Sample records for surface treated montmorillonite

  1. Interactions of aminomethylphosphonic acid and sarcosine with montmorillonite interlayer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennig, Amanda; Slutter, Annette; Tribe, Lorena

    The smectite clay, montmorillonite, can be found in many soils throughout the world. In addition to its importance in agriculture and soil remediation, montmorillonite has extensive applications in industry both in its natural form and as a component of composite materials. The adsorptive properties of montmorillonite have been explored in relation to its interactions with the common herbicide glyphosate. This herbicide, when exposed to microorganisms in the soil is degraded, forming two products: aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and sarcosine. The atomic-level interactions of these compounds with the montmorillonite interlayer surfaces are studied here using molecular mechanics. The final outcomes of these calculations are analyzed in terms of the proximity of the montmorillonite surface to the moieties of the degradation products. The phosphonate moiety was found to be the most important source of interactions for AMPA, while for sarcosine there was an even distribution between the amino and carboxylic moieties, and Na+ ion mediated surface complexes.0

  2. Monomers of cutin biopolymer: sorption and esterification on montmorillonite surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshansky, Yaniv; Polubesova, Tamara; Chefetz, Benny

    2013-04-01

    One of the important precursors for soil organic matter is plant cuticle, a thin layer of predominantly lipids that cover all primary aerial surfaces of vascular plants. In most plant species cutin biopolymer is the major component of the cuticle (30-85% weight). Therefore cutin is the third most abundant plant biopolymer (after lignin and cellulose). Cutin is an insoluble, high molecular weight bio-polyester, which is constructed of inter-esterified cross linked hydroxy-fatty acids and hydroxyepoxy-fatty acids. The most common building blocks of the cutin are derivatives of palmitic acid, among them 9(10),16 dihydroxy palmitic acid (diHPA) is the main component. These fatty acids and their esters are commonly found in major organo-mineral soil fraction-humin. Hence, the complexes of cutin monomers with minerals may serve as model of humin. Both cutin and humin act as adsorption efficient domains for organic contaminants. However, only scarce information is available about the interactions of cutin with soil mineral surfaces, in particular with common soil mineral montmorillonite. The main hypothesize of the study is that adsorbed cutin monomers will be reconstituted on montmorillonite surface due to esterification and oligomerization, and that interactions of cutin monomers with montmorillonite will be affected by the type of exchangeable cation. Cutin monomers were obtained from the fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Adsorption of monomers was measured for crude Wyoming montmorillonites and montmorillonites saturated with Fe3+ and Ca2+. To understand the mechanism of monomer-clay interactions and to evaluate esterification on the clay surface, XRD and FTIR analyses of the montmorillonite-monomers complexes were performed. Our results demonstrated that the interactions of cutin monomers with montmorillonite are affected by the type of exchangeable cation. Isotherms of adsorption of cutin monomers on montmorillonites were fitted by a dual mode model of sorption, which combines site specific adsorption mechanism (Langmuir) and partitioning mechanism. Adsorption of monomers by Fe3+-montmorillonite was higher than for Ca2+ and crude -montmorillonites. XRD measurements showed expansion of d-spacing of montmorillonite samples with the increase in diHPA loading from 12.32, 12.66 and 12.17 Å for Fe3+- Ca2+- and crude-montmorillonite up to 16.84, 16.62 and 16.79 Å for organo-clay complexes of Fe3+-, Ca2+- and crude-montmorillonites respectively. This significant expansion of d-spacing suggests interlayer, and probably, multilayer diHPA adsorption by montmorillonite. Based on FTIR data we suggest that diHPA forms inner-sphere complexes with Fe3+-montmorillonite surface but not with Ca2+ and crude-montmorillonites. However all montmorillonite samples induce esterification and oligomerization of the monomers, which was demonstrated by FTIR spectra of the organo-montmorillonite complexes and by LC-MS analysis of the organic material extracted from organo-clay complexes. These results confirmed our hypothesis about oligomerization of cuticular monomers on mineral surfaces. We assume that esterification and oligomerization of monomers on montmorillonite surfaces simulate similar soil processes, which result in the formation of soil organo-mineral complexes and humin.

  3. The molecular basis of the adsorption of bacterial exopolysaccharides on montmorillonite mineral surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina Henao; Karim Mazeau

    2008-01-01

    Rhizospheric exopolysaccharides (EPS) spontaneously aggregate mineral particles. Molecular dynamics simulations with Cerius and Materials Studio programs have been performed to study the adsorption of chemical groups, monosaccharides and oligosaccharides, onto the basal surface of Na-montmorillonite. The estimated enthalpies of adsorption of chemical groups nicely reproduced the expected values. Mono- and oligosaccharides have a preferred geometry of adsorption. Monosaccharides maintained their

  4. Size effects of exchange cation on the pore structure and surface fractality of montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.F.; Lee, C.K.; Juang, L.C.

    1999-09-01

    Ca-montmorillonites were exchanged with both metal cations (manganese and copper) and organic cations (tetramethylammonium (TMA) and hexadecyltrimmethylammonium (HDTMA)) to study the cation size effects on the pore structure and surface roughness of montmorillonite based on the classical and fractal analysis of their nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The surface fractal dimension D was calculated from their nitrogen isotherms with the aid of the recently proposed Neimark equation. The decrease of BET surface area of montmorillonite induced by the larger size of exchange cation was interpreted with both the coverture of some surface roughness (surface screening effect) and the inhibition of nitrogen molecule into some pores (pore blocking effect). The pore blocking effect was examined with the changes of mean pore size. Meanwhile, the D value was used to examine whether or not the surface screening effect existed. It was concluded that the combination of classical and fractal analyses of nitrogen isotherms may facilitate understanding of the evolution of pore and surface structures of clay exchanged with different cations.

  5. Reflectance spectroscopy of palagonite and iron-rich montmorillonite clay mixtures - Implications for the surface composition of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, James; Handy, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    The diffuse reflectance spectra of Hawaiian palagonite mixtures with an Fe-rich montmorillonite have prompted their present use as spectral analogs of the Martian surface. Like the Mars spectrum and unlike clays, the 2.2-micron reflectance spectrum absorption band is not present in the palagonite sample; neither is the 2.2-micron Al-OH clay lattice band seen in palagonite-montmorillonite mixtures, where the latter component remains below 15 wt pct. Fe-rich montmorillonite clay may therefore be present in Mars, in combination with palagonite, while remaining undetected in remotely sensed spectra.

  6. Reflectance Spectroscopy of Palagonite and Iron-Rich Montmorillonite Clay Mixtures: Implications for the Surface Composition of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, James; Handy, Jonathan

    1992-01-01

    Mixtures of a Hawaiian palagonite and an iron-rich, montmorillonite clay (15.8 +/- 0.4 wt% Fe as Fe2O3) were evaluated as Mars surface spectral analogs from their diffuse reflectance spectra. The presence of the 2.2 microns absorption band in the reflectance spectrum of clays and its absence in the Mars spectrum have been interpreted as indicating that highly crystalline aluminous hydroxylated clays cannot be a major mineral component of the soil on Mars. The palagonite sample used in this study does not show this absorption feature in its spectrum. In mixtures of palagonite and iron-rich montmorillonite, the 2.2 microns Al-OH clay lattice band is not seen below 15 wt% montmorillonite. This suggests the possibility that iron-rich montmorillonite clay may be present in the soil of Mars at up to 15 wt% in combination with palagonite, and remain undetected in remotely sensed spectra of Mars.

  7. The electrophoretic mobility of montmorillonite. Zeta potential and surface conductivity effects.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Philippe; Tournassat, Christophe; Bernard, Olivier; Devau, Nicolas; Azaroual, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Clay minerals have remarkable adsorption properties because of their high specific surface area and surface charge density, which give rise to high electrochemical properties. These electrochemical properties cannot be directly measured, and models must be developed to estimate the electrostatic potential at the vicinity of clay mineral surfaces. In this context, an important model prediction is the zeta potential, which is thought to be representative of the electrostatic potential at the plane of shear. The zeta potential is usually deduced from electrophoretic measurements but for clay minerals, high surface conductivity decreases their mobility, thereby impeding straightforward interpretation of these measurements. By combining a surface complexation, conductivity and electrophoretic mobility model, we were able to reconcile zeta potential predictions with electrophoretic measurements on montmorillonite immersed in NaCl aqueous solutions. The electrochemical properties of the Stern and diffuse layers of the basal surfaces were computed by a triple-layer model. Computed zeta potentials have considerably higher amplitudes than measured zeta potentials calculated with the Smoluchowski equation. Our model successfully reproduced measured electrophoretic mobilities. This confirmed our assumptions that surface conductivity may be responsible for montmorillonite's low electrophoretic mobility and that the zeta potential may be located at the beginning of the diffuse layer. PMID:25875489

  8. Modification of montmorillonite surfaces using a novel class of cationic gemini surfactants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Limei Zhou; Hua Chen; Xiaohui Jiang; Fang Lu; Yafen Zhou; Wenmin Yin; Xiaoyang Ji

    2009-01-01

    A novel class of cationic gemini surfactants were prepared and used as modifiers for sodium montmorillonite (MMT-Na). The modified montmorillonites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dispersibility measurement, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the surfactants have been intercalated into the montmorillonite layers successfully. XRD measurements indicate that the

  9. Reflectance spectroscopy of palagonite and iron-rich montmorillonite clay mixtures: Implications for the surface composition of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, J. B.; Handy, J.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the power of remote sensing reflectance spectroscopy in determining mineralogy, it was used as the major method of identifying possible mineral analogs of the Martian surface. A summary of proposed Martian surface compositions from reflectance spectroscopy before 1979 was presented. Since that time, iron-rich montmorillonite clay, nanocrystalline or nanophase hematite, and palagonite were suggested as Mars soil analog materials.

  10. Sol–gel network silica\\/modified montmorillonite clay hybrid nanocomposites for hydrophobic surface coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamal Mohamed Seeni Meera; Rajavelu Murali Sankar; Adhigan Murali; Sellamuthu N. Jaisankar; Asit Baran Mandal

    Sol–gel silica\\/nanoclay composites were prepared through sol–gel polymerization technique using tetraethylorthosilicate precursor and montmorillonite (MMT) clay in aqueous media. In this study, both montmorillonite-K+ and organically modified MMT (OMMT) clays were used. The prepared composites were coated on glass substrate by making 1wt% solution in ethyltrichlorosilane. The incorporation of nanoclay does not alter the intensity of characteristic Si–O–Si peak of

  11. Surface charge heterogeneity of kaolinite in aqueous suspension in comparison with montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etelka Tombácz; Márta Szekeres

    2006-01-01

    An analogous study to 2:1 type montmorillonite [Tombácz, E., Szekeres, M., 2004. Colloidal behavior of aqueous montmorillonite suspensions: the specific role of pH in the presence of indifferent electrolytes. Appl. Clay Sci. 27, 75–94.] was performed on 1:1 type kaolinite obtained from Zettlitz kaolin. Clay minerals are built up from silica tetrahedral (T) and alumina octahedral (O) layers. These lamellar

  12. Uranium(6+) sorption on montmorillonite: Experimental and surface complexation modeling study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto T. Pabalan; David R. Turner

    1996-01-01

    Sorption interactions with montmorillonite and other clay minerals in soils, sediments, and rocks are potentially important mechanisms for attenuating the mobility of U(6+) and other radionuclides through the subsurface environment. Batch experiments were conducted (in equilibrium with atmospheric\\u000a

  13. Reflectance spectroscopy and GEX simulation of palagonite and iron-rich montmorillonite clay mixtures: Implications for the surface composition of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orenberg, J. B.; Handy, J.; Quinn, R.

    1992-01-01

    Because of the power of remote sensing reflectance spectroscopy in determining mineralogy, it has been used as the major method of identifying a possible mineral analogue of the martian surface. A summary of proposed martian surface compositions from reflectance spectroscopy before 1979 was presented by Singer et al. Since that time, iron-rich montmorillonite clay, nanocrystalline or nanophase hematite, and palagonite have been suggested as Mars soil analogue materials. Palagonite in petrological terms is best described as an amorphous, hydrated, ferric iron, silica gel. Montmorillonite is a member of the smectite clay group, and its structure is characterized by an octahedral sheet in coordination with two tetrahedral sheets in which oxygen atoms are shared. The crystal unity of montmorillonite is well defined in contrast to palagonite where it is considered amorphous or poorly crystalline at best. Because of the absence of the diagnostic strong 2.2-micron reflectance band characteristic of clays in the near-infrared (NIR) spectrum of Mars and palagonite and based upon a consideration of wide wavelength coverage (0.3-50 microns), Roush et al. concluded that palagonite is a more likely Mars surface analogue. In spite of the spectral agreement of palagonite and the Mars reflectance spectrum in the 2.2-micron region, palagonite shows poor correspondence with the results of the Viking LR experiment. In contrast, iron-rich montmorillonite clays show relatively good agreement with the results of the Viking LR experiment. This spectral study was undertaken to evaluate the spectral properties of mixtures of palagonite and Mars analogue iron-rich montmorillonite clay (16-18 wt. percent Fe as Fe2O3) as a Mars surface mineralogical model. Mixtures of minerals as Mars surface analogue materials have been studied before, but the mixtures were restricted to crystalline clays and iron oxides.

  14. A Comparison Study on Conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanocomposites Synthesized with Clay Type Montmorillonite and Organophilic Montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?erife Sario?lan

    2012-01-01

    A series of electrically conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)\\/clay nanocomposites were synthesized by using oxidative polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in the presence of unmodified and modified montmorillonite. Modified montmorillonite was treated by Dimethyl benzyl octadecyl ammonium chloride. Sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (DBSNa) was used as a surfactant in the polymerization of EDOT. PEDOT\\/ Montmorillonite (MMT) and PEDOT\\/ Organophilic Montmorillonite (OMMT) nanocomposites were characterized

  15. Controlling clusters of colloidal platelets: effects of edge and face surface chemistries on the behavior of montmorillonite suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ganley, William J; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen S

    2015-04-21

    The structural and rheological consequences of adsorbing pyrophosphate anions to the edges and polyetheramines to the faces of montmorillonite platelets in aqueous suspension were investigated. Oscillatory rheology and scattering experiments showed that the two surface treatments act in different regions of the phase diagram and that this can be attributed to modifications of local particle interactions resulting in changes to the behavior and morphology of platelet clusters. The polyetheramine was found to neutralize surface charge, reducing electrostatic repulsion between platelets and therefore allowing them to come into closer proximity. This reduces the effective volume fraction of the clusters and reverses jamming in low ionic strength arrested phases. Conversely, the adsorption of pyrophosphate was found to introduce a high concentration of negative charge to the particle edge, resisting the formation of bonded percolating gels at high ionic strength. The two separate surface chemistries can be applied in parallel with no adverse effects and thus have the potential to be applied to dual functionalization of two-dimensional colloids such as platelets. This has implications for finer formulation design where targeted rheology modification could be achieved by careful selection of chemistry at one surface accompanied by an additional function at the other. PMID:25815435

  16. Uranium(6+) sorption on montmorillonite: Experimental and surface complexation modeling study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto T. Pabalan; David R. Turner

    1996-01-01

    Sorption interactions with montmorillonite and other clay minerals in soils, sediments, and rocks are potentially important mechanisms for attenuating the mobility of U(6+) and other radionuclides through the subsurface environment. Batch experiments were conducted (in equilibrium with atmospheric % MathType!MTEF!2!1!+-% feaafeart1ev1aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn% hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXafv3ySLgzGmvETj2BSbqefm0B1jxALjhiov2D% aebbfv3ySLgzGueE0jxyaibaiiYdd9qrFfea0dXdf9vqai-hEir8Ve% ea0de9qq-hbrpepeea0db9q8as0-LqLs-Jirpepeea0-as0Fb9pgea% 0lrP0xe9Fve9Fve9qapdbaqaaeGacaGaaiaabeqaamaabaabcaGcba% acbiGaiWiG-bfadaWgaaWcbaacbaGaa43qaiaa+9eadaWgaaqaaiaa% +jdaaWqabaaaleqaaaaa!400D!\\\\[P_{CO_2 } \\\\])to determine the effects of varying pH (2 to 9), solid-mass to

  17. Treating root-surface caries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John O. Burgess; John R. Gallo

    2002-01-01

    Gingival recession associated with aging and periodontal therapy exposes root surfaces, which are then susceptible to root caries. Resin-modified glass ionomer, glass ionomer, compomer, composite resin, and amalgam restora- tive materials are frequently used to restore carious root lesions. Amalgam continues to be used successfully to restore root caries. Resin composites, compomers, glass ionomers, and resin-modified glass ionomers are increas-

  18. Elaboration et caracterisation de nanocomposites polyethylene/montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeffler, Karen

    This research project consists in preparing polyethylene/montmorillonite nanocomposites for film packaging applications. Montmorillonite is a natural clay with an exceptional aspect ratio. In recent years, its incorporation in polymer matrices has attracted great interest. The pioneer work from Toyota on polyamide-6/montmorillonite composites has shown that it was possible to disperse the clay at a nanometric scale. Such a structure, so-called exfoliated, leads to a significant increase in mechanical, barrier and fire retardant properties, even at low volumetric fractions of clay. This allows a valorization of the polymeric material at moderate cost. Due to its high polarity, montmorilloite exfoliation in polymeric matrices is problematic. In the particular case of polyolefin matrices, the platelets dispersion remains limited: most frequently, the composites obtained exhibit conventional structures (microcomposites) or intercalated structures. To solve this problem, two techniques are commonly employed: the surface treatment of the clay, which allows the expansion of the interfoliar gallery while increasing the affinity between the clay and the polymer, and the use of a polar compatibilizing agent (grafted polyolefin). The first part of this thesis deals with the preparation and the characterization of highly thermally stable organophilic montmorillonites. Commercial organophilic montmorillonites are treated with quaternary ammonium intercalating agents. However, those intercalating agents present a poor thermal stability and are susceptible to decompose upon processing, thus affecting the clay dispersion and the final properties of the nanocomposites. In this work, it was proposed to modify the clay with alkyl pyridinium, alkyl imidazolium and alkyl phosphonium intercalating agents, which are more stable than ammonium based cations. Organophilic montmorillonites with enhanced thermal stabilites compared to commercial organoclays (+20°C to +70°C) were prepared. The effect of the chemical structure of the intercalating agent on the capacity of the organoclay to be dispersed in polyethylene matrices was analyzed. In addition, the influence of the dispersion on the thermal stability of the nanocomposites prepared is discussed. In a second part, the effect of the compatibilizing agent characteristics on the quality of the clay dispersion in polyethylene/montmorillonite nanocomposites was analyzed. The mechanical properties and the oxygen permeability of the nanocomposites were evaluated and related to the level of clay delamination and to the strength of the polymer/clay interface, which was evaluated through surface tension measurements.

  19. Molecular dynamics simulation of uranyl(VI) sorption equilibria onto an external montmorillonite surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall Timothy Cygan; Jeffery A. Greathouse

    2005-01-01

    We used molecular dynamics simulations to study the adsorption of aqueous uranyl species (UO22+) onto clay mineral surfaces in the presence of sodium counterions and carbonato ligands. The large system size (10 000 atoms) and long simulation times (10 ns) allowed us to investigate the thermodynamics of ion adsorption, and the atomistic detail provided clues for the observed adsorption behavior.

  20. Ferric sulfate montmorillonites as Mars soil analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band-strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Ferric - sulfate - montmorillonite samples have been prepared more recently because they are a good compositional match with the surface material on Mars as measured by Viking. Reflectance spectra of montmorillonite doped with ferric sulfate in the interlayer regions include a strong 3 micron band that persists under dry conditions. This is in contrast to spectra of similarly prepared ferric-doped montmorillonites, which exhibit a relatively weaker 3 micron band under comparable dry environmental conditions. Presented here are reflectance spectra of a suite of ferric-sulfate exchanged montmorillonites prepared with variable ferric sulfate concentrations and variable pH conditions.

  1. Effects of Temperature on the Sorption of Lanthanides by Montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven E. Miller; G. ROSS HEATH; RICHARD D. GONZALEZ

    1982-01-01

    The diffusion of exchanged Yb, Ho, and Eu from interlayer positions in montmorillonite was studied using infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray powder diffraction, and cation-exchange measurements. Dehydration of exchanged montmorillonite between 100 ~ and 280~ caused the ions to diffuse into the hexagonal rings of surface oxygens. Subsequent migration into vacant octahedral sites was small regardless of the radius of the

  2. Impact modified epoxy\\/montmorillonite nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isil Isik; Ulku Yilmazer; Goknur Bayram

    2003-01-01

    Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A type epoxy resin-polyether polyol-organically treated montmorillonite ternary nanocomposites were synthesized in this study. The effects of addition of polyether polyol as an impact modifier on morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of nanocomposites were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry, impact and tensile testing. The results showed that organically treated montmorillonite

  3. Development of Surface Complexation Models of Cr(VI) Adsorption on Soils, Sediments and Model Mixtures of Kaolinite, Montmorillonite, ?-Alumina, Hydrous Manganese and Ferric Oxides and Goethite

    SciTech Connect

    Koretsky, Carla [Western Michigan University] [Western Michigan University

    2013-11-29

    Hexavalent chromium is a highly toxic contaminant that has been introduced into aquifers and shallow sediments and soils via many anthropogenic activities. Hexavalent chromium contamination is a problem or potential problem in the shallow subsurface at several DOE sites, including Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE, 2008). To accurately quantify the fate and transport of hexavalent chromium at DOE and other contaminated sites, robust geochemical models, capable of correctly predicting changes in chromium chemical form resulting from chemical reactions occurring in subsurface environments are needed. One important chemical reaction that may greatly impact the bioavailability and mobility of hexavalent chromium in the subsurface is chemical binding to the surfaces of particulates, termed adsorption or surface complexation. Quantitative thermodynamic surface complexation models have been derived that can correctly calculate hexavalent chromium adsorption on well-characterized materials over ranges in subsurface conditions, such pH and salinity. However, models have not yet been developed for hexavalent chromium adsorption on many important constituents of natural soils and sediments, such as clay minerals. Furthermore, most of the existing thermodynamic models have been developed for relatively simple, single solid systems and have rarely been tested for the complex mixtures of solids present in real sediments and soils. In this study, the adsorption of hexavalent chromium was measured as a function of pH (3-10), salinity (0.001 to 0.1 M NaNO3), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide(0-5%) on a suite of naturally-occurring solids including goethite (FeOOH), hydrous manganese oxide (MnOOH), hydrous ferric oxide (Fe(OH)3), ?-alumina (Al2O3), kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), and montmorillonite (Na3(Al, Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2?nH2O). The results show that all of these materials can bind substantial quantities of hexavalent chromium, especially at low pH. Unexpectedly, experiments with the clay minerals kaolinite and montmorillonite suggest that hexavalent chromium may interact with these solids over much longer periods of time than expected. Furthermore, hexavalent chromium may irreversibly bind to these solids, perhaps because of oxidation-reduction reactions occurring on the surfaces of the clay minerals. More work should be done to investigate and quantify these chemical reactions. Experiments conducted with mixtures of goethite, hydrous manganese oxide, hydrous ferric oxide, ?-alumina, montmorillonite and kaolinite demonstrate that it is possible to correctly predict hexavalent chromium binding in the presence of multiple minerals using thermodynamic models derived for the simpler systems. Further, these models suggest that of the six solid considered in this study, goethite is typically the solid to which most of the hexavalent chromium will bind. Experiments completed with organic-rich and organic-poor natural sediments demonstrate that in organic-rich substrates, organic matter is likely to control uptake of the hexavalent chromium. The models derived and tested in this study for hexavalent chromium binding to ?-alumina, hydrous manganese oxide, goethite, hydrous ferric oxide and clay minerals can be used to better predict changes in hexavalent chromium bioavailability and mobility in contaminated sediments and soils.

  4. Sol-gel hybrid films based on organosilane and montmorillonite for corrosion inhibition of AA2024.

    PubMed

    Dalmoro, V; dos Santos, J H Z; Armelin, E; Alemán, C; Azambuja, D S

    2014-07-15

    The present work reports the production of films on AA2024-T3 composed of vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS)/tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) with incorporation of montmorillonite (sodium montmorillonite and montmorillonite modified with quaternary ammonium salt, abbreviated Na and 30B, respectively), generated by the sol-gel process. According to FT-IR analyses the incorporation of montmorillonite does not affect silica network. Electrochemical characterization was performed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement in 0.05 mol L(-1) NaCl solution. Results indicate that montmorillonite incorporation improves the corrosion protection compared to the non-modified system. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs reveal that high concentrations of montmorillonite provide agglomerations on the metallic surface, which is in detriment of the anticorrosive performance. The VTMS/TEOS/30B films with the lowest concentration (22 mg L(-1)) of embedded clay provide the highest corrosion protection. PMID:24863798

  5. Material, Mechanical, and Tribological Characterization of Laser-Treated Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Kumar, Aditya; Bhushan, Bharat; Aleem, B. J. Abdul

    2014-10-01

    Laser treatment under nitrogen assisting gas environment of cobalt-nickel-chromium-tungsten-based superalloy and high-velocity oxygen-fuel thermal spray coating of nickel-chromium-based superalloy on carbon steel was carried out to improve mechanical and tribological properties. Superalloy surface was preprepared to include B4C particles at the surface prior to the laser treatment process. Material and morphological changes in the laser-treated samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Residual stresses present at the surface region of the laser-treated layer were determined from the XRD data. The microhardness of the laser-treated surface was measured by indentation tests. Fracture toughness of the coating surfaces before and after laser treatment were also measured using overload indentation tests. Macrowear and macrofriction characterization were carried out using pin-on-disk tests.

  6. The acid-base titration of montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, I. C.; Sposito, G.; Bourg, A. C.

    2003-12-01

    Proton binding to clay minerals plays an important role in the chemical reactivity of soils (e.g., acidification, retention of nutrients or pollutants). If should also affect the performance of clay barriers for waste disposal. The surface acidity of clay minerals is commonly modelled empirically by assuming generic amphoteric surface sites (>SOH) on a flat surface, with fitted site densities and acidity constant. Current advances in experimental methods (notably spectroscopy) are rapidly improving our understanding of the structure and reactivity of the surface of clay minerals (arrangement of the particles, nature of the reactive surface sites, adsorption mechanisms). These developments are motivated by the difficulty of modelling the surface chemistry of mineral surfaces at the macro-scale (e.g., adsorption or titration) without a detailed (molecular-scale) picture of the mechanisms, and should be progressively incorporated into surface complexation models. In this view, we have combined recent estimates of montmorillonite surface properties (surface site density and structure, edge surface area, surface electrostatic potential) with surface site acidities obtained from the titration of alpha-Al2O3 and SiO2, and a novel method of accounting for the unknown initial net proton surface charge of the solid. The model predictions were compared to experimental titrations of SWy-1 montmorillonite and purified MX-80 bentonite in 0.1-0.5 mol/L NaClO4 and 0.005-0.5 mol/L NaNO3 background electrolytes, respectively. Most of the experimental data were appropriately described by the model after we adjusted a single parameter (silanol sites on the surface of montmorillonite were made to be slightly more acidic than those of silica). At low ionic strength and acidic pH the model underestimated the buffering capacity of the montmorillonite, perhaps due to clay swelling or to the interlayer adsorption of dissolved aluminum. The agreement between our model and the experimental data illustrates the complementarity of molecular and macro-scale descriptions of the clay reactivity.

  7. Interpreting the Frictional Behavior of the Smectite Clay Montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D. E.; Lockner, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    Montmorillonite has been the most widely tested phyllosilicate mineral in soil and rock mechanics friction investigations, but many of the published data are contradictory, with reported values of the coefficient of friction (= shear stress/effective normal stress) ranging from 0.06 to 0.78. We report some new laboratory and petrographic data which illustrate that this wide variation is in part a function of the large difference in coefficient of friction between thoroughly dried (0.7 or greater) and water-saturated (0.3 or lower) montmorillonite. Dry montmorillonite gouge is subject to standard frictional processes such as abrasion, wear, and fracture during shear. In contrast, shear of water-saturated montmorillonite gouge is concentrated in thin films of water that are adsorbed onto the (001) surfaces of the platy grains. Our recent studies suggest that the water-saturated shear strength of sheet-structure minerals increases with the strength of the bonding of the polar water molecules to the (001) surfaces, and the relative weakness of water-saturated montmorillonite may be largely owing to its small layer charge. Values of the coefficient of friction for montmorillonite that are considered to represent water-saturated, equilibrated conditions increase from 0.06 at effective normal stresses below 1 MPa to 0.30 at 300 MPa. This correlation is attributed to decreasing thickness of the surface water films with increasing effective normal stress. Similar stress dependence of frictional strength can be demonstrated for the serpentine minerals, muscovite, biotite, phlogopite, chlorite, kaolinite, and talc, and it is considered to be characteristic of sheet silicates. This behavior contrasts with that of most other silicate minerals, for which the coefficient of friction exhibits little pressure sensitivity below 200 MPa effective normal stress and then decreases at higher stresses (Byerlee's law). Most of the published strength data for montmorillonite fall outside the range of values for water-saturated, equilibrated samples. Of these, the samples that are overly strong for a given set of experimental conditions may have been only partially saturated. Those samples that are weaker than the water-saturated, equilibrated samples at a given effective normal stress appear to result from inadequate drainage and consequent build-up of internal pore pressure. The velocity dependence of montmorillonite strength has not been extensively investigated, but water-saturated montmorillonite gouge is velocity-strengthening over the range of conditions tested to date whereas dry and partially saturated montmorillonite gouge may be velocity weakening at some velocities. These results highlight the hazards of interpreting fault-zone behavior based on experiments that do not approximate natural conditions.

  8. Adsorption of ferrous ions onto montmorillonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Dawei; Niu, Xia; Qiao, Min; Liu, Gang; Li, Hongxin; Meng, Zhenxiao

    2015-04-01

    The adsorption of Fe (II) onto montmorillonites was investigated through initial concentration, contact time, pH and temperature. During the whole adsorption process, the ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) was added as a kind of antioxidant, at the same time, deionized water (after boiling) and nitrogen protection were also used to avoid oxidation. The Fe2+/Fetotal ratio of the iron exists in the Fe-montmorillonites was found more than 95%. Two kinetic models, including pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order model, were used to analyze the adsorption process of Fe (II) on montmorillonites. The results of our study showed that adsorption process fitted with pseudo-second-order well. Adsorption isotherms showed that Langmuir model was better than Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters ?G0 and ?H0 were 3.696 kJ/mol and 6.689 kJ/mol (we just gave the values at 298 K), respectively. The positive values at different temperatures showed that the adsorption process was non-spontaneous and endothermic. The characteristics of materials were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Surface area and porosity analyzer, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Zeta potential distribution.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted...Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted...chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide surface treated with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted...Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted...chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide surface treated with...

  11. Biodegradable nanocomposites from toughened polyhydroxybutyrate and titanate-modified montmorillonite clay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Montmorillonite clay treated with neopentyl (diallyl)oxy tri( dioctyl) pyrophosphato-titanate was used as a reinforcement for toughened bacterial bioplastic, Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in order to develop novel biodegradable nanocomposites. The modified clay, PHB, toughening partner and specific comp...

  12. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    López-Buendía, Angel M., E-mail: buendia@uv.es [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Benjamin Franklin 17, 46380 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)] [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain); Climent, Verónica [Lafarge Cementos, Polígono Sepes, Isaac Newton s/n, 46500 Sagunto, Valencia (Spain)] [Lafarge Cementos, Polígono Sepes, Isaac Newton s/n, 46500 Sagunto, Valencia (Spain); Guillem, Celia [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)] [AIDICO Technological Institute of Construction, Marble Technical Unit, Camí de Castella 4, 03660 Novelda. Alicante (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in the mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.

  13. Role of Alumina and Montmorillonite in Changing the Sorption of Herbicides to Biochars.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfa; Li, Saijun; Dong, Huaping; Yang, Shengshuang; Li, Yimin; Zhong, Jiaxing

    2015-06-24

    The influence of biochars on the fate of herbicides in soil depends mostly on environmental factors among which the role of soil minerals is not clear. Two wood-derived biochars produced at 400 °C (BC400) and 600 °C (BC600) were treated with alumina and montmorillonite to investigate their interaction with biochars and the influence of herbicide sorption. Both minerals exhibited a pore-expanding effect that was likely relative to the removal of authigenic organic matter away from the biochars' surface. Alumina brought more remarkable pore expansion by doubling the surface area of the BC400 biochar and the mesopore area of the BC600 biochar. Consequently, more adsorption sites were accessible for herbicide molecules, which resulted in higher sorption of herbicides (acetochlor and metribuzin) to the mineral-treated biochars than to the untreated biochars. The results are useful for understanding the change of surface and sorption properties of biochars with soil applications. PMID:26035027

  14. Preparation and characterization of zwitterionic surfactant-modified montmorillonites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jianxi; Qing, Yanhong; Wang, Tong; Zhu, Runliang; Wei, Jingming; Tao, Qi; Yuan, Peng; He, Hongping

    2011-08-15

    A series of zwitterionic surfactant-modified montmorillonites (ZSMMs) were synthesized using montmorillonite and three zwitterionic surfactants with different alkyl chain lengths at different concentrations [0.2-4.0 cation exchange capacity (CEC)]. These ZSMMs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo-gravimetric analysis and differential thermo-gravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses. The zwitterionic surfactant could be intercalated into the interlayer spaces of montmorillonites and causing interlayer space-swelling. From XRD measurements, the amount of the surfactants loaded and the basal spacing increased with surfactant concentration and alkyl chain length. One endothermic DTG peak occurred at ~390 °C, which was assigned to the decomposition of the zwitterionic surfactant on the organo-montmorillonites from 0.2 to 0.6 CEC. When the surfactant loading was increased, a new endothermic peak appeared at ~340 °C. From the microstructures of these ZSMMs, the mechanism of zwitterionic surfactant adsorption was proposed. At relatively low loadings of the zwitterionic surfactant, most of surfactants enter the spacing by an ion-exchange mechanism and are adsorbed onto the interlayer cation sites. When the concentration of the zwitterionic surfactant exceeds the CEC of montmorillonite, the surfactant molecules then adhere to the surface-adsorbed surfactant. Some surfactants enter the interlayers, whereas the others are attached to the clay surface. When the concentration of surfactant increases further beyond 2.0 CEC, the surfactants may occupy the inter-particle space within the house-of-cards aggregate structure. PMID:21575956

  15. Surface characterization of plasma-treated polypropylene fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Q.F

    2004-06-15

    Plasma treatment is increasingly being used for surface modification of different materials in many industries. In this study, different techniques were employed to characterize the surface properties of plasma treated polypropylene fibers. The chemical nature of the fiber sufaces has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS examination indicated the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups on fiber surfaces after plasma treatment. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) scans revealed the evolution of surface morphology under different experimental conditions. A Philips Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) was also used to study the wetting behavior of the fibers. In the ESEM, relative humidity can be raised to 100% to facilitate the water condensation onto fiber surfaces for wetting observation. The ESEM observation revealed that the plasma treatment significantly altered the surface wettability of polypropylene fibers.

  16. Magnetic properties of FINEMET with excimer laser treated surface layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, P.; Ramin, D.; Zele?; Áková, A.; Riehemann, W.; Ku?; Mi?; Ski, M.

    1999-08-01

    The positive influence of laser treating on the decrease of power losses of many soft magnetic materials (as well as nanocrystalline FINEMET) is well known. The surface defects cause refinement of the domain structure producing small domains with movable domain walls. Such a refinement is one of the ways of reducing dynamic loss at higher frequencies which is dominant in the total power loss. We found that surface defects in the form of relatively shallow grooves produced by the excimer laser treatment are not sufficient to influence the bulk coercivity, but they do influence the surface-layer coercivity and domain structure.

  17. Utilization of surface-treated rubber particles from waste tires

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Environmental Technologies Alternatives, Inc., Lima, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    During a 12-month program, the author successfully demonstrated commercial applications for surface-treated rubber particles in two major markets: footwear (shoe soles and components) and urethane-foam carpet underlay (padding). In these markets, he has clearly demonstrated the ease of using R-4080 and R-4030 surface-treated rubber particles in existing manufacturing plants and processes and have shown that the material meets or exceeds existing standards for performance, quality, and cost-effectiveness. To produce R-4080 and R-4030, vulcanized rubber, whole-tire material is finely ground to particles of nominal 80 and mesh size respectively. Surface treatment is achieved by reacting these rubber particles with chlorine gas. In this report, the author describes the actual test and evaluations of the participant companies, and identifies other potential end uses.

  18. Colloidal behavior of aqueous montmorillonite suspensions: the specific role of pH in the presence of indifferent electrolytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etelka Tombácz; Márta Szekeres

    2004-01-01

    Montmorillonite is the most often studied swelling clay mineral. The layers have permanent negative charges due to isomorphic substitutions, and pH-dependent charges develop on the surface hydroxyls at the edges. Wyoming montmorillonite samples with different extents of isomorphic substitutions (Swy-1 and Swy-2) were studied. The acid–base titration of Na-montmorillonite suspensions between pH 4 and 9 at 0.01, 0.1 and 1

  19. Intercalating amino acid guests into montmorillonite host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollár, T.; Pálinkó, I.; Kónya, Z.; Kiricsi, I.

    2003-06-01

    The protonated forms of six amino acids (glycine, L-alanine, L-tryptophane, L-histidine, L-methionine and L-lysine) were ion-exchanged into Na-montmorillonite. A comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the host, the guests and host-guest substances revealed that the guest ions were intercalated successfully. It was verified by X-ray diffractometry and surface measurements as well. The spatial arrangement of the guest ions was modeled by semiempirical quantum chemical method. The intercalated organic ions provide chiral environment within the layers of the host material.

  20. Treating ocular surface disease: new agents in development

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Ahmad M; Hardten, David R

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances and investigation in the treatment of ocular surface pathology. There is significant investment in this area, paralleling the growing demand for more effective alternatives to current treatments. Clinicians are becoming more aware of surface pathology, yet the ability to treat the most common forms of ocular pathology are still limited to the few medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Medicines and devices currently under investigation are very promising. It is absolutely critical to understand the emerging options and think of their role in the treatment paradigm. PMID:21573093

  1. The effect of pillaring montmorillonite and beidellite on the conversion of trimethylbenzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, M.; Hartford, R.; O'Connor, C.T. (Univ. of Cape Town, Rondebosch (South Africa))

    1991-04-01

    Natural montmorillonite, synthetic mica-montmorillonite (SMM), and Ni-substituted SMM were treated with hydroxy-Al solutions and the activities of the respective unpillared and pillared clays were tested using 1,2 4-trimethylbenzene as a reactant. Pillaring montmorillonite and, to a lesser extent, synthetic beidellite gave the largest % increase in the conversion level. The selectivity to 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene, the smallest of the tetramethylbenzene isomers, was found to be a function not of the extent of pillaring, but rather of the extent of isomerization of the alkylbenzenes.

  2. Scanning electron microscopical analysis of laser-treated titanium implant surfaces—a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Gaggl; G Schultes; W. D Müller; H Kärcher

    2000-01-01

    Design and surface qualities of titanium implants are of vital importance for long-term stability following implantation. Four different implant surfaces treated individually were analyzed with special attention focused on laser surface treatment. Surfaces with machine roughness, titanium spray coating, treated by aluminum oxide and treated by laser were examined individually. Evaluation of the surface was carried out by electron microscope

  3. Surface characterization of silica glass substrates treated by atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Hiroyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Masuno, Atsunobu, E-mail: masuno@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Ishibashi, Keiji [Canon ANELVA Corporation, Asao-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 215-8550 (Japan); Tawarayama, Hiromasa [Kawazoe Frontier Technologies Corporation, Kuden 931-113, Sakae-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 247-0014 (Japan); Zhang, Yingjiu; Utsuno, Futoshi [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Koya, Kazuo; Fujinoki, Akira [Shin Etsu Quartz Prod. Co., Ltd., Res and Applicat Lab, Fukushima 963-0725 (Japan); Kawazoe, Hiroshi [Kawazoe Frontier Technologies Corporation, Kuden 931-113, Sakae-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 247-0014 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Silica glass substrates with very flat surfaces were exposed to atomic hydrogen at different temperatures and durations. An atomic force microscope was used to measure root-mean-square (RMS) roughness and two-dimensional power spectral density (PSD). In the treatment with atomic hydrogen up to 900 °C, there was no significant change in the surface. By the treatment at 1000 °C, the changes in the RMS roughness and the PSD curves were observed. It was suggested that these changes were caused by etching due to reactions of atomic hydrogen with surface silica. By analysis based on the k-correlation model, it was found that the spatial frequency of the asperities became higher with an increase of the treatment time. Furthermore, the data showed that atomic hydrogen can flatten silica glass surfaces by controlling heat-treatment conditions. - Highlights: • Silica glass surface was treated by atomic hydrogen at various temperatures. • Surface roughness was measured by an atomic force microscope. • Roughness data were analyzed by two-dimensional power spectral density. • Atomic hydrogen can flatten silica glass surfaces.

  4. Flame retardant polypropylene nanocomposites reinforced with surface treated carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guleria, Abhishant

    Polypropylene nanocomposites are prepared by reinforcing carbon nanotubes by ex-situ solution mixing method. Interfacial dispersion of carbon nanotubes in polypropylene have been improved by surface modification of CNTs and adding surfactants. Polypropylene nanocomposites fabrication was done after treating CNTs. Firstly, oxidation of CNTs followed by silanization for addition of functionalized groups on the surface of CNTs. Maleic anhydride grafted PPs were used as surfactants. Maleic anhydrides with two different molecular weights were LAMPP and HMAPP. Successful oxidation of CNTs by nitric acid and functionalized CNTs by 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane was confirmed by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with evidence of absorption peak at 1700 and 1100-1000 cm-1. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs revealed that the CNTs dispersion quality was improved by directly adding LMAPP/HMAPP into PP/CNTs system and the PP-CNTs adhesion was enhanced through both the CNTs surface treatment and the addition of surfactant. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed an enhanced thermal stability in the PP/CNTs and PP/CNTs/MAPP. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) characterization demonstrated that the crystalline temperature, fusion heat and crystalline fraction of hosting PP were decreased with the introduction of CNTs and surface treated CNTs; however, melting temperature was only slightly changed. Melting rheological behaviors including complex viscosity, storage modulus, and loss modulus indicated significant changes in the PP/MAPP/CNTs system before and after functionalization of CNTs, and the mechanism were also discussed in details.

  5. The Stabiliy of Radio-Frequency Plasma Treated Polydimethylsiloxane Surface

    PubMed Central

    Chen, I-Jane

    2008-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used material for manufacturing lab-on-chip devices. However, the hydrophobic nature of PDMS is a disadvantage in micro-fluidic systems. To transform the hydrophobic PDMS surface to hydrophilic it has been treated with radio frequency (RF) air plasma at 150, 300 and 500 mtorr pressure for up to 30 minutes. Following the surface treatment, the PDMS specimens were stored in air, deionized water or 0.14 M NaCl solution at 4 °C, 20 °C, and 70 °C. The change in the hydrophilicity (wettability) of the PDMS surfaces has been followed by contact angle measurements and Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) Spectroscopy as a function of time. As an effect of the RF plasma treatment the contact angles measured on PDMS surfaces dropped from 113±4 degrees to 9±3 degrees. The chamber pressure and the treatment time had no or negligible effect on the results. However, the PDMS surface gradually lost its hydrophilic properties in time. The rate of this process is influenced by the difference in the dielectric constants of the PDMS and its ambient environment. It has been the smallest at low temperatures in deionized water and largest at high temperatures in air. Apparently, the OH groups generated on the PDMS surface during the plasma treatment tend towards a more hydrophilic/less hydrophobic environment during the relaxation processes. The correlation between FTIR–ATR spectral information and contact angle data supports this interpretation. PMID:17279784

  6. Laser-ultrasonic surface wave dispersion measurements on surface-treated metals

    E-print Network

    Nagy, Peter B.

    a frequency range from 2 to 15 MHz. Our experimental results obtained from shot- peened aluminum 2024-T351 of surface-treated metals because of its ability to probe the material properties at different penetration on the surface roughness. The part of the dispersion, which changes during annealing via thermal relaxation

  7. Cotransport of bismerthiazol and montmorillonite colloids in saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chongyang; Wang, Hong; Lazouskaya, Volha; Du, Yichun; Lu, Weilan; Wu, Junxue; Zhang, Hongyan; Huang, Yuanfang

    2015-06-01

    While bismerthiazol [N,N?-methylene-bis-(2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole)] is one of the most widely used bactericides, the transport of bismerthiazol in subsurface environments is unclear to date. Moreover, natural colloids are ubiquitous in the subsurface environments. The cotransport of bismerthiazol and natural colloids has not been investigated. This study conducted laboratory column experiments to examine the transport of bismerthiazol in saturated sand porous media both in the absence and presence of montmorillonite colloids. Results show that a fraction of bismerthiazol was retained in sand and the retention was higher at pH 7 than at pH 4 and 10. The retention did not change with ionic strength. The retention was attributed to the complex of bismerthiazol with metals/metal oxides on sand surfaces through ligand exchange. The transport of bismerthiazol was enhanced with montmorillonite colloids copresent in the solutions and, concurrently, the transport of montmorillonite colloids was facilitated by the bismerthiazol. The transport of montmorillonite colloids was enhanced likely because the bismerthiazol and the colloids competed for the attachment/adsorption sites on collector surfaces and the presence of bismerthiazol changed the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energies between colloids and collectors. The transport of bismerthiazol was inhibited if montmorillonite colloids were pre-deposited in sand because bismerthiazol could adsorb onto the colloid surfaces. The adsorbed bismerthiazol could be co-remobilized with the colloids from primary minima by decreasing ionic strength. Whereas colloid-facilitated transport of pesticides has been emphasized, our study implies that transport of colloids could also be facilitated by the presence of pesticides.

  8. Cotransport of bismerthiazol and montmorillonite colloids in saturated porous media.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chongyang; Wang, Hong; Lazouskaya, Volha; Du, Yichun; Lu, Weilan; Wu, Junxue; Zhang, Hongyan; Huang, Yuanfang

    2015-01-01

    While bismerthiazol [N,N'-methylene-bis-(2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole)] is one of the most widely used bactericides, the transport of bismerthiazol in subsurface environments is unclear to date. Moreover, natural colloids are ubiquitous in the subsurface environments. The cotransport of bismerthiazol and natural colloids has not been investigated. This study conducted laboratory column experiments to examine the transport of bismerthiazol in saturated sand porous media both in the absence and presence of montmorillonite colloids. Results show that a fraction of bismerthiazol was retained in sand and the retention was higher at pH7 than at pH4 and 10. The retention did not change with ionic strength. The retention was attributed to the complex of bismerthiazol with metals/metal oxides on sand surfaces through ligand exchange. The transport of bismerthiazol was enhanced with montmorillonite colloids copresent in the solutions and, concurrently, the transport of montmorillonite colloids was facilitated by the bismerthiazol. The transport of montmorillonite colloids was enhanced likely because the bismerthiazol and the colloids competed for the attachment/adsorption sites on collector surfaces and the presence of bismerthiazol changed the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energies between colloids and collectors. The transport of bismerthiazol was inhibited if montmorillonite colloids were pre-deposited in sand because bismerthiazol could adsorb onto the colloid surfaces. The adsorbed bismerthiazol could be co-remobilized with the colloids from primary minima by decreasing ionic strength. Whereas colloid-facilitated transport of pesticides has been emphasized, our study implies that transport of colloids could also be facilitated by the presence of pesticides. PMID:25805364

  9. XAS of uranium(VI) sorbed onto silica, alumina, and montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, E. R.; Allen, P. G.; Hudson, E. A.

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the speciation (oxidation state and molecular structure) of uranium sorbed onto surfaces of silica, alumina, and montmorillonite, in order to investigate the modes of uranium sorption on these minerals. Characterization of actinide sorption onto silicates, aluminates, and aluminosilicates such as montmorillonite is vital for the prediction of the environmental impact and risk assessment of actinide migration from nuclear waste storage sites, underground test sites, and mining sites.

  10. Study on the exchange reaction of HDTMA with the inorganic cations in reference montmorillonites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seung Yeop Lee; Soo Jin Kim

    2003-01-01

    The adsorption of hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) cations on swelling layer silicates (montmorillonites) was studied by\\u000a adsorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. At low HDTMA concentrations, HDTMA ions started to be adsorbed\\u000a on interlayer sites of SWy montmorillonite, causing a preferential release of interlayer Na+ compared with Ca2+, while the lateral attraction between adsorbed HDTMA cations at edges or external surfaces

  11. Studies on the defluoridation of water using conducting polymer\\/montmorillonite composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Karthikeyan; K. K. Satheesh Kumar; K. P. Elango

    2012-01-01

    Conducting polymer\\/inorganic hybrid composites have large surface areas, which makes the adsorbent properties of the polymer composites as good the constituents. Polyaniline\\/montmorillonite (PANi-MMT) and polypyrrole\\/montmorillonite (PPy-MMT) composites were prepared, characterized (Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction patterns) and were employed as adsorbents for the removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by the batch

  12. Studies on the defluoridation of water using conducting polymer\\/montmorillonite composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Karthikeyan; K. K. Satheesh Kumar; K. P. Elango

    2011-01-01

    Conducting polymer\\/inorganic hybrid composites have large surface areas, which makes the adsorbent properties of the polymer composites as good the constituents. Polyaniline\\/montmorillonite (PANi-MMT) and polypyrrole\\/montmorillonite (PPy-MMT) composites were prepared, characterized (Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction patterns) and were employed as adsorbents for the removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by the batch

  13. Laser-ultrasonic surface wave dispersion measurements on surface-treated metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Ruiz; Peter B. Nagy

    2004-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity spectroscopy has been long considered to be one of the leading candidates for nondestructive characterization of surface-treated metals because of its ability to probe the material properties at different penetration depths depending on the inspection frequency. We developed a high-precision laser-ultrasonic technique to study the feasibility of SAW dispersion spectroscopy for residual stress assessment on

  14. Comparison of removal torques between laser-treated and SLA-treated implant surfaces in rabbit tibiae

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam-Seok; Li, Lin-Jie

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare removal torques and surface topography between laser treated and sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) treated implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS Laser-treated implants (experimental group) and SLA-treated implants (control group) 8 mm in length and 3.4 mm in diameter were inserted into both sides of the tibiae of 12 rabbits. Surface analysis was accomplished using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM; Hitachi S-4800; Japan) under ×25, ×150 and ×1,000 magnification. Surface components were analyzed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Rabbits were sacrificed after a 6-week healing period. The removal torque was measured using the MGT-12 digital torque meter (Mark-10 Co., Copiague, NY, USA). RESULTS In the experimental group, the surface analysis showed uniform porous structures under ×25, ×150 and ×1,000 magnification. Pore sizes in the experimental group were 20-40 mm and consisted of numerous small pores, whereas pore sizes in the control group were 0.5-2.0 mm. EDS analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. The mean removal torque in the laser-treated and the SLA-treated implant groups were 79.4 Ncm (SD = 20.4; range 34.6-104.3 Ncm) and 52.7 Ncm (SD = 17.2; range 18.7-73.8 Ncm), respectively. The removal torque in the laser-treated surface implant group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P=.004). CONCLUSION In this study, removal torque values were significantly higher for laser-treated surface implants than for SLA-treated surface implants. PMID:25177474

  15. Laser-ultrasonic surface wave dispersion measurements on surface-treated metals.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Alberto; Nagy, Peter B

    2004-04-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) velocity spectroscopy has been long considered to be one of the leading candidates for nondestructive characterization of surface-treated metals because of its ability to probe the material properties at different penetration depths depending on the inspection frequency. We developed a high-precision laser-ultrasonic technique to study the feasibility of SAW dispersion spectroscopy for residual stress assessment on shot-peened metals. This technique is capable of measuring SAW dispersion with a relative error of 0.1% over a frequency range from 2 to 15 MHz. Our experimental results obtained from shot-peened aluminum 2024-T351 samples indicate that the dispersion of the surface wave is a superposition of different effects of surface treatment in the material, including surface roughness, compressive residual stress, and cold work. Although the surface roughness induced component is often the dominating part of the overall dispersion, the experimental results also indicate that it is feasible to observe a perceivable change in the dispersion of the SAW when the specimen is heat-treated at different temperatures, which has no perceivable effect on the surface roughness. The part of the dispersion, which changes during annealing via thermal relaxation, is due to near-surface residual stresses and the decay of texture, although at high frequencies nonuniform grain coarsening could also play a significant role. PMID:15047364

  16. Method and system for treating an interior surface of a workpiece using a charged particle beam

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, David Richard (Georgetown, MA)

    2007-05-23

    A method and system of treating an interior surface on an internal cavity of a workpiece using a charged particle beam. A beam deflector surface of a beam deflector is placed within the internal cavity of the workpiece and is used to redirect the charged particle beam toward the interior surface to treat the interior surface.

  17. Synthesis and interfacial properties of montmorillonite\\/polypyrrole nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kada Boukerma; Jean-Yves Piquemal; Mohamed M. Chehimi; Miroslava Mrav?áková; Mária Omastová; Patricia Beaunier

    2006-01-01

    Montmorillonite\\/polypyrrole (MMT\\/PPy) nanocomposites were prepared by the in situ polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of MMT. The morphology of the MMT\\/PPy nanocomposites as examined by scanning electron microscopy differs slightly from that of the untreated MMT but markedly from that of polypyrrole. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the materials have MMT-rich surfaces, an indication that polypyrrole is essentially

  18. Interaction of Trialkyl Phosphites with Montmorillonites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Dios Cancela; E. ROMERO TABOADA; E J. HUERTAS

    1996-01-01

    Comple xes formed between montmorillonite, saturated in Li +, Na +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, Co 2+, Fe 3+, Cu 2+ and Zn 2§ and trimethyl phosphites (TMP) and triethyl phosphites (TEP) were studied. In all of the cases, ph~3sphites penetrate into the interlayer space of the montmorillonite and produce solvates whose basal spacing varies depending on the characteristics of

  19. Structural properties of reduced Upton montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. P.; Stucki, J. W.; Kirkpatrick, R. J.

    1996-12-01

    Reduction of octahedral Fe in the crystalline structure of smectites influences, possibly controls, surface-sensitive physical and chemical properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate if reduction of structural Fe by Na-dithionite or bacteria affects the chemical environment of constituent cations in montmorillonite, employing solid state multinuclear (29Si and 27Al) magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy. Reduction of structural Fe resulted in a positive (down field) chemical shift of the main Si Q3 (Q3(0Al)) site which was strongly correlated with Fe(II) content and inferred that distortions in Si-OT (T=Si, Al) bond angles and Si-O bond lengths occur with increasing layer charge. The line width (W) of the 29Si Q3 signal also increased with increasing levels of reduction. No change occurred in the position of the peak maximum for the octahedral Al (27AlVI) signal; however, an increased W was observed for this peak with increasing Fe(II) content. These results are attributed to decreases in Si-O-T bond angles and Si-O bond distances, corresponding to a better fit between the tetrahedral and octahedral sheets brought about by the presence of Fe(II) in the clay structure. The increased 27AlVI signal width (W) may also be due to a lessening of the paramagnetic influence of Fe(III) nuclei and enhancement of 27AlVI signals with different quadrupole coupling constants (QCC). Multinuclear MAS NMR analyses of dithioniteand microbially-reduced montmorillonite indicate that reduction of structural Fe caused reversible changes in the smectite structure, at least as far as this method could discern.

  20. Adsorption of phosphate on hydroxyaluminum- and hydroxyiron-montmorillonite complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Mao-Xu; Ding, Kui-Ying; Xu, Shao-Hui; Jiang, Xin

    2009-06-15

    One hydroxyaluminum-montmorillonite complex (HyAl-Mt), two hydroxyiron-montmorillonite complexes (HyFe-Mts) with different iron contents, and three hydroxyiron/aluminum-montmorillonite complexes (HyFeAl-Mts) with various Fe:Al molar ratios were synthesized. Behavior and kinetics of phosphate (P) sorption on selected Mt-complexes mentioned above were investigated under acidic conditions. The results indicated that the intercalations of polymeric HyFe and/or HyAl ions in interlayers of Na-saturated montmorillonite (Na-Mt) caused significant changes in surface properties of the Na-Mt, such as cation exchange capacity, specific surface area, pH at zero point of charge. In pH range tested (3.0-6.5), P adsorption on the Mt-complexes decreased with increasing pH, whereas the effect became weaker with increasing Fe contents in the Mt-complexes. The adsorption capacities of the HyFeAl-Mts were greater than those of the HyAl-Mt and HyFe-Mt, which could be attributed to decreasing crystallinity of Fe and Al oxides in the HyFeAl-Mts. The equilibrium adsorption of P on the Mt-complexes could be well described using the Langmuir isotherm, and the kinetics of P adsorption could be well described by both the pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. An increase in Fe contents in the Mt-complexes could enhance the initial kinetic rate of P adsorption, as suggested by the Elovich models. It is inferred that a great number of Fe-related active sorption sites have been located on the outer surfaces of the HyFe-Mt, as indicated by extremely high alpha value in the Elovich model. Previous studies focusing mainly on P sorption on HyAl-Mt complexes might have underestimated the contributions of Mt-complexes to P retention in acidic soils high in Fe contents. PMID:19038495

  1. Effect of compound organification of montmorillonite on the structure and properties of polypropylene\\/montmorillonite nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haoqun Hong; Demin Jia; Hui He

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, reactive organic montmorillonite (RMMT), prepared with compound alkylammoniums, were used in ternary-monomer\\u000a solid phase graft copolymerization in order to enhance the melting intercalation of montmorillonite (MMT), stabilize the intercalated\\u000a structure, and prepare the exfoliated polypropylene\\/montmorillonite (PP\\/MMT) nanocomposites (PPMN). The structure and properties\\u000a of PPMN were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron

  2. Octachlorodibenzodioxin formation on Fe(III)-montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Gu, Cheng; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J; Boyd, Stephen A

    2008-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) are ubiquitous and highly toxic environmental contaminants found in surface and subsurface soils and in clay deposits. Interestingly, the congener profiles of such PCDDs are inexplicably dissimilar to those of known anthropogenic (e.g., pesticide manufacture, waste incineration) or natural (e.g., forest fire) sources. Characteristic features of soil or clay-associated PCDDs are the dominance of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) as the most abundant congener and very low levels of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). These propensities led to the hypothesis of in situ PCDD formation in soils and geologic clay deposits. In this study, we demonstrate the formation of OCDD on the naturally occurring and widely distributed clay mineral montmorillonite under environmentally relevant conditions. When pentachlorophenol (PCP)was mixed with Fe(III)-montmorillonite, significant amounts of OCDD were rapidly (minutes to days) formed (approximately 5 mg OCDD/kg clay) at ambient temperature in the presence of water. This reaction is initiated by single electron transfer from PCP to Fe(III)-montmorillonite thereby forming the PCP radical cation. Subsequent dimerization, dechlorination, and ring closure reactions result in formation of OCDD. This study provides the first direct evidence for clay-catalyzed formation of OCDD supporting the plausibility of its in situ formation in soils. PMID:18678002

  3. Controlled Release of Agrochemicals Intercalated into Montmorillonite Interlayer Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Periodic application of agrochemicals has led to high cost of production and serious environmental pollution. In this study, the ability of montmorillonite (MMT) clay to act as a controlled release carrier for model agrochemical molecules has been investigated. Urea was loaded into MMT by a simple immersion technique while loading of metalaxyl was achieved by a rotary evaporation method. The successful incorporation of the agrochemicals into the interlayer space of MMT was confirmed by several techniques, such as, significant expansion of the interlayer space, reduction of Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volumes and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, and appearance of urea and metalaxyl characteristic bands on the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the urea loaded montmorillonite (UMMT) and metalaxyl loaded montmorillonite (RMMT) complexes. Controlled release of the trapped molecules from the matrix was done in water and in the soil. The results reveal slow and sustained release behaviour for UMMT for a period of 10 days in soil. For a period of 30 days, MMT delayed the release of metalaxyl in soil by more than 6 times. It is evident that MMT could be used to improve the efficiency of urea and metalaxyl delivery in the soil. PMID:24696655

  4. On the surface topography of ultrashort laser pulse treated steel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenc Obona, J.; Ocelík, V.; Skolski, J. Z. P.; Mitko, V. S.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Huis in't Veld, A. J.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2011-12-01

    This paper concentrates on observations of the surface topography by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on alloyed and stainless steels samples treated by ultrashort laser pulses with duration of 210 fs and 6.7 ps. Globular-like and jet-like objects were found depending on the various levels of the fluence applied. It is shown that these features appear due to solid-liquid and liquid-gas transitions within surface layer irradiated by intense laser light. The observations are confronted to the theory of short-pulsed laser light-matter interactions, including interference, excitation of electrons, electron-phonon coupling as well as subsequent ablation. It is shown that the orientation of small ripples does not always depend on the direction of the polarization of laser light.

