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1

Asian Dust Weather Categorization with Satellite and Surface Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study categorizes various dust weather types by means of satellite remote sensing over central Asia. Airborne dust particles can be identified by satellite remote sensing because of the different optical properties exhibited by coarse and fine particles (i.e. varying particle sizes). If a correlation can be established between the retrieved aerosol optical properties and surface visibility, the intensity of dust weather can be more effectively and consistently discerned using satellite rather than surface observations. In this article, datasets consisting of collocated products from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua and surface measurements are analysed. The results indicate an exponential relationship between the surface visibility and the satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth, which is subsequently used to categorize the dust weather. The satellite-derived spatial frequency distributions in the dust weather types are consistent with China s weather station reports during 2003, indicating that dust weather classification using satellite data is highly feasible. Although the period during the springtime from 2004 to 2007 may be not sufficient for statistical significance, our results reveal an increasing tendency in both intensity and frequency of dust weather over central Asia during this time period.

Lin, Tang-Huang; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Huang, Shih-Jen

2011-01-01

2

Satellite-based observations of surface turbulent stress during severe weather  

E-print Network

Satellite-based observations of surface turbulent stress during severe weather Mark A. Bourassa The environment of severe marine weather is harsh: in situ and satellite observations of surface turbulent stresses are extremely difficult to acquire under such conditions. Even for fair weather conditions

3

Evaluation of Two Ultrasonic Snow Depth Sensors for National Weather Service Automated Surface Observation System Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late 1980's the National Weather Service (NWS) deployed the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) at airport observing sites, eliminating the need for human observers. At the time there were no reliable sensors to measure snow depth and the traditional snow measurements of 6 hour snowfall and snow water equivalent (SWE) were abandoned at most locations. The National Weather

W. A. Brazenec; N. J. Doesken; S. R. Fassnacht

2004-01-01

4

Recovery of global surface weather observations for historical reanalyses and international users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Third International Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions Over the Earth Initiative Workshop: Reanalysis and Applications; Baltimore, Maryland, 3-5 November 2010; The third Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE) workshop advanced the goals of the international ACRE initiative (http:\\/\\/www.met-acre.org\\/) to undertake and facilitate the recovery of instrumental terrestrial and marine global surface weather observations underpinning global weather reconstructions and reanalyses spanning the

Rob Allan; Gil Compo; Jim Carton

2011-01-01

5

On Observing the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article, Mount Washington Observatory meteorologist Tim Markle shares the ins and outs of his daily weather-observing routine and offers insights on making weather observations at home or at school.

Crane, Peter

2004-05-01

6

Weather Observing Fundamentals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Weather Observing Fundamentals" provides guidance for U.S. Navy Aerographer's Mates, Quartermasters, and civilian observers tasked with taking and reporting routine, special, and synoptic observations. Although the focus of this lesson is on shipboard observations, much of the content applies to land-based observing and reporting as well. The lesson details standard procedures for taking accurate weather observations and for encoding those observations on COMNAVMETOCCOM Report 3141/3. Exercises throughout the lesson and four weather identification drills at the end provide learners with opportunities to practice and build their skills. The lesson covers a large amount of content. You may wish to work through the material in multiple sessions.

Comet

2014-03-11

7

On Observing the Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rain, sun, snow, sleet, wind... the weather affects everyone in some way every day, and observing weather is a terrific activity to attune children to the natural world. It is also a great way for children to practice skills in gathering and recording information and to learn how to use simple tools in a standardized fashion. What better way to…

Crane, Peter

2004-01-01

8

Optimizing weather radar observations using an adaptive multiquadric surface fitting algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real time forecasting of river flow is an essential tool in operational water management. Such real time modelling systems require well calibrated models which can make use of spatially distributed rainfall observations. Weather radars provide spatial data, however, since radar measurements are sensitive to a large range of error sources, often a discrepancy between radar observations and ground-based measurements, which are mostly considered as ground truth, can be observed. Through merging ground observations with the radar product, often referred to as data merging, one may force the radar observations to better correspond to the ground-based measurements, without losing the spatial information. In this paper, radar images and ground-based measurements of rainfall are merged based on interpolated gauge-adjustment factors (Moore et al., 1998; Cole and Moore, 2008) or scaling factors. Using the following equation, scaling factors (C(x?)) are calculated at each position x? where a gauge measurement (Ig(x?)) is available: Ig(x?)+-? C (x?) = Ir(x?)+ ? (1) where Ir(x?) is the radar-based observation in the pixel overlapping the rain gauge and ? is a constant making sure the scaling factor can be calculated when Ir(x?) is zero. These scaling factors are interpolated on the radar grid, resulting in a unique scaling factor for each pixel. Multiquadric surface fitting is used as an interpolation algorithm (Hardy, 1971): C*(x0) = aTv + a0 (2) where C*(x0) is the prediction at location x0, the vector a (Nx1, with N the number of ground-based measurements used) and the constant a0 parameters describing the surface and v an Nx1 vector containing the (Euclidian) distance between each point x? used in the interpolation and the point x0. The parameters describing the surface are derived by forcing the surface to be an exact interpolator and impose that the sum of the parameters in a should be zero. However, often, the surface is allowed to pass near the observations (i.e. the observed scaling factors C(x?)) on a distance a?K by introducing an offset parameter K, which results in slightly different equations to calculate a and a0. The described technique is currently being used by the Flemish Environmental Agency in an online forecasting system of river discharges within Flanders (Belgium). However, rescaling the radar data using the described algorithm is not always giving rise to an improved weather radar product. Probably one of the main reasons is the parameters K and ? which are implemented as constants. It can be expected that, among others, depending on the characteristics of the rainfall, different values for the parameters should be used. Adaptation of the parameter values is achieved by an online calibration of K and ? at each time step (every 15 minutes), using validated rain gauge measurements as ground truth. Results demonstrate that rescaling radar images using optimized values for K and ? at each time step lead to a significant improvement of the rainfall estimation, which in turn will result in higher quality discharge predictions. Moreover, it is shown that calibrated values for K and ? can be obtained in near-real time. References Cole, S. J., and Moore, R. J. (2008). Hydrological modelling using raingauge- and radar-based estimators of areal rainfall. Journal of Hydrology, 358(3-4), 159-181. Hardy, R.L., (1971) Multiquadric equations of topography and other irregular surfaces, Journal of Geophysical Research, 76(8): 1905-1915. Moore, R. J., Watson, B. C., Jones, D. A. and Black, K. B. (1989). London weather radar local calibration study. Technical report, Institute of Hydrology.

Martens, Brecht; Cabus, Pieter; De Jongh, Inge; Verhoest, Niko

2013-04-01

9

Weather induced effects on extensive air showers observed with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory  

E-print Network

The rate of events measured with the surface detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory is found to be modulated by the weather conditions. This effect is due to the increasing amount of matter traversed by the shower as the ground pressure increases and to the inverse proportionality of the Moliere radius to the air density near ground. Air-shower simulations with different realistic profiles of the atmosphere support this interpretation of the observed effects.

Carla Bleve; for the Pierre Auger Collaboration

2007-06-11

10

S-290 Unit 9: Observing the Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webcast covers procedures for taking accurate weather observations using belt weather kits and descriptions of other common weather observing equipment used in fire weather. In addition, maintenance of the primary components of the belt weather kit are demonstrated.

Comet

2009-04-22

11

Observations of "Fresh" and Weathered Surfaces on Asteroid Pairs and Their Implications on the Rotational-Fission Mechanism  

E-print Network

The rotational-fission of a rubble-pile asteroid can result in an "asteroid pair", two un-bound asteroids sharing similar orbits. This mechanism might exposes material that previously had never have been exposed to the weathering conditions of space. Therefore, the surfaces of asteroid pairs offer the opportunity to observe non-weathered fresh spectra. We report near-IR spectroscopic observations of 31 asteroids in pairs. We analyze their spectral slopes, 1 {\\mu}m absorption band, taxonomy, and estimate the time elapsed since their separation. Analyzing the 19 S-complex objects in our sample, we find two fresh Q-type asteroids that are the first of their kind to be observed in the main-belt over the full visible and near-IR range. This solidly demonstrates that Q-type objects are not limited to the NEA population. The pairs in our sample present a range of fresh and weathered surfaces with no clear evidence for a correlation with the ages of the pairs. However, our sample includes old pairs (1 to 2 My) that p...

Polishook, David; Binzel, Richard P; DeMeo, Francesca E; Vokrouhlický, David; Žižka, Jind?ich; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara

2014-01-01

12

Surface Pressure Observations from Smartphones:3 A Potential Revolution for High-Resolution Weather Prediction?4  

E-print Network

1 1 2 Surface Pressure Observations from Smartphones:3 A Potential Revolution for High Revised November 201313 14 Capsule Description: Pressure observations from smartphones have the potential of smartphones now possess relatively accurate pressure sensors and the18 expectation is that these numbers

Mass, Clifford F.

13

Impact of additional surface observation network on short range weather forecast during summer monsoon 2008 over Indian subcontinent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three dimensional variational data assimilation scheme (3D-Var) is employed in the recently developed Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Assimilation experiments have been conducted to assess the impact of Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) surface observations (temperature and moisture) on the short range forecast over the Indian region. In this study, two experiments, CNT (without AWS observations) and EXP (with AWS observations) were made for 24-h forecast starting daily at 0000 UTC during July 2008. The impact of assimilation of AWS surface observations were assessed in comparison to the CNT experiment. The spatial distribution of the improvement parameter for temperature, relative humidity and wind speed from one month assimilation experiments demonstrated that for 24-h forecast, AWS observations provide valuable information. Assimilation of AWS observed temperature and relative humidity improved the analysis as well as 24-h forecast. The rainfall prediction has been improved due to the assimilation of AWS data, with the largest improvement seen over the Western Ghat and eastern India.

Kumar, Prashant; Singh, Randhir; Joshi, P. C.; Pal, P. K.

