1970's, it has been only in the past decade that scientists have started to address the problems involved systematically. Most of the previous works on enzyme immobilization have been retrospective in nature i.e enzymes were immobilized on widely used substrates without a compatibility study between the enzyme and the substrate. Consequently, most of the enzymes lost their activity upon immobilization onto these substrates due to many governing factors like protein-surface and inter-protein interactions. These interactions also play a major role biologically in cell signaling, cell adhesion and inter-protein interactions specifically is believed to be the major cause for neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Therefore understanding the role of these forces on proteins is the need of the hour. In my current research, I have mainly focused on two factors a) Surface Curvature b) Surface Chemistry as both of these play a pivotal role in influencing the activity of the enzymes upon immobilization. I study the effect of these factors computationally using a stochastic method known as Monte Carlo simulations. My research work carried out in the frame work of a Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) lattice model for the protein shows that immobilizing enzymes inside moderately hydrophilic or hydrophobic pores results in an enhancement of the enzymatic activity compared to that in the bulk. Our results also indicate that there is an optimal value of surface curvature and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity where this enhancement of enzymatic activity is highest. Further, our results also show that immobilization of enzymes inside hydrophobic pores of optimal sizes are most effective in mitigating protein-aggregation. These

  1. The Impact of Temporal Aggregation of Land Surface Temperature Data for Urban Heat Island Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Brunsell, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    Temporally composited remote sensing products are widely used in monitoring the urban heat island (UHI). In order to quantify the impact of temporal aggregation for assessing the UHI, we examined MODIS land surface temperature (LST) products for 11 years focusing on Houston, Texas and its surroundings. By using the daily LST from 2000 to 2010, the urban and rural daily LST were presented for the 8-day period and annual comparisons for both day and night. Statistics based on the rural-urban LST differences show that the 8-day composite mean UHI effects are generally more intensive than that calculated by daily UHI images. Moreover, the seasonal pattern shows that the summer daytime UHI has the largest magnitude and variation while nighttime UHI magnitudes are much smaller and less variable. Regression analyses enhance the results showing an apparently higher UHI derived from 8-day composite dataset. The summer mean UHI maps were compared, indicating a land cover related pattern. We introduced yearly MODIS land cover type product to explore the spatial differences caused by temporal aggression of LST product. The mean bias caused by land cover types are calculated about 0.5 ~ 0.7K during the daytime, and less than 0.1K at night. The potential causes of the higher UHI are discussed. The analysis shows that the land-atmosphere interactions, which result in the regional cloud formation, are the primary reason.

  2. The effect of humic acid adsorption on pH-dependent surface charging and aggregation of magnetite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Illes, E.; Tombacz, E.

    2006-03-01

    The pH-dependent adsorption of humic acid (HA) on magnetite and its effect on the surface charging and the aggregation of oxide particles were investigated. HA was extracted from brown coal. Synthetic magnetite was prepared by alkaline hydrolysis of iron(II) and iron(III) salts. The pH-dependent particle charge and aggregation, and coagulation kinetics at pH around to 4 were measured by laser Doppler electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering. The charge of pure magnetite reverses from positive to negative at pH around 8, which may consider as isoelectric point (IEP). Near this pH, large aggregates form, while stable sols exist further from it. In the presence of increasing HA loading, the IEP shifts to lower pH, then at higher loading, magnetite becomes negatively charged even at low pHs, which indicate the neutralization and gradual recharging positive charges on surface. In acidic region, the trace HA amounts are adsorbed on magnetite surface as oppositely charged patches, systems become highly unstable due to heterocoagulation. Above the adsorption saturation, however, the nanoparticles are stabilized in a way of combined steric and electrostatic effects. The HA coated magnetite particles form stable colloidal dispersion, particle aggregation does not occur in a wide range of pH and salt tolerance is enhanced.

  3. Horse chestnut extract contracts bovine vessels and affects human platelet aggregation through 5-HT(2A) receptors: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Felixsson, Emma; Persson, Ingrid A-L; Eriksson, Andreas C; Persson, Karin

    2010-09-01

    Extract from seeds and bark of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L) is used as an herbal medicine against chronic venous insufficiency. The effect and mechanism of action on veins, arteries, and platelets are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of horse chestnut on the contraction of bovine mesenteric veins and arteries, and human platelet aggregation. Contraction studies showed that horse chestnut extract dose-dependently contracted both veins and arteries, with the veins being the most sensitive. Contraction of both veins and arteries were significantly inhibited by the 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist ketanserin. No effect on contraction was seen with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the alpha(1) receptor antagonist prazosin or the angiotensin AT(1) receptor antagonist saralasin neither in veins nor arteries. ADP-induced human platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by horse chestnut. A further reduction was seen with the extract in the presence of ketanserin. In conclusion, horse chestnut contraction of both veins and arteries is, at least partly, mediated through 5-HT(2A) receptors. Human platelet aggregation is reduced by horse chestnut. The clinical importance of these findings concerning clinical use, possible adverse effects, and drug interactions remains to be investigated. PMID:20148408

  4. Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Inhibits Fas Antigen-Mediated Gastric Mucosal Cell Apoptosis through Actin-Dependent Inhibition of Receptor Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Stoicov, Calin; Cai, Xun; Li, Hanchen; Klucevsek, Kristine; Carlson, Jane; Saffari, Reza; Houghton, JeanMarie

    2005-01-01

    Escape from normal apoptotic controls is thought to be essential for the development of cancer. During Helicobacter pylori infection, the leading cause of gastric cancer, activation of the Fas antigen (Fas Ag) apoptotic pathway is responsible for early atrophy and tissue loss. As disease progresses, metaplastic and dysplastic glands arise which express Fas Ag but are resistant to apoptosis and are believed to be the precursor cells for adenocarcinoma. In this report, we show that one mechanism of acquired Fas resistance is inhibition of receptor aggregation via a major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII)-mediated, actin-dependent mechanism. For these studies we used the well-described C57BL/6 mouse model of Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter felis infection. Under normal conditions, Fas Ag is expressed at low levels, and MHCII expression on gastric mucosal cells is negligible. With infection and inflammation, both receptors are upregulated, and 6.1% of gastric mucosal cells express MHCII in combination with Fas Ag. Using the rat gastric mucosal cell line RGM-1 transfected with murine Fas Ag and MHCIIαβ chains, we demonstrate that MHCII prevents Fas receptor aggregation and inhibits Fas-mediated signaling through its effects on the actin cytoskeleton. Depolymerization of actin with cytochalasin D allows receptors to aggregate and restores Fas sensitivity. These findings offer one mechanism by which gastric mucosal cells acquire Fas resistance. PMID:16177302

  5. Graphene Oxides in Water: Correlating Morphology and Surface Chemistry with Aggregation Behavior.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Raliya, Ramesh; Fortner, John D; Biswas, Pratim

    2016-07-01

    Aqueous aggregation processes can significantly impact function, effective toxicity, environmental transport, and ultimate fate of advanced nanoscale materials, including graphene and graphene oxide (GO). In this work, we have synthesized flat graphene oxide (GO) and five physically crumpled GOs (CGO, with different degrees of thermal reduction, and thus oxygen functionality) using an aerosol method, and characterized the evolution of surface chemistry and morphology using a suite of spectroscopic (UV-vis, FTIR, XPS) and microscopic (AFM, SEM, and TEM) techniques. For each of these materials, critical coagulation concentrations (CCC) were determined for NaCl, CaCl2, and MgCl2 electrolytes. The CCCs were correlated with material ζ-potentials (R(2) = 0.94-0.99), which were observed to be mathematically consistent with classic DLVO theory. We further correlated CCC values with CGO chemical properties including C/O ratios, carboxyl group concentrations, and C-C fractions. For all cases, edge-based carboxyl functional groups are highly correlated to observed CCC values (R(2) = 0.89-0.95). Observations support the deprotonation of carboxyl groups with low acid dissociation constants (pKa) as the main contributors to ζ-potentials and thus material aqueous stability. We also observe CCC values to significantly increase (by 18-80%) when GO is physically crumpled as CGO. Taken together, the findings from both physical and chemical analyses clearly indicate that both GO shape and surface functionality are critical to consider with regard to understanding fundamental material behavior in water. PMID:27248211

  6. 5D-QSAR for spirocyclic sigma1 receptor ligands by Quasar receptor surface modeling.

    PubMed

    Oberdorf, Christoph; Schmidt, Thomas J; Wünsch, Bernhard

    2010-07-01

    Based on a contiguous and structurally as well as biologically diverse set of 87 sigma(1) ligands, a 5D-QSAR study was conducted in which a quasi-atomistic receptor surface modeling approach (program package Quasar) was applied. The superposition of the ligands was performed with the tool Pharmacophore Elucidation (MOE-package), which takes all conformations of the ligands into account. This procedure led to four pharmacophoric structural elements with aromatic, hydrophobic, cationic and H-bond acceptor properties. Using the aligned structures a 3D-model of the ligand binding site of the sigma(1) receptor was obtained, whose general features are in good agreement with previous assumptions on the receptor structure, but revealed some novel insights since it represents the receptor surface in more detail. Thus, e.g., our model indicates the presence of an H-bond acceptor moiety in the binding site as counterpart to the ligands' cationic ammonium center, rather than a negatively charged carboxylate group. The presented QSAR model is statistically valid and represents the biological data of all tested compounds, including a test set of 21 ligands not used in the modeling process, with very good to excellent accuracy [q(2) (training set, n=66; leave 1/3 out) = 0.84, p(2) (test set, n=21)=0.64]. Moreover, the binding affinities of 13 further spirocyclic sigma(1) ligands were predicted with reasonable accuracy (mean deviation in pK(i) approximately 0.8). Thus, in addition to novel insights into the requirements for binding of spirocyclic piperidines to the sigma(1) receptor, the presented model can be used successfully in the rational design of new sigma(1) ligands. PMID:20427100

  7. An antagonistic activity of etizolam on platelet-activating factor (PAF). In vitro effects on platelet aggregation and PAF receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Mikashima, H; Takehara, S; Muramoto, Y; Khomaru, T; Terasawa, M; Tahara, T; Maruyama, Y

    1987-08-01

    The antagonistic effect of etizolam, an anti-anxiety drug, on platelet-activating factor (PAF) was investigated in rabbit platelets in vitro. Etizolam inhibited PAF-induced aggregation in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 3.8 microM, about one tenth that of triazolam (IC50 = 30 microM). At 300 microM, it inhibited both ADP and arachidonic acid-induced aggregation only slightly, while the other anti-anxiety drugs tested had no effect on PAF-induced aggregation even at this concentration. Etizolam and triazolam inhibited the specific binding of 3H-PAF to PAF receptor sites on washed rabbit platelets with IC50 values of 22 nM and 320 nM, respectively. Diazepam and estazolam were inactive even at 1 microM. These results indicate that etizolam is a specific antagonist of PAF. PMID:2890779

  8. Highly ordered surface structure of large-scale porphyrin aggregates assembled from protonated TPP and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udal'tsov, Alexander V.; Bolshakova, Anastasia V.; Vos, Johannes G.

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale aggregates assembled from protonated meso-tetraphenylporphine (TPP) dimers and water have been investigated by IR and resonance Raman spectroscopy and also by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that the properties of water confined in the aggregates depend on the physical state of the support. When the aggregates were deposited on a solid CaF2 plate, they showed properties consistent with a quasi-crystalline structure. But when the aggregates were dispersed in oil, their IR characteristics were different; the vibration bands of the confined water were like those of water in liquid state. A doublet at about 1000 cm-1, components of which have been attributed to specific vibrations of H3O+ and H2O bound in the structure of water-porphyrin dimeric complex, was found in IR and resonance Raman spectra (λex = 441.6 nm) of protonated TPP aggregates. This doublet indicates the hydrogen ion involving in the vibrational system of water-porphyrin dimeric complex with hydrogen bonding by similar way as in so-called Zundel cation. The resonance Raman spectrum shows evidence for proton sharing between protonated water dimer and N groups of the pyrrole rings. SEM results indicate that the large-scale aggregates of the protonated porphyrin possess highly ordered structure, are only observed when using extremely pure water.

  9. Influence of hydrogen surface passivation on Sn segregation, aggregation, and distribution in GeSn/Ge(001) materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johll, Harman; Samuel, Milla; Koo, Ruey Yi; Kang, Hway Chuan; Yeo, Yee-Chia; Tok, Eng Soon

    2015-05-01

    Plane-wave density functional theory is used to investigate the impact of hydrogen passivation of the p(2×2) reconstructed Ge1-xSnx surface on Sn segregation, aggregation, and distribution. On a clean surface, Sn preferentially segregates to the surface layer, with surface coverages of 25%, 50%, and 100% for total Sn concentrations of 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0%, respectively. In contrast, a hydrogen passivated surface increases interlayer migration of Sn to subsurface layers, in particular, to the third layer from the surface, and results in surface coverages of 0%, 0%, and 50% corresponding to Sn concentrations of 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0%, respectively. Hydrogen transfer from a Ge-capped surface to the one enriched with increasing Sn surface coverage is also an unfavorable process. The presence of hydrogen therefore reduces the surface energy by passivating the reactive dangling bonds and enhancing Sn interlayer migration to the subsurface layers. For both clean and hydrogenated surfaces, aggregation of Sn at the surface layer is also not favored. We explain these results by considering bond enthalpies and the enthalpies of hydrogenation for various surface reactions. Our results thus point to reduced Sn segregation to the surface in a Ge1-xSnx epitaxial thin film if CVD growth, using hydride precursors in the hydrogen limited growth regime, is used. This would lead to a more abrupt interface and is consistent with recent experimental observation. Hydrogenation is therefore a promising method for controlling and manipulating elemental population of Sn in a Ge1-xSnx epitaxial thin film.

  10. Surface plasmon resonance applied to G protein-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli-Hoops, Silvia; Yeliseev, Alexei A.; Gawrisch, Klaus; Gorshkova, Inna

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are integral membrane proteins that transmit signals from external stimuli to the cell interior via activation of GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) thereby mediating key sensorial, hormonal, metabolic, immunological, and neurotransmission processes. Elucidating their structure and mechanism of interaction with extracellular and intracellular binding partners is of fundamental importance and highly relevant to rational design of new effective drugs. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has become a method of choice for studying biomolecular interactions at interfaces because measurements take place in real-time and do not require labeling of any of the interactants. However, due to the particular challenges imposed by the high hydrophobicity of membrane proteins and the great diversity of receptor-stimulating ligands, the application of this technique to characterize interactions of GPCR is still in the developmental phase. Here we give an overview of the principle of SPR and analyze current approaches for the preparation of the sensor chip surface, capture and stabilization of GPCR, and experimental design to characterize their interaction with ligands, G proteins and specific antibodies. PMID:24466506

  11. High spatial resolution mapping of surface plasmon resonance modes in single and aggregated gold nanoparticles assembled on DNA strands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Egea, Carlos; Sigle, Wilfried; van Aken, Peter A.; Molina, Sergio I.

    2013-07-01

    We present the mapping of the full plasmonic mode spectrum for single and aggregated gold nanoparticles linked through DNA strands to a silicon nitride substrate. A comprehensive analysis of the electron energy loss spectroscopy images maps was performed on nanoparticles standing alone, dimers, and clusters of nanoparticles. The experimental results were confirmed by numerical calculations using the Mie theory and Gans-Mie theory for solving Maxwell's equations. Both bright and dark surface plasmon modes have been unveiled.

  12. Roles for glycosylation of cell surface receptors involved in cellular immune recognition.

    PubMed

    Rudd, P M; Wormald, M R; Stanfield, R L; Huang, M; Mattsson, N; Speir, J A; DiGennaro, J A; Fetrow, J S; Dwek, R A; Wilson, I A

    1999-10-22

    The majority of cell surface receptors involved in antigen recognition by T cells and in the orchestration of the subsequent cell signalling events are glycoproteins. The length of a typical N-linked sugar is comparable with that of an immunoglobulin domain (30 A). Thus, by virtue of their size alone, oligosaccharides may be expected to play a significant role in the functions and properties of the cell surface proteins to which they are attached. A databank of oligosaccharide structures has been constructed from NMR and crystallographic data to aid in the interpretation of crystal structures of glycoproteins. As unambiguous electron density can usually only be assigned to the glycan cores, the remainder of the sugar is then modelled into the crystal lattice by superimposing the appropriate oligosaccharide from the database. This approach provides insights into the roles that glycosylation might play in cell surface receptors, by providing models that delineate potential close packing interactions on the cell surface. It has been proposed that the specific recognition of antigen by T cells results in the formation of an immunological synapse between the T cell and the antigen-presenting cell. The cell adhesion glycoproteins, such as CD2 and CD48, help to form a cell junction, providing a molecular spacer between opposing cells. The oligosaccharides located on the membrane proximal domains of CD2 and CD48 provide a scaffold to orient the binding faces, which leads to increased affinity. In the next step, recruitment of the peptide major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) by the T-cell receptors (TCRs) requires mobility on the membrane surface. The TCR sugars are located such that they could prevent non-specific aggregation. Importantly, the sugars limit the possible geometry and spacing of TCR/MHC clusters which precede cell signalling. We postulate that, in the final stage, the sugars could play a general role in controlling the assembly and stabilisation of the

  13. Synthesis of polymer nanostructures via the use of surfactant surface aggregates as templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, Maricel

    The subject of this work is the synthesis of polymer nanostructures via the use of surfactant surface aggregates as templates, also termed Template Assisted Admicellar Polymerization (TAAP). The first chapter reviews some of the most current nanopatterning techniques (including both top-down and bottom-up approaches), with particular emphasis on the fabrication of organic and inorganic patterned nanostructures via particle lithography. In chapter 2, highly ordered hexagonal arrays of latex spheres were prepared on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) from a variation of the Langmuir Blodgett technique, using an anionic surfactant (SDS), and a low molecular weight (ca. 10000) polyacrylamide as spreading agents. When a nonionic polyethoxylated (EO = 9) surfactant was used as the spreading agent, no ordered arrays were observed. Based on the correlation found between the surface tension in the presence of the latex particles and the critical concentration at which hexagonal arrangements of latex spheres occurs; a model was proposed to explain the role of the spreading agent in forming stable monolayers at the air/liquid interface, which in turn are necessary for the formation of well-ordered monolayers on a solid substrate from the LB technique. According to this model, solid-like regions of small numbers of latex spheres form at the liquid-air interface, which are then transferred to the substrate. These ordered regions then act as nuclei for the formation of 2D arrays of latex spheres on the surface upon water evaporation. The role of other factors such as relative humidity, substrate and solvent choice, and pulling vs. compression speed were also found to affect the quality of the monolayers formed. Finally, a simple, easy to automate, yet effective surface tension method was proposed to predict the optimal conditions for the formation of ordered monolayers using a variation of the LB deposition method from any monodisperse set of spheres. In chapter 3, a novel

  14. High-pressure studies of aggregation of recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist: Thermodynamics, kinetics, and application to accelerated formulation studies

    PubMed Central

    Seefeldt, Matthew B.; Kim, Yong-Sung; Tolley, Kevin P.; Seely, Jim; Carpenter, John F.; Randolph, Theodore W.