  5. Study of Coloration on Excimer Laser Treated Titanium Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, H. X.; Zhou, Wei; Zheng, H. Y.

    Surface oxidation of Ti was carried out using KrF excimer laser in the presence of O2. Different colors were obtained by varying the number of laser pulses at the fixed laser fluence. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the outmost surface is composed of TiO2 and the inner layer consists of TiO and Ti2O3 as well as TiO2. Fractions of titanium chemical states stabilized at 33% TiO, 63% TiO2, and 2% Ti2O3 with increasing number of laser pulses. The surface roughness tends to increase with number of laser pulses. It is suggested that compositional variation and morphological difference contribute to the laser-induced surface coloration.

  6. HF and NH4OH-treated (111)Si surfaces studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsuyuki Utani; Takahiro Suzuki; Sadao Adachi

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to study HF- and NH4OH-treated (111)Si surfaces. The ellipsometric data indicate that aqueous HF etching results in the removal of the surface oxide and leaves behind Si surfaces terminated by atomic hydrogen. Chemical treatment by aqueous NH4OH solution provides a bare Si surface, but further etching of Si leads to roughening of the sample surfaces.

  7. Monitoring the sorption of propanoic acid by montmorillonite using Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. W.; Frost, R. L.

    1998-06-01

    This paper describes how Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (DRIFT) spectroscopy was used to monitor the sorption behavior of a short chain fatty acid, propanoic acid, on the clay mineral, montmorillonite. Organic acids bind to montmorillonite in two ways, either by dipole interaction with the oxygens in the interlayer space, or by bonding of the carboxylate anions to exposed aluminum ions. The DRIFT spectra of propanoic acid-montmorillonite complexes have bands at 1728 and 1554 cm-1, which are attributed to the symmetric, and antisymmetric stretching vibrations, respectively, of the C=O, ?(C=O)s, and O-C-O, ?(O-C-O)a, bonds of the carboxylic acid group. Each band represents one of the two different binding modes. These bands can be used to monitor the physical and chemical adsorption of the acid by the montmorillonite. When the peak area of each vibration is plotted against increasing acid concentration, both increase to a maximum. However the peak area for the ?(O-C-O)a vibration reaches a maximum at a much lower acid concentration than the ?(O=O)s vibration. The former maximum corresponds to saturation of the available binding sites on the edge surface aluminum ions. This concentration can be used to calculate the number of binding sites on the clay crystal. Where propanoic acid is allowed to diffuse from the clay, the bound fraction remains on the montmorillonite reducing the available acid that can be desorbed or leached from the clay.

  8. SURFACE PROPERTIES AND ADSORPTION BREAKTHROUGH CURVES OF PLASMA-TREATED SILICA GELS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WEI-HAN TAO; KUEI-SEN CHANG; TSAIR-WANG CHUNG; YAW-NAN CHANG

    2004-01-01

    Plasma treatments are used widely in surface modification of thin films and membranes. A similar treatment method was used for granular silica gel by using both argon and oxygen plasma. The surface properties, such as contact angle of water, pore diameter, and BET surface area, and the adsorption breakthrough curves for water were obtained on the plasma-treated silica gel. The

  9. Mechanism of stabilization of Na-montmorillonite clay with cement kiln dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sulapha Peethamparan; Jan Olek; Sidney Diamond

    2009-01-01

    A study of the physicochemical interaction of a high free lime (CaO) content cement kiln dust (CKD) with expansive Na-montmorillonite clay is presented. Moist compacted specimens of the CKD-treated clay, the clay alone, the CKD alone, and (for comparison) the clay treated with 7% CaO were each cured for periods up to 90 days and examined by XRD, TGA, and SEM

  10. Modification and characterization of montmorillonite fillers used in composites with vulcanized natural rubber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Hrachová; Ivan Chodák; Peter Komadel

    2009-01-01

    Parent Ca-montmorillonite (Jelšový Potok, Slovakia, Ca-JP) and Na-montmorillonite Kunipia-F (Japan, Na-KU) were ion-exchanged\\u000a with octadecyltrimethylammonium (ODTMA) cations. Characteristics of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier\\u000a transform infrared spectroscopy (IR) and thermogravimetry (TG). Surface areas were measured by sorption of N2 and ethyleneglycol monoethyl ether. Scanning electron microscopy photographs (SEM) were used to characterize the texture\\u000a of samples.

  11. Surface metal ion enhancement of thermally treated zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, W.S.; Suib, S.L.

    1986-09-03

    During the past several years the area of zeolite science has received increasingly intense attention owing to the preparation of new molecular sieves and the availability of modern spectroscopic methods for the study of these materials. The majority of spectroscopic studies of zeolites have focused on measurements of bulk magnetic, electronic, and structural properties, but few surface studies have been reported. Surface-inhomogeneous aluminum and silicon species have recently been reported by Barr and co-workers. In this study the authors have heated metal ion containing zeolites under controlled conditions in order to probe interactions between the zeolite and the metal ion. Here they present preliminary results for Ag/sup +//NaY and Cs/sup +//NaY zeolites studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SSIMS), and ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS).

  12. Surface cap modifications in cold-treated Drosophila melanogaster embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuliano Callaini; Maria Giovanna Riparbelli

    1992-01-01

    When earlyDrosophila embryos were allowed to develop at 0°C, several abnormalities in the surface cap organization were observed. Scanning electron microscopy showed that exposure to cold mainly lead to the deformation of the cortical caps and to their partial fusion with adjacent caps. The process of cellularization was presumably affected and large uncellularized areas were observed. Rhodamine-phalloidin staining showed that

  13. Dislodgeable copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated wood surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Stilwell; Michael Toner; Brij Sawhney

    2003-01-01

    Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is commonly used to preserve wood, but its use poses risk of arsenic exposure. In order to evaluate the extent of exposure to As from physical contact with CCA-treated wood, dislodgeable As from treated wood surfaces (as well as Cu and Cr) was determined as a function of weathering time using dampened polyester wipe materials. Six

  14. Fractionation of humic acids upon adsorption on montmorillonite and palygorskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseeva, T. V.; Zolotareva, B. N.

    2013-06-01

    The adsorption of three humic acid (HA) preparations by clays—montmorillonite (Wyoming, USA) and palygorskite (Kolomenskoe district, Moscow oblast)—has been studied. The HA preparations were isolated from samples of the humus-accumulative horizons of a leached chernozem (Voronezh) and a chestnut soil (Volgograd), and a commercial preparation of sodium humate (Aldrich) was also used. The solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy and IR spectroscopy revealed the selective adsorption of structural HA fragments (alkyls, O-alkyls (carbohydrates), and acetal groups) on these minerals. As a result, the aromaticity of the organic matter (OM) in the organic-mineral complexes (OMCs) and the degree of its humification have been found to be lower compared to the original HA preparations. The fractionation of HAs is controlled by the properties of the mineral surfaces. The predominant enrichment of OMCs with alkyls has been observed for montmorillonite, as well as an enrichment with O-alkyls (carbohydrates) for palygorskite. A decrease in the C : N ratio has been noted in the elemental composition of the OM in complexes, which reflected its more aromatic nature and (or) predominant sorption of N-containing structural components of HA molecules. The adsorption of HA preparations by montmorillonite predominantly occurs on the external surface of mineral particles, and the interaction of nonpolar alkyl groups of HAs with this mineral belongs to weak (van der Waals, hydrophobic) interactions. The adsorption of HA preparations by palygorskite is at least partly of chemical nature: Si-OH groups of minerals are involved in the adsorption process. The formation of strong bonds between the OM and palygorskite explains the long-term (over 300 million years) retention of fossil fulvate-type OM in its complex with palygorskite, which we revealed previously.

  15. Modelling the sorption of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Eu(III), Am(III), Sn(IV), Th(IV), Np(V) and U(VI) on montmorillonite: Linear free energy relationships and estimates of surface binding constants for some selected heavy metals and actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Michael H.; Baeyens, Bart

    2005-02-01

    In solution thermodynamics, and more recently in surface chemistry, it is well established that relationships can be found between the free energies of formation of aqueous or surface metal complexes and thermodynamic properties of the metal ions or ligands. Such systematic dependencies are commonly termed linear free energy relationships (LFER). A 2 site protolysis non-electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) model has been used to model "in house" and literature sorption edge data for eleven elements: Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Eu(III), Am(III), Sn(IV), Th(IV), Np(V) and U(VI) to provide surface complexation constants for the strong sites on montmorillonite. Modelling a further 4 sets of sorption isotherms for Ni(II), Zn(II), Eu(III) and U(VI) provided complexation constants for the weak sites. The protolysis constants and site capacities derived for the 2SPNE SC/CE model in previous work were fixed in all of the calculations. Cation exchange was modelled simultaneously to provide selectivity coefficients. Good correlations between the logarithms of strong SKx-1 and weak W1Kx-1 site binding constants on montmorillonite and the logarithm of the aqueous hydrolysis constants OHK x were found which could be described by the following equations: Strong (?S SOH) sites: logK=8.1±0.3+(0.90±0.02)logK Weak (?S W1OH) sites: logK=6.2±0.8+(0.98±0.09)logK where x is an integer. Sorption data for heavy metals and actinides such as Pd(II), Pb(II), Pu(III), Zr(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), Pu(IV) and Pa(V), are important in safety studies for radioactive waste repositories and are either very poorly known or not available at all. The LFER approach was used to estimate surface complexation constants for these radionuclides on both site types. The surface protolysis constants, site capacity values, selectivity coefficients and surface complexation constants given in this work, coupled with the LFERs established for the strong and weak sites on montmorillonite, are considered to form a sound basis for a thermodynamic sorption database.

  16. A mechanistic description of Ni and Zn sorption on Na-montmorillonite Part II: modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Bradbury; Bart Baeyens

    1997-01-01

    Titration and sorption edge\\/isotherm measurements, carried out under a wide variety of conditions on Na-montmorillonite, were reported in Part I (Baeyens and Bradbury, 1997). These data are modelled here in terms of cation exchange and surface complexation mechanisms using a computer code called MINSORB. This code allowed the uptake of radionuclides by both mechanisms to be calculated simultaneously; also taking

  17. Some Colloidal Properties of Beidellite: Comparison with Low and High Charge Montmorillonites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederic Hetzel; HARVEY E. DONER

    1993-01-01

    Recent evidence of the occurrence of beidellite in many soils around the world necessitates a better understanding of the role of charge location on the colloidal behavior of this smectite as compared to the more frequently studied montmorillonites. Clay suspension stability and sorption of an organic polymer, two properties sensitive to surface charge characteristics, were selected to examine the differences

  18. An analytical model of the surface roughness of an aluminum alloy treated with a surface nanocrystallization and hardening process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Dai; J. Villegas; L. Shaw

    2005-01-01

    An analytical model is developed to predict the surface roughness of Al-5052 plates treated with the surface nanocrystallization and hardening process. The peak-to-valley distances calculated using the analytical model compare reasonably well with the experimental data as well as those predicted using the finite element analysis.

  19. Surface modifications of some nanocomposites containing starch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M-C Pascu; M-C Popescu; C Vasile

    2008-01-01

    Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites have attracted strong interest in today's materials research, due to the possible impressive enhancements of material properties, comparatively with those of pure polymers. Several starch\\/poly(vinylalcohol)\\/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been subjected to surface modification by physical treatments such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) exposure and coating with proteins (albumin) or polysaccharides (chitosan), for improving their biocompatibility. Untreated and treated

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of the Hybrid Clay- Based Material Montmorillonite-Melanoidin: A Potential Soil Model

    SciTech Connect

    V Vilas; B Matthiasch; J Huth; J Kratz; S Rubert de la Rosa; P Michel; T Schäfer

    2011-12-31

    The study of the interactions among metals, minerals, and humic substances is essential in understanding the migration of inorganic pollutants in the geosphere. A considerable amount of organic matter in the environment is associated with clay minerals. To understand the role of organic matter in the environment and its association with clay minerals, a hybrid clay-based material (HCM), montmorillonite (STx-1)-melanoidin, was prepared from L-tyrosine and L-glutamic acid by the Maillard reaction. The HCM was characterized by elemental analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM), and thermal analysis. The presence of organic materials on the surface was confirmed by XPS and STXM. The STXM results showed the presence of organic spots on the surface of the STx-1 and the characterization of the functional groups present in those spots. Thermal analysis confirmed the existence of organic materials in the montmorillonite interlayer, indicating the formation of a composite of melanoidin and montmorillonite. The melanoidin appeared to be located partially between the layers of montmorillonite and partially at the surface, forming a structure that resembles the way a cork sits on the top of a champagne bottle.

  1. Pu(V) and Pu(IV) sorption to montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Begg, James D; Zavarin, Mavrik; Zhao, Pihong; Tumey, Scott J; Powell, Brian; Kersting, Annie B

    2013-05-21

    Plutonium (Pu) adsorption to and desorption from mineral phases plays a key role in controlling the environmental mobility of Pu. Here we assess whether the adsorption behavior of Pu at concentrations used in typical laboratory studies (?10(-10) [Pu] ? 10(-6) M) are representative of adsorption behavior at concentrations measured in natural subsurface waters (generally <10(-12) M). Pu(V) sorption to Na-montmorillonite was examined over a wide range of initial Pu concentrations (10(-6)-10(-16) M). Pu(V) adsorption after 30 days was linear over the wide range of concentrations studied, indicating that Pu sorption behavior from laboratory studies at higher concentrations can be extrapolated to sorption behavior at low, environmentally relevant concentrations. Pu(IV) sorption to montmorillonite was studied at initial concentrations of 10(-6)-10(-11) M and was much faster than Pu(V) sorption over the 30 day equilibration period. However, after one year of equilibration, the extent of Pu(V) adsorption was similar to that observed for Pu(IV) after 30 days. The continued uptake of Pu(V) is attributed to a slow, surface-mediated reduction of Pu(V) to Pu(IV). Comparison between rates of adsorption of Pu(V) to montmorillonite and a range of other minerals (hematite, goethite, magnetite, groutite, corundum, diaspore, and quartz) found that minerals containing significant Fe and Mn (hematite, goethite, magnetite, and groutite) adsorbed Pu(V) faster than those which did not, highlighting the potential importance of minerals with redox couples in increasing the rate of Pu(V) removal from solution. PMID:23614502

  2. Surface Characterization of Plasma Treated Carbon Fibers and Adhesion to Polyethersulfone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pascal Commercon

    1992-01-01

    A series of RF plasmas was chosen to modify the surface chemical composition of Hercules IM7 carbon fibers. A two-liquid tensiometric method was used to determine the surface energy parameters gamma_sp {rm s}{rm d} and I_sp{rm sf}{rm p} of the fibers. An XPS analysis of air and argon plasma treated fibers indicated a significant surface oxidation of the fibers which

  3. Force Field for Mica-Type Silicates and Dynamics of Octadecylammonium Chains Grafted to Montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz,H.; Koerner, H.; Anderson, K.; Vaia, R.; Farmer, B.

    2005-01-01

    Layered silicates are widely used in nanotechnology and composite materials. We describe a force field for phyllosilicates (mica, montmorillonite, and pyrophyllite) on the basis of physically justified atomic charges, van der Waals parameters, vibrational constants, and distributions of charge defects in agreement with solid state {sup 29}Si NMR data. Unit cell parameters deviate only {approx}0.5% relative to experimental X-ray measurements and surface (respectively cleavage) energies deviate less than 10% from experimental data, including the partition between Coulomb and van der Waals contributions. Reproduction of surface energies facilitates quantitative simulations of hybrid interfaces with water, organics, and biomolecules for which accurate force fields are available. Parameters are consistent with the force fields PCFF (polymer consistent force field), CVFF (consistent valence force field), CHARMM (chemistry at Harvard macromolecular mechanics), and GROMACS (Groningen machine for chemical simulations). As an example of interest, we investigate the structure and dynamics of octadecylammonium montmorillonite ('C{sub 18}'-montmorillonite, cation exchange capacity = 91 mmol/100 g) by molecular dynamics simulation. The surfactant chains assemble essentially as a bilayer with minimal interpenetration within the gallery while the ammonium headgroups are hydrogen-bonded to cavities in the montmorillonite surface. In contrast to quaternary ammonium ions, no rearrangements on the surface have been observed (cavity crossing barrier >5 kcal/mol). The alkyl chains are in a liquidlike state with approximately 30% gauche conformations, in agreement with previous Fourier-transform infrared and solid-state NMR measurements. Computed X-ray diffraction patterns of sodium and C18-montmorillonite agree very well with X-ray patterns from experiment, and the computational model can assist in the assignment of complex reflections.

  4. Characterization of the surface and the interphase of PVC-copper amine-treated wood composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Haihong; Kamdem, D. Pascal

    2010-05-01

    Contact angles and surface energy of wood, as well as interfacial shear strength between wood and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were investigated and used to monitor the modifications generated on the surfaces of wood treated with a copper ethanolamine solution. An increase in surface energy of wood after treatments promotes wetting of PVC on wood surfaces. Improved interfacial shear strength between treated wood and PVC matrix can be attributed to the formation of a stronger wood-PVC interphase. This suggests that treatment may be used to improve the adhesion between wood surface and PVC in the formulation of wood fiber composites to yield products with enhanced mechanical properties and better biological and physical performance against decay and insect destroying wood.

  5. Extent of coverage of surfaces treated with hydrophobizing microemulsions: A mass spectrometry and contact angle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Andras; Kennedy, Joseph P.; Wang, Ping; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Hanton, Scott D.

    2006-03-01

    Glass surfaces were treated with various hydrophobizing microemulsions (HME) containing mineral seal oil or polyisobutylene as hydrophobes emulsified by dimethyl dicoco ammonium chloride (i.e. mimicking commercial car wash practices) and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS) and contact angle measurements. The cationic emulsifier mediates the anchoring of hydrophobes to the polar glass surface. It is demonstrated that by the use of even very low (0.3-3.0 w%) HME concentrations the surfaces become hydrophobic and repel water even after numerous (˜20) rinsing cycles. According to MS evidence, however, the surfaces are not fully saturated with hydrophobes and the unprotected areas remain vulnerable to environmental damage.

  6. Further work on sodium montmorillonite as catalyst for the polymerization of activated amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eirich, F. R.; Paecht-Horowitz, M.

    1986-01-01

    When the polycondensation of amino acid acylates was catalyzed with Na-montmorillonite, the polypeptides were consistently found to exhibit a distribution of discrete molecular weights, for as yet undiscovered reasons. One possible explanation was connected to the stepwise mode of monomer addition. New experiments have eliminated this possibility, so that there is the general assumption that this discreteness is the result of a preference of shorter oligomers to add to others of the same length, a feature that could be attributed to some structure of the platelet aggregates of the montmorillonite. The production of optical stereoisomers is anticipated when D,L-amino acids are polymerized on montmorillonite. Having used an optically active surface, the essence of the results lies not only in the occurrence of optically active oligomers and polymers, but also in the fact that the latter exhibit the same molecular weight characteristics as the D,L-polymers. Preparatory to work contemplated on a parallel synthesis of amino acid and nucleotide oligomers, studies were continued on the co-adsorption of amino acids, nucleotides, and amino acid-nucleotides on montmorillonite.

  7. Surface characteristics and printing properties of PET fabric treated by atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. M. Rashed; H. Ahmed; A. Al-Halwagy; A. A. Garamoon

    2009-01-01

    PET (Poly ethylene terephthalate) fabric was treated using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) as a type of low temperature plasma under atmospheric pressure for 1 to 15min and different powers ranging between 0.3 to 5W. Effects of DBD treatment on the surface of a test PET fabric are examined, reported and discussed. The surface analysis and characterization were performed using X-ray

  8. Surface transformation hardening on steels treated with solar energy in central tower and heliostats field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. P. Rodríquez; V. López; J. J. de Damborenea; A. J. Vázquez

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of surface hardening on AISI 4140 steel treated with concentrated solar energy in solar installations for electricity production has been studied. The samples were slides from a 35 mm diameter steel bar and their height was 35 mm. The quenching was made in water but also was considered the possibility of self-quenching by cooling in air. The amount

  9. Adsorption of Pyridine from Aqueous Solution by Surface Treated Carbon Nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Zhao; Duan Qiu

    2007-01-01

    The surface treatment of multi?walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with acid, heat, ultrasonic, and polyvinyl alcohol has been examined. The original CNTs and four treated CNTs were first used as adsorbents to remove pyridine from water and the adsorption isotherms of pyridine on CNTs were studied. At the same time, the effect of pH, temperature, and the adsorption kinetics on the

  10. Occurrence of phthalates in surface runoff, untreated and treated wastewater and fate during wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Clara; G. Windhofer; W. Hartl; K. Braun; M. Simon; O. Gans; C. Scheffknecht; A. Chovanec

    2010-01-01

    Dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dibuthyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylbenzyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dioctyl phthalate were analysed in raw and treated wastewater as well as in surface runoff samples from traffic roads. All six investigated phthalates have been detected in all raw sewage samples, in nearly all wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent samples and in all road runoff samples, with DEHP

  11. Cellular Performance Comparison of Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Coating and Alkaline-Treated Titanium Surface

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Mei

    2013-01-01

    The influence of biomimetic calcium phosphate coating on osteoblasts behavior in vitro is not well established yet. In this study, we investigated the behavior of osteoblastic rat osteosarcoma 17/2.8 cells (ROS17/2.8) on two groups of biomaterial surfaces: alkaline-treated titanium surface (ATT) and biomimetic calcium phosphate coated ATT (CaP). The cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology on these surfaces were extensively evaluated to reveal the impact of substrate surface on osteoblastic cell responses. It was found that the ROS17/2.8 cells cultured on the ATT surface had higher attachment and proliferation rates compared to those on the CaP surface. Our results also showed that the calcium phosphate coatings generated in this work have an inhibiting effect on osteoblast adhesion and further influenced the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast compared to the ATT surface in vitro. Cells on the ATT surface also exhibited a higher alkaline phosphatase activity than on the CaP surface after two weeks of culture. Immunofluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the cells adhered and spread faster on the ATT surface than on the CaP surface. These results collectively suggested that substrate surface properties directly influence cell adhesion on different biomaterials, which would result in further influence on the cell proliferation and differentiation. PMID:24455730

  12. Cytotoxicity of Ni from Surface-Treated Porous Nitinol (PNT) on Osteoblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pulletikurthi, C.; Munroe, N.; Gill, P.; Pandya, S.; Persaud, D.; Haider, W.; Iyer, K.; McGoron, A.

    2011-01-01

    The leaching of nickel from the surface of porous Nitinol (PNT) is mainly dependent on its surface characteristics, which can be controlled by appropriate surface treatments. In this investigation, PNT was subjected to two surface treatments, namely, water-boiling and dry-heating passivations. Phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solutions obtained from cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests on PNT were employed to assess the cytotoxicity of Ni contained therein on osteoblast cells by Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. In addition, similar concentrations of Ni were added exogenously to cell culture media to determine cytotoxic effects on osteoblast cells. The morphologies of the untreated and the surface-treated PNTs were examined using SEM and AFM. Furthermore, growth of human osteoblast cells was observed on the PNT surfaces. PMID:21666866

  13. Cytotoxicity of Ni from Surface-Treated Porous Nitinol (PNT) on Osteoblast Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulletikurthi, C.; Munroe, N.; Gill, P.; Pandya, S.; Persaud, D.; Haider, W.; Iyer, K.; McGoron, A.

    2011-07-01

    The leaching of nickel from the surface of porous Nitinol (PNT) is mainly dependent on its surface characteristics, which can be controlled by appropriate surface treatments. In this investigation, PNT was subjected to two surface treatments, namely, water-boiling and dry-heating passivations. Phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solutions obtained from cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests on PNT were employed to assess the cytotoxicity of Ni contained therein on osteoblast cells by Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. In addition, similar concentrations of Ni were added exogenously to cell culture media to determine cytotoxic effects on osteoblast cells. The morphologies of the untreated and the surface-treated PNTs were examined using SEM and AFM. Furthermore, growth of human osteoblast cells was observed on the PNT surfaces.

  14. Investigation on GaAs(0 0 1) surface treated by As-free high temperature surface cleaning method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isomura, N.; Tsukamoto, S.; Iizuka, K.; Arakawa, Y.

    2007-04-01

    We have used in in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to study GaAs(0 0 1) surface treated by As-free high temperature surface cleaning method. The temperatures ranged from 575 to 655C and an optimum temperature of 605C was found. Its surface had ×6 structure parallel to [1 1¯ 0] direction and smooth morphology by congruent evaporation. However, many pit-like structures formed lower than 600C. On the other hand, with 610C and higher, the surface became rough, forming many grooves with {1 1 1}B and {1 1 1}A facets. At 655C, the roughness was reduced but the surface easily became milky because of rapid As desorption.

  15. Montmorillonite, Oligonucleotides, RNA and Origin of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gözen Ertem

    2004-01-01

    Na-montmorillonite prepared from Volclay by the titration method facilitates the self-condensation of ImpA, the 5'-phosphorimidazolide derivative of adenosine. As was shown by AE-HPLC analysis and selective enzymatic hydrolysis of products, oligo(A)s formed in this reaction are 10 monomer units long and contain 67% 3',5'-phosphodiester bonds (Ferris and Ertem, 1992a). Under the same reaction conditions, 5'-phosphorimidazolide derivatives of cytidine, uridine and

  16. Dehydration transformation in Ca-montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bala; B. K. Samantaray; S. K. Srivastava

    2000-01-01

    The present work deals with the dehydration transformation of Ca-montmorillonite in the temperature range 30°–500°C. Thermal,\\u000a infrared (IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to describe the thermal transformation. The microstructural\\u000a and layer disorder parameters like crystallite size, r.m.s. strain (?e2?1\\/2), variation of interlayer spacing (g), and proportion of planes which were affected by the defect (?), have all

  17. Method of treating steel surfaces to prevent wear, and coating obtained thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, G.R.

    1984-03-06

    An object of the present invention is a method for the anti-wear treatment of the surface of steel parts having a carbon content of at least 0.15% and the coating obtained thereby. The method is characterized by the fact that an addition of sulfur, by depositing of a metal sulfide for example, and a vapor-phase chromizing are carried out in sucession on the surface to be treated. The coating obtained is characterized by the presence of a layer of chromium sulfide on the surface and by the partial recrystallization of the underlying M/sub 7/C/sub 3/ chromium carbide layer. The invention can be applied to any moving mechanical system which is subject to abrasion. The invention has importance because it increases the resistance to wear and the life of the system treated while limiting the wear of the untreated opposing part as a result of friction.

  18. An investigative study of polymer adsorption onto montmorillonite clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell Boykin, Cheri Lynn

    For colloidal systems with adsorbed polymer, the mechanisms governing stabilization and flocculation are defined by the critical overlap concentration, c*. Below c*, steric stabilization or bridging flocculation are viable mechanisms of adsorption, while above c* associative thickening stabilization, depletion stabilization or depletion flocculation may occur. While these types of systems have been described by their mechanism of interaction, few studies have been geared towards evaluating and actually defining these interactions. This research focuses on elucidating the mechanisms of interaction for a series of polyacrylamide copolymers adsorbed onto montmorillonite clay. The well-defined copolymers synthesized and characterized for these studies include: nonionic polyacrylamide, (PAm); cationic poly(acrylamide-co-[3-(methacryloylamino) propyl] trimethylammonium chloride), (PAmMaap Quat); nonionic/anionic poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid), (PAmAA); and anionic poly(acrylamide-co-[2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid]), (PAmAmps). By combining the results from the following experiments it was possible to determine the mechanisms of interaction for each of the clay/polymer systems at pH 3, 7 and 10. The adsorption capacity of each of the copolymers was determined from constructing adsorption isotherms while the polymer conformation was determined from 13C NMR line-broadening experiments. FTIR spectroscopy verified which surface of the clay was involved in adsorption along with the polymer moiety bound to the surface. Finally, the stabilization behavior was evaluated from statistically designed phase diagrams as a function of polymer and clay concentrations. By evaluating the phase behavior as well as c* for the polymer/solvent systems, it was determined that there was no direct correlation between c* for a polymer/solvent system and the mechanism of interaction for colloid/polymer/solvent systems previously defined by Vincent, Sato and Napper. In general, the nonionic polymers act as H-bond acceptors (amide and acid moieties) and donators (acid groups) which result in associatively stabilized homogeneous montmorillonite clay dispersions. The cationic copolymers exhibit strong, irreversible interactions with the clay resulting in heterogeneous bridging flocculation, which was shown to be dependent on the charge density of the copolymer. Furthermore, the anionic copolymers show no signs of adsorption, but create a network of repulsive forces with the montmorillonite clay, which ultimately results in depletion stabilization with some degree of depletion flocculation.

  19. In vitro attachment of osteoblasts on contaminated rough titanium surfaces treated by Er:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Anton; Antic, Lilly; Bernimoulin, Jean-Pierre; Purucker, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Microbial contamination of implant surfaces inhibits formation of new osseous tissues. Biocompatibility of sandblasted large grid (SLA) surface, after previous in vitro cocultivation with Porphyromonas gingivalis and concomitant Er:YAG laser irradiation of microorganisms, was tested by attachment of newly cultured osteoblasts. A total of 36 customized titanium cubes with SLA surface were placed into human osteoblast culture for 14 days. After removal of 1 control cube, 35 other cubes were contaminated with precultured P. gingivalis (ATCC33277) and incubated in broth medium for 1 week. Ablation was carried out on 32 cubes. Each side was treated for 23.5 s with a pulsed, water-cooled laser beam. After irradiation, cubes were again placed into fresh osteoblast culture for 2 weeks. One randomly selected single side per cube was analyzed by scanning electron microscope in 22 cubes. On other 10 cubes, vitality of attached cells was tested with ethidiumbromide staining by fluorescence microscopy. Three negative controls revealed constantly adherent P. gingivalis, and no osteoblasts were detectable after P. gingivalis contamination on the surfaces. Laser-treated specimens showed newly attached osteoblasts, extending over 50-80% of the surface. Positive control cube (without bacterial contamination) showed over 80% cell coverage of the surface. Vitality of widely stretched osteoblasts was confirmed by FITC staining. Our results indicate that Er:YAG laser was effective in removing P. gingivalis and cell compounds, offering an acceptable surface for new osteoblast attachment. PMID:16758451

  20. Preparation and characterization of microporous SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} pillared montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yang-Su [Nanospace Co. Ltd., Business Incubator, Korea Institute of Ceramic Engineering and Technology, 233-5 Gasan-dong Guemcheon-Gu, Seoul 153-801 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: yshan@inanospace.com; Yamanaka, Shoji [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739 (Japan)

    2006-04-15

    SiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} pillared montmorillonite (SZM) was prepared by the reaction of Na-montmorillonite with colloidal silica-zirconia particles which were prepared by depositing zirconium hydroxy cations on silica particles. By pillaring with the colloidal particles, the basal spacing of montmorillonite was expanded to ca. 45 A and the calcined SZM samples showed large specific surface areas up to 320 m{sup 2}/g at 400 deg. C. In spite of large interlayer separation, adsorption results indicated the presence of micropores generated between the colloidal particles. The microporous structure was maintained at least up to 600 deg. C and exhibited specific shape selectivity for the adsorption of large organic molecules, especially between toluene and mesitylene. According to the temperature-programmed-desorption (TPD) spectra of ammonia, the calcined SZM showed weakly acidic sites.

  1. Heterogeneous uptake of nitric acid on Na-montmorillonite clay as a function of relative humidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Mashburn; E. K. Frinak; M. A. Tolbert

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric mineral aerosol is a potentially important reactive surface that may provide a heterogeneous sink for gas phase species such as nitric acid (HNO3). We have studied the uptake of HNO3 on Na-montmorillonite, a swelling clay mineral, at low temperatures as a function of relative humidity (RH), HNO3 pressure and clay mass. Condensed phase products were probed with transmission Fourier

  2. Interactions of BDTDACl and DTABr Surfactants with Montmorillonite in Aqueous Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Günister; C. H. Ünlü; O. Atici; O. I. Ece; N. Güngör

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the effect of the two cationic surfactants (benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (BDTDACl) and dodecyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (DTABr)) on the electrokinetic and rheologic properties of Na-montmorillonite dispersion (3% w\\/w) has been investigated at their concentrations between 0 and 10 mmol\\/L. Experimental results reveal that cationic surfactants are attached on the surface of negatively charged clay particles and also they penetrate into

  3. Residual Stress Assessment in Surface-Treated Metals by Laser-Ultrasonic Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, A.; Nagy, P.B. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0070 (United States)

    2004-02-26

    This paper presents experimental data obtained on shot-peened aluminum 2024-T351 samples, which indicate that the dispersion of the surface wave is affected by surface roughness, compressive residual stress, and cold work. Although the surface roughness induced component is often the dominant part in the overall dispersion of the SAW, the experimental data indicate that it is feasible to observe a substantial and highly characteristic change in the velocity of the SAW when the specimen is heat treated at different annealing temperatures. The part of the dispersion, which changes during annealing via thermal relaxation, is due to near-surface residual stresses and the decay of texture, although at high frequencies non-uniform grain coarsening could also play a significant role.

  4. Homochiral Selection in Montmorillonite-catalyzed Prebiotic Synthesis of RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, P. C.; Aldersley, M. F.; Ferris, J. P.

    2010-04-01

    Reaction of D, L-ImpA with D, L-ImpU on montmorillonite, produced longer oligomers with higher yield as compared to reactions carried out with D-enantiomer only. Montmorillonite plays an important role in the prebiotic synthesis and homochiral selection of RNA.

  5. Relation Between Crystal-Lattice Configuration and Swelling of Montmorillonites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN C. DAVIDTZt; PHILIP F. LOW

    1970-01-01

    Prompted by Foster's observation that free swelling is related to octahedral substitution, the authors determined the free swelling of six Na-montmorillonites with different amounts of octa- hedral and tetrahedral substitution. They found that the montmorillonites exhibited marked differences in free swelling. These differences were not related to differences in cation exchange capacity. Nor were they related to differences in ~

  6. Chemical and physical changes in surface of Argon plasma treated cotton fabrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Inbakumar; A. Anukaliani

    2012-01-01

    Hydrophilic cotton fabrics were exposed by low-pressure DC glow discharge plasma in argon atmosphere. The influence of different operating parameters such as treatment time, discharge potential, and operating pressure on the chemical and physical properties of the cotton fabrics is studied. Surface analysis and characterization of the plasma-treated cotton fabrics is performed using vertical wicking experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning

  7. Surface roughness and color characteristics of wood treated with preservatives after accelerated weathering test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Temiz; Umit C. Yildiz; Ismail Aydin; Morten Eikenes; Gry Alfredsen; Gürsel Çolakoglu

    2005-01-01

    Wood samples treated with ammonium copper quat (ACQ 1900 and ACQ 2200), chromated copper arsenate (CCA), Tanalith E 3491 and Wolmanit CX-8 have been studied in accelerated weathering experiments. The weathering experiment was performed by cycles of 2h UV-light irradiation followed by water spray for 18min. The changes on the surface of the weathered samples were characterized by roughness and

  8. Cavitation erosion of cobalt based STELLITE alloys, cemented carbides and surface treated low alloy steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Heathcock; A. Ball; B PROTHEROE

    1981-01-01

    Results are given for erosion-resistance tests involving several STELLITE alloys, cemented carbides and surface-treated alloy steels. It is shown that the cobalt-rich, solid-solution phase of the STELLITE alloys is the basis of their erosion resistance, while the erosion of cemented carbides is predominantly controlled by the binder phase. It is also found that nickel-based tungsten carbides are more erosion-resistant than

  9. Tribological Properties of Aluminum Alloy treated by Fine Particle Peening/DLC Hybrid Surface Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Y.; Nanbu, H.; Kameyama, Y.; Komotori, J.

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the adhesiveness of the DLC coating, Fine Particle Peening (FPP) treatment was employed as pre-treatment of the DLC coating process. FPP treatment was performed using SiC shot particles, and then AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy was DLC-coated. A SiC-rich layer was formed around the surface of the aluminum alloy by the FPP treatment because small chips of shot particles were embedded into the substrate surface. Reciprocating sliding tests were conducted to measure the friction coefficients. While the DLC coated specimen without FPP treatment showed a sudden increase in friction coefficient at the early stage of the wear cycles, the FPP/DLC hybrid treated specimen maintained a low friction coefficient value during the test period. Further investigation revealed that the tribological properties of the substrate after the DLC coating were improved with an increase in the amount of Si at the surface.

  10. Surface properties of low alloy steel treated by plasma nitrocarburizing prior to laser quenching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. X.; Yan, M. F.; Li, B.; Guo, L. X.; Zhang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. X.; Bai, B.; Chen, L.; Long, Z.; Li, R. W.

    2015-04-01

    Laser quenching (LQ) technique is used as a part of duplex treatments to improve the thickness and hardness of the surface layers of steels. The present study is to investigate the surface properties of low alloy steel treated by plasma nitrocarburizing (PNC) prior to a laser quenching process (PNC+LQ). The microstructure and properties of PNC+LQ layer determined are compared with those obtained by PNC and LQ processes. OM, XRD, SEM and EDS analyses are utilized for microstructure observation, phases identification, morphology observation and chemical composition detection, respectively. Microhardness tester and pin-on-disc tribometer are used to investigate the mechanical properties of the modified layers. Laser quenching of plasma nitrocarburized (PNC+LQ) steel results in much improved thickness and hardness of the modified layer in comparison with the PNC or LQ treated specimens. The mechanism is that the introduction of trace of nitrogen decreases the eutectoid point, that is, the transformation hardened region is enlarged under the same temperature distribution. Moreover, the layer treated by PNC+LQ process exhibits enhanced wear resistance, due to the lubrication effect and optimized impact toughness, which is contributed to the formation of oxide film consisting of low nitrogen compound (FeN0.076) and iron oxidation (mainly of Fe3O4).

  11. The stability of radio-frequency plasma-treated polydimethylsiloxane surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Jane; Lindner, Ernö

    2007-03-13

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used material for manufacturing lab-on-chip devices. However, the hydrophobic nature of PDMS is a disadvantage in microfluidic systems. To transform the hydrophobic PDMS surface to hydrophilic, it was treated with radio-frequency (RF) air plasma at 150, 300, and 500 mTorr pressures for up to 30 min. Following the surface treatment, the PDMS specimens were stored in air, deionized water, or 0.14 M NaCl solution at 4 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 70 degrees C. The change in the hydrophilicity (wettability) of the PDMS surfaces was followed by contact angle measurements and Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy as a function of time. As an effect of the RF plasma treatment, the contact angles measured on PDMS surfaces dropped from 113 +/- 4 degrees to 9 +/- 3 degrees . The chamber pressure and the treatment time had no or negligible effect on the results. However, the PDMS surface gradually lost its hydrophilic properties in time. The rate of this process is influenced by the difference in the dielectric constants of the PDMS and its ambient environment. It was the smallest at low temperatures in deionized water and largest at high temperatures in air. Apparently, the OH groups generated on the PDMS surface during the plasma treatment tended toward a more hydrophilic/less hydrophobic environment during the relaxation processes. The correlation between the FTIR-ATR spectral information and the contact angle data supports this interpretation. PMID:17279784

  12. Aggregation of montmorillonite and organic matter in aqueous media containing artificial seawater

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The dispersion-aggregation behaviors of suspended colloids in rivers and estuaries are affected by the compositions of suspended materials (i.e., clay minerals vs. organic macromolecules) and salinity. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the dispersion and aggregation mechanisms of suspended particles under simulated river and estuarine conditions. The average hydrodynamic diameters of suspended particles (representing degree of aggregation) and zeta potential (representing the electrokinetic properties of suspended colloids and aggregates) were determined for systems containing suspended montmorillonite, humic acid, and/or chitin at the circumneutral pH over a range of salinity (0 – 7.2 psu). Results The montmorillonite-only system increased the degree of aggregation with salinity increase, as would be expected for suspended colloids whose dispersion-aggregation behavior is largely controlled by the surface electrostatic properties and van der Waals forces. When montmorillonite is combined with humic acid or chitin, the aggregation of montmorillonite was effectively inhibited. The surface interaction energy model calculations reveal that the steric repulsion, rather than the increase in electronegativity, is the primary cause for the inhibition of aggregation by the addition of humic acid or chitin. Conclusion These results help explain the range of dispersion-aggregation behaviors observed in natural river and estuarine systems. It is postulated that the composition of suspended particles, specifically the availability of steric polymers such as those contained in humic acid, determine whether the river suspension is rapidly aggregated and settled or remains dispersed in suspension when it encounters increasingly saline environments of estuaries and oceans. PMID:19166595

  13. Osteoclasts but not osteoblasts are affected by a calcified surface treated with zoledronic acid in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Schindeler, Aaron [Department of Orthopaedic Research and Biotechnology, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia) and Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)]. E-mail: AaronS@chw.edu.au; Little, David G. [Department of Orthopaedic Research and Biotechnology, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney (Australia); Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2005-12-16

    Bisphosphonates are potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Recent interest has centered on the effects of bisphosphonates on osteoblasts. Chronic dosing of osteoblasts with solubilized bisphosphonates has been reported to enhance osteogenesis and mineralization in vitro. However, this methodology poorly reflects the in vivo situation, where free bisphosphonate becomes rapidly bound to mineralized bone surfaces. To establish a more clinically relevant cell culture model, we cultured bone cells on calcium phosphate coated quartz discs pre-treated with the potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZA). Binding studies utilizing [{sup 14}C]-labeled ZA confirmed that the bisphosphonate bound in a concentration-dependent manner over the 1-50 {mu}M dose range. When grown on ZA-treated discs, the viability of bone-marrow derived osteoclasts was greatly reduced, while the viability and mineralization of the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line were largely unaffected. This suggests that only bone resorbing cells are affected by bound bisphosphonate. However, this system does not account for transient exposure to unbound bisphosphonate in the hours following a clinical dosing. To model this event, we transiently treated osteoblasts with ZA in the absence of a calcified surface. Osteoblasts proved highly resistant to all transitory treatment regimes, even when utilizing ZA concentrations that prevented mineralization and/or induced cell death when dosed chronically. This study represents a pharmacologically more relevant approach to modeling bisphosphonate treatment on cultured bone cells and implies that bisphosphonate therapies may not directly affect osteoblasts at bone surfaces.

  14. Simulation of multiaxial fatigue strength of steel component treated by surface induction hardening and comparison with experimental results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Palin-Luc; D. Coupard; C. Dumas; P. Bristiel

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to assess the high-cycle multiaxial fatigue strength of components treated by surface induction hardening (SIH). Surface quenching following surface induction heating is simulated, taking into account the following features of the process: (i) electromagnetic and thermal fields, (ii) phase transformation, and (iii) the residual stress field resulting from the entire process. The fatigue strength of

  15. Adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on montmorillonites modified with iron.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Thanh, Danh; Block, Karin; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2005-04-01

    Sodium-rich montmorillonite was modified with iron in order to introduce active centers for hydrogen sulfide adsorption. In the first modification, interlayer sodium cations were exchanged with iron. In another modification, iron oxocations were introduced to the clay surface. The most elaborated modification was based on doping of iron within the interlayer space of aluminum-pillared clay. The modified clay samples were tested as hydrogen sulfide adsorbents. Iron-doped samples showed a significant improvement in the capacity for H2S removal, despite of a noticeable decrease in microporosity compared to the initial pillared clay. The smallest capacity was obtained for the clay modified with iron oxocations. Variations in adsorption capacity are likely due to differences in the chemistry of iron species, degree of their dispersion on the surface, and accessibility of small pores for H2S molecule. The results suggest that on the surface of iron-modified clay hydrogen sulfide reacts with Fe(+3) forming sulfides or it is catalytically oxidized to SO2 on iron (hydro)oxides. Subsequent oxidation may lead to sulfate formation. PMID:15763087

  16. Cavitation erosion of cobalt based STELLITE alloys, cemented carbides and surface treated low alloy steels

    SciTech Connect

    Heathcock, C.J. (Cape Town, Univ., Rondebosch, Republic of South Africa); Ball, A.

    1981-03-30

    Results are given for erosion-resistance tests involving several STELLITE alloys, cemented carbides and surface-treated alloy steels. It is shown that the cobalt-rich, solid-solution phase of the STELLITE alloys is the basis of their erosion resistance, while the erosion of cemented carbides is predominantly controlled by the binder phase. It is also found that nickel-based tungsten carbides are more erosion-resistant than those based on cobalt. It is demonstrated for the case of the low-alloy steels that surface treatment can improve their erosion rates, and that application of a proprietary nitrocarburizing method to the same steels results in a similar performance improvement only after the initial loss of the compound layer.

  17. Stratified assemblies of magnetite nanoparticles and montmorillonite prepared by the layer-by-layer assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Mamedov, A.; Ostrander, J.; Aliev, F.; Kotov, N.A.

    2000-04-18

    Hybrid thin films are prepared from 8 to 10 nm Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and exfoliated montmorillonite clay by using layer-by-layer assembly on poly(diallyldimethylammonium bromide), PDDA. Distinct stratification of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PDDA/clay films is obtained due to the sheetlike structure of the clay particles. This feature distinguishes these assemblies from their polyelectrolyte-polyelectrolyte analogues, where the layers of individual polyelectrolytes are strongly interdigitated. Being adsorbed on PDDA strictly parallel to the substrate surface, montmorillonite produces a dense layer of overlapping alumosilicate sheets, which virtually flawlessly separates one magnetite layer from another. The difference in magnetic properties between assemblies of various architectures is attributed to the insulation effect of clay layers inserted between magnetic layers. The montmorillonite sheets disrupt the electron exchange interactions between the magnetite nanoparticles in adjacent layers, thereby limiting the magnetization reversal to two dimensions. Some optical properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/PDDA films are investigated as well. When they are deposited on thin plastic substrate, oscillations of optical density were observed in the red part of the UV-vis spectrum. This effect, which has never been observed for conventional, thick substrates such as glass slides, stems from the interference of the light beams passed through and reflected off of the assembled film.

  18. Nitrate removal in surface-flow constructed wetlands treating dilute agricultural runoff in the lower Yakima Basin, Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc W. Beutel; Crystal D. Newton; Elaine S. Brouillard; Richard J. Watts

    2009-01-01

    Constructed treatment wetlands (CTWs) have been used effectively to treat a range of wastewaters and non-point sources contaminated with nitrogen (N). But documented long-term case studies of CTWs treating dilute nitrate-dominated agricultural runoff are limited. This study presents an analysis of four years of water quality data for a 1.6-ha surface-flow CTW treating irrigation return flows in Yakima Basin in

  19. High capacity mercury adsorption on freshly ozone-treated carbon surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Manchester, Shawn; Wang, Xuelei; Kulaots, Indrek; Gao, Yuming; Hurt, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    A set of carbon materials was treated by a choice of common oxidizers to investigate the mercury capture capacities at varying temperature conditions. It was found that ozone treatment dramatically increases the mercury capture capacity of carbon surfaces by factors up to 134, but the activity is easily destroyed by exposure to the atmosphere, to water vapor, or by mild heating. Freshly ozone-treated carbon surfaces are shown to oxidize iodide to iodine in solution and this ability fades with aging. FTIR analysis shows broad C–O stretch features from 950 to 1300 cm?1, which decay upon atmospheric exposure and are similar to the C-O-C asymmetric stretch features of ethylene secondary ozonide. The combined results suggest that the ultra-high mercury capture efficiency is due to a subset of labile C-O functional groups with residual oxidizing power that are likely epoxides or (epoxide-containing) secondary ozonides. The results open the possibility for in situ ozonolysis to create high-performance carbon-based Hg sorbents. PMID:19255621

  20. Effect of Surface Treated Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles on Some Mechanical Properties of Maxillofacial Silicone Elastomer

    PubMed Central

    Zayed, Sara M.; Alshimy, Ahmad M.; Fahmy, Amal E.

    2014-01-01

    Current materials used for maxillofacial prostheses are far from ideal and there is a need for novel improved materials which mimic as close as possible the natural behavior of facial soft tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of surface treated silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2) on clinically important mechanical properties of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer. 147 specimens of the silicone elastomer were prepared and divided into seven groups (n = 21). One control group was prepared without nanoparticles and six study groups with different concentrations of nanoparticles, from 0.5% to 3% by weight. Specimens were tested for tear strength (ASTM D624), tensile strength (ASTM D412), percent elongation, and shore A hardness. SEM was used to assess the dispersion of nano-SiO2 within the elastomer matrix. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffe test (? = 0.05). Results revealed significant improvement in all mechanical properties tested, as the concentration of the nanoparticles increased. This was supported by the results of the SEM. Hence, it can be concluded that the incorporation of surface treated SiO2 nanoparticles at concentration of 3% enhanced the overall mechanical properties of A-2186 silicone elastomer. PMID:25574170

  1. Effect of surface treated silicon dioxide nanoparticles on some mechanical properties of maxillofacial silicone elastomer.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Sara M; Alshimy, Ahmad M; Fahmy, Amal E

    2014-01-01

    Current materials used for maxillofacial prostheses are far from ideal and there is a need for novel improved materials which mimic as close as possible the natural behavior of facial soft tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding different concentrations of surface treated silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2) on clinically important mechanical properties of a maxillofacial silicone elastomer. 147 specimens of the silicone elastomer were prepared and divided into seven groups (n = 21). One control group was prepared without nanoparticles and six study groups with different concentrations of nanoparticles, from 0.5% to 3% by weight. Specimens were tested for tear strength (ASTM D624), tensile strength (ASTM D412), percent elongation, and shore A hardness. SEM was used to assess the dispersion of nano-SiO2 within the elastomer matrix. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Scheffe test (? = 0.05). Results revealed significant improvement in all mechanical properties tested, as the concentration of the nanoparticles increased. This was supported by the results of the SEM. Hence, it can be concluded that the incorporation of surface treated SiO2 nanoparticles at concentration of 3% enhanced the overall mechanical properties of A-2186 silicone elastomer. PMID:25574170

  2. Adhesive forces and surface properties of cold gas plasma treated UHMWPE.

    PubMed

    Preedy, Emily Callard; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Evans, Sam L; Perni, Stefano; Prokopovich, Polina

    2014-10-20

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment was used on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), a common articulating counter material employed in hip and knee replacements. UHMWPE is a biocompatible polymer with low friction coefficient, yet does not have robust wear characteristics. CAP effectively cross-links the polymer chains of the UHMWPE improving wear performance (Perni et al., Acta Biomater. 8(3) (2012) 1357). In this work, interactions between CAP treated UHMWPE and spherical borosilicate sphere (representing model material for bone) were considered employing AFM technique. Adhesive forces increased, in the presence of PBS, after treatment with helium and helium/oxygen cold gas plasmas. Furthermore, a more hydrophilic surface of UHMWPE was observed after both treatments, determined through a reduction of up to a third in the contact angles of water. On the other hand, the asperity density also decreased by half, yet the asperity height had a three-fold decrease. This work shows that CAP treatment can be a very effective technique at enhancing the adhesion between bone and UHMWPE implant material as aided by the increased adhesion forces. Moreover, the hydrophilicity of the CAP treated UHMWPE can lead to proteins and cells adhesion to the surface of the implant stimulating osseointegration process. PMID:25431523

  3. Behavior of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) neonate larvae on surfaces treated with microencapsulated pear ester.

    PubMed

    Light, Douglas M; Beck, John J

    2012-06-01

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), larvae cause severe internal feeding damage to apples, pears, and walnuts worldwide. Research has demonstrated that codling moth neonate first instar larvae are attracted to a pear-derived kairomone, ethyl (2E,4Z)-2,4-decadienoate, the pear ester (PE). Reported here are the behavioral activities of neonate codling moth larvae to microencapsulated pear ester (MEC-PE) applied in aqueous solutions to both filter paper and apple leaf surfaces that were evaluated over a period of up to 20 d of aging. In dual-choice tests the MEC-PE treatment elicited attraction to and longer time spent on treated zones of filter papers relative to water-treated control zones for up to 14 d of aging. A higher concentration of MEC-PE caused no preferential response to the treated zone for the first 5 d of aging followed by significant responses through day 20 of aging, suggesting sensory adaptation as an initial concentration factor. Estimated emission levels of PE from treated filter papers were experimentally calculated for the observed behavioral thresholds evident over the aging period. When applied to apple leaves, MEC-PE changed neonate walking behavior by eliciting more frequent and longer time periods of arrestment and affected their ability to find the leaf base and stem or petiole. Effects of MEC-PE on extended walking time and arrestment by codling moth larvae would increase temporal and spatial exposure of neonates while on leaves; thereby potentially disrupting fruit or nut finding and enhancing mortality by increasing the exposure to insecticides, predation, and abiotic factors. PMID:22732619

  4. Cuprous Ion Conducting Montmorillonite- Polypyrrole Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishantha, D. M. M.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Tennakoon, D. T. B.; Bandara, W. M. A. T.; Thilakarathna, P. N. L.

    2006-06-01

    Solid state polymer-Silicate nanocomposite based on Polypyrrole-Cu+-montmorilonite were prepared and electrical properties were investigated. In this preparation, Na-montmorillonite (Na+-MMT) was purified by repeated washing with distilled water and the intergallery cations were exchanged for Cu(II). The cupric ions exchanged-MMT(Cu(II)-- MMT) was again exposed to pyrrole in aqueous acidic solution to yield polypyrrole-Cu+-MMT nanocomposite. DC polarization test and AC impedance measurement reveal that the materials are mixed conductors. The ionic conductivity is due to the motion of cuprous ions which is facilitated by microstructure of polypyrrrole present in the intergalleries. An electrochemical cell was fabricated using the materials which can be represented by Cu(s)/ Cu+-PPY-MMT/Cu2SO4 (s)/Na2SO4(S)-Na2S2O8(s)/ and gave a 1.00 V. The cell is rechargeable.

  5. Calcium Montmorillonite for the Mitigation of Aflatoxicosis and Gastrointestinal Inflammation 

    E-print Network

    Zychowski, Katherine E

    2014-08-06

    Clays have been used for centuries as ‘ancient medicine’ for their therapeutic benefits. One particular clay, calcium montmorillonite, has historically been used as an anti-caking agent in animal feeds, but has also ...

  6. Montmorillonite-induced Bacteriophage ?6 Disassembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusiak, A.; Gottlieb, P.; Katz, A.; Alimova, A.; Steiner, J. C.; Block, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    It is estimated that there are 1031 virus particles on Earth making viruses an order of magnitude more prevalent in number than prokaryotes with the vast majority of viruses being bacteriophages. Clays are a major component of soils and aquatic sediments and can react with RNA, proteins and bacterial biofilms. The clays in soils serve as an important moderator between phage and their host bacteria, helping to preserve the evolutionary balance. Studies on the effects of clays on viral infectivity have given somewhat contradictory results; possibly a consequence of clay-virus interactions being dependent on the unique structure of particular viruses. In this work, the interaction between montmorillonite and the bacteriophage ?6 is investigated. ?6 is a member of the cystovirus family that infects Pseudomonas syringe, a common plant pathogen. As a member of the cystovirus family with an enveloped structure, ?6 serves as a model for reoviruses, a human pathogen. Experiments were conducted with ?6 suspended in dilute, purified homoionic commercial-grade montmorillonite over a range of virus:clay ratios. At a 1:100000 virus:clay ratio, the clay reduced viral infectivity by 99%. The minimum clay to virus ratio which results in a measurable reduction of P. syringae infection is 1:1. Electron microscopy demonstrates that mixed suspensions of smectite and virus co-aggregate to form flocs encompassing virions within the smectite. Both free viral particles as well as those imbedded in the flocs are seen in the micrographs to be missing the envelope- leaving only the nucleocapsid (NC) intact; indicating that smectite inactivates the virus by envelope disassembly. These results have strong implications in the evolution of both the ?6 virus and its P. syringae host cells. TEM of aggregate showing several disassembled NCs.

  7. High-Power Diode Laser Surface Treated HVOF Coating to Combat High Energy Particle Impact Wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, B. S.; Arya, Vivek; Pant, B. K.

    2013-07-01

    High-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF)-sprayed coatings have performed exceptionally well in low-energy particle impact wear and are accepted worldwide. However, their application for high-energy particle impact wear (HEPIW) requires a different approach and more efforts. HVOF-coating systems typically use WC-Co, WC-Co-Cr, WC-Ni-Cr, and FeCrAlY-Cr3C2 powders. WC-Co-Cr powders are preferred when there is a high demand for corrosion resistance. WC-10Co-4Cr coating powder has been selected in the current study. To improve coating properties such as microhardness, fracture toughness, and HEPIW resistance, a new approach of surface treatment with robotically controlled high-power diode laser (HPDL) is attempted. The robotically controlled HVOF-coating deposition and laser surface treatment were monitored using real-time diagnostic control. The HPDL-treated coating has been compared with "as-sprayed" HVOF coating for HEPIW resistance, fracture toughness, microhardness and microstructure. The coating characteristics and properties after laser surface treatment have improved many times compared with "as-sprayed" HVOF coating. This is due to the elimination of pores in the coating and formation of a metallurgical bond between coating and substrate. This new development opens up a possibility of using such laser treatments in specialized areas where HEPIW damages are acute. The fracture toughness and HEPIW resistance along with optical micrographs of HPDL-treated and untreated HVOF coatings are discussed and reported in this article. HEPIW resistance is observed to be proportional to the product of fracture toughness and microhardness of the HVOF coating.

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Conductive Polypyrrole\\/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Enomoto; Shigeo Matsumoto; Michael M. Lerner

    2005-01-01

    A conductive polypyrrole\\/montmorillonite (PPY\\/MMT) nanocomposite was synthesized by the in situ polymerization of polypyrrole in the gallery of montmorillonite layers. HCl was adopted as a dopant of the conductive PPY polymer. The PPY\\/MMT film was prepared by a spin-coating method from the colloidal solution of the PPY\\/MMT nanocomposite. Nanocomposites have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrical dc

  9. Thermal degradation and rheological behaviour of EVA\\/montmorillonite nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Riva; M Zanetti; M Braglia; G Camino; L Falqui

    2002-01-01

    The study is focused on the co-polymer poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate) (EVA) used in telecommunication cable manufacturing. Different modified fillosilicates and EVA polymer were mixed at 120 °C in a Brabender mixer AEW330 in order to obtain polymer layered silicate nanocomposites(PLSN). Exfoliated nanocomposites were obtained with montmorillonite exchanged with methyl tallow bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium and fluorohectorite exchanged with octadecylammonium, whereas with montmorillonite exchanged with dimethyl

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Epoxy\\/organic-montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Y. Zhang; N. Guo; X. H. Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Epoxy\\/Organic-Montmorillonite (O-MMT) nanocomposites were prepared through melting intercalation and solvent intercalation processes, respectively. The interplanar spacing of montmorillonite before\\/after the intercalation treatment, the fracture morphology of the nanocomposites and the dispersion condition of the o-MMT were investigated by XRD (X-ray diffraction) and SEM (scanning electron microscope), with the results showing that there was a structure that the epoxy resin had

  11. Interaction of Cationic Surfactants with Iron and Sodium Montmorillonite Suspensions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangming Chen; Buxing Han; Haike Yan

    1998-01-01

    Calorimetry, static technique, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis were employed to study the adsorption of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on Fe–montmorillonite and Na–montmorillonite suspensions. The results show that the process of adsorption is exothermic and that the type of clay and the alkyl chain length of surfactant affect the amount of adsorption and the enthalpy of adsorption

  12. Preparation of ZrO2/Al2O3-montmorillonite composite as catalyst for phenol hydroxylation

    PubMed Central

    Fatimah, Is

    2013-01-01

    Zirconium dispersed in aluminum-pillared montmorillonite was prepared as a catalyst for phenol hydroxylation. The effects of varying the Zr content on the catalyst’s physicochemical character and activity were studied with XRD, BET surface area analysis, surface acidity measurements and scanning electron microscopy before investigating the performance for phenol conversion. The zirconia dispersion significantly affects the specific surface area, the total surface acidity and surface acidity distribution related to the formation of porous zirconia particles on the surface. The prepared samples exhibited excellent catalytic activity during phenol hydroxylation. PMID:25685535

  13. Isolation of the ocular surface to treat dysfunctional tear syndrome associated with computer use.

    PubMed

    Yee, Richard W; Sperling, Harry G; Kattek, Ashballa; Paukert, Martin T; Dawson, Kevin; Garcia, Marcie; Hilsenbeck, Susan

    2007-10-01

    Dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) associated with computer use is characterized by mild irritation, itching, redness, and intermittent tearing after extended staring. It frequently involves foreign body or sandy sensation, blurring of vision, and fatigue, worsening especially at the end of the day. We undertook a study to determine the effectiveness of periocular isolation using microenvironment glasses (MEGS) alone and in combination with artificial tears in alleviating the symptoms and signs of dry eye related to computer use. At the same time, we evaluated the relative ability of a battery of clinical tests for dry eye to distinguish dry eyes from normal eyes in heavy computer users. Forty adult subjects who used computers 3 hours or more per day were divided into dry eye sufferers and controls based on their scores on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). Baseline scores were recorded and ocular surface assessments were made. On four subsequent visits, the subjects played a computer game for 30 minutes in a controlled environment, during which one of four treatment conditions were applied, in random order, to each subject: 1) no treatment, 2) artificial tears, 3) MEGS, and 4) artificial tears combined with MEGS. Immediately after each session, subjects were tested on: a subjective comfort questionnaire, tear breakup time (TBUT), fluorescein staining, lissamine green staining, and conjunctival injection. In this study, a significant correlation was found between cumulative lifetime computer use and ocular surface disorder, as measured by the standardized OSDI index. The experimental and control subjects were significantly different (P<0.05) in the meibomian gland assessment and TBUT; they were consistently different in fluorescein and lissamine green staining, but with P>0.05. Isolation of the ocular surface alone produced significant improvements in comfort scores and TBUT and a consistent trend of improvement in fluorescein staining and lissamine green staining. Isolation plus tears produced a significant improvement in lissamine green staining. The subjective comfort inventory and the TBUT test were most effective in distinguishing between the treatments used. Computer users with ocular surface complaints should have a detailed ocular surface examination and, if symptomatic, they can be effectively treated with isolation of the ocular surface, artificial tears therapy, and effective environmental manipulations. PMID:17938840

  14. Response surface methodology (RSM) in evaluation of the vitamin C concentrations in microwave treated milk.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Saren, Gaowa; Huo, Wenli

    2015-07-01

    During the microwave treatment process of the milk, response surface methodology (RSM) based on three-level three-factorial Box-Behnken design was used. The response vitamin C concentration was studied. The predicted value of model (11.84 ?g/mL) was in excellent accordance with experimental value (11.83 ?g/mL). Milk layer thickness was the most significant factor that affects the measured responses, and the effects of microwave time and microwave power were dependent on milk layer thickness levels. The variables microwave time,milk layer thickness and microwave power have the opposite effect on vitamin C concentration in milk treated by microwave. Synergistic interactions between milk layer thickness and microwave power was highly significant (p?