2011-02-01

14

Observations of “fresh” and weathered surfaces on asteroid pairs and their implications on the rotational-fission mechanism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rotational-fission of a “rubble-pile” structured asteroid can result in an “asteroid pair” - two unbound asteroids sharing nearly identical heliocentric orbits. Models suggest that this mechanism exposes material from below the progenitor surface that previously had never have been exposed to the weathering conditions of space. Therefore, the surfaces of asteroid pairs offer the opportunity to observe non-weathered “fresh” spectra. Here we report near-infrared spectroscopic observations of 31 asteroids in pairs. In order to search for spectral indications of fresh surfaces we analyze their spectral slopes, parameters of their 1 ?m absorption band and taxonomic classification. Additionally, through backward dynamical integration we estimate the time elapsed since the disintegration of the pairs’ progenitors. Analyzing the 19 ordinary chondrite-like (S-complex) objects in our sample, we find two Q-type Asteroids (19289 and 54827) that are the first of their kind to be observed in the main-belt of asteroids over the full visible and near-infrared range. This solidly demonstrates that the Q-type taxonomy is not limited to the NEA population. The pairs in our sample present a range of fresh and weathered surfaces with no clear evidence for a correlation with the ages of the pairs. However, our sample includes “old” pairs (2 × 106 ? age ? 1 × 106 years) that present relatively low, meteoritic-like spectral slopes (<0.2% per ?m). This illustrates a timescale of at least ?2 myr before an object develops high spectral slope that is typical for S-type asteroids. We discuss three mechanisms that explain the existence of weathered pairs with young dynamical ages and find that the “secondary fission” model (Jacobson, S.-A., Scheeres, D.-J. [2011]. Icarus 214, 161-178) is the most robust with our observations. In this mechanism an additional and subsequent fission of the secondary component contributes the lion share of fresh material that re-settles on the primary’s surface and recoats it with fresh material. If the secondary breaks loose from the vicinity of the primary before its “secondary fission”, this main source of fresh dust is avoided. We prefer this secondary fission model since (i) the secondary members in our sample present “fresh” parameters that tend to be “fresher” than their weathered primaries; (ii) most of the fresh pairs in our sample have low size ratios between the secondary and the primary; (iii) 33% of the primaries in our sample are fresh, similar to the prediction set by the secondary fission model (Jacobson, S.-A., Scheeres, D.-J. [2011]. Icarus 214, 161-178); (iv) known satellites orbit two of the pairs in our sample with low size ratio (D2/D1) and fresh surface; (v) there is no correlation between the weathering state and the primary shape as predicted by other models.

Polishook, David; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Binzel, Richard P.; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Vokrouhlický, David; Žižka, Jind?ich; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara

2014-05-01

15

All-weather estimates of the land surface skin temperatures from combined analyses of microwave and infrared satellite observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface skin temperature (Ts) is a key parameter at the land-atmosphere interface. Global datasets of Ts are traditionally estimated from satellite infrared radiance observations, under clear sky conditions. First, the inter-comparison of different IR land surface temperature satellite datasets (ISCCP, MODIS, and AIRS) is presented, along with an evaluation with in situ measurements at selected stations archived during CEOP (Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period). The objective is to assess the accuracy of the Ts estimates, and to evidence the major error sources in the retrieval. Results show that the major sources of differences between the different satellite products come from instrument calibration differences, especially for high Ts, followed by the impact of the water vapor treatment in the algorithm, and the differences in surface emissivities. The main limitation of satellite infrared measurements of Ts is their inability to penetrate clouds, limiting them to clear conditions. Microwave wavelengths, being much less affected by clouds than the infrared, are an attractive alternative in cloudy regions as they can be used to derive an all-sky skin Ts product. A neural network inversion scheme has been developed to retrieve surface Ts along with atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water, and surface emissivities over land from a combined analysis of Special Sensor Microwave /Imager (SSM/I) and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. In the absence of routine in situ Ts measurements, retrieved all-weather Ts values are first evaluated globally by comparison to the surface air temperature (Tair) measured by the meteorological station network. The Ts-Tair difference from the global comparisons showed all the expected variations with solar flux, soil characteristics, and cloudiness. This evaluation has been recently extended locally at a few sites by using the Ts in-situ measurements from several CEOP stations representing different biomes. The ISCCP infrared Ts estimates, the derived microwave Ts, and a different microwave Ts estimate obtained by a linear regression with the 37 GHz measured radiances [4], are compared for selected months in 2003. Under clear sky conditions, the quality of our microwave neural network retrieval is equivalent to the infrared ISCCP products, for most in situ stations. For a given location, the performance of the microwave algorithm is similar under clear and cloudy conditions, confirming the potential of the microwave Ts retrieval under clouds. The accuracy of the Ts estimate does not depend upon the surface emissivity, as the variability of this parameter is accounted for in the processing. Our microwave Ts estimates have been calculated for more than 15 years (1993-2008). These "all weather" Ts estimates are a very valuable complement to the IR-derived Ts, for use in atmospheric and surface models.

Jimenez, C.; Aires, F.; Prigent, C.; Catherinot, J.; Rossow, W. B.

2011-12-01

16

Observations and simulations improve space weather models  

E-print Network

- 1 - Observations and simulations improve space weather models June 25, 2014 Los Alamos with fast-moving particles and a space weather system that varies in response to incoming energy computer simulations of the space weather that can affect vital technology, communication and navigation

17

SPACE WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEMS: CURRENT CAPABILITIES AND  

E-print Network

- REPORT ON SPACE WEATHER OBSERVING SYSTEMS: CURRENT CAPABILITIES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR THE NEXT and Supporting Research National Space Weather Program Council Joint Action Group for Space Environmental Gap of the President #12;ii NATIONAL SPACE WEATHER PROGRAM COUNCIL (NSWPC) MR. SAMUEL P. WILLIAMSON, Chairman Federal

Schrijver, Karel

18

Observing Weather: Making the Invisible Visible  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation will help students understand that weather occurs at local, regional and global scales and that modern weather observation and forecasting makes use of both simple instruments and the most advanced technologies to measure, record and forecast the weather. They will learn the instruments and methods used to measure temperature, pressure, wind direction and speed, humidity, dew point, cloud types, and precipitation. They will also learn about the use of remotely sensed data from satellites to make weather maps and predictions.

Passow, Michael

19

Methods to Estimate Surface Fluxes of Momentum and Heat from Routine Weather Observations for Dispersion Applications under Stable Stratification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the efficacy of two methods commonly used to estimate the vertical turbulent fluxes of momentum and sensible heat\\u000a from routinely observed mean quantities in the surface layer under stable stratification. The single-level method uses mean\\u000a wind speed and temperature measurements at a single height, whereas the two-level method uses mean wind speed measurements\\u000a at a single height and

Ashok K. Luhar; Ken N. Rayner

2009-01-01

20

Coupling convectively driven atmospheric circulation to surface rotation: Evidence for active methane weather in the observed spin rate drift of Titan  

E-print Network

A large drift in the rotation rate of Titan observed by Cassini provided the first evidence of a subsurface ocean isolating the massive core from the icy crust. Seasonal exchange of angular momentum between the surface and atmosphere accounts for the magnitude of the effect, but observations lag the expected signal by a few years. We argue that this time lag is due to the presence of an active methane weather cycle in the atmosphere. An analytic model of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric angular momentum is developed and compared with time-dependent simulations of Titan's atmosphere with and without methane thermodynamics. The disappearance of clouds at the summer pole suggests the drift rate has already switched direction, signaling the change in season from solstice to equinox.

Jonathan L. Mitchell

2008-07-30

21

Anomaly patterns about strong convective events in the tropics and midlatitudes: Observations from radiosondes and surface weather stations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

use 13 years (1998-2010) of rainfall estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission to identify high rain events located close to radiosondes. This is done in four regions: the Western Tropical Pacific, Tropical Brazil, Southeast China, and Southeast U.S. We then construct composite anomaly patterns of temperature, relative humidity, surface pressure, convective available potential energy (CAPE), geopotential height, mass divergence, relative vorticity, and potential vorticity about these high rain events. One motivation of this analysis is to identify regional differences in the interaction between strong convective events and the background atmosphere. We find, overall, that the changes in meteorological variables which occur during the evolution of strong convective events in midlatitudes are similar to the changes that occur in the tropics. In midlatitudes, however, strong convective events are associated with stronger anomalies in surface pressure and geopotential height and exhibit a warm anomaly in the lower troposphere prior to peak rainfall. In the Southeast U.S., the near-surface layer of positive CAPE that occurs prior to high rain events is thicker than in the Western Tropical Pacific. In the two midlatitude regions, the midlevel potential vorticity maximum that develops during the growth stage of high rain events acquires a downward tilt toward the surface during the decay stage, suggesting downward transport toward the surface. A conceptual model previously used to interpret the anomaly patterns of the 2 day equatorial wave is used to interpret the anomaly patterns associated with more general types of high rain events in the tropics.

Mitovski, Toni; Folkins, Ian

2014-01-01

22

Field Observations of Weathering and Mass Wasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity requires students to locate local examples of physical and chemical weathering, as well mass wasting, for which they must identify the type of process involved and describe the resulting effects on landform development. The students must write up their observations in a brief, written report using a technical writing style, which must include labeled photographs and sketches that support their observations and descriptions.

Davis, Lisa

23

A gridded multisite weather generator and synchronization to observed weather data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures are described for constructing a daily multisite weather generator at a collection of arbitrary (e.g., gridded) locations and for synchronizing the gridded generator to observed weather series at a set of reference stations. The gridded generator is constructed by interpolating conventional single-station weather generator parameters using locally weighted regressions and producing coherent simulations of daily weather from them using

Daniel S. Wilks

2009-01-01

24

Weather observations through oceanic acoustic noise recorded by gliders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore estimates of the meteorological parameters are unfortunately spurious when considering in-situ observtions only due to obvious observational limitations while their use would allow to calibrate satellite observations and to have better weather forecasts, if assimilated in numerical weather forecasting systems. The WOTAN (Weather Observations through Acoustic Noise) approach may be used to fill these gaps if coupled to the Global Ocean Observing Sytem which has now a global coverage thanks to many autonomous observing platforms. In this study we show first results from acoustic records collected by gliders deployed in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea in the framework of MOOSE. We show that using 3 descriptors at 5kHz, 8kHz, and 20kHz allows to extract the intensity of the wind and the precipitation when the glider is at depth. This approach based on the method presented by Barry & Nuysten (2004) is compared with meterological data from coastal weather stations and the offshore meteorological buoys from Meteo-France. We also show that there is a vane effect with the tail of the glider while at surface which allows to estimate the direction of the wind every so often. These observations coupled with the in-situ profiles on temperature and salinity profiles can allow to better study air-sea interactions.

Cauchy, Pierre; Testor, Pierre; Guinet, Christophe; Gervaise, Cedric; Di Oro, Lucia; Ioana, Cornel; Mortier, Laurent; Bouin, Marie-Noelle; Beguery, Laurent; Klein, Patrice

2013-04-01

25

Evaluating climate models: Should we use weather or climate observations?  