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in aqueous solutions unfolds and aggregates when subjected to hydrostatic pressures greater than about 180 MPa. This study examined the mechanism and thermodynamics of pressure-induced unfolding and aggregation of IL-1ra. The activation free energy for growth of aggregates (ΔG∓aggregation) was found to be 37 ± 3 kJ/mol, whereas the activation volume (ΔV∓aggregation) was −120 ± 20 mL/mol. These values compare closely with equilibrium values for denaturation: The free energy for denaturation, ΔGdenaturation, was 20 ± 5 kJ/mol, whereas the partial specific volume change for denaturation, ΔVdenaturation, was −110 ± 30 mL/mol. When IL-1ra begins to denature at pressures near 140 MPa, cysteines that are normally buried in the native state become exposed. Under oxidizing conditions, this results in the formation of covalently cross-linked aggregates containing nonnative, intermolecular disulfide bonds. The apparent activation free energy for nucleation of aggregates, ΔG∓nuc, was 42 ± 4 kJ/mol, and the activation volume for nucleation, ΔV∓nuc,was −175 ± 37 mL/mol, suggesting that a highly solvent-exposed conformation is needed for nucleation. We hypothesize that the large specific volume of IL-1ra, 0.752 ± 0.004 mL/g, coupled with its relatively low conformational stability, leads to its susceptibility to denaturation at relatively low pressures. The positive partial specific adiabatic compressibility of IL-1ra, 4.5 ± 0.7 ± 10−12 cm2/dyn, suggests that a significant component of the ΔVdenaturation is attributable to the elimination of solvent-free cavities. Lastly, we propose that hydrostatic pressure is a useful variable to conduct accelerated formulation studies of therapeutic proteins. PMID:16081653

  15. Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-dependent effects of repeated stress on tau phosphorylation, solubility, and aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Rissman, Robert A.; Staup, Michael A.; Lee, Allyson Roe; Justice, Nicholas J.; Rice, Kenner C.; Sawchenko, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure and/or sensitivity to stress have been implicated as conferring risk for development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the basis for such a link remains unclear, we previously reported differential involvement of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRFR) 1 and 2 in acute stress-induced tau phosphorylation (tau-P) and solubility in the hippocampus. Here we examined the role of CRFRs in tau-P induced by repeated stress and the structural manifestations of altered tau solubility. Robust tau-P responses were seen in WT and CRFR2 null mice exposed to repeated stress, which were sustained at even 24 h after the final stress exposure. A portion of phosphorylated tau in these mice was sequestered in detergent-soluble cellular fractions. In contrast, CRFR1 and CRFR double-KO mice did not exhibit repeated stress-induced alterations in tau-P or solubility. Similarly, treatment with CRFR1 antagonist attenuated repeated stress-induced tau-P. Using histochemical approaches in a transgenic CRFR1 reporter mouse line, we found substantial overlap between hippocampal CRFR1 expression and cells positive for phosphorylated tau after exposure to repeated stress. Ultrastructural analysis of negatively stained extracts from WT and CRFR2 null mice identified globular aggregates that displayed positive immunogold labeling for tau-P, as well as conformational changes in tau (MC1) seen in early AD. Given that repeated stress exposure results in chronic increases in hippocampal tau-P and its sequestration in an insoluble (and potentially prepathogenic) form, our data may define a link between stress and an AD-related pathogenic mechanism. PMID:22451915

  16. Exposure of fibrinogen receptors in human platelets by surface proteolysis with elastase.

    PubMed Central

    Kornecki, E; Ehrlich, Y H; De Mars, D D; Lenox, R H

    1986-01-01

    Human platelets that were preincubated with porcine elastase aggregated spontaneously upon the addition of fibrinogen. Maximal aggregation to fibrinogen was observed with platelets pretreated with an elastase concentration of 111 micrograms/ml, and half-maximal aggregation occurred after treatment with 11 micrograms/ml elastase. Binding of radiolabeled fibrinogen to elastase-treated platelets was specific, saturable, and showed a single class of 48,400 +/- 9,697 fibrinogen-binding sites per platelet with a dissociation constant of 6.30 +/- 1.48 X 10(-7) M. ATP, apyrase, and the stimulators of platelet adenylate cyclase forskolin, prostaglandin E1, prostacyclin, and N6, 2'-O-dibutyryl cyclic AMP did not inhibit the fibrinogen-induced aggregation of elastase-treated platelets. EDTA completely blocked the initiation of aggregation and reversed the fibrinogen-induced aggregation of elastase-treated platelets. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies directed against glycoproteins (GP) IIb and IIIa completely blocked the fibrinogen-induced aggregation of elastase-treated platelets. Immunoprecipitates with these antibodies obtained from detergent extracts of surface-radiolabeled, intact, and elastase-treated platelets contained the glycoproteins IIb and IIIa. We conclude that surface proteolysis by low concentrations of elastase can expose fibrinogen-binding sites associated with GPIIb and GPIIIa on the platelet surface, resulting in spontaneous aggregation upon the addition of fibrinogen. These findings may be relevant to hemostatic changes observed in patients with increased levels of circulating elastase. Images PMID:3005363

  17. Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Very Low Hysteresis Prepared by Aggregation of Silica Nanoparticles During In Situ Urea-Formaldehyde Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Anubhav; Jensen, David S; Gupta, Vipul; Johnson, Brian I; Evans, Delwyn; Telford, Clive; Linford, Matthew R

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method for the preparation of superhydrophobic materials by in situ aggregation of silica nanoparticles on a surface during a urea-formaldehyde (UF) polymerization. This is a one-step process in which a two-tier topography is obtained. The polymerization is carried out for 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min on silicon shards. Silicon surfaces are sintered to remove the polymer. SEM and AFM show both an increase in the area covered by the nanoparticles and their aggregation with increasing polymerization time. Chemical vapor deposition of a fluorinated silane in the presence of a basic catalyst gives these surfaces hydrophobicity. Deposition of this low surface energy silane is confirmed by the F 1s signal in XPS. The surfaces show advancing water contact angles in excess of 160 degrees with very low hysteresis (< 7) after 120 min and 60 min polymerization times for 7 nm and 14 nm silica, respectively. Depositions are successfully demonstrated on glass substrates after they are primed with a UF polymer layer. Superhydrophobic surfaces can also be prepared on unsintered substrates. PMID:26682448

  18. Caged Agonist of P2Y1 and P2Y12 Receptors for Light-Directed Facilitation of Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhan-Guo; Hechler, Béatrice; Besada, Pedro; Gachet, Christian; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    We have prepared a caged form (MRS2703) of a potent dual agonist of the P2Y1 and P2Y12 nucleotide receptors, 2-MeSADP, by blocking the β-phosphate group with a 1-(3,4-dimethyloxyphenyl)eth-1-yl phosphoester. Although MRS2703 is itself inactive at human P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors expressed heterologously in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells or in washed human platelets, this derivative readily regenerates the parent agonist upon mild irradiation with long-wave UV light (360 nm). The functional effect of the regenerated agonist was demonstrated by a rise in intracellular calcium mediated by either P2Y1 or P2Y12 receptors in transfected cells. Washed human platelets exposed to a solution of MRS2703 were induced to aggregate upon UV irradiation. At 1.0 μM MRS2703, full aggregation was achieved within one minute of irradiation. Thus, this caged nucleotide promises to be a useful probe for potent P2Y receptor activation with light-directed spatial and temporal control. PMID:18199424

  19. Caged agonist of P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors for light-directed facilitation of platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan-Guo; Hechler, Béatrice; Besada, Pedro; Gachet, Christian; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2008-03-15

    We have prepared a caged form (MRS2703) of a potent dual agonist of the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) nucleotide receptors, 2-MeSADP, by blocking the beta-phosphate group with a 1-(3,4-dimethyloxyphenyl)eth-1-yl phosphoester. Although MRS2703 is itself inactive at human P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptors expressed heterologously in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells or in washed human platelets, this derivative readily regenerates the parent agonist upon mild irradiation with long-wave UV light (360 nm). The functional effect of the regenerated agonist was demonstrated by a rise in intracellular calcium mediated by either P2Y(1) or P2Y(12) receptors in transfected cells. Washed human platelets exposed to a solution of MRS2703 were induced to aggregate upon UV irradiation. At 1.0 microM MRS2703, full aggregation was achieved within 1 min of irradiation. Thus, this caged nucleotide promises to be a useful probe for potent P2Y receptor activation with light-directed spatial and temporal control. PMID:18199424

  20. A novel thromboxane A2 receptor N42S variant results in reduced surface expression and platelet dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Shaista P; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Jones, Matthew L; Dawood, Ban; Murden, Sherina; Cunningham, Margaret R; Mumford, Andrew D; Wilde, Jonathan T; Watson, Steve P; Mundell, Stuart J; Lowe, Gillian C

    2014-05-01

    A small number of thromboxane receptor variants have been described in patients with a bleeding history that result in platelet dysfunction. We have identified a patient with a history of significant bleeding, who expresses a novel heterozygous thromboxane receptor variant that predicts an asparagine to serine substitution (N42S). This asparagine is conserved across all class A GPCRs, suggesting a vital role for receptor structure and function.We investigated the functional consequences of the TP receptor heterozygous N42S substitution by performing platelet function studies on platelet-rich plasma taken from the patient and healthy controls. We investigated the N42S mutation by expressing the wild-type (WT) and mutant receptor in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Aggregation studies showed an ablation of arachidonic acid responses in the patient, whilst there was right-ward shift of the U46619 concentration response curve (CRC). Thromboxane generation was unaffected. Calcium mobilisation studies in cells lines showed a rightward shift of the U46619 CRC in N42S-expressing cells compared to WT. Radioligand binding studies revealed a reduction in BMax in platelets taken from the patient and in N42S-expressing cells, whilst cell studies confirmed poor surface expression. We have identified a novel thromboxane receptor variant, N42S, which results in platelet dysfunction due to reduced surface expression. It is associated with a significant bleeding history in the patient in whom it was identified. This is the first description of a naturally occurring variant that results in the substitution of this highly conserved residue and confirms the importance of this residue for correct GPCR function. PMID:24452735

  1. Aggregation and Particle Formation of Therapeutic Proteins in Contact With a Novel Fluoropolymer Surface Versus Siliconized Surfaces: Effects of Agitation in Vials and in Prefilled Syringes.

    PubMed

    Teska, Brandon M; Brake, Jeffrey M; Tronto, Gregory S; Carpenter, John F

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of an accelerated agitation protocol on 2 protein therapeutics, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and Avastin (bevacizumab), in contact with a novel fluoropolymer surface and more typical siliconized surfaces. The fluoropolymer surface provides "solid-phase" lubrication for the syringe plunger-obviating the need for silicone oil lubrication in prefilled syringes. We tested the 2 surfaces in a vial system and in prefilled glass syringes. We also examined the effects of 2 buffers, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and 0.2-M glycine, with and without the addition of polysorbate 20, on agitation-induced aggregation of IVIG. Aggregation was monitored by measuring subvisible particle formation and soluble protein loss. In both vials and syringes, protein particle formation was much lower during agitation with the fluoropolymer surface than with the siliconized surface. Also, particle formation was greater in PBS than in glycine buffer, an effect attributed to lower colloidal stability of IVIG in PBS. Polysorbate 20 in the formulation greatly inhibited protein particle formation. Overall, the fluoropolymer plunger surface in an unsiliconized glass barrel was demonstrated to be a viable solution for eliminating silicone oil droplets from prefilled syringe formulations and providing a consistent system for rationale formulation development and simplified particle analysis. PMID:27233685

  2. Impact load-induced micro-structural damage and micro-structure associated mechanical response of concrete made with different surface roughness and porosity aggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Erdem, Savas Dawson, Andrew Robert; Thom, Nicholas Howard

    2012-02-15

    The relationship between the nature of micro damage under impact loading and changes in mechanical behavior associated with different microstructures is studied for concretes made with two different coarse aggregates having significant differences mainly in roughness and porosity - sintered fly ash and uncrushed gravel. A range of techniques including X-ray diffraction, digital image analysis, mercury porosimetry, X-ray computed tomography, laser surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the aggregates and micro-structures. The concrete prepared with lightweight aggregates was stronger in compression than the gravel aggregate concrete due to enhanced hydration as a result of internal curing. In the lightweight concrete, it was deduced that an inhomogeneous micro-structure led to strain incompatibilities and consequent localized stress concentrations in the mix, leading to accelerated failure. The pore structure, compressibility, and surface texture of the aggregates are of paramount importance for the micro-cracking growth.

  3. Observation and quantification of chondrocyte aggregation behavior on fibroin surfaces using Voronoi partition.

    PubMed

    Otaka, Akihisa; Kachi, Naoyoshi D; Hatano, Naoya; Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Tamada, Yasushi; Tomita, Naohide

    2013-05-01

    Cell migration is one of the fundamental processes in histogenesis, and it is necessary to investigate such multicellular behavior quantitatively in cell regeneration studies. In this study, Voronoi diagram analysis was first confirmed in simulation testing, and then used to evaluate the multicellular behavior of chondrocytes on three different substrates: (1) wild-type fibroin (FIB); (2) L-RGDSx2 transgenic fibroin; (3) and collagen. The indices for the round factor average, round factor homogeneity, and area disorder (AD), calculated from Voronoi diagram analysis, were used to characterize the difference in spatiotemporal changes for the different chondrocyte populations, and a regression analysis of the AD index was used to measure the speed of cell aggregation. The results suggested that the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine sequence affects aggregate formation of chondrocytes cultured on FIB. The Voronoi diagram analysis represents one of the promising quantitative analyses for cell regeneration studies. PMID:23083372

  4. Surface-promoted aggregation of amphiphilic quadruplex ligands drives their selectivity for alternative DNA structures.

    PubMed

    Laguerre, Aurélien; Chang, Yi; Pirrotta, Marc; Desbois, Nicolas; Gros, Claude P; Lesniewska, Eric; Monchaud, David

    2015-07-01

    Scientists are currently truly committed to enhance the specificity of chemotherapeutics that target DNA. To this end, sequence-specific drugs have progressively given way to structure-specific therapeutics. However, while numerous strategies have been implemented to design high-affinity candidates, strategies devoted to the design of high-selectivity ligands are still rare. Here we report on such an approach via the study of an amphiphilic compound, TEGPy, that self-assembles at a liquid/solid interface to provide nanosized objects that are stable in water. The resulting aggregates, identified through atomic force microscopy measurements, were found to disassemble upon interaction with DNA in a structure-specific manner (quadruplex- versus duplex-DNA). Our results provide a fertile ground for devising new strategies aiming at concomitantly enhancing DNA structural specificity and the water-solubility of aggregation-prone ligands. PMID:26040925

  5. A Cell Surface Molecule Involved in Aggregation of Embryonic Liver Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotti, Roger; Rutishauser, Urs; Edelman, Gerald M.

    1980-08-01

    Aggregation of chicken embryo hepatocytes can be inhibited by Fab' fragments of antibodies prepared against the cells. An aqueous extract of liver cell membranes contained antigens that neutralized the adhesion-blocking properties of the Fab' fragments. This neutralization activity was associated with a polypeptide of Mr 68,000 in NaDodSO4; the polypeptide was distinct from serum albumin. Specific antibodies prepared against the 80-fold purified active fraction inhibited liver cell adhesion and immunoprecipitated the 68,000 Mr polypeptide from active fractions as well as from a detergent extract of liver cell membranes. In hepatocyte cultures, Fab' fragments of antibodies against the liver molecule prevented both colony formation and appearance of histotypic patterns. Liver cell adhesion was compared at the cellular and molecular levels to that of embryonic neural retina cells. Antibodies against the cell adhesion molecule from neural tissue inhibited retinal but not liver cell aggregation; conversely, antibodies against the liver polypeptide inhibited liver but not retinal cell aggregation. By means of antibody absorption and immunoprecipitation, it was confirmed that the two cell adhesion molecules are antigenically unrelated.

  6. Testosterone signaling through internalizable surface receptors in androgen receptor-free macrophages.

    PubMed

    Benten, W P; Lieberherr, M; Stamm, O; Wrehlke, C; Guo, Z; Wunderlich, F

    1999-10-01

    Testosterone acts on cells through intracellular transcription-regulating androgen receptors (ARs). Here, we show that mouse IC-21 macrophages lack the classical AR yet exhibit specific nongenomic responses to testosterone. These manifest themselves as testosterone-induced rapid increase in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], which is due to release of Ca(2+) from intracellular Ca(2+) stores. This Ca(2+) mobilization is also inducible by plasma membrane-impermeable testosterone-BSA. It is not affected by the AR blockers cyproterone and flutamide, whereas it is completely inhibited by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 and pertussis toxin. Binding sites for testosterone are detectable on the surface of intact IC-21 cells, which become selectively internalized independent on caveolae and clathrin-coated vesicles upon agonist stimulation. Internalization is dependent on temperature, ATP, cytoskeletal elements, phospholipase C, and G-proteins. Collectively, our data provide evidence for the existence of G-protein-coupled, agonist-sequestrable receptors for testosterone in plasma membranes, which initiate a transcription-independent signaling pathway of testosterone. PMID:10512854

  7. Testosterone Signaling through Internalizable Surface Receptors in Androgen Receptor-free Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Benten, W. Peter M.; Lieberherr, Michèle; Stamm, Olaf; Wrehlke, Christian; Guo, Zhiyong; Wunderlich, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Testosterone acts on cells through intracellular transcription-regulating androgen receptors (ARs). Here, we show that mouse IC-21 macrophages lack the classical AR yet exhibit specific nongenomic responses to testosterone. These manifest themselves as testosterone-induced rapid increase in intracellular free [Ca2+], which is due to release of Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores. This Ca2+ mobilization is also inducible by plasma membrane-impermeable testosterone-BSA. It is not affected by the AR blockers cyproterone and flutamide, whereas it is completely inhibited by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 and pertussis toxin. Binding sites for testosterone are detectable on the surface of intact IC-21 cells, which become selectively internalized independent on caveolae and clathrin-coated vesicles upon agonist stimulation. Internalization is dependent on temperature, ATP, cytoskeletal elements, phospholipase C, and G-proteins. Collectively, our data provide evidence for the existence of G-protein-coupled, agonist-sequestrable receptors for testosterone in plasma membranes, which initiate a transcription-independent signaling pathway of testosterone. PMID:10512854

  8. Downregulation of transferrin receptor surface expression by intracellular antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Jilin; Wu Sha; Zhao Xiaoping; Wang Min; Li Wenhan; Shen Xin; Liu Jing; Lei Ping; Zhu Huifen; Shen Guanxin . E-mail: guanxin_shen@yahoo.com.cn

    2007-03-23

    To deplete cellular iron uptake, and consequently inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, we attempt to block surface expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) by intracellular antibody technology. We constructed two expression plasmids (scFv-HAK and scFv-HA) coding for intracellular single-chain antibody against TfR with or without endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal, respectively. Then they were transfected tumor cells MCF-7 by liposome. Applying RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscope experiments, we insure that scFv-HAK intrabody was successfully expressed and retained in ER contrasted to the secreted expression of scFv-HA. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the TfR surface expression was markedly decreased approximately 83.4 {+-} 2.5% in scFv-HAK transfected cells, while there was not significantly decrease in scFv-HA transfected cells. Further cell growth and apoptosis characteristics were evaluated by cell cycle analysis, nuclei staining and MTT assay. Results indicated that expression of scFv-HAK can dramatically induce cell cycle G1 phase arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells, and consequently significantly suppress proliferation of tumor cells compared with other control groups. For First time this study demonstrates the potential usage of anti-TfR scFv-intrabody as a growth inhibitor of TfR overexpressing tumors.

  9. Expression of surface platelet receptors (CD62P and CD41/61) in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (RAO).

    PubMed

    Iwaszko-Simonik, Alicja; Niedzwiedz, Artur; Graczyk, Stanislaw; Slowikowska, Malwina; Pliszczak-Krol, Aleksandra

    2015-03-15

    Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is an allergic disease of horses similar to human asthma, which is characterized by airway inflammation and activation of neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets. Platelet activation and an increase in circulating platelet-leukocyte aggregates may lead to airway remodeling. The aim of this study was to investigate platelet status in RAO-affected horses based on the platelet morphology and platelet surface expression of CD41/61 and CD62P. Ten RAO-affected horses and ten healthy horses were included in this study. Blood samples were obtained to determine the platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR). Expression of CD62P and CD41/61 was detected by flow cytometry on activated platelets. The median PLT was significantly reduced in horses with RAO compared to the controls. The MPV and the P-LCR values were significantly higher in RAO horses than controls. Expression of CD41/61 on platelets was increased in RAO horses, while CD62P expression was reduced. This study demonstrated the morphological changes in platelets and expression of platelet surface receptors. Despite the decrease of CD62P expression, the observed increased surface expression of CD41/61 on platelets in horses with RAO may contribute to the formation of platelet aggregates in their respiratory system. PMID:25665521

  10. CSF-1 receptor signalling is governed by pre-requisite EHD1 mediated receptor display on the macrophage cell surface.

    PubMed

    Cypher, Luke R; Bielecki, Timothy Alan; Huang, Lu; An, Wei; Iseka, Fany; Tom, Eric; Storck, Matthew D; Hoppe, Adam D; Band, Vimla; Band, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is the master regulator of macrophage biology. CSF-1 can bind CSF-1R resulting in receptor activation and signalling essential for macrophage functions such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, polarization, phagocytosis, cytokine secretion, and motility. CSF-1R activation can only occur after the receptor is presented on the macrophage cell surface. This process is reliant upon the underlying macrophage receptor trafficking machinery. However, the mechanistic details governing this process are incompletely understood. C-terminal Eps15 Homology Domain-containing (EHD) proteins have recently emerged as key regulators of receptor trafficking but have not yet been studied in the context of macrophage CSF-1R signalling. In this manuscript, we utilize primary bone-marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) to reveal a novel function of EHD1 as a regulator of CSF-1R abundance on the cell surface. We report that EHD1-knockout (EHD1-KO) macrophages cell surface and total CSF-1R levels are significantly decreased. The decline in CSF-1R levels corresponds with reduced downstream macrophage functions such as cell proliferation, migration, and spreading. In EHD1-KO macrophages, transport of newly synthesized CSF-1R to the macrophage cell surface was reduced and was associated with the shunting of the receptor to the lysosome, which resulted in receptor degradation. These findings reveal a novel and functionally important role for EHD1 in governing CSF-1R signalling via regulation of anterograde transport of CSF-1R to the macrophage cell surface. PMID:27224507

  11. Oriented-aggregation of organic organization: Morphology-controllable synthesis, surface photovoltage spectroscopy and morphology-dependent optical property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun; Qian, Xuefeng

    2010-08-01

    Assembled ZnQ 2·2H 2O microstructures, such as microsheet, sandwich-like structure and hexangular microflake, have been successfully prepared in CTAB microemulsion system through the stacking of ZnQ 2·2H 2O molecules and oriented aggregation of ZnQ 2·2H 2O original building blocks. Controlled experiments demonstrated that the morphologies of building block and final product could be readily tuned by reaction parameters, and a formation mechanism, involving re-precipitation, growth and oriented aggregation process, has been proposed on the basis of time-dependent experimental results. The obtained products were carefully characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscope (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), FT-IR spectrum, UV-vis spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. The surface photovoltage (SPV) of the obtained ZnQ 2·2H 2O microstructures was investigated by means of surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and field-induced surface photovoltage spectroscopy (FISPS). The SPS and FISPS revealed that the photogenerated charges of ZnQ 2·2H 2O could be separated distinctly and ZnQ 2·2H 2O possessed p-type semiconductor characteristics, respectively. Furthermore, UV-vis and PL spectra evidenced the optical properties of ZnQ 2·2H 2O were sensitive to its microstructure or morphology.