  15. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat grey wastewater in batch mode using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Discharge of grey wastewater into the ecological system causes the negative impact effect on receiving water bodies. Methods In this present study, electrocoagulation process (EC) was investigated to treat grey wastewater under different operating conditions such as initial pH (4–8), current density (10–30 mA/cm2), electrode distance (4–6 cm) and electrolysis time (5–25 min) by using stainless steel (SS) anode in batch mode. Four factors with five levels Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was employed to optimize and investigate the effect of process variables on the responses such as total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and fecal coliform (FC) removal. Results The process variables showed significant effect on the electrocoagulation treatment process. The results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA) and second order polynomial models were developed in order to study the electrocoagulation process statistically. The optimal operating conditions were found to be: initial pH of 7, current density of 20 mA/cm2, electrode distance of 5 cm and electrolysis time of 20 min. Conclusion These results indicated that EC process can be scale up in large scale level to treat grey wastewater with high removal efficiency of TS, COD and FC. PMID:24410752

  16. Oxidation mechanism of the ammonium-fluoride-treated Si(100) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kluth, G.J.; Maboudian, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1996-11-01

    High-resolution electron energy loss (HREEL) spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and low-energy electron diffraction have been employed to examine the initial oxidation stage of ammonium-fluoride-treated Si(100) surfaces exposed to air. The NH{sub 4}F treatment results in a hydrogen-terminated surface, as shown by the presence of the Si{endash}H stretch (2100 cm{sup {minus}1}), SiH{sub 2} scissor (910 cm{sup {minus}1}), and SiH bend (650 cm{sup {minus}1}) in the HREEL spectra. Initial oxidation on this surface occurs through oxygen insertion in the silicon backbonds, as indicated by the presence of the asymmetric bridge-bonded oxygen stretch in the region between 1060 and 1160 cm{sup {minus}1}. Oxygen is observed in both surface and bulk bridge-bonding sites for even the shortest air exposures, suggesting that initial oxygen uptake is not taking place in a layer-by-layer fashion. Auger electron spectroscopy shows a slow uptake of oxygen over the first few days of air exposure, followed by more rapid oxidation. Over the first two weeks of air exposure, the Si{endash}H stretch at 2100 cm{sup {minus}1} gradually disappears, accompanied by the appearance of oxygen backbonded Si{endash}H peaks around 2250 cm{sup {minus}1}. This behavior indicates that, despite the increase in oxygen uptake, the hydrogen termination remains intact, and further confirms that oxygen uptake occurs through insertion in the silicon backbonds. Water is found to play a significant role in the initial oxidation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Biocompatibility evaluation of surface-treated AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel in human cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Martinesi, M; Bruni, S; Stio, M; Treves, C; Bacci, T; Borgioli, F

    2007-01-01

    The effects of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel, tested in untreated state or subjected to glow-discharge nitriding (at 10 or 20 hPa) and nitriding + post-oxidizing treatments, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were evaluated. All the treated samples showed a better corrosion resistance in PBS and higher surface hardness in comparison with the untreated alloy. In HUVEC put in contact for 72 h with the sample types, proliferation and apoptosis decreased and increased, respectively, in the presence of the nitrided + post-oxidized samples, while only slight differences in cytokine (TNF-alpha, IL-6, and TGF-beta1) release were registered. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) increased in HUVEC incubated with all the treated samples, while vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin increased in the presence of all the sample types. PBMC incubated for 48 h with the samples showed a decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis in the presence of the untreated samples and the nitrided + post-oxidized ones. All the sample types induced a remarkable increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 release in PBMC culture medium, while only the untreated sample and the nitrided at 10 hPa induced an increase in ICAM-1 expression. In HUVEC cocultured with PBMC, previously put in contact with the treated AISI 316L samples, increased levels of ICAM-1 were detected. In HUVEC coincubated with the culture medium of PBMC, previously put in contact with the samples under study, a noteworthy increase in ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin levels was always registered, with the exception of VCAM-1, which was not affected by the untreated sample. In conclusion, even if the treated samples do not show a marked increase in biocompatibility in comparison with the untreated alloy, their higher corrosion resistance may suggest a better performance as the contact with physiological environment becomes longer. PMID:16983653

  18. Electronically conducting montmorillonite-Cu 2S and montmorillonite-Cu 2S-polypyrrole nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. U. Ranaweera; H. M. N. Bandara; R. M. G. Rajapakse

    2007-01-01

    By making use of cation-exchange approach, montmorillonite-Cu2S (MMT-Cu2S) nanocomposite was prepared and characterized. Its conductivity was found to be 3.03×10?4Sm?1. Pyrrole was introduced to MMT-Cu2S and polymerized within the interlayer to obtain MMT-Cu2S-polypyrrole (MMT-Cu2S-PPY) nanocomposite. The materials were characterized by XRD, FT-IR and ac impedance measurements. The conductivities of both materials were found to be mainly electronic as confirmed by

  19. Effect of Surface Treated Nanoparticles on CO2 Mobility Alteration During CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminzadeh, B.; Chung, D.; Kianinejad, A.; Mirzaei, M.; Huh, C.; Bryant, S. L.; DiCarlo, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Surface-treated nanoparticles have been shown to stabilize CO2-in-water foam by adhering to the surface of CO2 bubbles and preventing their coalescence. In this work, we conduct core floods in which CO2 displaces brine with and without dispersed nanoparticles. The in-situ saturation distribution of both phases is captured in real time by placing the core horizontally in a modified medical scanner. Pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure gradient during displacement, from which the mobility of the invading phase along the core can be inferred. In the absence of nanoparticles, CO2 fingered through the brine and established high velocity preferential flow paths. However, by adding nanoparticles to the in-situ brine, the displacement became more stable and exhibited less gravity segregation. Pressure measurements during the displacement are consistent with generation of a viscous phase such as foam. These observations suggest that nanoparticle stabilized foam is formed during the displacement, which acts to suppress the viscous instability.

  20. LiBr treated porous silicon used for efficient surface passivation of crystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarroug, Ahmed; Haddadi, Ikbel; Derbali, Lotfi; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2015-04-01

    A simple but effective passivation method of both front and rear surfaces using porous silicon (PS) has been developed. This paper investigates the effect of LiBr on the passivation of PS. The immersion of as-etched PS in dilute LiBr solution followed by an annealing in an infrared furnace, under a controlled atmosphere at different temperatures, led to the passivation of the PS layer and the improvement of the electronic properties of the crystalline silicon substrates. The influence of substrate temperature was investigated, since the processed wafers were found to be sensitive to heat, which in turn was optimized to have a gettering effect. The bromide of lithium can effectively saturate dangling bonds and hence contributed to the formation of a stable passivation film, at both front and back surfaces. Such a reaction was found to have a beneficial effect on the passivation process of the PS layer grown on both sides. The obtained results exhibited a significant improvement of the minority carrier lifetime, which is an important parameter that defines the quality of crystalline silicon substrates, and an apparent enhancement of its photoluminescence (PL). The internal quantum efficiency was investigated and found to be significantly improved. The qualitative effect of the above-mentioned procedure proved a significant enhancement of the electronic quality of the treated substrates.

  1. Atomic and electronic structures of heat treated 6H SiC surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jikimoto, T.; Wang, J. L.; Saito, T.; Hirai, M.; Kusaka, M.; Iwami, M.; Nakata, T.

    1998-06-01

    We have studied heat-treated (950-1300°C) 6H-SiC(0001)Si and (0001¯)C face with photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation (SR-PES) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). We observed LEED patterns of SiC 1×1, 3× 3, 3× 3+6 3×6 3 and graphite 1×1 sequentially with increasing heating temperature for (0001)Si face and SiC 1×1 for (0001¯)C face, respectively. We have measured Si(2p) spectra and valence band energy distribution curves (VB-EDCs). The trend of sublimation of Si atoms from surface is different between Si- and C-face. 3× 3 superstructure must be Si-derived. The 6 3×6 3 structure could be explained as a moiré pattern caused by monolayer-graphite sitting on SiC surface. Si 3s-derived state of SiC 1×1 is different between SiC 1×1 for Si- and C-face. It is suggested that a single crystal graphite layer grows on Si-face and a polycrystalline graphite is formed on C-face for heated specimens above 1150°C.

  2. Influence of absorbed moisture on surface hydrophobization of ethanol pretreated and plasma treated ramie fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhou; Wang, Jilong; Huang, Xiao; Zhang, Liwen; Moyo, Senelisile; Sun, Shiyuan; Qiu, Yiping

    2012-03-01

    The existence of moisture in the substrate material may influence the effect of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Our previous study has found that the employment of ethanol pretreatment and plasma treatment can effectively induce hydrophobic surface modification of cellulose fiber to enhance the compatibility to polypropylene (PP) matrix, and this study aims to investigate the influence of fiber moisture regain on the treatment effect of this technique. Ramie fibers with three different moisture regains (MR) (2.5, 6.1 and 23.5%) are pretreated with ethanol followed by atmospheric pressure plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that the 2.5% MR group has the most significant plasma etching effect. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicates an increase of Csbnd C and a decrease of Csbnd O bond in the plasma treated groups, and the largest raise of Csbnd C bond for the 2.5% MR group. The water contact angles of the 2.5 and 6.1% MR groups increase, whereas no significant change is showed in the 23.5% MR group. The interfacial shear strengths (IFSS) measured by microbond pull-out test are raised by 44 and 25% when moisture regains are 2.5 and 6.1%, while presented no apparent improvement at high moisture regain of 23.5%. Therefore, it can be concluded that moisture regain has negative influence on the surface hydrophobization of ramie fibers in the improvement of adhesion property to PP matrix.

  3. The origin of the pozzolanic activity of calcined clay minerals: A comparison between kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Rodrigo, E-mail: fernandezrod@gmail.co [Laboratory of Construction Materials, IMX, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Martirena, Fernando [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Estructuras y Materiales (CIDEM), Universidad Central 'Marta Abreu' de Las Villas, 54830 Santa Clara (Cuba); Scrivener, Karen L. [Laboratory of Construction Materials, IMX, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper investigates the decomposition of three clayey structures (kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite) when thermally treated at 600 {sup o}C and 800 {sup o}C and the effect of this treatment on their pozzolanic activity in cementitious materials. Raw and calcined clay minerals were characterized by the XRF, XRD, {sup 27}Al NMR, DTG and BET techniques. Cement pastes and mortars were produced with a 30% substitution by calcined clay minerals. The pozzolanic activity and the degree of hydration of the clinker component were monitored on pastes using DTG and BSE-IA, respectively. Compressive strength and sorptivity properties were assessed on standard mortars. It was shown that kaolinite, due to the amount and location of OH groups in its structure, has a different decomposition process than illite or montmorillonite, which results in an important loss of crystallinity. This explains its enhanced pozzolanic activity compared to other calcined clay-cement blends.

  4. Effects of exchanged cation on the microporosity of montmorillonite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, D.W.; Chiou, C.T.; Eberl, D.D.

    1997-01-01

    The micropore volumes of 2 montmorillonites (SAz- 1 and SWy-1), each exchanged with Ca, Na, K, Cs and tetramethylammonium (TMA) ions, were calculated from the measured vapor adsorption data of N2 and neo-hexane by use of t- and ??s-plots. The corresponding surface areas of the exchanged clays were determined from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) plots of N2 adsorption data. Micropore volumes and surface areas of the samples increased with the size of exchanged cation: TMA > Cs > K> Ca > Na. The SAz-1 exchanged clays showed generally greater micropore volumes and surface areas than the corresponding SWy-1 clays. The vapor adsorption data and d(001) measurements for dry clay samples were used together to evaluate the likely locations and accessibility of clay micropores, especially the relative accessibility of their interlayer spacing. For both source clays exchanged with Na, Ca and K ions, the interlayer spacing appeared to be too small to admit nonpolar gases and the accessible micropores appeared to have dimensions greater than 5.0 A??, the limiting molecular dimension of neo -hexane. In these systems, there was a good consistency of micropore volumes detected by N2 and neo-hexane. When the clays were intercalated with relatively large cations (TMA and possibly Cs), the large layer expansion created additional microporosity, which was more readily accessible to small N2 than to relatively large neo-hexane. Hence, the micropore volume as detected by N2 was greater than that detected by neo-hexane. The micropore volumes with pore dimensions greater than 5 A?? determined for clays exchanged with Na, Ca and K likely resulted from the pores on particle edges and void created by overlap regions of layers. The increase in micropore volumes with pore dimensions less than 5 A?? determined for clays exchanged with TMA and possibly Cs could be caused by opening of the interlayer region by the intercalation of these large cations.

  5. BSA and Lysozyme adsorption on homoionic montmorillonite: influence of the interlayer cation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    on Langmuir model isotherms, a strong influence of interlayer cation on maximum adsorbed amount and adsorption to describe proteins adsorption. Keywords : Protein adsorption, montmorillonite, Langmuir isotherm, homoionicBSA and Lysozyme adsorption on homoionic montmorillonite: influence of the interlayer cation

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of montmorillonite and mechanical and thermodynamic properties calculations 

    E-print Network

    Atilhan, Selma

    2009-05-15

    and molybdenum selenide, Our research focus is on polymer nanocomposites with inorganic clay particles as inclusions, in particular we used sodium montmorillonite polymer nanocomposite. In our study, modeling and simulations of sodium montmorillonite (Na...

  7. Variations in compression strength and surface roughness of heat-treated Turkish river red gum ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis ) wood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oner Unsal; Nadir Ayrilmis

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the effects of heat treatment on compression strength parallel to the grain, the surface roughness [average roughness (Ra)], and the air-dry den-sity of wood from the river red gum tree (Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn.) planted in Turkey. Eucalyptus wood was heat-treated at temperatures varying from 120° to 180°C for durations of 2–10?h. Samples cut from the heat-treated wood

  8. Properties of thermo-chemically surface treated carbon fibers and of their epoxy and vinyl ester composites

    SciTech Connect

    Vautard, Frederic [ORNL; Ozcan, Soydan [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    High strength carbon fibers were surface treated by a continuous gas phase thermo-chemical surface treatment. The surface and the mechanical properties of the fibers were investigated before and after treatment and compared to the properties obtained with a conventional industrial electro-chemical surface treatment. An increase of the oxygen atomic content from 3 % to 20 % with a preferential generation of carboxylic acid functionalities and hydroxyl groups was highlighted after the thermo-chemical surface treatment, compared to an oxygen atomic content of 7 % and a wide variety of oxygen moieties with the electro-chemical surface treatment. The tensile strength of the fibers increased slightly after the thermo-chemical surface treatment and remained the same after the electro-chemical surface treatment. Short beam shear and 90 flexural tests of composites revealed that the improvement of interfacial adhesion with a vinyl ester matrix was limited, revealing that oxidation of the carbon fiber surface alone cannot tremendously improve the mechanical properties of carbon fiber-vinyl ester composites. Atomic force microscopy showed that the creation of roughness with both surface treatments at a nanometric scale. Although the surface is slightly rougher after the electro-chemical surface treatment and is expected to lead to higher adhesion due to mechanical interlocking between the fiber surface and the matrix, the effect of covalent bonding coming from the high concentration of chemical groups on the surface results in higher adhesion strength, as obtained with the thermo-chemical surface treatment.

  9. The chemical state of Sn in Sn-montmorillonite; A multinuclear MAS NMR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Hannus; I. Pálinkó; K. Lázár; J. B. Nagy; I. Kiricsi

    1995-01-01

    The incorporation of Sn was attempted in-between the layers of Na-montmorillonite through the hydrolysis of (NH4)2SnCl6 in an aqueous environment under reflux. Intercalation was successful and the resulting structure was characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), surface area (BET) and thermogravimetric measurements, infrared (IR), 119Sn Mössbauer and multinuclear (27Al, 29Si and 119Sn) magic angle spinning (MAS) spectroscopies.

  10. The Effect of Surface Treated Nanoparticles on Single and Multi-Phase Flow in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiCarlo, D. A.; Aminzadeh, B.; Chung, D.; Zhang, X.; Wung, R.; Huh, C.; Bryant, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    Surface treated nanoparticles have been suggested to be an additive to CO2 storage scenarios. This is because 1) the nanoparticles have been shown to freely transport through permeable media, and 2) the nanoparticles can stabilize a CO2 in water foam by adhering to the surface of CO2 bubbles/droplets preventing their coalescence. In terms of storage, The formation of CO2 foam will limit the CO2 mobility which can potentially help limit the CO2 leakage. Here, we will show how nanoparticles in porous media can have many interesting properties in single and multi-phase flow. For multi-phase CO2, we have performed experiments where high pressure liquid CO2 displaces brine and vice versa with and without nanoparticles in the brine. We measure the displacement pattern and in-situ CO2 saturation using CT scanning and measure the pressure drop using pressure transducers. We find that the flow is less preferential and the pressure drop is greater than when nanoparticles are present. This suggest the formation of in-situ foam/emulsion. We also show that on a brine chase, the residual saturation of CO2 is greater in the presence of nanoparticles. In terms of nanoparticle transport, it is observed that nanoparticles accumulate at the front of a brine/octane displacement. We hypothesize that this occurs due to the nanoparticles being size excluded from portions of the pore-space. To determine if this occurs in single phase flow, we have also performed experiments single-phase flow with the nanoparticles and tracer. We find that the nanoparticles arrive roughly 5% faster than the tracer. This also has implications for the positioning of nanoparticles in the pore space and how this can change the effective viscosity of the nanoparticle suspension.

  11. Immobilization of self-assembled pre-dispersed nano-TiO2 onto montmorillonite and its photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Luo, Yuan; Jia, Bing; Li, Yan; Yuan, Lingling; Yu, Jiang

    2015-06-01

    The immobilization of pre-dispersed TiO2 colloids onto the external surface of the clay mineral montmorillonite (Mt) was accomplished and regulated via a self-assembly method employing the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The role of CTAB in the synthesis process was investigated by preparing a series of TiO2-CTAB-Mt composites (TCM) with various CTAB doses. The results indicated that a uniform and continuous TiO2 film was deposited on the external surface of montmorillonite in the composite synthesized with 0.1wt.% of CTAB, and the TCM nano-composites showed much higher values for specific surface area, average pore size and pore volume than the raw montmorillonite clay. Then, the formed TCM materials were applied in photocatalytic degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in aqueous solution. The degradation efficiency reached as high as 94.7%. Based on the degradation intermediates benezoquinone, fumaric acid and oxalic acid identified by LC-MS analysis, a mechanism for the photocatalytic oxidation of 2,4-DCP on TiO2/Mt nano-composites is proposed. PMID:26040737

  12. Hot secondary electrons in dielectric barrier discharges treated with Monte Carlo simulation: implication for fluxes to surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaeva, Natalia Yu

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we report results from a computational investigation of the production and delivery of photons, ions, and radicals to surfaces using 2D fluid and electron Monte Carlo simulations. We record fluxes of ions and radicals to dielectric surfaces during a single discharge pulse of positive and negative polarity. We found that for a positive pulse, a surface ionization wave produces higher ion and radical fluxes as compared to a negative pulse. The disparity between the positive and negative surface waves increases when electron Monte Carlo simulation is used, which treats the energetic secondary electrons in a fully kinetic way.

  13. Strength and reliability of surface treated Y-TZP dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kosmac, T; Oblak, C; Jevnikar, P; Funduk, N; Marion, L

    2000-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dental grinding and sandblasting on the biaxial flexural strength and Weibull modulus of various Y-TZP ceramics containing 3 mol% yttria. In addition, the susceptibility of pristine and mechanically treated materials to low-temperature degradation under the conditions adopted for testing the chemical solubility of dental ceramics was investigated. The results revealed that surface grinding and sandblasting exhibit a counteracting effect on the strength of Y-TZP ceramics. Dental grinding lowered the mean strength and Weibull modulus, whereas sandblasting provided a powerful method for strengthening, but at the expense of somewhat lower reliability. The finest-grained material exhibited the highest strength after sintering, but it was less damage tolerant than tougher, coarse-grained materials. Upon extraction with the acetic acid solution and the ammonia solution, a significant amount of tetragonal zirconia had transformed to monoclinic, but extensive microcracking and attendant strength degradation had not yet occurred. Standard grade Y-TZP ceramics are more resistant in an alkaline than in an acidic environment, and there was a strong grain-size dependence of the diffusion-controlled transformation. Since a special Y-TZP grade containing a small amount of alumina exhibited the highest damage tolerance and superior stability in an acidic environment, this material shows considerable promise for dental applications. PMID:10898871

  14. Phosphorus removal in a surface-flow constructed wetland treating agricultural runoff.

    PubMed

    Beutel, Marc W; Morgan, Matthew R; Erlenmeyer, Jonathan J; Brouillard, Elaine S

    2014-05-01

    Agricultural runoff is a leading source of phosphorus (P) pollution to lakes and streams. The objective of this study was to evaluate P removal dynamics in a constructed treatment wetland (CTW) treating agricultural irrigation return flows. The CTW included a sedimentation basin (SB) followed by two surface-flow wetlands in parallel. Typical retention times and total P (TP) loading were 1.4 d and 50 to 110 g m yr P, respectively, for the SB and 5 to 6 d and 4 to 10 g m yr P, respectively, for wetlands. On the basis of this multiyear study, concentration removal efficiency in the SB averaged 21% for TP and 32% for reactive phosphorus (RP). Concentration removal efficiency in wetlands averaged 37 and 43% for TP and 22 and 33% for RP. Areal first-order removal rates for TP averaged 22 and 31 m yr in wetlands. Total P removal in wetlands exhibited a strong seasonal pattern, with minimum removal in the summer when high temperatures likely enhanced P release from decaying plant biomass. The performance of the CTW was stochastic, with removal unpredictably poorer in some years in part as a result of muskrat bioturbation and plant harvesting. In years before muskrat impacts, concentration removal efficiencies in wetlands were 50% for TP and 65% for RP. PMID:25602836

  15. Hybrid collagen-based hydrogels with embedded montmorillonite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nistor, Manuela Tatiana; Vasile, Cornelia; Chiriac, Aurica P

    2015-08-01

    Montmorillonite nanoparticles have been physically incorporated within a crosslinked collagen/poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) network in order to adjust the properties of the stimuli-responsive hybrid systems. The research underlines both the influence of hydrogel composition and nanoparticle type on hybrid hydrogel properties. The dispersion of the montmorillonite nanoparticles in polymeric matrix have been visualized by SEM, TEM and AFM techniques and quantitatively and qualitatively estimated using near infrared chemical imaging. The electrical charge of the nanoparticles influenced the polymeric chain arrangement and the pore size. The morphologies of the nanoparticulated layers are partially exfoliated or intercalated and uniformly dispersed through the polymeric semi-interpenetrated network based on collagen and poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide). The hybrid hydrogels exhibit pseudoplastic behavior and the addition of nanoparticles has resulted in the increase of the complex viscosity. The adhesion capacity was affected mainly by the presence of organically modified montmorillonites. PMID:26042709

  16. Influence of interlayer cations on organic intercalation of montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Limei; Liao, Libing; Lv, Guocheng

    2015-09-15

    The influence of the types of interlayer cations on organic intercalation of montmorillonite (Mt) was studied in this paper. The distribution of Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and Fe(3+) in montmorillonite interlayer, their interaction with structure layers and the effect of interlayer cations on the basal spacing of Mt, the amount of binding water for different interlayer cations and the binding force between them were investigated systematically. 1-Hexadecy1-3-methylimidazolium chloride monohydrate (C16mimCl) was intercalated into montmorillonites with different interlayer cations. The influence of interlayer cations on organic intercalation was investigated. Molecular dynamics (MD) modeling was used to speculate the interlayer microstructures of the organically intercalated Mt with different interlayer cations. These simulations help to predict the microstructure of organo-Mt and guide their relevant engineering applications. PMID:26001131

  17. Synthesis of an intercalated compound of montmorillonite and 6-polyamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiaki Fukushima; Shinji Inagaki

    1987-01-01

    Natural montmorillonite, fractionated from bentonite produced in Yamagata, Japan, was ion-exchanged for NH3+-(CH2)11-COOH, NH3+-(CH2)5-COOH, Al3+, Cu2+, Mg2+, Co2+, Li+, K+ and H+. The mixtures of the ion-exchanged montmorillonite and e-caprolactam were heated at 263°C in glass ampoules for various periods. The intercalated compounds before and after the heating were examined by X-ray powder diffraction, DSC and GPC. Although e-caprolactam was

  18. Chitosan intercalated montmorillonite: Preparation, characterization and cationic dye adsorption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pathavuth Monvisade; Punnama Siriphannon

    2009-01-01

    Chitosan intercalated montmorillonite (Chi-MMT) was prepared by dispersing sodium montmorillonite (Na+-MMT) into chitosan solution at 60 °C for 24 h. The Chi-MMT was characterized by XRD, XRF and FT-IR. The intercalation was accomplished via the ion-exchange of Na+ ions with –NH3+ of chitosan, resulting in the expansion of d001 from 1.42 nm of Na+-MMT to 2.21 nm of Chi-MMT. The chitosan content in the

  19. Possible selective adsorption of enantiomers by Na-montmorillonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friebele, E.; Shimoyama, A.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1981-01-01

    Racemic amino acids including (D,L) alpha-alamine, (D,L) alpha-aminobutyric acid, (D,L) valine, and (D,L) norvaline were incubated with Na-montmorillonite at 100% CEC at three hydrogen ion concentrations, and amino acid adsorption was determined by ion exchange chromatography. Enantiomers were analyzed by gas chromatography. Differences in the quantities of D and L enantiomers in any of the fractions was no larger than a few percent. Although a large difference in the adsorption of the amino acid enantiomers was not observed, the analysis may indicate a small preferential adsorption (0.5-2%) of L-amino acids by Na-montmorillonite.

  20. A study on the peel and shear strength of aluminum\\/CFRP composites surface-treated by plasma and ion assisted reaction method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyong Y Rhee; Jun-Ho Yang

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of surface treatment of aluminum and CFRP on the peel strength and the shear strength of aluminum\\/CFRP composites. The surface of the aluminum was treated using DC plasma and the surface of the CFRP was treated by Ar+ IAR (ion assisted reaction) method under oxygen environment. Optimal plasma treatment conditions (treatment time, ratio of acetylene

  1. A comparative study and evaluation of sulfamethoxazole adsorption onto organo-montmorillonites.

    PubMed

    Lu, Laifu; Gao, Manglai; Gu, Zheng; Yang, Senfeng; Liu, Yuening

    2014-12-01

    Three organo-montmorillonites were prepared using surfactants, and their adsorption behaviors toward sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were investigated. The surfactants used were cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTMAB), 3-(N,N-dimethylhexadecylammonio) propane sulfonate (HDAPS) and 1,3-bis(hexadecyldimethylammonio)-propane dibromide (BHDAP). The properties of the organo-montmorillonites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurements. Results showed that the interlayer spacing of montmorillonite was increased and the surface area as well as the morphology were changed. Batch adsorption experiments showed that the surfactant loading amount had a great effect on the adsorption of SMX. The adsorption process was pH dependent and the maximum adsorption capacity was obtained at pH3 for HDAPS-Mt, while CTMAB-Mt and BHDAP-Mt showed a high removal efficiency at 3-11. The adsorption capacity increased with the initial SMX concentration and contact time but decreased with increasing solution ionic strength. Kinetic data were best described by the pseudo second-order model. Equilibrium data were best represented by the Langmuir model, and the Freundlich constant (n) indicated a favorable adsorption process. The maximum adsorption capacity of SMX was 235.29 mg/g for CTMAB-Mt, 155.28 mg/g for HDAPS-Mt and 242.72 mg/g for BHDAP-Mt. Thermodynamic parameters were calculated to evaluate the spontaneity and endothermic or exothermic nature. The adsorption mechanism was found to be dominated by electrostatic interaction, while hydrophobic interaction played a secondary role. PMID:25499502

  2. First Low-Iron Materials on Mars and Possibility of a Major Montmorillonite Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, B. C.; Richter, L.; Gellert, R.; Farrand, W.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A.

    2005-12-01

    During exploration of Columbia Hills at Gusev crater, the Spirit rover of the MER mission has discovered several separate occurrences of material with a unique elemental signature. As measured by x-ray fluorescence emission using the APXS instrument, these samples stand out for their low Fe content, accompanied by corresponding increases in Al and Si but without high concentrations of mineralogically important cations such as Ca, Mg, Na, or K. No previous martian samples, from five landed missions and numerous martian meteorites, have such low iron content. Chemical trends implicate Mg sulfates and Ca phosphates are important but minor accessory minerals. Moessbauer analysis indicates some or all Ti to be present as ilmenite. The remaining component has high Al and Si abundances in proportions within the range of classical montmorillonite compositions found at various locations on Earth, including their correspondingly low concentrations of major cations. Typically the result of weathering of basaltic ash and often associated with more arid environments, the formation of montmorillonite or its alteration-product precursor implies that significant aqueous activity to facilitate geochemical separations occurred. In addition, various of these samples contain trace element anomalies that are unique for martian materials, including enrichments in Cu, Ni, Y, Ga, Cr, and possibly Pb, Co, Sr, and Zn. Adsorption by high cation exchange minerals such as montmorillonite clays or other alteration materials (allophane, silica, imogolite) often bear similar fingerprints due to their high-area charged surfaces which confer affinities for multivalent metal ions in solution. Samples of this "Independence Class" of materials have been found at three separated sites in the upper portion of Husband Hill. The samples are disparate in form, including clods (or peds), an outcrop, and a "rock". Their lighter color and rugged morphology are a common feature. The latter may indicate susceptibility to fragmentation, with possible derivation from a deeper-lying layer of source material.

  3. Commenting on the effects of surface treated- and non-surface treated TiO2 in the Caco-2 cell model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In a recent work published in Particle and Fibre Toxicology by Fisichella and coworkers investigating surface-modified TiO2 nanoparticle exposure in a model human intestinal epithelium (Caco-2), albeit degraded to mimic conditions in the gut and exposure to natural sunlight, purportedly resulted in no toxic effects. The authors (Fisichella et al.) claim to have confirmed the results of a 2010 report by Koeneman et al. However, the study by Koeneman and colleagues revealed significant effects of unmodified TiO2 nanoparticles. These contradicting data warrant further investigation into the possible effects of aluminum hydroxide, as these nanoparticles appear to have resulted in an abnormal apical surface in Caco-2 cells. This is a comment on http://www.particleandfibretoxicology.com/content/pdf/1743-8977-9-18.pdf. PMID:23146628

  4. Hexadimethrine-montmorillonite nanocomposite: Characterization and application as a pesticide adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gámiz, B.; Hermosín, M. C.; Cornejo, J.; Celis, R.

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this work was to prepare and characterize a novel functional material by the modification of SAz-1 montmorillonite with the cationic polymer hexadimethrine (SA-HEXAD), and to explore the potential use of this nanocomposite as a pesticide adsorbent. Comparative preparation and characterization with the well-known hexadecyltrimethylammonium-modified SAz-1 montmorillonite (SA-HDTMA) was also assessed. The characterization was performed by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), physisorption of N2, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Z potential measurements. The characterization and adsorption experiments showed that the extent of pesticide adsorption was markedly subjected to the structure and features of the surface of each organo-clay and also to the nature of the considered pesticide. SA-HEXAD displayed a high affinity for anionic pesticides which, presumably, were adsorbed by electrostatic attraction on positively-charged ammonium groups of the polymer not directly interacting with the clay. In contrast, SA-HDTMA displayed great adsorption of both uncharged and anionic pesticides with predominance of hydrophobic interactions. This work provided information about the surface properties of a new organic-inorganic nanohybrid material, SA-HEXAD, and its potential as an adsorbent for the removal of anionic organic pollutants from aqueous solutions.

  5. Polypyrrole–montmorillonite nanocomposites synthesized by emulsion polymerization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Hong; B. H. Kim; J. Joo; J. W. Kim; Hyung J. Choi

    2001-01-01

    The structural, electrical, magnetic, and thermal properties were investigated for the nanocomposites of polypyrrole (PPy) and inorganic clay (Na+-montmorillonite) prepared by emulsion polymerization. Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) was used as emulsifier (surfactant) and dopant. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that the conducting PPy was intercalated into the clay layers in nanoscale (<10 Å). The

  6. Characterization and thermal degradation of polypropylene–montmorillonite nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Bertini; Maurizio Canetti; Guido Audisio; Giovanna Costa; Luciano Falqui

    2006-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP)–montmorillonite nanocomposites have been prepared using isotactic PP homopolymers with different rheological properties, and a maleic anhydride grafted PP. Morphology and structure of the composites were investigated by using X-ray techniques (WAXD, SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The absence of pristine clusters of the clay and the presence of intercalated and exfoliated structures were shown for all the

  7. Morphology evolutions of organically modified montmorillonite\\/polyamide 12 nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoyu Meng; Zhe Wang; Zhongfu Zhao; Xiaohua Du; Wuguo Bi; Tao Tang

    2007-01-01

    Organically modified montmorillonites (OMMTs) by octadecylammonium chloride with two adsorption levels were dispersed in polyamide 12 (PA12) matrices with two molecular weights for different melt mixing times in order to investigate morphology evolutions and factors influencing fabrication of PA12 nanocomposites. Different adsorption levels of the modifier in the OMMTs provide different environments for diffusion of polymer chains and different attractions

  8. Vibrational Probe Studies of Water Interactions with Montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Johnston; G. SPOSITO; C. ERICKSON

    1992-01-01

    Imeraction of water with montmorillonite exchanged with Na +, K +, Co 2+, and Cu 2+ cations as a function of water content was examined using an FTIR\\/gravimetric cell designed to collect spectro- scopic and sorption data simultaneously. Correlation of water desorption isotherms with infrared spectra of the clay-water complex showed that the position of the HOH bending band of

  9. Emulsion Polymerized Polystyrene\\/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite and its Viscoelastic Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bong Jun Park; Tae Heon Kim; Hyoung Jin Choi; Jae Heung Lee

    2007-01-01

    A novel polystyrene (PS)\\/clay nanocomposite was synthesized using a simple emulsion polymerization method in the presence of sodium ion exchanged montmorillonite (Na?MMT). Prior to the radical polymerization procedure with potassium persulfate (KPS) as an initiator, the hydrophobic styrene monomer was intercalated into hydrophilic clay layers using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a surfactant. The FTIR spectra of the products showed

  10. Polymethylmethacrylate–montmorillonite composites: preparation, characterization and properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nehal Salahuddin; Mohamed Shehata

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work was directed to solve a problem of polymerization shrinkage in acrylic resin polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) material. Organophilic montmorillonite (claytone) was added up to 1% by weight to one commercial type of PMMA powder to form PMMA–MMT composite. Acrylic specimens were processed by the conventional heat curing method following manufacturer's instructions. Thermogravimetric analysis data indicates that polymer–clay

  11. Morphology and Structure of Amino-fatty Acid Intercalated Montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Larry; Sumera, Florentino

    2015-04-01

    Natural clays and its modified forms have been studied for their wide range of applications, including polymer-layered silicate, catalysts and adsorbents. For nanocomposite production, montmorillonite (MMT) clays are often modified with organic surfactants to favor its intermixing with the polymer matrix. In the present study, Na+-montmorillonite (Na+-MMT) was subjected to organo-modification with a protonated 12-aminolauric acid (12-ALA). The amount of amino fatty acid surfactants loaded was 25, 50, 100 and 200% the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of Na+-MMT (25CEC-AMMT, 50CEC-AMMT, 100CEC-AMMT and 200CEC-AMMT). Fatty acid-derived surfactants are an attractive resource of intercalating agents for clays due to their renewability and abundance. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed to determine the occurrence of intercalation of 12-ALA and their molecular structure in the clay's silicates. XRD analysis revealed that the interlayer spacing between the alumino-silicate layers increased from 1.25 nm to 1.82 nm with increasing ALA content. The amino fatty acid chains were considered to be in a flat monolayer structure at low surfactant loading, and a bilayered to a pseudotrilayered structure at high surfactant loading. On the other hand, FTIR revealed that the alkyl chains adopt a gauche conformation, indicating their disordered state based on their CH2symmetric and asymmetric vibrations. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) allows the determination of the moisture and organic content in clays. Here, TGA revealed that the surfactant in the clay was thermally stable, with Td ranging from 353° C to 417° C. The difference in the melting behavior of the pristine amino fatty acids and confined fatty acids in the interlayer galleries of the clay were evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimerty (DSC). The melting temperatures (Tm) of the amino fatty acid in the clay were initially found to be higher than those of the free amino fatty acid, but decreased with increasing surfactant loading. This suggested that the amino fatty acid may be tethered to the clay structure via ionic interaction and/or ion-dipole attraction. Significant changes in the clay morphology, particle size and surface charge were observed after organo-modification. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the organo-clays have a disordered and flaky morphology, while the unmodified MMT appeared to be dispersed spherical grains. The effective (Z) diameter of Na+-MMT was found to be ~520 nm, but increased up to ~937 nm upon intercalation of 12-ALA. The zeta potential (?) of the clay materials, on the other hand, ranged from -33 mV for undmodified MMT to -16 mv (200CEC-AMMT clay). The possible occupational hazards of working with nanoclays should also be explored. Presently, the MTT-dye reduction assay was performed to determine cell viability of mouse monocyte-macrophages (J774A.1) after direct exposure to the clays. The cytotoxicity of the clays exhibited a chemistry and dose dependent response, with unmodified Na+-MMT as the most cytotoxic while the organo-clays exhibited low toxicity. These results demonstrated the successful intercalation of the surfactant for the production of organophilic clay materials for a wide range of applications.

  12. A comparative study of the acidity toward the aqueous phase and adsorptive properties of Al{sub 13}-pillared montmorillonite and Al{sub 13}-pillared saponite

    SciTech Connect

    Bergaoui, L.; Mrad, I.; Ghorbel, A. [Faculte des Sciences de Tunis (Tunisia). Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux et Catalyse] [Faculte des Sciences de Tunis (Tunisia). Lab. de Chimie des Materiaux et Catalyse; Lambert, J.F. [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). Lab. de Reactivite de Surface] [Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France). Lab. de Reactivite de Surface

    1999-04-15

    The selectivity of an Al{sub 13}-pillared saponite and an Al{sub 13}-pillared montmorillonite for Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} adsorption was studied. The quantity of metal adsorbed on both pillared clays depends on the pH of the solution and the pillars density. Adsorption equilibria are regulated by the protonation equilibria of the amphoteric sites on the pillars. Pillared clays adsorb more cadmium and copper than classic aluminum hydroxides which is simply attributable to a higher density of surface aluminum groups. Significant differences in behavior are observed between pillared montmorillonite and pillared saponite. Pillared montmorillonite appears to be more acidic, which is correlated with a more advanced degree of structural modification of the pillars on calcination. The authors propose a tentative, partial structural model of pillar transformation compatible with these differences. At the same time, both pillared clays have similar affinities for cadmium II at low pH (5--6), but pillared montmorillonite seems to be a more efficient cadmium trap at pH = 8 when its surface groups are negatively ionized. Thus, the nature of the clay layers conditions the structural modifications of the intercalated [Al{sub 13}] polycations, which in turn determine adsorptive behavior.

  13. Sorption of chlorimuron-ethyl on montmorillonite clays: effects of exchangeable cations, pH, and ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wenjie; Teng, Ying; Zhou, Qixing; Paschke, Albrecht; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2014-10-01

    Sorption interaction of chlorimuron-ethyl with montmorillonite clays was investigated under varied types of exchangeable cation, pH, and ionic strength conditions. Chlorimuron-ethyl sorption on bentonites exhibited pronounced cation dependency, and the sorption ability increased as the sequence Ca(2+)- < Na(+)- < Al(3+)- < Fe(3+)-bentonite, due to different sorption mechanisms, whereas the cation dependency was influenced by the clay type and much weaker for montmorillonites. The decrease of pH at the range of 4.0-6.0 prominently increased sorption of chlorimuron-ethyl on all cation-exchanged montmorillonite clays, and nearly a neglected sorption (about 2 %) can be observed at pH over 7.0. In the presence of CaCl2, sorption of chlorimuron-ethyl on Fe(3+)-bentonite was promoted because of complexion of Ca(2+) and the surface of Fe(3+)-bentonite. However, as the concentration of CaCl2 increased, chlorimuron-ethyl sorption on Ca(2+)- and Fe(3+)-exchanged bentonite decreased, suggesting that Ca bridging was not the prevailing mechanism for sorption of chlorimuron-ethyl on these clays. Furthermore, chlorimuron-ethyl sorption was relatively sensitive to pH, and the change of pH may obscure effect of other factors on the sorption, so it was quite necessary to control pH at a constant value when the effect of other factor was being studied. PMID:25028319

  14. PARAMETERS OF TREATED STAINLESS STEEL SURFACES IMPORTANT FOR RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of materials that are resistant to bacterial contamination could enhance food safety during processing. Common finishing treatments of stainless steel surfaces used for components of poultry processing equipment were tested for resistance to bacterial attachment. Surface char...

  15. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution using exfoliated polyaniline/montmorillonite composite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Hong, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Yongteng; Zhang, Qianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Exfoliated polyaniline/montmorillonite (PANI/MMT) composites with nanosheet structure were successfully prepared by in situ chemical oxidation polymerization with MMT platelets as the scaffold. Amphoteric polymer, (2-methacryloyloxyethyl)trimethyl ammonium chloride and methacrylate acid copolymer, was used to modify montmorillonite and a large number of carboxylic acids were introduced on the surface of the clay platelets, which can be used as a dopant of PANI and play a 'bridge' role to combine PANI with clay. Adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effects of pH, contact time, Cr(VI) concentration, adsorbent dose and temperature. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on the PANI/MMT was highly pH dependent and the adsorption kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The Langmuir isothermal model described the adsorption isotherm data well and the maximum adsorption capacity increased with the increase in temperature. Thermodynamic investigation indicated that the adsorption process is spontaneous, endothermic and marked with an increase in randomness at the adsorbent - liquid interface. The maximum adsorption capacity of the PANI/MMT composites for Cr(VI) was 308.6 mg/g at 25 °C. The excellent adsorption characteristic of exfoliated PANI/MMT composites will render it a highly efficient and economically viable adsorbent for Cr(VI) removal. PMID:25116498

  16. Surface properties and hydrophobic recovery of polymers treated by atmospheric-pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borcia, C.; Punga, I. L.; Borcia, G.

    2014-10-01

    This paper provides an analysis on the relation between plasma effects on polymers exposed to inert gas atmospheric-pressure plasma, polymer structure characteristics and surface recovery during post-processing ageing. Polymers offering variety of structure, functionality, degree of oxidation, polarity, crystallinity are tested, using contact angle, XPS, XRD and solvent absorption measurement, thus exploring the relationship linking the surface polarity, the chemical structure and composition contribution in the combined functionalization/crosslinking surface modification mechanisms of plasma-exposed polymers. The limiting level of modification attainable, the surface stability and the factors controlling these are examined, concluding on the plasma capacity to provide operational stability for modified polymer surfaces.

  17. Surface Morphologies of 4H-SiC(1120) and (1100) Treated by High-Temperature Gas Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horita, Masahiro; Kimoto, Tsunenobu; Suda, Jun

    2008-11-01

    The impact of HCl/H2 high-temperature gas-etching on the surface morphologies of 4H-SiC(1120) and (1100) faces is investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Very flat surfaces are obtained on both (1120) and (1100) faces after gas-etching when the substrate surfaces are initially treated by chemical mechanical polishing to remove polishing scratches. The root-mean square roughness values of gas-etched (1120) and (1100) substrates are 0.07 and 0.11 nm, respectively. Within AFM resolution limits no atomic steps are observed on the very flat surfaces of (1120) substrates. On the other hand, clear step-and-terrace structures are observed on (1100) substrates after gas-etching and the height of the steps (2.7 Å) corresponding to the lattice spacing between 4H-SiC(1100) planes (=?3a/2).

  18. The performance of chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposite during the flocculation and floc storage processes of Microcystis aeruginosa cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Qian, Jin; Hou, Jun; Ao, Yanhui; Wu, Baohai

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the performance of chitosan-modified nano-sized montmorillonite (CTS/NMMT) during the flocculation of Microcystis aeruginosa (MA). The release of intracellular microcystins (MCs) caused by the damage of intact MA cells during the flocculation and floc storage processes was also comprehensively evaluated through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and measurement of K(+) and Mg(2+) release. With the application of the Box-Behnken experimental design combined with response surface methodology, the quadratic statistical model was established to predict and optimize the interactive effects of content of CTS/NMMT, weight ratio of NMMT to CTS, and agitation time on the removal efficiency of MA cells. A maximum removal of 94.7 % MA cells was observed with content of CTS/NMMT 300-320 mg L(-1), weight ratio of NMMT to CTS 14-16, and agitation time 16-50 min. During the flocculation process, CTS/NMMT aggregated MA cells as flocs and served as a protection shield for cells. The extracellular and intracellular microcystin-leucine-arginine (MC-LR) decreased remarkably and the yield of intracellular MC-LR showed a decreasing trend during the flocculation. The cell integrity was slightly damaged by the mechanical actions rather than by the flocculant. During the floc storage process, cell lysis and membrane damage were remarkably aggravated. The noticeable increase of K(+) and Mg(2+) release indicated that CTS/NMMT damaged the integrity of most MA cells in the flocs and liberated the intracellular MC-LR. Meanwhile, NMMT and CTS polymers assisted the adsorptive removal of extracellular MC-LR released to water. The flocs should be timely treated within 12 h to prevent the leakage of MCs. PMID:25940464

  19. Radionuclide desorption kinetics on synthetic Zn/Ni-labeled montmorillonite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, F. M.; Heck, S.; Truche, L.; Bouby, M.; Brendlé, J.; Hoess, P.; Schäfer, T.

    2015-01-01

    Sorption/desorption kinetics for selected radionuclides (99Tc(VII), 232Th(IV), 233U(VI), 237Np(V), 242Pu and 243Am(III)) under Grimsel (Switzerland) ground water conditions (pH 9.7 and ionic strength of ?1 mM) in the presence of synthetic Zn or Ni containing montmorillonite nanoparticles and granodiorite fracture filling material (FFM) from Grimsel were examined in batch studies. The structurally bound Zn or Ni in the octahedral sheet of the synthetic colloids rendered them suitable as colloid markers. Only a weak interaction of the montmorillonite colloids with the fracture filling material occurs over the experimental duration of 10,000 h (?13 months). The tri- and tetravalent radionuclides are initially strongly associated with nanoparticles in contrast to 99Tc(VII), 233U(VI) and 237Np(V) which showed no sorption to the montmorillonite colloids. Radionuclide desorption of the nanoparticles followed by sorption to the fracture filling material is observed for 232Th(IV), 242Pu and 243Am(III). Based on the conceptual model that the driving force for the kinetically controlled radionuclide desorption from nanoparticles and subsequent association to the FFM is the excess in surface area offered by the FFM, the observed desorption kinetics are related to the colloid/FFM surface area ratio. The observed decrease in concentration of the redox sensitive elements 99Tc(VII), 233U(VI) and 237Np(V) may be explained by reduction to lower oxidation states in line with Eh-pH conditions prevailing in the experiments and thermodynamic considerations leading to (i) precipitation of a sparingly soluble phase, (ii) sorption to the fracture filling material, (iii) possible formation of eigencolloids and/or (iv) sorption to the montmorillonite colloids. Subsequent to the sorption/desorption kinetics study, an additional experiment was conducted investigating the potential remobilization of radionuclides/colloids attached to the FFM used in the sorption/desorption kinetic experiments by contacting this FFM with pure Grimsel groundwater for 7 days. A positive correlation of 242Pu, 232Th(IV) and 237Np was observed with the Zn and Ni concentrations in the desorption experiments indicating a remobilization of sorbed montmorillonite colloids. The results of the study in hand highlight (i) the novel use of structural labeled colloids to decrease the uncertainties in the determination of nanoparticle attachment providing more confidence in the derived radionuclide desorption rates. Moreover, the data illustrate (ii) the importance of radionuclide colloid desorption to be considered in the analysis and application of colloid facilitated transport both in laboratory or in-situ experiments and numerical model simulations and (iii) a possible remobilization of sorbed colloids and associated radionuclides by desorption from the matrix material (FFM) under non-equilibrium conditions.

  20. Plasma-Treated Superhydrophobic Polyethylene Surfaces: Fabrication, Wetting and Dewetting Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fresnais; J. P. Chapel; L. Benyahia; F. Poncin-Epaillard

    2009-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces correspond to hydrophobic surfaces whose water contact angle is higher than 150°. Two new routes involving plasma technique are proposed to prepare such surfaces: the first one is a one-step process (CF4 plasma modification of low density polyethylene), and the second involves two steps (O2 plasma treatment followed by CF4 plasma treatment). The plasma parameters are defined to

  1. Montmorillonite Clay-Catalyzed Synthesis of RNA Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Miyakawa, S.; Huang, W.; Joshi, P.

    2005-12-01

    It is proposed that catalysis had a central role in the origins of life. This will be illustrated using the montmorillonite clay-catalyzed synthesis of oligomers of RNA from activated monomers, (Ferris and Ertem, 1993) a possible step in the origin of the RNA world (Ferris, 2005). Structural analysis of oligomers formed in the reaction of the activated monomer of 5'-AMP with that of 5'-CMP demonstrated that the oligomers formed were not produced by random synthesis but rather the sequences observed were directed by the montmorillonite catalyst (Miyakawa and Ferris, 2003). RNA oligomers containing up to 40 mers have been synthesized in reactions performed in water at 25 oC in the presence of montmorillonite (Huang and Ferris, 2003). Analysis of the structure elements in these oligomers from the 7 to 39 mers showed that they did not vary. Reaction of D, L-mixtures of the activated monomers of A and U resulted in the formation of greater amounts of the homochiral amounts of dimers and trimers of A than would be expected if there was no selectivity in the reaction. A limited number of the dimers and trimers of U were also formed but here the selectivity was for the formation of an excess of heterochiral products (Joshi et al., 2000). A postulate that explains why homochiral trimers of U are not formed and the significance of catalysis in prebiotic synthesis will be discussed. Ferris, J.P. (2005) Origins of life, molecular basis of. In R.A. Meyers, Ed. Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, 10. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany. Ferris, J.P., and Ertem, G. (1993) Montmorillonite catalysis of RNA oligomer formation in aqueous solution. A model for the prebiotic formation of RNA. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 115, 12270-12275. Huang, W., and Ferris, J.P. (2003) Synthesis of 35-40 mers of RNA oligomers from unblocked monomers. A simple approach to the RNA world. Chem. Commun., 1458-1459. Joshi, P.C., Pitsch, S., and Ferris, J.P. (2000) Homochiral selection in the montmorillonite-catalyzed and uncatalyzed prebiotic synthesis of RNA. Chem. Commun., 2497-2498. Miyakawa, S., and Ferris, J.P. (2003) Sequence- and Regioselectivity in the montmorillonite-catalyzed synthesis of RNA. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 125, 8202-8208.

  2. Enhanced mechanical properties and in vitro cell response of surface mechanical attrition treated pure titanium.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changli; Han, Pei; Ji, Weiping; Zhang, Xiaonong

    2012-08-01

    Surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was used to fabricate nanocrystalline surface layers on the commercial purity titanium. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results indicate that the top layer contained nanograins. Enhanced strength and microhardness were achieved due to the surface nanostructure. Cell culture tests have shown a greater adhered cell density and more extensively spreading morphologies of Saos-2 cells on the SMAT substrates compared to those on the as-received Ti counterparts. Enhanced cell viability and cell cycle were also achieved on the SMAT Ti substrates. These could be attributed to the nanostructure grains with the increased surface hydrophilicity and roughness on the SMAT Ti. PMID:21273263

  3. Reaction Characteristics on the Green Surface of Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel) Treated with Chromated Phosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shang-Tzen Chang; Ting-Feng Yeh; Jyh-Horng Wu; David N.-S. Hon

    2002-01-01

    Summary Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel Chromated phosphate (CP) Green color protection FTIR spectrometry ESR spectrometry ESCA spectrometry Standing moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel) culm is attractive to many people for its green color, but it fades readily if it is not chemically treated. Chromated phosphate (CP) has been successfully used to protect the green color of bamboo. In order to understand

  4. Absorption of lithium in montmorillonite: a density functional theory (DFT) study.

    PubMed

    Wungu, Triati Dewi Kencana; Aspera, Susan Menez; David, Melanie Yadao; Dipojono, Hermawan Kresno; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki

    2011-04-01

    The absorption of lithium in montmorillonite [LiSi8(Al3Mg)O20(OH)4] was investigated using Density Functional Theory (DFT). The final position of lithium after absorption was found to be in good agreement with an experimental observation where lithium atom migrated from the interlayer into the vacant octahedral site of montmorillonite. The lithium absorbed on montmorillonite was held together by a very strong attraction between ions and exhibited an insulating behavior as depicted from the density of states curve. Due to the presence of lithium in the octahedral site of montmorillonite, the OH group reoriented itself perpendicular to the ab plane and an electron of lithium was transferred in order to compensate the existing net charge of montmorillonite caused by isomorphous substitutions. Relative small charge transfer was observed between lithium and montmorillonite. PMID:21776634

  5. FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR PREDICTION OF LASER SURFACE TREATED ALUMINIUM PLATES THROUGH SIMULATION OF THE LASER STRIPPING PROCESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Labeas; S. Tsirkas

    Laser techniques are currently applied in a series of engineering processes due to their technological and economic advantages. Characteristic applications are the cutting of complex shapes, drilling on curved surfaces, welding of dissimilar metals, surface treatment etc. In the present work the numerical simulation of the laser paint removal process, which aims on the understanding of the fatigue behaviour of

  6. Surface-Treated Activated Carbon for Removal of Phenol from Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. P. Mahajan; C. Moreno-castilla; P. L. Walker JR

    1980-01-01

    Adsorption of phenol from dilute solutions has been studied on porous and nonporous carbons, as well as on ion-exchange resins. At a given equilibrium concentration, uptake of phenol on nonporous carbons per unit area is determined by the nature of the carbon surface. Phenol uptake on porous activated carbons decreases sharply upon surface oxidation. However, progressive elimination of chemisorbed oxygen

  7. Chemical and Mechanical Analysis of PCB Surface Treated by Argon Plasma to Enhance Interfacial Adhesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Kil Shin; Hyo Sug Lee; Jay Im

    2009-01-01

    Plasma treatment of printed circuit board (PCB) is a common step in the electronic packaging processes in order to modify the surface and enhance its adhesion to molding compound. In this paper, PCB surface modifications resulting from plasma treatment were investigated by chemical and mechanical analysis methods. The PCB substrate in consideration was for multichip package, consisting of a core

  8. Analysis of Defects on Chemically-Treated CdZnTe Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, A.; Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; Gul, R.; Kim, K.-H.; Roy, U. N.; Tong, X.; Yang, G.; James, R. B.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we focused on investigating the various defects that extend into the near-surface region of CdZnTe (CZT) crystals, and on exploring processing techniques for producing a smooth, non-conductive surface that is ideal for growing thin films and depositing contacts. We determined the surface's features and the chemical species present using atomic-force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy. We revealed crystallographic defects, e.g., sub-grains and dislocations on the CZT crystals' surfaces, after employing selected chemical etchants, and then characterized them using optical microscopy, SEM and optical profilometer. Our experimental data imply that the surface defects and chemical species induced by chemical processing may alter the material's interfacial behavior, and ultimately significantly influence the performance of radiation detectors.