SciTech Connect

Calling the numerical models that we use for simulations of climate change 'climate models' is a bit of a misnomer. These 'general circulation models' (GCMs, AKA global climate models) and their cousins the 'regional climate models' (RCMs) are actually physically-based weather simulators. That is, these models simulate, either globally or locally, daily weather patterns in response to some change in forcing or boundary condition. These simulated weather patterns are then aggregated into climate statistics, very much as we aggregate observations into 'real climate statistics'. Traditionally, the output of GCMs has been evaluated using climate statistics, as opposed to their ability to simulate realistic daily weather observations. At the coarse global scale this may be a reasonable approach, however, as RCM's downscale to increasingly higher resolutions, the conjunction between weather and climate becomes more problematic. We present results from a series of present-day climate simulations using the WRF ARW for domains that cover North America, much of Latin America, and South Asia. The basic domains are at a 12 km resolution, but several inner domains at 4 km have also been simulated. These include regions of complex topography in Mexico, Colombia, Peru, and Sri Lanka, as well as a region of low topography and fairly homogeneous land surface type (the U.S. Great Plains). Model evaluations are performed using standard climate analyses (e.g., reanalyses; NCDC data) but also using time series of daily station observations. Preliminary results suggest little difference in the assessment of long-term mean quantities, but the variability on seasonal and interannual timescales is better described. Furthermore, the value-added by using daily weather observations as an evaluation tool increases with the model resolution.

Oglesby, Robert J [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL

2009-12-01

26

Rates of oxidative weathering on the surface of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Implicit in the mnemonic 'MSATT' (Mars surface and atmosphere through time) is that rates of surface processes on Mars through time should be investigated, including studies of the kinetics and mechanism of oxidative weathering reactions occurring in the Martian regolith. Such measurements are described. Two major elements analyzed in the Viking Lander XRF experiment that are most vulnerable to atmospheric oxidation are iron and sulfur. Originally, they occurred as Fe(2+)-bearing silicate and sulfide minerals in basaltic rocks on the surface of Mars. However, chemical weathering reactions through time have produced ferric- and sulfate-bearing assemblages now visible in the Martian regolith. Such observations raise several question about: (1) when the oxidative weathering reactions took place on Mars; (2) whether or not the oxidized regolith is a fossilized remnant of past weathering processes; (3) deducting chemical interactions of the ancient Martian atmosphere with its surface from surviving phases; (4) possible weathering reactions still occurring in the frozen regolith; and (5) the kinetics and mechanism of past and present-day oxidative reactions on Mars. These questions may be addressed experimentally by studying reaction rates of dissolution and oxidation of basaltic minerals, and by identifying reaction products forming on the mineral surfaces. Results for the oxidation of pyrrhotite and dissolved ferrous iron are reported.

Burns, Roger G.

1992-01-01

27

Widespread Surface Weathering on Early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of widespread hydrous clays on Mars indicates that diverse and widespread aqueous environments existed on Mars, from the surface to kilometric depths [1,2]. The study of the past habitability of the planet requires assessing the importance of sustained surface water vs. subsurface water in its aqueous history. Using remote sensing data, we propose that surface weathering existed on Mars, suggesting that Mars experienced durable episodes of sustained liquid water on its surface. Weathering profiles are identified as vertical sequences of Al-rich clays and Fe/Mg-rich clays in the top tens of meters of the surface, similar to cases of pedogenesis on Earth (e.g. [3,4]). Such localized clay sequences have been reported by other works in 3 regions of Mars [5-8] and a similar origin was also proposed. Their frequency is however likely underestimated due to limitations of orbital investigations and re-surfacing processes. A large survey of the CRISM dataset leaded to a down-selection of 104 deposits with clear vertical sequences, widely distributed over the southern highlands and grouped in regional clusters [9]. These putative weathering sequences are found either on inter-crater plateaus, on the floor of craters and large basins, or on crater ejectas. We investigated the thickness of the altered sequences, the age of the altered units and the different geological contexts to further understand the weathering process(es). Using few HiRISE DEMs where possible, and CTX DEMs, we find that the thickness of the exposed Al clays is on average of the order of several meters to few tens of meters. The clay sequences reported here are consistent with terrestrial weathering sequences which form under wet climates over geological timescales (> 105-107 years). The combined age assessment of the altered unit and the unaltered capping (where present) provides constraints on the age of the weathering itself. All investigated cases point to an active weathering limited to the late Noachian to early Hesperian. The widespread distribution of weathering sequences in different geologic contexts, and the consistency in their estimated ages are best explained if Mars experienced a period/periods between the middle Noachian and the early Hesperian during which climatic conditions allowed sustained liquid water flow on its surface, while the high degree of degradation of older terrains does not allow affirming nor infirming earlier surface weathering on Mars. Only the in-situ exploration of Phyllosian/Noachian terrains may provide an answer to this fundamental question. Some of the authors have received funding from the European Research Council (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant agreement n° 280168. [1] Ehlmann B., et al. Nature, 479, 53-60 (2011). [2] Carter J., et al. JGR, 118, 831-858 (2013) [3] Velde B., et al. Ed. Springer, Berlin, (1995). [4] Wilson M. Clay Minerals, 39, 233-266 (2004). [5] Gaudin A., et al. Icarus, 216(1), 257-268 (2011). [6] Loizeau D., et al. Icarus, 205, 396-418 (2010). [7] Noe Dobrea E., et al. JGR, 115, E00D19 (2010). [8] Le Deit L., et al. JGR, 117, E00J05 (2012). [9] Carter J., et al. LPSC 2012, p.1755

Loizeau, D.; Carter, J.; Mangold, N.; Poulet, F.; Rossi, A.; Allemand, P.; Quantin, C.; Bibring, J.

2013-12-01

28

Widespread Surface Weathering on Early Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent discovery of widespread hydrous clays on Mars indicates that diverse and widespread aqueous environments existed on Mars, from the surface to kilometric depths [1,2]. The study of the past habitability and past climates of the planet requires assessing the importance of sustained surface water vs. subsurface water in its aqueous history. Using remote sensing data, we propose that surface weathering existed on Mars, suggesting that Mars experienced durable episodes of sustained liquid water on its surface. Weathering profiles are identified as vertical sequences of Al-rich clays and Fe/Mg-rich clays in the top tens of meters of the surface, similar to cases of pedogenesis on Earth (e.g. [3,4]). Such localized clay sequences have been reported by other works in 3 regions of Mars [5-8] and a similar origin was also proposed. Their frequency is however likely underestimated due to limitations of orbital investigations and re-surfacing processes. A large survey of the CRISM dataset leaded to a down-selection of ~100 deposits with clear vertical sequences, widely distributed over the southern highlands and grouped in regional clusters [9]. These putative weathering sequences are found either on inter-crater plateaus, on the floor of craters and large basins, or on crater ejectas. We investigated the thickness of the altered sequences, the age of the altered units and the different geological contexts to further understand the weathering process(es). Using few HiRISE DEMs where possible, and CTX DEMs, we find that the thickness of the exposed Al clays is on average of the order of several meters to few tens of meters. The clay sequences reported here are consistent with terrestrial weathering sequences which form under wet climates over geological timescales (>105-107 years). The combined age assessment of the altered unit and the unaltered capping (where present) provides constraints on the age of the weathering itself. All investigated cases point to an active weathering limited to the late Noachian to early Hesperian. The widespread distribution of weathering sequences in different geologic contexts, and the consistency in their estimated ages are best explained if Mars experienced a period/periods between the middle Noachian and the early Hesperian during which climatic conditions allowed sustained liquid water flow on its surface, while the high degree of degradation of older terrains does not allow affirming nor infirming earlier surface weathering on Mars. Only the in-situ exploration of Phyllosian/Noachian terrains may provide an answer to this fundamental question. Some of the authors have received funding from the ERC (FP7/2007-2013)/ERC Grant agreement n° 280168. [1] Ehlmann B., et al. Nature, 479, 53-60 (2011). [2] Carter J., et al. JGR, 118, 831-858 (2013) [3] Velde B., et al. Ed. Springer, Berlin, (1995). [4] Wilson M. Clay Minerals, 39, 233-266 (2004). [5] Gaudin A., et al. Icarus, 216(1), 257-268 (2011). [6] Loizeau D., et al. Icarus, 205, 396-418 (2010). [7] Noe Dobrea E., et al. JGR, 115, E00D19 (2010). [8] Le Deit L., et al. JGR, 117, E00J05 (2012). [9] Carter J., et al. LPSC 2012, p.1755

Loizeau, Damien; Carter, John; Mangold, Nicolas; Poulet, François; Rossi, Angelo; Allemand, Pascal; Quantin, Cathy; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

2014-05-01

29

Initialisation of Land Surface Variables for Numerical Weather Prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land surface processes and their initialisation are of crucial importance for Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). Current land data assimilation systems used to initialise NWP models include snow depth analysis, soil moisture analysis, soil temperature and snow temperature analysis. This paper gives a review of different approaches used in NWP to initialise land surface variables. It discusses the observation availability and quality, and it addresses the combined use of conventional observations and satellite data. Based on results from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), results from different soil moisture and snow depth data assimilation schemes are shown. Both surface fields and low-level atmospheric variables are highly sensitive to the soil moisture and snow initialisation methods. Recent developments of ECMWF in soil moisture and snow data assimilation improved surface and atmospheric forecast performance.

de Rosnay, Patricia; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Albergel, Clément; Muñoz-Sabater, Joaquín; Isaksen, Lars

2014-05-01

30

Automated surface observing systems  

NSF Publications Database

Title : Automated surface observing systems Type : Antarctic EAM NSF Org: OD / OPP Date : August 19 ... Action Memorandum (Installation of Automated Surface Observing Systems [ASOS}) To: Director, Office ...

31

Observe the effects of mechanical weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive Earth science resource, students are first presented with six photographs, each featuring a different mechanical weathering event in which rock is broken down. Examples of the events include road damage due to ice heaving and the expansion of cracks in rocks due to tree growth. Students are instructed to click on each labeled image to see an enlarged version of it. In the enlarged view, brief text, often accompanied by visual cues such as arrows, explains the physical weathering process shown. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

32

Standardisation of Temperature Observed by Automatic Weather Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily mean, maximum and minimum surface airtemperature data were gathered from a network ofautomatic weather stations (AWS) within the Moor HouseNational Nature Reserve in northern England. Five AWSwere installed next to the official EnvironmentalChange Network weather station at Moor House. Datawere compared graphically and correction constantswere calculated to adjust data from each AWS to thestandard of the official station by

A. Joyce; J. Adamson; B. Huntley; T. Parr; R. Baxter

2001-01-01

33

Artificial weathering of wood surfaces modified by melamine formaldehyde resins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spruce and poplar samples were treated with different melamine formaldehyde resins. A long term artificial weathering experiment was performed in order to clarify the resistance to weathering regarding wood colour and surface hardness. The increase in hardness due to melamine treatment was well preserved after simulated long term weathering. The treated samples also showed advantages compared to untreated reference samples