  12. In vitro platelet activation, aggregation and platelet-granulocyte complex formation induced by surface modified single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Fent, János; Bihari, Péter; Vippola, Minnamari; Sarlin, Essi; Lakatos, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Surface modification of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) such as carboxylation, amidation, hydroxylation and pegylation is used to reduce the nanotube toxicity and render them more suitable for biomedical applications than their pristine counterparts. Toxicity can be manifested in platelet activation as it has been shown for SWCNTs. However, the effect of various surface modifications on the platelet activating potential of SWCNTs has not been tested yet. In vitro platelet activation (CD62P) as well as the platelet-granulocyte complex formation (CD15/CD41 double positivity) in human whole blood were measured by flow cytometry in the presence of 0.1mg/ml of pristine or various surface modified SWCNTs. The effect of various SWCNTs was tested by whole blood impedance aggregometry, too. All tested SWCNTs but the hydroxylated ones activate platelets and promote platelet-granulocyte complex formation in vitro. Carboxylated, pegylated and pristine SWCNTs induce whole blood aggregation as well. Although pegylation is preferred from biomedical point of view, among the samples tested by us pegylated SWCNTs induced far the most prominent activation and a well detectable aggregation of platelets in whole blood. PMID:25956790

  13. Flumazenil decreases surface expression of α4β2δ GABAA receptors by increasing the rate of receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Kuver, Aarti; Smith, Sheryl S

    2016-01-01

    Increases in expression of α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs), triggered by fluctuations in the neurosteroid THP (3α-OH-5α[β]-pregnan-20-one), are associated with changes in mood and cognition. We tested whether α4βδ trafficking and surface expression would be altered by in vitro exposure to flumazenil, a benzodiazepine ligand which reduces α4βδ expression in vivo. We first determined that flumazenil (100 nM-100 μM, IC50=∼1 μM) acted as a negative modulator, reducing GABA (10 μM)-gated current in the presence of 100 nM THP (to increase receptor efficacy), assessed with whole cell patch clamp recordings of recombinant α4β2δ expressed in HEK-293 cells. Surface expression of recombinant α4β2δ receptors was detected using a 3XFLAG reporter at the C-terminus of α4 (α4F) using confocal immunocytochemical techniques following 48 h exposure of cells to GABA (10 μM)+THP (100 nM). Flumazenil (10 μM) decreased surface expression of α4F by ∼60%, while increasing its intracellular accumulation, after 48 h. Reduced surface expression of α4β2δ after flumazenil treatment was confirmed by decreases in the current responses to 100 nM of the GABA agonist gaboxadol. Flumazenil-induced decreases in surface expression of α4β2δ were prevented by the dynamin blocker, dynasore, and by leupeptin, which blocks lysosomal enzymes, suggesting that flumazenil is acting to increase endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the receptor. Flumazenil increased the rate of receptor removal from the cell surface by 2-fold, assessed using botulinum toxin B to block insertion of new receptors. These findings may suggest new therapeutic strategies for regulation of α4β2δ expression using flumazenil. PMID:26592470

  14. Interaction of Biofunctionalized Nanoparticles with Receptors on Cell Surfaces: MC Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dormidontova, Elena; Wang, Shihu

    2015-03-01

    One of the areas of active development of modern nanomedicine is drug/gene delivery and imaging application of nanoparticles functionalized by ligands, aptamers or antibodies capable of specific interactions with cell surface receptors. Being a complex multifunctional system different structural aspects of nanoparticles affect their interactions with cell surfaces and the surface properties of cells can be different (e.g. density, distribution and mobility of receptors). Computer simulations allow a systematic investigation of the influence of multiple factors and provide a unified platform for the comparison. Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate the influence of the nanoparticle properties (nanoparticle size, polymer tether length, polydispersity, density, ligand energy, valence and density) on nanoparticle-cell surface interactions and make predictions regarding favorable nanoparticle design for achieving multiple ligand-receptor binding. We will also discuss the implications of nanoparticle design on the selectivity of attachment to cells with high receptor density while ``ignoring'' cells with a low density of receptors.

  15. Inhibition and reversal of endotoxin-, aggregated IgG- and paf-induced hypotension in the rat by SRI 63-072, a paf receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Handley, D A; Van Valen, R G; Melden, M K; Flury, S; Lee, M L; Saunders, R N

    1986-08-01

    Platelet activating factor (paf) given intravenously produces systemic hypotension in the rat. Similar effects can be induced using endotoxin or heat-aggregated IgG challenges, which are thought to involve endogenous paf release. Extending this concept, we have examined the ability of the paf antagonist SRI 63-072 to inhibit or reverse systemic hypotension induced with paf, heat-aggregated IgG or endotoxin 0111-B4 in rats. At 100 ng kg-1 paf, there occurred a 38.6 +/- 5.1% decrease in carotid mean arterial pressure (MAP) followed by a 3.2 +/- 0.7 min recovery period (RP) to return to normal pressure values. The ED50 of SRI 63-072 was 0.16 mg kg-1 i.v. (MAP) and 0.25 mg kg-1 (RP) when given 1-5 min before the paf challenge. Endotoxin (15 mg kg-1 i.v.) produced a hypotensive response (54 +/- 8% decrease in MAP) and a corresponding 80% decrease in mesenteric artery blood flow. When given 2-8 min after endotoxin, 1.0 mg kg-1 i.v. SRI 63-072 totally restored blood pressure and artery blood flow. SRI 63-072 similarly reversed heat-aggregated IgG (10 mg kg-1) induced reduction of MAP, with an ED50 of 0.05 mg kg-1 i.v. The observations that SRI 63-072 can inhibit or reverse systemic vascular effects produced from paf and other provocators of endogenous paf release strongly implicates paf as a common final mediator of hypotension and shock. As SRI 63-072 is a competitive receptor antagonist, the hypotensive effects of these provocators appear to be mediated by vascular receptors for paf. PMID:3019921

  16. The effects of a selective 5-HT2 receptor antagonist (ICI 170,809) on platelet aggregation and pupillary responses in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Millson, D S; Jessup, C L; Swaisland, A; Haworth, S; Rushton, A; Harry, J D

    1992-01-01

    1. ICI 170,809 (2-(2-dimethylamino-2-methylpropylthio)-3-phenylquinoline hydrochloride) is a potent 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) type 2 postsynaptic receptor antagonist. 2. Effects of ICI 170,809 as single oral doses (3, 7, 15 and 30 mg) or placebo were studied on the duration of antagonism for the ex vivo platelet aggregatory response to 5-HT and to the pupillary light constrictor response in eight healthy male volunteers. 3. Pupillary dark adapted responses to a 0.5 s light stimulus were measured using a portable infrared pupillometer, for up to 24 h after dosing. 4. The in vitro platelet 5-HT aggregation response was reduced by ICI 170,809, with depression of the dose-response curve to 5-HT at all concentrations of 5-HT and with no evidence for a parallel shift. 5. The ex vivo platelet 5-HT response demonstrated a dose related significant (P less than 0.02) decrease in aggregation reaching a maximum at 2 h after dosing with the effect persisting for at least 8 h after dosing with the 7 and 15 mg doses. 6. Resting pupil diameter (RPD), and light induced pupillary responses in the dark adapted pupil, showed a significant (P less than 0.01) dose related reduction with significant (P less than 0.05) effects still present with the 15 and 30 mg doses at 8 h after dosing. 7. We conclude that, changes in both ex vivo platelet aggregation to 5-HT and dark adapted pupil size, are significantly correlated (P less than 0.0001) with log plasma concentrations (ng ml-1) of ICI 170,809, enabling the assessment of 5-HT2-receptor antagonism in man. PMID:1576048

  17. Real-time protein aggregation monitoring based on a simultaneous light scattering investigation and a Bloch surface wave-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santi, Sara; Barakat, Elsie; Neier, Reinhard; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2015-08-01

    We present a study of the dynamics of protein aggregation using a Bloch surface wave (BSW) label-free sensing scheme. In a previous work, we demonstrated the ability to detect the early dynamic events of fibrillogenesis of amyloid betapeptides (Aβ), linked to Alzheimer's Disease. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of the BSW sensor by describing a simultaneous light scattering measurement, with the purpose of real-time monitoring the size change of the Aβ aggregates, throughout fibrillization.

  18. Role of paf-acether in the mediation of pathophysiological responses to aggregated immunoglobulins. Studies with the platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist BN 52021.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gallardo, S; Cano, E; Braquet, P; Sanchez Crespo, M

    1988-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were challenged with an intravenous (i.v.) infusion of soluble aggregates of immunoglobulin G. Animals receiving a dose of aggregates of 40 mg/kg showed a significantly reduced time of lysis of diluted blood clot, which paralleled the appearance in plasma of tissue-type plasminogen activator. These changes occurred about 5-10 min after the challenge, which is a more protracted time-course than that observed in response to paf-acether. A significant increase in serum levels of N-acetylglucosaminidase was also observed in the animals several minutes after challenge. Blood neutrophil count showed a 50% reduction that reached its maximum at 10 min and was followed by an overshoot after 30 min. In experiments in rats previously depleted of circulating PMN by treatment with vinblastine, no significant differences were observed in N-acetylglucosaminidase release as compared to non-treated animals. Since prior evidence indicated that endogenously generated paf-acether could be a mediator responsible for these changes, at least to some extent, the compound BN 52021, a specific antagonist of the paf-acether receptor was given to these animals prior to the challenge with the complexes. All the above mentioned responses were significantly reduced by BN 52021, which is in keeping with the hypothesis involving endogenous paf-acether release in the mediation of these changes. By contrast, BN 52021 did not interfere with the clearance of the aggregates from the circulation, which seems to be a beneficial mechanism to reduce immune-mediated tissue injury. These data extend the number of paf-acether mediated pathophysiological changes that can be observed in response to immune aggregates. PMID:3139574

  19. Antibody-protein A conjugated quantum dots for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Takashi; Tiwari, Dhermendra K; Tanaka, Shin-Ichi; Inouye, Yasushi; Yoshizawa, Keiko; Watanabe, Tomonobu M

    2010-11-01

    To use quantum dots (QDs) as fluorescent probes for receptor imaging, QD surface should be modified with biomolecules such as antibodies, peptides, carbohydrates, and small-molecule ligands for receptors. Among these QDs, antibody conjugated QDs are the most promising fluorescent probes. There are many kinds of coupling reactions that can be used for preparing antibody conjugated QDs. Most of the antibody coupling reactions, however, are non-selective and time-consuming. In this paper, we report a facile method for preparing antibody conjugated QDs for surface receptor imaging. We used ProteinA as an adaptor protein for binding of antibody to QDs. By using ProteinA conjugated QDs, various types of antibodies are easily attached to the surface of the QDs via non-covalent binding between the F(c) (fragment crystallization) region of antibody and ProteinA. To show the utility of ProteinA conjugated QDs, HER2 (anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) in KPL-4 human breast cancer cells were stained by using anti-HER2 antibody conjugated ProteinA-QDs. In addition, multiplexed imaging of HER2 and CXCR4 (chemokine receptor) in the KPL-4 cells was performed. The result showed that CXCR4 receptors coexist with HER2 receptors in the membrane surface of KPL-4 cells. ProteinA mediated antibody conjugation to QDs is very useful to prepare fluorescent probes for multiplexed imaging of surface receptors in living cells. PMID:20835432

  20. Cell surface receptors for signal transduction and ligand transport - a design principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Shankaran, Harish; Resat, Haluk; Wiley, H. S.

    2007-06-01

    Although many different receptors undergo endocytosis, the system-level design principles that govern the evolution of receptor dynamics are far from fully understood. We have constructed a generalized mathematical model to understand how receptor internalization dynamics encodes receptor function and regulation. Parametric analysis of the response of receptor systems to ligand inputs reveals that receptors can be categorized a being: i) avidity-controlled where the response control depends primarily on the extracelluar ligand capture efficiency, ii) consumption-controlled where the ability to internalize surface-bound ligand is the primary control parameter, and iii) dual-sensitivity where both the avidity and consumption parameters are important. We show that the transferrin and low-density lipoprotein receptors are avidity-controlled, the vitellogenin receptor is consumption-controlled and epidermal growth factor receptor is a dual-sensitivity receptor. Significantly, we show that ligand-induced endocytosis is a mechanism to anhance the accuracy of signaling receptors rather than serving to attenuate signaling. Our analysis reveals that the location of a receptor system in the avidity-consumption parameter space can be used to understand both its function and its regulations.

  1. Cell shape-dependent rectification of surface receptor transport in a sinusoidal electric field.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, R C; Gowrishankar, T R; Basch, R M; Patel, P K; Golan, D E

    1993-01-01

    In the presence of an extracellular electric field, transport dynamics of cell surface receptors represent a balance between electromigration and mutual diffusion. Because mutual diffusion is highly dependent on surface geometry, certain asymmetrical cell shapes effectively create an anisotropic resistance to receptor electromigration. If the resistance to receptor transport along a single axis is anisotropic, then an applied sinusoidal electric field will drive a net time-average receptor displacement, effectively rectifying receptor transport. To quantify the importance of this effect, a finite difference mathematical model was formulated and used to describe charged receptor transport in the plane of a plasma membrane. Representative values for receptor electromigration mobility and diffusivity were used. Model responses were examined for low frequency (10(-4)-10 Hz) 10-V/cm fields and compared with experimental measurements of receptor back-diffusion in human fibroblasts. It was found that receptor transport rectification behaved as a low-pass filter; at the tapered ends of cells, sinusoidal electric fields in the 10(-3) Hz frequency range caused a time-averaged accumulation of receptors as great as 2.5 times the initial uniform concentration. The extent of effective rectification of receptor transport was dependent on the rate of geometrical taper. Model studies also demonstrated that receptor crowding could alter transmembrane potential by an order of magnitude more than the transmembrane potential directly induced by the field. These studies suggest that cell shape is important in governing interactions between alternating current (ac) electric fields and cell surface receptors. PMID:8381681

  2. Surface functionalization for tailoring the aggregation and magnetic behaviour of silica-coated iron oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, A. G.; Carmona, D.; Miguel-Sancho, N.; Bomatí-Miguel, O.; Balas, F.; Piquer, C.; Santamaría, J.

    2012-04-01

    We report here a detailed structural and magnetic study of different silica nanocapsules containing uniform and highly crystalline maghemite nanoparticles. The magnetic phase consists of 5 nm triethylene glycol (TREG)- or dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-coated maghemite particles. TREG-coated nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition. In a second step, TREG ligands were exchanged by DMSA. After the ligand exchange, the ζ potential of the particles changed from - 10 to - 40 mV, whereas the hydrodynamic size remained constant at around 15 nm. Particles coated by TREG and DMSA were encapsulated in silica following a sol-gel procedure. The encapsulation of TREG-coated nanoparticles led to large magnetic aggregates, which were embedded in coalesced silica structures. However, DMSA-coated nanoparticles led to small magnetic clusters inserted in silica spheres of around 100 nm. The final nanostructures can be described as the result of several competing factors at play. Magnetic measurements indicate that in the TREG-coated nanoparticles the interparticle magnetic interaction scenario has not dramatically changed after the silica encapsulation, whereas in the DMSA-coated nanoparticles, the magnetic interactions were screened due to the function of the silica template. Moreover, the analysis of the AC susceptibility suggests that our systems essentially behave as cluster spin glass systems.

  3. Surface and Aggregation Behavior of Pentablock Copolymer PNIPAM7-F127-PNIPAM7 in Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Parekh, P; Ohno, S; Yusa, S; Lage, Emílio V; Casas, Matilde; Sández-Macho, I; Aswal, V K; Bahadur, P

    2016-08-01

    The triblock Pluronic F127 was modified by introducing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) at both the poly(ethylene oxide) ends, and the pentablock copolymer so-prepared was characterized by gel permeation chromatography and (1)H NMR. The degree of polymerization of NIPAM blocks at the two ends was 7. The solution behavior and microstructure of copolymer aggregates in water and aqueous salt solution were examined and compared with F127 by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, microdifferential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The behavior of the pentablock copolymer at the air/water interface was determined by Langmuir film balance. Two lower critical solution temperatures were observed for pentablock copolymer, corresponding to poly(propylene oxide) and PNIPAM blocks, respectively. DLS studies show that micelle size increased with increase in temperature and in the presence of salt. SANS measurements provided temperature-dependent structural evolution of copolymer micelles in water and salt solution. The copolymer displays an isotherm with four classical regions (pancake, mushroom, brush, and condensed state). The study has potential applications in controlled drug delivery due to the tunable phase behavior and biocompatibility of the copolymer. PMID:27385006

  4. Gold-Induced Fibril Growth: The Mechanism of Surface-Facilitated Amyloid Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Gladytz, Anika; Abel, Bernd; Risselada, Herre Jelger

    2016-09-01

    The question of how amyloid fibril formation is influenced by surfaces is crucial for a detailed understanding of the process in vivo. We applied a combination of kinetic experiments and molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate how (model) surfaces influence fibril formation of the amyloid-forming sequences of prion protein SUP35 and human islet amyloid polypeptide. The kinetic data suggest that structural reorganization of the initial peptide corona around colloidal gold nanoparticles is the rate-limiting step. The molecular dynamics simulations reveal that partial physisorption to the surface results in the formation of aligned monolayers, which stimulate the formation of parallel, critical oligomers. The general mechanism implies that the competition between the underlying peptide-peptide and peptide-surface interactions must strike a balance to accelerate fibril formation. PMID:27513605

  5. Effect of soil surface conditions on runoff velocity and sediment mean aggregate diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    César Ramos, Júlio; Bertol, Ildegardis; Paz González, Antonio; de Souza Werner, Romeu; Marioti, Juliana; Henrique Bandeira, Douglas; Andrighetti Leolatto, Lidiane

    2013-04-01

    Soil cover and soil management are the factors that most influence soil erosion by water, because they directly affect soil surface roughness and surface cover. The main effect of soil cover by crop residues consists in dissipation of kinetic energy of raindrops and also partly kinetic energy of runoff, so that the soil disaggregation is considerably reduced but, in addition, soil cover captures detached soil particles, retains water on its surface and decreases runoff volume and velocity. In turn, soil surface roughness, influences soil surface water storage and infiltration and also runoff volume and velocity, sediment retention and subsequently water and sediment losses. Based on the above rationale, we performed a field experiment to assess the influence of soil cover and soil surface roughness on decay of runoff velocity as well as on mean diameter of transported sediments (D50 index). The following treatments were evaluated: SRR) residues of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) on a smooth soil surfcace, SRV) residues of common vetch (Vicia sativa) on a smooth soil surface, SSR) scarification after cultivation of Italian ryegrass resulting in a rough surface, SSV) scarification after cultivation of common vetch resulting in a rough surface, and SBS) scarified bare soil with high roughness as a control. The field experiments was performed on an Inceptisol in South Brazil under simulated rainfall conditions during 2012. Experimental plots were 11 m long and 3.5 m wide with an area of 38.5 m2. Six successive simulated rainfall tests were applied using a rotating-boom rain simulator. During each test, rain intensity was 60 mmhr-1, whereas rain duration was 90 minutes. Runoff velocity showed no significant differences between cultivated treatments. However, when compared to bare soil treatment, SBS (0.178 m s-1) and irrespective of the presence of surface crop residues or scarification operations, cultivated soil treatments significantly reduced runoff velocity

  6. Investigating the structural changes of β-amyloid peptide aggregation using attenuated-total-reflection surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, K.-C.; Yu, L.-Y.; Yih, J.-N.; Chen, S.-J.

    2007-02-01

    This study utilizes a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based on the attenuated-total-reflection (ATR) method to investigate that the structural information of the biomolecular monolayer on sensing surface can be dynamically observed with a higher signal-to-noise ratio signal. The secondary structures of long oligonucleotides and their influence on the DNA hybridization on the sensing surface are investigated. The SERS spectrum provides the structural information of the oligonucleotides with the help of a silver colloidal nanoparticle monolayer by control of the size and distribution of the nanoparticles adapted as a Raman active substrate. It is found that the ring-breathing modes of adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine in Raman fingerprint associated with three 60mer oligonucleotides with prominent secondary structures are lower than those observed for the two oligonucleotides with no obvious secondary structures. It is also determined that increasing the DNA hybridization temperature from 35°C to 45°C reduces secondary structure effects. The ATR-SERS biosensing technique will be used to provide valuable structural information regarding the short-term reversible interactions and long-term polymerization events in the Aβ aggregates on the sensing surface.