  9. Enhanced differentiation of human osteoblasts on Ti surfaces pre-treated with human whole blood.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Brigitte S; Schipanski, Angela; Rottmar, Markus; Berner, Simon; Maniura-Weber, Katharina

    2015-06-01

    Early and effective integration of a metal implant into bone tissue is of crucial importance for its long-term stability. While different material properties including surface roughness and wettability but also initial blood-implant surface interaction are known to influence this osseointegration, implications of the latter process are still poorly understood. In this study, early interaction between blood and the implant surface and how this affects the mechanism of osseointegration were investigated. For this, blood coagulation on a micro-roughened hydrophobic titanium (Ti) surface (SLA-Hphob) and on a hydrophilic micro-roughened Ti surface with nanostructures (SLActive-HphilNS), as well as the effects of whole human blood pre-incubation of these two surfaces on the differentiation potential of primary human bone cells (HBC) was assessed. Interestingly, pre-incubation with blood resulted in a dense fibrin network over the entire surface on SLActive-HphilNS but only in single patches of fibrin and small isolated fibre complexes on SLA-Hphob. On SLActive-HphilNS, the number of HBCs attaching to the fibrin network was greatly increased and the cells displayed enhanced cell contact to the fibrin network. Notably, HBCs displayed increased expression of the osteogenic marker proteins alkaline phosphatase and collagen-I when cultivated on both surfaces upon blood pre-incubation. Additionally, blood pre-treatment promoted an earlier and enhanced mineralization of HBCs cultivated on SLActive-HphilNS compared to SLA-Hphob. The results presented in this study therefore suggest that blood pre-incubation of implant surfaces mimics a more physiological situation, eventually providing a more predictive in vitro model for the evaluation of novel bone implant surfaces. PMID:25818948

  10. Metal removal through synergic coagulation–flocculation using an optimized chitosan–montmorillonite system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Assaad; A. Azzouz; D. Nistor; A. V. Ursu; T. Sajin; D. N. Miron; F. Monette; P. Niquette; R. Hausler

    2007-01-01

    Metal cations were removed from water by coagulation–flocculation of the chitosan–montmorillonite system. Co2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+ were used as probe cations. It was found that both chitosan and montmorillonite contribute to the metal ion removal, when used separately, and that coagulation–flocculation strongly depends on the pH and composition of the liquid medium. When used simultaneously, chitosan and montmorillonite displayed a

  11. Adsorption Properties of Montmorillonite and Synthetic Saponite as Packing Materials in Liquid-Column Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Nakamura; AKIHIKO YAMAGISHI; TOSCHITAKE IWAMOTO; MAKOTO KOGA

    1988-01-01

    The adsorption of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)-ruthenium(II) (Ru(phen)32+ ) by two kinds of col- loidaIly dispersed clays, sodium montmorillonite and synthetic saponite, was studied by spectrophoto- metric and electron-optical methods. Montmorillonite adsorbed this complex stronger than saponite. The electronic spectrum measurements suggested that the electronic states of the complex were more perturbed on adsorption by montmorillonite than by saponite. High-performance liquid chromatography was

  12. Molecular simulation of swelling and structure for Na-Wyoming montmorillonite in supercritical CO2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nannan Yang; Xiaoning Yang

    2011-01-01

    Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC) simulations were used to study the swelling stability and interlayer structures of Na-montmorillonite clay in supercritical CO2 (scCO2). From the GEMC simulation, it was found that there exist several stable mechanical spacings for Na-Wyoming montmorillonite immersed in scCO2, which are larger than the stable spacing in vacuum condition. The swelling behaviour of Na-montmorillonite clay in

  13. Studies on Interaction of Dodecyltrimethylammonium Bromide with Na and Al-Montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jingjun Pan; Guanying Yang; Buxing Han; Haike Yan

    1997-01-01

    The adsorption isotherms and adsorption enthalpies of dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DDTMAB) on Na- and Al-montmorillonite were determined in the pH range 2–12. The basal spacings of the clays were also studied by X-ray diffraction. Interactions of DDTMAB with the two montmorillonites predominate mostly through cation exchange in the pH range studied. In the case of Na-montmorillonite, the amount of adsorption increases

  14. Removal of Supranol Yellow 4GL by adsorption onto Cr-intercalated montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Bouberka; A. Khenifi; N. Benderdouche; Z. Derriche

    2006-01-01

    Cr(III)-intercalated montmorillonite was utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of the organic pollutant, Supranol Yellow 4GL, a synthetic dye used for chemical fibres. The material was prepared by the reaction of Na montmorillonite with a base-hydrolyzed solution of Cr nitrate salt (OH?\\/Cr3+ molar ratios of 2). XRD data showed that the interlayer spacing (d001) of montmorillonite was increased from

  15. Microbiological investigations of oxygen plasma treated parylene C surfaces for metal implant coating.

    PubMed

    Golda-Cepa, M; Brzychczy-Wloch, M; Engvall, K; Aminlashgari, N; Hakkarainen, M; Kotarba, A

    2015-07-01

    Parylene C surface was modified by the use of oxygen plasma treatment and characterized by microscopic and surface-sensitive techniques (E-SEM, AFM, XPS, LDI-TOF-MS, contact angle). The influence of the treatment on surface properties was investigated by calculations of surface free energy (Owens-Wendt method). Moreover, early adhesion (Culture Plate Method, Optical Microscopy Test) and biofilm formation ability (Cristal Violet Assay) on the parylene C surface was investigated. The bacteria strains which are common causative agents of medical device-associated infections (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa - reference strains and clinical isolates) were used. It was concluded that chemical (oxygen insertion) and physical (nanotopography generation) changes, have a significant impact on the biocompatibility in terms of increased hydrophilicity (?w of unmodified sample=88°±2°, ?w of 60min modified sample=17.6°±0.8°) and surface free energy (SFE of unmodified sample=42.4mJ/m(2), and for 60min modified sample=70.1mJ/m(2)). At the same time, no statistical effect on biofilm production and bacteria attachment to the modified surface of any of the tested strains was observed. PMID:25953568

  16. Study on surface properties of PDMS microfluidic chips treated with albumin

    PubMed Central

    Schrott, Walter; Slouka, Zden?k; ?ervenka, Petr; Ston, Ji?í; Nebyla, Marek; P?ibyl, Michal; Šnita, Dalimil

    2009-01-01

    Electrokinetic properties and morphology of PDMS microfluidic chips intended for bioassays are studied. The chips are fabricated by a casting method followed by polymerization bonding. Microchannels are coated with 1% solution of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Tris buffer. Albumin passively adsorbs on the PDMS surface. Electrokinetic characteristics (electro-osmotic velocity, electro-osmotic mobility, and zeta potential) of the coated PDMS channels are experimentally determined as functions of the electric field strength and the characteristic electrolyte concentration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the surface reveals a “peak and ridge” structure of the protein layer and an imperfect substrate coating. On the basis of the AFM observation, several topologies of the BSA-PDMS surface are proposed. A nonslip mathematical model of the electro-osmotic flow is then numerically analyzed. It is found that the electrokinetic characteristics computed for a channel with the homogeneous distribution of a fixed electric charge do not fit the experimental data. Heterogeneous distribution of the fixed electric charge and the surface roughness is thus taken into account. When a flat PDMS surface with electric charge heterogeneities is considered, the numerical results are in very good agreement with our experimental data. An optimization analysis finally allowed the determination of the surface concentration of the electric charge and the degree of the PDMS surface coating. The obtained findings can be important for correct prediction and possibly for robust control of behavior of electrically driven PDMS microfluidic chips. The proposed method of the electro-osmotic flow analysis at surfaces with a heterogeneous distribution of the surface electric charge can also be exploited in the interpretation of experimental studies dealing with protein-solid phase interactions or substrate coatings. PMID:20216963

  17. Novel hydrophilic carboxymethyl starch/montmorillonite nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Wilpiszewska, Katarzyna; Antosik, Adrian Krzysztof; Spychaj, Tadeusz

    2015-09-01

    Preparation of novel carboxymethyl starch (CMS)-based biodegradable films with calcium montmorillonite has been described. The biocomposites were obtained by casting method, glycerol and citric acid were used as plasticizer and crosslinking agent, respectively. The effect of calcium montmorillonite (MMT-Ca) on hydrophilicity (moisture absorption, solubility in water as well as contact angle measurements) was evaluated. Moreover, thermomechanical and mechanical properties of nanocomposites were determined. For all the systems tested intercalated structure of MMT-Ca was revealed, however the most efficient clay platelets dispersion was noted for film containing 5wt.% MMT-Ca. Such biodegradable CMS/MMT-Ca films exhibiting relatively good mechanical properties could find application in controlled delivery systems as well as in agriculture for seed tapes production where hydrophilicity of polymer carrier is strongly advantageous. PMID:26005142

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Conductive Polypyrrole/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Shigeo; Lerner, Michael M.

    2005-01-01

    A conductive polypyrrole/montmorillonite (PPY/MMT) nanocomposite was synthesized by the in situ polymerization of polypyrrole in the gallery of montmorillonite layers. HCl was adopted as a dopant of the conductive PPY polymer. The PPY/MMT film was prepared by a spin-coating method from the colloidal solution of the PPY/MMT nanocomposite. Nanocomposites have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrical dc resistivity measurements. XRD patterns showed that all samples of PPY/MMT layered nanocomposites contain an organic polymer between all individual MMT sheets. Although the electrical resistivity of the PPY polymer was highly dependent on the pH of the solution, the electrical resistivity of the PPY/MMT nanocomposite was almost independent of the pH of the solution.

  19. Polypyrrole-Montmorillonite Nanocomposite: A Composite Fast Ion Conductor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. M. Krishantha; R. M. G. Rajapakse; D. T. B. Tennakoon; H. V. R. Dias

    2006-01-01

    Cu(II)-exchanged montmorillonite [Cu(II)-MMT] takes up pyrrolium ions by ion exchange. Two pyrrolium ions are inserted for each Cu(II) ion expelled from its interlayers. These pyrrolium ions undergo spontaneous polymerization because of the remaining Cu(II) ions present within the intergalleries to form Cu(I)-polypyrrole-MMT nanocomposite. The polypyrrole (PPY) dispels any water already present within the intergalleries and the material becomes hydrophobic and

  20. Reinforcement of polyurethane composites with an organically modified montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiawen Xiong; Zhen Zheng; Hongmei Jiang; Sufang Ye; Xinling Wang

    2007-01-01

    A clay with reactive activity prepared by treatment of natural montmorillonite with Methylene-bis-ortho-chloroaniline (MOCA) was incorporated into polyurethane matrix and a series of PU\\/clay nanocomposites were obtained by in situ polymerization. The microstructure of the nanocomposites with different content of the clay was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites with different organic

  1. Chitosan\\/modified montmorillonite beads and adsorption Reactive Red 120

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siriwan Kittinaovarat; Panida Kansomwan; Nantana Jiratumnukul

    2010-01-01

    Different molar mass (Mw?) chitosans were prepared by the hydrolysis of commercial Mw? 480,000 chitosan (CTS480) with hydrogen peroxide at 4% (v\\/v) for 6 and 24h and at 15% (v\\/v) for 24h, yielding new smaller polymers of Mw? 130,000 (CTS130), 69,000 (CTS69) and 14,000 (CTS14), respectively. The four chitosan preparations were used to modify montmorillonite (MMT), but all only slightly

  2. IR study of Broensted acidity of Al-pillared montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Bodoardo; F. Figueras

    1994-01-01

    Three different methods have been used to study the hydroxyls of montmorillonite, both as such and pillared with Al[sub 13] polycations. The methods are (i) formation of H-bonds with benzene, (ii) selective H\\/D exchange, and (iii) adsorption of pyridine. Besides nonacidic species, two reactive hydroxyls have been identified, characterized by stretching modes at 3738 and 3660 cm[sup [minus]1]. The former

  3. Sorption of Sulfonamides and Tetracyclines to Montmorillonite Clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dror Avisar; Orna Primor; Igal Gozlan; Hadas Mamane

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the sorption of sulfadimethoxine (SMT), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), tetracycline (TET), and oxytetracycline\\u000a (OTC) to Na-rich montmorillonite clay in synthetic effluent (SE) and field wastewater effluent (FE). Both SMT and SMX showed\\u000a a low sorption capacity and are therefore likely to be highly mobile in the environment, while the sorption of TET to clay\\u000a in environmental pH range

  4. Enthalpy changes accompanying the collapse of montmorillonite layers and the penetration of electrolyte into interlayer space

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, L.; Low, P.F.; Roth, C.B. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Agronomy] [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

    1996-09-25

    The enthalpy changes, {Delta}H, in suspensions of Li-, Na-, and K-montmorillonite were determined as functions of the molal concentrations of LiCl, NaCl, and KCl, respectively, by microcalorimetry. These changes were compared with the corresponding changes in interlayer distance, {lambda}, as determined by X-ray diffraction. It was found that {Delta}H values accompanying the collapse of the montmorillonite layers from {lambda} > 14 nm to {lambda} {approx_equal} 1.0 nm were essentially negligible; however, {Delta}H values accompanying the collapse of layers of Li- and Na-montmorillonite from {lambda} {approx_equal} 1.0 nm to {lambda} {approx_equal} 0.6 nm, and the collapse of layers of K-montmorillonite from {lambda} {approx_equal} 0.6 nm, were not negligible. No additional collapse of Li- and Na-montmorillonite layers occurred after {lambda} {approx_equal} 0.6 nm, and for K-montmorillonite layers after {lambda} {approx_equal} 0.3 nm, but {Delta}H continued to change with increasing salt addition. This change was attributed to the penetration of electrolyte into the interlayer space. A notable observation was that the value of {Delta}H was positive for Li-montmorillonite, but negative for Na- and K-montmorillonite. These observations were interpreted to mean that {Delta}H changes in the montmorillonite suspension were largely attributable to reorganization of the interlayer space by the added electrolytes.

  5. Electrical characteristics of TMAH-surface treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS Schottky structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. Siva Pratap; Lee, Jung-Hee; Jang, Ja-Soon

    2014-03-01

    The electrical characteristics and reverse leakage mechanisms of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) surface-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diodes were investigated by using the current-voltage ( I-V) and capacitance-voltage ( C-V) characteristics. The MIS diode was formed on n-GaN after etching the AlGaN in the AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. The TMAH-treated MIS diode showed better Schottky characteristics with a lower ideality factor, higher barrier height and lower reverse leakage current compared to the TMAH-free MIS diode. In addition, the TMAH-free MIS diodes exhibited a transition from Poole-Frenkel emission at low voltages to Schottky emission at high voltages, whereas the TMAH-treated MIS diodes showed Schottky emission over the entire voltage range. Reasonable mechanisms for the improved device-performance characteristics in the TMAH-treated MIS diode are discussed in terms of the decreased interface state density or traps associated with an oxide material and the reduced tunneling probability.

  6. Functional attachment of horse radish peroxidase to plasma-treated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilek, Marcela M.; McKenzie, David R.; Nosworthy, Neil; Davies, Kerrie; Morrow, Richard; Thordarson, Palli; Gan, Bee K.; dos Remedios, Cristobal G.

    2004-02-01

    Controlling the interaction of surfaces with macromolecules, such as proteins and antibodies, is the key to producing biocompatible prosthetic devices, biosensors and diagnostic arrays. The development of technologies to control these interactions will result in the early detection of disease and have the potential to dramatically reduce costs associated with clinical treatment. For example, tethering functional anti-bodies to a surface in a patterned array allows the selection of specific proteins from a microlitre serum sample, immediately identifying diseases, well before the symptoms are manifested. Unfortunately, simple physical absorption of proteins onto most surfaces results in changes in their structure and loss of function. The use of ions from plasmas allows flexibility in surface modification by accessing a variety of ion energies and activated chemical species. In this paper we describe plasma based techniques which are being developed to modify the chemistry and morphology of surfaces in order to optimise their interaction with biomolecules. Early results of plasma processes to activate surfaces for non specific attachment of proteins by hydrophilic /hydrophobic interactions are presented, with particular attention to the time stability of such treatments, which is of special interest.

  7. Iron-montmorillonite - A spectral analog of Martian soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Margulies, L.; Chen, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral data for smectite clays, particularly for montmorillonite, which contain various adsorbed ions and are measured in the UV, VIS, and NIR ranges are analyzed and compared with Martian soil and dust spectra. It is shown that the structural octahedral iron in smectite clays affects their light absorbance in the UV at 240-260 nm, which results from an O(2-) to Fe(3+) charge transfer, similar to one observed in the Martian spectrum. Adsorbed iron affects, via crystal field absorptions, the reflectance of montmorillonite in the VIS and NIR ranges, resulting in stronger absorption and higher opacity in the range 0.40-0.65 micron. Both in spectral contrast and presence of (or lack of) spectral features, the Fe-montmorillonite spectra in the VIS and NIR are in reasonable agreement with the Martian spectrum. It is found that the spectral characteristics of iron-saturated smectite clays cannot be used to preclude the presence of clays in Martian soils and dust.

  8. Surface modifications of some nanocomposites containing starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascu, M.-C.; Popescu, M.-C.; Vasile, C.

    2008-09-01

    Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites have attracted strong interest in today's materials research, due to the possible impressive enhancements of material properties, comparatively with those of pure polymers. Several starch/poly(vinylalcohol)/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been subjected to surface modification by physical treatments such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) exposure and coating with proteins (albumin) or polysaccharides (chitosan), for improving their biocompatibility. Untreated and treated surfaces have been comparatively studied by contact angle measurements, FT-IR and 2D-FT-IR spectroscopy and optical microscopy. It has been established that enhancement of the surface characteristics depends on the type and number of incorporated nanoparticles as well as on the treatment applied. Coupling of DBD exposure and coating techniques appears to be highly efficient.

  9. Iterative Inversion Method for Eddy Current Evaluation of Near-Surface Residual Stress Profile in Surface-Treated Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.; Nagy, Peter B. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0070 (United States)

    2007-03-21

    Because of their frequency-dependent penetration depth, eddy current measurements are capable of mapping the near-surface depth profile of the electric conductivity. This technique can be used to nondestructively characterize the subsurface residual stress distribution in certain types of shot-peened metals, e.g., in nickel-base superalloys. To predict the depth-dependent, but frequency-independent, intrinsic electric conductivity from the frequency-dependent apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC), a highly convergent iterative inversion procedure is presented. The proposed technique exploits three specific features of the subsurface electric conductivity variation caused by near-surface residual stresses in shot-peened metals. First, compressive residual stresses are limited to a shallow surface region of depth much less than typical probe coil diameters. Second, the change in electric conductivity due to residual stresses is always very small, typically less than 1%. Third, the electric conductivity profile is fairly smooth and continuous. The accuracy of the proposed iterative inversion procedure is one order of magnitude better than that of the previously developed simpler method (J. Appl. Phys. 96, 1257 2004)

  10. Mg ion implantation on SLA-treated titanium surface and its effects on the behavior of mesenchymal stem cell.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Jin Seong; Park, Young Min; Choi, Bo-Young; Lee, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is one of the most important ions associated with bone osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular effects of Mg implantation in titanium (Ti) surfaces treated with sand blast using large grit and acid etching (SLA). Mg ions were implanted into the surface via vacuum arc source ion implantation. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and the amount of Mg ion release were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used to evaluate cellular parameters such as proliferation, cytotoxicity, and adhesion morphology by MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was determined on the basis of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the degree of calcium accumulation. In the Mg ion-implanted disk, 2.3×10(16) ions/cm(2) was retained. However, after Mg ion implantation, the surface morphology did not change. Implanted Mg ions were rapidly released during the first 7 days in vitro. The MTS assay, live/dead assay, and SEM demonstrated increased cell attachment and growth on the Mg ion-implanted surface. In particular, Mg ion implantation increased the initial cell adhesion, and in an osteoblast differentiation assay, ALP activity and calcium accumulation. These findings suggest that Mg ion implantation using the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique may be useful for SLA-treated Ti dental implants to improve their osseointegration capacity. PMID:23827608

  11. Environmental ageing of irradiated polypropylene/montmorillonite nanocomposites obtained in molten state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, L. G. H.; Oliani, W. L.; Lugao, A. B.; Parra, D. F.

    2014-04-01

    Nanocomposites of High Melt Strength Polypropylene (HMSPP) were obtained in organoclay concentrations of 0.1, 5 and 10 wt% using the montmorillonite (MMT). The clay was dispersed through the melting intercalation technique using a twin-screw extruder. The dumbbell samples were manufactured and settled in device for natural ageing assay. The mechanical properties (elongation and rupture strength) were evaluated and the thermal behavior was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology of the nanocomposites was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nanocomposites HMSPP/MMT showed intense cracks at the surface after 3 months of environmental ageing but not as deeply as in the HMSPP. The carbonyl index (CI) was calculated using infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) technique in which the nanocomposites showed CI values lower than the HMSPP.

  12. Hydrogen effect on zirconium alloy surface treated by pulsed electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushilina, N. S.; Lider, A. M.; Kudiiarov, V. N.; Chernov, I. P.; Ivanova, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Influence of modification by pulsed electron beam (PEB) and hydrogen adsorption in zirconium alloys have been investigated. Treatment of Zr-1Nb alloy by high-current PEB allows for a decrease in the amount of hydrogen absorbed by the samples during the hydrogenation process from gas atmosphere in the temperature range of (350-550 °?). The effect of the PEB surface treatment on the hydrogen adsorption connected with the formation of a protective oxide film after PEB irradiation and also by the formation of a specific hardening structure under the action of irradiation at temperatures exceeding the melting temperature from the subsequent high-speed surface cooling.

  13. Treated Wastewater Effluent as a Source of Microbial Pollution of Surface Water Resources

    PubMed Central

    Naidoo, Shalinee; Olaniran, Ademola O.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1990, more than 1.8 billion people have gained access to potable water and improved sanitation worldwide. Whilst this represents a vital step towards improving global health and well-being, accelerated population growth coupled with rapid urbanization has further strained existing water supplies. Whilst South Africa aims at spending 0.5% of its GDP on improving sanitation, additional factors such as hydrological variability and growing agricultural needs have further increased dependence on this finite resource. Increasing pressure on existing wastewater treatment plants has led to the discharge of inadequately treated effluent, reinforcing the need to improve and adopt more stringent methods for monitoring discharged effluent and surrounding water sources. This review provides an overview of the relative efficiencies of the different steps involved in wastewater treatment as well as the commonly detected microbial indicators with their associated health implications. In addition, it highlights the need to enforce more stringent measures to ensure compliance of treated effluent quality to the existing guidelines. PMID:24366046

  14. Correlation Between the Extent of Catalytic Activity and Charge Density of Montmorillonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertem, Gözen; Steudel, Annett; Emmerich, Katja; Lagaly, Gerhard; Schuhmann, Rainer

    2010-09-01

    The clay mineral montmorillonite is a member of the phyllosilicate group of minerals, which has been detected on martian soil. Montmorillonite catalyzes the condensation of activated monomers to form RNA-like oligomers. Extent of catalysis, that is, the yield of oligomers, and the length of the longest oligomer formed in these reactions widely varies with the source of montmorillonite (i.e., the locality where the mineral is mined). This study was undertaken to establish whether there exists a correlation between the extent of catalytic property and the charge density of montmorillonites. Charge density was determined by saturating the montmorillonites with alkyl ammonium cations that contained increasing lengths of alkyl chains, [CH3-(CH2)n-NH3]+, where n = 3-16 and 18, and then measuring d(001), interlayer spacing of the resulting montmorillonite-alkyl ammonium-montmorillonite complex by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Results demonstrate that catalytic activity of montmorillonites with lower charge density is superior to that of higher charge density montmorillonite. They produce longer oligomers that contain 9 to 10 monomer units, while montmorillonite with high charge density catalyzes the formation of oligomers that contain only 4 monomer units. The charge density of montmorillonites can also be calculated from the chemical composition if elemental analysis data of the pure mineral are available. In the next mission to Mars, CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy), a combined X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence instrument, will provide information on the mineralogical and elemental analysis of the samples. Possible significance of these results for planning the future missions to Mars for the search of organic compounds and extinct or extant life is discussed.

  15. Thermal Characteristics of ThermoBrachytherapy Surface Applicators (TBSA) for Treating Chestwall Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, K.; Maccarini, P. F.; Craciunescu, O. I.; Schlorff, J. L.; Stauffer, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To study temperature and thermal dose distributions of ThermoBrachytherapy Surface Applicators (TBSA) developed for concurrent or sequential high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and microwave hyperthermia treatment of chest wall recurrence and other superficial disease. Methods A steady state thermodynamics model coupled with the fluid dynamics of water bolus and electromagnetic radiation of hyperthermia applicator is used to characterize the temperature distributions achievable with TBSA applicators in an elliptical phantom model of the human torso. Power deposited by 915 MHz conformal microwave array (CMA) applicators is used to assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) distributions of rectangular (500 cm2) and L-shaped (875 cm2) TBSA. The SAR distribution in tissue and fluid flow distribution inside the Dual-Input Dual-Output (DIDO) water bolus are coupled to solve the steady state temperature and thermal dose distributions of rectangular TBSA (R-TBSA) for superficial tumor targets extending 10–15 mm beneath the skin surface. Thermal simulations are carried out for a range of bolus inlet temperature (Tb=38–43°C), water flow rate (Qb=2–4 L/min) and tumor blood perfusion (?b=2–5 kg/m3/s) to characterize their influence on thermal dosimetry. Results Steady state SAR patterns of R- and L-TBSA demonstrate the ability to produce conformal and localized power deposition inside tumor target sparing surrounding normal tissues and nearby critical organs. Acceptably low variation in tissue surface cooling and surface temperature homogeneity was observed for the new DIDO bolus at 2 L/min water flow rate. Temperature depth profiles and thermal dose volume histograms indicate bolus inlet temperature (Tb) to be the most influential factor on thermal dosimetry. A 42 °C water bolus was observed to be the optimal choice for superficial tumors extending 10–15 mm from the surface even under significant blood perfusion. Lower bolus temperature may be chosen to reduce thermal enhancement ratio (TER) in the most sensitive skin where maximum radiation dose is delivered and to extend thermal enhancement of radiation dose deeper. Conclusion This computational study indicates that well-localized elevation of tumor target temperature to 40–44 °C can be accomplished by large surface-conforming TBSA applicators using appropriate selection of coupling bolus temperature. PMID:20224154

  16. Surface Analytical Study of CuInSe2 Treated in Cd-Containing Partial Electrolyte Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Asher, S. E.; Ramanathan, K.; Wiesner H.; Moutinho, H. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Niles, D. W. (Hewlett-Packard Corporation)

    1998-11-19

    Junction formation in CuInSe2 (CIS) has been studied by exposing thin films and single-crystal samples to solutions containing NH4OH and CdSO4. The treated samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry to determine the amount and distribution of Cd deposited on the surface of the films. Cadmium is found to react with the surface for all the solution exposure times and temperatures studied. The reaction rapidly approaches the endpoint and remains relatively unchanged for subsequent solution exposure. Cadmium in-diffusion, as measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry, is obscured by topography effects in the thin-film samples and by ion-beam mixing and topography in the single-crystal sample.

  17. Corrosion resistance, surface mechanical properties, and cytocompatibility of plasma immersion ion implantation-treated nickel-titanium shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Yeung, K W K; Poon, R W Y; Liu, X Y; Ho, J P Y; Chung, C Y; Chu, P K; Lu, W W; Chan, D; Cheung, K M C

    2005-11-01

    Nickel-titanium shape memory alloys are promising materials in orthopedic applications because of their unique properties. However, for prolonged use in a human body, deterioration of the corrosion resistance of the materials becomes a critical issue because of the increasing possibility of deleterious ions released from the substrate to living tissues. We have investigated the use of nitrogen, acetylene, and oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) to improve the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the materials. Our results reveal that the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties such as hardness and elastic modulus are significantly enhanced after surface treatment. The release of nickel is drastically reduced as compared with the untreated control. In addition, our in vitro tests show that the plasma-treated surfaces are well tolerated by osteoblasts. Among the three types of samples, the best biological effects are observed on the nitrogen PIII samples. PMID:16078209

  18. Evaluation of stress-strain behavior of surface treated steels by X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Luis; Batista, A.; Nobre, J.; Marques, M.

    2012-03-01

    X-ray diffraction assisted four-point bending method (XRDABM) enables to analyze the evolution of surface stress with the strain during bending of specimens. This experimental methodology was used to characterize the stress-strain behavior of two plasma nitriding steels, DIN 40 Cr Mn Mo 7 and DIN 32 Cr Mo V 13, with gradients of mechanical properties across the surface layers, allowing the characterization of the in-depth evolution of the local yield strength in the nitrided layer. The results show a significantly increase of the yield strength of the nitride layers and a good agreement between the in-depth evolution of the yield strength and the XRD peak breadth for the two nitrided steels.

  19. Testing and evaluating commercial applications of new surface-treated rubber technology utilizing waste tires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. G. Smith; E. J. Daniels; A. P. S. Teotia

    1995-01-01

    Standard, untreated, crumb rubber typically commands a low selling price, usually $0.33–0.66\\/kg. This low value has limited the full recovery of the rubber from waste rubber products. An emerging technology involving the surface treatment of rubber particles with chlorine gas may improve the characteristics of waste rubber so that it can be used in high-value products, which could support a

  20. Surface and pore structure of deoiled acid-and heat-treated spent bleaching clays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. F. Ng; N. K. Nair; K. Y. Liew; Ahmad M. Noor

    1997-01-01

    Samples of spent bleaching clay were deoiled by hexane, methanol, hexane-methanol, and supercritical CO2 extractions. The deoiled clays were regenerated by acid and heat treatments. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms for these samples\\u000a are type IV with hysteresis loops corresponding to type H3, indicating slit-shaped pores. Used deoiled and dried samples have\\u000a smaller surface areas and pore volumes than unused clay. The

  1. Properties of GaP(001) surfaces chemically treated in NH4OH solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Morota; Sadao Adachi

    2006-01-01

    Chemically cleaned GaP(001) surfaces in 25% NH4OH solution have been studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and wettability measurement techniques. The SE data clearly indicate that the solution causes removal of the native oxide film immediately upon immersing the sample. The SE data also indicate that when the native oxide film

  2. Montmorillonite-Alginate Nanocomposites as a Drug Delivery System: Intercalation and In Vitro Release of Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhavesh D. Kevadiya; Ghanshyam V. Joshi; Hasmukh A. Patel; Pravin G. Ingole; Haresh M. Mody; Hari C. Bajaj

    2010-01-01

    Sustained intestinal delivery of thiamine hydrochloride (Vitamin B 1; VB1) and pyridoxine hydrochloride (Vitamin B6; VB6) seems to be a feasible alternative to existing therapy. The vitamins (VB1\\/VB6) intercalated in montmorillonite (MMT) and intercalated VB1\\/VB6-MMT hybrid is further used for synthesis of VB1\\/VB6-MMT-alginate nanocomposite beads by gelation method and in vitro release in the intestinal environment. The structure and surface

  3. Treating Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma with Highly Irregular Surfaces with Photon Irradiation Using Rice as Tissue Compensator

    PubMed Central

    Majithia, Lonika; Rong, Yi; Siddiqui, Farzan; Hattie, Todd; Gupta, Nilendu; Weldon, Michael; Chakravarti, Arnab; Wong, Henry K.; Porcu, Pierluigi; Xu-Welliver, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is known to have an excellent response to radiotherapy, an important treatment modality for this disease. In patients with extremity and digit involvement, the irregular surface and depth variations create difficulty in delivering a homogenous dose using electrons. We sought to evaluate photon irradiation with rice packing as tissue equivalence and determine clinical tolerance and response. Materials and methods: Three consecutive CTCL patients with extensive lower extremity involvement including the digits were treated using external beam photon therapy with rice packing for tissue compensation. The entire foot was treated to 30–40?Gy in 2–3?Gy per fraction using 6?MV photons prescribed to the mid-plane of an indexed box filled with rice in which the foot was placed. Treatment tolerance and response were monitored with clinical evaluation. Results: All patients tolerated the treatment without treatment breaks. Toxicities included grade 3 erythema and desquamation with resolution within 4?weeks. No late toxicities were observed. All patients had a partial response by 4?weeks after therapy with two patients achieving a complete response. Patients reported improved functionality after treatment. No local recurrence has been observed. Conclusion: Tissue compensation with rice packing offers a convenient, inexpensive, and reproducible method for the treatment of CTCL with highly irregular surfaces. PMID:25759793

  4. Intercalation of a Nonionic Surfactant (C10E3) bilayer into a Na-Montmorillonite Clay

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Intercalation of a Nonionic Surfactant (C10E3) bilayer into a Na-Montmorillonite Clay Régis of a Na-montmorillonite clay at several concentrations. The synthesized organoclays were characterized surfactants in clays where the expansion of the interlayer space was limited to two monolayers parallel

  5. One-Step, Regioselective Synthesis of up to 50-mers of RNA Oligomers by Montmorillonite Catalysis

    E-print Network

    Ferris, James P.

    One-Step, Regioselective Synthesis of up to 50-mers of RNA Oligomers by Montmorillonite Catalysis and New York Center for Studies on the Origins of Life and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New in reactions catalyzed by montmorillonite. The corresponding monomers of C give oligomers that are 20-25-mers

  6. The gap between crystalline and osmotic swelling of Na-montmorillonite: A Monte Carlo study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artur Meleshyn; Claus Bunnenberg

    2005-01-01

    Although the swelling of clay during moistening is a broadly experienced occurrence, the mechanisms driving it and especially the reason for the existence of a peculiar gap between crystalline and osmotic swelling of Na-montmorillonite are not yet fully understood. We obtained a deeper insight by means of Monte Carlo simulations of Na-montmorillonite swelling, which yield the swelling curve, interaction energies

  7. Viscosity of dilute suspensions of weakly flocculated Na-montmorillonite under low pressure gradient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Tsujimoto; Y. Adachi

    2011-01-01

    The clay mineral montmorillonite has considerable potential as a pollutant adsorption material, and understanding its unique rheological behaviors is important for realizing environmental applications. In this study, the viscosity of dilute suspensions of montmorillonite under the conditions of extremely low pressure gradients was measured using a homemade spiral-type capillary viscometer in order to understand macroscopic flow properties in terms of

  8. Voltammetric and impedance behaviours of surface-treated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F. B.; Jing, B.; Cui, Y.; Di, J. J.; Qu, M.

    2015-04-01

    The electrochemical performances of hydrogen- and oxygen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and AC impedance spectroscopy. In addition, the surface morphologies, phase structures, and chemical states of the two diamond films were analysed by scanning probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results indicated that the potential window is narrower for the hydrogen-terminated nano-crystalline diamond film than for the oxygen-terminated one. The diamond film resistance and capacitance of oxygen-terminated diamond film are much larger than those of the hydrogen-terminated diamond film, and the polarization resistances and double-layer capacitance corresponding to oxygen-terminated diamond film are both one order of magnitude larger than those corresponding to the hydrogen-terminated diamond film. The electrochemical behaviours of the two diamond film electrodes are discussed.

  9. Tribocorrosion behaviour of anodic treated titanium surfaces intended for dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, A. C.; Oliveira, F.; Wenger, F.; Ponthiaux, P.; Celis, J.-P.; Rocha, L. A.

    2013-10-01

    Tribocorrosion plays an important role in the lifetime of metallic implants. Once implanted, biomaterials are subjected to micro-movements in aggressive biological fluids. Titanium is widely used as an implant material because it spontaneously forms a compact and protective nanometric thick oxide layer, mainly TiO2, in ambient air. That layer provides good corrosion resistance, and very low toxicity, but its low wear resistance is a concern. In this work, an anodizing treatment was performed on commercial pure titanium to form a homogeneous thick oxide surface layer in order to provide bioactivity and improve the biological, chemical and mechanical properties. Anodizing was performed in an electrolyte containing ?-glycerophosphate and calcium acetate. The influence of the calcium acetate content on the tribocorrosion behaviour of the anodized material was studied. The concentration of calcium acetate in the electrolyte was found to largely affect the crystallographic structure of the resulting oxide layer. Better tribocorrosion behaviour was noticed on increasing the calcium acetate concentration.

  10. Development of an Algerian material montmorillonite clay. Adsorption of phenol, 2-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol from aqueous solutions onto montmorillonite exchanged with transition metal complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Boufatit; H. Ait-Amar; W. R. McWhinnie

    2007-01-01

    The organo-clay is Na-montmorillonite modified first with tris 2,2?-bipyridyl iron (II) perchlorate complex, second with bis tri-(2-pyridyl) amine iron (II) perchlorate complex and finally with bis-[hydrido tris-(1-pyrazolyl) borato] iron (II) complex. The purpose of this work was to study the behaviour of local material, montmorillonite clay, and to look at the ability of this clay exchanged with transition metal complexes

  11. Oligomerization reactions of deoxyribonucleotides on montmorillonite clay - The effect of mononucleotide structure, phosphate activation and montmorillonite composition on phosphodiester bond formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P.; KAMALUDDIN; Ertem, Gozen

    1990-01-01

    The 2(prime)-d-5(prime)-GMP and 2(prime)-d-5(prime)-AMP bind 2 times more strongly to montmorillonite 22A than do 2(prime)-d-5(prime)-CMP and 5(prime)-TMP. The dinucleotide d(pG)2 forms in 9.2 percent yield and the cyclic dinucleotide c(dpG)2 in 5.4 percent yield in the reaction of 2(prime)-d-5(prime)-GMP with EDAC in the presence of montmorillonite 22A. The yield of dimers which contain the phosphodiester bond decreases as the reaction medium is changed from 0.2 M NaCl to a mixture of 0.2 M NaCl and 0.075 M MgCl2. A low yield of d(pA)2 was observed in the condensation reaction of 5(prime)-ImdpA on montmorillonite 22A. The yield of d(pA)2 obtained when EDAC is used as the condensing agent increases with increasing iron content of the Na(+)-montmorillonite used as catalyst. Evidence is presented which shows that the acidity of the Na(+)-montmorillonite is a necessary but not sufficient factor for the montmorillonite catalysis of phosphodiester bond formation.

  12. Coculture of autologous limbal and conjunctival epithelial cells to treat severe ocular surface disorders: Long-term survival analysis

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Sandhya V; Sejpal, Kunjal; Fatima, Anees; Gaddipati, Subhash; Vemuganti, Geeta K; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultivated limbal epithelium for reconstruction of corneal surface is a well-established procedure; however, it is not adequate for damage which also extensively involves the conjunctiva. In severe cases of ocular surface damage that warrant additional conjunctival transplantation apart from cultivated limbal stem cell transplantation, we describe the long-term survival of a novel method of cocultivating autologous limbal and conjunctival epithelium on a single substrate. Materials and Methods: Forty eyes of 39 patients with severe limbal stem cell deficiency and conjunctival scarring or symblepharon underwent transplantation of autologous cocultivated epithelium on human amniotic membrane. A ring barrier was used to segregate the central limbal and peripheral conjunctival epithelia in vitro. Patients were followed up at regular intervals to assess stability of the ocular surface, defined by absence of conjunctivalization into the central 4 mm of the cornea and absence of diffuse fluorescein staining. Penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) was subsequently performed, where indicated, in patients with surface stability. Results: The cumulative survival probability was 60% at 1 year and 45% at 4 years by Kaplan–Meier analysis (mean follow-up duration: 33 ± 29 months, range: 1–87 months). Best-corrected visual acuity improved to greater than 20/200 in 38% eyes at the last follow-up, compared with 5% eyes before surgery. Immunohistochemistry in five of the corneal buttons excised for PKP showed an epithelial phenotype similar to cornea in all five. Conclusions: Synchronous use of cultured limbal and conjunctival epithelium offers a feasible alternative and a simpler one-step surgical approach to treat severe ocular surface disorders involving limbus and conjunctiva. PMID:23552358

  13. Detailed surface analyses and improved mechanical and tribological properties of niobium treated by high temperature nitrogen plasma based ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, R. M.; Oliveira, A. C.; Carreri, F. C.; Gomes, G. F.; Ueda, M.; Silva, M. M. N. F.; Pichon, L.; Tóth, A.

    2013-10-01

    Transition metal nitrides, as is the case of NbN, exhibit an attractive mixture of physical, chemical and mechanical properties and can be used to overcome a severe constraint of pure niobium, that is the high oxidation rate for temperature above 400 °C. In this work nitrogen ions were implanted into niobium by means of plasma based ion implantation (PBII) and high temperature PBII (HTPBII) in order to produce NbN on the surface of the material. In the case of HTPBII the treatment was performed in the temperature of 1000 °C and 1250 °C. In the process, negative pulses of 10 kV/20 ?s/500 Hz were applied to Nb samples for 1 h. The depth of the modified layer reached up to 4.5 ?m due to the diffusion of nitrogen atoms implanted into the material. X-ray diffraction spectra showed the presence of ?-NbN, ?-Nb2N and ?-Nb4N3 phases. Wear rate was reduced from 1.5 × 10-2 mm3/Nm up to 2.6 × 10-6 mm3/Nm for treated samples at high temperature in comparison with pristine samples, while friction coefficient was reduced from 0.8 to 0.25. Hardness was significantly increased. Surface topography was measured by optical profilometry. Surface roughness increases with the sample temperature but it remains lower than the one obtained by conventional PBII, very probably due to the heating method, which was performed by electron bombardment.

  14. Microstructure and its effect on toughness and wear resistance of laser surface melted and post heat treated high speed steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åhman, Leif

    1984-10-01

    High speed steel hacksaw blade blanks were laser surface melted and rapidly solidified along one edge. The laser melting resulted in complete carbide dissolution. By subsequent machining and heat treatments saw teeth were manufactured with a refined internal structure of the edges and corners. The structure was fully martensitic with a uniform and dense dispersion of small primary carbides. Sawing tests in quenched and tempered steel showed that blade life was somewhat improved, as compared to conventionally heat treated blades. The increased wear resistance is believed to be due to improved toughness along with high hardness caused by the refined carbide structure. Sawing tests in austenitic stainless steel did not give any significant improvement in performance. The effect of the altered microstructure on performance is likely to be more or less pronounced depending on application, tool and work material.

  15. Detect-to-treat: development of analysis of bacilli spores in nasal mucus by surfaced-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank E.; Gift, Alan D.; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-12-01

    As the war on terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq continue, future attacks both abroad and in the U.S.A. are expected. In an effort to aid civilian and military personnel, we have been investigating the potential of using a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sampling device to detect Bacillus anthracis spores in nasal swab samples. Such a device would be extremely beneficial to medical responders and management in assessing the extent of a bioterrorist attack and making detect-to-treat decisions. The disposable sample device consists of a glass capillary filled with a silver-doped sol-gel that is capable of extracting dipicolinic acid (DPA), a chemical signature of Bacilli, and generating SERS spectra. The sampling device and preliminary measurements of DPA extracted from spores and nasal mucus will be presented.

  16. Mineral catalysis of the formation of the phosphodiester bond in aqueous solution - The possible role of montmorillonite clays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P.; Ertem, Gozen; KAMALUDDIN; Agarwal, Vipin; Hua, Lu Lin

    1989-01-01

    The possible role of montmorillonite clays in the spontaneous formation on the primitive earth of the phosphodiester bond in the presence of water was investigated in experiments measuring the binding of various nucleosides and nucleotides with Na(+)-montmorillonite 22A and the reactions of these compounds with a water-soluble carbodiimide. It was found that, at neutral pH, adenine derivatives bind stronger than the corresponding uracil derivatives, consistent with the protonation of the adenine by the acidic clay surface and a cationic binding of the protonated ring to the anionic clay surface. The reaction of the 5-prime-AMP with carbodiimide resulted in the formation of 2-prime,5-prime-pApA (18.9 percent), 3-prime,5-prime-pApA (11 percent), and AppA (4.8 percent). The yields of these oligomers obtained when poly(U) was used in place of the clay were 15.5 percent, 3.7 percent, and 14.9 percent AppA, respectively.

  17. The microstructural study of thermal treatment montmorillonite from Heping, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pingxiao; Wu, Honghai; Li, Rong

    2005-10-01

    The montmorillonite samples from Heping, China had been studied by chemical analysis, DAT, TG, XRD and MAS NMR. The results showed that the hydroxyl in octahedra sheets begins dehydrating, when the thermal treatment temperature reaches 650 degrees C, but the layer structure remains, the corresponding Al(VI) was turned into Al(IV) in octahedra sheets. When the temperature reaches 900 degrees C, the layer structure of montmorillonite is destroyed, and the new mineral phase mu-cordierite is found. When the temperature reaches 1200 degrees C, the mu-cordierite phase loses stability, and decomposes into cristobalite phase and mullite phase, meanwhile, the recrystallization phenomena in thermal treatment products is obvious. There is a small quantity of Al(VI) signal in MAS NMR spectrum, this Al(VI) corresponds to the Al of mullite. When the temperature reaches 1350 degrees C, the cristobalite and mullite phases reduce slightly, and more Fe-cordierite phase appear. There is corresponding Fe-cordierite spectrum in XRD and MAS NMR. PMID:16165046

  18. Heterostructured nanohybrid of zinc oxide-montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Hur, Su Gil; Kim, Tae Woo; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Hwang, Sung-Ho; Yang, Jae Hun; Choy, Jin-Ho

    2006-02-01

    We have synthesized heterostructured zinc oxide-aluminosilicate nanohybrids through a hydrothermal reaction between the colloidal suspension of exfoliated montmorillonite nanosheets and the sol solution of zinc acetate. According to X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, and field emission-scanning electron microscopic analyses, it was found that the intercalation of zinc oxide nanoparticles expands the basal spacing of the host montmorillonite clay, and the crystallites of the nanohybrids are assembled to form a house-of-cards structure. From UV-vis spectroscopic investigation, it becomes certain that calcined nanohybrid contains two kinds of the zinc oxide species in the interlayer space of host lattice and in mesopores formed by the house-of-cards type stacking of the crystallites. Zn K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure/extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses clearly demonstrate that guest species in the nanohybrids exist as nanocrystalline zinc oxides with wurzite-type structure. PMID:16471722

  19. pH profile of the adsorption of nucleotides onto montmorillonite. II - Adsorption and desorption of 5-prime-AMP in iron-calcium montmorillonite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banin, A.; Lawless, J. G.; Mazzurco, J.; Church, F. M.; Margulies, L.; Orenberg, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of 5-prime-AMP with montmorillonite saturated with various ratios of two metals found ubiquitously on the surface of earth, that is, iron and calcium, is investigated. Adsorption and desorption of the nucleotide were studied in the pH range of 2-12 at three levels of addition: 0.080, 0.268 and 0.803 mmole 5-prime-AMP per gram of clay. Two desorption stages were employed - H2O wash and NaOH extraction (pH = 12.0). 5-prime-AMP was preferentially adsorbed on the Fe-containing clays relative to the Ca clay. The nucleotide was fully recovered by the two desorption stages, mostly by the NaOH extraction. The evidence at hand indicates that 5-prime-AMP reaction with clay is affected by electrostatic interactions involving both attraction and repulsion forces. Some specific adsorption, possibly the result of covalent bonding and complex formation with the adsorbed ion, cannot be ruled out for iron but does not appear to operate for calcium. Changes in pH cause varying degrees of attaction and repulsion of 5-prime-AMP and may have been operating on the primitive earth, leading to sequences of adsorption and release of this biomolecule.

  20. Plutonium(IV) sorption to montmorillonite in the presence of organic matter.

    PubMed

    Boggs, Mark A; Dai, Zurong; Kersting, Annie B; Zavarin, Mavrik

    2015-03-01

    The effect of altering the order of addition in a ternary system of plutonium(IV), organic matter (fulvic acid, humic acid and desferrioxamine B), and montmorillonite was investigated. A decrease in Pu(IV) sorption to montmorillonite in the presence of fulvic and humic acid relative to the binary Pu-montmorillonite system, is attributed to strong organic aqueous complex formation with aqueous Pu(IV). No dependence on the order of addition was observed. In contrast, in the system where Pu(IV) was equilibrated with desferrioxamine B (DFOB) prior to addition of montmorillonite, an increase in Pu(IV) sorption was observed relative to the binary system. When DFOB was equilibrated with montmorillonite prior to addition of Pu(IV), Pu(IV) sorption was equivalent to the binary system. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy revealed that DFOB accumulated in the interlayer of montmorillonite. The order of DFOB addition plays an important role in the observed sorption/desorption behavior of Pu. The irreversible nature of DFOB accumulation in the montmorillonite interlayer leads to an apparent dependence of Pu sorption on the order of addition in the ternary system. This work demonstrates that the order of addition will be relevant in ternary systems in which at least one component exhibits irreversible sorption behavior. PMID:25562752

  1. Technical Note The Use of a Very Large Constructed SubSurface Flow Wetland to Treat Glycol-Contaminated Stormwater from Aircraft De-Icing Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES HIGGINS; MICHAEL MACLEAN

    All of the pollutants found in stormwater runoff at airports, including surface and aircraft de-icing\\/anti-icing glycols, can be treated and removed to low lev- els in well-designed sub-surface flow (SSF) constructed wetland systems. There are two common forms of constructed wetlands used for pollution control: those where water flows over the surface among wetland plants (free water sur- face or

  2. Do contaminants originating from state-of-the-art treated wastewater impact the ecological quality of surface waters?

    PubMed

    Stalter, Daniel; Magdeburg, Axel; Quednow, Kristin; Botzat, Alexandra; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in wastewater treatment technology have led to considerably improved surface water quality in the urban areas of many high income countries. However, trace concentrations of organic wastewater-associated contaminants may still pose a key environmental hazard impairing the ecological quality of surface waters. To identify key impact factors, we analyzed the effects of a wide range of anthropogenic and environmental variables on the aquatic macroinvertebrate community. We assessed ecological water quality at 26 sampling sites in four urban German lowland river systems with a 0-100% load of state-of-the-art biological activated sludge treated wastewater. The chemical analysis suite comprised 12 organic contaminants (five phosphor organic flame retardants, two musk fragrances, bisphenol A, nonylphenol, octylphenol, diethyltoluamide, terbutryn), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 12 heavy metals. Non-metric multidimensional scaling identified organic contaminants that are mainly wastewater-associated (i.e., phosphor organic flame retardants, musk fragrances, and diethyltoluamide) as a major impact variable on macroinvertebrate species composition. The structural degradation of streams was also identified as a significant factor. Multiple linear regression models revealed a significant impact of organic contaminants on invertebrate populations, in particular on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera species. Spearman rank correlation analyses confirmed wastewater-associated organic contaminants as the most significant variable negatively impacting the biodiversity of sensitive macroinvertebrate species. In addition to increased aquatic pollution with organic contaminants, a greater wastewater fraction was accompanied by a slight decrease in oxygen concentration and an increase in salinity. This study highlights the importance of reducing the wastewater-associated impact on surface waters. For aquatic ecosystems in urban areas this would lead to: (i) improvement of the ecological integrity, (ii) reduction of biodiversity loss, and (iii) faster achievement of objectives of legislative requirements, e.g., the European Water Framework Directive. PMID:23593263

  3. Oligomerization reactions of deoxyribonucleotides on montmorillonite clay - The effect of mononucleotide structure on phosphodiester bond formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P.; KAMALUDDIN

    1989-01-01

    The formation of oligomers from deoxynucleotides, catalyzed by Na(+)-montmorillonite, was investigated with special attention given to the effect of the monomer structure on the phosphodiester bond formation. It was found that adenine deoxynucleotides bind more strongly to montmorillonite than do the corresponding ribonucleotides and thymidine nucleotides. Tetramers of 2-prime-dpA were detected in the reaction of 2-prime-d-5-prime-AMP with a water-soluble carbodiimide EDAC in the presence of Na(+)-montmorillonite, illustrating the possible role of minerals in the formation of biopolymers on the primitive earth.

  4. A hydrogen peroxide sensor based on colloidal MnO 2\\/Na-montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaojun Yao; Shuai Yuan; Junhui Xu; Ying wang; Jianlin Luo; Shengshui Hu

    2006-01-01

    A novel amperometric sensor for the determination of hydrogen peroxide was prepared based on the enhanced oxidation of H2O2 at a glassy carbon electrode modified with colloidal MnO2–Na-montmorillonite (nano-MnO2\\/Na-Mont\\/GCE). The montmorillonite has been devised to support and dispense the MnO2 nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy images (SEM) showed that the MnO2 nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed in the colloidal Na-montmorillonite. This colloidal

  5. Biodegradable nanocomposites from toughened polyhydroxybutyrate and titanate-modified montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Parulekar, Yashodhan; Mohanty, Amar K; Imam, Syed H

    2007-10-01

    Montmorillonite clay treated with neopentyl (diallyl)oxy tri(dioctyl) pyrophosphato titanate was used as a reinforcement for toughened bacterial bioplastic, Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in order to develop novel biodegradable nanocomposites. The modified clay, PHB, toughening partner and specific compatibilizer were processed by extrusion followed by injection molding. Different microscopy and goniometry techniques, rheology analysis, X-ray diffraction and thermo-mechanical testing were used to characterize the nanocomposites. Results showed that the nanocomposites with 5 wt% titanate-modified clay loading exhibited about 400% improvement in impact properties and 40% reduction in modulus in comparison with virgin PHB. The novel aspect of the titanate-based modification was that the nanocomposites still maintained nearly the same impact strength value as that of toughened PHB. The diffraction patterns suggest exfoliation of the organically modified clays and this was further supported by transmission electron microscopy and melt rheological analysis. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were correlated with a modified Halpin-Tsai theoretical model and the predictions matched significantly with the experimental results. Toughened and compatibilized PHB showed significantly lower biodegradation rate than virgin PHB and most significantly the addition of the titanate-modified clay in the same formulation enhanced the biodegradation several fold. PMID:18330176

  6. Investigation of nickel suppression and cytocompatibility of surface-treated nickel-titanium shape memory alloys by using plasma immersion ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Yeung, K W K; Poon, R W Y; Liu, X Y; Ho, J P Y; Chung, C Y; Chu, P K; Lu, W W; Chan, D; Cheung, K M C

    2005-03-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys are increasingly being used in orthopedic applications. However, there is a concern that Ni is harmful to the human body. We have recently investigated the use of nitrogen, or oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation to mitigate this deleterious effect. Our results reveal that the near-surface Ni concentration in all the treated samples is significantly suppressed. In addition, our in vitro tests show that the plasma-treated surfaces are cytologically compatible allowing the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts. Among the two types of samples, the best biological effects are found on the samples with nitrogen implantation. PMID:15662652

  7. Eco-Friendly Magnetic Iron Oxide Pillared Montmorillonite for Advanced Catalytic Degradation of Dichlorophenol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Eco-friendly pillared montmorillonites, in which the pillars consist of iron oxide are expected to have interesting and unusual magnetic properties that are applicable for environmental decontamination. Completely ?green? and effective composite was synthesized using mild reactio...

  8. Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Solutions

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate. The copper exchange capacity (CuEC) and Na-Cu exchange reactions on Wyoming montmo- rillonite were studied

  9. Theoretical Studies on the Extrinsic Defects of Montmorillonite in Soft Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Man-Chao; Fang, Zhi-Jie; Zhang, Ping

    Using the first-principles methods, we study the formation energetics and charge doping properties of the extrinsic substitutional defects in montmorillonite. Especially, we choose Be, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn as extrinsic defects to substitute for Al atoms. By systematically calculating the impurity formation energies and transition energy levels, we find that all Group II defects introduce the relative shallow transition energy levels in montmorillonite. Among them, MgAl has the shallowest transition energy level at 0.10 eV above the valence band maximum. The transition-elemental defects FeAl, CrAl, and MnAl are found to have relatively low formation energies, suggesting their easy formation in montmorillonite under natural surrounding conditions. Our calculations show that the defects CuAl and ZnAl have high formation energies, which exclude the possibility of their formation in montmorillonite.

  10. Preparation and characterization of silver loaded montmorillonite modified with sulfur amino acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tian; Lin, Oulian; Lu, Zhiyuan; He, Liuimei; Wang, Xiaosheng

    2014-06-01

    The Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) was modified with sulfur containing amino acid (L-cystine, L-cysteine or L-methionine) and characterized by energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR). The results showed the modification was smooth and the surface condition of MMT was changed with sulfur containing groups. Then silver was loaded on the modified MMTs via ion-exchange reaction under microwave irradiation, the spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), EDS and FT-IR confirmed the successful loading of massive silver and the strong interaction between sulfur and silver, the silver loaded L-cystine modified MMT (Ag@AA-MMT-3) with a silver content of 10.93 wt% was the highest of all. Further more, the Ag@AA-MMT-3 was under the irradiation of a UV lamp to turn silver ions to silver nano particles (Ag NPs). The XPS, specific surface area (SSA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), XRD patterns and UV-vis spectra proved the existence of uniform nano scaled metallic Ag NPs. By contrast, the UV irradiated Ag@AA-MMT-3 (Ag@AA-MMT-UV) showed a much better slow release property than Ag@AA-MMT-3 or Ag@MMT. The Ag@AA-MMT-UV showing a large inhibition zone and high inhibition ratio presented very good antibacterial property.

  11. In vitro aflatoxin adsorption by means of a montmorillonite silicate. A study of adsorption isotherms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Ramos; E. Hernández

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the affinity and capacity of a feedstuff additive, a montmorillonite silicate, to adsorb the four major naturally occurring aflatoxins, a study of the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms was carried out. The Freundlich isotherm fits the data better than the Langmuir isotherm. The data reveal adsorptions of about 1000 ?g aflatoxin B1 g?1 montmorillonite, 425–450 ?g aflatoxin G1

  12. Effect of different modified clays on the thermal and physical properties of polypropylene-montmorillonite nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Krump; A. S. Luyt; I. Hudec

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the isothermal and nonisothermal crystallization of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene-montmorillonite nanocomposites, compared to that of the polypropylene matrix (PP), by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The nanocomposites were prepared by melt-intercalation. The DSC results show that the presence of modified montmorillonite (mMMT) clay results in a shift of the onset and peak temperatures towards higher values. This suggests

  13. Effects of organo-montmorillonite dispersion on thermal stability of epoxy resin nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baochun Guo; Demin Jia; Changgeng Cai

    2004-01-01

    Montmorillonite (MMT) was modified with the acidified cocamidopropyl betaine (CAB) and the resulting organo-montmorillonite (O-MMT) was dispersed in an epoxy\\/methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride system to form epoxy nanocomposites. The dispersion state of the MMT in the matrix was investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy. The thermal stability of the epoxy nanocomposites was examined by TGA. Thermal stability of the

  14. Effect of hydroxy-aluminium species on the sorption and interlayering of albumin onto montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annunziata De Cristofaro; Antonio Violante

    2001-01-01

    Proteins interact with soluble OH–Al species or Al precipitation products forming organo-mineral complexes with different chemical and physico-chemical properties. We studied the effect of pH, cation saturating the clays, presence of OH–Al species and order of component (OH–Al species, albumin and montmorillonite) addition on the amounts of proteinic molecules adsorbed on montmorillonite and the possible interlayering of OH–Al–protein complexes. Albumin

  15. Polypropylene\\/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites. Review of the Synthetic Routes and Materials Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Manias; A. Touny; L. Wu; K. Strawhecker; B. Lu; T. C. Chung

    2001-01-01

    The synthetic routes and materials properties of polypropylene\\/montmorillonite nano- composites are reviewed. The nanocomposite formation is achieved in two ways: either by using functionalized polypropylenes and common organo-montmorillonites, or by using neat\\/ unmodified polypropylene and a semi-fluorinated organic modification for the silicates. All the hybrids can be formed by solventless melt-intercalation or extrusion, and the resulting polymer\\/inorganic structures are characterized

  16. Adsorption of trace levels of bromate from aqueous solution by organo-montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh Chitrakar; Yoji Makita; Akinari Sonoda; Takahiro Hirotsu

    2011-01-01

    Organo-montmorillonite was prepared by the modification of montmorillonite (Mont) with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), benzethonium chloride (BC) or hexadecyl trimethylammonium chloride (HDTMAC) to study the adsorption of bromate from aqueous solutions. The adsorption from a 0.78?M bromate solution on CPC–Mont occurred rapidly. The equilibrium was attained within 2h at bromate concentrations <0.078?M, the maximum contaminant level established for drinking water. BC–Mont

  17. Deep desulfurization of model gasoline over photoirradiated titanium-pillared montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ping Na; Baolin Zhao; Linyuan Gu; Jia Liu; Jiyu Na

    2009-01-01

    The activity of Ti-pillared montmorillonite for photocatalytic oxidative desulfurization using 2,5-dimethylthiophene dissolved in n-octane as a model organosulfur compound in gasoline was investigated. Using Ti-pillared montmorillonite and an oil\\/acetonitrile two-phase extraction, deep desulfurization of sulfur-containing compounds was achieved. During this process, O2 was used as the oxygen source and photoirradiation was achieved by UV light. Using this approach, 97.4% of

  18. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of AlGaN surfaces exposed to air and treated in NH4OH solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamotsu Hashizume; Shin-Ya Ootomo; Ryuusuke Nakasaki; Susumu Oyama; Michio Kihara

    2000-01-01

    Chemical properties of Al0.17Ga0.83N surfaces exposed to air and treated in an NH4OH solution were systematically investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An air-exposed sample showed highly nonstoichiometric surface which included a large amount of Ga and Al oxides. The angle-resolved XPS analysis revealed that the natural oxide layer possessed a complicated composition distribution in depth and that the Al-oxide

  19. High-Frequency Eddy Current Conductivity Spectroscopy for Near-Surface Residual Stress Profiling in Surface-Treated Nickel-Base Superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Nabah, Bassam A.; Nagy, Peter B. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0070 (United States)

    2007-03-21

    Recent research indicated that eddy current conductivity measurements can be exploited for nondestructive evaluation of subsurface residual stress in surface-treated components. This technique is based on the so-called piezoresistive effect, i.e., the stress-dependence of electric conductivity. Previous experimental studies were conducted on excessively peened (Almen 10-16A peening intensity levels) nickel-base superalloy specimens that exhibited harmful cold work in excess of 30% plastic strain. The main reason for choosing peening intensities above recommended normal levels was that the eddy current penetration depth could not be decreased below 0.2 mm without conducting accurate measurements above 10 MHz, which is beyond the operational range of most commercially available eddy current instruments. In this paper we report the development of a new high-frequency eddy current conductivity measuring system that offers an extended inspection frequency range up to 80 MHz with a single probe coil. In addition, the new system offers better reproducibility, accuracy, and measurement speed than the previously used conventional system.

  20. Montmorillonite\\/polypyrrole nanocomposites. The effect of organic modification of clay on the chemical and electrical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslava Mrav?áková; Kada Boukerma; Mária Omastová; Mohamed M. Chehimi

    2006-01-01

    Montmorillonite\\/polypyrrole (MMT\\/PPy) nanocomposites, with 15% mass loading of PPy, were prepared by the in situ polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of montmorillonite (MMT) or organo-modified montmorillonite (oMMT) in aqueous solutions containing an oxidant and an anionic surfactant. The morphology of MMT\\/PPy nanocomposites distinctly differs from that of the untreated MMT as shown by SEM. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that

  1. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters surface treated with lauric arginate and/or a liquid smoke extract delivered using the Sprayed Lethality in Container (SLIC®) technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the viability of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) on commercially-produced frankfurters prepared without lactates that were surface treated with 0 or 4 mL of a blend of LAE (CytoGuard; 1.0% LAE final concentration) diluted in a concentrated liquid smoke extrac...

  2. Mechanical and fatigue characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V extra low interstitial and solution-treated and annealed alloys after ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification treatment.

    PubMed

    Kayumov, Ravil; Pyun, Young Sik; Suh, Chang Min; Murakami, Riichi

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the influence of ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM), a novel surface treatment technology, on the mechanical characteristics and rotary bending fatigue performance of solution-treated and annealed (STA) Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6AI-4V extra low interstitial (ELI) alloys. Various techniques have been developed to use surface modification in order to improve fatigue performance of machine parts. The UNSM treatment emerges due to its ability to induce a distinctive combination of modifications in the top surface and the subsurface of the material. The mechanical properties are acquired and compared for UNSM-treated and untreated specimens. Fatigue data is acquired and compared for UNSM-treated and untreated specimens of Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy by subjecting specimens to rotary-bending fatigue tests. Fracture analysis of failed specimens is performed. The improvement in the fatigue performance is observed for UNSM treated specimens. This improvement is attributed mainly to the UNSM-induced combination of following modifications: compressive residual stress, micro-hardness, and nanograin in the subsurface of the material. PMID:25971078

  3. Molecular stability, mechanical properties, surface characteristics and sterility of biodegradable polyurethanes treated with low-temperature plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarzyna Gorna; Sylwester Gogolewski

    2003-01-01

    Biodegradable medical polyurethanes with varying hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic segment ratios based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and hydrophobic poly(?-caprolactone) diol, were treated with low-temperature, low-pressure plasmas of hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia. All samples treated with hydrogen peroxide plasma were sterile, while samples treated with oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia plasmas were nonsterile. The treatment caused a 7% drop in molecular

  4. Evaluation of Subsurface Flow and Free-water Surface Wetlands Treating NPR-3 Produced Water - Year No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J. E.; Jackson, L. M.