Christian Hansmann; Manabendra Deka; Rupert Wimmer; Wolfgang Gindl

2006-01-01

34

Evidence of Space Weathering Processes Across the Surface of Vesta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA s Dawn spacecraft explores the surface of Vesta, it has become abundantly clear that Vesta is like no other planetary body visited to date. Dawn is collecting global data at increasingly higher spatial resolution during its one-year orbital mission. The bulk properties of Vesta have previously been linked to the HED meteorites through remote mineral characterization of its surface from Earth-based spectroscopy. A principal puzzle has been why Vesta exhibits relatively unweathered diagnostic optical features compared to other large asteroids. Is this due to the composition of this proto-planet or the space environment at Vesta? Alteration or weathering of materials in space normally develops as the products of several processes accumulate on the surface or in an evolving particulate regolith, transforming the bedrock into fragmental material with properties that may be measurably different from the original. Data from Dawn reveal that the regolith of Vesta is exceptionally diverse. Regional surface units are observed that have not been erased by weathering with time. Several morphologically-fresh craters have excavated bright, mafic-rich materials and exhibit bright ray systems. Some of the larger craters have surrounding subdued regions (often asymmetric) that are lower in albedo and relatively red-sloped in the visible while exhibiting weaker mafic signatures. Several other prominent craters have rim exposures containing very dark material and/or display a system of prominent dark rays. Most, but not all, dark areas associated with craters exhibit significantly lower spectral contrast, suggesting that either a Vesta lithology with an opaque component has been exposed locally or that the surface has been contaminated by a relatively dark impactor. Similarly, most, but not all, bright areas associated with craters exhibit enhanced mafic signatures compared to surroundings. On a regional scale, the large south polar structure and surrounding terrain exhibit relatively strong mafic absorption features, suggesting either a concentration of mafic materials or that materials exposed have been less affected by space weathering products. These combined initial observations indicate some space weathering processes are active in this part of the main asteroid belt, but are highly variable across the surface of Vesta. Such processes include: impacts from wandering asteroidal debris and local mixing at both micro- and macro-scales, irradiation by solar wind and galactic particles, production and distribution of impact breccias or melt products, and local movement of materials to gravity lows (gradual as well as sudden).

Pieters, Carle M.; Blewett, David T.; Gaffey, Michael; Mittlefehldt, David W.; CristinaDeSanctis, Maria; Reddy, Vishnu; Coradini, Angioletta; Nathues, Andreas; Denevi, Brett W.; Li, Jian-Yang; McCord, Thomas B.; Marchi, Simone; Palmer, Eric E.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Filacchione, Gianrico; Ammannito, Eleonora; Raymond, Carol A.; Russell, Christopher T.

2011-01-01

35

Rock Rinds at Meridiani and Surface Weathering Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) on the Mars rover Opportunity can brush away surface dust and grind away outcrop surface, exposing presumably less altered rock at depths of several mm. Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) and Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) analyses of pre- and post-RAT targets, thus, provide information on the chemical nature of weathering of Meridiani outcrop rocks. To date, Opportunity has analyzed some 25 undisturbed rock surfaces, brushed and then analyzed 7 more, and ground 23 targets for IDD analysis. Panoramic camera images show that outcrop surfaces are typically either buff or purple (as viewed in bands centered at 673, 535, and 432 nm, Farrand et al., JGR, in press). Relatively flat surfaces that are approximately parallel to the ground are typically buff, whereas those that slope steeply tend to be purple. Surfaces of rock interiors ground by the RAT are also commonly purple. Spectrally, these color differences correspond to more oxidized (buff) and less oxidized (purple), and appear to relate to the degree of eolian abrasion. Flat-lying surfaces are not eroded as quickly, thus surfaces chemically weathered by exposure to tenuous atmospheric vapor may be preserved. These observations are consistent with in-situ analyses of rock surfaces and interiors. Compared to interiors, rock surfaces have about 1/3 less S, and in general, surface compositions lie between those of rock interiors and average surface soil. In detail, they differ from soil-rock mixtures as follows: surfaces are relatively depleted in Mg, Fe, Mn, Ti, and Cr, and they are enriched in Al, Na, K, P, Cl, and Si. From MB analyses, surfaces are richer (compared to soil-rock mixtures) in oxidized Fe phases and poorer in magnetite, olivine, and pyroxene. Morphologically, numerous flat-lying rocks and outcrop surfaces that are at or near the ground surface have a rind of erosionally resistant material. Such rinds are also chemically distinct from outcrop interiors. A rind/subjacent rock pair analyzed in detail was "Lemon Rind" and "Strawberry," ca. sols 555-560. The rind is depleted in S (balanced mainly by increased Si and Al) and, compared to a soil-rock mixture, it is depleted in Mg, Ti, Cr, Mn, and slightly in Fe, and it is enriched in Na, Cl, K, and P. Differences between rock surfaces and interiors, and between hardened weathering rinds and rock interiors, are consistent with loss of Mg-sulfate, oxidation of mafic minerals, enrichment of siliciclastic material, e.g., feldspar, and enrichment in chloride. These changes are consistent with slow rates of chemical weathering via interaction with small amounts of atmospheric water vapor or condensation. Erosionally resistant rinds may be related to preservation of aqueous condensate by a thin cover of soil on flat, near-surface rocks.

Jolliff, B.; Knoll, A.; Farrand, W.; Sullivan, R.

2006-12-01

36

A New Perspective on Surface Weather Maps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-dimensional weather map is actually a physical representation of three-dimensional atmospheric conditions at a specific point in time. Abstract thinking is required to visualize this two-dimensional image in three-dimensional form. But once that visualization is accomplished, many of the meteorological concepts and processes conveyed by the…

Meyer, Steve

2006-01-01

37

Generation of Multivariate Surface Weather Series with Use of the Stochastic Weather Generator Linked to Regional Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The regional-scale simulations of weather-sensitive processes (e.g. hydrology, agriculture and forestry) for the present and/or future climate often require high resolution meteorological inputs in terms of the time series of selected surface weather characteristics (typically temperature, precipitation, solar radiation, humidity, wind) for a set of stations or on a regular grid. As even the latest Global and Regional Climate Models (GCMs and RCMs) do not provide realistic representation of statistical structure of the surface weather, the model outputs must be postprocessed (downscaled) to achieve the desired statistical structure of the weather data before being used as an input to the follow-up simulation models. One of the downscaling approaches, which is employed also here, is based on a weather generator (WG), which is calibrated using the observed weather series and then modified (in case of simulations for the future climate) according to the GCM- or RCM-based climate change scenarios. The present contribution uses the parametric daily weather generator M&Rfi to follow two aims: (1) Validation of the new simulations of the present climate (1961-1990) made by the ALADIN-Climate/CZ (v.2) Regional Climate Model at 25 km resolution. The WG parameters will be derived from the RCM-simulated surface weather series and compared to those derived from observational data in the Czech meteorological stations. The set of WG parameters will include selected statistics of the surface temperature and precipitation (characteristics of the mean, variability, interdiurnal variability and extremes). (2) Testing a potential of RCM output for calibration of the WG for the ungauged locations. The methodology being examined will consist in using the WG, whose parameters are interpolated from the surrounding stations and then corrected based on a RCM-simulated spatial variability. The quality of the weather series produced by the WG calibrated in this way will be assessed in terms of selected climatic characteristics focusing on extreme precipitation and temperature characteristics (including characteristics of dry/wet/hot/cold spells). Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of projects ALARO (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation), WG4VALUE (project LD12029 sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports) and VALUE (COST ES 1102 action).

Dubrovsky, M.; Farda, A.; Huth, R.

2012-12-01

38

Use of meteorological satellite observations in weather modification programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential value of weather satellite data in field operations of weather modification is appraised. It was found that satellites could play a useful role in operational weather modification projects, particularly in the recognition of treatment opportunities. Satellite cloud photographs and infrared observations appear promising in the identification of treatment opportunities in seeding orographic cloud systems for increased snowpack, in seeding convective clouds for increased rainfall, in identifying hail threats, and in tracking and observing hurricanes as an aid to timing and location of seeding treatments. It was concluded that the potential value of satellite data in the treatment and evaluation phases of operational projects is not as great as in the recognition of treatment opportunity.

Dennis, A. S.; Smith, P. L., Jr.; Biswas, K. R.

1973-01-01

39

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a first grade weather unit. SEASONS Fall Winter Build a Snowman Spring Summer What things determine and effect the weather? Cloud Precipitation Sunshine Temperature Visibility Wind Direction Wind Force WEATHER VIDEOS Tornado Hurricane Hail Lightning FUN AND GAMES Dress the Bear for the Weather The Great Weather Race Game Weather coloring books for kids ...

Stearns, Ms.

2008-10-25

40

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is written for fourth grade students. Students will explore weather and the effects it has on their lives. What is weather? video of what is weather Let's take a walk through the weather. Put on your hats and coats! Clouds Cloud Types Clouds - Dan's Wild Weather Page What to Wear? What to Wear? What to Drink? Weather Patterns and Climatic Regions ...

Bullough, Ms.

2010-06-24

41

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered how the weather man, or meteorolgist, on TV knows what to say about tomorrow\\'s weather? It\\'s because they have certain tools that they use that help them predict what the weather will be. Throughout this school year you are going to be making tools and predicting weather just like a meterorologist! Task You are going to be weather forcasters! You are going to record and track weather patterns throughout the year. You will also use weather tools to make predictions about the weather like real weather forecasters! The Process 1. First we need to learn a little bit about weather so ...

Williams, Ms.

2005-10-25

42

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This course handout covers the processes and effects of weathering. The purpose of this handout is to contrast weathering and erosion, contrast and discuss chemical and mechanical weathering, list the products resulting from the chemical weathering of igneous rocks, and list and discuss the factors that influence the type and rate of rock weathering. Many photographs accompany this summary which depict weathered landscapes. Links are provided to the online Physical Geology resources at Georgia Perimeter College.

Gore, Pamela

1995-08-29

43

Surface chemistry associated with the cooling and subaerial weathering of recent basalt flows  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The surface chemistry of fresh and weathered historical basalt flows was characterized using surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Surfaces of unweathered 1987-1990 flows from the Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, exhibited variable enrichment in Al, Mg, Ca, and F due to the formation of refractory fluoride compounds and pronounced depletion in Si and Fe from the volatilization of SiF4 and FeF3 during cooling. These reactions, as predicted from shifts in thermodynamic equilibrium with temperature, are induced by diffusion of HF from the flow interiors to the cooling surface. The lack of Si loss and solid fluoride formation for recent basalts from the Krafla Volcano, Iceland, suggest HF degassing at higher temperatures. Subsequent short-term subaerial weathering reactions are strongly influenced by the initial surface composition of the flow and therefore its cooling history. Successive samples collected from the 1987 Kilauea flow demonstrated that the fluoridated flow surfaces leached to a predominantly SiO2 composition by natural weathering within one year. These chemically depleted surfaces were also observed on Hawaiian basalt flows dating back to 1801 AD. Solubility and kinetic models, based on thermodynamic and kinetic data for crystalline AlF3, MgF2, and CaF2, support observed elemental depletion rates due to chemical weathering. Additional loss of alkalis from the Hawaiian basalt occurs from incongruent dissolution of the basalt glass substrate during weathering. ?? 1992.

White, A. F.; Hochella, Jr. , M. F.