  7. Cargo binding promotes KDEL receptor clustering at the mammalian cell surface

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Björn; Shaebani, M. Reza; Rammo, Domenik; Bubel, Tobias; Santen, Ludger; Schmitt, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane receptor clustering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in pro- and eukaryotic cells to physically sense receptor/ligand interactions and subsequently translate an exogenous signal into a cellular response. Despite that receptor cluster formation has been described for a wide variety of receptors, ranging from chemotactic receptors in bacteria to growth factor and neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian cells, a mechanistic understanding of the underlying molecular processes is still puzzling. In an attempt to fill this gap we followed a combined experimental and theoretical approach by dissecting and modulating cargo binding, internalization and cellular response mediated by KDEL receptors (KDELRs) at the mammalian cell surface after interaction with a model cargo/ligand. Using a fluorescent variant of ricin toxin A chain as KDELR-ligand (eGFP-RTAH/KDEL), we demonstrate that cargo binding induces dose-dependent receptor cluster formation at and subsequent internalization from the membrane which is associated and counteracted by anterograde and microtubule-assisted receptor transport to preferred docking sites at the plasma membrane. By means of analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations we show that cargo-synchronized receptor transport from and to the membrane is causative for KDELR/cargo cluster formation at the mammalian cell surface. PMID:27353000

  8. Selenoprotein W controls epidermal growth factor receptor surface expression, activation and degradation via receptor ubiquitination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is the founding member of the ErbB family of growth factor receptors that modulate a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways controlling growth, proliferation and differentiation. Selenoprotein W (SEPW1) is a diet-regulated, highly conserved...

  9. Differentiation of salivary agglutinin-mediated adherence and aggregation of mutans streptococci by use of monoclonal antibodies against the major surface adhesin P1.

    PubMed Central

    Brady, L J; Piacentini, D A; Crowley, P J; Oyston, P C; Bleiweis, A S

    1992-01-01

    The ability to adhere to salivary agglutinin-coated hydroxyapatite beads and to aggregate in the presence of fluid-phase salivary agglutinin was tested by using 25 isolates of mutants streptococci representing eight serotypes. Both adherence and aggregation activity correlated with expression of the Mr-185,000 cell surface antigen P1 on Streptococcus mutans serotype c, e, and f strains. In addition, it was shown that the P1 molecule itself served as the adhesin of S. mutans serotype c, since adherence was significantly inhibited by the presence of recombinant-specified Mr-150,000 P1. The ability of S. sobrinus strains to adhere or aggregate did not correlate with expression of the P1 cross-reactive antigen SpaA. There was also evidence for interaction with salivary agglutinin, as manifested by aggregation but not adherence of S. rattus serotype b, which does not express a P1 cross-reactive antigen. To understand the interaction of P1 with salivary agglutinin at the molecular level, a panel of 11 anti-P1 monoclonal antibodies was tested for inhibitory activity in adherence and aggregation inhibition assays. Overlapping, but not identical, subsets of monoclonal antibodies were found to inhibit adherence and aggregation, indicating that the interactions of P1 with salivary agglutinin which mediate these two phenomena are different. The localization of functional domains of P1 which may mediate the aggregation and adherence reactions is discussed. PMID:1541515

  10. Wellcome Prize Lecture. Cell surface, ion-sensing receptors.

    PubMed

    Riccardi, Daniela

    2002-07-01

    Changes in extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)o) concentration ([Ca2+]o) affect kidney function both under basal and hormone-stimulated conditions. The molecular identification of an extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR) has confirmed a direct role of Ca(2+)o on parathyroid and kidney function (i.e. independent of calciotropic hormones) as a modulator of Ca2+ homeostasis. In addition, evidence accumulated over the last 10 years has shown that CaR is also expressed in regions outside the calcium homeostatic system where its role is largely undefined but seems to be linked to regulation of local ionic homeostasis. The parathyroid and kidney CaRs are 1081 and 1079 amino acids long, respectively, and belong to the type III family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which includes other CaRs, metabotropic glutamate receptors and putative vomeronasal organ receptors. For the CaR, its low (millimolar) affinity for Ca2+, its positive cooperativity and its large ion-sensing extracellular domain, indicate that the receptor is more sensitive to changes in net cationic charge rather than to a specific ligand. Mg2+, trivalent cations of the lanthanide series and polyvalent cations such as spermine and aminoglycoside antibiotics can all activate the receptor in vitro with EC50 values in the micromolar range for trivalent and polyvalent cations or in the millimolar range for Ca2+ and Mg2+. In addition to true CaR agonists, CaR sensitivity to Ca(2+)o is also susceptible to allosteric modulation by ionic strength, L-amino acids and by pharmacological agents. This review will address endogenous and exogenous CaR agonists, the role of the receptor in the calcium homeostatic system and some speculation on possible role(s) of the CaR in regions not involved in mineral ion homeostasis. PMID:12392104

  11. Basis for receptor specificity of nonecotropic murine leukemia virus surface glycoprotein gp70SU.

    PubMed Central

    Ott, D; Rein, A

    1992-01-01

    Murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) initiate infection of NIH 3T3 cells by binding of the viral envelope (Env) protein to a cell surface receptor. Interference assays have shown that MuLVs can be divided into four groups, each using a distinct receptor: ecotropic, polytropic, amphotropic, and 10A1. In this study, we have attempted to map the determinants within viral Env proteins by constructing chimeric env genes. Chimeras were made in all six pairwise combinations between Moloney MCF (a polytropic MuLV), amphotropic MuLV, and 10A1, using a conserved EcoRI site in the middle of the Env coding region. The receptor specificity of each chimera was determined by using an interference assay. We found that amphotropic receptor specificity of each chimera was determined by using an interference assay. We found that amphotropic receptor specificity seems to map to the N-terminal portion of surface glycoprotein gp70SU. The difference between amphotropic and 10A1 receptor specificity can be attributed to one or more of only six amino acid differences in this region. Nearly all other cases showed evidence of interaction between Env domains in the generation of receptor specificity. Thus, a chimera composed exclusively of MCF and amphotropic sequences was found to exhibit 10A1 receptor specificity. None of the chimeras were able to infect cells by using the MCF receptor; however, two chimeras containing the C-terminal portion of MCF gp70SU could bind to this receptor, while they were able to infect cells via the amphotropic receptor. This result raises the possibility that receptor binding maps to the C-terminal portion of MCF gp70SU but requires MCF N-terminal sequences for a functional interaction with the MCF receptor. Images PMID:1321266

  12. PREDICTING AND FORECASTING SURFACE WATER ACIDIFICATION: A PLAN FOR ASSESSING DATA AGGREGATION EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major goal of the Direct/Delayed Response Project (DDRP), a project within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Aquatic Effects Research Program (AERP) is to project potential changes in surface water chemistry in lakes in the northeastern U.S. and streams in the Mi...

  13. Aggregation of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes during phagocytosis of bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Henricks, P A; van der Tol, M E; Verhoef, J

    1984-01-01

    The process of aggregation of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) during the uptake of bacteria was studied. Radiolabelled S. aureus were opsonized in different sera, washed, resuspended in buffer and added to the PMN. Uptake of the bacteria and aggregation of the PMN were measured simultaneously. Maximal aggregation occurred within 6 min, when 5 X 10(6) PMN had phagocytosed 2.5 X 10(8) S. aureus. Also the effects of serum concentrations and different sera for opsonization of the bacteria on PMN aggregation were studied. Despite normal uptake, aggregation of PMN was low when bacteria were opsonized in complement-deficient sera. Furthermore when PMN were treated with pronase to inactivate complement receptors on the cell surface of the PMN, and bacteria preopsonized in immune serum were added, no change in uptake occurred, although the degree of aggregation halved compared to control PMN. So, interaction between the bacteria and the complement receptor of the PMN cell membrane is needed for triggering the process of aggregation. By using dansylcadaverin and diphenylamine to modulate lysosomal enzyme release, azide or PMN from a chronic granulomatous disease patient to study the effect of the formation of oxygen species, and theophylline, DB-cAMP or 8 Br-cAMP to increase cAMP levels, it was concluded that aggregation of PMN during phagocytosis was not dependent on oxygen metabolism, degranulation or cAMP levels of PMN. PMID:6086503

  14. Palladium 1D nanoscale aggregates on a graphite surface using CTAB hemicylindrical micelle templates.

    PubMed

    Nizameev, I R; Kadirov, M K; Semyonov, V A; Zakharova, L Ya; Ismaev, T I; Safiullin, R A; Rizvanov, I Kh; Babaev, V M

    2016-07-01

    Nanoscale palladium clusters in the form of parallel strips have been formed on the surface of graphite with the help of a surface micellar template of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide using a chemical deposition method. The repeat period of the palladium strips deposited at 25 °C is 65 nm, with a width of 40 nm and height of 2 nm. The elemental composition of the metal clusters was confirmed using X-ray fluorescence analysis and TEM-EDX. The fact that the strips are composed of metallic palladium was also confirmed by testing the membrane electrode assembly with the strips in a commercial fuel cell. Using the obtained micellar template, the radius of the curvature of the AFM probe tip was estimated with the help of a unique method. The radius is equal to 10 nm and matches the value provided by the manufacturer. PMID:27315147

  15. Nonlinear Surface Dilatational Rheology and Foaming Behavior of Protein and Protein Fibrillar Aggregates in the Presence of Natural Surfactant.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhili; Yang, Xiaoquan; Sagis, Leonard M C

    2016-04-19

    The surface and foaming properties of native soy glycinin (11S) and its heat-induced fibrillar aggregates, in the presence of natural surfactant steviol glycoside (STE), were investigated and compared at pH 7.0 to determine the impact of protein structure modification on protein-surfactant interfacial interactions. The adsorption at, and nonlinear dilatational rheological behavior of, the air-water interface were studied by combining drop shape analysis tensiometry, ellipsometry, and large-amplitude oscillatory dilatational rheology. Lissajous plots of surface pressure versus deformation were used to analyze the surface rheological response in terms of interfacial microstructure. The heat treatment generates a mixture of long fibrils and unconverted peptides. The presence of small peptides in 11S fibril samples resulted in a faster adsorption kinetics than that of native 11S. The addition of STE affected the adsorption of 11S significantly, whereas no apparent effect on the adsorption of the 11S fibril-peptide system was observed. The rheological response of interfaces stabilized by 11S-STE mixtures also differed significantly from the response for 11S fibril-peptide-STE mixtures. For 11S, the STE reduces the degree of strain hardening in extension and increases strain hardening in compression, suggesting the interfacial structure may change from a surface gel to a mixed phase of protein patches and STE domains. The foams generated from the mixtures displayed comparable foam stability to that of pure 11S. For 11S fibril-peptide mixtures STE only significantly affects the response in extension, where the degree of strain softening is decreased compared to the pure fibril-peptide system. The foam stability of the fibril-peptide system was significantly reduced by STE. These findings indicate that fibrillization of globular proteins could be a potential strategy to modify the complex surface and foaming behaviors of protein-surfactant mixtures. PMID:27043221

  16. Platelet-adenovirus vs. inert particles interaction: effect on aggregation and the role of platelet membrane receptors.

    PubMed

    Gupalo, Elena; Kuk, Cynthia; Qadura, Mohammad; Buriachkovskaia, Liudmila; Othman, Maha

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are involved in host defense via clearance of bacteria from the circulation, interaction with virus particles, and uptake of various size particulates. There is a growing interest in micro- and nanoparticles for drug delivery and there is evidence that the properties of these particles critically influence their interaction and uptake by various tissues and cells including platelets. Virus mediated gene therapy applications are still challenged by the resultant thrombocytopenia and the mechanism(s) of platelet-foreign particles interaction remains unclear. We studied the specifics of platelet interaction with an active biological agent (adenovirus) and inert latex microspheres (MS) and investigated the role of platelet proteins in this interaction. We show that activated and not resting platelets internalize MS, without influencing platelet aggregation. In contrast, adenovirus induces and potentiates ADP-induced platelet aggregation and results in rapid expression of P-selectin. Platelets then internalize adenovirus and viral particles appear inside the open canalicular system. Inhibition of platelet αIIbβ3, GPIbα, and P-selectin decreases both platelet aggregation and internalization of MS. Inhibition of αIIbβ3 and αVβ3 does not abolish adenovirus platelet internalization and adenovirus-induced platelet activation is maintained. Our study demonstrates that platelets react differentially with foreign particles and that αIIbβ3 is a key player in platelet engulfing of foreign particles but not in mediating adenovirus internalization. Other platelet candidate molecules remain to be investigated as potential targets for management of adenovirus-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:22812520

  17. Fibronectin and asialoglyprotein receptor mediate hepatitis B surface antigen binding to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Feng; Tian, Linlin; Su, Jing; Zhu, Xiangqian; Lin, Li; Ding, Xiaoran; Wang, Xuejun; Wang, Shengqi

    2010-06-01

    Both fibronectin and the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) have been identified by some investigators as partners for hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope proteins. Because fibronectin is a natural ligand for ASGPR, we speculated that HBV might attach to ASGPR expressed on the hepatocyte surface via fibronectin. To test this hypothesis, we first confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation that ASGPR, fibronectin and HBsAg bind to each other in HepG2.2.15 cells, and possible binding domains were identified by GST pull-down. In addition, by measuring binding of HBsAg to cells, we found that ASGPR and fibronectin enhanced the binding capability of HBsAg to HepG2 cells, and even to 293T and CHO cells, which normally do not bind HBV. In conclusion, our findings suggest that both fibronectin and ASGPR mediate HBsAg binding to the cell surface, which provides further evidence for the potential roles of these two proteins in mediating HBV binding to liver cells. PMID:20364278

  18. Effects of Added Salts on Surface Tension and Aggregation of Crown Ether Surfactants.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Maki; Fujio, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Two crown ether surfactants, dodecanoyloxymethyl- (C11Φ6) and octanoyloxymethyl-18-crown-6 (C7Φ6), were synthesized and the surface tension dependence on surfactant concentration of their aqueous solutions was measured both in the absence and presence of alkali chlorides to confirm the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is highest for the added cation that have an ionic diameter comparable to the hole size of the crown ether ring and that several break points on the surface tension vs. concentration curves occur for these crown ether surfactants. For C11Φ6 and C7Φ6, in the absence of salt, the surface tension vs. concentration curves had two break points. Using the solubilization of a water-insoluble dye as an indicator, we found that the break point at the higher concentration (m0) for C7Φ6 was due to micelle formation. Two break points were also observed for the aqueous solution of C11Φ6 in the presence of NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl salts at concentrations of 0.22 mol kg(-1) and for C7Φ6 with 0.22 mol kg(-1) KCl added. The CMC (m0) was found to be the highest for solutions containing K(+) salts because K(+) has an ionic diameter comparable to the hole size of 18-crown-6 ring. Furthermore, the CMC decreased as the ionic diameters of the added cations deviated from the hole size. The molecular areas at two break points, estimated by the Gibbs adsorption isotherm, except for that at the break point at mI of C7Φ6, were very small for an adsorbed monolayer. Further investigation is required to elucidate the reason for the break point at mI. PMID:26666275

  19. Effect of initial temperature on water aggregation at a cold surface.

    PubMed

    Kier, Lemont B; Cheng, Chao-Kun

    2013-01-01

    Cellular automata models of water at two initial temperatures were created. Each model was exposed to a freezing surface. The formation of fully bonded water cells, f(4), was observed over time, beginning with a model of initially warm water and with initially cool water. The warm water formed more f(4) cells earlier than the initially cool water. A high percentage of f(4) cells is interpreted as the formation of ice. This is a model of the Mpemba effect. A description of the initial states for these two temperatures is offered in explanation of this effect. PMID:23341213

  20. Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Single Molecules and Single Nano-Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, Samuel Louis

    Although plasmonic nanoparticles are widely utilized in spectroscopy and sensing applications, a quantitative structure-function relationship is lacking. In this dissertation, we discuss measurements of single noble metal nanoparticles using localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and transmission electron microscopy to elucidate structure-function relationships. Correlated studies involving two or all three of these techniques relate optical properties of the same nanoparticle to its structure. Through these correlated techniques we have been able to elucidate some of the structural motifs which give rise to the largest SERS enhancements. A variety of SERS substrates are used and the strengths and weaknesses of each type are compared. This information can be applied to sensing and detection methodologies. The utility of SERS is further explored through the use of SER spectroelectrochemistry. This confluence of techniques provided unique insight into the intermolecular interactions present in self-assembled monolayers of tetrathiafulvalene-modified thiolates on gold. Both ensemble-averaged and single-molecule SERS are thoroughly explored and with their benefits and limitations used synergistically to access the most fundamental physics of the light-matter interaction.

  1. Effect of Blood Contamination on Marginal Adaptation and Surface Microstructure of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A SEM Study

    PubMed Central

    Salem Milani, Amin; Rahimi, Saeed; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Vahid Pakdel, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims In various clinical situations, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) may come into direct contact or even be mixed with blood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to blood on marginal adaptation and surface microstructure of MTA. Materials and methods Thirty extracted human single-rooted teeth were used. Standard root canal treatment was carried out. Root-ends were resected, and retrocavities were prepared. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n = 15): in group 1, the internal surface of the cavities was coated with fresh blood. Then, the cavities were filled with MTA. The roots were immersed in molds containing fresh blood. In group 2, the aforementioned procedures were performed except that synthetic tissue fluid (STF) was used instead of blood. To assess the marginal adaptation, “gap perimeter” and “maximum gap width” were measured under scanning electron microscope. The surface microstructure was also examined. Independent samples t-test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the data. Results Maximum gap width and gap perimeter in the blood-exposed group were significantly larger than those in the STF-exposed group (p < 0.01). In the blood-exposed group, the crystals tended to be more rounded and less angular compared with the STF-exposed group, and there was a general lack of needle-like crystals. Conclusion Exposure to blood during setting has a negative effect on marginal adaptation of MTA, and blood-exposed MTA has a different surface microstructure compared to STF-exposed MTA. PMID:24082987

  2. Screening Ingredients from Herbs against Pregnane X Receptor in the Study of Inductive Herb-Drug Interactions: Combining Pharmacophore and Docking-Based Rank Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhijie; Kang, Hong; Tang, Kailin; Liu, Qi; Cao, Zhiwei; Zhu, Ruixin

    2015-01-01

    The issue of herb-drug interactions has been widely reported. Herbal ingredients can activate nuclear receptors and further induce the gene expression alteration of drug-metabolizing enzyme and/or transporter. Therefore, the herb-drug interaction will happen when the herbs and drugs are coadministered. This kind of interaction is called inductive herb-drug interactions. Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) and drug-metabolizing target genes are involved in most of inductive herb-drug interactions. To predict this kind of herb-drug interaction, the protocol could be simplified to only screen agonists of PXR from herbs because the relations of drugs with their metabolizing enzymes are well studied. Here, a combinational in silico strategy of pharmacophore modelling and docking-based rank aggregation (DRA) was employed to identify PXR's agonists. Firstly, 305 ingredients were screened out from 820 ingredients as candidate agonists of PXR with our pharmacophore model. Secondly, DRA was used to rerank the result of pharmacophore filtering. To validate our prediction, a curated herb-drug interaction database was built, which recorded 380 herb-drug interactions. Finally, among the top 10 herb ingredients from the ranking list, 6 ingredients were reported to involve in herb-drug interactions. The accuracy of our method is higher than other traditional methods. The strategy could be extended to studies on other inductive herb-drug interactions. PMID:26339628

  3. Aeolian bedforms, yardangs, and indurated surfaces in the Tharsis Montes as seen by the HiRISE Camera: Evidence for dust aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, N.T.; Banks, M.E.; Beyer, R.A.; Chuang, F.C.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Fishbaugh, K.E.; McEwen, A.S.; Michaels, T.I.; Thomson, B.J.; Wray, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    HiRISE images of Mars with ground sampling down to 25 cm/pixel show that the dust-rich mantle covering the surfaces of the Tharsis Montes is organized into ridges whose form and distribution are consistent with formation by aeolian saltation. Other dusty areas near the volcanoes and elsewhere on the planet exhibit a similar morphology. The material composing these "reticulate" bedforms is constrained by their remote sensing properties and the threshold curve combined with the saltation/suspension boundary, both of which vary as a function of elevation (atmospheric pressure), particle size, and particle composition. Considering all of these factors, dust aggregates are the most likely material composing these bedforms. We propose that airfall dust on and near the volcanoes aggregates in situ over time, maybe due to electrostatic charging followed by cementation by salts. The aggregates eventually reach a particle size at which saltation is possible. Aggregates on the flanks are transported downslope by katabatic winds and form linear and "accordion" morphologies. Materials within the calderas and other depressions remain trapped and are subjected to multidirectional winds, forming an interlinked "honeycomb" texture. In many places on and near the volcanoes, light-toned, low thermal inertia yardangs and indurated surfaces are present. These may represent "duststone" formed when aggregates reach a particle size below the threshold curve, such that they become stabilized and subsequently undergo cementation. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Aeolian bedforms, yardangs, and indurated surfaces in the Tharsis Montes as seen by the HiRISE Camera: Evidence for dust aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridges, N. T.; Banks, M. E.; Beyer, R. A.; Chuang, F. C.; Noe Dobrea, E. Z.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Fishbaugh, K. E.; McEwen, A. S.; Michaels, T. I.; Thomson, B. J.; Wray, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    HiRISE images of Mars with ground sampling down to 25 cm/pixel show that the dust-rich mantle covering the surfaces of the Tharsis Montes is organized into ridges whose form and distribution are consistent with formation by aeolian saltation. Other dusty areas near the volcanoes and elsewhere on the planet exhibit a similar morphology. The material composing these "reticulate" bedforms is constrained by their remote sensing properties and the threshold curve combined with the saltation/suspension boundary, both of which vary as a function of elevation (atmospheric pressure), particle size, and particle composition. Considering all of these factors, dust aggregates are the most likely material composing these bedforms. We propose that airfall dust on and near the volcanoes aggregates in situ over time, maybe due to electrostatic charging followed by cementation by salts. The aggregates eventually reach a particle size at which saltation is possible. Aggregates on the flanks are transported downslope by katabatic winds and form linear and "accordion" morphologies. Materials within the calderas and other depressions remain trapped and are subjected to multidirectional winds, forming an interlinked "honeycomb" texture. In many places on and near the volcanoes, light-toned, low thermal inertia yardangs and indurated surfaces are present. These may represent "duststone" formed when aggregates reach a particle size below the threshold curve, such that they become stabilized and subsequently undergo cementation.