    2001-10-13

    This paper is a summary of some of the activities conducted during the first year of a three-year cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) and Texaco relating to the treatment of produced water by constructed wetlands. The first year of the CRADA is for design, construction and acclimation of the wetland pilot units. The second and third years of the CRADA are for tracking performance of pilot wetlands as the plant and microbial communities mature. A treatment wetland is a proven technology for the secondary and tertiary treatment of produced water, storm water and other wastewaters. Treatment wetlands are typically classified as either free-water surface (FWS) or subsurface flow (SSF). Both FWS and SSF wetlands work well when properly designed and operated. This paper presents a collection of kinetic data gathered from pilot units fed a slipstream of Wyoming (NPR-3) produced water. The pilot units are set up outdoors to test climatic influences on treatment. Monitoring parameters include evapotranspiration, plant growth, temperature, and NPDES discharge limits. The pilot wetlands (FWS and SSF) consist of a series of 100-gal plastic tubs filled with local soils, gravel, sharp sand and native wetland plants (cattail (Typha spp.), bulrush (Scirpus spp.), dwarf spikerush (Eleocharis)). Feed pumps control hydraulic retention time (HRT) and simple water control structures control the depth of water. The treated water is returned to the existing produced water treatment system. All NPDES discharge limits are met. Observations are included on training RMOTC summer students to do environmental work.

  5. Correlation between primary stability and bone healing of surface treated titanium implants in the femoral epiphyses of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Rozé, Julie; Hoornaert, Alain; Layrolle, Pierre

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the stability and osseointegration of surface treated titanium implants in rabbit femurs. The implants were either grit-blasted and acid-etched (BE Group), calcium phosphate (CaP) coated by using the electrodeposition technique, or had bioactive molecules incorporated into the CaP coatings: either cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) or dexamethasone (Dex). Twenty four cylindrical titanium implants (n = 6/group) were inserted bilaterally into the femoral epiphyses of New Zealand White, female, adult rabbits for 4 weeks. Implant stability was measured by resonance frequency analysis (RFA) the day of implantation and 4 weeks later, and correlated to histomorphometric parameters, bone implant contact (BIC) and bone growth around the implants (BS/TS 0.5 mm). The BIC values for the four groups were not significantly different. That said, histology indicated that the CaP coatings improved bone growth around the implants. The incorporation of bioactive molecules (cAMP and Dex) into the CaP coatings did not improve bone growth compared to the BE group. Implant stability quotients (ISQ) increased in each group after 4 weeks of healing but were not significantly different between the groups. A good correlation was observed between ISQ and BS/TS 0.5 mm indicating that RFA is a non-invasive method that can be used to assess the osseointegration of implants. In conclusion, the CaP coating enhanced bone formation around the implants, which was correlated to stability measured by resonance frequency analysis. Furthers studies need to be conducted in order to explore the benefits of incorporating bioactive molecules into the coatings for peri-implant bone healing. PMID:24818874

  6. Nitrogen behavior in a free water surface constructed wetland used as posttreatment for anaerobically treated swine wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    De Los Reyes, Catalina Plaza; Pozo, Guillermo; Vidal, Gladys

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of total nitrogen (TN) in its different forms in a Free Water Surface constructed wetland (FWS) used as posttreatment for anaerobically treated swine wastewater. The experiment was conducted in a glasshouse from July 2010 to November 2011. The system consists in a FWS mesocosm inoculated with Typha angustifolia L. using as pretreatment an UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket). The operation are based on the progressive increase of the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) (2.0-30.2 kg TN/ha·d) distributed in 12 loads, with an operational time of 20 d. The results indicate that the behavior of the TN in the FWS, mainly depends on the NLR applied, the amount of dissolved oxygen available and the seasonality. The FWS operated with an NLR between 2.0-30.2 kg TN/ha·d, presents average removal efficiency for TN of 54.8%, with a maximum removal (71.7%) between spring-summer seasons (17.3-21.7°C). The availability of dissolved oxygen hinders the nitrification/denitrification processes in the FWS representing a 0.3-5.6% of TN removed.The main route of TN removal is associated with ammonia volatilization processes (2.6-40.7%), mainly to NLR over 25.8 kg TN/ha· d and with temperatures higher than 18°C. In a smaller proportion, the incorporation of nitrogen via plant uptake was 10.8% whereas the TN accumulated in the sediments was a 5.0% of the TN applied during the entire operation (550 d). An appropriate control of the NLR applied, can reduce the ammonia volatilization processes and the phytotoxicity effects expressed as growth inhibition in 80.0% from 496.0 mg NH(+) 4-N/L (25.8 kg TN/ha·d). PMID:24171422

  7. Pulsed electric linear dichroism of triphenylmethane dyes adsorbed on montmorillonite K10 in aqueous media

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaoka, Kiwamu; Sasai, Ryo

    2000-05-01

    Electric linear dichroism (ELD) spectra of two cationic triphenylmethane dyes, crystal violet (CV) and malachite green (MG), bound to sodium montmorillonite K10 (MK-10) were studied at 20 C in aqueous media at two mixing ratios, D/S, of 0.10 and 0.24 in the 700- to 400 nm wavelength region and in the applied electric field strength range between 0 and 3 kV/cm. The specific parallel and perpendicular dichroism ({Delta}A{sub {parallel}}/A and {Delta}A{sub {perpendicular}}/A) spectra of dye-adsorbed MK-10 suspension were measured at a fixed field strength with an apparatus equipped with a 512-channel photodiode array detector. By changing the field strength over a wide range, a series of the reduced dichroism values of the bound dyes were measured at a fixed wavelength. By fitting these dichroism values to theoretical orientation functions, the intrinsic reduced dichroism ({Delta}A/A){sub int} spectra at the limiting high fields (ELD spectrum) were determined for CV and MG bound to MK-10. No appreciable difference was observed at the two D/S values. The ELD spectra of these bound dyes are undulatory but never constant, throughout their absorption region; thus, the dye plane does not lie flatly either on the surface or between layers of MK-10 particle.

  8. Self-healable, tough, and ultrastretchable nanocomposite hydrogels based on reversible polyacrylamide/montmorillonite adsorption.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guorong; Du, Gaolai; Sun, Yuanna; Fu, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Nanocomposite hydrogels with unprecedented stretchability, toughness, and self-healing have been developed by in situ polymerization of acrylamide with the presence of exfoliated montmorillonite (MMT) layers as noncovalent cross-linkers. The exfoliated MMT clay nanoplatelets with high aspect ratios, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, are well dispersed in the polyacrylamide matrix. Strong polymer/MMT interaction was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The effective cross-link densities of these hydrogels are estimated in the range of 2.2-5.7 mol m(-3). Uniaxial tensile tests showed a very high fracture elongation up to 11?800% and a fracture toughness up to 10.1 MJ m(-3). Cyclic loading-unloading tests showed remarkable hysteresis, which indicates energy dissipation upon deformation. Residual strain after cyclic loadings could be recovered under mild conditions, with the recovery extent depending on clay content. A mechanism based on reversible desorption/adsorption of polymer chains on clay platelets surface is discussed. Finally, these nanocomposite hydrogels are demonstrated to fully heal by dry-reswell treatments. PMID:25668063

  9. Optical properties of heterogeneous nanosystems based on montmorillonite clay mineral and 5CB nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashechnikova, I.; Dolgov, L.; Gavrilko, T.; Puchkovska, G.; Shaydyuk, Ye.; Lebovka, N.; Moraru, V.; Baran, J.; Ratajczak, H.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of montmorillonite (MMT) clay modification with surfactant cations on the electrooptical properties of the LC-clay nanocomposites consisting of MMT and 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) nematic liquid crystal was investigated depending on the composite preparation method. We showed that only composites consisting of MMT modified with organic surfactants (alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chlorides with alkyl chain length C 14-C 18) display electrooptical memory effect and contrast. Adding a polar additive (acetone) to the mixture during the composite preparation considerably improves the homogeneity of the composites and their electrooptical performance. Using IR and Raman spectroscopy methods it was shown that in the LC-organoclay composites mutual interaction between the components takes place, which results in alignment of the near-surface layers of both organic and inorganic components of the composite. Due to such interaction, these systems display electrooptical contrast and memory effect. The LC-clay composites consisting of organophobic Na-MMT do not display electrooptical effect because of the absence of interaction between the components, which is confirmed by the IR and Raman spectroscopy data.

  10. Photocatalytic reactions of nanocomposite of ZnS nanoparticles and montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praus, P.; Reli, M.; Ko?í, K.; Obalová, L.

    2013-06-01

    ZnS nanoparticles stabilized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were deposited on montmorillonite (MMT) forming a ZnS-CTA-MMT nanocomposite. The nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and UV diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) spectrometry, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and specific surface area measurements. Thereafter, it was used for photocatalytic reactions under UV irradiation (Hg lamp) in three different reaction media with different pH: NaOH solution, HCl solution and water. Prior to the photocatalytic reactions the dispersions were saturated by carbon dioxide to buffer the systems. The main reaction products in gas phase determined by gas chromatography were hydrogen and methane. The reactions were monitored by measuring oxidation-reduction potentials. The highest yields of hydrogen were obtained in the dispersion acidified by HCl but the concentrations of methane were similar in all tested media. Hydrogen was supposed to be formed by the reaction of two hydrogen radicals. Methane was formed by the reduction of carbon dioxide and by the partial decomposition of CTAB.

  11. Activity of Laccase Immobilized on TiO2-Montmorillonite Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingqing; Peng, Lin; Li, Guohui; Zhang, Ping; Li, Dawei; Huang, Fenglin; Wei, Qufu

    2013-01-01

    The TiO2-montmorillonite (TiO2-MMT) complex was prepared by blending TiO2 sol and MMT with certain ratio, and its properties as an enzyme immobilization support were investigated. The pristine MMT and TiO2-MMT calcined at 800 °C (TiO2-MMT800) were used for comparison to better understand the immobilization mechanism. The structures of the pristine MMT, TiO2-MMT, and TiO2-MMT800 were examined by HR-TEM, XRD and BET. SEM was employed to study different morphologies before and after laccase immobilization. Activity and kinetic parameters of the immobilized laccase were also determined. It was found that the TiO2 nanoparticles were successfully introduced into the MMT layer structure, and this intercalation enlarged the “d value” of two adjacent MMT layers and increased the surface area, while the calcination process led to a complete collapse of the MMT layers. SEM results showed that the clays were well coated with adsorbed enzymes. The study of laccase activity revealed that the optimum pH and temperature were pH = 3 and 60 °C, respectively. In addition, the storage stability for the immobilized laccase was satisfactory. The kinetic properties indicated that laccase immobilized on TiO2-MMT complexes had a good affinity to the substrate. It has been proved that TiO2-MMT complex is a good candidate for enzyme immobilization. PMID:23771020

  12. Modified montmorillonite clay microparticles for stable oil-in-seawater emulsions.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jiannan; Worthen, Andrew J; Foster, Lynn M; Chen, Yunshen; Cornell, Kevin A; Bryant, Steven L; Truskett, Thomas M; Bielawski, Christopher W; Johnston, Keith P

    2014-07-23

    Environmentally benign clay particles are of great interest for the stabilization of Pickering emulsions. Dodecane-in-synthetic seawater (SSW) emulsions formed with montmorillonite (MMT) clay microparticles modified with bis(2-hydroxyethyl)oleylamine were stable against coalescence, even at clay concentrations down to 0.1% w/v. Remarkably, as little as 0.001% w/v surfactant lowered the hydrophilicity of the clay to a sufficient level for stabilization of oil-in-SSW emulsions. The favorable effect of SSW on droplet size reduction and emulsion stability enhancement is hypothesized to be due to reduced electrostatic repulsion between adsorbed clay particles and a consequent increase in the continuous phase (an aqueous clay suspension) viscosity. Water/oil (W/O) emulsions were inverted to O/W either by decreasing the mass ratio of surfactant-to-clay (transitional inversion) or by increasing the water volume fraction (catastrophic inversion). For both types of emulsions, coalescence was minimal and the sedimentation or creaming was highly correlated with the droplet size. For catastrophic inversions, the droplet size of the emulsions was smaller in the case of the preferred curvature. Suspensions of concentrated clay in oil dispersions in the presence of surfactant were stable against settling. The mass transfer pathways during emulsification of oil containing the clay particles were analyzed on the droplet size/stability phase diagrams to provide insight for the design of dispersant systems for remediating surface and subsurface oceanic oil spills. PMID:24932773

  13. Removal of herbicides from aqueous solutions by modified forms of montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Park, Yuri; Sun, Zhiming; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L

    2014-02-01

    This investigation for the removal of agricultural pollutants, imazaquin and atrazine was conducted using montmorillonite (MMT) exchanged with organic cations through ion exchange. The study found that the adsorption of the herbicides was affected by the degree of organic cation saturations, the size of organic cations and the different natures of the herbicides. The modified clays intercalated with the larger surfactant molecules at the higher concentrations tended to enhance the adsorption of imazaquin and atrazine. In particular, the organoclays were highly efficient for the removal of imazaquin while the adsorption of atrazine was minimal due to the different hydrophobicities. Both imazaquin and atrazine were influenced by the changes of pH. The amphoteric imazaquin exists as an anion at the pH 5-7 and the anionic imazaquin was protonated to a neutral and further a cationic form when the pH is lower. The weak base, atrazine was also protonated at lower pH values. The anionic imazaquin had a strong affinity to the organoclays on the external surface as well as in the interlayer space of the MMT through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. In this study, the electrostatic interaction can be the primary mechanism involved during the adsorption process. This study also investigated a comparative adsorption for the imazaquin and atrazine and the lower adsorption of atrazine was enhanced and this phenomenon was due to the synergetic effect. This work highlights a potential mechanism for the removal of specific persistence herbicides from the environment. PMID:24267339

  14. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of carboxylic acids adsorbed onto mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubicki, J. D.; Schroeter, L. M.; Itoh, M. J.; Nguyen, B. N.; Apitz, S. E.

    1999-09-01

    A suite of naturally-occurring carboxylic acids (acetic, oxalic, citric, benzoic, salicylic and phthalic) and their corresponding sodium salts were adsorbed onto a set of common mineral substrates (quartz, albite, illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) in batch slurry experiments. Solution pH's of approximately 3 and 6 were used to examine the effects of pH on sorption mechanisms. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to obtain vibrational frequencies of the organic ligands on the mineral surfaces and in solution. UV/visible spectroscopy on supernatant solutions was also employed to confirm that adsorption from solution had taken place for benzoic, salicylic and phthalic acids. Molecular orbital calculations were used to model possible surface complexes and interpret the experimental spectra. In general, the tectosilicates, quartz and albite feldspar, did not chemisorb (i.e., strong, inner-sphere adsorption) the carboxylate anions in sufficient amounts to produce infrared spectra of the organics after rinsing in distilled water. The clays (illite, kaolinite and montmorillonite) each exhibited similar ATR FTIR spectra. However, the illite sample used in this study reacted to form strong surface and aqueous complexes with salicylic acid before being treated to remove free Fe-hydroxides. Chemisorption of carboxylic acids onto clays is shown to be limited without the presence of Fe-hydroxides within the clay matrix.

  15. Effects of graded levels of montmorillonite on performance, hematological parameters and bone mineralization in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Duan, Q W; Li, J T; Gong, L M; Wu, H; Zhang, L Y

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of montmorillonite, a constituent of clay, on performance, hematological parameters and bone mineralization in weaned pigs. One hundred and twenty, 35-d-old crossbred pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace, 10.50±1.20 kg) were used in a 28-d experiment and fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0% montmorillonite added at the expense of wheat bran. Each treatment was replicated six times with four pigs (two barrows and two gilts) per replicate. Feed intake declined (linear and quadratic effect, p< 0.01) with increasing level of montmorillonite while feed conversion was improved (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01). Daily gain was unaffected by dietary treatment. Plasma myeloperoxidase declined linearly (p = 0.03) with increasing dietary level of montmorillonite. Plasma malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were quadratically affected (p<0.01) by montmorillonite with increases observed for pigs fed the 0.5 and 1.0% levels which then declined for pigs fed the 2.5 and 5.0% treatments. In bone, the content of potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese and magnesium were decreased (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01) in response to an increase of dietary montmorillonite. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of montmorillonite at levels as high as 5.0% does not result in overt toxicity but could induce potential oxidative damage and reduce bone mineralization in pigs. PMID:25049749

  16. Effects of Graded Levels of Montmorillonite on Performance, Hematological Parameters and Bone Mineralization in Weaned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Q. W.; Li, J. T.; Gong, L. M.; Wu, H.; Zhang, L. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of montmorillonite, a constituent of clay, on performance, hematological parameters and bone mineralization in weaned pigs. One hundred and twenty, 35-d-old crossbred pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace, 10.50±1.20 kg) were used in a 28-d experiment and fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0% montmorillonite added at the expense of wheat bran. Each treatment was replicated six times with four pigs (two barrows and two gilts) per replicate. Feed intake declined (linear and quadratic effect, p< 0.01) with increasing level of montmorillonite while feed conversion was improved (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01). Daily gain was unaffected by dietary treatment. Plasma myeloperoxidase declined linearly (p = 0.03) with increasing dietary level of montmorillonite. Plasma malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were quadratically affected (p<0.01) by montmorillonite with increases observed for pigs fed the 0.5 and 1.0% levels which then declined for pigs fed the 2.5 and 5.0% treatments. In bone, the content of potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese and magnesium were decreased (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01) in response to an increase of dietary montmorillonite. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of montmorillonite at levels as high as 5.0% does not result in overt toxicity but could induce potential oxidative damage and reduce bone mineralization in pigs. PMID:25049749

  17. A comparison of the corrosion behaviour and surface characteristics of vacuum-brazed and heat-treated Ti6Al4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Lee, T M; Chang, E; Yang, C Y

    1998-08-01

    The corrosion characteristics of the brazed Ti6Al4V specimens were analysed and compared with respect to the conventionally heat-treated specimens by an electrochemical corrosion test. The object of this research was to explore the potentiality of the brazed titanium for biomaterials. The characteristics of the 1300 degrees C heat-treated and the 970 degrees C brazed specimens, with passivation and sterilization treatment, were evaluated by measurement of corrosion potential, Ecorr, corrosion current densities, Icorr, polarization resistance of the reacted surface films, Rp, in a potentiodynamic test. The experimental results show that the corrosion rates of the heat-treated and the brazed samples are similar at Ecorr, and the value of Ecorr for the brazed sample is noble to the heat-treated samples. The passive current density of the brazed specimen is either lower or higher than the heat-treated specimen, depending on the polarization potential. By Auger electron spectroscopic and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis on specimens from the potentiostatic test, the elements of copper and nickel in the brazing filler were not detected while less alumina was found in the reacted film of the brazed specimens when compared with the heat-treated specimens. The implication of the results is discussed. PMID:15348855

  18. The microbiological and clinical outcome of guide wire exchanged versus newly inserted antimicrobial surface treated central venous catheters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The management of suspected central venous catheter (CVC)-related sepsis by guide wire exchange (GWX) is not recommended. However, GWX for new antimicrobial surface treated (AST) triple lumen CVCs has never been studied. We aimed to compare the microbiological outcome of triple lumen AST CVCs inserted by GWX (GWX-CVCs) with newly inserted triple lumen AST CVCs (NI-CVCs). Methods We studied a cohort of 145 consecutive patients with GWX-CVCs and contemporaneous site-matched control cohort of 163 patients with NI-CVCs in a tertiary intensive care unit (ICU). Results GWX-CVC and NI-CVC patients were similar for mean age (58.7 vs. 62.2 years), gender (88 (60.7%) vs. 98 (60.5%) male) and illness severity on admission (mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III: 71.3 vs. 72.2). However, GWX patients had longer median ICU lengths of stay (12.2 vs. 4.4 days; P < 0.001) and median hospital lengths of stay (30.7 vs. 18.0 days; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference with regard to the number of CVC tips with bacterial or fungal pathogen colonization among GWX-CVCs vs. NI-CVCs (5 (2.5%) vs. 6 (7.4%); P = 0.90). Catheter-associated blood stream infection (CA-BSI) occurred in 2 (1.4%) GWX patients compared with 3 (1.8%) NI-CVC patients (P = 0.75). There was no significant difference in hospital mortality (35 (24.1%) vs. 48 (29.4%); P = 0.29). Conclusions GWX-CVCs and NI-CVCs had similar rates of tip colonization at removal, CA-BSI and mortality. If the CVC removed by GWX is colonized, a new CVC must then be inserted at another site. In selected ICU patients at higher central vein puncture risk receiving AST CVCs GWX may be an acceptable initial approach to line insertion. PMID:24004883

  19. A rabbit maxillary sinus model with simultaneous customized-implant placement: Comparative microscopic analysis for the evaluation of surface-treated implants.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Hyunmin; Lee, Sang-Bae; Zhang, Chenghao; Otgonbold, Jamiyandori; Cho, Jang-Gi; Han, Jin Soo

    2015-08-01

    We describe the use of a rabbit maxillary sinus model, characterized by thin osseous tissue and low bone density, for the evaluation of surface-treated implants by histologically and histomorphometrically comparing the osseointegration patterns depending on the surface treatment methods. Twenty rabbits were randomly assigned to two groups of 10 animals, one receiving 5 × 3 mm customized implants (machined, MA or sandblasted and acid etched, SLA) placed in sinus and the other receiving implants placed in a tibia. Histological observation of the implant placed in sinus shows relatively more active new bone formation, characterized by trabecular bone pattern underneath the cortical bone in sinus as compared with that in tibia. Histomorphometric analysis in the rabbits receiving implants in a tibia, the NBIC (%) associated with the SLA surface implant was greater than that associated with the MA implant at 2 weeks (55.63?±?8.65% vs. 47.87?±?10.01%; P > 0.05) and at 4 weeks (61.76?±?9.49% vs. 42.69?±?10.97%; P < 0.05). Among rabbits receiving implants in a sinus, the NBIC (%) associated with the SLA surface implant was significantly greater than that associated with the MA surface implant both at 2 weeks (37.25?±?7.27% vs. 20.98?±?6.42%; P < 0.05) and at 4 weeks (48.82?±?6.77% vs. 31.51?±?9.14%; P < 0.05). As a result, we suggest that the maxillary sinus model is an appropriate animal model for assessing surface-treated implants and may be utilized for the evaluation of surface-treated implants in poor bone quality environment. Microsc. Res. Tech. 78:697-706, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26085304

  20. The effect of dispersion technique of montmorillonite on polyisocyanurate nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabulis, U.; Fridrihsone, A.; Andersons, J.; Vlcek, T.

    2014-05-01

    The biomass represents an abundant, renewable, competitive and low cost resource that can play an alternative role to petrochemical resources. The central topic of the research activity reported is the use of rape seed oil (RO) as a raw material for the production of rigid polyisocyanurate foams (PIR). The content of the renewable resource-derived polymers achieved in ready foams is up to 20%. By using biopolymers as a matrix, a prospective way is to reinforce them with nanoparticles, organically modified clays, for improvement of mechanical properties while, at the same time, replacing petrochemical raw materials. Organoclay Cloisite® 15A was tested as a filler of PIR foams. Three different techniques - ultrasonification, mixing by three-roll mills, and high-pressure homogenization were used for dispergation of nanoclays in polyols. Composite polyisocyanurate foams and solid polymer samples were produced and tested for stiffness and strength. This paper discusses the studies into the use of RO as a renewable source in rigid PIR foams filled with organomodified montmorillonite clay with loadings from 1 to 5% by weight.

  1. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in montmorillonite and their antibacterial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zargar, Mohsen; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by the chemical reducing method in the external and interlamellar space of montmorillonite (MMT) as a solid support at room temperature. AgNO3 and NaBH4 were used as a silver precursor and reducing agent, respectively. The most favorable experimental conditions for synthesizing Ag NPs in the MMT are described in terms of the initial concentration of AgNO3. The interlamellar space limits changed little (d-spacing = 1.24–1.47 nm); therefore, Ag NPs formed on the MMT suspension with d-average = 4.19–8.53 nm diameter. The Ag/MMT nanocomposites (NCs), formed from AgNO3/MMT suspension, were characterizations with different instruments, for example UV-visible, PXRD, TEM, SEM, EDXRF, FT-IR, and ICP-OES analyzer. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of Ag NPs in MMT were investigated against Gram-positive, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Gram-negative bacteria, ie, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, by the disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA). The smaller Ag NPs were found to have significantly higher antibacterial activity. These results showed that Ag NPs can be used as effective growth inhibitors in different biological systems, making them applicable to medical applications. PMID:21674015

  2. Adsorption of trace elements from poultry litter by montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Bhaskaran; Gupta, Gian

    2006-01-16

    Poultry litter (PL) is used as fertilizer on agricultural lands because of its high nutrient content. However, the litter also contains trace elements such as As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. On land application of PL, these trace elements may be absorbed by crops, leach into groundwater, or enter the aquatic system as run-off. The objective of this research was to study the effect of the addition of montmorillonite clay-mineral (CM) in reducing the release of trace elements from PL. Cd, Cu, and Zn showed significant decreases of 29, 34, and 22%, respectively, in PL aqueous leachate (compared with the control-PL without CM) on mixing with 0.05 g CM but no change in As, Co, and Cr concentrations was observed. Lead showed a significant increase in PL aqueous leachate on mixing with 0.2 g CM but Pb concentration was two orders of magnitude less than in CM aqueous leachate alone. On washing, the settled precipitate (PL+CM) in the centrifuge tubes with water (desorption study) most of the adsorbed metals (Cd 85%, Cu 61%, and Zn 100%) were released. The results of this study show that the addition of CM resulted in significant adsorption of Cd and Cu from PL. PMID:16298051

  3. Computational Materials Science and Surface Engineering Finite element modelling of the fracture behaviour of surface treated Ti6Al4V alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Ziaja

    Purpose: Surface treatments of the titanium alloys are frequently applied in order to modify the surface layer microstructure and to improve tribological properties or resistance to high temperature oxidation of the alloy. Various surface engineering techniques can be used to increase the surface hardness, e.g. deposition of the coatings composed of metallic carbides, nitrides or more recently DLC. The stiffness

  4. Oligomerization reactions of deoxyribonucleotides on montmorillonite clay: The effect of mononucleotide structure on phosphodiester bond formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, James P.; Kamaluddin

    1989-11-01

    Adenine deoxynucleotides bind more strongly to Na+-montmorillonite than do the corresponding ribonucleotides. Thymidine nucleotides binds less strongly to Na+-montmorillonite than do the corresponding adenine deoxynucleotides. Oligomers of 2'-dpA up to the tetramer were detected in the reaction 2'-d-5'-AMP with EDAC (a water-soluble carbodiimide) in the presence of Na+-montmorillonite. Reaction of 3'-d-5'-AMP with EDAC on Na+-montmorillonite yields 3'-d-2',5'-pApA while the reaction of 2'-d-3'-AMP yields almost exclusively 3',5'-cdAMP. The reaction of 5'-TMP under the same reaction conditions give 3',5'-cpTpT and 3',5'-pTpT while 3'-TMP gives mainly 3',5'-cpT. The yield of dinucleotide products (dpNpN) containing the phosphodiester bond is 1% or less when Na+-montmorillonite is omitted from the reaction mixture.

  5. CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics enhanced by an organo-mineral complex formed at the montmorillonite-water interface.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Daeseung; Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Kim, Hyungjun; Lee, Woojin

    2015-01-20

    In this study, we investigated experimentally and computationally the effect of organo-mineral complexes on the nucleation kinetics of CO2 hydrate. These complexes formed via adsorption of zwitter-ionic glycine (Gly-zw) onto the surface of sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT). The electrostatic attraction between the ?NH3(+) group of Gly-zw, and the negatively charged Na-MMT surface, provides the thermodynamic driving force for the organo-mineral complexation. We suggest that the complexation of Gly-zw on the Na-MMT surface accelerates CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics by increasing the mineral–water interfacial area (thus increasing the number of effective hydrate-nucleation sites), and also by suppressing the thermal fluctuation of solvated Na(+) (a well-known hydrate formation inhibitor) in the vicinity of the mineral surface by coordinating with the ?COO(–) groups of Gly-zw. We further confirmed that the local density of hydrate-forming molecules (i.e., reactants of CO2 and water) at the mineral surface (regardless of the presence of Gly-zw) becomes greater than that of bulk phase. This is expected to promote the hydrate nucleation kinetics at the surface. Our study sheds new light on CO2 hydrate nucleation kinetics in heterogeneous marine environments, and could provide knowledge fundamental to successful CO2 sequestration under seabed sediments. PMID:25532462

  6. Effects of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide on the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a smooth surface or treated with double-acid-etching.

    PubMed

    Faverani, Leonardo P; Assunção, Wirley G; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T; Barao, Valentim A

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (??=?0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (p<0.05) for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with surface treatment by double-acid-etching. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide was correlated with the Icorr (corrosion current density) and Ipass (p<0.05). The acid-treated groups showed a significant increase in Cdl values and reduced Rp values (p<0.05, t-test). According to the topography, there was an increase in surface roughness (R2?=?0.726, p<0.0001 for the smooth surface; R2?=?0.405, p?=?0.036 for the double-acid-etching-treated surface). The microhardness of the smooth Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreased (p<0.05) and that of the treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy increased (p<0.0001). Atomic force microscopy showed changes in the microstructure of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy by increasing the surface thickness mainly in the group associated with dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide affected the corrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no dose-response corrosion behavior could be observed. These results suggest a greater susceptibility to corrosion of titanium implants in diabetic patients with associated infections. PMID:24671257

  7. Effects of Dextrose and Lipopolysaccharide on the Corrosion Behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with a Smooth Surface or Treated with Double-Acid-Etching

    PubMed Central

    Faverani, Leonardo P.; Assunção, Wirley G.; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio P.; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Barao, Valentim A.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes and infections are associated with a high risk of implant failure. However, the effects of such conditions on the electrochemical stability of titanium materials remain unclear. This study evaluated the corrosion behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy, with a smooth surface or conditioned by double-acid-etching, in simulated body fluid with different concentrations of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. For the electrochemical assay, the open-circuit-potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic test were used. The disc surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Their surface roughness and Vickers microhardness were also tested. The quantitative data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation and independent t-tests (??=?0.05). In the corrosion parameters, there was a strong lipopolysaccharide correlation with the Ipass (passivation current density), Cdl (double-layer capacitance), and Rp (polarization resistance) values (p<0.05) for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy with surface treatment by double-acid-etching. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide was correlated with the Icorr (corrosion current density) and Ipass (p<0.05). The acid-treated groups showed a significant increase in Cdl values and reduced Rp values (p<0.05, t-test). According to the topography, there was an increase in surface roughness (R2?=?0.726, p<0.0001 for the smooth surface; R2?=?0.405, p?=?0.036 for the double-acid-etching-treated surface). The microhardness of the smooth Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreased (p<0.05) and that of the treated Ti-6Al-4V alloy increased (p<0.0001). Atomic force microscopy showed changes in the microstructure of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy by increasing the surface thickness mainly in the group associated with dextrose and lipopolysaccharide. The combination of dextrose and lipopolysaccharide affected the corrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface treated with double-acid-etching. However, no dose-response corrosion behavior could be observed. These results suggest a greater susceptibility to corrosion of titanium implants in diabetic patients with associated infections. PMID:24671257

  8. Passivating Studies on a P2S5\\/NH4OH-treated GaAs Surface Using Photoluminescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yumin Weng; Zhineng Fan; Xiangfu Zong

    1992-01-01

    We demonstrated that the photoluminescence intensity and its contrast obtained on liquid encapsulated Czochralski GaAs depend on the surface recombination and they are controlled by chemical surface treatments. We have successfully passivated the surface of GaAs wafer on the basis of P2S5\\/NH4OH treatment.

  9. Nano-scale structure of Geofluids in Porous Silica and Montmorillonite Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rother, G.; Gruszkiewicz, M. S.; Vlcek, L.; Cole, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Earth's crust, composed of different rocks with varying degrees of nm- micron scale porosity, is source and reservoir of geofluids, and target for geologic carbon storage (GCS). The specific fluid-rock interactions control formation of fluid deposits, subsurface fluid mobility and mixing, and enhanced recovery processes. Rock pore characterization includes surface chemical identity, pore size distribution, ratio of connected to unconnected porosity and surface roughness. The properties of fluids confined in these pores are altered from bulk due to surface-fluid interactions and confined geometry effects. Changes in density, freezing temperature, and diffusion properties of pore fluids have been observed. Using a combination of neutron scattering and excess sorption measurements the physical properties of pore fluids can be quantified. We study both model systems with well-defined pore morphologies and natural rocks with fractal pore characteristics. Synthetic Porous silica glasses possessing tunable pore sizes of 8 - 50 nm serve as proxies for quartz-rich rocks, including sandstones. Natural rocks studied are sandstone, limestone, and shale. Excess sorption isotherms to silica aerogel and mesoporous CPG10 were measured using a high-pressure sorption balance and a vibrating tube densimeter. Strong adsorption of CO2 to the silica surfaces was found at low fluid pressure, followed by formation of a maximum in the excess sorption isotherm. The excess sorption took small and finally even negative values at high pressure. An inverse temperature dependence of the sorption strength was found in the adsorption region at low and intermediate pressure, while the excess sorption showed little temperature dependence at high pressure. A shift of the excess sorption maximum to higher fluid density was observed with increasing pore width. From small-angle neutron scattering data the density and volume of the sorption phase of pore CO2 was calculated using the Adsorbed Phase Model. The sorption behaviour was modelled using Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulation, which exactly reproduced the excess sorption isotherm data under the assumption of a weakly attractive solid-fluid interaction potential. Caprocks overlying the porous reservoir rock serve to retain buoyant plumes of CO2. Caprocks can be comprised of thick layers of clay or mudstones, thought to be impenetrable to CO2. To quantify the interactions of caprock with CO2, we measured the excess sorption of supercritical CO2 at Na-montmorillonite clay, a proxy for cap rock materials. Very limited amounts of CO2 adsorbed to this clay mineral at low fluid densities. Using neutron diffraction, the change of the clay interlayer spacing was measured as a function of the CO2 density. A jump-like increase of the interlayer spacing upon CO2 addition was found at low pressures, and remained constant with further additions of CO2. These results indicate suitability of montmorillonite clay for carbon storage caprock applications.

  10. Photoinduced catalytic adsorption of model contaminants on Bi/Cu pillared montmorillonite in the visible light range

    EPA Science Inventory

    Montmorillonite K10 clay was pillared with BiCl3 and Cu(NO3)2 to extend its applicability as catalytic adsorbent to degrade aqueous solution of anionic azo-dye Methyl Orange (MO) in the presence of visible light irradiation. The preparation of Bi/Cu-montmorillonite utilized benig...

  11. Water Vapor Isotherms and Heat of Immersion of Na and Ca-Montmorillonite Systems. III. Thermodynamics1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Keren; I. SHAINBERG

    1980-01-01

    The integral thermodynamic quantities of adsorbed water on Na- and Ca-montmorillonite have been calculated from water adsorption isotherms on Na- and Ca-montmorillonite at 298 ~ and 313~ and from one adsorption isotherm and calorimetric measurements at 298~ The integral entropy values de- crease and then increase as the amount of adsorbed water approaches zero. In both systems, the curves approach

  12. Polyvinylpyrrolidone Adsorption on Na-Montmorillonite. Effect of the Polymer Interfacial Conformation on the Colloidal Behavior and Binding of Chemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-M. Séquaris; A. Hild; H. D. Narres; M. J. Schwuger

    2000-01-01

    Adsorption behavior of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on sodium montmorillonite, a swelling clay mineral, was investigated in diluted solutions at an ionic strength of 0.01 M, representative of environmental soil solution conditions. Physicochemical methods such as microcalorimetry, light scattering absorbance, photon correlation spectroscopy, microelectrophoresis, X-ray diffraction, and sedimentation volume measurements were used to characterize the colloidal behavior of montmorillonite particles with various

  13. Infrared Spectroscopic Study of the Formamide-Na-Montmorillonite Complex. Conversion of s-Triazine to Formamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. T. Nguyen

    1986-01-01

    The adsorption and degradation on montmorillonite of s-triazine, the parent compound of a major group of triazine-based herbicides, were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The original s-triazine appeared to hydrolyze with residual bound water in montmorillonite at 20\\

  14. Influence of coexisting surface-active agents on leachability of dioxins in raw and treated fly ash from an MSW incinerator.

    PubMed

    Osako, Masahiro; Kim, Yong-Jin

    2004-01-01

    The leaching behavior of dioxins from raw and treated fly ash (FA) under the coexistence of several types of surface-active agents (SAAs) was examined by batch leaching tests to obtain significant information not only for evaluating leachability of dioxins as hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOPs) under the severe environment in which SAAs coexist, but also for evaluating the reduction efficiency of dioxin-leachability from the treated FA. Enhancement of dioxin-leachability by sufficient addition of SAAs was observed in the leaching test, whereas addition of a smaller quantity depressed the leachability. The higher the degree of chlorination in PCDDs/PCDFs homologues, the more effectively the SAAs enhanced the leachability. Moreover, there was a large difference in the potential for leachability enhancement due to each surface activity, based on critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the SAAs although Aldrich humic acid enhanced the leachability at a much lower concentration than CMC. A comparison of the leachability in FA treated by several methods showed a difference in the reduction efficiency of leachability, depending on the adsorption of SAAs by each treated FA. PMID:14559263

  15. Zearalenone removal in synthetic media and aqueous part of canned corn by montmorillonite K10 and pillared montmorillonite K10.

    PubMed

    Bekci, Zehra Molu; Antep, Mine Kurtbay; Merdivan, Melek; Yurdakoç, Kadir

    2011-06-01

    The capacities of montmorillonite K10 (K10), aluminum pillared K10 (Al-K10), and iron pillared K10 (Fe-K10) to eliminate zearalenone (ZEN) from synthetic media and the aqueous part of canned corn were studied. Original clay and pillared clays were characterized in terms of X-ray powder diffraction analysis and N(2) adsorption-desorption isotherms. The maximum amounts of adsorption of ZEN by K10, Al-K10, and Fe-K10 at 25°C and pH 7 were 0.202, 1.305, and 1.028 mg/g and 0.264, 0.096, and 0.255 mg/g, calculated from Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, respectively. The adsorption of ZEN was also studied as a function of adsorbent amount (1 to 30 mg), ZEN concentration (2 to 20 mg/liter), pH of solution (pH 4 to 10), and contact time. Pillared clays could be an excellent alternative for removing ZEN in contaminated food samples and are potentially low-cost adsorbents with a promising future as an alternative to more costly materials. PMID:21669073

  16. A comparison of the surface characteristics and ion release of Ti6Al4V and heat-treated Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Lee, T M; Chang, E; Yang, C Y

    2000-06-15

    This work seeks to investigate the nanosurface characteristics and ion release for a Ti6Al4V alloy prepared by various methods (as received and heat treated at 1300 degrees C for 2 h) with three different passivation treatments (34% nitric acid passivation, 400 degrees C heating in air, and aging in 100 degrees C deionized water). The surface and nanosurface composition are not related to the surface passivation treatments and experimental materials as evaluated by energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. After passivation and autoclaving treatments, the specimens were immersed in 8.0 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in Hank's solution and maintained at 37 degrees C for periods of time up to 16 days. The 400 degrees C treated specimens exhibit a substantial reduction in constituent release, which may be attributed to the thicker thickness and rutile structure of the surface oxides. After soaking in Hank's-EDTA solution, a significant time-related decrease in constituent release rate is observed for all kinds of specimens throughout the 0-16 day experimental period. The thicker oxides may be a factor in the improved dissolution resistance. Upon immersion, nonelemental Ca and P are both detected on the surfaces of all kinds of specimens by XPS analysis, and this could be explained by the existence of two types of hydroxyl groups (acidic and basic OH groups) on the oxide surface of the specimens. PMID:10756308

  17. Nanocomposite membranes based on quaternized polysulfone and functionalized montmorillonite for anion-exchange membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaofeng; Ren, Li; Chen, Dongzhi; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Hongwei

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, functionalized montmorillonite is intercalated with cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane. Quaternized polysulfone/functionalized montmorillonite nanocomposite membranes are fabricated to evaluate their potential in anion-exchange membrane fuel cells. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analyzer and X-ray diffractometer are used to confirm the success of intercalation. The performances of the composite membranes for the anion-exchange membrane fuel cells in terms of their water uptake, mechanical property and ionic conductivity are investigated. Compared with other anion-exchange membranes, the nanocomposite membrane containing 5% montmorillonite modified by cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride exhibits lower water uptake, higher ultimate stress and larger ionic conductivity. It exhibits an ionic conductivity of 4.73 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 95 °C.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of silver/montmorillonite/chitosan bionanocomposites by chemical reduction method and their antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zargar, Mohsen; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Shabanzadeh, Parvaneh; Moghaddam, Mansour Ghaffari

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of a small size were successfully synthesized using the wet chemical reduction method into the lamellar space layer of montmorillonite/chitosan (MMT/Cts) as an organomodified mineral solid support in the absence of any heat treatment. AgNO3, MMT, Cts, and NaBH4 were used as the silver precursor, the solid support, the natural polymeric stabilizer, and the chemical reduction agent, respectively. MMT was suspended in aqueous AgNO3/Cts solution. The interlamellar space limits were changed (d-spacing = 1.24–1.54 nm); therefore, AgNPs formed on the interlayer and external surface of MMT/Cts with d-average = 6.28–9.84 nm diameter. Characterizations were done using different methods, ie, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Silver/montmorillonite/chitosan bionanocomposite (Ag/MMT/Cts BNC) systems were examined. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs in MMT/Cts was investigated against Gram-positive bacteria, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria, ie, Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the disc diffusion method using Mueller Hinton agar at different sizes of AgNPs. All of the synthesized Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs were found to have high antibacterial activity. These results show that Ag/MMT/Cts BNCs can be useful in different biological research and biomedical applications, including surgical devices and drug delivery vehicles. PMID:21499424

  19. Effect of Organic Matter on the Flocculation of Colloidal Montmorillonite: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The effect of organic matter (OM) on the flocculation of colloidal montmorillonite was investigated through a complementary use of laboratory experiments and computational flocculation modeling. The model, based on Smoluchowski's coagulation model and population balance equation (PEB), was established with two key flocculation parameters, sticking efficiency and breakup parameter. The laboratory flocculation experiments tracked the temporal evolution of the floc sizes for aqueous systems with colloidal bare montmorillonite as well as those with montmorillonite and OM (humic acid, chitin or xanthan gum). The key flocculation parameters were calibrated through the interactive optimization of the model results against the laboratory results. The calibrated flocculation parameter values revealed that OM has a complex influence on the flocculation behavior of montmorillonite. They also showed that the effect of OM on flocculation depends on the types of OM. For example, xanthan gum does not significantly modify the flocculation behavior of montmorillonite that is primarily determined by the electrical double layer repulsion (i.e., zeta-potential) and van der Waals attraction (i.e., DLVO interaction energies), whereas chitin modifies both the sticking efficiency and breakup parameter. This study illustrates that there is no universally predictive correlation between DLVO energies or zeta-potential and flocculation parameters, as some OM has little effect on the DLVO interaction of montmorillonite colloids whereas other types of OM exert non-DLVO interactions such as repulsive hydration, steric repulsion and polymer bridging. Further understanding of the physical-chemical properties of OM is needed in order to predict the flocculation behaviors of estuarine and coastal suspended colloids.

  20. Laser induced surface structuring and ion conversion in the surface oxide of titanium: possible implications for the wetability of laser treated implants.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, Johan; Paz, María Dolores; León, Betty; Engqvist, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, commercially pure titanium was irradiated with UV-light with varying wavelengths using a Q-switched Nd:YAG-laser. This was performed in order to investigate if a laser treatment can be employed to rapidly introduce hydrophilic properties to titanium surfaces, which is believed to facilitate protein adsorption and cell attachment. It was demonstrated that irradiation with 355 nm light (10 Hz, 90 mJ/shot) for 1 min or more caused an ion conversion of Ti(4+) to Ti(3+) sites in the surface oxide which lead to an increase in hydrophilicity of the surface. Furthermore, shorter irradiation times at 355 nm caused a surface structuring that gave rise to an unexpected and unstable hydrophobic state at the surface. Irradiation with 266 nm light (10 Hz, 40 mJ/shot) did not introduce any ion conversion in the surface oxide, nor did it give rise to any hydrophobicity of the surface. PMID:23053809

  1. Poly(lactide)–vitamin E derivative\\/montmorillonite nanoparticle formulations for the oral delivery of Docetaxel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Si-Shen Feng; Lin Mei; Panneerselvan Anitha; Chee Wee Gan; Wenyou Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Four systems of nanoparticles of biodegradable polymers were developed in this research for oral delivery of anticancer drugs with Docetaxel used as a model drug, which include the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs), the poly(lactide)–vitamin E TPGS nanoparticles (PLA–TPGS NPs), the poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)–montmorillonite nanoparticles (PLGA\\/MMT NPs) and the poly(lactide)–vitamin E TPGS\\/montmorillonite nanoparticles (PLA–TPGS\\/MMT NPs). Vitamin E TPGS stands for d-?-tocopheryl

  2. Synthesis of Polyethylene/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites by In-situ Intercalative Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Sanxi; Karaki, Tomoaki; Adachi, Masatoshi

    2005-01-01

    Ziegler-Natta catalysts were intercalated into the galleries between the silicate layers of modified organic montmorillonite (OMMT) and then polyethylene/montmorillonite (PE/MMT) nanocomposites were prepared via in-situ intercalative polymerization of ethylene. Characterization studies were carried out on MMT, OMMT and PE/MMT by various techniques. They indicated that the space between MMT layers in OMMT was broadened from 1.26 nm to 3.53 nm and the MMT layers were homogeneously dispersed in the PE matrix of PE/MMT. Compared with pure PE, the thermal and mechanical properties of PE/MMT were improved to different extents.

  3. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface and treated waters of Louisiana, USA and Ontario, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen R. Boyd; Helge Reemtsma; Deborah A. Grimm; Siddhartha Mitra

    2003-01-01

    A newly developed analytical method was used to measure concentrations of nine pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in samples from two surface water bodies, a sewage treatment plant effluent and various stages of a drinking water treatment plant in Louisiana, USA, and from one surface water body, a drinking water treatment plant and a pilot plant in Ontario, Canada.

  4. Significant long-term reduction in n-channel MESFET subthreshold leakage using ammonium-sulfide surface treated gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, P. G.; Carpenter, M. S.; Melloch, Michael R.; Cooper, James A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Ammonium-sulfide (NH4)2S treated gates have been employed in the fabrication of GaAs MESFETs that exhibit a remarkable reduction in subthreshold leakage current. A greater than 100-fold reduction in drain current minimum is observed due to a decrease in Schottky gate leakage. The electrical characteristics have remained stable for over a year during undesiccated storage at room temperature, despite the absence of passivation layers.

  5. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering study of the healing of radial fractures treated with or without Huo–Xue–Hua–Yu decoction therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weiwei; Huang, Hao; Chen, Rong; Feng, Shangyuan; Yu, Yun; Lin, Duo; Lin, Jia

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to assess, through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy, the incorporation of calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA ~960?cm?1) and other biochemical substances in the repair of complete radial fractures in rabbits treated with or without Huo–Xue–Hua–Yu decoction (HXHYD) therapy. A total of 18 rabbits with complete radial fractures were randomly divided into two groups; one group was treated with HXHYD therapy and the other without therapy acted as a control. The animals were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 45?d after surgery. Specimens were routinely prepared for SERS measurement and high quality SERS spectra from a mixture of bone tissues and silver nanoparticles were obtained. The mineral-to-matrix ratios from the control and treated groups were calculated. Results showed that both deposition content of CHA measured by SERS spectroscopy and the mineral-to-matrix ratio in the treated group were always greater than those of the control group during the experiment, demonstrating that HXHYD therapy is effective in improving fracture healing and that SERS spectroscopy might be a novel tool to assess fracture healing.

  6. Improvement of interfacial adhesion and nondestructive damage evaluation for plasma-treated PBO and Kevlar fibers/epoxy composites using micromechanical techniques and surface wettability.

    PubMed

    Park, Joung-Man; Kim, Dae-Sik; Kim, Sung-Ryong

    2003-08-15

    Comparison of interfacial properties and microfailure mechanisms of oxygen-plasma treated poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole (PBO, Zylon) and poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA, Kevlar) fibers/epoxy composites were investigated using a micromechanical technique and nondestructive acoustic emission (AE). The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) and work of adhesion, Wa, of PBO or Kevlar fiber/epoxy composites increased with oxygen-plasma treatment, due to induced hydrogen and covalent bondings at their interface. Plasma-treated Kevlar fiber showed the maximum critical surface tension and polar term, whereas the untreated PBO fiber showed the minimum values. The work of adhesion and the polar term were proportional to the IFSS directly for both PBO and Kevlar fibers. The microfibril fracture pattern of two plasma-treated fibers appeared obviously. Unlike in slow cooling, in rapid cooling, case kink band and kicking in PBO fiber appeared, whereas buckling in the Kevlar fiber was observed mainly due to compressive and residual stresses. Based on the propagation of microfibril failure toward the core region, the number of AE events for plasma-treated PBO and Kevlar fibers increased significantly compared to the untreated case. The results of nondestructive AE were consistent with microfailure modes. PMID:16256662

  7. The effect of NaOH concentration on the steam-hydrothermally treated bioactive microarc oxidation coatings containing Ca, P, Si and Na on pure Ti surface.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Wei, Daqing; Cao, Jianyun; Feng, Wei; Cheng, Su; Du, Qing; Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Yaming; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

    2015-04-01

    The microarc oxidation (MAO) coating covered pure Ti plates are steam-hydrothermally treated in autoclaves containing NaOH solutions with different concentrations of 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1mol·L(-1). Due to the composition of Ti, O, Ca, P, Si and Na elements in the MAO coating, anatase and hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals are generated from the previously amorphous MAO coating after the steam-hydrothermal treatment. Meanwhile, it is noticed that the amount of HA crystals increases but showing a decline trend in aspect ratio in morphologies with the increasing of NaOH concentration. Interestingly, the steam-hydrothermally treated MAO coatings exhibit better bonding strength with Ti substrate (up to 43.8±1.1MPa) than that of the untreated one (20.1±3.1MPa). In addition, benefiting from the corrosive attack of the dissolved NaOH in water vapor on the MAO coating, Ti-OH is also formed on the steam-hydrothermally treated MAO coating surface, which can trigger apatite nucleation. Thus, the steam-hydrothermally treated MAO coatings exhibit good apatite-inducing ability. PMID:25686996

  8. Investigation of wet chemical-treated poly(tetrafluoroethylene) surface and its metallization with SIMS, XPS and atomic force microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Lin; W. C. Hsu; B. J. Hwang

    2000-01-01

    Surface modification and metallization of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) surface via a wet chemical treatment was studied. The wet process included a pretreatment using Na\\/naphthalene\\/THF solution as an etchant followed by an electroless copper plating. The existence of Na in the substrate top layer down to several micrometers was detected by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and was thought to be the

  9. Thermal fatigue resistance of H13 steel treated by selective laser surface melting and CrNi alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xin; Dai, Ming-jiang; Zhang, Zhi-hui

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the selective laser surface melting and laser surface alloying technologies were adopted to improve the thermal fatigue resistance of medium carbon hot-work die steel (H13) by a CO2 laser. Two kinds of mixed chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) powders were used as the laser alloying materials, and the effects of the mixing ratio on the thermal fatigue resistance were investigated thoroughly. Some important results such as cross-sectional morphology, phases, hardness and thermal fatigue behavior were analyzed and evaluated. It indicates that the laser surface alloying technique using mixed powder with ratio of 75%Cr-25%Ni can considerably enhance the thermal fatigue resistance of the H13 steel. The laser alloyed zone has excellent properties such as preventing crack initiation and oxidation corrosion compared with original H13. Thermal cracking and oxidation corrosion that occurred at substrate surface can be surrounded and intercepted by a gridded laser strengthened structure. Therefore, the naturally developed cracks could be effectively prevented. Theses results and analysis show that laser surface technique can be positively used to improve surface mechanical properties of H13 dies.

  10. Preparation and characterization of high-specific-surface-area activated carbons from K2CO3-treated waste polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, J; Yamamoto, N; Horikawa, T; Muroyama, K; Gomes, V G

    2005-01-15

    An activated carbon with high specific surface area was prepared from polyurethane foam by chemical activation with K2CO3 and the influences of carbonization temperature and impregnation ratio on the pore structure of the prepared activated carbon were investigated. It was found that the specific surface area of the activated carbon was at a maximum value (about 2800 m(2)/g) at a carbonization temperature of 1073 K and at an impregnation ratio of 1.0. It was concluded that the polyurethane foam structure was modified during impregnation by K2CO3, K2CO3 promoted charring during carbonization, and then the weight loss behavior was changed below 700 and above 1000 K, carbon in the char was consumed by K2CO3 reduction, and this led to the high specific surface area. The prepared activated carbon had a very sharp micropore size distribution, compared with the commercial activated carbon having high specific surface area. The amounts of three organic vapors (benzene, acetone, and octane) adsorbed on the prepared activated carbons was much larger than those on the traditional coconut shell AC and the same as those on the commercial activated carbon except for octane. We surmised that the high specific surface area was due to the modification of the carbonization behavior of polyurethane foam by K2CO3. PMID:15571700

  11. Corrosion Behavior of Surface-Treated Implant Ti-6Al-4V by Electrochemical Polarization and Impedance Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Subir; Yadav, Kasturi

    2011-04-01

    Implant materials for orthopedic and heart surgical services demand a better corrosion resistance material than the presently used titanium alloys, where protective oxide layer breaks down on a prolonged stay in aqueous physiological human body, giving rise to localized corrosion of pitting, crevice, and fretting corrosion. A few surface treatments on Ti alloy, in the form of anodization, passivation, and thermal oxidation, followed by soaking in Hank solution have been found to be very effective in bringing down the corrosion rate as well as producing high corrosion resistance surface film as reflected from electrochemical polarization, cyclic polarization, and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) studies. The XRD study revealed the presence of various types of oxides along with anatase and rutile on the surface, giving rise to high corrosion resistance film. While surface treatment of passivation and thermal oxidation could reduce the corrosion rate by 1/5th, anodization in 0.3 M phosphoric acid at 16 V versus stainless steel cathode drastically brought down the corrosion rate by less than ten times. The mechanism of corrosion behavior and formation of different surface films is better understood from the determination of EIS parameters derived from the best-fit equivalent circuit.

  12. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces urinary biomarkers of fumonisin B1 exposure in rats and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is often a co-contaminant with aflatoxin (AF) in grains and may enhance AF’s carcinogenicity by acting as a cancer promoter. An oral dose of calcium montmorillonite clay (i.e. NovaSil, NS) was able to reduce aflatoxin exposure in a Ghanaian population at risk. In vitro...

  13. Peptide chain elongation: A possible role of montmorillonite in prebiotic synthesis of protein precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujdák, Juraj; Faybíková, Katarína; Eder, Artur; Yongyai, Yongyos; Rode, Bernd M.

    1995-10-01

    Several studies have proven the ability of montmorillonite to catalyse amino acid condensation under assumed prebiotic conditions, simulating wetting-drying cycles. In this work, the oligomerization of short peptides gly2, gly3, gly4 and ala2 on Ca-and Cu-montmorillonite in drying-wetting cycles at 80 °C was studied. The catalytic effect of montmorillonite was found to be much higher than in the case of glycine oligomerization. From gly2 after 3 weeks, 10% oligomers (up to gly6, with gly3 as main products) are formed. Gly3 and gly4 give higher oligomers even after 1 cycle. Ala2 produces both ala3 and ala4, whereas ala does not produce any oligomers under these conditions. Heteroologomerization was observed: ala-gly-gly is formed from ala and gly2. Much higher yields are obtained using Ca-montmorillonite, because copper (II) oxidizes organic molecules. The influence of the reaction mechanism on the preferential oligomerization of oligopeptides is discussed.

  14. Nickel Sorption Mechanisms in a PyrophylliteMontmorillonite Mixture Evert J. Elzinga1

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Nickel Sorption Mechanisms in a Pyrophyllite­Montmorillonite Mixture Evert J. Elzinga1 and Donald L-mail: elzinga@udel.edu Received October 6, 1998; accepted February 17, 1999 Nickel sorption on pyrophyllite over the mixture components. Nickel uptake on singly reacted pyrophyllite was slightly higher than

  15. Carboxymethylcellulose–montmorillonite nanocomposite films activated with murta ( Ugni molinae Turcz) leaves extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcela Quilaqueo Gutiérrez; Ignacio Echeverría; Mónica Ihl; Valerio Bifani; Adriana N. Mauri

    The functionality of nanocomposite films based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and montmorillonite (MMT) activated with murta (Ugni molinae Turcz) leaves extract was studied. Films were prepared by casting from film-forming dispersions containing CMC, glycerol (used as plasticizer) and different concentrations of MMT, using water or murta extract as solvent. The addition of MMT increased the tensile strength and the elasticity modulus

  16. OXIDATION OF ALCOHOLS OVER FE3+/MONTMORILLONITE-K10 USING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation of various primary and secondary alcohols is studied in liquid phase at atmospheric pressure over Fe3+/montmorillonite-K10 catalyst prepared by ion-exchange method at a pH of 4 in an environmentally friendly protocol using hydrogen peroxide. The catalyst and the method ...