1992-01-01

44

Weather observations on Whistler Mountain during five storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A greater understanding of precipitation formation processes over complex terrain near the west coast of British Colombia will contribute to many relevant applications, such as climate studies, local hydrology, transportation, and winter sport competition. The phase of precipitation is difficult to determine because of the warm and moist weather conditions experienced during the wintertime in coastal mountain ranges. The goal of this study is to investigate the wide range of meteorological conditions that generated precipitation on Whistler Mountain from 4-12 March 2010 during the SNOW-V10 field campaign. During this time period, five different storms were documented in detail and were associated with noticeably different meteorological conditions in the vicinity of Whistler Mountain. New measurement techniques, along with the SNOW-V10 instrumentation, were used to obtain in situ observations during precipitation events along the Whistler mountainside. The results demonstrate a high variability of weather conditions ranging from the synoptic-scale to the macro-scale. These weather events were associated with a variation of precipitation along the mountainside, such as events associated with snow, snow pellets, and rain. Only two events associated with a rain-snow transition along the mountainside were observed, even though above-freezing temperatures along the mountainside were recorded 90 % of the time. On a smaller scale, these events were also associated with a high variability of snowflake types that were observed simultaneously near the top of Whistler Mountain. Overall, these detailed observations demonstrate the importance of understanding small-scale processes to improve observational techniques, short-term weather prediction, and longer-term climate projections over mountainous regions.

Thériault, Julie M.; Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Fisico, Teresa; Stewart, Ronald E.; Joe, Paul; Gultepe, Ismail; Clément, Marilys; Isaac, George A.

2014-01-01

45

Space based observations for monitoring extreme weather and climate events  

SciTech Connect

Observations are essential for monitoring, understanding, and predicting the potential for extreme weather and climate events. These events occur on all time and spatial scales. Current NOAA operational satellites have a unique capability of providing many of the observations that are critical for monitoring these events. These observations and derived geophysical quantities can also be used for diagnostics and prediction purposes. Extreme weather conditions such as severe thunderstorms and flash floods, occur very quickly, may last for a short time, and create a considerable amount of damage. Advance warnings of the order of a few minutes are needed to alert the public so they may take adequate precautions. Some extreme weather conditions such as tropical storms (hurricanes) may last for days, and in order to predict the exact track, intensity of the storm and forecast the land fall, frequent observations are critical. Examples of satellite data that are obtained from the NOAA satellites are presented to demonstrate their ability to monitor the extreme weather phenomena. Examples of extreme climate conditions are droughts over continents and the annual depletion of ozone over the Antarctic. Data derived from NOAA satellites were used to monitor the severe drought over Texas and Southwestern U.S.A. in early 1996. Similar data are being used by other countries to monitor the drought in their regions. The development of the ozone hole over the Antarctic during the last fifteen years has been a major scientific and environmental concern. Data from NOAA operational satellites have been extensively used to show the yearly development and dissipation of the ozone hole during the Southern Hemisphere springtime.

Rao, P.K.

1996-12-31

46

Weather.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on weather in Iowa and weather lore. The bulletin contains historical articles, fiction, activities, and maps. The table of contents lists: (1) "Wild Rosie's Map"; (2) "History Mystery"; (3) "Iowa's Weather History"; (4) "Weather Wonders"; (6) "Seasonal Jobs"; (7) "Fiction: Winter Courage"; (8) "Stayin'…

Ruth, Amy, Ed.

1996-01-01

47

Land-surface influences on weather and climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Land-surface influences on weather and climate are reviewed. The interrelationship of vegetation, evapotranspiration, atmospheric circulation, and climate is discussed. Global precipitation, soil moisture, the seasonal water cycle, heat transfer, and atmospheric temperature are among the parameters considered in the context of a general biosphere model.

Baer, F.; Mintz, Y.

1984-01-01

48

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Introduction: How much do you know about weather? What kinds of weather do we have surrounding us? What is the weather like today? You may know a lot about weather already, you may not. Either way, you will learn more now as we take a look into what causes our weather and the methods we use to record and predict it. We will all become meteorologists, which are scientists who study the atmosphere and can predict weather. Put on your raincoats, and lets started! Task: You are the resident meteorologist at a local news station. It is your job to record and predict the weather each day, and then present it that night on the evening news. Not only should you be able to show the weather that we will be experiencing right ...

Hendricks, Ms.

2007-12-06

49

Passive acoustics embedded on gliders-Weather observation through ambient noise.  

PubMed

Underwater gliders can provide high resolution water temperature and salinity profiles. Being able to associate them with a surface weather conditions estimation would allow to better study sea-air interactions. Since in-situ observations of the marine meteorological parameters are difficult, the development of a glider embedded weather sensor has been studied, based on the WOTAN approach. In the 1-30 kHz frequency range, the background underwater noise is dominated by wind generated noise. Focusing on the sound pressure level at 5, 8, 10, and 20 kHz allows to estimate the wind speed. Thus, deploying a glider with an embedded hydrophone gives an access to the surface weather conditions around its position. We have deployed gliders in the Mediterranean sea, with passive acoustic monitoring devices onboard. Four months of data have been recorded. Wind speed estimations have been confronted to weather buoys observations and atmospheric models predictions. Wind estimates have been obtained with a ~2 m/s error. A specific emphasis has been placed on the robustness of the processing through multi frequencies analysis and depth induced attenuation correction. A downscaling study has been performed on the acoustic sampling protocol, in order to meet the low energy consumption glider standards, for a future real time embedded processing. The glider generated noise and its vertical movement are not perturbing the estimation. Moreover, the surface behavior of the Slocum gliders allows an estimation of the wind direction. PMID:25235659

Cauchy, Pierre; Testor, Pierre; Mortier, Laurent; Beguery, Laurent; Bouin, Marie-Noelle

2014-04-01

50

Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the different types of weather? In this project you will compare different types of weather by drawing pictures and making it into a flip book. First you will begin by learning about the different types of weather. Read about each topic. Then get together with your partner and draw a picture of each type of weather. 1. Thunder storm Thunder storm Thunder storm Kids 2. Lightning Lightning Lightning picture 3. Tornado Tornadoes Tornado Kids 4. ...

Jennie, Miss

2009-10-22

51

Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

Huang, Xianai; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Boluk, Yaman; Krause, Cornélia

2013-01-01

52

Surface radiation balance in Antarctica as measured with automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present 4 years of near-surface radiation balance observations of four Antarctic automatic weather stations (AWS). The AWS are situated along a traverse line in Dronning Maud Land, connecting the coastal ice shelf and the inland plateau via the katabatic wind zone, covering the three major climate regimes of East Antarctica. Important differences in the radiation balance of the three

Michiel van den Broeke; Carleen Reijmer; Roderik van de Wal

2004-01-01

53

Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) mostly uses conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute, 30-minute, and 1440-minute (daily) averages of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and precipitation at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) climate research site. The SMOSs are not calibrated as systems. The sensors and the data logger (which includes the analog-to-digital converter, or A/D) are calibrated separately. All systems are installed using components that have a current calibration. SMOSs have not been installed at extended facilities located within about 10 km of existing surface meteorological stations, such as those of the Oklahoma Mesonet. The Surface Meteorological Observation Systems are used to create climatology for each particular location, and to verify the output of numerical weather forecast and other model output. They are also used to “ground-truth” other remote sensing equipment.

Ritsche, MT

2008-03-01

54

Personal Computers, Weather Observations, and the National Climatic Data Center.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The personal computer (PC) has become an important part of meteorological observing, telecommunications, forecasting, research, and data-management systems. The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) is the nation's quality-control and archival facility for weather data. NCDC's digital archive consists of more than 200 data sets which are stored on over 50 000 reels of high-density magnetic tape. Its size and complexity make on-line access to the complete archive via PC and modem impractical. However, NCDC recognizes the growing importance of PCs in climatic applications and, since 1984, has made selected data sets available in a PC-readable format.The data sets available on diskette fall into the following broad categories: hourly observations, daily observations, derived quantities, and summary statistics. The period of record varies with each data set and with each station. In the digital archive, daily observations generally begin in the late 1800's to the early 1900's, and hourly observations generally begin in the mid 1900's.A review of NCDC data operations and products puts the digital archive into an operational perspective. The two formats (BASIC sequential element, and fixed-position fields) in which data-set diskettes are available are sumniafized. BASIC-sequential-element files can be "imported" into a LOTUS-type spreadsheet.NCDC is also responsible for describing the nation's climate. These functions have been condensed into a climatological data-management and analysis software package, called CLICOM, which can be run on a PC.

Heim, Richard, Jr.

1988-05-01

55

Effect of accelerated weathering on surface chemistry of modified wood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effects of UV-light irradiation and water spray on colour and surface chemistry of scots pine sapwood samples were investigated. The specimens were treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA), a metal-free propiconazol-based formulation, chitosan, furfuryl alcohol and linseed and tall oils. The weathering experiment was performed by cycles of 2 h UV-light irradiation followed by water spray for 18 min. The changes at the surface of the weathered samples were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR); colour characterizations were performed by measuring CIELab parameters. The results show that all treatment methods except chitosan treatment provided lower colour changes than the control groups after 800 h exposure in weathering test cycle, but differences between chitosan and control were also small. The lowest colour changes were found on linseed oil (full cell process) and CCA treated wood. FT-IR results show that oil treatment (linseed and tall oil) decreased the intensities of a lignin specific peak (1500-1515 cm -1). Absorption band changes at 1630-1660 cm -1 were reduced by all treatments.

Temiz, Ali; Terziev, Nasko; Eikenes, Morten; Hafren, Jonas

2007-04-01

56

Surface weathering and dispersibility of MC252 crude oil.  

PubMed

Results from a comprehensive oil weathering and dispersant effectiveness study of the MC252 crude oil have been used to predict changes in oil properties due to weathering on the sea surface and to estimate the effective "time window" for dispersant application under various sea conditions. MC252 oil is a light paraffinic crude oil, for which approximately 55wt.% will evaporate within 3-5days when drifting on the sea. An unstable and low-viscosity water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion are formed during the first few days at the sea surface. This allows a high degree of natural dispersion when exposed to breaking wave conditions. Under calm sea conditions, a more stable and light-brown/orange colored water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion may start to form after several days, and viscosities of 10,000-15,000mPas can be achieved after 1-2weeks. The "time window" for effective use of dispersants was estimated to be more than 1week weathering at sea. PMID:25152185

Daling, Per S; Leirvik, Frode; Almås, Inger Kjersti; Brandvik, Per Johan; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Lewis, Alun; Reed, Mark

2014-10-15

57

Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.  