  5. β2-Adrenergic Receptors Chaperone Trapped Bitter Taste Receptor 14 to the Cell Surface as a Heterodimer and Exert Unidirectional Desensitization of Taste Receptor Function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghwa; Pauer, Susan H; Yong, Hwan M; An, Steven S; Liggett, Stephen B

    2016-08-19

    Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are G-protein-coupled receptors now recognized to be expressed on extraoral cells, including airway smooth muscle (ASM) where they evoke relaxation. TAS2Rs are difficult to express in heterologous systems, with most receptors being trapped intracellularly. We find, however, that co-expression of β2-adrenergic receptors (β2AR) in HEK-293T routes TAS2R14 to the cell surface by forming receptor heterodimers. Cell surface TAS2R14 expression was increased by ∼5-fold when β2AR was co-expressed. Heterodimer formation was shown by co-immunoprecipitation with tagged receptors, biomolecular fluorescence complementation, and merged confocal images. The dynamic nature of this interaction was shown by: a gene-dose relationship between transfected β2AR and TAS2R14 expression, enhanced (up to 3-fold) TAS2R14 agonist stimulation of [Ca(2+)]i with β2AR co-transfection, ∼53% decrease in [Ca(2+)]i signaling with shRNA knockdown of β2AR in H292 cells, and ∼60% loss of [Ca(2+)]i responsiveness in βAR knock-out mouse ASM. Once expressed on the surface, we detected unidirectional, conformation-dependent, interaction within the heterodimer, with β2AR activation rapidly uncoupling TAS2R14 function (∼65% desensitization). Cross-talk was independent of β2AR internalization and cAMP/PKA, and not accompanied by TAS2R14 internalization. With prolonged β-agonist exposure, TAS2R14 internalized, consistent with slow recycling of naked TAS2R14 in the absence of the heterodimeric milieu. In studies of ASM mechanics, rapid cross-talk was confirmed at the physiologic level, where relaxation from TAS2R14 agonist was decreased by ∼50% with β-agonist co-treatment. Thus the β2AR acts as a double-edged sword: increasing TAS2R14 cell surface expression, but when activated by β-agonist, partially offsetting the expression phenotype by direct receptor:receptor desensitization of TAS2R14 function. PMID:27342779

  6. Online Coupling of Flow-Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Nanoparticle Surface Coating Thickness and Aggregation State

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...

  7. Impact of Environmental Conditions (pH, Ionic Strength, And Electrolyte Type) On The Surface Charge And Aggregation Of Silver Nanoparticles Suspensions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of capping agents and environmental conditions (pH, ionic strength, and background electrolytes) on surface charge and aggregation potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) suspensions were investigated. Capping agents are chemicals used in the synthesis of nanopartic...

  8. Down-Regulation of Cell Surface Receptors Is Modulated by Polar Residues within the Transmembrane Domain

    PubMed Central

    Zaliauskiene, Lolita; Kang, Sunghyun; Brouillette, Christie G.; Lebowitz, Jacob; Arani, Ramin B.; Collawn, James F.

    2000-01-01

    How recycling receptors are segregated from down-regulated receptors in the endosome is unknown. In previous studies, we demonstrated that substitutions in the transferrin receptor (TR) transmembrane domain (TM) convert the protein from an efficiently recycling receptor to one that is rapidly down regulated. In this study, we demonstrate that the “signal” within the TM necessary and sufficient for down-regulation is Thr11Gln17Thr19 (numbering in TM). Transplantation of these polar residues into the wild-type TR promotes receptor down-regulation that can be demonstrated by changes in protein half-life and in receptor recycling. Surprisingly, this modification dramatically increases the TR internalization rate as well (∼79% increase). Sucrose gradient centrifugation and cross-linking studies reveal that propensity of the receptors to self-associate correlates with down-regulation. Interestingly, a number of cell surface proteins that contain TM polar residues are known to be efficiently down-regulated, whereas recycling receptors for low-density lipoprotein and transferrin conspicuously lack these residues. Our data, therefore, suggest a simple model in which specific residues within the TM sequences dramatically influence the fate of membrane proteins after endocytosis, providing an alternative signal for down-regulation of receptor complexes to the well-characterized cytoplasmic tail targeting signals. PMID:10930460

  9. Basolateral localization of fiber receptors limits adenovirus infection from the apical surface of airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Walters, R W; Grunst, T; Bergelson, J M; Finberg, R W; Welsh, M J; Zabner, J

    1999-04-01

    Recent identification of two receptors for the adenovirus fiber protein, coxsackie B and adenovirus type 2 and 5 receptor (CAR), and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I alpha-2 domain allows the molecular basis of adenoviral infection to be investigated. Earlier work has shown that human airway epithelia are resistant to infection by adenovirus. Therefore, we examined the expression and localization of CAR and MHC Class I in an in vitro model of well differentiated, ciliated human airway epithelia. We found that airway epithelia express CAR and MHC Class I. However, neither receptor was present in the apical membrane; instead, both were polarized to the basolateral membrane. These findings explain the relative resistance to adenovirus infection from the apical surface. In contrast, when the virus was applied to the basolateral surface, gene transfer was much more efficient because of an interaction of adenovirus fiber with its receptors. In addition, when the integrity of the tight junctions was transiently disrupted, apically applied adenovirus gained access to the basolateral surface and enhanced gene transfer. These data suggest that the receptors required for efficient infection are not available on the apical surface, and interventions that allow access to the basolateral space where fiber receptors are located increase gene transfer efficiency. PMID:10187807

  10. High spatial resolution mapping of individual and collective localized surface plasmon resonance modes of silver nanoparticle aggregates: correlation to optical measurements.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Egea, Carlos; Abargues, Rafael; Martínez-Pastor, Juan P; Sigle, Wilfried; van Aken, Peter A; Molina, Sergio I

    2015-12-01

    Non-isolated nanoparticles show a plasmonic response that is governed by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) collective modes created by the nanoparticle aggregates. The individual and collective LSPR modes of silver nanoparticle aggregated by covalent binding by means of bifunctional molecular linkers are described in this study. Individual contributions to the collective modes are investigated at nanometer scale by means of energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy and compared to ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. It is found that the aspect ratio and the shape of the clusters are the two main contributors to the low-energy collective modes. PMID:26239880

  11. A sensitive electrochemiluminescence cytosensor for quantitative evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor expressed on cell surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yanjuan; Zhang, Shaolian; Wen, Qingqing; Huang, Hongxing; Yang, Peihui

    2015-06-30

    A sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) strategy for evaluating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression level on cell surfaces was designed by integrating the specific recognition of EGFR expressed on MCF-7 cell surfaces with an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-funtionalized CdS quantum dots (CdSQDs)-capped magnetic bead (MB) probe. The high sensitivity of ECL probe of EGF-funtionalized CdSQD-capped-MB was used for competitive recognition with EGFR expressed on cell surfaces with recombinant EGFR protein. The changes of ECL intensity depended on both the cell number and the expression level of EGFR receptor on cell surfaces. A wide linear response to cells ranging from 80 to 4×10(6)cellsmL(-1) with a detection limit of 40cellsmL(-1) was obtained. The EGF-cytosensor was used to evaluate EGFR expression levels on MCF-7 cells, and the average number of EGFR receptor on single MCF-7 cells was 1.35×10(5) with the relative standard deviation of 4.3%. This strategy was further used for in-situ and real-time evaluating EGFR receptor expressed on cell surfaces in response to drugs stimulation at different concentration and incubation time. The proposed method provided potential applications in the detection of receptors on cancer cells and anticancer drugs screening. PMID:26041531

  12. Aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) mediate colonization of fresh produce and abiotic surface by Shiga toxigenic enteroaggregative Escherichia coli O104:H4.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Attila; Xu, Yunfeng; Bauchan, Gary R; Shelton, Daniel R; Nou, Xiangwu

    2016-07-16

    The Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O104:H4 isolated during the 2011 European outbreak expresses Shiga toxin 2a and possess virulence genes associated with the enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) pathotype. It produces plasmid encoded aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) which mediate cell aggregation and biofilm formation in human intestine and promote Shiga-toxin adsorption, but it is not clear whether the AAF/I fimbriae are involved in the colonization and biofilm formation on food and environmental matrices such as the surface of fresh produce. We deleted the gene encoding for the AAF/I fimbriae main subunit (AggA) from an outbreak associated E. coli O104:H4 strain, and evaluated the role of AAF/I fimbriae in the adherence and colonization of E. coli O104:H4 to spinach and abiotic surfaces. The deletion of aggA did not affect the adherence of E. coli O104:H4 to these surfaces. However, it severely diminished the colonization and biofilm formation of E. coli O104:H4 on these surfaces. Strong aggregation and biofilm formation on spinach and abiotic surfaces were observed with the wild type strain but not the isogenic aggA deletion mutant, suggesting that AAF/I fimbriae play a crucial role in persistence of O104:H4 cells outside of the intestines of host species, such as on the surface of fresh produce. PMID:27099984

  13. Ambient water and visible-light irradiation drive changes in graphene morphology, structure, surface chemistry, aggregation, and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiangang; Zhou, Ming; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-03-17

    The environmental behaviors and risks associated with graphene have attracted considerable attention. However, the fundamental effects of ambient water and visible-light irradiation on the properties and toxicity of graphene remain unknown. This work revealed that hydration and irradiation result in the transformation of large-sheet graphene to long-ribbon graphene. The thickness of the treated graphene decreased, and oxides were formed through the generation of singlet oxygen. In addition, hydration and irradiation resulted in greater disorder in the graphene structure and in the expansion of the d-spacing of the structure due to the introduction of water molecules and modifications of the functional groups. Oxidative modifications with two-stage (fast and low) kinetics enhanced the number of negative surface charges on the graphene and enhanced graphene aggregation. The above property alterations reduced the nanotoxicity of graphene to algal cells by reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species, diminishing protein carbonylation and decreasing tail DNA. A comparative study using graphene oxide suggested that oxidative modifications could play an important role in inhibiting toxicological activity. This study provides a preliminary approach for understanding the environmental behaviors of graphene and avoids overestimating the risks of graphene in the natural environment. PMID:25686198

  14. Silver nanoparticle aggregates on metal fibers for solid phase microextraction-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuicui; Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Limei; Cui, Jingcheng; Shi, Yu-e; Wang, Le; Zhan, Jinhua

    2015-07-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME), a solvent free technique for sample preparation, has been successfully coupled with GC, GC-MS, and HPLC for environmental analysis. In this work, a method combining solid phase microextraction with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is developed for detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Silver nanoparticle aggregates were deposited on the Ag-Cu fibers via layer-by-layer deposition, which were modified with propanethiol (PTH). The SERS-active SPME fiber was immersed in water directly to extract PAHs and then detected using a portable Raman spectrometer. The pronounced valence vibration of the C-C bond at 1030 cm(-1) was chosen as an internal standard peak for the constant concentration of PTH. The RSD values of the stability and the uniformity of the SERS-active SPME fiber are 2.97% and 5.66%, respectively. A log-log plot of the normalized SERS intensity versus fluoranthene concentration showed a linear relationship (R(2) = 0.95). The detection limit was 7.56 × 10(-10) M and the recovery rate of water samples was in the range of 95% to 115%. The method can also be applied to detection of PAH mixtures, and each component of the mixtures can be distinguished by Raman characteristic peaks. The SERS-active SPME fiber could be further confirmed by GC-MS. PMID:25988666

  15. A Conserved Ectodomain-Transmembrane Domain Linker Motif Tunes the Allosteric Regulation of Cell Surface Receptors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas; Ye, Feng; Situ, Alan J; An, Woojin; Ginsberg, Mark H; Ulmer, Tobias S

    2016-08-19

    In many families of cell surface receptors, a single transmembrane (TM) α-helix separates ecto- and cytosolic domains. A defined coupling of ecto- and TM domains must be essential to allosteric receptor regulation but remains little understood. Here, we characterize the linker structure, dynamics, and resulting ecto-TM domain coupling of integrin αIIb in model constructs and relate it to other integrin α subunits by mutagenesis. Cellular integrin activation assays subsequently validate the findings in intact receptors. Our results indicate a flexible yet carefully tuned ecto-TM coupling that modulates the signaling threshold of integrin receptors. Interestingly, a proline at the N-terminal TM helix border, termed NBP, is critical to linker flexibility in integrins. NBP is further predicted in 21% of human single-pass TM proteins and validated in cytokine receptors by the TM domain structure of the cytokine receptor common subunit β and its P441A-substituted variant. Thus, NBP is a conserved uncoupling motif of the ecto-TM domain transition and the degree of ecto-TM domain coupling represents an important parameter in the allosteric regulation of diverse cell surface receptors. PMID:27365391

  16. Cell surface-associated aggregation-promoting factor from Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 facilitates host colonization and competitive exclusion of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Keita; Nakazato, Akiko; Ueno, Shintaro; Seto, Yasuyuki; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji; Yamamoto, Yuji; Mukai, Takao

    2015-11-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis worldwide, is transmitted to humans through poultry. We previously reported that Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) reduced C. jejuni infection in human epithelial cells in vitro and inhibited pathogen colonization of chickens in vivo. This suggested that the LG2055 adhesion and/or co-aggregation phenotype mediated by cell-surface aggregation-promoting factors (APFs) may be important for the competitive exclusion of C. jejuni. Here, we show that cell surface-associated APF1 promoted LG2055 self-aggregation and adhesion to human epithelial cells and exhibited high affinity for the extracellular matrix component fibronectin. These effects were absent in the apf1 knockout mutant, indicating the role of APF1 in LG2055-mediated inhibition of C. jejuni in epithelial cells and chicken colonization. Similar to APF1, APF2 promoted the co-aggregation of LG2055 and C. jejuni but did not inhibit C. jejuni infection. Our data suggest a pivotal role for APF1 in mediating the interaction of LG2055 with human intestinal cells and in inhibiting C. jejuni colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. We thus provide new insight into the health-promoting effects of probiotics and mechanisms of competitive exclusion in poultry. Further research is needed to determine whether the probiotic strains reach the epithelial surface. PMID:26239091

  17. Selectivity of Ligand-Receptor Interactions between Nanoparticle and Cell Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shihu; Dormidontova, Elena E.

    2012-12-01

    Selectivity of interactions between nanoparticles functionalized by tethered ligands and cell surfaces with different densities of receptors plays an essential role in biorecognition and its implementation in nanobiomedicine. We show that the onset of nanoparticle adsorption has a universal character for a range of nanoparticles: the onset receptor density decreases exponentially with the energy of ligand-receptor binding and inversely with the ligand density. We demonstrate that a bimodal tether distribution, which permits shielding ligands by longer nonfunctional tethers, leads to extra loss of entropy at the adsorption onset, enhancing the selectivity.

  18. GGA3 Interacts with a G Protein-Coupled Receptor and Modulates Its Cell Surface Export.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Maoxiang; Davis, Jason E; Li, Chunman; Gao, Jie; Huang, Wei; Lambert, Nevin A; Terry, Alvin V; Wu, Guangyu

    2016-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms governing the anterograde trafficking of nascent G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are poorly understood. Here, we have studied the regulation of cell surface transport of α2-adrenergic receptors (α2-ARs) by GGA3 (Golgi-localized, γ-adaptin ear domain homology, ADP ribosylation factor-binding protein 3), a multidomain clathrin adaptor protein that sorts cargo proteins at the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the endosome/lysosome pathway. By using an inducible system, we demonstrated that GGA3 knockdown significantly inhibited the cell surface expression of newly synthesized α2B-AR without altering overall receptor synthesis and internalization. The receptors were arrested in the TGN. Furthermore, GGA3 knockdown attenuated α2B-AR-mediated signaling, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation and cyclic AMP (cAMP) inhibition. More interestingly, GGA3 physically interacted with α2B-AR, and the interaction sites were identified as the triple Arg motif in the third intracellular loop of the receptor and the acidic motif EDWE in the VHS domain of GGA3. In contrast, α2A-AR did not interact with GGA3 and its cell surface export and signaling were not affected by GGA3 knockdown. These data reveal a novel function of GGA3 in export trafficking of a GPCR that is mediated via a specific interaction with the receptor. PMID:26811329

  19. Secondary structure of corona proteins determines the cell surface receptors used by nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Candace C; Payne, Christine K

    2014-12-11

    Nanoparticles used for biological and biomedical applications encounter a host of extracellular proteins. These proteins rapidly adsorb onto the nanoparticle surface, creating a protein corona. Poly(ethylene glycol) can reduce, but not eliminate, the nonspecific adsorption of proteins. As a result, the adsorbed proteins, rather than the nanoparticle itself, determine the cellular receptors used for binding, the internalization mechanism, the intracellular transport pathway, and the subsequent immune response. Using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, we first characterize a set of polystyrene nanoparticles in which the same adsorbed protein, bovine serum albumin, leads to binding to two different cell surface receptors: native albumin receptors and scavenger receptors. Using a combination of circular dichroism spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the secondary structure of the adsorbed bovine serum albumin protein controls the cellular receptors used by the protein-nanoparticle complexes. These results show that protein secondary structure is a key parameter in determining the cell surface receptor used by a protein-nanoparticle complex. We expect this link between protein structure and cellular outcomes will provide a molecular basis for the design of nanoparticles for use in biological and biomedical applications. PMID:24779411

  20. Intrabody-mediated diverting of HP1β to the cytoplasm induces co-aggregation of H3-H4 histones and lamin-B receptor.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Alessio; Filesi, Ilaria; Singh, Prim B; Biocca, Silvia

    2015-10-15

    Diverting a protein from its intracellular location is a unique property of intrabodies. To interfere with the intracellular traffic of heterochromatin protein 1β (HP1β) in living cells, we have generated a cytoplasmic targeted anti-HP1β intrabody, specifically directed against the C-terminal portion of the molecule. HP1β is a conserved component of mouse and human constitutive heterochromatin involved in diverse nuclear functions including gene silencing, DNA repair and nuclear membrane assembly. We found that the anti-HP1β intrabody sequesters HP1β into cytoplasmic aggregates, inhibiting its traffic to the nucleus. Lamin B receptor (LBR) and a subset of core histones (H3/H4) are also specifically co-sequestered in the cytoplasm of anti-HP1β intrabody-expressing cells. Methylated histone H3 at K9 (Me9H3), a marker of constitutive heterochromatin, is not affected by the anti-HP1β intrabody expression. Hyper-acetylating conditions completely dislodge H3 from HP1β:LBR containing aggregates. The expression of anti-HP1β scFv fragments induces apoptosis, associated with an alteration of nuclear morphology. Both these phenotypes are specifically rescued either by overexpression of recombinant full length HP1β or by HP1β mutant containing the chromoshadow domain, but not by recombinant LBR protein. The HP1β-chromodomain mutant, on the other hand, does not rescue the phenotypes, but does compete with LBR for binding to HP1β. These findings provide new insights into the mode of action of cytoplasmic-targeted intrabodies and the interaction between HP1β and its binding partners involved in peripheral heterochromatin organisation. PMID:26364738

  1. Decoupling competing surface binding kinetics and reconfiguration of receptor footprint for ultrasensitive stress assays.