  17. Radiation heterogeneous processes of 14 C-acetic acid adsorbed in Na-Montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ramos-Bernal; A. Negrón-Mendoza

    1992-01-01

    This research addresses itself to the study of the mechanism of the acetic acid decarboxylation in Na-Montmorillonite exposed to ionizing radiation. The results obtained indicated that the decarboxylation reaction is enhanced several times by the irradiation. This behavior is probably due to an oxidation reaction at the edges of the clay. Also it is by energy transfer from the clay

  18. Speciation of heavy metal ions as influenced by interactions with montmorillonite, Al hydroxide polymers and citrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. T. Janssen

    1995-01-01

    Clay minerals, metal-hydroxides and organic matter can bind metal ions; moreover they also interact with each other. These mutual interactions influence the metal binding to a significant extent. In this study, the speciation of the heavy metal ions Zn and Ph was investigated in model systems consisting of various combinations of the clay mineral montmorillonite (Na saturated), Al hydroxide polymers

  19. Small Angle X-Ray Scattering from Montmorillonite Clay Suspensions. II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hight; W. T. Higdon; H. C. H. Darley; P. W. Schmidt

    1962-01-01

    Small angle x-ray scattering has been used to study the interactions between clay platelets in a number of samples. Sodium montmorillonite clays have been studied in concentrations ranging from 5% to 85% by weight. The scattering from the samples with concentrations from 10% to 40% was analyzed by Fourier transformation to obtain the distribution functions for the platelet spacing. For

  20. Thermal studies of pharmaceutical-clay systems Part I. Montmorillonite-based systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. del Hoyo; V. Rives; M. A. Vicente

    1996-01-01

    Pharmaceutical-clay systems, used as solar radiation shields, obtained by interaction of Na montmorillonite and several pharmaceuticals using two methods of preparation, have been studied. Samples have been prepared by melting the drug onto the clay or by intimate mixing and grinding of both. The shielding ability against solar radiation is improved by use of these preparation methods. Differential thermal analysis

  1. Kinetics and thermodynamics studies of copper exchange on Na–montmorillonite clay mineral

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mervette El-Batouti; Olfat M. Sadek; Fayez F. Assaad

    2003-01-01

    The kinetics of Cu ion exchange on Na–montmorillonite clay has been investigated at 20, 30, and 40°C in water, methanol, and ethanol. The reaction is endothermic in nature. Solvent effects on the reaction rate have been discussed. The thermodynamic activation parameters were calculated and discussed in terms of solvation effects. A multiple reaction rate order equation was used to describe

  2. Rheology of Na-Rich Montmorillonite Suspension as Affected by Electrolyte Concentration and Shear Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hadar Heller; RAMI KEREN

    2001-01-01

    Rheolo gical measurements were used to evaluate the particle-particle associations of Na-rich montmorillonite in suspensions, under various electrolyte concentrations. A 2% free electrolyte clay sus- pension showed pseudoplastic flow behavior and had a high apparent viscosity, attributed at low shear rates to the high volume fraction of the suspended clay platelets, the flexibility of the platelets, and the presence of

  3. Effects of incorporation of organically modified montmorillonite on the reaction mechanism of epoxy/amine cure.

    PubMed

    Alzina, Camille; Mija, Alice; Vincent, Luc; Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas

    2012-05-17

    The aim of this study is to understand the effect of nonmodified or different organically modified montmorillonites on the reaction mechanism of epoxy/amine cure. The reference material consists of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and 1,3-phenylene diamine (mPDA) in stoichiometric proportions. The reaction with various organically modified montmorillonites (I28E, I34TCN, and MMTm) is compared to highlight the catalytic effect of MMT water content and of the alkylammonium cations on the epoxy/amine reaction mechanism. In the absence of mPDA curing agent, DGEBA develops homopolymerization reactions with I28E, I34TCN, and MMTm. Chemorheological kinetics and advanced isoconversional analysis of epoxy cure are studied by rheometrical measurements and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Molecular mobility of the system under curing is modified in the presence of montmorillonites. Finally, the study underlines the role of montmorillonites and the influence of the change in reaction mechanisms on glass transition of the nanocomposites. PMID:22540520

  4. Flame retardant epoxy complex produced by addition of montmorillonite and carbon nanotube

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Kyu Lee; Byong Chol Bai; Ji Sun Im; Se Jin In; Young-Seak Lee

    2010-01-01

    Flame retardant additives of montmorillonite (MMT) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) were embedded in epoxy resin to improve the resin's resistance to oxidation. The MWCNTs reduced the degradation rate of the epoxy complex and increased the char yield, and also increased the limiting oxygen index in a first order relationship with char yield. MMT acted as an energy storage medium

  5. Removal of Supranol Yellow 4GL by adsorption onto Cr-intercalated montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Bouberka, Z; Khenifi, A; Benderdouche, N; Derriche, Z

    2006-05-20

    Cr(III)-intercalated montmorillonite was utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of the organic pollutant, Supranol Yellow 4GL, a synthetic dye used for chemical fibres. The material was prepared by the reaction of Na montmorillonite with a base-hydrolyzed solution of Cr nitrate salt (OH(-)/Cr(3+) molar ratios of 2). XRD data showed that the interlayer spacing (d(001)) of montmorillonite was increased from 12.35 to 23.06 Angstroms. The kinetics and mechanism of the adsorption of the acid dye, Supranol Yellow 4GL, on Cr(III)-intercalated montmorillonite was investigated. The equilibrium time was reached within 30 min. The process follows pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. The Langmuir isotherm described the adsorption data over the concentration range (20-160 mg/l). The separator factor R(L) revealed the favourable nature of this adsorption process. Also, the thermodynamic parameters such as DeltaS degrees, DeltaH degrees, DeltaG degrees were determined. PMID:16325334

  6. Preparation, characterization and performance of polyethersulfone\\/organically modified montmorillonite nanocomposite membranes in removal of pesticides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Negin Ghaemi; Sayed S. Madaeni; Abdolhamid Alizadeh; Hamid Rajabi; Parisa Daraei

    2011-01-01

    Nanocomposite membranes containing polyethersulfone (PES) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) were prepared by a combination of solution dispersion and wet-phase inversion methods and accordingly, the effect of OMMT addition to the properties and performance of fabricated nanofiltration membranes was investigated. The membranes were characterized by contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM),

  7. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells with surface-treated TiO{sub 2} as a photoelectrode

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Su Kyung; Chung, Chinkap [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemistry, Keimyung University, Daegu 704-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Cham; Lee, Sang-Ju [Green Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of)] [Green Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Yoon Soo, E-mail: yshancu@cu.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Energy Material Science and Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongbuk 712-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    We report on the effects of surface-modified TiO{sub 2} on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). TiO{sub 2} surface was modified with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} via a simple dip coating process and the modified TiO{sub 2} was applied to photoelectrodes of DSSCs. By dipping of TiO{sub 2} layer into aqueous Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution, the DSSC showed a power conversion efficiency of 9.98%, compared to that (7.75%) of the reference device without surface treatment. The UV–vis absorption spectra, the impedance spectra and the dark current studies revealed that the increase of all parameters was attributed to the enhanced dye adsorption, the prolonged electron lifetime and the reduced interfacial resistance.

  8. Montmorillonite-supported Ag/TiO(2) nanoparticles: an efficient visible-light bacteria photodegradation material.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong-Shun; Wang, Kai-Xue; Li, Guo-Dong; Sun, Shi-Yang; Sun, Jian; Chen, Jie-Sheng

    2010-02-01

    Montmorillonite (MMT)-supported Ag/TiO(2) composite (Ag/TiO(2)/MMT) has been prepared through a one-step, low-temperature solvothermal technique. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal that the Ag particles coated with TiO(2) nanoparticles are well-dispersed on the surface of MMT in the composite. As a support for the Ag/TiO(2) composite, the MMT prevents the loss of the catalyst during recycling test. This Ag/TiO(2)/MMT composite exhibits high photocatalytic activity and good recycling performance in the degradation of E. coli under visible light. The high visible-light photocatalytic activity of the Ag/TiO(2)/MMT composite is ascribed to the increase in surface active centers and the localized surface plasmon effect of the Ag nanoparticles. The Ag/TiO(2)/MMT materials with excellent stability, recyclability, and bactericidal activities are promising photocatalysts for application in decontamination. PMID:20356203

  9. In vitro interaction between surface-treated Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Martinesi, Maria; Bruni, Sara; Stio, Maria; Treves, Cristina; Borgioli, Francesca

    2005-08-01

    The Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy is widely employed as an implant material. The effects of Ti-6Al-4V samples, tested in both an untreated state and one in which the samples were subjected to a glow-discharge treatment performed with the use of air, on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied. Apoptosis, undetectable after 24-h contact of PBMC with the two sample types, is induced after 48 h by treated samples, and, after 48 h, but in the presence of 1.5 microg/mL PHA, by both sample types. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) always increases, in comparison with control, in PBMC put in contact with the two sample types. In the same way, a remarkable increase in tumor necrosis-alpha (TNF-alpha) release in the culture medium is registered, when PBMC are put in contact with the two sample types for 24 and 48 h. Human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cocultured for 48 h with PBMC, previously incubated with the two sample types for 24 h, show an increase in ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein expression in comparison with control (HUVEC cocultured with control PBMC), indicating that inflammatory phenomena might occur. Taken together, these results suggest that, although plasma-treated titanium alloy shows a better biocompatibility in comparison with the untreated one, attention must be paid to the careful control of the first signs of inflammation. PMID:15965911

  10. A bioluminescence ATP assay for estimating surface hydrophobicity and membrane damage of Escherichia coli cells treated with pulsed electric fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulse Electric Field (PEF) treatments, a non-thermal process have been reported to injure and inactivate bacteria in liquid foods. However, the effect of this treatment on bacterial cell surface charge and hydrophobicity has not been investigated. Apple juice (AJ, pH 3.8) purchased from a wholesale ...

  11. Enhancement of material ablation using 248, 308, 532, 1064 nm laser pulse with a water film on the treated surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, A.; Caminat, P.; Bournot, P.; Gauchon, J. P.

    1995-08-01

    Many industrial laser processes, such as surface cleaning, require the removal of small thicknesses of matter, often on large samples. An experimental study has been performed in order to characterize and enhance the ablation of materials by means of the interaction between a pulsed laser beam and matter using common industrial laser sources, particularly at 248, 308, 532, and 1064 nm. Ablation was achieved on a static sample with one or several successive pulses and for different energy densities. These parameters enabled us to control the depth of the ablation in the micrometer range. Experiments have been carried out in ambient air, under gaseous cover, and then under a flowing water film on the material surface at atmospheric pressure. The material was a stainless-steel alloy. The experiments made it possible to determine the ablation fluence threshold for each wavelength and the alteration of the surface by the successive laser pulses. In order to avoid oxidation during the process, an argon gaseous medium was used, but peripheral oxide deposits always appeared and the efficiency of the ablation did not seem to increase. However, when the water flow on the surface was employed, the efficiency of the ablation increased by a factor of 2-15 for a certain incident power density. Peripheral oxide redeposition was absent using this method. Experiments have demonstrated that the confinement of the plasma within a transparent layer such as water at the given laser wavelength is an effective method for increasing ablation yield. This technique prevents the expansion of the plasma upstream of the target and the mechanical impulse communicated to the material increases. Calculation of ablated mass confirms that ablation yield could be increased by 15 for higher power densities. Similar results have been found using other materials such as alumina or silica. This means that this ablation technique can be employed in various types of industrial laser applications, for example, for cleaning oxidized surfaces or removing paint coatings.

  12. Surface Electrical Stimulation for Treating Swallowing Disorders after Stroke: A Review of the Stimulation Intensity Levels and the Electrode Placements

    PubMed Central

    Poorjavad, Marziyeh; Talebian Moghadam, Saeed; Daemi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for treating dysphagia is a relatively new therapeutic method. There is a paucity of evidence about the use of NMES in patients with dysphagia caused by stroke. The present review aimed to introduce and discuss studies that have evaluated the efficacy of this method amongst dysphagic patients following stroke with emphasis on the intensity of stimulation (sensory or motor level) and the method of electrode placement on the neck. The majority of the reviewed studies describe some positive effects of the NMES on the neck musculature in the swallowing performance of poststroke dysphagic patients, especially when the intensity of the stimulus is adjusted at the sensory level or when the motor electrical stimulation is applied on the infrahyoid muscles during swallowing. PMID:24804147

  13. Shear bond strength and failure types of polymethyl methacrylate denture base resin and titanium treated with surface conditioner.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Pil; Kim, Su-Sung; Yang, Hong-So; Vang, Mong-Sook

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the shear bond strength and failure types of a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base resin to commercially pure (CP) titanium, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and cobalt-chromium alloy using a metal surface conditioner. The PMMA denture base resin (5 x 5 x 5 mm(3)) was cured onto disks, 10 mm in diameter and 2.5-mm thick. The shear bond strength of the PMMA resin with the surface conditioner was significantly higher than that without (P < .05). There was no significant difference between the types of metal. The conditioned specimens showed mixed failures, whereas the nonconditioned specimens exhibited only adhesive failure at the metal-resin interface. PMID:20552091

  14. Effect of age-hardening conditions on high-cycle fatigue performance of mechanically surface treated Al 2024

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Ludian; L. Wagner

    2007-01-01

    The present work was aimed at evaluating the effects of shot peening on the fatigue performance of the well known age-hardening aircraft aluminium alloy Al 2024. Shot peening to full coverage was performed using spherically shot (SCCW14) with an average shot size of 0.36mm and an Almen intensity of 0.20mmA. After applying the various mechanical surface treatments, the changes in

  15. [XPS characterization of TiN layer on bearing steel surface treated by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition technique].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-xi; Jiang, Ye-hua; Zhan, Zhao-lin; Tang, Bao-yin

    2009-09-01

    Titanium nitride (TIN) hard protective films were fabricated on AISI52100 bearing steel surface employing plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) technique. The TiN films were characterized using a variety of test methods. Atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed that the titanium nitride film has extremely smooth surface, very high uniformity and efficiency of space filling over large areas. X-ray diffraction (XRD) result indicated that (200) crystal face of titanium nitride phase is the preferred orientation and three kinds of titanium components exist in the surface modified layer. Tailor fitting analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with Ar ion etching proved that Ti2p(1/2) and Ti2p(3/2) have two peaks in the titanium nitride film layer, respectively. It is shown that different chemical state exists in titanium compound. N(1s) bond energy of XPS has also three fitting peaks at 396.51, 397. 22 and 399.01 eV, corresponding to the nitrogen atom in TiNxOy, TiN and N--N, respectively. Combined with the XPS Tailor fitting analysis results of O(1s) bond energy, it was shown that there is a large amount of titanium nitride phase in addition to a small amount of simple substance nitrogen and oxide of titanium in the surface layer. The whole film system is made up of TiN, TiO2, N--N and Ti--O--N compound. PMID:19950682

  16. Inhibition of cadmium- induced genotoxicity and histopathological changes in Nile tilapia fish by Egyptian and Tunisian montmorillonite clay.

    PubMed

    Mahrous, Karima F; Hassan, Aziza M; Radwan, Hasnaa A; Mahmoud, M A

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important inorganic toxicant widely distributed in the environment because of its various industrial uses. The aims of the current study were to investigate the efficacy of purified Egyptian and Tunisian montmorillonite clays (EMC and TMC) to inhibit genotoxicity and histological alterations induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) utilizing the Nile tilapia fish as an in vivo model. Chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronucleus (MN) frequencies and DNA fingerprinting profile were genotoxic end points and histopathological changes that were used in this investigation. Six groups of fish were treated for 2 weeks and included control group, CdCl2-treated group and groups treated with EMC or TMC alone or in combination with CdCl2. The present results revealed that, treatment of fish with CdCl2 exhibited significant increased in the number of micronucleated erythrocytes (MnRBCs), frequency of CAs and instability of genomic DNA. Treatment of EMC and TMC in combination with CdCl2 significantly reduced the frequency of MnRBCs by the percentage of 53.28% and 60.77% and the frequency of CAs by 43.91% and 52.17% respectively. As well as, normalized DNA fingerprinting profile and significantly improved histopathological picture induced by Cadmium treatment. It is worth mention that both clays have the ability to tightly bind CdCl2 and decreased its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity; however, Tunisian clay was more efficient in binding with the CdCl2 than Egyptian clay. PMID:26001163

  17. Exposure to methoxyfenozide-treated surfaces reduces the responsiveness of adult male codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to codlemone and pear ester lures in a wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Bruce A

    2010-10-01

    The responsiveness of male codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), exposed to surfaces treated with the ecdysteroid agonist methoxyfenozide, toward lures loaded with the synthetic sex pheromone codlemone and/or the pear ester kairomone were investigated in wind tunnel experiments. Five different kinds of commercially available codling moth monitoring lures (obtained from Tr6c6 Inc., Adair, OK) were used in the bioassay: Pherocon CM Standard lure (loaded with 1 mg of codlemone), Pherocon CM Long-Life L2 (loaded with 3.5 mg of codlemone), Pherocon CM 10X (loaded with 10 mg of codlemone), Pherocon CM-DA Combo (loaded with 3.0 mg of codlemone and 3.0 mg of pear ester), and Pherocon DA (loaded with 3.0 mg of pear ester). Results from the study revealed that male codling moth exposed to surfaces treated with methoxyfenozide and the surfactant exhibited a significant decline in responsiveness toward lures loaded with either codlemone or pear ester. The full impact of how this negative effect might alter current moth monitoring procedures in orchards receiving ecdysone agonist sprays requires further investigation. PMID:21061970

  18. Properties of M40J Carbon/PMR-II-50 Composites Fabricated with Desized and Surface Treated Fibers. Characterization of M40J Desized and Finished Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Ronald E.; Gosau, Jan M.; Shin, E. Eugene; McCorkle, Linda S.; Sutter, James K.; OMalley, Michelle; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    To increase performance and durability of high temperature composites for potential rocket engine components, it is necessary to optimize wetting and interfacial bonding between high modulus carbon fibers and high temperature polyimide resins. It has been previously demonstrated that the electro-oxidative shear treatments used by fiber manufacturers are not effective on higher modulus fibers that have fewer edge and defect sites in the surface crystallites. In addition, sizings commercially supplied on most carbon fibers are not compatible with polyimides. This study was an extension of prior work characterizing the surface chemistry and energy of high modulus carbon fibers (M40J and M60J, Torray) with typical fluorinated polyimide resins, such as PMR-II-50. A continuous desizing system which utilizes environmentally friendly chemical- mechanical processes was developed for tow level fiber and the processes were optimized based on weight loss behavior, surface elemental composition (XPS) and morphology (FE-SEM) analyses, and residual tow strength of the fiber, and the similar approaches have been applied on carbon fabrics. Both desized and further treated with a reactive finish were investigated for the composite reinforcement. The effects of desizing and/or subsequent surface retreatment on carbon fiber on composite properties and performance including fiber-matrix interfacial mechanical properties, thermal properties and blistering onset behavior will be discussed in this presentation.

  19. Complement C3 convertase: Cell surface restriction of ?1H control and generation of restriction on neuraminidase-treated cells

    PubMed Central

    Pangburn, Michael K.; Müller-Eberhard, Hans J.

    1978-01-01

    The alternative or properdin pathway of complement is primarily controlled by the endopeptidase C3b inactivator (C3bINA) and the nonproteolytic glycoprotein ?1H. The molecular mechanisms of control were investigated by performing binding studies of radiolabeled complement proteins to C3b bearing sheep erythrocytes (ESC3b). C3b was found to have distinct binding sites for ?1H, C3bINA, Factor B, and properdin. ?1H binding increased C3bINA binding 30-fold, while Factor B binding prevented C3bINA action on C3b and was competitive with ?1H binding. Properdin binding, which facilitates Factor B interaction with C3b, had no effect on the ?1H and C3bINA sites. Activators such as rabbit erythrocytes (ER) have previously been shown to interfere with the effectiveness of the control by C3bINA and ?1H, thereby allowing unrestricted formation of C3 convertase. Such restriction of control does not occur on the surface of ES, a nonactivator of the alternative pathway. On the basis of comparative binding studies, restriction of control is explained entirely by reduced binding of ?1H to ERC3b relative to ESC3b. Access of properdin, Factor B, C3bINA, and the Fab fragment of anti-C3 to the two cell types was unrestricted. Restriction of ?1H control could be generated on the surface of ES by removal of cell-surface sialic acid with neuraminidase (acylneuraminyl hydrolase; EC 3.2.1.18). This enzymatic treatment converted ES from a nonactivator to an activator of the alternative pathway. PMID:276881

  20. Determination of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides in surface and treated waters: method development and survey.

    PubMed

    Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Bolzan, Cátia Marian; Guilherme, Juliana Rocha; Silveira, Maria Angelis Kisner; Escarrone, Ana Laura Venquiaruti; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2013-08-01

    Water is fundamental to the existence of life since it is essential to a series of activities, such as agriculture, power generation, and public and industrial supplies. The residual water generated by these activities is released into the environment, reaches the water systems, and becomes a potential risk to nontarget organisms. This paper reports the development and validation of a quantitative method, based on solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous analysis of 18 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and 33 pesticides in surface and drinking waters. The accuracy of the method was determined by calculating the recoveries, which ranged from 70 to 120 % for most pesticides and PPCPs, whereas limits of quantification ranged from 0.8 to 40 ng/L. After the validation step, the method was applied to drinking and surface waters. Pesticides and PPCPs were found in concentrations lower than 135.5 ng/L. The evaluation of different water sources with regard to contamination by pesticides and PPCPs has been quite poor in southern Brazil. PMID:23539208

  1. Surface, optical and photocatalytic properties of silica-supported TiO2 treated with electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronski, Pawel; Surmacki, Jakub; Abramczyk, Halina; Adamus, Agnieszka; Nowosielska, Magdalena; Maniukiewicz, Waldemar; Kozanecki, Marcin; Szadkowska-Nicze, Magdalena

    2015-04-01

    The influence of high-energy electron beam, (EB), treatment, in the dose range of 100-1000 kGy, on the physicochemical properties of silica-supported TiO2 was examined. TiO2/SiO2 supported oxides were obtained by impregnation of commercial silica gel (2-4 mm) with titanium (IV) n-butoxide. Surface and optical properties of prepared TiO2/SiO2 systems were analyzed using SEM, BET, XRD, Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy. The photoactivity under visible light was tested in discoloration of azo dye solution. No significant structural changes of the TiO2/SiO2 surface were detected as a result of EB treatment. Effect of EB irradiation was observed as an increase of photocatalytic activity in dye decomposition under visible light for TiO2/SiO2 samples containing ca. 23 wt% TiO2. The enhancement of activity was assigned to EB-induced defects and C-modification of TiO2 particles.

  2. Study on the Surface-Physicochemical-Property Changing of Bentonite by Adapting a New Soil Stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Xiang, Wei; Lang, Linzhi; Cui, Deshan

    2015-04-01

    Surface-physicochemical-property of clays has been proved to have direct influence on its mechanic behavior. Specific surface area (SSA) is one of the most important factors for surface-physicochemical-property assessment. The smaller SSA tends higher strength (shear strength, unconfined compressive strength and tensile strength) under different water contents of soil. In this paper, a new soil stabilizer (Tung oil-based sulfonated) is developed and applied to improve the properties of Ca-bentonite. The differences of specific surface area, fractal dimension and micro geometric morphology between raw Ca-bentonite samples and modified ones are investigated based on the data acquired from water vapor, nitrogen adsorption experiments and SEM experiments. Results show that the SSA including external SSA and total SSA of treated samples decrease largely and apparently when compared to that of the raw samples. Furthermore, the higher volume ratio between soil stabilizer and water, the more decrease in SSA. Compared to the ones of raw Ca-bentonite, the external SSA and total SSA of the modified Ca-bentonite samples decrease by 48.5% and 25.2%, respectively, when the volume ratio was 1:50. This result implies that the connection of montmorillonite particles becomes more tightly after the treatment by the soil stabilizer. In addition, an obvious decreasing trend is found in fractal dimension by analysis of water vapor adsorption isotherms. This finding indicates that the pore surface tends to be smoother by the chemical action among particles bonds, more condensable in aggregates and shorter space between the interlayer of montmorillonite. SEM results display that the new soil stabilizer developed a quantity of lamellar aggregates but did not change the structure of montmorillonite. Based on all mentioned above, the results of fractal dimension analysis are verified. Consequently, this study shows that the new soil stabilizer (Tung oil-based sulfonated) has obvious effects on improving the physicochemical properties of bentonite. The findings of this study further indicate that the mechanic behavior of bentonite could be improved by adapting this new soil stabilizer. Keywords: new soil stabilizer; tung oil-based sulfonated; Ca-bentonite; specific surface area; fractal dimension; SEM

  3. An X-ray absorption spectroscopy study of the structure and reversibility of copper adsorbed to montmorillonite clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Morton; Jeremy D. Semrau; Kim F. Hayes

    2001-01-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and adsorption-desorption measurements have been performed to assess the relationship between the structure and reversibility of copper complexes on montmorillonite clay. By varying the solution pH and background electrolyte concentration, the adsorption of copper on either the edge sites or permanent charge sites of montmorillonite was controlled. This allowed the structure and reversibility of copper complexes

  4. Mechanism of p-nitrophenol adsorption from aqueous solution by HDTMA +-pillared montmorillonite—Implications for water purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qin Zhou; Hong Ping He; Jian Xi Zhu; Wei Shen; Ray L. Frost; Peng Yuan

    2008-01-01

    HDTMA+-pillared montmorillonites were obtained by pillaring different amounts of the surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMAB) into sodium montmorillonite (Na-Mt) in an aqueous solution. The optimum conditions and batch kinetics of sorption of p-nitrophenol from aqueous solutions are reported. The solution pH had a very important effect on the sorption of p-nitrophenol. The maximum p-nitrophenol absorption\\/adsorption occurs when solution pH (7.15–7.35) is

  5. Polyvinyl Alcohol \\/Na-Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Hydrogels Prepared by Freezing-Thawing Method: Structural, Mechanical, Thermal and Swelling Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. SIROUSAZAR; M. KOKABI; Z. M. HASSAN; A. R. BAHRAMIAN

    2012-01-01

    Physically crosslinked nanocomposite hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing Na-montmorillonite were prepared by the cyclic freezing-thawing method. The primarily exfoliated morphology of prepared nanocomposite hydrogels was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as complementary techniques. It is shown that some interactions developed between the hydroxyl groups of PVA chains and Na-montmorillonite silicate layers in the

  6. Polyvinyl Alcohol\\/Na-Montmorillonite Nanocomposite Hydrogels Prepared by Freezing–Thawing Method: Structural, Mechanical, Thermal, and Swelling Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sirousazar; M. Kokabi; Z. M. Hassan; A. R. Bahramian

    2012-01-01

    Physically crosslinked nanocomposite hydrogels based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing Na-montmorillonite were prepared by the cyclic freezing–thawing method. The primarily exfoliated morphology of prepared nanocomposite hydrogels was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as complementary techniques. It is shown that some interactions developed between the hydroxyl groups of PVA chains and Na-montmorillonite silicate layers in the

  7. Multifunctional chitosan nanocomposites: The effect of silver supported on montmorillonite platelets on barrier and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavorgna, M.; Buonocore, G. G.; Tescione, F.; Capezzuto, F.; Yan, N.; Amendola, E.

    2014-05-01

    Multifunctional bionanocomposites have been prepared by loading chitosan matrix with silver-montmorillonite antimicrobial nanoparticles obtained by replacing Na+ ions of natural montmorillonite with silver ions followed by thermal reduction to metallic nanoparticles. This filler has been chosen for its twofold advantage to serve as silver supporting material and to confer new and better performance to the obtained material. It has been proved that the ultrasound-assisted procedure resulted in an efficient tool for the chitosan macromolecules to intercalate into the silicate galleries. The achievement of the intercalation as well as the interaction between chitosan and silver nanoparticles lead to an enhancement of barrier properties of the bionanocomposites and to an improvement of their mechanical strengths mainly due to a better load transfer between matrix and fillers.

  8. Urea-montmorillonite-extruded nanocomposites: a novel slow-release material.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elaine I; Minussi, Fernando B; da Cruz, Camila C T; Bernardi, Alberto C C; Ribeiro, Caue

    2012-05-30

    The present study describes the preparation and characterization of a novel urea slow-release nanocomposite, based on urea intercalation into montmorillonite clay by an extrusion process at room temperature. Nanocomposites with urea contents ranging from 50 to 80 wt % were successfully produced and characterized. Analyses by XRD, DTA, and SEM-EDX confirmed the effectiveness of this simple process to exfoliate the clay lamellae into the urea matrix, forming a product that can be classified as a nanocomposite, due to the exfoliation degree attained. Diametral compression tests showed that the samples were very deformable, and the release rate of active components in water showed that the nanocomposite showed a slow release behavior for urea dissolution, even in low montmorillonite amounts (20% in weight). PMID:22574809

  9. In situ molecular spectroscopic evidence for CO2 intercalation into montmorillonite in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Loring, John S; Schaef, Herbert T; Turcu, Romulus V F; Thompson, Christopher J; Miller, Quin R S; Martin, Paul F; Hu, Jianzhi; Hoyt, David W; Qafoku, Odeta; Ilton, Eugene S; Felmy, Andrew R; Rosso, Kevin M

    2012-05-01

    The interaction of anhydrous supercritical CO(2) (scCO(2)) with both kaolinite and ~1W (i.e., close to but less than one layer of hydration) calcium-saturated montmorillonite was investigated under conditions relevant to geologic carbon sequestration (50 °C and 90 bar). The CO(2) molecular environment was probed in situ using a combination of three novel high-pressure techniques: X-ray diffraction, magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. We report the first direct evidence that the expansion of montmorillonite under scCO(2) conditions is due to CO(2) migration into the interlayer. Intercalated CO(2) molecules are rotationally constrained and do not appear to react with waters to form bicarbonate or carbonic acid. In contrast, CO(2) does not intercalate into kaolinite. The findings show that predicting the seal integrity of caprock will have complex dependence on clay mineralogy and hydration state. PMID:22533894

  10. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of acetic acid in the presence of Na-montmorillonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Ramos, S.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1990-01-01

    The gamma-irradiation of 0.8 mol dm-3 aqueous, oxygen-free acetic acid solutions was investigated in the presence or absence of Na-montmorillonite. H2, CH4, CO, CO2, and several polycarboxylic acids were formed in all systems. The primary characteristics observed in the latter system were: (1) Higher yield of the decomposition of acetic acid; (2) Lower yield of the formation of polycarboxylic acids; (3) No effect on the formation of methane; (4) Higher yield of the formation of carbon dioxide; and (5) The reduction of Fe3+ in the octahedral sites of Na-montmorillonite. A possible reaction scheme was proposed to account for the observed changes. The results are important in understanding heterogeneous processes in radiation catalysis and might be significant to prebiotic chemistry.

  11. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces urinary biomarkers of fumonisin B? exposure in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A; Johnson, N M; Strey, A; Taylor, J F; Marroquin-Cardona, A; Mitchell, N J; Afriyie-Gyawu, E; Ankrah, N A; Williams, J H; Wang, J S; Jolly, P E; Nachman, R J; Phillips, T D

    2012-01-01

    Fumonisin B? (FB?) is often a co-contaminant with aflatoxin (AF) in grains and may enhance AF's carcinogenicity by acting as a cancer promoter. Calcium montmorillonite (i.e. NovaSil, NS) is a possible dietary intervention to help decrease chronic aflatoxin exposure where populations are at risk. Previous studies show that an oral dose of NS clay was able to reduce AF exposure in a Ghanaian population. In vitro analyses from our laboratory indicated that FB? (like aflatoxin) could also be sorbed onto the surfaces of NS. Hence, our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of NS clay to reduce urinary FB? in a rodent model and then in a human population highly exposed to AF. In the rodent model, male Fisher rats were randomly assigned to either FB? control, FB??+?2% NS or absolute control group. FB? alone or with clay was given as a single dose by gavage. For the human trial, participants received NS (1.5 or 3?g?day?¹) or placebo (1.5?g?day?¹) for 3 months. Urines from weeks 8 and 10 were collected from the study participants for analysis. In rats, NS significantly reduced urinary FB? biomarker by 20% in 24?h and 50% after 48?h compared to controls. In the humans, 56% of the urine samples analysed (n?=?186) had detectable levels of FB?. Median urinary FB? levels were significantly (p?90% in the high dose NS group (3?g?day?¹) compared to the placebo. This work indicates that our study participants in Ghana were exposed to FB? (in addition to AFs) from the diet. Moreover, earlier studies have shown conclusively that NS reduces the bioavailability of AF and the findings from this study suggest that NS clay also reduces the bioavailability FB?. This is important since AF is a proven dietary risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans and FB? is suspected to be a dietary risk factor for HCC and oesophageal cancer in humans. PMID:22324939

  12. Adsorption of gemini and conventional cationic surfactants onto montmorillonite and the removal of some pollutants by the clay

    SciTech Connect

    Li, F.; Rosen, M.J.

    2000-04-15

    The adsorption of a series of gemini surfactants, [C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}N{sup +}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}-CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}]{sub 2}{center_dot}2Br{sup {minus}}, where n = 10, 12, 14, and 16, on clay (Na-montmorillonite) from their aqueous solution in 0.01 M KBr and the effect of this adsorption on the removal of 2-naphthol and 4-chlorophenol have been studied. Compared to those of conventional cationic surfactants with similar single hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups (C{sub n}H{sub 2n+1}N{sup +}(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}Br{sup {minus}}, where n = 10, 12, 14, and 16), the molar adsorptions of the gemini and conventional surfactants are almost identical. This indicates that only one of the hydrophilic groups in the gemini molecule is adsorbed onto the clay and that the second hydrophilic is presumably oriented toward the aqueous phase, in contrast to the adsorption of the conventional surfactants, where the hydrophobic group is oriented toward the aqueous phase. Stability studies on dispersions of clay treated with the two types of surfactants confirm this. The slight increase in the moles of surfactant to values above the CEC of the clay with an increase in the carbon number of the hydrophobic chain indicates that adsorption through hydrophobic group interaction occurs in addition to the major ion exchange. Adsorption studies of the pollutants onto the clay treated by either the gemini or the conventional surfactants show that the former are both more efficient and more effective at removing the pollutants from the aqueous phase.

  13. Disruption of bacterial cells by photocatalysis of montmorillonite supported titanium dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaomin Lei; Gaoli Guo; Bihua Xiong; Wenqi Gong; Guangjun Mei

    2009-01-01

    The photo-induced antibacterial capacity of montmorillonite supported titanium dioxide (TiO2\\/Mmt for short) was evaluated by using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as modal organisms. The bactericidal activity of TiO2\\/Mmt was examined by cell viability assay under different illumination modes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and total organic\\u000a carbon\\/Total nitrogen (TOC\\/TN) analyses were employed to investigate the mechanism of the photocatalytic bactericidal

  14. Polyaniline and polypyrrole modified conductive nanocomposites of polyfuran and polythiophene with montmorillonite clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Ballav; P. Saha Sardar; S. Ghosh; M. Biswas

    2006-01-01

    Nanocomposites of polyfuran (PF) and polythiophene (PTP) with montmorillonite clay (MMT) were prepared and modified by loading\\u000a of polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPY) moieties via polymerization of aniline (ANI) and pyrrole (PY) in aqueous dispersions\\u000a of PF-MMT and PTP-MMT nanocomposites. Formation of PANI and PPY and their subsequent incorporation in the PF-MMT and PTP-MMT\\u000a composites was confirmed by FTIR absorption

  15. Adsorption of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) and related compounds onto montmorillonite clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nagi Greesh; Patrice C. Hartmann; Valeska Cloete; Ronald D. Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    Sodium montmorillonite clay (Na-MMT) was modified using 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS). The objective of this study was to determine which chemical group is the ‘driving force’ leading to the adsorption of AMPS inside the clay galleries. AMPS has been reported to be a good candidate as a clay modifier for the preparation of polymer–clay nanocomposites by in situ free radical polymerization

  16. Effects of Polymer on the Modified TiO2 Pillared Montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Chenjing; Yu Jiang; Xing Jianmin; Liu Huizhou

    With the aim of improving the microstructures and properties of TiO2 pillared montmorillonite (MMT), a long-chain polymer (polyoxypropylenediamine, PPO-D-2000) were used as organic micro structural modifier to synthesize composite pillared MMT. The materials were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, FT-Raman, TG\\/DSC, TEM, and BET methods. The results show that as compared to low-molecular weight surfactant, this polymer significantly expanded the interlayer

  17. Protective epoxy dispersion coating materials modified a posteriori with organophilized montmorillonites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Kowalczyk; Tadeusz Spychaj

    2009-01-01

    Two types of paints (primer and topcoat) and coatings based on epoxy resin dispersions, water solution of polyamine hardener and a posteriori introduced four types of organophilized montmorillonite (mMMT) nanofillers: two commercial Nanofil-type (used as powders) and two pilot plant NanoBent-type products (in a powder and water-slurry form) were formulated and investigated. Pulverized organoclays were preliminarily incorporated (in various doses:

  18. Novel composite polymer electrolytes based on poly(ether-urethane) network polymer and modified montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. J. Wang; J. J. Kang; Y. P. Wu; S. B. Fang

    2003-01-01

    Novel composite solid polymer electrolytes (CSPEs) and composite gel polymer electrolytes (CGPEs) have been prepared. CSPE consists of poly(ether-urethane) network polymer, which is superior to poly(ethylene oxide) in mechanical stability due to its cross-linked structure, modified montmorillonite (MMMT) and LiClO4, and CGPE with good mechanical strength comprises of the CSPE and LiClO4–PC (propylene carbonate) solution. The ionic conductivity can be

  19. Melt intercalation\\/exfoliation of polystyrene–sodium-montmorillonite nanocomposites using sulfonated polystyrene ionomer compatibilizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikhil N. Bhiwankar; R. A. Weiss

    2006-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) were used as compatibilizers for melt intercalation of PS and pristine Na-montmorillonite. Tetra-octyl ammonium SPS and tetra-decyl ammonium SPS ionomeric compatibilizers produced significant exfoliation and a homogeneous dispersion of the polymer–clay nanocomposites. Wide angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were primarily used to characterize the morphology of the nanocomposites. Image analysis was

  20. Selectivity of montmorillonite catalyzed prebiotic reactions of D, L-nucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Prakash C.; Pitsch, Stefan; Ferris, James P.

    2007-02-01

    The montmorillonite-catalyzed reactions of the 5?-phosphorimidazolides of D, L-adenosine (D, L-ImpA) (Figure 1a. N = A, R = H) and D, L-uridine (Figure 1a., N = U, R = H) yields oligomers that were as long as 7 mers and 6 mers, respectively. The reactions of dilute solutions of D-ImpA and D-ImpU under the same conditions gave oligomers as long as 9 and 8 mers respectively. This demonstrated that oligomer formation is only partially inhibited by incorporation of both the D- and L-enantiomers. The structures of the dimers, trimers and tetramer fractions formed from D, L-ImpA was investigated by selective enzymatic hydrolysis, comparison with authentic samples and mass spectrometry. Homochiral products were present in greater amounts than would be expected if theoretical amounts of each were formed. The ratio of the proportion of homochiral products to that of the amount of each expected for the dimers (cyclic and linear), trimers and tetramers, was 1.3, 1.6, and 2.1, respectively. In the D, L-ImpU reaction homochiral products did not predominate with ratios of dimers (cyclic and linear), trimers and tetramers 0.8, 0.44, and 1.4, respectively. The proportions of cyclic dimers in the dimer fraction were 52 66% with D, L-ImpA and 44 69% with D, L-ImpU. No cyclic dimers were formed in the absence of montmorillonite. The differences in the reaction products of D, L-ImpA and D, L-ImpU are likely to be due to the difference in the orientations of the activated monomers when bound to the catalytic sites on montmorillonite. The consequences of the selectivity of montmorillonite as a prebiotic catalyst are discussed.

  1. Dielectric-Relaxation Spectroscopy of Kaolinite, Montmorillonite, Allophane, and Imogolite under Moist Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoyuki Ishida; TOMOYUKI MAKINO; CHANGJUN WANG

    2000-01-01

    The dielectric behavior of kaolinite, montmorillonite, allophane, and imogolite samples ad- justed to a water potential of 33 kPa was examined using a time-domain reflectometry method over a wide frequency range of 103-10 ~~ Hz. A dielectric relaxation peak owing to bound H20 was observed. The observation of this peak required the precise determination of the contributions of dc conductivity.

  2. Biodegradable poly(propylene carbonate)\\/montmorillonite nanocomposites prepared by direct melt intercalation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Xu; R. K. Y.. Li; Y. Z.. Meng; Y-. W. Mai

    2006-01-01

    Intercalation-exfoliated nanocomposites derived from poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) and organo-modified montmorillonite (OMMT) were prepared by direct melt blending in an internal mixer. The nano-scale dispersion of the OMMT layers within the PPC matrix was verified using wide angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy technologies. Static mechanical properties were determined by using a tensile tester. The PPC\\/OMMT nanocomposites with lower OMMT

  3. Preparation and characterization of poly(propylene carbonate)\\/montmorillonite nanocomposites by solution intercalation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xudong Shi; Zhihua Gan

    2007-01-01

    Poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) is a new biodegradable aliphatic polycarbonate. However, the poor thermal stability and low glass transition temperatures (Tg) have limited its applications. To improve the thermal properties of PPC, organophilic montmorillonite (OMMT) was mixed with PPC by a solution intercalation method to produce nanocomposites. An intercalated-and-flocculated structure of PPC\\/OMMT nanocomposites was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission

  4. The hydrometallurgical extraction of lithium from egyptian montmorillonite-type clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, A. M.

    2008-10-01

    The processing of El-Fayoum montmorillonite-type clay deposits is attained through leaching with commercial sulfuric acid using a ball-mill-type autoclave. This process yields lithium sulfate, which can be used either for the production of lithium carbonate or to produce lithium metal. The effects of temperature, grain size, and sulfuric acid concentration and leaching on lithium recovery as well as the kinetics of the leaching process have been studied.

  5. In Situ Molecular Spectroscopic Evidence for CO2 Intercalation into Montmorillonite in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Loring; Herbert T. Schaef; Romulus VF Turcu; Christopher J. Thompson; Quin RS Miller; Paul F. Martin; Jian Z. Hu; David W. Hoyt; Odeta Qafoku; Eugene S. Ilton; Andrew R. Felmy; Kevin M. Rosso

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of anhydrous supercritical COâ (scCOâ) with both kaolinite and â1W (i.e. close to but less than one layer of hydration) calcium-saturated montmorillonite was investigated under conditions relevant to geologic carbon sequestration (50 C and 90 bar). The COâ molecular environment was probed in situ using a combination of three novel high-pressure techniques: X-ray diffraction, magic angle spinning nuclear

  6. Nature of organic fluid–montmorillonite interactions: An FTIR spectroscopic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priyanthi M. Amarasinghe; Kalpana S. Katti; Dinesh R. Katti

    2009-01-01

    The changes in the H–O–H stretching vibration in the interlayer water and Si–O stretching vibration of a Na-montmorillonite (MMT) structure in the FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectra provide insight into the effect of fluids of different dielectric constants on the clay structure. Mechanisms by which the different fluids of varying polarities enter into the clay interlayer and the rates at

  7. An Infrared Spectroscopic Study of the Interaction of Nontronite and Ferruginous Montmorillonites with Alkali Metal Hydroxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Russell

    1979-01-01

    A B ST R ACT: 1R spectroscopy has been used to study the interaction of alkali metal hydroxides with dioctahedral smectites having iron contents of 0.7~ (montmorillonite) to 22~ (nontronite), in connection with the alkali-stabilization of soils. The results have shown that the alkalis (LiOH, NaOH, KOH and CsOH) deprotonate hydroxyl groups co-ordinated to octahedral ferric iron, causing distortion of

  8. FTIR Study of Deuterated Montmorillonites: Structural Features Relevant to Pillared Clay Stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishna Bukka; J. D. MILLER; JOSEPH SHABTAI

    1992-01-01

    FTIR studies of six partially-deuterated montmorillonites (MS) reveal the presence of two O- D stretching bands, one between 2702-2728 cm ~ and another near 2680 cm -~ . For homoionic (Li, Na, Mg, Ca, or La) Wyoming-type MS, the position of the higher frequency band, designated as (O--O)h , is between 2714-2728 cm -t, whereas for homoionic Cheto-type MS it

  9. Structure peculiarities and optical properties of nanocomposite: 5CB liquid crystal–CTAB-modified montmorillonite clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Bezrodna; I. Chashechnikova; V. Nesprava; G. Puchkovska; Ye. Shaydyuk; Yu. Boyko; J. Baran; M. Drozd

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the modification of natural layered montmorillonite (MMT) clay by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) cations on the structure and optical properties of the composite material based on this mineral (4.5%mass) and a nematic liquid crystal (LC), 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), have been investigated. As shown by small-angle X-ray diffraction and infrared (IR) spectroscopy experiments, this modification results in a significant expansion

  10. The effects of mixed quartz-montmorillonite gouge on the frictional sliding of Tennessee sandstone 

    E-print Network

    Rauenzahn, Kim Ann

    1985-01-01

    oi' MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Geophysics THE EFFECTS OF MIXED QUARTZ-MONTMORILLONITE GOUGE ON THE FRICTIONAL SLIDING OF TENNESSEE SANDSTONE A Thesis KIM ANN RAUENZAHN Approved as to style and content by: r. ohn M. Logan...) Kim Ann Rauenzahn, B. S. , Penn State University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. John M. Logan The velocity dependency of frictional sliding is studied experimentally using 35o-precut cylinders of Tennessee sandstone with a layer of saturated...

  11. Artificial neural networks approach for zeta potential of Montmorillonite in the presence of different cations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukselen, Yeliz; Erzin, Yusuf

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the zeta potential of montmorillonite in the presence of different chemical solutions was modeled by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs). Zeta potential of the montmorillonite was measured in the presence of salt cations, Na+, Li+ and Ca2+ and metals Zn2+, Pb2+, Cu2+, and Al3+ at different pH values, and observed values pointed to a different behavior for this mineral in the presence of salt and heavy metal cations. Artificial neural networks were successfully developed for the prediction of the zeta potential of montmorillonite in the presence of salt and heavy metal cations at different pH values and ionic strengths. Resulting zeta potential of montmorillonite shows different behavior in the presence of salt and heavy metal cations, and two ANN models were developed in order to be compared with experimental results. The ANNs results were found to be close to experimentally measured zeta potential values. The performance indices such as coefficient of determination, root mean square error, mean absolute error, and variance account for were used to control the performance of the prediction capacity of the models developed in this study. These indices obtained make it clear that the predictive models constructed are quite powerful. The constructed ANN models exhibited a high performance according to the performance indices. This performance has also shown that the ANNs seem to be a useful tool to minimize the uncertainties encountered during the soil engineering projects. For this reason, the use of ANNs may provide new approaches and methodologies.

  12. Simulations of Interlayer Methanol in Ca and Na-Saturated Montmorillonites Using Molecular Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Pintore; SALVATORE DEIANA; PIERFRANCO DEMONTIS; BRUNO MANUNZA; GIUSEPPE BALDOVINO SUFFRITTI; CARLO GESSA

    2001-01-01

    Molecu lar dynamics computer simulations were used to study methanol molecules confined between the layers of 2:1 phyllosilicates. The model systems are based on natural Ca- and Na-rich montmorillonites. Data from the literature and determined by fitting the calculated layer spacing to ex- perimental values were employed to obtain interactions between the charged 2:1 layers and the solvent molecules. The

  13. Dielectric properties of montmorillonite clay filled poly(vinyl alcohol)\\/poly(ethylene oxide) blend nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Sengwa; Shobhna Choudhary; Sonu Sankhla

    2010-01-01

    Organic–inorganic nanocomposites of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)–poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) blend filled with montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay up to 10wt.% concentration were synthesized by aqueous solution-cast technique. The complex dielectric function, electrical conductivity, electric modulus and impedance spectra of the nanocomposites were measured in the frequency range 20Hz–1MHz at ambient temperature. A direct correlation was observed between the real part of dielectric function

  14. Influence of clay modification on the structure and mechanical properties of EPDM\\/montmorillonite nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua Zheng; Yong Zhang; Zonglin Peng; Yinxi Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Conditions were established for dispersing organic montmorillonite (OMMT) nanolayers into ethylene–propylene–diene rubber (EPDM) matrix in a HAAKE mixer. The experimental results of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that the MMT modified with trimethyloctadecylamine or dimethylbenzyloctadecylamine existed in the form of an intercalated layer structure and the MMT modified with methlybis(2-hydroxyethyl)cocoalkylamine was fully exfoliated in the EPDM matrix. The

  15. Preparation of phase change material–montmorillonite composites suitable for thermal energy storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nihal Sarier; Emel Onder; Serap Ozay; Yilmaz Ozkilic

    2011-01-01

    A new type of organoclay composite (PMMT) with good heat storage and release capacity was produced by intercalating n-hexadecane with Na–montmorillonite (Na–MMT) in a surfactant-assisted medium. The expansion of Na–MMT galleries by a Na salt of 4-dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (SDS) solution prior to the intercalation of n-hexadecane enhanced the process. In the XRD analysis, expansions of the d spacings in

  16. Effects of organo-modified montmorillonite on strengths and permeability of cement mortars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen-Yih Kuo; Jong-Shin Huang; Chi-Hsien Lin

    2006-01-01

    Organo-modified montmorillonites (OMMT) which have been widely used in polymer\\/clay nano-composites are employed here as fillers and reinforcements in cement mortars. The ratio of quartz sand and cement is 2.75 while the water\\/cement ratios of 0.40, 0.485 and 0.55 are considered for the cement mortars we studied. Experimental results indicate that the coefficients of permeability of cement mortars could be

  17. Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Methanol on Chromium Oxide\\/Montmorillonite K10 Catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maged Samir Ghattas

    2006-01-01

    Methanol conversion was carried out on a mesoporous material—chromia\\/montmorillonite K10 (MK10)—in a pulse microcatalytic system. Methanol was converted to formaldehyde and ethylene by two different mechanisms. Methanol dehydrogenation increases by increasing reaction temperature (300–400°C) and as chromia loading decrease. On the other hand, the dehydration of methanol occurs at a higher temperature (400–500°C) and as chromia loading increase, 3–18% Cr.

  18. Enhancing mechanical and thermal properties of PLLA ligaments with fumed silica nanoparticles and montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Chrissafis; E. Pavlidou; K. M. Paraskevopoulos; T. Beslikas; N. Nianias; D. Bikiaris

    2011-01-01

    Nanocomposites of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) containing 2.5 wt% of fumed silica nanoparticles (SiO2) and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) were prepared by solved evaporation method. From SEM micrographs it was\\u000a observed that both nanoparticles were well dispersed into PLLA matrix. All nanocomposites exhibited higher mechanical properties\\u000a compared to neat PLLA, except elongation at break, indicating that nanoparticles can act as efficient

  19. Fabrication and characterization of montmorillonite clay-filled SC15 epoxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuanxin Zhou; Farhana Pervin; Mohammad A. Biswas; Vijaya K. Rangari; Shaik Jeelani

    2006-01-01

    In the present investigation, we have developed a novel technique to fabricate nanocomposite materials containing SC-15 epoxy resin and K-10 montmorillonite clay. A high-intensity ultrasonic liquid processor was used to obtain a homogeneous molecular mixture of epoxy resin and nano-clay. The clays were infused into the part A of SC-15 (Diglycidylether of Bisphenol A) through sonic cavitations and then mixed

  20. The structure of montmorillonites modified with zwitterionic surfactants and their sorption ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianxi; Qing, Yanhong; Ma, Lingya; Zhu, Runliang; He, Hongping

    2015-06-01

    In this work, a novel organo-clays, zwitterionic surfactant modified montmorillonites (ZSMMs) were synthesized by using sulphobetaine and montmorillonites. The structures of ZSMMs were characterized by X ray diffraction (XRD) methods; the surfactant loading levels were measured by Total organic carbon (TOC) analysis, and their sorptive characteristics toward p-nitrophenol and nitrobenzene were investigated. XRD and TOC measurements indicated that the amount of adsorbed surfactants and the basal spacing of the ZSMMs increase with alkyl chain length and surfactant concentration. Sorption experiments showed that the capacity of p-nitrophenol to sorb onto the ZSMMs is higher than that of nitrobenzene. Both capacities increase with surfactant loading level; However, sorption capacity decreases when the surfactant concentration is higher than 2.0 CEC. Under the same surfactant loading level, the sorption capacities of p-nitrophenol and nitrobenzene increase with alkyl chain length. Under this experimental condition, the longer alkyl chain leads to a higher sorption capacity for hydrophobic organic compounds. On the basis of the ability of p-nitrophenol and nitrobenzene to sorb onto the montmorillonites, we conclude that the contaminant sorption coefficients, normalized with organic carbon content, highly depend on surfactant loading levels.

  1. Enhanced Photoreduction of Nitro-aromatic Compounds by Hydrated Electrons Derived from Indole on Natural Montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Tian, Haoting; Guo, Yong; Pan, Bo; Gu, Cheng; Li, Hui; Boyd, Stephen A

    2015-07-01

    A new photoreduction pathway for nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) and the underlying degradation mechanism are described. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene was reduced to 3-nitroaniline by the widely distributed aromatic molecule indole; the reaction is facilitated by montmorillonite clay mineral under both simulated and natural sunlight irradiation. The novel chemical reaction is strongly affected by the type of exchangeable cation present on montmorillonite. The photoreduction reaction is initiated by the adsorption of 1,3-dinitrobenzene and indole in clay interlayers. Under light irradiation, the excited indole molecule generates a hydrated electron and the indole radical cation. The structural negative charge of montmorillonite plausibly stabilizes the radical cation hence preventing charge recombination. This promotes the release of reactive hydrated electrons for further reductive reactions. Similar results were observed for the photoreduction of nitrobenzene. In situ irradiation time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies provided direct evidence for the generation of hydrated electrons and the indole radical cations, which supported the proposed degradation mechanism. In the photoreduction process, the role of clay mineral is to both enhance the generation of hydrated electrons and to provide a constrained reaction environment in the galley regions, which increases the probability of contact between NACs and hydrated electrons. PMID:26029791

  2. Studying nanostructure gradients in injection-molded polypropylene/montmorillonite composites by microbeam small-angle x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stribeck, Norbert; Schneider, Konrad; Zeinolebadi, Ahmad; Li, Xuke; Sanporean, Catalina-Gabriela; Vuluga, Zina; Iancu, Stela; Duldner, Monica; Santoro, Gonzalo; Roth, Stephan V.

    2014-02-01

    The core-shell structure in oriented cylindrical rods of polypropylene (PP) and nanoclay composites (NCs) from PP and montmorillonite (MMT) is studied by microbeam small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The structure of neat PP is almost homogeneous across the rod showing regular semicrystalline stacks. In the NCs the discrete SAXS of arranged crystalline PP domains is limited to a skin zone of 300 ?m thickness. Even there only frozen-in primary lamellae are detected. The core of the NCs is dominated by diffuse scattering from crystalline domains placed at random. The SAXS of the MMT flakes exhibits a complex skin-core gradient. Both the direction of the symmetry axis and the apparent perfection of flake-orientation are varying. Thus there is no local fiber symmetry, and the structure gradient cannot be reconstructed from a scan across the full rod. To overcome the problem the rods are machined. Scans across the residual webs are performed. For the first time webs have been carved out in two principal directions. Comparison of the corresponding two sets of SAXS patterns demonstrates the complexity of the MMT orientation. Close to the surface (< 1 mm) the flakes cling to the wall. The variation of the orientation distribution widths indicates the presence of both MMT flakes and grains. The grains have not been oriented in the flowing melt. An empirical equation is presented which describes the variation from skin to core of one component of the inclination angle of flake-shaped phyllosilicate filler particles.

  3. Spectral properties of mixtures of montmorillonite and dark grains - Implications for remote sensing minerals containing chemically and physically adsorbed water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, R. N.

    1983-01-01

    The spectral properties from 0.4 to 3 microns of montmorillonite plus dark carbon grains (called opaques) of various sizes are studied as a function of the weight fraction of opaques present. The reflectance level and band depths of the 1.4-, 1.9-, 2.2-, and 2.8-micron water and/or OH absorption features are analyzed using derived empirical relationships and scattering theory. It is found that the absorption band depths and reflectance level are a very nonlinear function of the weight fraction of opaques present but can be predicted in many cases by simple scattering theory. The 2.8-micron bound water fundamental band is the most difficult absorption feature to suppress. The overtone absorptions are suppressed a greater amount than the fundamental but are still apparent even when 10-20 wt pct opaques are present. The relationships observed and the simple scattering theory presented show that quantitative compositional remote sensing studies are feasible for surfaces containing complex mineral mixtures.

  4. Plasmon-assisted degradation of methylene blue with Ag/AgCl/montmorillonite nanocomposite under visible light.

    PubMed

    Sohrabnezhad, Sh; Zanjanchi, M A; Razavi, M

    2014-09-15

    Metal-semiconductor compounds, such as Ag/AgX (X=Cl, Br, I), enable visible light absorption and separation of photogenerated electron-hole through surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect. However, the electron-hole generated and separated by light are vulnerable in Ag/AgX phase because of the occurrence of secondary recombined. In order to more effectively utilize the SPR photocatalytic effect, nanoparticles are located in a matrix. In this article, Ag/AgCl nanoparticles were synthesized in montmorillonite (MMT) matrix using dispersion method and light irradiation. The structure, composition and optical properties of such material were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. Powder X-ray diffraction showed intercalation of Ag/AgCl nanoparticles into the clay layers. The as-prepared plasmonic photocatalyst exhibited an enhanced and stable photoactivity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light. The high activity was attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) exhibited by Ag nanoparticles on the surface of AgCl. The detection of reactive species by radical scavengers displays that O2- and OH- are the main reactive species for the degradation of MB under visible light irradiation. The studies showed that 20 min illumination under visible light can complete degradation of methylene blue (MB), and indicate a high stability of photocatalytic degradation. The mechanism of separation of the photo-generated electrons and holes at the Ag/AgCl-MMT nanocomposite was discussed. PMID:24769384

  5. Adsorption of adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil on sulfide-modified montmorillonite: FT-IR, Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry studies.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Cristine E A; Berndt, Graciele; de Souza Junior, Ivan G; de Souza, Cláudio M D; Paesano, Andrea; da Costa, Antonio C S; di Mauro, Eduardo; de Santana, Henrique; Zaia, Cássia T B V; Zaia, Dimas A M

    2011-10-01

    In the present work the interactions of nucleic acid bases with and adsorption on clays were studied at two pHs (2.00, 7.00) using different techniques. As shown by Mössbauer and EPR spectroscopies and X-ray diffractometry, the most important finding of this work is that nucleic acid bases penetrate into the interlayer of the clays and oxidize Fe(2+) to Fe(3+), thus, this interaction cannot be regarded as a simple physical adsorption. For the two pHs the order of the adsorption of nucleic acid bases on the clays was: adenine???cytosine?>?thymine?>?uracil. The adsorption of adenine and cytosine on clays increased with decreasing of the pH. For unaltered montmorillonite this result could be explained by electrostatic forces between adenine/cytosine positively charged and clay negatively charged. However for montmorillonite modified with Na(2)S, probably van der Waals forces also play an important role since both adenine/cytosine and clay were positively charged. FT-IR spectra showed that the interaction between nucleic acid bases and clays was through NH(+) or NH (2) (+) groups. X-ray diffractograms showed that nucleic acid bases adsorbed on clays were distributed into the interlayer surface, edge sites and external surface functional groups (aluminol, silanol) EPR spectra showed that the intensity of the line g???2 increased probably because the oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) by nucleic acid bases and intensity of the line g?=?4.1 increased due to the interaction of Fe(3+) with nucleic acid bases. Mössbauer spectra showed a large decreased on the Fe(2+) doublet area of the clays due to the reaction of nucleic acid bases with Fe(2+). PMID:21717172

  6. Investigation of the different binding edge sites for Zn on montmorillonite using P-EXAFS - The strong/weak site concept in the 2SPNE SC/CE sorption model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dähn, Rainer; Baeyens, Bart; Bradbury, Michael H.

    2011-09-01

    The 2 site protolysis non electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange (2SPNE SC/CE) sorption model has been used over the past decade or so to quantitatively describe the uptake of metals with oxidation states from II to VI on 2:1 clay minerals; montmorillonite and illite. One of the main features in this model is that there are two broad categories of amphoteric edge sorption sites; the so called strong ( tbnd S SOH) and weak ( tbnd S W1OH) sites. Because of their different sorption characteristics, it was expected that the coordination environments of the surface complexes on the two site types would be different. Zn isotherm data on two montmorillonites, Milos and STx-1, were measured and modelled using the 2SPNE SC/CE sorption model. The results were used to define the most favourable experimental conditions under which Zn sorption was either dominated by the strong ( tbnd S SOH, ˜2 mmol kg -1) or by the weak sites ( tbnd S W1OH, ˜40 mmol kg -1). Highly oriented self-supporting films were prepared for polarised extended X-ray absorption fine structure (P-EXAFS) investigations. Montmorillonites often contain Zn incorporated in the clay matrix. The Zn bound in this form was quantified and the results from the analysis of the P-EXAFS spectra were taken into account in the interpretation of the spectra measured at low Zn loadings (˜2 mmol kg -1) and medium Zn loadings (˜30 mmol kg -1). The Zn spectra on the "strong sites" exhibited a pronounced angular dependency and formed surface complexes in the continuity of the Al-octahedral sheets at the montmorillonite edges. In contrast, the Zn "weak site" spectra showed only a weak angular dependency. The spectroscopic evidence indicates the existence of two distinct groups of edge surface binding sites which is consistent with a multi-site sorption model and in particular with the strong/weak site concept intrinsic to the 2SPNE S/CE sorption model.

  7. Effects of monovalent, exchangeable cations and electrolytes on the relation between swelling pressure and interlayer distance in montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Low, P.F.; Roth, C.B. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Agronomy Dept.] [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Agronomy Dept.

    1995-07-01

    An oriented gel of homoionic montmorillonite was supported on a porous filter in a metal environmental chamber fitted with beryllium windows for the transmission of X-rays. Beneath the filter was a shallow reservoir connected to the outside atmosphere. Solution was expressed from the gel into the reservoir by admitting nitrogen gas to the environmental chamber at successively higher pressures. At each pressure the expressed solution in the reservoir was allowed to equilibrate through the filter with the gel and then the distance between the superimposed layers of montmorillonite in the gel was measured by X-ray diffraction. The swelling pressure of the montmorillonite equals the applied pressure at equilibrium. Thus, the relation between the swelling pressure and interlayer distance of the montmorillonite was determined when it was saturated with different exchangeable cations and equilibrated with electrolyte solutions of different concentration. The experimental results showed that, at relatively low concentrations of electrolyte, neither the species of exchangeable cation nor the electrolyte concentration had any effect on the relation between the swelling pressure and the interlayer distance. However, at relatively high concentrations of electrolyte, both of these factors affected this relation. Since the effect of the electrolyte concentration was not described quantitatively by electric double-layer theory, it was assumed that this theory was not applicable and that the added electrolyte reduced swelling by disrupting the hydration shells surrounding the montmorillonite particles.