PubMed

The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management. PMID:25350507

Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

2014-01-01

58

Widespread Weathered Glass on the Surface of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low albedo sediments cover >10(exp 7) sq km in the northern lowlands of Mars, but the composition and origin of these widespread deposits have remained ambiguous despite many previous investigations. Here we use near-infrared spectra acquired by the Mars Express OMEGA (Observatoire pour la Mineralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces, et l'Activite') imaging spectrometer to show that these sediments exhibit spectral characteristics that are consistent with both high abundances of iron-bearing glass and silica-enriched leached rinds on glass. This interpretation is supported by observations of low-albedo soil grains with possible rinds at the Phoenix Mars Lander landing site in the northern lowlands. By comparison with the extensive glass-rich dune fields and sand sheets of Iceland, we propose an explosive volcanic origin for these glass-rich sediments. We also propose that the glassy remnant rinds on the sediments are the result of post-depositional alteration, as these rinds are commonly formed in arid terrestrial volcanic environments during water-limited, moderately acidic leaching. These weathered, glass-rich deposits in the northern lowlands are also colocated with the strongest concentrations of a major global compositional surface type previously identified in mid-infrared spectra, suggesting that they may be representative of global processes. Our results provide potential confirmation of models suggesting that explosive volcanism has been widespread on Mars, and also raise the possibilities that glass-rich volcaniclastics are a major source of eolian sand on Mars and that widespread surficial aqueous alteration has occurred under Amazonian climatic conditions.

Horgan, Briony; Bell, James F., III

2012-01-01

59

Review Lightning Sensors for Observing, Tracking and Nowcasting Severe Weather  

E-print Network

Abstract: Severe and extreme weather is a major natural hazard all over the world, often resulting in major natural disasters such as hail storms, tornados, wind storms, flash floods, forest fires and lightning damages. While precipitation, wind, hail, tornados, turbulence, etc. can only be observed at close distances, lightning activity in these damaging storms can be monitored at all spatial scales, from local (using very high frequency [VHF] sensors), to regional (using very low frequency [VLF] sensors), and even global scales (using extremely low frequency [ELF] sensors). Using sensors that detect the radio waves emitted by each lightning discharge, it is now possible to observe and track continuously distant thunderstorms using ground networks of sensors. In addition to the number of lightning discharges, these sensors can also provide information on lightning characteristics such as the ratio between intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning, the polarity of the lightning discharge, peak currents, charge removal, etc. It has been shown that changes in some of these lightning characteristics during thunderstorms are often related to changes in the severity of the storms. In this paper different lightning observing systems are described, and a few examples are provided showing how lightning may be used to monitor storm hazards around the globe, while also providing the possibility of supplying short term forecasts, called nowcasting.

Colin Price

60

Lightning Sensors for Observing, Tracking and Nowcasting Severe Weather  

PubMed Central

Severe and extreme weather is a major natural hazard all over the world, often resulting in major natural disasters such as hail storms, tornados, wind storms, flash floods, forest fires and lightning damages. While precipitation, wind, hail, tornados, turbulence, etc. can only be observed at close distances, lightning activity in these damaging storms can be monitored at all spatial scales, from local (using very high frequency [VHF] sensors), to regional (using very low frequency [VLF] sensors), and even global scales (using extremely low frequency [ELF] sensors). Using sensors that detect the radio waves emitted by each lightning discharge, it is now possible to observe and track continuously distant thunderstorms using ground networks of sensors. In addition to the number of lightning discharges, these sensors can also provide information on lightning characteristics such as the ratio between intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground lightning, the polarity of the lightning discharge, peak currents, charge removal, etc. It has been shown that changes in some of these lightning characteristics during thunderstorms are often related to changes in the severity of the storms. In this paper different lightning observing systems are described, and a few examples are provided showing how lightning may be used to monitor storm hazards around the globe, while also providing the possibility of supplying short term forecasts, called nowcasting.

Price, Colin

2008-01-01

61

Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Flash resource provides information regarding physical and chemical weathering at an introductory physical geology or Earth science level. It includes animations, diagrams, and supplementary information and is suitable for high school or undergraduate students.

Smoothstone; Mifflin, Houghton

62

Bacillus qingshengii sp. nov., a rock-weathering bacterium isolated from weathered rock surface.  

PubMed

A novel type of rock-weathering bacterium was isolated from weathered rock (tuff) surface collected from Dongxiang (Jiangxi, eastern China). Cells of strain G19(T) were Gram-reaction-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and non-motile. The strain was aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and grew optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain G19(T) was shown to belong to the genus Bacillus and the closest phylogenetic relatives were Bacillus aryabhattai B8W22(T) (97.4%) and Bacillus megaterium IAM 13418(T) (97.1%). The DNA G+C content was 36.7 mol% and the predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids were iso-C14 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0. The polar lipid profile of strain G19(T) contained phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified lipid. Based on the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness (ranging from 49.4% to 55.0%) to these type strains of species of the genus Bacillus and unique phenotypic characteristics, strain G19(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus qingshengii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G19(T) (?= CCTCC AB 2013273(T)?= JCM 19454(T)). PMID:24801156

Xi, Jun; He, Lin-Yan; Huang, Zhi; Sheng, Xia-Fang

2014-07-01

63

WHAT TO DO DURING SEVERE WEATHER WHILE ON CAMPUS If you observe a tornado/severe weather, you hear tornado sirens sound or receive a  

E-print Network

WHAT TO DO DURING SEVERE WEATHER WHILE ON CAMPUS If you observe a tornado/severe weather, you hear Clear Emergency Notification Text: OU Alert: The weather danger has passed. You may resume normal activity. New this season is our 2014 Severe Weather Procedure for Particularly Dangerous Storm (PDS

Oklahoma, University of

64

Observation of Dyakonov Surface Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first experimental observation of Dyakonov surface waves existing at the interface of transparent anisotropic crystals. A Otto-Kretchmann configuration was used to excite the surface waves at the interface between a potassium titanyl phosphate biaxial crystal and an index-matching liquid fulfilling the conditions at which the waves exist. The signature of surface wave excitation was obtained by using

Osamu Takayama; Lucian Crasovan; David Artigas; Lluis Torner

2009-01-01

65

Development of a Graphical User Interface to Visualize Surface Observations  

SciTech Connect

Thousands of worldwide observing stations provide meteorological information near the earth's surface as often as once each hour. This surface data may be plotted on geographical maps to provide the meteorologist useful information regarding weather patterns for a region of interest. This report describes the components and applications of a graphical user interface which have been developed to visualize surface observations at any global location and time of interest.

Buckley, R.L.

1998-07-13

66

Experimental observations of the effects of bacteria on aluminosilicate weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral dissolution experiments using batch cultures of soil and groundwater bacteria were monitored with solution chemistry and various microscopic techniques to determine the effects of these organisms on weathering reactions. Several strains of bacteria produced organic and inorganic acids and extracellular polymers in culture, increasing the release of cations from biotite (Si, Fe, Al) and plagioclase feldspar (Si, Al) by

W. W. Barker; S. A. Welch; S. Chu; J. F. Banfield

1998-01-01

67

Training Guide in Surface SAWRS Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a replacement of the 1949 primary training manual for supplementary aeronautical weather reports, instructions are presented in this Training Paper No. 5 for the purpose of guiding learners through their study of the Weather Service Observing Handbook (WSOH) No. 4. The content is divided into six chapters concerned with such topics as…

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD. National Weather Service.

68

Formation of the Surface Space Charge Layer in Fair Weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely known that the positive space charge, caused by electrode effect action, is obtained near surface in fair weather. Space charge density depends on the different local features: meteorological conditions, aerosol particles concentration, convective transfer of the surface layer. Namely space charge determines the local variations of electric field. Space charge could be negative in condition of strong ionization rate in thin air layer near surface. The electrodynamic model, consisting of transfer equations of light ions and nucleuses, generated by interactions between lights ions and aerosol particles, and Poisson equation. The turbulent transfer members, electric field near the surface, the mobility of positive and negative ions, recombination coefficient, ionization rate, the number of elementary charges on the nuclei were took into account in the model equations. The time-space variations of positive and negative small and heavy ions, electric field, electrical conductivity, current density and space charge, depending on aerosol particles concentrations, turbulence and convective transfer ionization rate, aerosol particles size and number of charged on the particles are calculated. The mechanisms of turbulent and convection-turbulent surface layer electrodynamic structure forming in dependence of single and multi-charged aerosol particles for different physical and meteorological conditions are investigated. Increasing of turbulent mixing intensity leads to increasing of character electrode layer thickness, decreasing of space charge density value, decreasing of electric current conductivity value. The electrode effect of the whole layer remains constant. Increasing of aerosol particles concentration leads to decreasing of electrode effect within the whole electrode layer and increasing of electric field values, decreasing of space charge density values and current conductivity density. It was received that increasing of the aerosol particles concentration under weak turbulent mixing leads to increasing of the negative space charge density and its displacement to the surface level. Under severe contamination condition the electrodynamic structure of surface layer is primarily determined by negative space charge, generated by nucleuses. It was received that in case of small aerosol particles the surface layer electrodynamic structure is basically established by single- and double-charged particles. Single-charged and double-charged as triply-charged, fourfold-charged and fivefold-charged aerosol particles primarily affect on electrodynamic structure of the surface layer in case of increasing of aerosol particles size. The local variations of the electric field in different conditions were studied. Theoretical results are in a good agreement with experimental facts.

Redin, Alexander; Kupovykh, Gennady; Boldyreff, Anton

2014-05-01

69

Data assimilation of dead fuel moisture observations from remote automated weather stations  

E-print Network

Fuel moisture has a major influence on the behavior of wildland fires and is an important underlying factor in fire risk assessment. We propose a method to assimilate dead fuel moisture content observations from remote automated weather stations (RAWS) into a time-lag fuel moisture model. RAWS are spatially sparse and a mechanism is needed to estimate fuel moisture content at locations potentially distant from observational stations. This is arranged using a trend surface model (TSM), which allows us to account for the effects of topography and atmospheric state on the spatial variability of fuel moisture content. At each location of interest, the TSM provides a pseudo-observation, which is assimilated via Kalman filtering. The method is tested with the time-lag fuel moisture model in the coupled weather-fire code WRF-SFIRE on 10-hr fuel moisture content observations from Colorado RAWS in 2013. We show using leave-one-out testing that the TSM compares favorably with inverse squared distance interpolation as u...