    PubMed

    Patil, Samadhan B; Vögtli, Manuel; Webb, Benjamin; Mazza, Giuseppe; Pinzani, Massimo; Soh, Yeong-Ah; McKendry, Rachel A; Ndieyira, Joseph W

    2015-10-01

    Cantilever arrays have been used to monitor biochemical interactions and their associated stress. However, it is often necessary to passivate the underside of the cantilever to prevent unwanted ligand adsorption, and this process requires tedious optimization. Here, we show a way to immobilize membrane receptors on nanomechanical cantilevers so that they can function without passivating the underlying surface. Using equilibrium theory, we quantitatively describe the mechanical responses of vancomycin, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antigens and coagulation factor VIII captured on the cantilever in the presence of competing stresses from the top and bottom cantilever surfaces. We show that the area per receptor molecule on the cantilever surface influences ligand-receptor binding and plays an important role on stress. Our results offer a new way to sense biomolecules and will aid in the creation of ultrasensitive biosensors. PMID:26280409

  2. Decoupling competing surface binding kinetics and reconfiguration of receptor footprint for ultrasensitive stress assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Samadhan B.; Vögtli, Manuel; Webb, Benjamin; Mazza, Giuseppe; Pinzani, Massimo; Soh, Yeong-Ah; McKendry, Rachel A.; Ndieyira, Joseph W.

    2015-10-01

    Cantilever arrays have been used to monitor biochemical interactions and their associated stress. However, it is often necessary to passivate the underside of the cantilever to prevent unwanted ligand adsorption, and this process requires tedious optimization. Here, we show a way to immobilize membrane receptors on nanomechanical cantilevers so that they can function without passivating the underlying surface. Using equilibrium theory, we quantitatively describe the mechanical responses of vancomycin, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antigens and coagulation factor VIII captured on the cantilever in the presence of competing stresses from the top and bottom cantilever surfaces. We show that the area per receptor molecule on the cantilever surface influences ligand-receptor binding and plays an important role on stress. Our results offer a new way to sense biomolecules and will aid in the creation of ultrasensitive biosensors.

  3. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli inhibits recycling endosome function and trafficking of surface receptors

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Abigail; Stoneham, Charlotte A; Furniss, R Christopher D; Frankel, Gad

    2014-01-01

    Enteropathogenic and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC) manipulate many cell processes by injecting effector proteins from the bacteria into the host cell via a Type III secretion system. In this paper we report that the effector protein EspG disrupts recycling endosome function. In particular, we found that following transferrin binding and endocytosis EspG reduces recycling of the transferrin receptor (TfR), the prototypical recycling protein, from an intracellular location to the cell surface, resulting in an accumulation of TfR within the cell. The surface levels of three receptors [TfR, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and β1 integrin] were tested and found to be reduced dependent on EspG translocation. Furthermore, disruption of recycling endosome function and the reduced surface presentation of receptors was dependent on the previously reported RabGAP activity and ARF binding ability of EspG. This paper therefore supports the previous hypothesis that EspG acts as an enzyme scaffold perturbing cell signalling events, in this case altering recycling endosome function and cell surface receptor levels during infection. PMID:24898821

  4. Evaluating cell-surface expression and measuring activation of mammalian odorant receptors in heterologous cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Hanyi; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental question in olfaction is which odorant receptors (ORs) are activated by a given odorant. A major roadblock to investigate odorant-OR relationship in mammals has been an inability to express ORs in heterologous cells suitable for screening active ligands for ORs. The discovery of the receptor-transporting protein (RTP) family has facilitated the effective cell-surface expression of ORs in heterologous cells. The establishment of a robust heterologous expression system for mammalian ORs facilitates the high-throughput “deorphanization” of these receptors by matching them to their cognate ligands. This protocol details the method used for evaluating the cell-surface expression and measuring the functional activation of ORs of transiently-expressed mammalian odorant receptors in HEK293T cells. The stages of odorant receptor cell-surface expression include cell culture preparation, transfer of cells, transfection, and immunocytochemistry/flow cytometry, odorant stimulation, and luciferase assay. This protocol can be completed in a period of 3 days from transfer of cells to cell-surface expression detection and/or measurement of functional activation. PMID:18772867

  5. Inhibitory effects of two G protein-coupled receptor kinases on the cell surface expression and signaling of the human adrenomedullin receptor.

    PubMed

    Kuwasako, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Nagata, Sayaka; Jiang, Danfeng; Hayashi, Hidetaka; Murakami, Manabu; Hattori, Yuichi; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kato, Johji

    2016-02-19

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, a family B GPCR) to form the type 1 adrenomedullin receptor (AM1 receptor). Here, we investigated the effects of the five non-visual GPCR kinases (GRKs 2 through 6) on the cell surface expression of the human (h)AM1 receptor by cotransfecting each of these GRKs into HEK-293 cells that stably expressed hRAMP2. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that when coexpressed with GRK4 or GRK5, the cell surface expression of the AM1 receptor was markedly decreased prior to stimulation with AM, thereby attenuating both the specific [(125)I]AM binding and AM-induced cAMP production. These inhibitory effects of both GRKs were abolished by the replacement of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of CLR with that of the calcitonin receptor (a family B GPCR) or β2-adrenergic receptor (a family A GPCR). Among the sequentially truncated CLR C-tail mutants, those lacking the five residues 449-453 (Ser-Phe-Ser-Asn-Ser) abolished the inhibition of the cell surface expression of CLR via the overexpression of GRK4 or GRK5. Thus, we provided new insight into the function of GRKs in agonist-unstimulated GPCR trafficking using a recombinant AM1 receptor and further determined the region of the CLR C-tail responsible for this GRK function. PMID:26820533

  6. Surface localization of the nuclear receptor CAR in influenza A virus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Tadanobu; Moriyama, Yusuke; Ikari, Akira; Sugatani, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miwa, Masao

    2008-04-11

    Constitutive active/androstane receptor CAR is a member of the nuclear receptors which regulate transcription of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes. CAR is usually localized in the cytosol and nucleus. Here, we found that CAR was localized at the cell surface of influenza A virus (IAV)-infected cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that expression of a viral envelope glycoprotein, either hemagglutinin (HA) or neuraminidase (NA), but not viral nucleoprotein (NP), was responsible for this localization. This report is the first demonstration of CAR at the surface of tissue culture cells, and suggests that CAR may exert the IAV infection mechanism.

  7. Expression, surface immobilization, and characterization of functional recombinant cannabinoid receptor CB2

    PubMed Central

    Locatelli-Hoops, Silvia C.; Gorshkova, Inna; Gawrisch, Klaus; Yeliseev, Alexei A.

    2013-01-01

    Human peripheral cannabinoid receptor CB2, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in regulation of immune response has become an important target for pharmaceutical drug development. Structural and functional studies on CB2 may benefit from immobilization of the purified and functional receptor onto a suitable surface at a controlled density and, preferably in a uniform orientation. The goal of this project was to develop a generic strategy for preparation of functional recombinant CB2 and immobilization at solid interfaces. Expression of CB2 as a fusion with Rho-tag (peptide composed of the last nine amino acids of rhodopsin) in E. coli was evaluated in terms of protein levels, accessibility of the tag, and activity of the receptor. The structural integrity of CB2 was tested by ligand binding to the receptor solubilized in detergent micelles, captured on tag-specific monoclonal 1D4 antibody-coated resin. Highly pure and functional CB2 was obtained by sequential chromatography on a 1D4- and Ni-NTA- resin and its affinity to the 1D4 antibody characterized by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Either the purified receptor or fusion CB2 from the crude cell extract was captured onto a 1D4 -coated CM4 chip (Biacore) in a quantitative fashion at uniform orientation as demonstrated by the SPR signal. Furthermore, the accessibility of the extracellular surface of immobilized CB2 and the affinity of interaction with a novel monoclonal antibody NAA-1 was studied by SPR. In summary, we present an integral strategy for purification, surface immobilization, ligand- and antibody binding studies of functional cannabinoid receptor CB2. PMID:23777860

  8. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN AGGREGATE SURFACE SAMPLING METHOD FOR USE IN ASSESSING DERMAL EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the macroactivity approach, dermal exposure is estimated using empirically-derived transfer coefficients to aggregate the mass transfer associated with a series of contacts with a contaminated medium. The macroactivity approach affords the possibility of developing screenin...

  9. Targeting vault nanoparticles to specific cell surface receptors.

    PubMed

    Kickhoefer, Valerie A; Han, Muri; Raval-Fernandes, Sujna; Poderycki, Michael J; Moniz, Raymond J; Vaccari, Dana; Silvestry, Mariena; Stewart, Phoebe L; Kelly, Kathleen A; Rome, Leonard H

    2009-01-27

    As a naturally occurring nanocapsule abundantly expressed in nearly all-eukaryotic cells, the barrel-shaped vault particle is perhaps an ideal structure to engineer for targeting to specific cell types. Recombinant vault particles self-assemble from 96 copies of the major vault protein (MVP), have dimensions of 72.5 x 41 nm, and have a hollow interior large enough to encapsulate hundreds of proteins. In this study, three different tags were engineered onto the C-terminus of MVP: an 11 amino acid epitope tag, a 33 amino acid IgG-binding peptide, and the 55 amino acid epidermal growth factor (EGF). These modified vaults were produced using a baculovirus expression system. Our studies demonstrate that recombinant vaults assembled from MVPs containing C-terminal peptide extensions display these tags at the top and bottom of the vault on the outside of the particle and can be used to specifically bind the modified vaults to epithelial cancer cells (A431) via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), either directly (EGF modified vaults) or as mediated by a monoclonal antibody (anti-EGFR) bound to recombinant vaults containing the IgG-binding peptide. The ability to target vaults to specific cells represents an essential advance toward using recombinant vaults as delivery vehicles. PMID:19206245

  10. Widespread histologic distribution of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin cell-surface collagen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Zutter, M. M.; Santoro, S. A.

    1990-01-01

    The alpha 2 beta 1 integrin (platelet membrane glycoprotein Ia-IIa, VLA-2, ECMR-II) functions as a cell surface receptor for collagen. The authors have determined the histologic distribution of the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor in normal tissues by immunohistochemical technique. The studies revealed that the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor was expressed on fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells from multiple sites including skin, tonsil, breast, sweat gland, gastrointestinal tract, lung, bladder, cervix, and prostate. Follicular dendritic cells of the lymph node, tonsil, and spleen and dendritic cells of the thymus also expressed the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor. The receptor also was present on Schwann cells of ganglia and on neuroglia. Greatly enhanced expression of the receptor in regions of proliferating epithelium suggests that enhanced expression of alpha 2 beta 1 is associated with orderly, regulated cell proliferation. The circumferential staining pattern of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin within many epithelia is virtually identical to that observed for other adhesive receptors, such as the cadherins, which have been implicated in cell-cell adhesion. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:2164774

  11. Ubiquitin-like epitopes associated with Candida albicans cell surface receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, P; Lopez-Ribot, J L; Gozalbo, D; Cervera, A; Martinez, J P; Chaffin, W L

    1996-01-01

    We have recently reported the cloning of a Candida albicans polyubiquitin gene and the presence of ubiquitin in the cell wall of this fungus. The polyubiquitin cDNA clone was isolated because of its reactivity with antibodies generated against the candidal 37-kDa laminin-binding protein. In the present study, we have further investigated the relationship between ubiquitin and cell wall components displaying receptor-like activities, including the 37-kDa laminin receptor, the 58-kDa fibrinogen-binding mannoprotein, and the candidal C3d receptor. Two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis and immunoblot experiments with antibodies against ubiquitin and the individually purified receptor-like molecules confirmed that these cell surface components are ubiquitinated. In an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polyclonal antisera to each receptor reacted with ubiquitin, thus demonstrating that the purified receptor preparations used as immunogens contained ubiquitin-like epitopes. It is proposed that ubiquitin may play a role in modulating the activity of these receptors and in the interaction of C. albicans cells with host structures. PMID:8926122

  12. A Bispecific Antibody Promotes Aggregation of Ricin Toxin on Cell Surfaces and Alters Dynamics of Toxin Internalization and Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Cristina; Klokk, Tove Irene; Cole, Richard; Sandvig, Kirsten; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    JJX12 is an engineered bispecific antibody against ricin, a member of the medically important A-B family of toxins that exploits retrograde transport as means to gain entry into the cytosol of target cells. JJX12 consists of RTA-D10, a camelid single variable domain (VHH) antibody directed against an epitope on ricin's enzymatic subunit (RTA), linked via a 15-mer peptide to RTB-B7, a VHH against ricin's bivalent galactose binding subunit (RTB). We previously reported that JJX12, but not an equimolar mixture of RTA-D10 and RTB-B7 monomers, was able to passively protect mice against a lethal dose ricin challenge, demonstrating that physically linking RTB-B7 and RTA-D10 is critical for toxin-neutralizing activity in vivo. We also reported that JJX12 promotes aggregation of ricin in solution, presumably through the formation of intermolecular crosslinking. In the current study, we now present evidence that JJX12 affects the dynamics of ricin uptake and trafficking in human epithelial cells. Confocal microscopy, as well as live cell imaging coupled with endocytosis pathway-specific inhibitors, revealed that JJX12-toxin complexes are formed on the surfaces of mammalian cells and internalized via a pathway sensitive to amiloride, a known inhibitor of macropinocytosis. Moreover, in the presence of JJX12, retrograde transport of ricin to the trans-Golgi network was significantly reduced, while accumulation of the toxin in late endosomes was significantly enhanced. In summary, we propose that JJX12, by virtue of its ability to crosslink ricin toxin, alters the route of toxin uptake and trafficking within cells. PMID:27300140

  13. A Bispecific Antibody Promotes Aggregation of Ricin Toxin on Cell Surfaces and Alters Dynamics of Toxin Internalization and Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Cristina; Klokk, Tove Irene; Cole, Richard; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    JJX12 is an engineered bispecific antibody against ricin, a member of the medically important A-B family of toxins that exploits retrograde transport as means to gain entry into the cytosol of target cells. JJX12 consists of RTA-D10, a camelid single variable domain (VHH) antibody directed against an epitope on ricin’s enzymatic subunit (RTA), linked via a 15-mer peptide to RTB-B7, a VHH against ricin’s bivalent galactose binding subunit (RTB). We previously reported that JJX12, but not an equimolar mixture of RTA-D10 and RTB-B7 monomers, was able to passively protect mice against a lethal dose ricin challenge, demonstrating that physically linking RTB-B7 and RTA-D10 is critical for toxin-neutralizing activity in vivo. We also reported that JJX12 promotes aggregation of ricin in solution, presumably through the formation of intermolecular crosslinking. In the current study, we now present evidence that JJX12 affects the dynamics of ricin uptake and trafficking in human epithelial cells. Confocal microscopy, as well as live cell imaging coupled with endocytosis pathway-specific inhibitors, revealed that JJX12-toxin complexes are formed on the surfaces of mammalian cells and internalized via a pathway sensitive to amiloride, a known inhibitor of macropinocytosis. Moreover, in the presence of JJX12, retrograde transport of ricin to the trans-Golgi network was significantly reduced, while accumulation of the toxin in late endosomes was significantly enhanced. In summary, we propose that JJX12, by virtue of its ability to crosslink ricin toxin, alters the route of toxin uptake and trafficking within cells. PMID:27300140

  14. Activation of monocytes and platelets by monoclonal antibodies or malaria-infected erythrocytes binding to the CD36 surface receptor in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ockenhouse, C F; Magowan, C; Chulay, J D

    1989-01-01

    The CD36 leukocyte differentiation antigen, recognized by MAbs OKM5 and OKM8 and found on human monocytes and endothelial cells, has been implicated as a sequestration receptor for erythrocytes infected with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (IRBC). CD36 is also expressed on platelets and appears to be identical to platelet glycoprotein IV. We investigated receptor activation of monocytes and platelets by anti-CD36 MAbs and by IRBC. Incubation of human monocytes with anti-CD36 MAbs or IRBC resulted in stimulation of the respiratory burst as measured by reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium and generation of chemiluminescence. Incubation of human platelets with anti-CD36 MAbs resulted in platelet activation as measured by aggregation or ATP secretion. Activation of monocytes and platelets required appropriate intracellular transmembrane signaling and was inhibited by calcium antagonists or by specific inhibitors of protein kinase C or guanine nucleotide binding proteins. Soluble CD36 inhibited binding of IRBC to both monocytes and platelets, suggesting that these interactions are mediated by the CD36 receptor. Using a cytochemical electron microscopic technique, the presence of reactive oxygen intermediates was identified at the interface between human monocytes and IRBC. These data provide support for the hypothesis that reactive oxygen intermediates produced by monocytes when IRBC ligands interact with cell surface receptors may play a role in the pathophysiology of falciparum malaria. Images PMID:2474569

  15. Cell Surface Vimentin Is an Attachment Receptor for Enterovirus 71

    PubMed Central

    Du, Ning; Cong, Haolong; Tian, Hongchao; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Wenliang; Song, Lei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a highly transmissible pathogenic agent that causes severe central nervous system diseases in infected infants and young children. Here, we reported that EV71 VP1 protein could bind to vimentin intermediate filaments expressed on the host cell surface. Soluble vimentin or an antibody against vimentin could inhibit the binding of EV71 to host cells. Accompanied with the reduction of vimentin expression on the cell surface, the binding of EV71 to cells was remarkably decreased. Further evidence showed that the N terminus of vimentin is responsible for the interaction between EV71 and vimentin. These results indicated that vimentin on the host cell surface may serve as an attachment site that mediated the initial binding and subsequently increased the infectivity of EV71. IMPORTANCE This study delivers important findings on the roles of vimentin filaments in relation to EV71 infection and provides information that not only improves our understanding of EV71 pathogenesis but also presents us with potentially new strategies for the treatment of diseases caused by EV71 infections. PMID:24623428

  16. The astrocyte surface NAAG receptor and NAAG peptidase signaling complex as a therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Baslow, Morris H

    2008-06-01

    There is evidence that schizophrenia and other neuropathies may involve malfunction of a unique N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) receptor and its associated NAAG peptidase, a receptor and enzyme found together on the astrocyte surface. NAAG is a peptide neurotransmitter released by stimulated neurons and specifically targeted to the group II metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGlu(3)), activation of which initiates astrocyte Ca(2+) waves responsible for astrocyte-astrocyte and astrocyte-vascular system signaling and induction of vascular hyperemic responses that increase energy supplies to stimulated neurons. In this review, it is hypothesized that the receptor and enzyme exist as a cytostructural unit on the astrocyte surface, and the nature of this proposed mGlu(3)-NAAG peptidase complex is considered in terms of its physiological signaling role, and of the effect of drugs on this role. The mGlu(3) receptor has been the target of extrinsic antagonists and agonists that mimic NAAG structure and compete with natural NAAG for the receptor site. NAAG metabolism has also been the target of extrinsic NAAG-like substances that inhibit NAAG peptidase, competing with NAAG for the enzyme active site. Several drugs that affect the mGlu(3) receptor or NAAG peptidase have reached a stage of human testing. Two are agonists of the mGlu(3) receptor, and another is an NAAG peptidase inhibitor. These substances appear to have potential for treating schizophrenia and other cognitive neuropathies by interfering with a homeostatic NAAG activated neuron-astrocyte-vascular energy supply system. PMID:18596989

  17. Roles of regulated internalization in the polarization of cell surface receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wei; Cao, Youfang; Ismael, Amber; Stone, David

    2016-01-01

    Cell polarization, the generation of cellular asymmetries, is a fundamental biological process. Polarity of different molecules can arise through several mechanisms. Among these, internalization has been shown to play an important role in the polarization of cell surface receptors. The internalization of cell surface receptors can be upregulated upon ligand binding. Additional regulatory mechanism can downregulate the internalization process. Here we describe a general model, which incorporates these two opposing processes, to study the role of internalization in the establishment of cell polarity. We find that the competition between these two processes is sufficient to induce receptor polarization. Our results show that regulated internalization provides additional regulation on polarization as well. In addition, we discuss applications of our model to the yeast system, which shows the capability and potential of the model. PMID:25570171

  18. A novel surface acoustic wave-based biosensor for highly sensitive functional assays of olfactory receptors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunsheng; Du, Liping; Wang, Di; Wang, Le; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping

    2011-04-01

    Olfactory receptors, which are responsible for sensing odor molecules, form the largest G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family in mammalian animals. These proteins play an important role in the detection of chemical signals and signal transduction to the brain. Currently, only a limited number of olfactory receptors have been characterized, which is mainly due to the lack of sensitive and efficient tools for performing functional assays of these receptors. This paper describes a novel surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based biosensor for highly sensitive functional assays of olfactory receptors. An olfactory receptor of Caenorhabditis elegans, ODR-10, was expressed on the plasma membrane of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, which was used as a model system for this study. For specific odorant response assays, the membrane fraction of MCF-7 cells containing ODR-10 was extracted and integrated with our SAW sensors. The response of ODR-10 to various odorants was monitored by recording the resonance frequency shifts of SAWs applied to the sensor. Our results show that heterologously expressed ODR-10 receptors can specifically respond to diacetyl, its natural ligand. Dose-dependent responses were obtained by performing measurements using various concentrations of diacetyl. The sensitivity of this biosensor is 2kHz/ng and can detect concentrations as low as 10(-10)mM, which is 10× lower than what has previously been reported. This biosensor can be used to characterize odorant response profiles of olfactory receptors and provide information rich data for functional assays of olfactory receptors. In addition to providing a greater understanding of the biological mechanisms of GPCRs, such data holds great potential in many other fields such as food industry, biomedicine, and environmental protection. PMID:21333624

  19. Surface expression of NMDA receptor changes during memory consolidation in the crab Neohelice granulata.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Yanil; Salles, Angeles; Carbo-Tano, Martin; Pedreira, Maria Eugenia; Freudenthal, Ramiro

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the surface expression of the NMDA-like receptors during the consolidation of contextual learning in the crab Neohelice granulata Memory storage is based on alterations in the strength of synaptic connections between neurons. The glutamatergic synapses undergo various forms of N-methyl-D aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent changes in strength, a process that affects the abundance of other receptors at the synapse and underlies some forms of learning and memory. Here we propose a direct regulation of the NMDAR. Changes in NMDAR's functionality might be induced by the modification of the subunit's expression or cellular trafficking. This trafficking does not only include NMDAR's movement between synaptic and extra-synaptic localizations but also the cycling between intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane, a process called surface expression. Consolidation of contextual learning affects the surface expression of the receptor without affecting its general expression. The surface expression of the GluN1 subunit of the NMDAR is down-regulated immediately after training, up-regulated 3 h after training and returns to naïve and control levels 24 h after training. The changes in NMDAR surface expression observed in the central brain are not seen in the thoracic ganglion. A similar increment in surface expression of GluN1 in the central brain is observed 3 h after administration of the competitive GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline. These consolidation changes are part of a plasticity event that first, during the down-regulation, stabilizes the trace and later, at 3-h post-training, changes the threshold for synapse activation. PMID:27421895

  20. Fluorogen Activating Proteins in Flow Cytometry for the Study of Surface Molecules and Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Matthew J.; Szent-Gyorgyi, Christopher; Fisher, Gregory W.; Jarvik, Jonathan W.; Bruchez, Marcel P.; Waggoner, Alan S.