  8. In situ prepared PET nanocomposites: Effect of organically modified montmorillonite and fumed silica nanoparticles on PET physical properties and thermal degradation kinetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Vassiliou; K. Chrissafis; D. N. Bikiaris

    2010-01-01

    In the present study a series of PET nanocomposites were prepared by in situ polymerization using different amounts of organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) with a triphenylphosphine compound and fumed silica nanoparticles (SiO2). As verified by TEM micrographs, the dispersion of both nanoparticles into the PET matrix was homogeneous while montmorillonite was dispersed in the exfoliated form. The intrinsic viscosities of

  9. Vibrational and NMR probe studies of S Az-1 montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Johnston; C. Erickson; W. L. Earl

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the interactions of exchangeable metal cations with mineral surfaces using a combined spectroscopic\\/macroscopic approach. Objectives were to examine the use of water molecules and metal cations as molecular probes of smectite water interactions. The νâ mode of water is used as a diagnostic vibrational band. An FTIR-gravimetric cell is used to examine the FTIR

  10. Catalytic cracking properties of cross-linked montmorillonite (CLM) molecular sieves. [M. S. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McCauley, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    This thesis was concerned with a systematic study of the catalytic cracking properties of corss-linked montmorillonite (CLM) molecular sieves in comparison with those of a conventional molecular sieve catalyst, i.e., CeY-type zeolite. The relative cracking yields obtained with each catalyst were determined as a function of the critical molecular dimensions of the feed using model compounds. For alkylbenzene feeds with a molecular diameter of < 9 A., i.e., cumene (6.8 A), t-butylbenzene (6.8 A), and m-diisopropylbenzene (7.9 A), intrasorption was allowed in both catalysts and consequently, the relative conversions were similar (C/sub rel/ = 0.8 to 1.2). For feeds with a molecular diameter > 9 A, intrasorption into CeY-type zeolite was either restricted or excluded, while it was fully allowed in the larger pore CLM catalysts. Consequently, relative conversions were sharply higher in favor of the CLM systems (C/sub rel/ = 1.1 to 8). Partially cross-linked montmorillonites with predominant critical pore size of 15 to 19 A, cause higher relative conversions for such large molecules than fully cross-linked montmorillonites. Penetration of tricyclodecane (d/sub min/ = 8.1 A) can occur in the intracrystalline pore systems of both catalysts. As a result, no large differences in cracking yields were found with CLM and CeY-type zeolite catalysts. On the other hand, the relative extent of cracking of dodecahydrotriphenylene with CLM (1.6) catalyst was several orders of magnitude greater than that found with the CeY catalyst. Because of its large critical diameter (12.1 A), the intrasorption of this compound into CeY was sterically excluded while it was fully allowed in the larger pore CLM catalysts. This indicates a great potential future use of DLM catalysts for cracking of heavy oils, which consist primarily of molecular components having critical diameters > 9 A.

  11. Structure and properties of polymer modified TiO 2 pillared montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chenjing Wang; Jiang Yu; Jianmin Xing; Huizhou Liu

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of improving the microstructures and properties of TiO2 pillared montmorillonite (MMT), a long-chain polymer (polyoxypropylenediamine, PPO-D 2000) was used as a template to synthesize\\u000a composite pillared MMT. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR)\\u000a spectrophotometer, Fourier Raman (FT-Raman) spectrophotometer, thermo-gravimeter\\/differential thermogravimeter (TG\\/DSC), transmission\\u000a electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) methods. The

  12. Mechanical and Hygrothermal Aging Study on Polystyrene\\/Organo-montmorillonite Nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Chow; J. K. Teoh; L. Y. Lim

    2008-01-01

    Melt intercalation blending of polystyrene (PS)\\/organo-montmorillonite (OMMT) was prepared using the extrusion technique followed by compression molding. The loading of OMMT ranged from 2–10 wt.%. Maleic-anhydride grafted poly(styrene-block-(ethylene-co-butadiene)-block-styrene) (SEBSgMAH) was added to PS\\/OMMT composites in order to improve the impact strength of the composites. The concentration of SEBSgMAH ranged from 5–15%. The mechanical properties of PS\\/OMMT were characterized using flexural and

  13. Solid state characterisation of silver sulfadiazine loaded on montmorillonite/chitosan nanocomposite for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Carola; Sandri, Giuseppina; Bonferoni, Cristina; Cerezo, Pilar; Rossi, Silvia; Ferrari, Franca; Caramella, Carla; Viseras, César

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymer chitosan/montmorillonite nanocomposites loaded with silver sulfadiazine for wound healing purposes were prepared via intercalation solution technique. Structure and morphology of loaded nanocomposites were studied and compared with pure components and unloaded nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersion X-ray analysis, thermal and elemental analysis were employed for the characterisation. The results confirmed that the drug was effectively loaded in the three-dimensional nanocomposite structures, in which chitosan chains were adsorbed in monolayers into the clay mineral interlayer spaces. PMID:24077113

  14. Poly(imide)/Organically-Modified Montmorillonite Nanocomposite as a Potential Membrane for Alkaline Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Battirola, Liliane C.; Gasparotto, Luiz H. S.; Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara P.; Tremiliosi-Filho, Germano

    2012-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the potentiality of a poly(imide) (PI)/organically-modified montmorillonite (O-MMT) nanocomposite membrane for the use in alkaline fuel cells. Both X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy revealed a good dispersion of O-MMT into the PI matrix and preservation of the O-MMT layered structure. When compared to the pure PI, the addition of O-MMT improved thermal stability and markedly increased the capability of absorbing electrolyte and ionic conductivity of the composite. The results show that the PI/O-MMT nanocomposite is a promising candidate for alkaline fuel cell applications. PMID:24958290

  15. Water adsorption constrained Frenkel-Halsey-Hill adsorption activation theory: Montmorillonite and illite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatch, Courtney D.; Greenaway, Ann L.; Christie, Matthew J.; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2014-04-01

    Fresh mineral aerosol has recently been found to be effective cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and contribute to the number of cloud droplets in the atmosphere due to the effect of water adsorption on CCN activation. The work described here uses experimental water adsorption measurements on Na-montmorillonite and illite clay to determine empirical adsorption parameters that can be used in a recently derived theoretical framework (Frenkel-Halsey-Hill Activation Theory, FHH-AT) that accounts for the effect of water adsorption on CCN activation. Upon fitting the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption model to water adsorption measurements, we find FHH adsorption parameters, AFHH and BFHH, to be 98 ± 22 and 1.79 ± 0.11 for montmorillonite and 75 ± 17 and 1.77 ± 0.11 for illite, respectively. The AFHH and BFHH values obtained from water adsorption measurements differ from values reported previously determined by applying FHH-AT to CCN activation measurements. Differences in FHH adsorption parameters were attributed to different methods used to obtain them and the hydratable nature of the clays. FHH adsorption parameters determined from water adsorption measurements were then used to calculate the critical super-saturation (sc) for CCN activation using FHH-AT. The relationship between sc and the dry particle diameter (Ddry) gave CCN activation curve exponents (xFHH) of -0.61 and -0.64 for montmorillonite and illite, respectively. The xFHH values were slightly lower than reported previously for mineral aerosol. The lower exponent suggests that the CCN activity of hydratable clays is less sensitive to changes in Ddry and the hygroscopicity parameter exhibits a broader variability with Ddry compared to more soluble aerosols. Despite the differences in AFHH, BFHH and xFHH, the FHH-AT derived CCN activities of montmorillonite and illite are quite similar to each other and in excellent agreement with experimental CCN measurements resulting from wet-generated clay aerosol. This study illustrates that FHH-AT using adsorption parameters constrained by water adsorption is a simple, valid method for predicting CCN activation of fresh clay minerals and provides parameters that can be used in atmospheric models to study the effect of mineral dust aerosol on cloud formation and climate.

  16. A novel method for preparing oil-in-water-in-oil type multiple emulsions using organophilic montmorillonite clay mineral

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoko Sekine; Katsunori Yoshida; Fumiaki Matsuzaki; Toshio Yanaki; Michihiro Yamaguchi

    1999-01-01

    A stable formula using oil-in-water-in-oil (O\\/W\\/O) type multiple emulsions was investigated. The components consisted of hydrophilic\\u000a nonionic surfactant (HCO-60), organophilic montmorillonite, and lipophilic nonionic surfactant (DIS-14). O\\/W\\/O emulsions were\\u000a prepared by a double-step procedure in which an O\\/W emulsion was prepared in the first step, and then the O\\/W emulsion was\\u000a “re-emulsified” in an oil phase with organophilic montmorillonite. The

  17. Spherical LDH-Ag°-montmorillonite heterocoagulated system with a pH-dependent sol-gel structure for controlled accessibility of AgNPs immobilized on the clay lamellae.

    PubMed

    Deák, Ágota; Janovák, László; Tallósy, Szabolcs Péter; Bitó, Tamás; Seb?k, Dániel; Buzás, Norbert; Pálinkó, István; Dékány, Imre

    2015-02-17

    Aqueous suspensions of spherical ZnMgAl-layered double hydroxides [LDH(sph)] and antibacterial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) deposited on the lamellae of montmorillonite were used for the synthesis of composites, which behave like coherent gels at low pH (?4.5) and incoherent sols at higher pH (?4.5). The composition of the composite was chosen as LDH(sph)/Ag°-montm. = 25:75 wt % in order to ensure a sol-gel transition that can also be characterized by viscometry. This pH-sensitive heterocoagulated system consisting of oppositely charged colloid particles was suitable for the release of antimicrobial AgNPs immobilized on the clay lamellae via a pH-controlled gel-sol transition. The heterocoagulation process was also characterized by surface charge titration measurements. Spherical LDH/Ag°-montmorillonite composite samples were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The morphological properties of the composites were studied, and the presence of the heterocoagulated structure was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nanoscale structure of the LDH(sph)-Ag°-montmorillonite composite obtained was also verified by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and the rheological characteristics were studied at various pH values. The viscosity and yield value of the composite decreased by an order of magnitude upon increasing the pH from 3.0 to 5.5. The sol-gel transition of the composite suspension was reversible in the previously mentioned pH range. PMID:25619227

  18. Surfaces

    E-print Network

    DeMaio, Ernest Vincent, 1964-

    1989-01-01

    Surfaces is a collection of four individual essays which focus on the characteristics and tactile qualities of surfaces within a variety of perceived landscapes. Each essay concentrates on a unique surface theme and purpose; ...

  19. Treating Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Colby, W. David

    1992-01-01

    Background information on treating syphilis indicates that some currently recommended approaches to therapy are not optimal. There is no perfect drug schedule available, but penicillin remains the drug of choice. The author's recommendations for treatment and follow up are presented. PMID:21221354

  20. Treating Sludges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephson, Julian

    1978-01-01

    Discussed are some of the ways to handle municipal and industrial wastewater treatment sludge presented at the 1978 American Chemical Society meeting. Suggestions include removing toxic materials, recovering metals, and disposing treated sewage sludge onto farm land. Arguments for and against land use are also given. (MA)

  1. Abiotic formation of RNA-like oligomers by montmorillonite catalysis: part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertem, Gözen; Snellinger-O'Brien, Ann M.; Ertem, M. C.; Rogoff, D. A.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Johnston, Murray V.; Hazen, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This work is an extension of our previous studies carried out to investigate the possible catalytic role of minerals in the abiotic synthesis of biologically important molecules. In the presence of montmorillonite, a member of the phyllosilicate group minerals that are abundant on Earth and identified on Mars, activated RNA monomers, namely 5?-phosphorimidazolides of nucleosides (ImpNs), undergo condensation reactions in aqueous electrolyte solution producing oligomers with similar structures to short RNA fragments. Analysis of the linear trimer isomers formed in the reaction of a mixture of activated adenosine and cytidine monomers (ImpA and ImpC, respectively) employing high-performance liquid chromatography, selective enzymatic hydrolysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectroscopy molecular weight measurements demonstrate that montmorillonite catalysis facilitates the formation of hetero-isomers containing 56% A- and 44% C-monomer incorporated in their structure. The results also show that 56% of the monomer units are linked together by RNA-like 3?, 5?-phosphodiester bonds. These results follow the same trend observed in our most recent work studying the reaction of activated adenosine and uridine monomers, and support Bernal's hypothesis proposing the possible catalytic role of minerals in the abiotic processes in the course of chemical evolution.

  2. Engineering New Layered Solids from Exfoliated Inorganics: a Periodically Alternating Hydrotalcite – Montmorillonite Layered Hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Rajesh; Gupta, Amit; Vasudevan, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets obtained by exfoliating inorganic layered crystals have emerged as a new class of materials with unique attributes. One of the critical challenges is to develop robust and versatile methods for creating new nanostructures from these 2D-nanosheets. Here we report the delamination of layered materials that belonging to two different classes - the cationic clay, montmorillonite, and the anionic clay, hydrotalcite - by intercalation of appropriate ionic surfactants followed by dispersion in a non-polar solvent. The solids are delaminated to single layers of atomic thickness with the ionic surfactants remaining tethered to the inorganic and consequently the nanosheets are electrically neutral. We then show that when dispersions of the two solids are mixed the exfoliated sheets self-assemble as a new layered solid with periodically alternating hydrotalcite and montmorillonite layers. The procedure outlined here is easily extended to other layered solids for creating new superstructures from 2D-nanosheets by self-assembly. PMID:24336682

  3. Antimicrobial silver-montmorillonite nanoparticles to prolong the shelf life of fresh fruit salad.

    PubMed

    Costa, C; Conte, A; Buonocore, G G; Del Nobile, M A

    2011-08-15

    In this work, silver-montmorillonite (Ag-MMT) antimicrobial nanoparticles have been obtained by allowing silver ions from nitrate solutions to replace the Na(+) of natural montmorillonite and then to be reduced by a thermal treatment. Ag-MMT were used as active antimicrobial compounds to improve the shelf life of fresh fruit salad. In order to assess their influence on product shelf life, sensorial and microbiological quality has been monitored during the storage. The microbiological quality was determined by monitoring the principal spoilage microorganisms (mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds). Additionally, the evolution of sensorial quality was assessed by monitoring color, odor, firmness and product overall quality. The Ag-MMT nanoparticles seemed to be effective in inhibiting microbial growth, above all at the highest tested concentration. Consequently, the sensorial quality of samples stored in the active packaging appeared to be better preserved. Thus, experimental results showed that a significant shelf life prolongation of fresh fruit salad can be obtained by a straightforward new packaging system. PMID:21684619

  4. MANAGING SOURCES TO REDUCE RISK IN AND AROUND THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT: IMPACT OF COATINGS ON DISLODGEABLE ARSENIC ON THE SURFACES OF CCA-TREATED WOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the potential for ingestion of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) by the hand-to-mouth activities of young children who contact CCA treated wood, EPA has used wipe samples to study the potential benefits of paint-like coatings on CCA treated wood. Citizens who may be concern...

  5. A mechanistic description of Ni and Zn sorption on Na-montmorillonite Part I: Titration and sorption measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart Baeyens; Michael H. Bradbury

    1997-01-01

    In this paper experimental investigations into the acid\\/base titration characteristics of Na-montmorillonite and the sorption behaviour of Ni and Zn under a wide variety of conditions are presented. From these measurements the dominant sorption mechanisms could be deduced. In the following paper (Bradbury and Baeyens, 1997) the titration and sorption data are analysed to determine the parameters in cation exchange

  6. Synthesis and surfactant modification of clinoptilolite and montmorillonite for the removal of nitrate and preparation of slow release nitrogen fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Deepesh; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Pankaj; Tomar, Radha

    2012-08-15

    This article introduces the synthesis of clinoptilolite and montmorillonite, and their surfactant modification by using solutions of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CH(3)(CH(2))(15)N(Br)(CH(3))(3), HDTMAB) and dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide ((CH(3)(CH(2))(17))(2)N(Br)(CH(3))(2), DODMAB). The feasibility of using surfactant modified silicates (SMSs) as a potential adsorbent for nitrate and for slow release of nutrient has been investigated. Adsorption isotherms of NO(3)(-) on SMSs have been measured at aqueous concentration of 160-280 mg L(-1). The SMSs show much higher adsorption capacity than the unmodified materials as determined by Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The surfactant modification and increased surfactant loading concentration enhance the nitrate anion retaining capacity of silicates (montmorillonite (16.05 mg g(-1))montmorillonite (76.92 mg g(-1))montmorillonite (80.65 mg g(-1))

  7. A novel montmorillonite-based composite phase change material and its applications in thermal storage building materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoming Fang; Zhengguo Zhang

    2006-01-01

    A novel composite phase change material (PCM) was prepared by blending an organic PCM with an organic-modified montmorillonite. The thermal characteristics of the composite PCM were close to those of the pure PCM, and 1500 times heating–cooling cycles test showed that the composite PCM had good performance stability. Compared with the pure PCM, the composite PCM exhibited higher heat transfer

  8. Study on preparation of montmorillonite-based composite phase change materials and their applications in thermal storage building materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoming Fang; Zhengguo Zhang; Zhonghua Chen

    2008-01-01

    Three composite phase change materials (PCMs) were prepared by blending butyl stearate, dodecanol and RT20 with an organically modified montmorillonite (MMT), respectively. After the three composite PCMs were characterized by DSC, it was indicated that the RT20\\/MMT composite PCM was a good candidate for building applications due to its large latent heat, suitable phase change temperature and good performance stability.

  9. Study of enzymatic degradation and water absorption of nanocomposites starch\\/polyvinyl alcohol and sodium montmorillonite clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Taghi Taghizadeh; Zahra Abbasi; Zainab Nasrollahzade

    The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium montmorillonite clay content within the thermoplastic starch (TPS) blends on the rate and extent of starch enzymatic hydrolysis using enzyme -amylase. The results of this study have revealed that blends with a MMT-Na content at 5wt% exhibited a significantly reduced rate and extent of

  10. Infrared characterization of water uptake by low-temperature Na-montmorillonite: Implications for Earth and Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. K. Frinak; C. D. Mashburn; M. A. Tolbert; O. B. Toon

    2005-01-01

    A large fraction of atmospheric mineral aerosol is composed of clays, such as smectites. Smectites are known to expand upon addition of water, and thus their properties in the atmosphere may vary strongly with relative humidity (RH). Here we report on the adsorption of water to Na-montmorillonite, a smectite clay. We probe the water uptake under conditions representative of the

  11. Infrared Study of Water Sorption on Na, Li, Ca, and Mg-Exchanged (SWy1 and SAz-1) Montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weizong Xu; CLIFF T. JOHNSTON; PAUL PARKER; STEPHEN E AGNEW

    2000-01-01

    An environmental infrared microbalance (EIRM) cell was used to study H20 sorption on two montmorillonite samples as a function of water content and type of exchangeable cation. The vibrational spectra showed that H20 sorbed to the clay at low-water content was strongly influenced by the ex- changeable\\

  12. Experimental evidence for calcium-chloride ion pairs in the interlayer of montmorillonite. A XRD profile modeling approach

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Experimental evidence for calcium-chloride ion pairs in the interlayer of montmorillonite. A XRD layers which is best explained by the presence of cation ­ chloride ion pairs replacing the divalent be significantly altered as a consequence of storage-induced perturbations. For example, the use of concrete

  13. Assessment of Salinity Variations in TBT Adsorption onto Kaolinite and Montmorillonite at Different pH Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Hoch

    2004-01-01

    Adsorption onto solid phases is an important process in controlling the distribution of toxic tributyltin (TBT) compounds in aqueous systems. In the present study, the TBT adsorption onto two types of clay, kaolinite (KGa) and montmorillonite (SWy), as a function of salinity (0, 8, 16, 24, 32‰) was investigated using the conventional batch technique. Experiments were carried out under different

  14. Microstructural investigation of MX-80 bentonite and Na/Ca-montmorillonite using basal spacing determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmboe, M.; Wold, S.

    2010-12-01

    Knowledge about the microstructure of saturated compacted bentonite is of fundamental importance in order to describe and predict diffusive transport through the bentonite barrier in a deep geological repository. If the mineral composition is well characterized, microstructural models of compacted bentonite on the nanoscale can be based on accurate information of the basal spacings and corresponding interlayer distances within the montmorillonite particles. From the average basal spacing, the interlayer and the so-called interparticle or free porosity can be calculated [1]. The basal spacings of the montmorillonite particles can be measured by neutron and X-ray small-angle scattering or diffraction. However, due to microstructural heterogeneity and interstratification of different hydration states, profile fitting through mixed layered modeling is necessary although challenging [2,3]. In this study, we have used low-angle XRD in reflection mode together with one-dimensional analysis of mixed layered clays [2] in order to compare both the relative layer distribution and average basal spacing of MX-80 bentonite and Na/Ca-montmorillonite samples. Two different methods for water saturation commonly used in the literature were compared, saturation by constant relative humidity (adsorption and desorption) and saturation under constant volume conditions, forming compacted clay with dry densities of 0.5-1.8 g/cm3. No significant difference in basal spacings was observed between highly compacted (< 4 H2O layers) homoionic montmorillonite and MX-80 bentonite samples saturated under volume constricted conditions, if the accessory minerals and lower smectite content was accounted for. This was however not the case for the samples saturated at constant RH%, which indicates mixing of the exchangeable cations in the interlayers. Interestingly, even if the total water content was the same water uptake restricted by water activity did not always result in the same magnitude of interlayer swelling as water uptake restricted by volume. Hence saturating clay samples under free swelling conditions vs. RH% may not be representative for describing water uptake and swelling of the bentonite barrier in a deep geological repository. The interlayer porosity dominated the total porosity for all samples investigated. In general, the interparticle, or so-called free porosity, decreases with decreasing water content and was found to be lower than commonly reported in the literature. For the clay buffer dry density planned to be used in the Swedish KBS-3 concept (1.6 g/cm3), the average basal spacing for compacted MX-80 bentonite is approx. 17.3±1 Å compared to the theoretical maximum of 17.8 Å. This means the microstructure is dominated by 2 and 3 H2O layers and the free porosity is approx. < 3%. In order to verify these results, accurate data from neutron or X-ray small-angle scattering and diffraction experiments in transmission mode using pressure cells is needed, as well as more precise layer structure functions at high water contents. [1] Holmboe, M., Wold, S. 2010. To be submitted. [2] Moore & Reynolds, 1997, 2ed. [3] Ferrage et al, 2005, Chem. Mater. 17, 3499-3512.

  15. Synthesis and Electrorheological Characterization of Polyaniline and NA+-MONTMORILLONITE Clay Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. W.; Kim, S. G.; Choi, H. J.; Suh, M. S.; Shin, M. J.; Jhon, M. J.

    Polyaniline-Na+-montmorillonite nanocomposite particles were synthesized using an emulsion intercalation method, and electrorheological (ER) fluids were produced by dispersing the synthesized nanocomposite particles in an electrically-insulating silicone oil. The emulsion of an aniline monomer with dodecyl benzenesulfonic acid was inserted into the layers of clay, and polymerization was processed by adding the oxidant initiator solution. DBSA as a emulsifier and a dopant took a important role for polyaniline clay nanocomposite. This insertion of polyaniline was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. To observe its ER properties, we measured the shear viscosity and the shear stress by controlling shear rate. Furthermore, we conducted dynamic tests to investigate the viscoelastic properties of the ER fluid under an electric field in the linear viscoelastic region.

  16. Degradation of poly(lactic acid) into repolymerizable oligomer using montmorillonite K10 for chemical recycling.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kohei; Toshima, Kazunobu; Matsumura, Shuichi

    2005-09-16

    The degradation of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) into a repolymerizable oligomer was carried out using a clay catalyst, montmorillonite K10 (MK10), with the objective of developing a chemical recycling process. PLLA having an Mw of 120,000 was degraded by MK10 in toluene at 100 degrees C for 6 h to produce the corresponding linear-type oligomers having a molecular weight of a few hundreds in a yield of greater than 90%. The oligomer was readily polymerized by a conventional chemical catalyst to give a high-molecular-weight PLLA. No isomerization of L-lactic acid occurred during the degradation process using MK10. The MK10 could be repeatedly used at least five times without any significant decrease in its activity. The degradation of PLLA was accelerated by the addition of a small amount of ethanol in toluene using anhydrous MK10 to produce oligomers with ethyl ester end groups. PMID:16123948

  17. Hydration thermodynamics of the SWy-1 montmorillonite saturated with alkali and alkaline-earth cations: A predictive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieillard, Philippe; Blanc, Philippe; Fialips, Claire I.; Gailhanou, Hélène; Gaboreau, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the thermodynamic equilibria between water and a homo-ionic montmorillonite SWy-1 saturated by different cations. The choice of this smectite is justified by the large set of experimental data available from the literature for eight different interlayer cations: Na +, K +, Rb +, Cs +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, Sr 2+, and Ba 2+. In particular, studies by Cases et al. (1992, 1997) and Bérend et al. (1995) are providing heat of adsorption data, pairs of desorption-adsorption isotherms, and information about the partition of adsorption-desorption water molecules between external surfaces and internal spaces. By calculating the effective amount of hydration water as the difference between the so-called gravimetric water and the surface covering water, a thermodynamic model was then developed, based on the concept of Ransom and Helgeson (1994) considering an asymmetric subregular binary solid solution between a fully hydrated and a anhydrous smectite. A set of six thermodynamic parameters ( ?H?hyd,S?hyd and four Margules parameters) was extracted by a least square method from measurements of enthalpies of adsorption and paired adsorption-desorption isotherms for each interlayer cation. These six initial parameters were then used to determine a complete set of standard thermodynamic hydration parameters ( ?H?hyd,?G?hyd,?S?hyd, heat capacity, molar volume, and number of interlayer H 2O) and quantify, for each cation, the number of moles of hydration water molecules as a function of relative humidity and temperature. The validation of the standard state thermodynamic properties of hydration for each end member was carried out using three approaches: (1) a comparison with experimental isotherms obtained on hetero-ionic and homo-ionic SWy-1 smectite at different temperatures; (2) a comparison with the experimental integral enthalpy and entropy of hydration of the SWy-1 smectite; and (3) a comparison with experimental isotherms acquired on various smectites (Upton, MX80, Arizona) with different layer charges. Eventually, the present work demonstrates that, from a limited number of measurements, it is possible to provide the hydration thermodynamic parameters for hydrated smectites with different compositions and under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity, using the newly developed predictive model.

  18. Effect of N{sub 2} + H{sub 2} gas mixtures in plasma nitriding on tribological properties of duplex surface treated steels

    SciTech Connect

    Taktak, Sukru [Afyon Kocatepe University, Technical Education Faculty, Department of Metal Education, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey)], E-mail: taktak@aku.edu.tr; Gunes, Ibrahim; Ulker, Sukru; Yalcin, Yilmaz [Afyon Kocatepe University, Technical Education Faculty, Department of Metal Education, Afyonkarahisar (Turkey)

    2008-12-15

    Thermo-reactive diffusion chromizing followed by pulsed plasma nitriding were carried out on AISI 52100 and 8620 bearing steels. The chromized samples were pulse-plasma nitrided for 5 h at 500 deg. C in various N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} gas mixtures. The coated steels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and microhardness testing. The unlubricated wear behaviors of only chromized and duplex treated steels were investigated in ball-on-disc system tests at room temperature. X-ray diffraction patterns of the duplex treated samples containing H{sub 2} indicated the formation of dominant CrN and Cr{sub 2}N nitrides as well as the formation of Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2} and Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3} carbides. Gas mixtures in the plasma nitriding, which was performed after chromizing, have a significant influence on the wear rate of the duplex treated steels. The wear and friction tests showed that the lowest friction coefficient and wear rates were observed for the samples duplex treated in a 50%N{sub 2} +50%H{sub 2} plasma. Conversely, the lowest wear resistance was observed on the samples duplex treated in a gas mixture of 75%N{sub 2} + 25%H{sub 2}, probably due to formation of a hard and brittle layer.

  19. Photoelectron core-level spectroscopy and scanning-tunneling-microscopy study of the sulfur-treated GaAs(100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriarty, P.; Murphy, B.; Roberts, L.; Cafolla, A. A.; Hughes, G.; Koenders, L.; Bailey, P.

    1994-11-01

    A study of the adsorption of sulfur on the GaAs(100) surface after in situ thermal desorption of a protective As capping layer is presented. The sulfur flux was generated by the decomposition of silver sulfide in an UHV-compatible electrochemical cell. Use of As-capped samples provided a means to study the interaction of sulfur with both the c(2×8) and (4×1) surface reconstructions. Scanning-tunneling-microscopy images of the sulfur-covered surface indicated the formation of disordered surface layers which display a diffuse (1×1) low-energy-electron-diffraction pattern. This (1×1) phase is attributed to the symmetry of the bulk structure visible through the disordered surface overlayer, caused by the adsorbed sulfur breaking the surface dimer bonds. Synchrotron-radiation core-level photoemission spectra indicate evidence of sulfur bonding to both gallium and arsenic at room temperature, but that the relative magnitude of these bonding interactions depends on the Ga/As ratio of the clean surface. Sulfur 2p photoemission spectra from the annealed surfaces show that sulfur diffuses into the topmost atomic layers as well as bonding to the surface. Annealing the sulfur-covered surface above 400 °C results in the formation of a (2×1) low-energy-electron-diffraction pattern with a dimer-row structure clearly visible in scanning-tunneling-microscopy images. Our results would suggest that the adsorption of sulfur on the c(2×8) clean surface results in dimer rows consisting of both arsenic and sulfur dimers, while only sulfur dimers are observed after adsorption on the (4×1) surface. The degree to which the clean surface band bending is altered on these respective surfaces appears to be related to the precise chemical composition of the dimer rows.

  20. doi.10.1016/j.jcis.2006.07.064 Synthesis of a red iron oxide/montmorillonite pigment in a CO2-rich brine

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    doi.10.1016/j.jcis.2006.07.064 Synthesis of a red iron oxide/montmorillonite pigment in a CO2-rich The homoionic calcium-montmorillonite was used to synthesize a red iron oxide/clay pigment in a CO2-rich brine.1016/j.jcis.2006.07.064 #12;doi.10.1016/j.jcis.2006.07.064 Graphical abstract Keywords: Red pigment; Ca

  1. Facile fabrication of mesoporous iron modified Al2O3 nanoparticles pillared montmorillonite nanocomposite: a smart photo-Fenton catalyst for quick removal of organic dyes.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Amaresh C; Varadwaj, G Bishwa Bidita; Parida, K M

    2013-11-14

    A mesoporous iron modified Al2O3 nanoparticle pillared montmorillonite nanocomposite (mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite) was synthesized by using sodium exchanged montmorillonite by cation-exchange, gallery-templated synthesis and impregnation method. Formation of Al2O3 nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) having average particle size 5.20-6.50 nm within montmorillonite, formation of mesoporous Al2O3 NPs pillared montmorillonite (mesoporous APM) from montmorillonite and formation of a mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite signifies the present investigation. The roles of ammonia, CTAB, octyl amine and calcination temperature for fabrication of mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite were highly significant. Ammonia was used for post-synthesis treatment, which helped in the formation of micellar assemblies in the interlayer space. The materials were characterized by different techniques such as N2 adsorption-desorption study, which demonstrated the mesoporosity of the material. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image proves the morphology and size of the Al2O3 NPs and mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) describes the formation of the pillaring of the Al2O3 NPs within montmorillonite (APM). It has been noted that pure montmorillonite is a micro/mesoporous material. But after pillaring of Al2O3 NPs within the montmorillonite, mesoporosity developed, which is the vital aspect of present investigation. It was observed that the mesoporous Fe/APM nanocomposite has high photo-Fenton activity towards degradation of organic dyes such as acid blue (AB) and reactive blue (RB). Nearly 100% degradation took place within 30 minutes with high concentration of dye (500 mg L(-1)) by mesoporous 5 Fe/APM nanocomposite under ambient conditions. Small particle sizes of nanocomposite, quick reduction of Fe(III) and mesoporosity are the key points for proficient degradation of AB and RB. PMID:24002045

  2. Simultaneous determination of cadmium (II), lead (II), copper (II) and mercury (II) by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry at a montmorillonite-calcium modified carbon paste electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amr M. Beltagi; Enass M. Ghoneim; Mohamed M. Ghoneim

    2011-01-01

    A simple and efficient montmorillonite-calcium modified carbon paste electrode (MMT-Ca modified CPE) was constructed for simultaneous trace determination of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II) and Hg(II). The MMT-Ca modified CPE significantly enhances the voltammetric stripping peak current magnitudes of the investigated metal ions compared to the bare CPE due to the large cation-exchange capacity and the strong adsorptive property of montmorillonite-Ca clay.

  3. Microbial biomass and heterotrophic production of surface flow mesocosm wetlands treating woodwaste leachate: Responses to hydraulic and organic loading and relations with mass reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendong Tao; Ken J. Hall; Sheldon J. B. Duff

    2007-01-01

    Microbial degradation is the major mechanism for removal of organic carbon from woodwaste leachate in surface flow constructed wetlands. To explore the relations of microbial biomass and heterotrophic production with hydraulic and organic loading rates as well as mass reduction rates, this study examined microbial ATP concentration and leucine incorporation rate in water, epiphytic biofilm and sediment of four surface

  4. Modification of a Na-montmorillonite with quaternary ammonium salts and its application for organics removal from TNT red water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Meng, Zilin; Zhang, Yihe; Lv, Guocheng; Lv, Fengzhu; Wu, Limei

    2014-01-01

    Na-montmorillonite (Na-Mont) and organic montmorillonite modified by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB-Mont) and tetramethylammonium bromide (TMAB-Mont) were prepared as adsorbents to remove organic contaminants from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water. The characterizations of the samples were performed with X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adsorption capacity of CTAB-Mont (15.9 mg/g) was much larger than Na-Mont (0.26 mg/g) and TMAB-Mont (1.7 mg/g). Langmuir isotherm and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models fitted the experimental results well. The main factor in the adsorption promotion was the distribution phase in the interlayer of CTAB-Mont. The arrangement of molecules analyzed by molecular simulation corresponded to the experimental data and supported the adsorption mechanism. PMID:24804652

  5. Evolution of Rubbery Plateau Region above the Melting Point of Poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate) by the Incorporation of Montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kohei; Huang, Liqian; Kadowaki, Yuji; Inoue, Takashi

    Poly(ethylene-co-vinylacetate) (EVA) was mixed with sodium montmorillonite (MMT) at 90/10 wt. ratio. EVA was also mixed with an organophilic montmorillonite (o-MMT) prepared by replacing Na+ in MMT with trimethylstearylammonium cation. The structure and mechanical properties of the composites were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. In the EVA/MMT composite, MMT particles were poorly dispersed in the order of a few µm. The composite was opaque. By contrast, in the EVA/o-MMT composite, the exfoliated silicate layers were nicely dispersed in EVA matrix. It was a transparent material. The composite showed an interesting reinforcing effect; i.e., the rubbery plateau modulus was retained even above the melting point of EVA. The rubbery modulus seems to originate from a formation of the “house-of-cards” structure of silicate layers.

  6. A Langmuir isotherm-based prediction of competitive sorption of Sr, Cs, and Co in Ca-montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, M. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences); Fuentes, H.R. (Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    An accurate determination of parameters such as the distribution coefficient K[sub d] (for low concentrations) and the maximum adsorption capacity S[sub T] (for high concentrations) is desirable, as these values can be used in contaminant transport modeling. Considering that contaminants would more likely be found as mixtures and not as single components, the effects on K[sub d] and S[sub T] values resulting from competitive interactions between the target cation and other cations present in the system were estimated. This study focused on the determination of K[sub d] and S[sub T] for suspensions of Ca-montmorillonite and mixtures of the solutes strontium (Sr), cesium (Cs), and cobalt (Co) as analogs of a possible release of contaminants from radioactive waste repositories. Batch experiments were conducted for mixtures of the above solutes at intermediate concentrations at varying pH values and for two background electrolytes, NaCl and CaCl[sub 2]. The Langmuir isotherm adequately fitted the experimental data and was used to determine K[sub d] and S[sub T]. Maximum K[sub d] values were obtained for Sr at pH 6 and for Co at pH 8, while for Cs the pH did not affect the resulting K[sub d] value. The presence of competing ions resulted in a decrease of K[sub d] values depending on the type and concentration of ions in the original mixture. For clay preconditioned with NaCl electrolyte solution, the Na[sup +] partially saturated surface attracted more solutes, leading to greater K[sub d] values than for suspensions preconditioned with a CaCl[sub 2] solution. Although the total amount of adsorbed cations (S[sub cum]) in either electrolyte solution was nearly constant, a difference in the adsorption of individual cations was observed as an increased percentage of adsorbed Sr and Co in systems preconditioned with NaCl solution.

  7. Assessment of acid–base strength distribution of ion-exchanged montmorillonites through NH 3 and CO 2TPD measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Azzouz; D. Nistor; D. Miron; A. V. Ursu; T. Sajin; F. Monette; P. Niquette; R. Hausler

    2006-01-01

    Distribution of the acid–base strengths of various ion-exchanged montmorillonites was assessed through thermal programmed desorption (TPD) of NH3 and CO2. Accurate acid–base measurements can be achieved via deconvolution of perfectly symmetrical peaks, under optimal carrier gas throughput and heating rate, estimated though a factorial experiment design. No neutral clay samples without interactions with carbon dioxide or ammonia were found. All

  8. Effect of polypyrrole–montmorillonite nanocomposites powder addition on corrosion performance of epoxy coatings on Al 5000

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Hosseini; M. Raghibi-Boroujeni; I. Ahadzadeh; R. Najjar; M. S. Seyed Dorraji

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of hybrid polypyrrole–montmorillonite (Ppy–MMT) nanocomposites and their effects on the improvement of the protection efficiency of the epoxy coatings on aluminum corrosion were studied. In order to understand the effect of MMT and Ppy on the corrosion inhibition performance of the epoxy coatings in 3.5% NaCl solution, the epoxy (E), epoxy blend with MMT (EM) and polypyrrole (EP)

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of total radial distribution functions for interlayer water in Li, Na, and K-montmorillonite hydrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Ho Park; Garrison Sposito

    2000-01-01

    Recent ¹H\\/²D isotopic-difference neutron diffraction experiments on interlayer water in the two-layer hydrates of Wyoming montmorillonite with Li{sup +} or Na{sup +} counterions have shown that the organization of the water molecules differs from that in the bulk liquid. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying these structural differences in terms of radial distribution functions for H-O

  10. Monte Carlo Simulation of the Total Radial Distribution Function for Interlayer Water in Sodium and Potassium Montmorillonites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garrison Sposito; SUNG-HO PARK; REBECCA SUTTON

    1999-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations based on tested water-water, cation-water, and water-clay potential functions were applied to calculate radial distribution functions for O-O, O-H and H-H spatial correlations in the interlayer region of the two-layer hydrates of Na- and K-montmorillonite. The simulated radial distribution functions then were used to compute the total radial distribution function for interlayer water, a physical quantity that

  11. Homochiral Selectivity in RNA Synthesis: Montmorillonite-catalyzed Quaternary Reactions of D, L-Purine with D, L- Pyrimidine Nucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Prakash C.; Aldersley, Michael F.; Ferris, James P.

    2011-06-01

    Selective adsorption of D, L-ImpA with D, L-ImpU on the platelets of montmorillonite demonstrates an important reaction pathway for the origin of homochirality in RNA synthesis. Our earlier studies have shown that the individual reactions of D, L-ImpA or D, L-ImpU on montmorillonite catalyst produced oligomers which were only partially inhibited by the incorporation of both D- and L-enantiomers. Homochirality in these reactions was largely due to the formation of cyclic dimers that cannot elongate. We investigated the quaternary reactions of D, L-ImpA with D, L-ImpU on montmorillonite. The chain length of these oligomers increased from 9-mer to 11-mer as observed by HPLC, with a concominant increase in the yield of linear dimers and higher oligomers in the reactions involving D, L-ImpA with D, L-ImpU as compared to the similar reactions carried out with D-enantiomers only. The formation of cyclic dimers of U was completely inhibited in the quaternary reactions. The yield of cyclic dimers of A was reduced from 60% to 10% within the dimer fraction. 12 linear dimers and 3 cyclic dimers were isolated and characterized from the quaternary reaction. The homochirality and regioselectivity of dimers were 64.1% and 71.7%, respectively. Their sequence selectivity was shown by the formation of purine-pyrimidine (54-59%) linkages, followed by purine-purine (29-32%) linkages and pyrimidine-pyrimidine (9-13%) linkages. Of the 16 trimers detected, 10 were homochiral with an overall homochirality of 73-76%. In view of the greater homochirality, sequence- and regio- selectivity, the quaternary reactions on montmorillonite demonstrate an unexpectedly favorable route for the prebiotic synthesis of homochiral RNA compared with the separate reactions of enantiomeric activated mononucleotides.

  12. Montmorillonite Catalysis of 30-50 Mer Oligonucleotides: Laboratory Demonstration of Potential Steps in the Origin of the RNA World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Ferris

    2002-01-01

    Elongation of the primer 32pdA(pdA)8pA proceeds by the reaction of the 5'-phosphorimidazolides of adenosine and uridine in the presence of montmorillonite clay. Daily addition of the activated nucleotides for up to 14 days results in the formation of 40-50 mers using the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of adenosine (ImpA) and 25-30 mers using the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of uridine (ImpU). The limitation on the lengths

  13. An investigation of some of the effects of anhydrous ammonia on the clay minerals montmorillonite and illite 

    E-print Network

    Whiteley, Eli Lamar

    1959-01-01

    type of structure which is formed between the layers of the clay particles. An additional water layer of similar structure is taken up by the ions at higher relative humidities. In montmorillonite saturated with sodium, potassium, or cesium..., the cations apparently are not hydrated, but in the case of the sodium ion, the oriented water layer may grow to very great thicknesses. The lithium ion, which is hydrated, is sur? rounded by three molecules of water of hydration. Calcium and magnesium...

  14. Clay-Organic Molecule Interactions: Oxidation of Acetaldehyde by Montmorillonite in N2 Atmosphere at Room Temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Eltantawy; M. BAVEREZ

    1978-01-01

    Oxidation of acetaldehyde molecules adsorbed on Na- and Mg-Wyoming montmorillonite at room temperature (20-25~ and in N2 atmosphere has been studied by I.R. spectroscopy. A comparison between clay-acetic acid complex and that prepared from acetaldehyde is given. The influence of the nature of the saturating cation as well as the clay pretreatment on this oxidation process are discussed and reaction

  15. Interaction of horseradish peroxidase with montmorillonite homoionic to Na + and Ca 2+: effects on enzymatic activity and microbial degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Lozzi; L. Calamai; P. Fusi; M. Bosetto; G. Stotzky

    2001-01-01

    The adsorption, desorption, catalytic activity, and susceptibility to microbial degradation of the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP E.C. 1.11.1.7), on Wyoming montmorillonite (M) homoionic to Na+ or Ca2+ were investigated. Adsorption at equilibrium was reached after 1h of contact between the clay and HRP. The adsorption isotherms were of the L type and fitted the Freundlich equation on M-Na and the

  16. Absorption of Pyrimidines, Purines, and Nucleosides By Li, Na, Mg, and Ca-Montmorillonite (Clay-Organic Studies XII)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Lailach; T. D. THOMPSON; G. W. BRINDLEY

    1968-01-01

    The absorption of biologically important purines, pyrimidines, and nucleosides by Li-, N a-, Mg-, and Ca-montmorillonite has been studied in aqueous solutions over a range of pH values 2-12. The initial organic concentrations were about 1 m.molar. The ratio clay to organic compounds was such that only up to 25 per cent of the exchange capacity could be saturated by

  17. Preparation and characterization of bio-nanocomposite films based on soy protein isolate and montmorillonite using melt extrusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kumar; K. P. Sandeep; S. Alavi; V. D. Truong; R. E. Gorga

    2010-01-01

    The non-biodegradable and non-renewable nature of plastic packaging has led to a renewed interest in packaging materials based on bio-nanocomposites (biopolymer matrix reinforced with nanoparticles such as layered silicates). Bio-nanocomposite films based on soy protein isolate (SPI) and montmorillonite (MMT) were prepared using melt extrusion. Effects of the pH of film forming solution, MMT content, and extrusion processing parameters (screw

  18. Changes in the Properties of a Montmorillonite-Water System during the Adsorption and Desorption of Water: Hysteresis1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Fu; Z. Z. Zhang; P. F. Low

    1990-01-01

    Abstract--Samples of Na-saturated, Upton montmorillonite were prepared with different contents of water (H20 or D20) by: (1) adsorption of water from the vapor phase at a specific value of p\\/p*, the relative humidity, (2) adsorption of water from the vapor phase at p\\/p* = 1.0 followed by desorption of the water into the vapor phase at a specific p\\/p* <

  19. Montmorillonite Catalysis of 30–50 Mer Oligonucleotides: Laboratory Demonstration of Potential Steps in the Origin of the RNA World

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Ferris

    2002-01-01

    Elongation of the primer 32pdA(pdA)8pA proceeds by thereaction of the 5'-phosphorimidazolides of adenosine and uridine in the presence of montmorillonite clay. Daily addition of the activated nucleotides for up to 14 days results in theformation of 40–50 mers using the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of adenosine (ImpA) and 25–30 mers using the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of uridine (ImpU). The limitation on thelengths of the chains

  20. Improvement of interfacial adhesion and nondestructive damage evaluation for plasma-treated PBO and Kevlar fibers\\/epoxy composites using micromechanical techniques and surface wettability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joung-Man Park; Dae-Sik Kim; Sung-Ryong Kim

    2003-01-01

    Comparison of interfacial properties and microfailure mechanisms of oxygen-plasma treated poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole (PBO, Zylon) and poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA, Kevlar) fibers\\/epoxy composites were investigated using a micromechanical technique and nondestructive acoustic emission (AE). The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) and work of adhesion, Wa, of PBO or Kevlar fiber\\/epoxy composites increased with oxygen-plasma treatment, due to induced hydrogen and covalent bondings at their

  1. Geochemical studies of clay minerals III. The determination of free silica and free alumina in montmorillonites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.D.

    1953-01-01

    Determination of free silica by the method proposed made possible the derivation of logical formulas for several specimens of montmorillonites for which the formulas could not be derived from the analyses alone. Other montmorillonites, for which logical formulas could be derived from their analyses, were found to contain small amounts of free silica or free alumina. Others were found to contain neither free silica nor free alumina. The method consists of the following steps: (1) digestion of 1 g of the specimen with 0.5 N NaOH solution in a covered platinum crucible or dish on a steam bath for 4 hrs, stirring the mixture at 30-min intervals, (2) filtration of the undissolved material, followed by washing several times with 1% NaOH solution, (3) neutralization of the filtrate with HCl, addition of 5 ml HCl in excess and determination of SiO and Al2O3 in the usual way and (4) calculation of the amount of free SiO2 or free Al2O3 if any and the amount of attack of the clay structure by the treatment from the ratio of SiO2 to Al2O3 dissolved and the ratio of SiO2 to Al2O3 obtained on analysis. Tests with 5% Na2CO3 solution, the reagent formerly used for the solution of free SiO2 in rocks and minerals, showed that solution of opal by this reagent is always fractional, never complete, no matter how small the amount present or how long the period of treatment. Re-treatment of the sample results in 90-95% solution if 10 mg or less of opal is present, but for larger amounts of opal the percentage dissolved decreases as the amount present increases. On the other hand, 75 ml of 0.5 N NaOH completely dissolves as much as 400 mg of opal in 4 hrs digestion in a covered platinum crucible or dish, on a steam bath. However, a weaker solution or a shorter period of digestion does not effect complete solution. The same amount (75 ml) of 0.5 N NaOH also dissolves 90 mg of cristobalite and 57 mg of quartz having a grain size of less than 2 microns. Use of NaOH also permits determination of the amount of alumina dissolved, and estimation of the extent to which the clay structure was attacked by the treatment. ?? 1953.

  2. The mobility of uranium and other elements during alteration of rhyolite ash to montmorillonite: A case study in the Troublesome Formation, Colorado, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    An unusual occurrence of juxtaposed glassy and clay-altered ash was sampled to estimate the degree and type of element mobility during alteration of glass to montmorillonite. The results are particularly interesting in that major mobilization of uranium is indicated. Closely spaced samples of glassy and montmorillonitic ash were collected from the same 20-50 cm thick stratigraphic horizon in the Troublesome Formation (Miocene) of northwestern Colorado. Sharp contacts exist between glassy ash and underlying pink montmorillonite and indicate that water-saturated conditions were restricted to basal ash layers. Formation of montmorillonite instead of zeolites suggests that the water was not highly saline or alkaline. Isotopic and chemical analyses of glassy and clay-altered samples indicate the following: 1. (1) Montmorillonite has U concentrations which are only 10-15% of the concentrations in coexisting glass. Similarly depleted elements include Cs, Rb, Na and K. Much smaller depletions of these elements in some glassy samples serve as sensitive indicators of incipient alteration of glass to montmorillonite. 2. (2) Abundances of relatively insoluble elements such as Th, Ta, Hf and Al are slightly higher (5-50%) in clay-altered ash and serve as indicators of the maximum levels of enrichment in residual material. Greater enrichment of elements such as Ca, Mg, Sr, Sc, P, Cr and Co indicate structural incorporation, adsorption, or ion-exchange uptake by clay or secondary hydrous oxides of Fe and Mn. 3. (3) The rare-earth-element patterns and abundances in glass are sufficiently mimicked by detritus-free montmorillonite to document the compositional equivalency of the two. 4. (4) Radioactive equilibrium exists between 238U and its decay products 234U and 230Th. This documents minimal open-system mobility of U within the last ??? 0.3 Ma. ?? 1982.

  3. Peripheral blood T4 cell surface CCR5 density as a marker of activity in rheumatoid arthritis treated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Portalès, Pierre; Fabre, Sylvie; Vincent, Thierry; Desmetz, Caroline; Réant, Brigitte; Noël, Danièle; Clot, Jacques; Jorgensen, Christian; Corbeau, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The chemokine (C-C motif) receptor CCR5 and its ligand CCL5 play key roles in the intra-articular recruitment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, using quantitative cytofluorometry, we followed T4 cell surface CCR5 density in 27 subjects with RA before and after treatment with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. We observed low T4 cell surface CCR5 densities before treatment, which correlated positively with disease activity, as determined using a disease activity score evaluated on 28 joints (DAS 28), and negatively with CCL5 mRNA concentrations in PBMC, contrasting with a high proportion of intracellular CCR5 molecules, a pattern compatible with ligand-induced CCR5 internalization. At 3 months post-treatment, CCL5 mRNA expression in PBMC declined, whereas T4 cell surface CCR5 densities increased proportionally to the decrease in DAS 28. Thus, peripheral blood T4 cell surface CCR5 density is a good surrogate marker of RA activity and of the efficiency of anti-CD20 therapy. PMID:19740335

  4. Correlation between the hydrophilic character and affinity towards carbon dioxide of montmorillonite-supported polyalcohols.

    PubMed

    Nousir, Saadia; Platon, Nicoleta; Ghomari, Kamel; Sergentu, Andrei-Sergiu; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Hersant, Grégory; Bergeron, Jean-Yves; Roy, René; Azzouz, Abdelkrim

    2013-07-15

    Polyalcohol incorporation was found to enhance the hydrophilic character of montmorillonite and its affinity towards carbon dioxide. CO2 adsorption occurred in both dry and humid conditions, but higher amounts were retained in the presence of moisture. This suggests two adsorption pathways: 1. direct OH-CO2 interaction and 2. more predominantly via indirect ternary OH-H2O-CO2 interactions. The retained amounts of water and CO2 increased almost proportionally with the number of OH groups incorporated, thus providing clear evidence that these groups act as adsorption sites. The improvement of the CO2 retention capacity (CRC) appears to be also due to the enhancement of the hydrophilic character of the adsorbent. The CRC value was found to strongly depend on the operating conditions. The major part of the retained CO2 was desorbed at 60-70°C from hydrated matrices, but at 20-50°C from dry adsorbents. CO2 can be easily released even at room temperature through forced convection under a gas stream, or under static conditions in dry and CO2-free media, e.g. in the presence of KOH pellets. It results that the CO2 retention also involves physical interactions. These results open new prospects for the reversible capture of other gases on low-cost hybrid adsorbents without thermal regeneration. PMID:23628201

  5. Toxic effects of a modified montmorillonite clay on the human intestinal cell line Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Maisanaba, Sara; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Pichardo, Silvia; Moreno, F Javier; Jordá, María; Cameán, Ana M; Aucejo, Susana; Jos, Angeles

    2014-06-01

    The incorporation of the natural mineral clay montmorillonite into polymeric systems enhances their barrier properties as well as their thermal and mechanical resistance, making them suitable for a wide range of industrial applications, e.g., in the food industry. Considering humans could easily be exposed to these clays due to migration into food, toxicological and health effects of clay exposure should be studied. In the present work, the cytotoxic effects induced by two different clays (the unmodified clay Cloisite(®) Na(+) , and the organically modified Cloisite(®) 30B) on Caco-2 cells were studied after 24 and 48 h of exposure. The basal cytotoxicity endpoints assessed were total protein content, neutral red uptake and a tetrazolium salt reduction. Our results showed that only Cloisite(®) 30B induced toxic effects. Therefore, the effects of subcytotoxic concentrations of this clay on the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, glutathione content and DNA damage (comet assay) were investigated. Results indicate that oxidative stress may be implicated in the toxicity induced by Closite(®) 30B, in regards of the increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species production and glutathione content at the highest concentration assayed, while no damage was observed in DNA. The most remarkable morphological alterations observed were dilated cisternae edge in the Golgi apparatus and nucleolar segregation, suggesting impairment in the secretory functions, which could be related to inhibition in the synthesis of proteins. PMID:24122917

  6. Electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of polypyrrole/Na+-montmorillonite (PPy/Na+-MMT) clay nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizvi, Tasneem Zahra; Shakoor, Abdul

    2009-05-01

    Frequency dependent ac conductivity (?ac), dielectric constant (?') and loss factor (?'') have been measured in the frequency range 100-106 Hz in polypyrrole/Na+-montmorillonite (PPy/Na+-MMT) clay nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ polymerization of pyrrole with varying amounts of Na+-MMT from 0.2 to 1.0 wt% in the presence of FeCl3 · 6H2O in an aqueous medium. All three measured quantities; ?ac, ?' and ?'' increased with the increase in MMT content in the composites at all frequencies. The frequency dependence of ?ac displayed a low frequency region of almost constant conductivity below 104 Hz, while above this frequency a rapid rise in ?ac was observed with the increase in frequency obeying a power law of frequency dependence with an exponent equal to 1. Both real and imaginary parts of the permittivity exhibited a low frequency dispersion which has been attributed to hopping of polarons and bipolarons in PPy and its composites.

  7. Dynamic sorption of ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) and xylene from water using geomaterial-modified montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Houari, M; Hamdi, B; Brendle, J; Bouras, O; Bollinger, J C; Baudu, M

    2007-08-25

    Adsorption of phenols and xylene onto composite material, Na-montmorillonite, activated carbon, cement and water mixture, 70%, 7%, 7% and 16% (w/w/w/w), respectively, was studied at pH values of 5.15, 4.55, 5.2 and 4.9, respectively, of phenol, 2-CP, 2-NP and xylene. Equilibrium isotherms and fixed-bed column studies were undertaken to evaluate the performance of clay-active coal-coated cement (CACC) in removing phenols from aqueous solution. Investigations revealed CACC to be a very efficient media for the removal of phenols from water. The suitability of the Langmuir adsorption model to the equilibrium data was investigated for all phenols-adsorbent systems. At the maximum sorption capacity of the composite material it was found that the uptake (mg phenols/g) of phenols increased in the order 2-CP>2-NP>phenol approximately m-xylene as do their solubilities. The LUB design approach was used to determine the equivalent length of unused bed. The lower LUB values imply a better utilization of CACC composite. A model, which considered the effect of axial dispersion, was successfully used to describe the fixed-bed operation, the axial dispersion coefficient increased significantly with solubility. PMID:17363159

  8. Evidence for montmorillonite or its compositional equivalent in Columbia Hills, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, B. C., III; Arvidson, R.E.; Gellert, Ralf; Morris, R.V.; Ming, D.W.; Richter, L.; Ruff, S.W.; Michalski, J.R.; Farrand, W.H.; Yen, A.S.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; Li, R.; Squyres, S.W.; Schroder, C.; Klingelhofer, G.; Bell, J.F., III

    2007-01-01

    During its exploration of the Columbia Hills, the Mars Exploration Rover "Spirit" encountered several similar samples that are distinctly different from Martian meteorites and known Gusev crater soils, rocks, and sediments. Occurring in a variety of contexts and locations, these "Independence class" samples are rough-textured, iron-poor (equivalent FeO ??? 4 wt%), have high Al/Si ratios, and often contain unexpectedly high concentrations of one or more minor or trace elements (including Cr, Ni, Cu, Sr, and Y). Apart from accessory minerals, the major component common to these samples has a compositional profile of major and minor elements which is similar to the smectite montmorillonite, implicating this mineral, or its compositional equivalent. Infrared thermal emission spectra do not indicate the presence of crystalline smectite. One of these samples was found spatially associated with a ferric sulfate-enriched soil horizon, possibly indicating a genetic relationship between these disparate types of materials. Compared to the nearby Wishstone and Watchtower class rocks, major aqueous alteration involving mineral dissolution and mobilization with consequent depletions of certain elements is implied for this setting and may be undetectable by remote sensing from orbit because of the small scale of the occurrences and obscuration by mantling with soil and dust. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Molecular dynamics study of montmorillonite crystalline swelling: Roles of interlayer cation species and water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Linlin; Tanskanen, Jukka T.; Hirvi, Janne T.; Kasa, Seppo; Schatz, Timothy; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2015-07-01

    Molecular dynamic simulations are employed to study the crystalline swelling behavior of montmorillonites (MMTs) with different interlayer Na+ and Ca2+ ion compositions, and the effect of temperature and pressure on the swelling behavior. Non-linear increases in d-spacing are observed with increasing water content. Plateaus in the swelling curve for Na-MMT around d-spacings of 12 and 15 Å demonstrate the formation of 1- and 2-layer hydrate structures. Ca-MMT and mixed Na/Ca-MMTs exhibit similar swelling behavior with exception of showing stronger swelling at water contents corresponding to the 1-layer hydrate in Na-MMT. The stronger swelling in the calcium containing systems is attributed to the preference of Ca2+ to be fully coordinated to water molecules, which favors a 2-layer hydrate structure and increased d-spacings. The larger hydration energy of Ca2+ ions relative to Na+ ions promotes increased water coordination numbers and more pronounced association of water molecules with Ca2+ ions. The 1- and 2-layer hydrates for Na-MMT and the 2-layer hydrate for Ca-MMT were relatively stable to changes in temperature and pressure.

  10. Nanocomposites of rice and banana flours blend with montmorillonite: partial characterization.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Marín, María L; Bello-Pérez, Luis A; Yee-Madeira, Hernani; Zhong, Qixin; González-Soto, Rosalía A

    2013-10-01

    Rice and banana flours are inexpensive starchy materials that can form films with more improved properties than those made with their starch because flour and starch present different hydrophobicity. Montmorillonite (MMT) can be used to further improve the properties of starch-based films, which has not received much research attention for starchy flours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mechanical and barrier properties of nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours as matrix material with addition of MMT as a nanofiller. MMT was modified using citric acid to produce intercalated structures, as verified by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The intercalated MMT was blended with flour slurries, and films were prepared by casting. Nanocomposite films of banana and rice flours presented an increase in the tensile at break and elongation percentage, respectively, more than their respective control films without MMT. This study showed that banana and rice flours could be alternative raw materials to use in making nanocomposite films. PMID:23910294

  11. Epoxidation of cyclohexene with K10-montmorillonite and Schiff-base macrocyclic copper complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masoud Salavati-Niasari; Elham Zamani; Mehdi Bazarganipour

    2007-01-01

    Copper(II) complexes of 12- and 13-membered diaza dioxa Schiff-base macrocyclic ligand, 1,4-diaza-7,10-dioxacyclododeca-1,3-diene, H2[12]1,3-dieneN2O2; 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-7,10-dioxacyclododeca-1,3-diene, (CH3)2[12]1,3-dieneN2O2; 2,3-diphenyl-1,4-diaza-7,10-dioxacyclododeca-1,3-diene, (C6H5)2[12]1,3-dieneN2O2; 2,4-dimethyl-1,5-diaza-8,11-dioxacyclotrideca-1,4-diene, (CH3)2[13]1,4-dieneN2O2; 2,4-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-8,11-dioxacyclotrideca-1,4-diene, (C6H5)2[13]1,4-dieneN2O2 were entrapped into an montmorillonite-K10 (denoted as K10) by simultaneous\\/pillaring encapsulation method. In this method the simultaneous encapsulation also occurred but the complex, also dissolved in methanol, was added to the clay dispersion. All materials were characterized by FTIR,

  12. A novel material of cross-linked styrylpyridinium salt intercalated montmorillonite for drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jing; Wang, Qingqing; Chen, Xiaodong; Wei, Qufu

    2014-08-01

    A facile synthesis of a styrylpyridinium salt (SbQ)/montmorillonite (MMT) via cationic exchange interactions between styrylpyridinium species (specifically SbQ) and MMT platelets is reported in this work. The SbQ-MMT solutions were irradiated under ultraviolet (UV) light for a specific time to obtain the cross-linked SbQ-MMT materials. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses revealed the structures and morphologies of MMT and modified MMT. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope analyses indicated that the basal spacing increased from 1.24 to 1.53 nm compared with the pristine MMT, which proved that SbQ had interacted with MMT. Thermal gravimetric analysis curves showed that the amount of SbQ in the MMT interlayers was 35.71 meq/100 g. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy also confirmed the intercalation of SbQ species into MMT interlayers, and UV spectroscopy was used to follow up the cross-linking of SbQ-MMT. This novel material has potential applications in drug delivery, and it can also be used as an additive to improve the mechanical properties of polymers.