Vejmelka, Martin; Mandel, Jan

2014-01-01

70

Geomorphic controls on mineral weathering, elemental transport, and production of mineral surface area in a schist bedrock weathering profile, Piedmont Pennsylvania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess a deep chemical weathering profile in the context of geomorphic evolution in the Laurels Schist, a late proterozoic greenschist formation in the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory located in the Piedmont region in southeastern Pennsylvania. Two 21-meter deep rotosonic drill cores were sampled at the ridge top and footslope positions in a first-order, forested watershed. The top meter was sampled at high-resolution in a soil pit adjacent to each drill core and along a hillslope transect to assess geomorphic controls on the weathering profile. Weathering processes in soil and saprolite were examined by observing changes in mineralogy, including the emergence of secondary phyllosilicate and oxide minerals; measuring specific surface area of bulk soil and saprolite; and by quantifying elemental mass changes of major and minor rock-forming elements. Mineral profiles were assessed using clay and bulk XRD, and reveal that kaolinite, a common secondary phyllosilicate, is present above 1.5 meters in the weathering profile. Specific surface area (SSA) values decrease with increasing depth to a critical depth around 2 meters, where the values of untreated (carbon-loaded) and muffled (carbon removed by heating) mineral grains converge to baseline SSA values below 10 m2g-1, indicating that carbon is sorbed with mineral surface area in the upper 2 meters. Immobile element concentrations decrease with increasing depth up to 3 meters, indicating that the preferential removal of mobile elements extends beyond the depth of C-mineral adsorption. Variability of immobile elements in the deep weathering profile reveal variations that could be the result of weathering in fractures but are more likely inherited by the rock composition and particle size of pre-metamorphosed parent rock.

Wenell, B.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mahoney, J. B.; Lepak, L.

2013-12-01

71

Impact of various observing systems on weather analysis and forecast over the Indian region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

investigate the potential impact of various types of data on weather forecast over the Indian region, a set of data-denial experiments spanning the entire month of July 2012 is executed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) data assimilation system. The experiments are designed to allow the assessment of mass versus wind observations and terrestrial versus space-based instruments, to evaluate the relative importance of the classes of conventional instrument such as radiosonde, and finally to investigate the role of individual spaceborne instruments. The moist total energy norm is used for validation and forecast skill assessment. The results show that the contribution of wind observations toward error reduction is larger than mass observations in the short range (48 h) forecast. Terrestrial-based observations generally contribute more than space-based observations except for the moisture fields, where the role of the space-based instruments becomes more prevalent. Only about 50% of individual instruments are found to be beneficial in this experiment configuration, with the most important role played by radiosondes. Thereafter, Meteosat Atmospheric Motion Vectors (AMVs) (only for short range forecast) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are second and third, followed by surface observations, Sounder for Probing Vertical Profiles of Humidity (SAPHIR) radiances and pilot observations. Results of the additional experiments of comparative performance of SSM/I total precipitable water (TPW), Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS), and SAPHIR radiances indicate that SSM/I is the most important instrument followed by SAPHIR and MHS for improving the quality of the forecast over the Indian region. Further, the impact of single SAPHIR instrument (onboard Megha-Tropiques) is significantly larger compared to three MHS instruments (onboard NOAA-18/19 and MetOp-A).

Singh, Randhir; Ojha, Satya P.; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

2014-09-01

72

Ground-based observations of the fair weather vertical current response to solar disturbances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global atmospheric Electric Circuit (GEC) is a conceptual model that represents the observed variable and quasi-static electrical properties of the atmosphere in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. The DC component of the GEC is typified by an average potential difference of 250 kV between the upper and lower conducting layers of the surface and ionosphere, leading to a near-surface electric field (Ez) of potential gradient ~130 V m-1, and a steady downward-flowing fair-weather current density (Jz) of ~2 pA m-2. By separation the steady global circuit current from short-term fluctuations, Jz provides information on local and global conductivity changes due to aerosols, air-pollution and solar activity. This talk will present evidence for the effects of geomagnetic storms and sub-storms on the fair weather vertical current, based on results from continuous measurements of Jz conducted at the Wise Observatory in Mitzpe-Ramon, Israel (30°35'N, 34°45'E) with the GDACCS instrument (Bennett and Harrison, 2008). We studied 3 coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which included solar proton events (SPE) on 26.09.11, 24.10.11 and 08.03.12. In all three events, fluctuations in Jz increased by an order of magnitude compared to normal fair weather conditions. The dynamic spectrum of the increased fluctuations exhibit peaks in the Pc5 frequency range. Similar low frequency characteristics occur during periods of enhanced solar wind proton density. During the 24.10.11 event, the periods of increased fluctuations in Jz lasted for 7 hours and coincided with fluctuations of the inter-planetary magnetic field (IMF) that were detected by the ACE satellite. The observed current density fluctuations occurred at a period when Bz<0 and when it was highly variable, suggesting the possibility for magnetic reconnection with ensuing changes in ionospheric properties. These low-latitude observations probably represent a response of the GEC to the solar induced geomagnetic sub-storms, perhaps arising from the synergy of several mechanisms. Bennett, A.J. and Harrison, R.G., (2008). Surface measurement system for the atmospheric electrical vertical conduction current density, with displacement current density correction, J Atmos & Solar-Terrestrial Physics 70 1373-1381

Elhalal, G.; Yair, Y.; Harrison, R.; Nicoll, K.; Price, C. G.; Yaniv, R.

2013-12-01

73

Mercury's Weather-Beaten Surface: Understanding Mercury in the Context of Lunar and Asteroid Space Weathering Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the composition of Mercury's crust is key to comprehending the formation of the planet. The regolith, derived from the crustal bedrock, has been altered via a set of space weathering processes. These processes are the same set of mechanisms that work to form Mercury's exosphere, and are moderated by the local space environment and the presence of an intrinsic planetary magnetic field. The alterations need to be understood in order to determine the initial crustal compositions. The complex interrelationships between Mercury's exospheric processes, the space environment, and surface composition are examined and reviewed. The processes are examined in the context of our understanding of these same processes on the lunar and asteroid regoliths. Keywords: Mercury (planet) Space weathering Surface processes Exosphere Surface composition Space environment 3

Dominque, Deborah L.; Chapman, Clark R.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Schriver, David; Sprague, Ann L.; Blewett, David T.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Feldman, William C.; Lawrence, David J.; Ho, George C.; Vilas, Faith; Pieters, Carle M.; McClintock, William E.; Helbert, Jorn

2011-01-01

74

Martian Weathering Environments of the Amazonian Indicated by Correlated Morphologic and Spectral Observation in Acidalia Planitia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While much attention has been given to chemical alteration and the state of water on early Mars, it remains important to understand aqueous processes throughout Martian history, including the recent geologic past. It has been suggested that the Amazonian was marked primarily by anhydrous, oxidative weathering because Amazonian surfaces, such as the northern plains, lack hydration features in near-infrared spectra [1]. But high-silica materials (Surface Type 2, ST2) discovered by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer [2] that occur in the northern plains attest to aqueous alteration of silicate minerals. The questions are when did this occur and by what process? ST2 correlates spatially with outflow sediments and high-silica materials may have formed in large amounts of water related to outflow flooding events of the late Hesperian [3,4]. ST2 also may correspond to global ice-rich mantles, indicating formation in icy environments related to geologically recent climate fluctuations [3]. Can these very different mechanisms and environments be discerned? In a global study of TES spectra, Rogers et al. (2007) [5] found significant spectral differences between ST2 surfaces in northern and southern Acidalia Planitia that occur near 40-50° N. Several geomorphic transitions occur across latitudes, and many of these are directly or potentially related to Amazonian periglacial activity and occur in the 40-50° N range. This potential link between composition and periglacial morphology needs further exploration. We examined this relationship from 40-50° N in Acidalia Planitia, using Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) multispectral data to measure the local spectral properties of the surface. We identified a boundary between two surface spectral types that match closely the spectra of north and south Acidalia derived by Rogers et al. [2007]. This boundary is diffuse, occurring between 47-48° N in our study region in western Acidalia, and correlates with observed morphologic and thermophysical differences. Close examination of those surfaces with High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images shows that the area north of the boundary is a modified version of the southern surface, subdued and overprinted by periglacial polygonal ground. Thus, we think that ground ice has modified the surface morphology and, furthermore, that periglacial processing also modified the silicate composition of the northern surface materials. Weathering that created the northern Acidalia composition involved ground ice, and was likely similar to weathering in Antarctic soils, in which silica is mobilized by thin water films and deposited as gels [6]. By this mechanism, aqueous weathering on Mars has probably persisted into, and throughout, the Amazonian. References: [1] Bibring et al. (2006) Science, 312, 400-404. [2] Bandfield et al. (2000) Science, 287, 1626-1630. [3] Wyatt et al. (2004) Geology, 32, 645-648. [4] Tanaka et al. (2005) USGS Sci. Invest. Map 2888. [5] Rogers et al. (2007) J. Geophys. Res.,112, E02004. [6] Ugolini and Anderson (1973), Soil Sci., 105, 461-470.

Kraft, M. D.; Rogers, D.; Fergason, R. L.; Michalski, J. R.; Sharp, T. G.

2009-12-01

75

The Role of Ground-Based GPS Meteorological Observations in Numerical Weather Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

  For lack of sufficient observations, the definition of atmospheric moisture fields (including water vapor and clouds) remains\\u000a a difficult problem whose solution is essential for improved weather forecasts. Moisture fields are under-observed in time\\u000a and space, primarily because the distribution of water in the atmosphere is highly variable. Because water is important in\\u000a weather and climate processes, a significant effort

Seth I. Gutman; Stanley G. Benjamin

2001-01-01

76

Characterizing the process and quantifying the rate of subaerial rock weathering on desert surfaces using roughness analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subaerial weathering of rocks is a common process observed on desert surfaces on Earth and other planetary terrestrial surfaces such as on Mars. On Earth, this weathering process has been previously identified as one of the key erosion agent driving geomorphic surface evolution and the development of desert pavements. And yet, fundamental aspects of the process, such as the relative contribution of the different weathering modes that drive it (e.g., mechanical breakdown of rocks, chemical weathering, aeolian abrasion and exfoliation) as well as the rate by which this weathering process occurs have not been systematically examined. Here, we present a new approach for quantitatively addressing these fundamental aspects of process geomorphology on desert surfaces. We focus here on co-genetic desert alluvial surfaces of different ages, i.e. alluvial chronosequences, which provide excellent recorders for the evolution of boulder-strewn surfaces into smooth desert pavements through in-situ subaerial weathering of rocks. Our approach combines independent measures of two different surface attributes: High resolution (mm-scale) 3D ground-based laser scanning (LiDAR) of surface micro-topography, and numerical dating of surface age. Roughness analysis of the LiDAR data in power spectral density (PSD) space allows us to characterize the geometric manifestation of rock weathering on the surface and to distinguish between the different weathering modes. Numerical age constraints provide independent estimates for the time elapsed since the process began. Accordingly, we are able to constrain surface roughness evolution on alluvial fan desert chronosequences through time, and present PSD analysis of surface roughness as a new quantitative tool to examine the process of subaerial rock weathering in desert environments. In this study we present results from two late Quaternary alluvial chronosequences along the Dead Sea Transform in the hyper-arid Negev desert of southern Israel. LiDAR scanning was applied on representative areas (~30-50 m2) of 10 separate surfaces ranging from rough Holocene surfaces to fairly smooth surfaces with well-developed pavements displaying an OSL age of 87 kyr. We find typical and recurring time-dependent changes in the offset as well as shape of the PSD curves in both chronosequences: PSD offset is continuously reduced over time reflecting the overall reduction in the amplitude of roughness at all wavelengths. The PSD curves display progressive moderation of slopes at the longer wavelengths with the moderation point itself systematically shifted to shorter wavelengths. This characteristic evolution of PSD offset and slope moderation at longer wavelengths reflects the typical break up of boulder-sized clasts through time as the surfaces mature into well-developed desert pavements and points towards mechanical breakdown as the dominant weathering mode. In addition, we are able to determine the rate by which the larger clasts are removed from the system. We build on these new insights into process and rate of rock weathering to propose PSD analysis of surface roughness as a complementary method for constraining the age of desert alluvial surfaces in places where 'conventional' dating cannot be applied.