    2012-01-01

    The use of fluorescent proteins, particularly when genetically fused to proteins of biological interest, have greatly advanced many flow cytometry research applications. However, there remains a major limitation to this methodology in that only total cellular fluorescence is measured. Commonly used fluorescent proteins (e.g. EGFP and its variants) are fluorescent whether the fusion protein exists on the surface or in sub-cellular compartments. A flow cytometer cannot distinguish between these separate sources of fluorescence. This can be of great concern when using flow cytometry, plate readers or microscopy to quantify cell surface receptors or other surface proteins genetically fused to fluorescent proteins. Recently developed fluorogen activating proteins (FAPs) solve many of these issues by allowing the selective visualization of only those cell surface proteins that are exposed to the extra cellular milieu. FAPs are GFP-sized single chain antibodies that specifically bind to and generate fluorescence from otherwise non-fluorescent dyes (‘activate the fluorogen’). Like the fluorescent proteins, FAPs can be genetically fused to proteins of interest. When exogenously added fluorogens bind FAPs, fluorescence immediately increases by as much as 20,000 fold, rendering the FAP fusion proteins highly fluorescent. Moreover, since fluorogens can be made membrane impermeant, fluorescence can be limited to only those receptors expressed on the cell surface. Using cells expressing beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) fused at its N-terminus to a FAP, flow cytometry based receptor internalization assays have been developed and characterized. The fluorogen/FAP system is ideally suited to the study of cell surface proteins by fluorescence and avoids drawbacks of using receptor/fluorescent protein fusions, such as internal accumulation. We also briefly comment on extending FAP-based technologies to the study of events occurring inside of the cell as well. PMID:22366230

  1. Characterization of the formyl peptide chemotactic receptor appearing at the phagocytic cell surface after exposure to phorbol myristate acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.P.; Melnick, D.A.; Malech, H.L.

    1986-02-15

    The biochemistry and subcellular source of new formyl peptide chemotactic receptor appearing at the human neutrophil and differentiated HL-60 (d-HL-60) cell surface after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were examined. Formyl peptide receptor was analyzed by affinity labeling with formyl-norleu-leu-phe-norleu- (/sup 125/I)iodotyr-lys and ethylene glycol bis(succinimidyl succinate) followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and densitometric analysis of autoradiographs. PMA, a specific granule secretagogue, increases affinity labeling of formyl peptide receptors on the neutrophil surface by 100%, and on d-HL-60, which lack specific granule markers, by 20%. Papain treatment markedly reduces surface labeling of formyl peptide receptor in both neutrophils and d-HL-60, and results in the appearance of a lower m.w. membrane-bound receptor fragment. PMA stimulation of papain-treated cells increases uncleaved surface receptor on neutrophils by 400%, and on D-HL-60 by only 45%. This newly appearing receptor is the same apparent m.w. (55,000 to 75,000 for neutrophils; 62,000 to 80,000 for d-HL-60) and yields the same papain cleavage product as receptor on the surface of unstimulated cells. These observations suggest that specific granule membranes contain large amounts of formyl peptide receptor, which is biochemically identical to that found on the cell surface and can be mobilized to the cell surface with appropriate stimulation.

  2. Fluorescence biosensing strategy based on energy transfer between fluorescently labeled receptors and a metallic surface.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Luna, Víctor H; Yang, Saipeng; Rabinovich, Emmanuil M; Buranda, Tione; Sklar, Larry A; Hampton, Philip D; López, Gabriel P

    2002-01-01

    A new fluorescence-based biosensor is presented. The biosensing scheme is based on the fact that a fluorophore in close proximity to a metal film (<100 A) experiences strong quenching of fluorescence and a dramatic reduction in the lifetime of the excited state. By immobilizing the analyte of interest (or a structural analog of the analyte) to a metal surface and exposing it to a labeled receptor (e.g. antibody), the fluorescence of the labeled receptor becomes quenched upon binding because of the close proximity to the metal. Upon exposure to free analyte, the labeled receptor dissociates from the surface and diffuses into the bulk of the solution. This increases its separation from the metal and an increase of fluorescence intensity and/or lifetime of the excited state is observed that indicates the presence of the soluble analyte. By enclosing this system within a small volume with a semipermeable membrane, a reversible device is obtained. We demonstrate this scheme using a biotinylated self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold as our surface immobilized analyte analog, fluorescently labeled anti-biotin as a receptor, and a solution of biotin in PBS as a model analyte. This scheme could easily be extended to transduce a wide variety of protein-ligand interactions and other biorecognition phenomena (e.g. DNA hybridization) that result in changes in the architecture of surface immobilized biomolecules such that a change in the separation distance between fluorophores and the metal film is obtained. PMID:11742737

  3. Characterization of aggregates of surface modified fullerenes by asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with multi-angle light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Astefanei, Alina; Kok, Wim Th; Bäuerlein, Patrick; Núñez, Oscar; Galceran, Maria Teresa; de Voogt, Pim; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2015-08-21

    Fullerenes are carbon nanoparticles with widespread biomedical, commercial and industrial applications. Attributes such as their tendency to aggregate and aggregate size and shape impact their ability to be transported into and through the environment and living tissues. Knowledge of these properties is therefore valuable for their human and environmental risk assessment as well as to control their synthesis and manufacture. In this work, asymmetrical flow-field flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to multi-angle light scattering (MALS) was used for the first time to study the size distribution of surface modified fullerenes with both polyhydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups in aqueous solutions having different pH (6.5-11) and ionic strength values (0-200mM) of environmental relevance. Fractionation key parameters such as flow rates, flow programming, and membrane material were optimized for the selected fullerenes. The aggregation of the compounds studied appeared to be indifferent to changes in solution pH, but was affected by changes in the ionic strength. Polyhydroxy-fullerenes were found to be present mostly as 4nm aggregates in water without added salt, but showed more aggregation at high ionic strength, with an up to 10-fold increase in their mean hydrodynamic radii (200mM), due to a decrease in the electrostatic repulsion between the nanoparticles. Carboxy-fullerenes showed a much stronger aggregation degree in water (50-100nm). Their average size and recoveries decreased with the increase in the salt concentration. This behavior can be due to enhanced adsorption of the large particles to the membrane at high ionic strength, because of their higher hydrophobicity and much larger particle sizes compared to polyhydroxy-fullerenes. The method performance was evaluated by calculating the run-to-run precision of the retention time (hydrodynamic radii), and the obtained RSD values were lower than 1%. MALS measurements showed aggregate sizes that were in good

  4. Relating surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals of cells to gold nanoparticle aggregation as determined by LA-ICP-MS micromapping.

    PubMed

    Büchner, Tina; Drescher, Daniela; Traub, Heike; Schrade, Petra; Bachmann, Sebastian; Jakubowski, Norbert; Kneipp, Janina

    2014-11-01

    The cellular response to nanoparticle exposure is essential in various contexts, especially in nanotoxicity and nanomedicine. Here, 14-nm gold nanoparticles in 3T3 fibroblast cells are investigated in a series of pulse-chase experiments with a 30-min incubation pulse and chase times ranging from 15 min to 48 h. The gold nanoparticles and their aggregates are quantified inside the cellular ultrastructure by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry micromapping and evaluated regarding the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. In this way, both information about their localization at the micrometre scale and their molecular nanoenvironment, respectively, is obtained and can be related. Thus, the nanoparticle pathway from endocytotic uptake, intracellular processing, to cell division can be followed. It is shown that the ability of the intracellular nanoparticles and their accumulations and aggregates to support high SERS signals is neither directly related to nanoparticle amount nor to high local nanoparticle densities. The SERS data indicate that aggregate geometry and interparticle distances in the cell must change in the course of endosomal maturation and play a critical role for a specific gold nanoparticle type in order to act as efficient SERS nanoprobe. This finding is supported by TEM images, showing only a minor portion of aggregates that present small interparticle spacing. The SERS spectra obtained after different chase times show a changing composition and/or structure of the biomolecule corona of the gold nanoparticles as a consequence of endosomal processing. PMID:25120183

  5. The role of Rabi splitting tuning in the dynamics of strongly coupled J-aggregates and surface plasmon polaritons in nanohole arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai; Toma, Andrea; Wang, Hai-Yu; Bozzola, Angelo; Miele, Ermanno; Haddadpour, Ali; Veronis, Georgios; De Angelis, Francesco; Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi-Dai; Xu, Huai-Liang; Sun, Hong-Bo; Zaccaria, Remo Proietti

    2016-07-21

    We have investigated the influence of Rabi splitting tuning on the dynamics of strongly coupled J-aggregate/surface plasmon polariton systems. In particular, the Rabi splitting was tuned by modifying the J-aggregate molecule concentration while a polaritonic system was provided by a nanostructure formed by holes array in a golden layer. From the periodic and concentration changes we have identified, through numerical and experimental steady-state analyses, the best geometrical configuration for maximizing Rabi splitting, which was then used for transient absorption measurements. It was found that in transient absorption spectra, under upper band excitation, two bleaching peaks appear when a nanostructured polaritonic pattern is used. Importantly, their reciprocal distance increases upon increase of J-aggregate concentration, a result confirmed by steady-state analysis. In a similar manner it was also found that the lifetime of the upper band is intimately related to the coupling strength. In particular, we argue that with strong coupling strength, i.e. high J-aggregate concentration, a short lifetime of the upper band has to be expected due to the suppression of the bottleneck effect. This result supports the idea that the dynamics of hybrid systems is profoundly dependent on Rabi splitting. PMID:27350590

  6. The role of Rabi splitting tuning in the dynamics of strongly coupled J-aggregates and surface plasmon polaritons in nanohole arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai; Toma, Andrea; Wang, Hai-Yu; Bozzola, Angelo; Miele, Ermanno; Haddadpour, Ali; Veronis, Georgios; de Angelis, Francesco; Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi-Dai; Xu, Huai-Liang; Sun, Hong-Bo; Zaccaria, Remo Proietti

    2016-07-01

    We have investigated the influence of Rabi splitting tuning on the dynamics of strongly coupled J-aggregate/surface plasmon polariton systems. In particular, the Rabi splitting was tuned by modifying the J-aggregate molecule concentration while a polaritonic system was provided by a nanostructure formed by holes array in a golden layer. From the periodic and concentration changes we have identified, through numerical and experimental steady-state analyses, the best geometrical configuration for maximizing Rabi splitting, which was then used for transient absorption measurements. It was found that in transient absorption spectra, under upper band excitation, two bleaching peaks appear when a nanostructured polaritonic pattern is used. Importantly, their reciprocal distance increases upon increase of J-aggregate concentration, a result confirmed by steady-state analysis. In a similar manner it was also found that the lifetime of the upper band is intimately related to the coupling strength. In particular, we argue that with strong coupling strength, i.e. high J-aggregate concentration, a short lifetime of the upper band has to be expected due to the suppression of the bottleneck effect. This result supports the idea that the dynamics of hybrid systems is profoundly dependent on Rabi splitting.

  7. Cell surface nucleolin serves as receptor for DNA nanoparticles composed of pegylated polylysine and DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuguang; Kube, Dianne M; Cooper, Mark J; Davis, Pamela B

    2008-02-01

    Compacted DNA nanoparticles deliver transgenes efficiently to the lung following intrapulmonary dosing. Here we show that nucleolin, a protein known to shuttle between the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell surface, is a receptor for DNA nanoparticles at the cell surface. By using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), we demonstrate that nucleolin binds to DNA nanoparticles directly. The presence of nucleolin on the surface of HeLa and 16HBEo- cells was confirmed by surface biotinylation assay and immunofluorescence. Rhodamine-labeled DNA nanoparticles colocalize with nucleolin on the cell surface, as well as in the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not with transferrin or markers of early endosome or lysosome following cellular uptake. Reducing nucleolin on the cell surface by serum-free medium or siRNA against nucleolin treatment leads to significant reduction in luciferase reporter gene activity, while overexpressing nucleolin has the opposite effect. Competition for binding to DNA nanoparticles with exogenous purified nucleolin decreases the transfection efficiency by 60-90% in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the data strongly suggest that cell surface nucleolin serves as a receptor for DNA nanoparticles, and that nucleolin is essential for internalization and/or transport of the nanoparticles from cell surface to the nucleus. PMID:18059369

  8. Matricryptins Network with Matricellular Receptors at the Surface of Endothelial and Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Vallet, Sylvain D

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a source of bioactive fragments called matricryptins or matrikines resulting from the proteolytic cleavage of extracellular proteins (e.g., collagens, elastin, and laminins) and proteoglycans (e.g., perlecan). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), cathepsins, and bone-morphogenetic protein-1 release fragments, which regulate physiopathological processes including tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis, a pre-requisite for tumor growth. A number of matricryptins, and/or synthetic peptides derived from them, are currently investigated as potential anti-cancer drugs both in vitro and in animal models. Modifications aiming at improving their efficiency and their delivery to their target cells are studied. However, their use as drugs is not straightforward. The biological activities of these fragments are mediated by several receptor families. Several matricryptins may bind to the same matricellular receptor, and a single matricryptin may bind to two different receptors belonging or not to the same family such as integrins and growth factor receptors. Furthermore, some matricryptins interact with each other, integrins and growth factor receptors crosstalk and a signaling pathway may be regulated by several matricryptins. This forms an intricate 3D interaction network at the surface of tumor and endothelial cells, which is tightly associated with other cell-surface associated molecules such as heparan sulfate, caveolin, and nucleolin. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the behavior of this network is required in order to optimize the development of matricryptins as anti-cancer agents. PMID:26869928

  9. Matricryptins Network with Matricellular Receptors at the Surface of Endothelial and Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ricard-Blum, Sylvie; Vallet, Sylvain D.

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a source of bioactive fragments called matricryptins or matrikines resulting from the proteolytic cleavage of extracellular proteins (e.g., collagens, elastin, and laminins) and proteoglycans (e.g., perlecan). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), cathepsins, and bone-morphogenetic protein-1 release fragments, which regulate physiopathological processes including tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis, a pre-requisite for tumor growth. A number of matricryptins, and/or synthetic peptides derived from them, are currently investigated as potential anti-cancer drugs both in vitro and in animal models. Modifications aiming at improving their efficiency and their delivery to their target cells are studied. However, their use as drugs is not straightforward. The biological activities of these fragments are mediated by several receptor families. Several matricryptins may bind to the same matricellular receptor, and a single matricryptin may bind to two different receptors belonging or not to the same family such as integrins and growth factor receptors. Furthermore, some matricryptins interact with each other, integrins and growth factor receptors crosstalk and a signaling pathway may be regulated by several matricryptins. This forms an intricate 3D interaction network at the surface of tumor and endothelial cells, which is tightly associated with other cell-surface associated molecules such as heparan sulfate, caveolin, and nucleolin. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the behavior of this network is required in order to optimize the development of matricryptins as anti-cancer agents. PMID:26869928

  10. New Insights into VacA Intoxication Mediated through Its Cell Surface Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Hirayama, Toshiya; Moss, Joel; Noda, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, produces VacA, a vacuolating cytotoxin associated with gastric inflammation and ulceration. The C-terminal domain of VacA plays a crucial role in receptor recognition on target cells. We have previously identified three proteins (i.e., RPTPα, RPTPβ, and LRP1) that serve as VacA receptors. These receptors contribute to the internalization of VacA into epithelial cells, activate signal transduction pathways, and contribute to cell death and gastric ulceration. In addition, other factors (e.g., CD18, sphingomyelin) have also been identified as cell-surface, VacA-binding proteins. Since we believe that, following interactions with its host cell receptors, VacA participates in events leading to disease, a better understanding of the cellular function of VacA receptors may provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms underlying the pleiotropic actions of VacA and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-mediated disease. In this review, we focus on VacA receptors and their role in events leading to cell damage. PMID:27187473

  11. New Insights into VacA Intoxication Mediated through Its Cell Surface Receptors.

    PubMed

    Yahiro, Kinnosuke; Hirayama, Toshiya; Moss, Joel; Noda, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a major cause of gastroduodenal diseases, produces VacA, a vacuolating cytotoxin associated with gastric inflammation and ulceration. The C-terminal domain of VacA plays a crucial role in receptor recognition on target cells. We have previously identified three proteins (i.e., RPTPα, RPTPβ, and LRP1) that serve as VacA receptors. These receptors contribute to the internalization of VacA into epithelial cells, activate signal transduction pathways, and contribute to cell death and gastric ulceration. In addition, other factors (e.g., CD18, sphingomyelin) have also been identified as cell-surface, VacA-binding proteins. Since we believe that, following interactions with its host cell receptors, VacA participates in events leading to disease, a better understanding of the cellular function of VacA receptors may provide valuable information regarding the mechanisms underlying the pleiotropic actions of VacA and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-mediated disease. In this review, we focus on VacA receptors and their role in events leading to cell damage. PMID:27187473

  12. High Cell Surface Death Receptor Expression Determines Type I Versus Type II Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue Wei; Peterson, Kevin L.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula; Lee, Sun-Hee; Zhang, Jin-San; Koenig, Alexander; Bronk, Steve; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Gores, Gregory J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there are two signaling pathways leading from ligation of the Fas receptor to induction of apoptosis. Type I signaling involves Fas ligand-induced recruitment of large amounts of FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and procaspase 8, leading to direct activation of caspase 3, whereas type II signaling involves Bid-mediated mitochondrial perturbation to amplify a more modest death receptor-initiated signal. The biochemical basis for this dichotomy has previously been unclear. Here we show that type I cells have a longer half-life for Fas message and express higher amounts of cell surface Fas, explaining the increased recruitment of FADD and subsequent signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that cells with type II Fas signaling (Jurkat or HCT-15) can signal through a type I pathway upon forced receptor overexpression and that shRNA-mediated Fas down-regulation converts cells with type I signaling (A498) to type II signaling. Importantly, the same cells can exhibit type I signaling for Fas and type II signaling for TRAIL (TNF-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), indicating that the choice of signaling pathway is related to the specific receptor, not some other cellular feature. Additional experiments revealed that up-regulation of cell surface death receptor 5 levels by treatment with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin converted TRAIL signaling in HCT116 cells from type II to type I. Collectively, these results suggest that the type I/type II dichotomy reflects differences in cell surface death receptor expression. PMID:21865165