  13. Strategies of aerobic microbial Fe acquisition from Fe-bearing montmorillonite clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Keshia M.; DuBois, Jennifer L.; Maurice, Patricia A.

    2013-09-01

    This research investigated strategies used by the common aerobic soil bacterium Pseudomonas mendocina to acquire Fe associated with Fe(III)-bearing montmorillonite (MMT) clay. Given the known importance of Fe(III)-chelating siderophores, Fe-limited batch experiments were conducted using a wild-type (WT) strain that produces siderophores and a ?pmhA mutant with a siderophore(-) phenotype. Growth measurements were coupled with a transcriptional biosensor assay that monitors the siderophore biosynthesis gene pmhA, measurements of cells' reducing ability, and quantification of exopolymeric substance (EPS) production. WT cells actively grow when MMT is the sole Fe source, but sorption to MMT may decrease the concentration of dissolved Fe-siderophore complex accessible to cells. Cells also obtain Fe by reducing MMT-associated Fe(III), but because P. mendocina lacks a secreted/diffusible reductant, direct physical contact is required. Dual strategies for Fe acquisition—a reducing mechanism that requires contact and that is likely facilitated by biofilm production and a siderophore related mechanism that does not require contact—provide flexibility to address the environmental Fe challenge.

  14. Short-term safety and efficacy of calcium montmorillonite clay (UPSN) in children.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Kumi, Justice; Aleser, Mildred; Elmore, Sarah E; Rychlik, Kristal A; Zychowski, Katherine E; Romoser, Amelia A; Phillips, Timothy D; Ankrah, Nii-Ayi

    2014-10-01

    Recently, an association between childhood growth stunting and aflatoxin (AF) exposure has been identified. In Ghana, homemade nutritional supplements often consist of AF-prone commodities. In this study, children were enrolled in a clinical intervention trial to determine the safety and efficacy of Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), a refined calcium montmorillonite known to be safe in adults. Participants ingested 0.75 or 1.5 g UPSN or 1.5 g calcium carbonate placebo per day for 14 days. Hematological and serum biochemistry parameters in the UPSN groups were not significantly different from the placebo-controlled group. Importantly, there were no adverse events attributable to UPSN treatment. A significant reduction in urinary metabolite (AFM1) was observed in the high-dose group compared with placebo. Results indicate that UPSN is safe for children at doses up to 1.5 g/day for a period of 2 weeks and can reduce exposure to AFs, resulting in increased quality and efficacy of contaminated foods. PMID:25135766

  15. Organo-montmorillonite Barrier Layers Formed by Combustion: Nanostructure and Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, James B [Tennessee Technological University; Ambuken, Preejith V. [Tennessee Technological University; Stretz, Holly A [Tennessee Technological University; Meisner, Roberta Ann [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Self-assembly of nanoparticles into barrier layers has been the most cited theoretical explanation for the significant reduction in flammability often noted for nanocomposites formed from polymers and montmorillonite organoclays. Both mass and heat transport reductions have been credited for such improvements, and in most cases a coupled mechanism is expected. To provide validation for early models, new model barrier layers were produced from organoclays, and these barrier layers subjected to novel permeability analysis to obtain a flux. The effects of surfactant, temperature and pressure on barrier layer structure were examined. XRD versus TGA results suggest that chemical degradation of four different organoclays and physical collapse on heating are not correlated. Addition of pressure as low as 7kPa also altered the structure produced. Permeability of Ar through the ash was found to be sensitive to structural change/self assembly of high aspect ratio MMT nanoparticles. Actual fluxes ranged from 0.139 to 0.151 mol(m2.sec)-1, values which will provide useful limits in verifying models for the coupled contribution of mass and heat transfer to flammability parameters such as peak heat release rate.

  16. Effect of clay surface silylation and dispersion method on the mechanical properties of epoxy-clay composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, V.; Piscitelli, F.; Scamardella, A. M.; Amendola, E.; Lavorgna, M.; Mensitieri, G.; Acierno, D.

    2010-06-01

    Epoxy-clay nanocomposites were prepared dispersing both pristine and functionalized sodium montmorillonite powders (1 and 3 wt%) in epoxy resin by means of sonication and sonication/ball-milling high energy mixing processes. Silylation reaction of sodium montmorillonite (Na-MMT) was performed by using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (A1100) and N-2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (A1120) as coupling agents. Morphological investigations showed that the MMT stacks are only slightly intercalated. However the surface modification of MMT clays improves the interfacial interaction with epoxy resins and the nanocomposites obtained through sonication exhibit enhanced mechanical properties compared to the nanocomposites prepared from pristine Na-MMT.

  17. Oligomerization of glycine on clay mineral surface and implication to oligin of life under seafloor hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchida, S.; Masuda, H.

    2012-12-01

    The sediments at hydrothermal and/or various parts of the crust has been believed to be good environments to proceed the chemical evolution of life precursor, since minerals promoted oligomerization of amino acids, sugars and lipids on the primitive earth. In this study, the thermal behaviors of glycine (Gly), the simplest amino acid, adsorbed on montmorillonite was observed to evaluate the role of clay minerals and water on the oligomerization under thermal condition of sediments. Gly was adsorbed on montmorillonite was heated at 150 degree C for 3-288 hrs under dry and wet condition. In the latter case, 10 - 60% water was added in the system. The amount of Gly monomer remaining in the montmorillonite exponentially decreased with time; 46% Gly remained in the montmorillonite under dry condition and 74% under wet condition after 288 hrs. The Gly monomer was more stable under hydrothermal condition than dry thermal condtion. FT-IR analysis suggested that the Gly was intercalated in the montmorillonite via hydrogen bond, which is likely to promote to stabilize Gly, between amino group of the Gly and silanol group of the montmorillonite. On the contrast, the yields of peptides were low on motmorillonite after heated under the wet condition: the amounts of glycilglycine (Gly-Gly) and diketopiperazine (DKP) are 0.8% and 0.9%, respectively. The amounts of DKP and GlyGly are 12.9% and 4.8% after heated under the dry condtion. Excessive water would promote to hydrolyze synthesized peptides. New band at 1671cm-1 by FT-IR implies that DKP was condensed on the montmorillonite. DKP was not formed without montmorillonite under the dry condition, although peptide formation is theoretically favorable. Water molecules including in the montmorillonite would act as proton transfer to promote the peptide formation. The peptide formation would be more proceeded under a little wet condition than completely dry condition. Results of this study suggested that deep sediments, where dehydration easily occurs, is more appropriate condition to form and condense oligomer of amino acids than the seafloor surface. Moreover, clay minerals, as catalyst of peptide formation, must be an essential factors to proceed the chemical evolution of precursor life on the primitive earth.

  18. Micro-shear bond strength and surface micromorphology of a feldspathic ceramic treated with different cleaning methods after hydrofluoric acid etching

    PubMed Central

    STEINHAUSER, Henrique Caballero; TURSSI, Cecília Pedroso; FRANÇA, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; do AMARAL, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; BASTING, Roberta Tarkany

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feldspathic ceramic surface cleaning on micro-shear bond strength and ceramic surface morphology. Material and Methods Forty discs of feldspathic ceramic were prepared and etched with 10% hydrofluoric acid for 2 minutes. The discs were randomly distributed into five groups (n=8): C: no treatment, S: water spray + air drying for 1 minute, US: immersion in ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes, F: etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 1 minute, followed by 1-minute rinse, F+US: etching with 37% phosphoric acid for 1 minute, 1-minute rinse and ultrasonic bath for 5 minutes. Composite cylinders were bonded to the discs following application of silane and hydrophobic adhesive for micro-shear bond strength testing in a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until failure. Stereomicroscopy was used to classify failure type. Surface micromorphology of each treatment type was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy at 500 and 2,500 times magnification. Results One-way ANOVA test showed no significant difference between treatments (p=0.3197) and the most common failure types were cohesive resin cohesion followed by adhesive failure. Micro-shear bond strength of the feldspathic ceramic substrate to the adhesive system was not influenced by the different surface cleaning techniques. Absence of or less residue was observed after etching with hydrofluoric acid for the groups US and F+US. Conclusions Combining ceramic cleaning techniques with hydrofluoric acid etching did not affect ceramic bond strength, whereas, when cleaning was associated with ultrasound, less residue was observed. PMID:24676577

  19. Calcium montmorillonite clay reduces AFB1 and FB1 biomarkers in rats exposed to single and co-exposures of aflatoxin and fumonisin

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nicole J.; Xue, Kathy S.; Lin, Shuhan; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Brown, Kristal A.; Elmore, Sarah E.; Tang, Lili; Romoser, Amelia; Gelderblom, Wentzel C. A.; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) can co-contaminate foodstuffs and have been associated with hepatocellular and esophageal carcinomas in humans at high risk for exposure. One strategy to reduce exposure (and toxicity) from contaminated foodstuffs is the dietary inclusion of a montmorillonite clay (UPSN) that binds AFs and FBs in the GI tract. In this study, the binding capacity of UPSN was evaluated for AFB1, FB1 and a combination thereof in Fischer-344 rats. Rats were pre-treated with different dietary levels of UPSN (0.25 or 2%) for 1 week. Rats were gavaged with a single dose of either 0.125 mg AFB1 or 25 mg FB1/kg b.w. and a combination thereof in the presence and absence of an aqueous solution of UPSN. The kinetics of mycotoxin excretion were monitored by analyzing serum AFB1-albumin, urinary AF (AFM1), and FB1 biomarkers over a period of 72 hr. UPSN decreased AFM1 excretion by 88-97%, indicating highly effective binding. FB1 excretion was reduced, to a lesser extent, ranging between 45 to 85%. When in combination, both AFB1 and FB1 binding occurred, but capacity was decreased by almost half. In the absence of UPSN, the combined AFB1 and FB1 treatment decreased the urinary biomarkers by 67 and 45% respectively, but increased levels of AFB1-albumin, presumably by modulating its cytochrome metabolism. UPSN significantly reduced bioavailability of both AFB1 and FB1 when in combination; suggesting that it can be utilized to reduce levels below their respective thresholds for affecting adverse biological effects. PMID:24193864

  20. Long-term follow-up of invasive ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma treated with excision, cryotherapy, and topical mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Heirati, Abtin; Pakdel, Farzad; Kiavash, Victoria; Naseripour, Masood; Aghamohammadi, Farzaneh

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy of surgical excision, cryotherapy and topical Mitomycin C (MMC) for ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with at least 24 months follow-up. METHODS: Seventeen patients with primary and recurrent invasive SCC of ocular surface underwent surgical excision and map biopsy of the margins, and double freeze-thaw cryotherapy of the bed and margins. Topical MMC (0.04%, 4 times daily) was commenced 7-10 days after operation. It was delivered in cycles that consisted of medication 4 times daily for 7 consecutive days followed by 7 consecutive days of no medication. Patients with primary SCC received two cycles (protocol 1) and those with recurrent SCC received three cycles (protocol 2). Patients with intra-ocular and or orbital extension or those with less than 24 months of follow-up were excluded. The frequency of tumor recurrence and complications associated with treatment were measured. RESULTS: Mean age was 70.7 years (SD?=?10, range: 48-80). Mean follow-up time was 48 months (SD?=?21, range: 24-89). There were 12 patients with primary SCC and five with recurrent SCC. Mean largest diameter was 9.7 mm (3-20). Surgical margins were free in 12 cases. One patient with recurrent SCC who received protocol 2 treatment developed recurrence 9 months after excision, and remained free of recurrence 24 months after second treatment. Complications comprised transient mild punctate corneal epithelial erosion (eight), irritation and conjunctival hyperemia (11), corneal scar (six), and scleral thinning (three). All except one responded well to conservative management. One scleral thinning required scleral patch graft 1 year after treatment. CONCLUSION: The combination of surgical excision, cryotherapy, and post-operative topical mitomycin-C was effective treatment for ocular surface invasive SCC in long-term follow-up. PMID:22297537

  1. Studies on the solid acidity of heated and cation-exchanged montmorillonite using n-butylamine titration in non-aqueous system and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared (DRIFT) spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongmei; Liu, Dong; Yuan, Peng; Tan, Daoyong; Cai, Jingong; He, Hongping; Zhu, Jianxi; Song, Zhiguang

    2013-06-01

    The effects of heating and cation exchange on the solid acidity of montmorillonite were investigated using n-butylamine titration in non-aqueous system and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The number of total, Brønsted, and Lewis acid sites showed the same modulation tendency with increasing heating temperature, reaching a maximum at 120 °C and subsequently decreasing until it reaches a minimum at 600 °C. The Lewis acid sites result from unsaturated Al3+ cations, and their number increased with the heating temperature due to the dehydration and dehydroxylation of montmorillonite. The generation and evolution of Brønsted acidity were mainly related to interlayer-polarized water molecules. Water adsorbed on the unsaturated Al3+ ions also acted as a Brønsted acid. The acid strength of the Brønsted acid sites was dependent on the polarization ability of the exchangeable cation, the amount of interlayer water, and the degree of dissociation of the interlayer water coordinated to exchangeable cations. All cation-exchanged montmorillonites exhibited different numbers of acid sites and various distributions of acid strength. Brønsted acidity was predominant in Al3+-exchanged montmorillonite, whereas the Na+- and K+-exchanged montmorillonites showed predominantly Lewis acidity. Moreover, Mg2+- and Li+-exchanged montmorillonites exhibited approximately equal numbers of Brønsted and Lewis acid sites. The Brønsted acidity of cation-exchanged montmorillonite was positively correlated with the charge-to-radius ratios of the cations, whereas the Lewis acidity was highly dependent on the electronegativity of the cations. The acid strengths of Al3+- and Mg2+-exchanged montmorillonites were remarkably higher than those of monovalent cation-exchanged montmorillonites, showing the highest acid strength ( H 0 ? -3.0). Li+- and Na+-exchanged montmorillonites exhibited an acid strength distribution of -3.0 < H 0 ? 4.8, with the acid strength ranging primarily from 1.5 to 3.3 in Li+-exchanged montmorillonite, whereas only weaker-strength acid sites (1.5 < H 0 ? 4.8) were present in K+-exchanged montmorillonite. The results of the catalysis experiments indicated that montmorillonite promoted the thermal decomposition of the model organic. The catalytic activity showed a positive correlation with the solid acidity of montmorillonite and was affected by cation exchange, which occurs naturally in geological processes.

  2. Heat-treated emulsions with cross-linking bovine serum albumin interfacial films and different dextran surfaces: effect of paclitaxel delivery.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jianing; Huang, Chong; He, Fen; Yao, Ping

    2013-04-01

    In this study, a type of biocompatible and biodegradable oil-in-water emulsion for hydrophobic drug delivery was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-dextran conjugates with different dextran molecular weights and different conjugation degrees were used as the emulsifier and stabilizer. Paclitaxel (PTX), a hydrophobic antitumor drug, was effectively loaded inside the oil droplets via high-pressure homogenization. The emulsions were heated at 90°C for 1?h to eliminate the anaphylaxis of BSA. By virtue of the cross-linked BSA films at the oil-water interfaces produced by the heat treatment and the hydrophilic dextran surfaces, the emulsions are stable in blood serum, as well as stable against long-term storage. In vitro cytotoxicity study verifies that the unloaded emulsions are biocompatible and the PTX-loaded emulsions have similar antitumor activity as PTX solution. In vivo investigation of murine ascites hepatoma H22-tumor-bearing mice demonstrates that the PTX-loaded emulsion with shorter and denser dextran surface has better tumor inhibition and survivability efficacy than the commercial PTX injection. PMID:23389967

  3. The Effect of the Surface Treating and High-Temperature Aging on the Strength and SCC Susceptibility of 7075 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fooladfar, Hamidreza; Hashemi, Babak; Younesi, Mousa

    2010-08-01

    A novel heat-treatment procedure combining the shot-peening with a two-step aging operation was proposed to improve both the strength and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance of the high-strength 7075 aluminium alloy. The heat treatment included one shot-peening stage before or between the two stages of aging at 120 °C for 24 h and at 160 °C for 1 h, respectively. The mechanical properties obtained during the aforementioned operations were extremely similar to those of the T6 sample owing to the unaffected bulk microstructure over such a low over-aging period. The SCC resistance of these samples was considerably improved compared to that of the T6 sample and of the conventional shot-peened T6 sample due to the over-aging of the surface like the T7 treatment leading from the diffusion acceleration by the dislocations generated in the surface layer during shot-peening. In spite of the further depth of deformation caused by shot-peening prior to the first step of aging, the sample shot-peened after the first step of aging showed no significant decrease in the SCC resistance because of its higher generated dislocation by shot-peening.

  4. Surface-treated self-standing curved crystals as high-efficiency elements for X- and ?-ray optics: theory and experiment1

    PubMed Central

    Bonnini, Elisa; Buffagni, Elisa; Zappettini, Andrea; Doyle, Stephen; Ferrari, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of a Laue lens for X- and ?-ray focusing in the energy range 60–600?keV is closely linked to the diffraction efficiency of the single crystals composing the lens. A powerful focusing system is crucial for applications like medical imaging and X-ray astronomy where wide beams must be focused. Mosaic crystals with a high density, such as Cu or Au, and bent crystals with curved diffracting planes (CDPs) are considered for the realization of a focusing system for ?-rays, owing to their high diffraction efficiency in a predetermined angular range. In this work, a comparison of the efficiency of CDP crystals and Cu and Au mosaic crystals was performed on the basis of the theory of X-ray diffraction. Si, GaAs and Ge CDP crystals with optimized thicknesses and moderate radii of curvature of several tens of metres demonstrate comparable or superior performance with respect to the higher atomic number mosaic crystals generally used. In order to increase the efficiency of the lens further, a stack of several CDP crystals is proposed as an optical element. CDP crystals were obtained by a surface-damage method, and a stack of two surface-damaged bent Si crystals was prepared and tested. Rocking curves of the stack were performed with synchrotron radiation at 19?keV to check the lattice alignment: they exhibited only one diffraction peak.

  5. Montmorillonite catalysis of RNA oligomer formation in aqueous solution. A model for the prebiotic formation of RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Ertem, G.

    1993-01-01

    Oligomers of adenylic acid of up to the 11-mer in length are formed by the reaction of the phosphorimidazolide of adenosine (ImpA) in pH 8 aqueous solution at room temperature in the presence of Na(+)-montmorillonite. These oligomers are joined by phosphodiester bonds in which the 3',5'-linkage predominates over the 2',5'-linkage by a 2:1 ratio. Reaction of a 9:1 mixture of ImpA, A5'ppA results in the formation of oligomers with a 3:1 ratio of 3',5'- to 2',5'-linked phosphodiester bonds. A high proportion of these oligomers contain the A5'ppA grouping. A5'ppA reacts much more rapidly with ImpA than does 5'-ADP (ppA) or 5'-ATP (pppA). The exchangeable cation associated with the montmorillonite effects the observed catalysis with Li+, Na+, NH4+, and Ca2+ being the more effective while Mg2+ and Al3+ are almost ineffective catalysts. 2',5'-Linked oligomers, up to the tetramer in length, are formed using UO2(2+)-montmorillonite. The structure analysis of individual oligomer fractions was performed by selective enzymatic and KOH hydrolytic studies followed by HPLC analysis of the reaction products. It is concluded from the composition of the oligomers that the rate of addition ImpA to a 3'-terminus containing a 2',5'-linkage is slower than the addition to a nucleoside joined by a 3',5'-linked phosphodiester bond. The potential importance of mineral catalysis of the formation of RNA and other oligomers on primitive Earth is discussed.

  6. Nanocomposite PAAm/methyl cellulose/montmorillonite hydrogel: evidence of synergistic effects for the slow release of fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Bortolin, Adriel; Aouada, Fauze A; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Ribeiro, Caue

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we synthesized a novel series of hydrogels composed of polyacrylamide (PAAm), methylcellulose (MC), and calcic montmorillonite (MMt) appropriate for the controlled release of fertilizers, where the components presented a synergistic effect, giving very high fertilizer loading in their structure. The synthesized hydrogel was characterized in relation to morphological, hydrophilic, spectroscopic, structural, thermal, and kinetic properties. After those characterizations, the application potential was verified through sorption and desorption studies of a nitrogenated fertilizer, urea (CO(NH2)2). The swelling degree results showed that the clay loading considerably reduces the water absorption capability; however, the hydrolysis process favored the urea adsorption in the hydrogel nanocomposites, increasing the load content according to the increase of the clay mass. The FTIR spectra indicated that there was incorporation of the clay with the polymeric matrix of the hydrogel and that incorporation increased the water absorption speed (indicated by the kinetic constant k). By an X-ray diffraction technique, good nanodispersion (intercalation) and exfoliation of the clay platelets in the hydrogel matrix were observed. Furthermore, the presence of the montmorillonite in the hydrogel caused the system to liberate the nutrient in a more controlled manner than that with the neat hydrogel in different pH ranges. In conclusion, excellent results were obtained for the controlled desorption of urea, highlighting the hydrolyzed hydrogels containing 50% calcic montmorillonite. This system presented the best desorption results, releasing larger amounts of nutrient and almost 200 times slower than pure urea, i.e., without hydrogel. The total values of nutrients present in the system show that this material is potentially viable for application in agriculture as a nutrient carrier vehicle. PMID:23822729

  7. Comparative study of tracer diffusion of HTO, 22Na + and 36Cl - in compacted kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaus, Martin A.; Frick, Sabrina; Rossé, Roger; Loon, Luc R. Van

    2010-04-01

    The through-diffusion of HTO, 22Na + and 36Cl - in kaolinite, homo-ionic Na-illite and homo-ionic Na-montmorillonite was measured at a high degree of compaction as a function of the salt concentration in the 'external solution', i.e. in the solution in contact with the clay sample. The clays were chosen for this study because of their differences in the number and nature of ion exchange sites leading to different proportions of interlayer-, inter-particle and free pore water. It was found that the diffusive mass transfer of Na + in Na-montmorillonite and Na-illite increased with decreasing external salt concentration, while the opposite trend was observed for the diffusion of Cl -. These trends are more pronounced in the case of Na-montmorillonite than in Na-illite, while almost no salt effect was observed for kaolinite. Similarly no salt effect was observed for the diffusion of HTO through all of the clays tested. These observations are in agreement with a conceptual model where it is assumed that cations diffuse preferentially in the interlayer or diffuse double-layer porosity, while anions are almost completely excluded from these regions. In the case of Na + diffusion, the salt effects can be explained by an influence on the concentration gradient of diffusing cations, while in the case of Cl - the external salt concentration has an effect on the accessible porosity. Effective diffusion coefficients of Cl - fulfil the same relationship to porosity as those of the uncharged HTO, when using accessible porosities for such a comparison. Furthermore it is shown that pore diffusion coefficients for the three tracers are fairly well correlated with the respective diffusion coefficients in bulk water, if the effective diffusion coefficients for Na + are derived from calculated tracer concentration gradients in the interlayer or diffuse double-layer porosities.

  8. Self-healing fish gelatin/sodium montmorillonite biohybrid coacervates: structural and rheological characterization.

    PubMed

    Qazvini, Nader Taheri; Bolisetty, Sreenath; Adamcik, Jozef; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2012-07-01

    Complex coacervation driven by associative electrostatic interactions was studied in mixtures of exfoliated sodium-montmorillonite (Na(+)-MMT) nanoplatelets and fish gelatin, at a specific mixing ratio and room temperature. Structural and viscoelastic properties of the coacervate phase were investigated as a function of pH by means of different complementary techniques. Independent of the technique used, the results consistently showed that there is an optimum pH value at which the coacervate phase shows the tightest structure with highest elasticity. The solid-like coacervates showed an obvious shear-thinning behavior and network fracture but immediately recovered back into their original elastic character upon removal of the shear strain. The nonlinear mechanical response characterized by single step stress relaxation experiments revealed the same trend for the yield stress and isochronal shear modulus of the coacervates as a function of pH with a maximum at pH 3.0 and lower values at 2.5 and 3.5 pHs, followed by a very sharp drop at pH 4.0. Finally, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data confirmed that at pHs lower than 4.0 the coacervate phases were dense and structured with a characteristic length scale (?(SAXS)) of ~7-9 nm. Comparing the ?(SAXS) with rheological characteristic length (?(rheol)) estimated from low-frequency linear viscoelastic data and network theory, it was concluded that both the strength of the electrostatic interactions and the conformation of the gelatin chains before and during of the coacervation process are responsible for the structure and rigidity of the coacervates. PMID:22642874

  9. FT-IR Study of CO2 Interaction with Na-rich Montmorillonite

    SciTech Connect

    Krukowski, Elizabeth G [ORNL; Goodman, Angela [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Ilton, Eugene [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Guthrie, George [National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL); Bodnar, Robert [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

    2015-01-01

    Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) in saline reservoirs in sedimentary formations has the potential to reduce the impact of fossil fuel combustion on climate change by reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and storing the CO2 in geologic formations in perpetuity. At pressure and temperature (PT) conditions relevant to CCUS, CO2 is less dense than the pre-existing brine in the formation, and the more buoyant CO2 will migrate to the top of the formation where it will be in contact with cap rock. Interactions between clay-rich shale cap rocks and CO2 are poorly understood at PT conditions appropriate for CCUS in saline formations. In this study, the interaction of CO2 with clay minerals in the cap rock overlying a saline formation has been examined using Na+ exchanged montmorillonite (Mt) (Na+-STx-1) (Na+ Mt) as an analog for clay-rich shale. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to discern mechanistic information for CO2 interaction with hydrated (both one- and two-water layers) and relatively dehydrated (both dehydrated layers and one-water layers) Na+-STx-1 at 35 C and 50 C and CO2 pressure from 0 5.9 MPa. CO2-induced perturbations associated with the water layer and Na+-STx-1 vibrational modes such as AlAlOH and AlMgOH were examined. Data indicate that CO2 is preferentially incorporated into the interlayer space, with relatively dehydrated Na+-STx-1 capable of incorporating more CO2 compared to hydrated Na+-STx-1. Spectroscopic data provide no evidence of formation of carbonate minerals or the interaction of CO2 with sodium cations in the Na+-STx-1 structure.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and corrosion performance of polyaniline-montmorillonite clay nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanrong

    In-situ polymerization was used to synthesize a novel nanocomposite material based on layered silicate clay and intrinsically conducting polymers (ICPs): polyaniline (PANi). Conducting polymers including PANi and PPy are known to effectively protect active metals against corrosion. Montmorillonite (MMT) clay was successfully incorporated into polyaniline to form PANi-clay (PACN) nanocomposites with improved properties. The relationship between the synthesis conditions and the structure, thermal behavior and oxidation states of the PANi-clay nanocomposites were determined and a further insight into the processing, structure and property correlations was gained. The effect of processing parameters such as oxidant and filler concentration on the structure and properties of the nanocomposites were studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) together with thermal analysis. It was shown that the oxidant concentration plays an important role in controlling the properties and the structure of the PACN. It was shown that the degradation temperature of PACN decreases with the increasing concentration of oxidant. In depth study was done by FTIR to determine the molecular structure and the oxidation state of PANi in the composites. The morphology of the nanocomposites was observed by using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wide-angle X-ray scattering and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) study showed the presence of both intercalated and exfoliated clay in the polymer matrix. X-ray diffraction analysis provides additional structural information on both PANi and PACN nanocomposites synthesized at different processing conditions. The nanocomposites were combined with epoxy and formulated into coatings for use in the protection of AA 2024-T3. The effect of PACN nanocomposites on the curing of epoxy resin was studied by using FTIR and a significant enhancement in the degree of curing of epoxy was observed. Corrosion performance of the nanocomposite-epoxy coatings on AA 2024 alloy was determined by using scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET).

  11. Diffusivity measurement of heavy ions in Wyoming montmorillonite gels by X-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Yoshito

    2003-03-01

    Medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) was applied to the measurement of the diffusion coefficients of heavy ions in an artificial barrier material for the disposal of nuclear wastes. Cs +, Sr 2+, I -, and Br - are the heavy ions measured and the barrier used is the water-rich gel of Wyoming montmorillonite (86.5-100 wt.% H 2O). X-ray CT yields an inevitable artifact (beam-hardening) in the obtained images. Before the diffusion experiments, the polychromatic primary X-ray spectrum of the CT scanner was measured by a CdZnTe detector, and the effects of the artifact were examined for an aqueous CsCl solution sample. The results show that the beam-hardening artifact derived from the polychromatic photon energy distribution can be suppressed by applying a special image reconstruction method assuming the chemical composition of samples. The transient one-dimensional diffusion of heavy ions in a plastic container filled with the gel was imaged nondestructively by the X-ray CT scanner with an in-plane resolution of 0.31 mm and slice thickness of 2 mm. The results show that diffusivities decrease with increasing clay weight fraction. The degree of the diffusivity decrease was high for cations (Cs + and Sr 2+) and low for anions (I - and Br -). The quantitative decomposition of the contribution of the geometrical tortuosity and of the sorption to the diffusivity was performed by subtracting the diffusivity of nonsorbing I - from the measured diffusivities. The results show that the contribution of the sorption is large for Cs +, Sr 2+ and small for Br -. Because X-ray CT allows nondestructive and quick measurements of diffusivities, the technique would be useful particularly for measuring the diffusive migration of harmful radioactive elements.

  12. Superior mechanical performance of highly porous, anisotropic nanocellulose-montmorillonite aerogels prepared by freeze casting.

    PubMed

    Donius, Amalie E; Liu, Andong; Berglund, Lars A; Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2014-09-01

    Directionally solidified nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)-sodium-montmorillonite (MMT) composite aerogels with a honeycomb-like pore structure were compared with non-directionally frozen aerogels with equiaxed pore structure and identical composition and found to have superior functionalities. To explore structure-property correlations, three different aerogel compositions of 3wt% MMT, and 0.4wt%, 0.8wt%, and 1.2wt% NFC, respectively, were tested. Young?s modulus, compressive strength and toughness were found to increase with increasing NFC content for both architectures. The modulus increased from 25.8kPa to 386kPa for the isotropic and from 2.13MPa to 3.86MPa for the anisotropic aerogels, the compressive yield strength increased from 3.3kPa to 18.0kPa for the isotropic and from 32.3kPa to 52.5kPa for the anisotropic aerogels, and the toughness increased from 6.3kJ/m(3) to 24.1kJ/m(3) for the isotropic and from 22.9kJ/m(3) to 46.2kJ/m(3) for the anisotropic aerogels. The great range of properties, which can be achieved through compositional as well as architectural variations, makes these aerogels highly attractive for a large range of applications, for which either a specific composition, or a particular pore morphology, or both are required. Finally, because NFC is flammable, gasification experiments were performed, which revealed that the inclusion of MMT increased the heat endurance and shape retention functions of the aerogels dramatically up to 800°C while the mechanical properties were retained up to 300°C. PMID:24905177

  13. Adsorption of Gemini and Conventional Cationic Surfactants onto Montmorillonite and the Removal of Some Pollutants by the Clay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Li; M. J. Rosen

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption of a series of gemini surfactants, [CnH2n+1N+ (CH3)2-CH2CH2]2·2Br?, where n = 10, 12, 14, and 16, on clay (Na-montmorillonite) from their aqueous solution in 0.01 M KBr and the effect of this adsorption on the removal of 2-naphthol and 4-chlorophenol have been studied. Compared to those of conventional cationic surfactants with similar single hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups (CnH2n+1N+(CH3)3·Br?,

  14. Morphological and Functional Analysis of Hepatocyte Spheroids Generated on Poly-HEMA-Treated Surfaces under the Influence of Fetal Calf Serum and Nonparenchymal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Acikgöz, Ali; Giri, Shibashish; Cho, Man-Gi; Bader, Augustinus

    2013-01-01

    Poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (HEMA) has been used as a clinical material, in the form of a soft hydrogel, for various surgical procedures, including endovascular surgery of liver. It is a clear liquid compound and, as a soft, flexible, water-absorbing material, has been used to make soft contact lenses from small, concave, spinning molds. Primary rat hepatocyte spheroids were created on a poly-HEMA-coated surface with the intention of inducing hepatic tissue formation and improving liver functions. We investigated spheroid formation of primary adult rat hepatocyte cells and characterized hepatic-specific functions under the special influence of fetal calf serum (FCS) and nonparencymal cells (NPC) up to six days in different culture systems (e.g., hepatocytes + FCS, hepatocytes – FCS, NPC + FCS, NPC – FCS, co-culture + FCS, co-culture – FCS) in both the spheroid model and sandwich model. Immunohistologically, we detected gap junctions, Ito cell/Kupffer cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells and an extracellular matrix in the spheroid model. FCS has no positive effect in the sandwich model, but has a negative effect in the spheroid model on albumin production, and no influence in urea production in either model. We found more cell viability in smaller diameter spheroids than larger ones by using the apoptosis test. Furthermore, there is no positive influence of the serum or NPC on spheroid formation, suggesting that it may only depend on the physical condition of the culture system. Since the sandwich culture has been considered a “gold standard” in vitro culture model, the hepatocyte spheroids generated on the poly-HEMA-coated surface were compared with those in the sandwich model. Major liver-specific functions, such as albumin secretion and urea synthesis, were evaluated in both the spheroid and sandwich model. The synthesis performance in the spheroid compared to the sandwich culture increases approximately by a factor of 1.5. Disintegration of plasma membranes in both models was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in both models. Additionally, diazepam was used as a substrate in drug metabolism studies to characterize the differences in the biotransformation potential with metabolite profiles in both models. It showed that the diazepam metabolism activities in the spheroid model is about 10-fold lower than the sandwich model. The poly-HEMA-based hepatocyte spheroid is a promising new platform towards hepatic tissue engineering leading to in vitro hepatic tissue formation. PMID:24970167

  15. Effect of process variables on the sulfate reduction process in bioreactors treating metal-containing wastewaters: factorial design and response surface analyses.

    PubMed

    Villa-Gomez, D K; Pakshirajan, K; Maestro, R; Mushi, S; Lens, P N L

    2015-07-01

    The individual and combined effect of the pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and SO4 (2-) concentration, metal to sulfide (M/S(2-)) ratio and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the biological sulfate reduction (SR) process was evaluated in an inverse fluidized bed reactor by factorial design analysis (FDA) and response surface analysis (RSA). The regression-based model of the FDA described the experimental results well and revealed that the most significant variable affecting the process was the pH. The combined effect of the pH and HRT was barely observable, while the pH and COD concentration positive effect (up to 7 and 3 gCOD/L, respectively) enhanced the SR process. Contrary, the individual COD concentration effect only enhanced the COD removal efficiency, suggesting changes in the microbial pathway. The RSA showed that the M/S(2-) ratio determined whether the inhibition mechanism to the SR process was due to the presence of free metals or precipitated metal sulfides. PMID:26071684

  16. Comparison of In Situ Polymerization and Solution-Dispersion Techniques in the Preparation of Polyimide/Montmorillonite (MMT) Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Gharayebi, Yadollah; Salit, Mohd. Sapuan; Hussein, Mohd. Zobir; Shameli, Kamyar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, Polyimide/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites (PI/MMT NCs), based on aromatic diamine (4-Aminophenyl sulfone) (APS) and aromatic dianhydride (3,3?,4,4?-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride) (BTDA) were prepared using in situ polymerization and solution-dispersion techniques. The prepared PI/MMT NCs films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD results showed that at the content of 1.0 wt % Organo Montmorillonite (OMMT) for two techniques and 3.0 wt % OMMT for the in situ polymerization technique, the OMMT was well-intercalated, exfoliated and dispersed into polyimide matrix. The OMMT agglomerated when its amount exceeded 10 wt % and 3.0 wt % for solution-dispersion and in situ polymerization techniques respectively. These results were confirmed by the TEM images of the prepared PI/MMT NCs. The TGA thermograms indicated that thermal stability of prepared PI/MMT NCs were increased with the increase of loading that, the effect is higher for the samples prepared by in situ polymerization technique. PMID:22016643

  17. Detection of Soluble and Fixed NH4+ in Clay Minerals by DTA and IR Reflectance Spectroscopy : A Potential Tool for Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janice, Bishop; Banin, A.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Klovstad, M. R.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential element for life. It is the only element among the six major biogenic elements, C, O, S, O, P, H, whose presence in the Martian soil has not been positively and directly established. We describe here a study assessing the ability to detect NH4 in soils by two methods: differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy. Four standard clay minerals (kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite and attapulgite) and an altered tephra sample from Mauna Kea were treated with NH4 in this study. Samples of the NH4-treated and leached clays were analyzed by DTA and infrared (IR) reflectance spectroscopy to quantify the delectability of soluble and sorbed/fixed NH4. An exotherm at 270-280 C was clearly detected in the DTA curves of NH4-treated (non-leached) samples. This feature is assigned to the thermal decomposition reaction of NH4. Spectral bands observed at 1.56, 2.05, 2.12, 3.06, 3.3, 3.5, 5.7 and 7.0 microns in the reflectance spectra of NH4-treated and leached samples are assigned to the sorbed/fixed ammonium in the clays. The montmorillonite has shown the most intense absorbance due to fixed ammonium among the leached samples in this study, as a result of its high cation sorption capacity. It is concluded that the presence of sorbed or fixed NH4 in clays may be detected by infrared (IR) reflectance or emission spectroscopy. Distinction between soluble and sorbed NH4 may be achieved through the presence or absence of several spectral features assigned to the sorbed NH4 moietyi and, specifically, by use of the 4.2 micrometer feature assigned to solution NH4. Thermal analyses furnish supporting evidence of ammonia in our study through detection of N released at temperatures of 270-330 C. Based on these results it is estimated that IR spectra measured from a rover should be able to detect ammonia if present above 20 mg NH4/g sample in the surface layers. Orbital IR spectra and thermal analyses measured on a rover may be able to detect ammonia in soils as well but at higher abundances. The spectral features at 3.06 and 7.0 microns due to bound NH4 in clays and altered Hawaiian tephra appear to be the most promising for detection by orbital spectrometers. If N species are present on Mars the sedimentary deposits may be the best regions to look for them.

  18. Reflectance and Mossbauer spectroscopy of ferrihydrite-montmorillonite assemblages as Mars soil analog materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Burns, R. G.; Chang, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic analyses show that Fe(3+)-doped smectites prepared in the laboratory exhibit important similarities to the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite has been identified as the interlayer ferric component in Fe(3+)-doped smectites by a low quadrupole splitting and magnetic field strength of approximately 48 tesla in Mossbauer spectra measured at 4.2 K, as well as a crystal field transition at 0.92 micrometer. Ferrihydrite in these smectites explains features in the visible-near infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. Clay silicates have met resistance in the past as Mars soil analogs because terrestrial clay silicates exhibit prominent hydrous spectral features at 1.4, 1.9, and 2.2 micrometers; and these are observed weakly, if at all, in reflectance spectra of Mars. However, several mechanisms can weaken or compress these features, including desiccation under low-humidity conditions. The hydration properties of the interlayer cations also effect band strengths, such that a ferrihydrite-bearing smectite in the Martian environment would exhibit a 1.9 micrometers H2O absorption that is even weaker than the 2.2 micrometers structural OH absorption. Mixing experiments demonstrate that infrared spectral features of clays can be significantly suppressed and that the reflectance can be significantly darkened by mixing with only a few percent of a strongly absorbing opaque material. Therefore, the absolute reflectance of a soil on Mars may be disproportionately sensitive to a minor component. For this reason, the shape and position of spectral features and the chemical composition of potential analogs are of utmost importance in assessing the composition of the soil on Mars. Given the remarkable similarity between visible-infrared reflectance spectra of soils in bright regions on Mars and Fe(3+)-doped montmorillonites, coupled with recent observations of smectites in SNC meteorites and a weak 2.2 micrometers absorption in some Mars soils, ferrihydrite-bearing smectites warrant serious consideration as a Mars soil analog.

  19. Effect of clay content and mineralogy on frictional sliding behavior of simulated gouges: Binary and ternary mixtures of quartz, illite, and montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheryl Tembe; David A. Lockner; Teng-Fong Wong

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the frictional sliding behavior of simulated quartz-clay gouges under stress conditions relevant to seismogenic depths. Conventional triaxial compression tests were conducted at 40 MPa effective normal stress on saturated saw cut samples containing binary and ternary mixtures of quartz, montmorillonite, and illite. In all cases, frictional strengths of mixtures fall between the end-members of pure quartz (strongest) and

  20. Investigation of montmorillonite alteration and form of iron corrosion products in compacted bentonite in contact with carbon steel for ten years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishidera, Takamitsu; Ueno, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Seiichi; Suyama, Tadahiro

    In high-level radioactive waste disposal, the alteration of montmorillonite due to the corrosion of carbon steel possibly affects the swelling and self-healing capacity of compacted bentonite used as a buffer material. The nature of the corrosion products in compacted bentonite is also important to evaluate not only the diffusion and sorption behavior of radionuclides but also the chemical composition and redox potential of pore water. In this study, the alteration of montmorillonite in compacted bentonite due to the interaction with carbon steel was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The possibility of montmorillonite alteration was also investigated from the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of compacted bentonite and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. The corrosion products distributed in the compacted bentonite were investigated by selective dissolution analysis, which can estimate the crystallinity of Fe-bearing compounds. The valence of Fe in the corrosion products was spectrophotometrically determined. From the XRD analysis, newly formed phyllosilicates resulting from the alteration of montmorillonite could not be identified in compacted bentonite. CEC of compacted bentonite adjacent to the carbon steel, in which high concentration of Fe was extracted, was hardly decreased. No significant differences of clay particles were observed with SEM. Thus, the alteration of montmorillonite was scarcely detected in compacted bentonite in contact with carbon steel for ten years. The selective dissolution and valence analyses suggest that most of the corrosion products of carbon steel existed in Kunipia F, which consists of over 95 wt% montmorillonite, was amorphous, non-crystalline or poorly ordered Fe(OH) 2. This means that Fe(OH) 2 distributed into compacted bentonite was scarcely crystallized within ten years at 80 oC. From the XRD analysis, small amount of green rust one containing Cl - at the interlayers (GR1(Cl -)) and lepidocrocite were also identified in Kunipia F. Therefore, under this experimental condition, Fe(OH) 2 formed in Kunipia F due to the corrosion of carbon steel was oxidized to GR1(Cl -) as intermediates, and then GR1(Cl -) was possibly oxidized to lepidocrocite. On the other hand, GR1(Cl -) was hardly detected in Kunigel V1, which contains 46-49 wt% montmorillonite, from the XRD analysis.

  1. Surface reactions of iron - enriched smectites: adsorption and transformation of hydroxy fatty acids and phenolic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polubesova, Tamara; Olshansky, Yaniv; Eldad, Shay; Chefetz, Benny

    2014-05-01

    Iron-enriched smectites play an important role in adsorption and transformation of soil organic components. Soil organo-clay complexes, and in particular humin contain hydroxy fatty acids, which are derived from plant biopolymer cutin. Phenolic acids belong to another major group of organic acids detected in soil. They participate in various soil processes, and are of concern due to their allelopathic activity. We studied the reactivity of iron-enriched smectites (Fe(III)-montmorillonite and nontronite) toward both groups of acids. We used fatty acids- 9(10),16-dihydroxypalmitic acid (diHPA), isolated from curtin, and 9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid (triHPA); the following phenolic acids were used: ferulic, p-coumaric, syringic, and vanillic. Adsorption of both groups of acids was measured. The FTIR spectra of fatty acid-mineral complexes indicated inner-sphere complexation of fatty acids with iron-enriched smectites (versus outer-sphere complexation with Ca(II)-montmorillonite). The LC-MS results demonstrated enhanced esterification of fatty acids on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces (as compared to Ca(II)-montmorillonite). This study suggests that fatty acids can be esterified on the iron-enriched smectite surfaces, which results in the formation of stable organo-mineral complexes. These complexes may serve as a model for the study of natural soil organo-clay complexes and humin. The reaction of phenolic acids with Fe(III)-montmorillonite demonstrated their oxidative transformation by the mineral surfaces, which was affected by molecular structure of acids. The following order of their transformation was obtained: ferulic >syringic >p-coumaric >vanillic. The LC-MS analysis demonstrated the presence of dimers, trimers, and tetramers of ferulic acid on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite. Oxidation and transformation of ferulic acid were more intense on the surface of Fe(III)-montmorillonite as compared to Fe(III) in solution due to stronger complexation on the Fe(III)-motnomrillonite surface. Our study demonstrate the importance of iron-enriched minerals for the abiotic formation of humic materials and for the transformation of aromatic (phenolic) pollutants.

  2. How Is Anemia Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Anemia Treated? Treatment for anemia depends on the type, cause, and severity of ... is to treat the underlying cause of the anemia. Dietary Changes and Supplements Low levels of vitamins ...

  3. How Is Pneumonia Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pneumonia Treated? Treatment for pneumonia depends on the type ... can go back to their normal routines. Bacterial Pneumonia Bacterial pneumonia is treated with medicines called antibiotics. ...

  4. Montmorillonite-catalysed formation of RNA oligomers: the possible role of catalysis in the origins of life

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, James P

    2006-01-01

    Large deposits of montmorillonite are present on the Earth today and it is believed to have been present at the time of the origin of life and has recently been detected on Mars. It is formed by aqueous weathering of volcanic ash. It catalyses the formation of oligomers of RNA that contain monomer units from 2 to 30–50. Oligomers of this length are formed because this catalyst controls the structure of the oligomers formed and does not generate all possible isomers. Evidence of sequence-, regio- and homochiral selectivity in these oligomers has been obtained. Postulates on the role of selective versus specific catalysts on the origins of life are discussed. An introduction to the origin of life is given with an emphasis on reaction conditions based on the recent data obtained from zircons 4.0–4.5?Ga. PMID:17008218

  5. The investigation of electrokinetic behaviour of micro-particles produced by CTA+ ions and Na-montmorillonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürses, Ahmet; Güne?, Kübra; Mindivan, Ferda; Korucu, Mehtap Ejder; Aç?ky?ld?z, Metin; Do?ar, Çetin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the interactions between clay platelets and CTA+ ions in aqueous dispersions of Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT) were examined in detail by using electro kinetic parameters such as electrical conductivity and zeta potential and by considering XRD patterns and d-spacing values of the organoclay samples as a function of both surfactant concentration (CTAB, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and clay amount. The amounts adsorbed and zeta potentials of the particles increased with an increase in the initial concentration of CTAB in parallel with the electrical conductivity values. The adsorption mechanisms which predominate at certain ranges of CTAB concentration were proposed and schematized by considering the d-spacing values calculated and the zeta potential values of particles. For the different solid/liquid ratios, the initial concentrations of CTAB, in which appeared significant increases in the d-spacing values were found as 200, 280 and 300 mg/L, respectively. The d-spacing values which correspond to these concentrations are, respectively 1.82, 1.82 and 1.68 nm. It is remarkable that at first three solid/liquid ratios, a "stress region" to be related with hydrophobic binding appeared. Thermodynamic parameters such as Gibbs free energy (?Go), isosteric enthalpy (?Hoads)q, and isosteric entropy (?Soads)q were also calculated by using experimental data. These parameters indicate that adsorption of CTAB onto Na-montmorillonite is spontaneous and exothermic in the temperature range studied. The ((?Soads)q, (?Hoads)q and (?Go)) values calculated are highly negative. This reveals that the adsorption of CTA+ ions at the interlayer region of clay carried out with more order stacking of CTA+ ions.

  6. Water control well treating solution and method

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J. L.; Mancillas, G.

    1984-10-16

    A well treating solution is shown for changing the relative permeability of a formation being treated to water. The solution is made by mixing an amphoteric polymeric material, a mutual solvent and a surface active agent in a brine carrier liquid. The well treating solution is injected into the formation at pump rates below the fracture gradient of the formation. The well is briefly shut-in, after which production can be resumed. The treating solution and method taught lower the permeability of the producing formation to water without substantially affecting the formation's permeability to oil and gas.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline nanorods/Ce(OH){sub 3}-Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/montmorillonite composites through reverse micelle template

    SciTech Connect

    Mo Zunli [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)], E-mail: mozl@163.com; Zhang Ping; Zuo Dandan; Sun Yaling; Chen Hong [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2008-07-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanorods/Ce(OH){sub 3}-Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites were synthesized via in situ polymerization of aniline monomer through reverse micelle template (RMT) in the presence of montmorillonite and Ce(OH){sub 3}, Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In the experiment, sulphosalicylic acid was used as dopant, aniline was designated as oil phase and the aqueous solution comprising Ce{sup 3+} and Pr{sup 3+} as water phase. The nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The results showed that PANI nanorods were synthesized in the interlayer spaces of MMT with uniform spherical rare earth nanoparticles. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites prepared was enhanced drastically compared with pure polyaniline.

  8. Preparation and characterization of electronically conducting polypyrrole-montmorillonite nanocomposite and its potential application as a cathode material for oxygen reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. G. Rajapakse; Kenji Murakami; H. M. N. Bandara; R. M. M. Y. Rajapakse; K. Velauthamurti; S. Wijeratne

    2010-01-01

    Simple wet chemical processes were deployed to prepare low-cost conducting nanocomposites based on natural clays with 2:1 layered structures such as sodium montmorillonite (MMT). Ce(IV) modified MMT was used for the spontaneous polymerization of pyrrole within clay interlayers. The resulted clay-conducting polypyrrole nanocomposites containing the reduced form of the oxidising agent, have been extensively characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique

  9. Influence of non-ionic polymers on the rheological behaviour of Na +-montmorillonite clay suspensions. Part II. Homopolymer ethyleneoxide and polypropylene oxide–polyethylene oxide ABA copolymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Rossi; P. F Luckham; T. F Tadros

    2003-01-01

    The rheological behaviour of Na+-montmorillonite suspensions in the presence of non-ionic polymers has been systematically investigated. Two different series of non-ionic polymers were studied. The first consisted of ABA block copolymers of polyethylene oxide–polypropylene oxide–polyethylene oxide (PEO–PPO–PEO or PE series), of varying ethylene oxide chain length. The second was a linear polyethylene oxide polymer of different molecular weights (PEO series).

  10. Removal of copper(II) ions from synthetic solution and real wastewater by the combined action of dried Trametes versicolor cells and montmorillonite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sibel Tunali Akar; Tamer Akar; Zerrin Kaynak; Burcu Anilan; Ahmet Cabuk; Özge Tabak; Temir A. Demir; Tevfik Gedikbey

    2009-01-01

    A combination of white rot fungi Trametes versicolor and montmorillonite type clay was studied for its ability to remove copper(II) ions from copper contaminated solutions. The effects of process parameters i.e. pH, sorbent dosage, contact time and temperature on the biosorption were examined. Reasonably rapid metal sequester rate was obtained. Maximum copper(II) biosorption capacity was found as 9.89×10?4 mol g?1(62.80 mg g?1)

  11. Fe(II)Na(I)Ca(II) Cation Exchange on Montmorillonite in Chloride Medium: Evidence for Preferential Clay Adsorption of Chloride – Metal Ion Pairs in Seawater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Charlet; Christophe Tournassat

    2005-01-01

    Fe(II)–Ca(II), Fe(II)–Na(I), and Fe(II)–Ca(II)–Na(I) exchange experiments on montmorillonite were performed in chloride background. These experiments show the possible sorption of Fe2+ and FeCl+ ion pairs in exchange site positions, a result confirmed with 77 K 57Fe Mössbauer experiments. The sorption data were modeled and the cation exchange selectivity for Fe(II) were found to be nearly equal to that of Ca(II).

  12. Interaction of Phenol and Aniline with Montmorillonite and llliti. D.L. SPARKS and P.C. ZHANG*. Univ. of Delaware.

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Interaction of Phenol and Aniline with Montmorillonite and llliti. D.L. SPARKS and P.C. ZHANG concentration (1-5 XIO·4 H) with CaC1 2 · NaC1 and KC1 as background electrolytes' and at a constant ionic will produce CO2 and other intermediates which may then interact with clays. P.c. zhang (302) 451-1595 #12;

  13. Effects of the Heating Rate and the Amount of Organic Montmorillonite on the Thermal Properties of the Novel Liquid Crystalline Epoxy Nanocomposite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Qi Cai; Jianzhong Sun; Hua Ren; Qian Zhao; Qiyun Zhou

    2008-01-01

    A novel nanocomposite was prepared by liquid-crystalline epoxy (LCE)\\/diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS)\\/organic montmorillonite (MMT). A novel liquid-crystalline epoxy monomer, diglycidyl ether of 4,4?-bis(4-hydroxylbenzoyloxy)-3,3?,5,5?-tetramethylbiphenyl (DGE-BHBTMBP), was chosen as the matrix material. The curing processes and thermal properties of the novel LCETs obtained were investigated by nonisothermal DSC. The peak temperature increased with an increase in the heating rate for the different amount of

  14. Study of Montmorillonite Clay for the Removal of Copper (II) by Adsorption: Full Factorial Design Approach and Cascade Forward Neural Network

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Nurdan Gamze; Ozgonenel, Okan

    2013-01-01

    An intensive study has been made of the removal efficiency of Cu(II) from industrial leachate by biosorption of montmorillonite. A 24 factorial design and cascade forward neural network (CFNN) were used to display the significant levels of the analyzed factors on the removal efficiency. The obtained model based on 24 factorial design was statistically tested using the well-known methods. The statistical analysis proves that the main effects of analyzed parameters were significant by an obtained linear model within a 95% confidence interval. The proposed CFNN model requires less experimental data and minimum calculations. Moreover, it is found to be cost-effective due to inherent advantages of its network structure. Optimization of the levels of the analyzed factors was achieved by minimizing adsorbent dosage and contact time, which were costly, and maximizing Cu(II) removal efficiency. The suggested optimum conditions are initial pH at 6, adsorbent dosage at 10?mg/L, and contact time at 10?min using raw montmorillonite with the Cu(II) removal of 80.7%. At the optimum values, removal efficiency was increased to 88.91% if the modified montmorillonite was used. PMID:24453833

  15. Polypyrrole/montmorillonite nanocomposite as a new solid phase microextraction fiber combined with gas chromatography-corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of diazinon and fenthion organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mohammad T; Saraji, Mohammad; Sherafatmand, Hossein

    2014-03-01

    A novel solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared and coupled with gas chromatography corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry (GC-CD-IMS) based on polypyrrole/montmorillonite nanocomposites for the simultaneous determination of diazinon and fenthion. The nanocomposite polymer was coated using a three-electrode electrochemical system and directly deposited on a Ni-Cr wire by applying a constant potential. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the new fiber exhibited a rather porous and homogenous surface. The thermal stability of the fabricated fiber was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The effects of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency such as extraction temperature and time, salt addition, stirring rate, the amount of nanoclay, and desorption temperature were investigated and optimized. The method was exhaustively evaluated in terms of sensitivity, recovery, and reproducibility. The linearity ranges of 0.05-10 and 0.08-10 ?g L(-1), and the detection limits of 0.020 and 0.035 ?g L(-1) were obtained for diazinon and fenthion, respectively. The relative standard deviation values were calculated to be lower than 5% and 8% for intra-day and inter-day, respectively. Finally, the developed method was applied to determine the diazinon and fenthion (as model compounds) in cucumber, lettuce, apple, tap and river water samples. The satisfactory recoveries revealed the capability of the two-dimensional separation technique (retention time in GC and drift time in IMS) for the analysis of complex matrices extracted by SPME. PMID:24528846

  16. Comptes Rendus des JNC 17 -Poitiers 2011 Nanocomposites polyamide 6/montmorillonite

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    créer des interfaces multiples et exceptionnellement grandes. Actuellement, une augmentation de la to individual platelets for creating large surfaces. Now, an increase in stiffness of PA-based nanocomposites

  17. Weathering of copper-amine treated wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Kamdem, D. Pascal; Temiz, Ali

    2009-11-01

    In this study, the effect of ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation and water spray on color, contact angle and surface chemistry of treated wood was studied. Southern pine sapwood ( Pinus Elliottii.Engelm.) treated with copper ethanolamine (Cu-MEA) was subjected to artificially accelerated weathering with a QUV Weathering Tester. The compositional changes and the surface properties of the weathered samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, color and contact angle measurements. FTIR indicated that MEA treatment was not found to slow down wood weathering. FTIR spectrum of MEA-treated sample was similar to that of the untreated SP. However, the Cu-MEA treatment retarded the surface lignin degradation during weathering. The main changes in FTIR spectrum of Cu-MEA treatment took place at 915, 1510, and 1595 cm -1. The intensity of the bands at 1510 and 1595 cm -1 increased with the Cu-MEA treatment. Both untreated and MEA-treated exhibited higher ? E than the Cu-MEA treated samples, indicating that MEA treatment did not retard color changes. However, ? E decreased with increasing copper concentration, suggesting a positive contribution of Cu-EA to wood color stability. The contact angle of untreated and MEA-treated samples changed rapidly, and dropped from 75 ± 5° to 0° after artificial weathering up to 600 h. Treatment with Cu-MEA slowed down the decreasing in contact angle. As the copper concentration increases, the rate of change in contact angle decreases.

  18. Effects on growth and cadmium residues from feeding cadmium-added diets with and without montmorillonite nanocomposite to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z R; Han, X Y; Wang, Y Z

    2004-10-01

    One hundred and ninety-two crossbred pigs (barrows, Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshine, initial weight 27.6 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of montmorillonite nanocomposite (MNC) on cadmium (Cd) retention in tissues of growing pigs. The animals were randomly assigned to 2 supplementations of Cd (0 or 10 mg/kg) and 2 levels of MNC (0 or 0.5%) in a 2x2 factorial arrangement. Each group was fed corn-soybean basal diets and consisted of 3 replications of 16 pigs. The feeding experiment lasted 83 d. Pig growth performances decreased significantly by addition of 10 mg Cd/kg (p<0.05) and improved with supplementation of MNC (p<0.05). Addition of MNC with Cd decreased Cd retentions in muscle, liver, kidney, spleen, thymus and lymphaden of pigs (p<0.05). MNC also decreased tissue Cd residues of pigs fed the diet without added Cd (p>0.05). There were decreased iron levels and increased copper levels in serum and liver of 10 mg Cd/kg treatment (p<0.05). Zinc content in serum and liver was not affected by the addition of Cd (p>0.05). Serum and liver iron, copper and zinc concentrations of pigs fed MNC without added Cd were unaffected by MNC (p>0.05). PMID:15487642

  19. Physio-mechanical properties of an active chitosan film incorporated with montmorillonite and natural antioxidants extracted from pomegranate rind.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yu-Yue; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Li, Lin; Yuan, Ming-Long; Fan, Jian; Zhao, Tian-Rui

    2015-03-01

    An active film was prepared from chitosan incorporated with montmorillonite (MMT) and pomegranate rind powder extract (PRP). The effect of MMT (1 %, 3 %, and 5 % w/w chitosan) and PRP (1 %, 1.5 %, and 2 % w/v chitosan) on the physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of the chitosan-based films was studied. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed that good interactions occurred between functional groups of chitosan with MMT or with PRP. The results showed that the water vapor barrier property of the films was significantly improved by incorporation of MMT and PRP (p?

  20. Diffusion of polyphosphates into (poly(allylamine)-montmorillonite) multilayer films: flame retardant-intumescent films with improved oxygen barrier.

    PubMed

    Laachachi, Abdelghani; Ball, Vincent; Apaydin, Kadir; Toniazzo, Valérie; Ruch, David

    2011-11-15

    The present paper relies on the original idea to design multifunctional coatings, and in particular highly efficient intumescent flame retardant coatings, based on the diffusion of polyphosphates (PSPs) in exponentially growing "layer-by-layer" films made from montmorillonite (MMT) and poly(allylamine) (PAH). Here, we used polyphosphates as an acid source, polyallylamine as both a carbon source and a swelling agent, and finally clays to reinforce the intumescent char strength and also for their oxygen barrier property. The coatings made from the alternated deposition of n = 60 layer pairs of PAH and MMT reach a considerable thickness of ?18 ?m with well-defined ordering of the MMT in the direction parallel to the substrate. Structural, morphological, mechanical, gas barrier, and fire resistance properties of these films have been studied. Excellent oxygen barrier properties and extraordinary fire resistance properties are demonstrated based on the basis of a strong increase of the time to ignition and on a decrease of the heat release rate of polylactide substrates during mass loss calorimeter tests. This new and innovative intumescent flame retardant system based on (PAH-MMT)(n)-PSP coatings is a promising universal treatment for current polymeric materials. PMID:21970541