  13. Enterovirus 71 Uses Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan as an Attachment Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chee Wah; Poh, Chit Laa; Sam, I-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV-71) infections are usually associated with mild hand, foot, and mouth disease in young children but have been reported to cause severe neurological complications with high mortality rates. To date, four EV-71 receptors have been identified, but inhibition of these receptors by antagonists did not completely abolish EV-71 infection, implying that there is an as yet undiscovered receptor(s). Since EV-71 has a wide range of tissue tropisms, we hypothesize that EV-71 infections may be facilitated by using receptors that are widely expressed in all cell types, such as heparan sulfate. In this study, heparin, polysulfated dextran sulfate, and suramin were found to significantly prevent EV-71 infection. Heparin inhibited infection by all the EV-71 strains tested, including those with a single-passage history. Neutralization of the cell surface anionic charge by polycationic poly-d-lysine and blockage of heparan sulfate by an anti-heparan sulfate peptide also inhibited EV-71 infection. Interference with heparan sulfate biosynthesis either by sodium chlorate treatment or through transient knockdown of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 and exostosin-1 expression reduced EV-71 infection in RD cells. Enzymatic removal of cell surface heparan sulfate by heparinase I/II/III inhibited EV-71 infection. Furthermore, the level of EV-71 attachment to CHO cell lines that are variably deficient in cell surface glycosaminoglycans was significantly lower than that to wild-type CHO cells. Direct binding of EV-71 particles to heparin-Sepharose columns under physiological salt conditions was demonstrated. We conclude that EV-71 infection requires initial binding to heparan sulfate as an attachment receptor. PMID:23097443

  14. An Entirely Cell-based System to Generate Single-Chain Antibodies Against Cell Surface Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lipes, Barbara D.; Chen, Yu-Hsun; Ma, HongZheng; Staats, Herman F.; Kenan, Daniel J.; Gunn, Michael Dee

    2008-01-01

    Summary The generation of recombinant antibodies (Abs) using phage display is a proven method to obtain a large variety of Abs that bind with high affinity to a given antigen (Ag). Traditionally, the generation of single chain Abs depends on the use of recombinant proteins in several stages of the procedure. This can be a problem, especially in the case of cell surface receptors, because Abs generated and selected against recombinant proteins may not bind the same protein expressed on a cell surface in its native form and because the expression of some receptors as recombinant proteins is problematic. To overcome these difficulties, we developed a strategy to generate single chain Abs that does not require the use of recombinant protein at any stage of the procedure. In this strategy, stably transfected cells are used for the immunization of mice, measuring Ab responses to immunization, panning the phage library, high throughput screening of arrayed phage clones, and characterization of recombinant single chain variable regions (scFvs). This strategy was used to generate a panel of single chain Abs specific for the innate immunity receptor Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Once generated, individual scFvs were subcloned into an expression vector allowing the production of recombinant Abs in insect cells, thus avoiding the contamination of recombinant Abs with microbial products. This cell-based system efficiently generates Abs that bind to native molecules on the cell surface, bypasses the requirement of recombinant protein production, and avoids risks of microbial component contamination. PMID:18455737

  15. Detection of CXCR4 receptors on cell surface using a fluorescent metal nanoshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Fu, Yi; Li, Ge; Zhao, Richard Y.; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence cell imaging can be used for disease diagnosis and cellular signal transduction. Using a metal nanoshell as molecular imaging agent, we develop a cellular model system to detect CXCR4 chemokine receptor on T-lymphatic cell surface. These metal nanoshells are observed to express enhanced emission intensity and shortened lifetimes due to the near-field interactions. They are covalently bound with anti-CXCR4 monoclonal antibodies for immunoreactions with the target sites of the CXCR4 receptors on the CEM-SS cells. The fluorescence intensity and lifetime cell images are recorded with a time-resolved confocal microscopy. As expected, the emission signals from the metal nanoshells are clearly isolated from the cellular autofluorescence due to strong intensities and distinctive lifetimes. The number of emission spots on the single cell image is estimated by direct count to the emission signals. Analyzing a pool of cell images, a maximal count number is obtained in a range of 200+/-50. Because there is an average of ~6000 binding sites on the cell surface, we estimate that one emission spot from the metal nanoshell may represent ~30 CXCR5 receptors. In addition, the CXCR4 receptors are estimated to distribute on ~70% area of the cell surface.

  16. Cell surface expression of LDL receptor in chronic hepatitis C: correlation with viral load.

    PubMed

    Petit, Jean-Michel; Minello, Anne; Duvillard, Laurence; Jooste, Valérie; Monier, Serge; Texier, Véronique; Bour, Jean-Baptiste; Poussier, Alix; Gambert, Philippe; Verges, Bruno; Hillon, Patrick

    2007-07-01

    The LDL receptor (LDL-R) has been proposed as the viral receptor for Hepatitis C virus (HCV). This hypothesis has been based exclusively on in vitro studies. In human mononuclear cells, LDL-R gene expression has been demonstrated to be parallel and be coordinately regulated to gene expression in the human liver. The purpose of the current study was to determine the mononuclear cell surface expression of the LDL receptor in patients with HCV chronic infection according to viral load. Sixty-eight consecutive untreated chronic hepatitis C patients were studied to determine the mononuclear cell surface expression of the LDL-R. LDL-Rs were quantified at the surface of mononuclear cells in fresh blood samples taken after fasting using flow cytometry. LDL-R expression was significantly associated with LDL-cholesterol (r = -0.25; P = 0.03) and HCV-viral load (r = 0.37, P = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, the LDL-R expression was significantly associated with HCV viral load, whereas genotype, age, body mass index, and fibrosis were not. In conclusion, our data provided by a human study, suggest that the LDL-R may be one of the receptors implicated in HCV replication. PMID:17473053

  17. Inhibition of experimental ascending urinary tract infection by an epithelial cell-surface receptor analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edén, C. Svanborg; Freter, R.; Hagberg, L.; Hull, R.; Hull, S.; Leffler, H.; Schoolnik, G.

    1982-08-01

    It has been shown that the establishment of urinary tract infection by Escherichia coli is dependent on attachment of the bacteria to epithelial cells1-4. The attachment involves specific epithelial cell receptors, which have been characterized as glycolipids5-10. Reversible binding to cell-surface mannosides may also be important4,11-13. This suggests an approach to the treatment of infections-that of blocking bacterial attachment with cell membrane receptor analogues. Using E. coli mutants lacking one or other of the two binding specificities (glycolipid and mannose), we show here that glycolipid analogues can block in vitro adhesion and in vivo urinary tract infection.

  18. A Dual Receptor and Reporter for Multi-Modal Cell Surface Engineering.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Westcott, Nathan; Dutta, Debjit; Pulsipher, Abigail; Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; Chen, Jean; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2015-10-16

    The rapid development of new small molecule drugs, nanomaterials, and genetic tools to modulate cellular function through cell surface manipulation has revolutionized the diagnosis, study, and treatment of disorders in human health. Since the cell membrane is a selective gateway barrier that serves as the first line of defense/offense and communication to its environment, new approaches that molecularly engineer or tailor cell membrane surfaces would allow for a new era in therapeutic design, therapeutic delivery, complex coculture tissue construction, and in situ imaging probe tracking technologies. In order to develop the next generation of multimodal therapies, cell behavior studies, and biotechnologies that focus on cell membrane biology, new tools that intersect the fields of chemistry, biology, and engineering are required. Herein, we develop a liposome fusion and delivery strategy to present a novel dual receptor and reporter system at cell surfaces without the use of molecular biology or metabolic biosynthesis. The cell surface receptor is based on bio-orthogonal functional groups that can conjugate a range of ligands while simultaneously reporting the conjugation through the emission of fluorescence. We demonstrate this dual receptor and reporter system by conjugating and tracking various cell surface ligands for temporal control of cell fluorescent signaling, cell-cell interaction, and tissue assembly construction. PMID:26204094

  19. Bond formation of surface-tethered receptor-ligand pairs in relative separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jin; Lin, Yuan; Jiang, Hongyuan; Yao, Haimin

    2013-11-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the interplay between diffusion of a surface-bound receptor and its reaction with an opposing ligand. Special attention has been paid to the mechanical regulation of bond association by varying the initial gap distance and relative separation speed between the protein-bearing surfaces. Such diffusion-reaction coupling effects can cause the apparent on-rate or reciprocal of the average waiting time for bond formation, to be not constant, but instead a function sensitive to the system parameters that affect the transport of proteins. The results provide a quantitative understanding of how significantly the transport mechanism can affect overall binding behavior of molecular interactions and call for a paradigm shift in modeling receptor-ligand bond association when the protein-bearing surfaces are in relative separation.

  20. Competition between solution and cell surface receptors for ligand. Dissociation of hapten bound to surface antibody in the presence of solution antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, B; Posner, R G; Torney, D C; Erickson, J; Holowka, D; Baird, B

    1989-01-01

    We present a joint theoretical and experimental study on the effects of competition for ligand between receptors in solution and receptors on cell surfaces. We focus on the following experiment. After ligand and cell surface receptors equilibrate, solution receptors are introduced, and the dissociation of surface bound ligand is monitored. We derive theoretical expressions for the dissociation rate and compare with experiment. In a standard dissociation experiment (no solution receptors present) dissociation may be slowed by rebinding, i.e., at high receptor densities a ligand that dissociates from one receptor may rebind to other receptors before separating from the cell. Our theory predicts that rebinding will be prevented when S much greater than N2Kon/(16 pi 2D a4), where S is the free receptor site concentration in solution, N the number of free surface receptor sites per cell, Kon the forward rate constant for ligand-receptor binding in solution, D the diffusion coefficient of the ligand, and a the cell radius. The predicted concentration of solution receptors needed to prevent rebinding is proportional to the square of the cell surface receptor density. The experimental system used in these studies consists of a monovalent ligand, 2,4-dinitrophenyl (DNP)-aminocaproyl-L-tyrosine (DCT), that reversibly binds to a monoclonal anti-DNP immunoglobulin E (IgE). This IgE is both a solution receptor and, when anchored to its high affinity Fc epsilon receptor on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cells, a surface receptor. For RBL cells with 6 x 10(5) binding sites per cell, our theory predicts that to prevent DCT rebinding to cell surface IgE during dissociation requires S much greater than 2,400 nM. We show that for S = 200-1,700 nM, the dissociation rate of DCT from surface IgE is substantially slower than from solution IgE where no rebinding occurs. Other predictions are also tested and shown to be consistent with experiment. PMID:2532552

  1. Manipulating the Lateral Diffusion of Surface-Anchored EGF Demonstrates that Receptor Clustering Modulates its Phosphorylation Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Stabley, Daniel; Retterer, Scott T; Marshal, Stephen; Salaita, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Upon activation, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor becomes phosphorylated and triggers a vast signaling network that has profound effects on cell growth. The EGF receptor is observed to assemble into clusters after ligand binding and tyrosine kinase autophosphorylation, but the role of these assemblies in the receptor signaling pathway remains unclear. To address this question, we measured the phosphorylation of EGFR when the EGF ligand was anchored onto laterally mobile and immobile surfaces. We found that cells generated clusters of ligand-receptor complex on mobile EGF surfaces, and generated a lower ratio of phosphorylated EGFR to EGF than when compared to immobilized EGF that is unable to cluster. This result was verified by tuning the lateral assembly of ligand-receptor complexes on the surface of living cells using patterned supported lipid bilayers. Nanoscale metal lines fabricated into the supported membrane constrained lipid diffusion and EGF receptor assembly into micron and sub-micron scale corrals. Single cell analysis indicated that clustering impacts EGF receptor activation, and larger clusters (> 1 m2) of ligand-receptor complex generated lower EGF receptor phosphorylation per ligand than smaller assemblies (< 1 m2) in HCC1143 cells that were engaged to ligand-functionalized surfaces. We investigated EGFR clustering by treating cells with compounds that disrupt the cytoskeleton (Latrunculin-B), clathrin-mediated endocytosis (Pitstop2), and inhibit EGFR activation (Gefitinib). These results help elucidate the nature of large-scale EGFR clustering, thus underscoring the general significance of receptor spatial organization in tuning function.

  2. Aggregate stability, surface-water runoff, and soil loss in wheat-sunflower and corn-soybean rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing improved management options that limit soil erosion requires a greater understanding of the interactions between crop rotation, residue management, and precipitation patterns. We conducted a six-year study to evaluate how seasonal variation in aggregate stability, ground cover, soil moist...

  3. Regulation of cell surface transferrin receptor-2 by iron-dependent cleavage and release of a soluble form

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Alessia; Vieillevoye, Maud; Nai, Antonella; Rausa, Marco; Ladli, Meriem; Lacombe, Catherine; Mayeux, Patrick; Verdier, Frédérique; Camaschella, Clara; Silvestri, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Transferrin receptor-2 is a transmembrane protein whose expression is restricted to hepatocytes and erythroid cells. Transferrin receptor-2 has a regulatory function in iron homeostasis, since its inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Hepatic transferrin receptor-2 participates in iron sensing and is involved in hepcidin activation, although the mechanism remains unclear. Erythroid transferrin receptor-2 associates with and stabilizes erythropoietin receptors on the erythroblast surface and is essential to control erythrocyte production in iron deficiency. We identified a soluble form of transferrin receptor-2 in the media of transfected cells and showed that cultured human erythroid cells release an endogenous soluble form. Soluble transferrin receptor-2 originates from a cleavage of the cell surface protein, which is inhibited by diferric transferrin in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, the shedding of the transferrin receptor-2 variant G679A, mutated in the Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid motif and unable to bind diferric transferrin, is not modulated by the ligand. This observation links the process of transferrin receptor-2 removal from the plasma membrane to iron homeostasis. Soluble transferrin receptor-2 does not affect the binding of erythropoietin to erythropoietin receptor or the consequent signaling and partially inhibits hepcidin promoter activation only in vitro. Whether it is a component of the signals released by erythropoiesis in iron deficiency remains to be investigated. Our results indicate that membrane transferrin receptor-2, a sensor of circulating iron, is released from the cell membrane in iron deficiency. PMID:25637053

  4. Regulation of cell surface transferrin receptor-2 by iron-dependent cleavage and release of a soluble form.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Alessia; Vieillevoye, Maud; Nai, Antonella; Rausa, Marco; Ladli, Meriem; Lacombe, Catherine; Mayeux, Patrick; Verdier, Frédérique; Camaschella, Clara; Silvestri, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Transferrin receptor-2 is a transmembrane protein whose expression is restricted to hepatocytes and erythroid cells. Transferrin receptor-2 has a regulatory function in iron homeostasis, since its inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Hepatic transferrin receptor-2 participates in iron sensing and is involved in hepcidin activation, although the mechanism remains unclear. Erythroid transferrin receptor-2 associates with and stabilizes erythropoietin receptors on the erythroblast surface and is essential to control erythrocyte production in iron deficiency. We identified a soluble form of transferrin receptor-2 in the media of transfected cells and showed that cultured human erythroid cells release an endogenous soluble form. Soluble transferrin receptor-2 originates from a cleavage of the cell surface protein, which is inhibited by diferric transferrin in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, the shedding of the transferrin receptor-2 variant G679A, mutated in the Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid motif and unable to bind diferric transferrin, is not modulated by the ligand. This observation links the process of transferrin receptor-2 removal from the plasma membrane to iron homeostasis. Soluble transferrin receptor-2 does not affect the binding of erythropoietin to erythropoietin receptor or the consequent signaling and partially inhibits hepcidin promoter activation only in vitro. Whether it is a component of the signals released by erythropoiesis in iron deficiency remains to be investigated. Our results indicate that membrane transferrin receptor-2, a sensor of circulating iron, is released from the cell membrane in iron deficiency. PMID:25637053

  5. High-speed centrifugation induces aggregation of extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Linares, Romain; Tan, Sisareuth; Gounou, Céline; Arraud, Nicolas; Brisson, Alain R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma and other body fluids contain cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs), which participate in physiopathological processes and have potential biomedical applications. In order to isolate, concentrate and purify EVs, high-speed centrifugation is often used. We show here, using electron microscopy, receptor-specific gold labelling and flow cytometry, that high-speed centrifugation induces the formation of EV aggregates composed of a mixture of EVs of various phenotypes and morphologies. The presence of aggregates made of EVs of different phenotypes may lead to erroneous interpretation concerning the existence of EVs harbouring surface antigens from different cell origins. PMID:26700615

  6. Weighted aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The use of a weighted aggregation technique to improve the precision of the overall LACIE estimate is considered. The manner in which a weighted aggregation technique is implemented given a set of weights is described. The problem of variance estimation is discussed and the question of how to obtain the weights in an operational environment is addressed.

  7. Structure-activity relationships of seco-prezizaane and picrotoxane/picrodendrane terpenoids by Quasar receptor-surface modeling.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas J; Gurrath, Marion; Ozoe, Yoshihisa

    2004-08-01

    The seco-prezizaane-type sesquiterpenes pseudoanisatin and parviflorolide from Illicium are noncompetitive antagonists at housefly (Musca domestica) gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. They show selectivity toward the insect receptor and thus represent new leads toward selective insecticides. Based on the binding data for 13 seco-prezizaane terpenoids and 17 picrotoxane and picrodendrane-type terpenoids to housefly and rat GABA receptors, a QSAR study was conducted by quasi-atomistic receptor-surface modeling (Quasar). The resulting models provide insight into the structural basis of selectivity and properties of the binding sites at GABA receptor-coupled chloride channels of insects and mammals. PMID:15246092

  8. Ex-vivo tissue classification of cell surface receptor concentrations using kinetic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Lagnojita; Wang, Yu; Yang, Cynthia; Khan, Altaz; Liu, Jonathan T.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the major challenges in the complete resection of cancer is the difficulty of distinctly classifying tumor and healthy tissue. This paper investigates the capability of competing kinetic modeling approaches for identifying different tissue types based on differential cell-surface receptor expressions. These approaches require fresh resected tissues to be stained with a mixture of two probes: one targeted to a cancer specific cell-surface receptor, and another left "untargeted" to account for nonspecific retention of the targeted agent, with subsequent repeated rinsing and imaging of the probe concentrations. Analysis of the results were carried out in simulations and in animal experiments for the cancer target, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a cell surface receptor overexpressed by many cancers. In the animal experiments, subcutaneous xenografts of human glioma (U251; moderate EGFR) and human epidermoid (A431; high EGFR) tumors, grown in six athymic mice, were excised and stained with an EGFR targeted surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoparticle (SERS NP) and untargeted SERS NP pair. The salient finding in this study was that significant non-specific retention was observed for the EGFR targeted probe [anti-EGFR antibody labeled with a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticle], but could be corrected for by the equivalent non-specific retention of the untargeted probe (isotype control antibody labeled with a different SERS nanoparticle). Once this non-specific binding was accounted for, the kinetic model was able to predict the expected differences in EGFR concentration among different tissue types: healthy, U251, and A431 in accordance with an ex vivo flow cytometry analysis, successfully classifying different tissue types.

  9. Direct method for detection and characterization of cell surface receptors for insulin by means of 125I-labeled autoantibodies against the insulin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, D B; Roth, J; Kahn, C R; Flier, J S

    1976-01-01

    Autoantibodies directed against the cell surface receptors for insulin are found in some patients with extreme insulin resistance. These antibodies specifically inhibit the binding of insulin to its receptor. A purified IgG fraction from one patient's plasma was labeled with 125I. The 125I-labeled antireceptor antibody, which initially represented about 0.3% of the total 125I-IgG, was enriched by selective adsorption and subsequent elution from cells rich in insulin receptors. The 125I-antireceptor antibody bound to cells and the binding was inhibited by whole plasma and purified IgG from this patient, as well as whole plasma from another patient with autoantibodies to the insulin receptor. Insulins that differed 300-fold in biological potency and affinity inhibited binding of 125I-antireceptor antibody in direct proportion to their ability to bind to the insulin receptor. The binding of 125I-antireceptor antibody was closely correlated with the binding of 125I-insulin over a wide range of receptor concentrations on different cell types. Experimentally induced reduction of the insulin receptor concentration was associated with parallel decreases in the binding of 125I-antireceptor antibody and 125I-insulin. The preparation of 125I-antireceptor antibody with a high specific activity by cytoadsorption and elution has provided a sensitive method for the detection of receptors and autoantibodies to cell surface components. PMID:1069300

  10. Vitamin A Transport Mechanism of the Multitransmembrane Cell-Surface Receptor STRA6

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Riki; Zhong, Ming; Kassai, Miki; Ter-Stepanian, Mariam; Sun, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A has biological functions as diverse as sensing light for vision, regulating stem cell differentiation, maintaining epithelial integrity, promoting immune competency, regulating learning and memory, and acting as a key developmental morphogen. Vitamin A derivatives have also been used in treating human diseases. If vitamin A is considered a drug that everyone needs to take to survive, evolution has come up with a natural drug delivery system that combines sustained release with precise and controlled delivery to the cells or tissues that depend on it. This “drug delivery system” is mediated by plasma retinol binding protein (RBP), the principle and specific vitamin A carrier protein in the blood, and STRA6, the cell-surface receptor for RBP that mediates cellular vitamin A uptake. The mechanism by which the RBP receptor absorbs vitamin A from the blood is distinct from other known cellular uptake mechanisms. This review summarizes recent progress in elucidating the fundamental molecular mechanism mediated by the RBP receptor and multiple newly discovered catalytic activities of this receptor, and compares this transport system with retinoid transport independent of RBP/STRA6. How to target this new type of transmembrane receptor using small molecules in treating diseases is also discussed. PMID:26343735