Mushkin, Amit; Sagy, Amir; Trabelci, Eran

2013-04-01

77

Correlation of the Abundance of Betaproteobacteria on Mineral Surfaces with Mineral Weathering in Forest Soils  

PubMed Central

Pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a significant correlation between apatite dissolution and the abundance of betaproteobacteria on apatite surfaces, suggesting a role for the bacteria belonging to this phylum in mineral weathering. Notably, the cultivation-dependent approach demonstrated that the most efficient mineral-weathering bacteria belonged to the betaproteobacterial genus Burhkolderia. PMID:22798365

Lepleux, C.; Turpault, M. P.; Oger, P.; Frey-Klett, P.

2012-01-01

78

Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These middle/junior high school activities require students to find and graph factors such as wind chill and relative humidity for up to a month, drawing from datasets available on the Internet or from local sources. Students then hypothesize relationships between pairs of factors, and test their ideas using data from a site in Oklahoma with a Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS). The activities are part of the Atmospheric Visualization Collection (AVC), which focuses on data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed site.

Mccollum, Tim

2003-01-01

79

Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Navajo Sandstone aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona: Electron microscopic characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone at Black Mesa, Arizona, was characterized with high-resolution transmission and analytical electron microscope (HRTEM-AEM) and field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). Here, we report the first HRTEM observation of a 10-nm thick amorphous layer on naturally weathered K-feldspar in currently slightly alkaline groundwater. The amorphous layer is probably deficient in K and enriched in Si. In addition to the amorphous layer, the feldspar surfaces are also partially coated with tightly adhered kaolin platelets. Outside of the kaolin coatings, feldspar grains are covered with a continuous 3-5 ?m thick layer of authigenic smectite, which also coats quartz and other sediment grains. Authigenic K-feldspar overgrowth and etch pits were also found on feldspar grains. These characteristics of the aged feldspar surfaces accentuate the differences in reactivity between the freshly ground feldspar powders used in laboratory experiments and feldspar grains in natural systems, and may partially contribute to the commonly observed apparent laboratory-field dissolution rate discrepancy. At Black Mesa, feldspars in the Navajo Sandstone are dissolving at ˜10 5 times slower than laboratory rate at comparable temperature and pH under far from equilibrium condition. The tightly adhered kaolin platelets reduce the feldspar reactive surface area, and the authigenic K-feldspar overgrowth reduces the feldspar reactivity. However, the continuous smectite coating layer does not appear to constitute a diffusion barrier. The exact role of the amorphous layer on feldspar dissolution kinetics depends on the origin of the layer (leached layer versus re-precipitated silica), which is uncertain at present. However, the nanometer thin layer can be detected only with HRTEM, and thus our study raises the possibility of its wide occurrence in geological systems. Rate laws and proposed mechanisms should consider the possibility of this amorphous layer on feldspar surface.

Zhu, Chen; Veblen, David R.; Blum, Alex E.; Chipera, Stephen J.

2006-09-01

80

Nanoscopic Mechanism of Protective Rust Formation on Weathering Steel Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weathering steel, when exposed outdoors for a few years, forms a protective layer resulting in reduction of the corrosion rate. The state of rusts is fundamental for understanding its mechanism, but the structure and its relationship with the mech- anism have not been understood. In this study, a new approach was applied to reveal nano-structure of rusts with using of

Masao KIMURA; Hiroshi KIHIRA

2005-01-01

81

Developing a TeraGrid Based Land Surface Hydrology and Weather Modeling Interface  

E-print Network

on the quality of air, land, and water resources. The computation-intensive models are supported by resourcesDeveloping a TeraGrid Based Land Surface Hydrology and Weather Modeling Interface Hsin-I Chang1

Jiang, Wen

82

Development of a surface-specific, anti-weathering stone preservative treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are testing an anti-weathering preservation strategy that is specific to limestone surfaces. The strategy involves the application of a mineral-specific, bifunctional, passivating\\/coupling agent that binds to both the limestone surface and to the consolidating inorganic polymer matrix. The sol-gel based reactions form composite materials with desirable conservation and anti-weathering properties. We present the results of our efforts, the highlights

S. M. Rao; C. J. Brinkar; T. J. Ross

1997-01-01

83

Observation and research for strong meteor shower and related catastrophic space weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the first international joint observation for strong meteor shower, we made multi-subject observations for Leonids and Draconids and their disaster space weather events by several methods. Combining the synthetical analysis of Leonids, Perseids and Draconids and their related data from 1957 to 2003, we sufficiently confirm that the periodic strong meteor showers can result in the formation of catastrophic

Y. H. Ma; Y. W. He; P. X. Xu; H. B. Zhao

2007-01-01

84

Space Weathering Impact on Solar System Surfaces and Planetary Mission Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

We often look ``through a glass, darkly'' at solar system bodies with tenuous atmospheres and direct surface exposure to the local space environment. Space weathering exposure acts via universal space-surface interaction processes to produce a thin patina of outer material covering, potentially obscuring endogenic surface materials of greatest interest for understanding origins and interior evolution. Examples of obscuring exogenic layers

J. F. Cooper; R. E. Hartle; E. C. Sittler; M. A. McGrath; C. J. Alexander; J. B. Dalton; D. Pascu; C. Paranicas; C. Hibbitts; M. E. Hill; P. D. Cooper; R. E. Johnson; T. A. Cassidy; T. M. Orlando; L. J. Lanzerotti; N. A. Schwadron; K. D. Retherford; R. I. Kaiser; F. Leblanc; S. J. Sturner; R. M. Killen

2009-01-01

85

Seasonal cycles of Antarctic surface energy balance from automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic surface energy balance (SEB) using 4 years (1998-2001) of automatic weather station (AWS) data. The four AWSs are situated on an ice shelf, in the coastal and inland katabatic wind zone and the interior plateau of Dronning Maud Land. To calculate surface temperature we use a SEB closure assumption for a surface

Michiel Van den Broeke; Carleen Reijmer; As van Dirk; Roderik Van de Wal; J. Oerlemans

2005-01-01

86

Mercury's Weather-Beaten Surface: Understanding Mercury in the Context of Lunar and Asteroidal Space Weathering Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury's regolith, derived from the crustal bedrock, has been altered by a set of space weathering processes. Before we can interpret crustal composition, it is necessary to understand the nature of these surface alterations. The processes that space weather the surface are the same as those that form Mercury's exosphere (micrometeoroid flux and solar wind interactions) and are moderated by the local space environment and the presence of a global magnetic field. To comprehend how space weathering acts on Mercury's regolith, an understanding is needed of how contributing processes act as an interactive system. As no direct information (e.g., from returned samples) is available about how the system of space weathering affects Mercury's regolith, we use as a basis for comparison the current understanding of these same processes on lunar and asteroidal regoliths as well as laboratory simulations. These comparisons suggest that Mercury's regolith is overturned more frequently (though the characteristic surface time for a grain is unknown even relative to the lunar case), more than an order of magnitude more melt and vapor per unit time and unit area is produced by impact processes than on the Moon (creating a higher glass content via grain coatings and agglutinates), the degree of surface irradiation is comparable to or greater than that on the Moon, and photon irradiation is up to an order of magnitude greater (creating amorphous grain rims, chemically reducing the upper layers of grains to produce nanometer scale particles of metallic iron, and depleting surface grains in volatile elements and alkali metals). The processes that chemically reduce the surface and produce nanometer-scale particles on Mercury are suggested to be more effective than similar processes on the Moon. Estimated abundances of nanometer-scale particles can account for Mercury's dark surface relative to that of the Moon without requiring macroscopic grains of opaque minerals. The presence of nanometer-scale particles may also account for Mercury's relatively featureless visible-near-infrared reflectance spectra. Characteristics of material returned from asteroid 25143 Itokawa demonstrate that this nanometer-scale material need not be pure iron, raising the possibility that the nanometer-scale material on Mercury may have a composition different from iron metal [such as (Fe,Mg)S]. The expected depletion of volatiles and particularly alkali metals from solar-wind interaction processes are inconsistent with the detection of sodium, potassium, and sulfur within the regolith. One plausible explanation invokes a larger fine fraction (grain size <45 ?m) and more radiation-damaged grains than in the lunar surface material to create a regolith that is a more efficient reservoir for these volatiles. By this view the volatile elements detected are present not only within the grain structures, but also as adsorbates within the regolith and deposits on the surfaces of the regolith grains. The comparisons with findings from the Moon and asteroids provide a basis for predicting how compositional modifications induced by space weathering have affected Mercury's surface composition.

Domingue, Deborah L.; Chapman, Clark R.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.; Schriver, David; Trávní?ek, Pavel M.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Blewett, David T.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Feldman, William C.; Lawrence, David J.; Ho, George C.; Ebel, Denton S.; Nittler, Larry R.; Vilas, Faith; Pieters, Carle M.; Solomon, Sean C.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Winslow, Reka M.; Helbert, Jörn; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Weider, Shoshana Z.; Mouawad, Nelly; Izenberg, Noam R.; McClintock, William E.

2014-05-01

87

INDICATION OF INSENSITIVITY OF PLANETARY WEATHERING BEHAVIOR AND HABITABLE ZONE TO SURFACE LAND FRACTION  

SciTech Connect

It is likely that unambiguous habitable zone terrestrial planets of unknown water content will soon be discovered. Water content helps determine surface land fraction, which influences planetary weathering behavior. This is important because the silicate-weathering feedback determines the width of the habitable zone in space and time. Here a low-order model of weathering and climate, useful for gaining qualitative understanding, is developed to examine climate evolution for planets of various land-ocean fractions. It is pointed out that, if seafloor weathering does not depend directly on surface temperature, there can be no weathering-climate feedback on a waterworld. This would dramatically narrow the habitable zone of a waterworld. Results from our model indicate that weathering behavior does not depend strongly on land fraction for partially ocean-covered planets. This is powerful because it suggests that previous habitable zone theory is robust to changes in land fraction, as long as there is some land. Finally, a mechanism is proposed for a waterworld to prevent complete water loss during a moist greenhouse through rapid weathering of exposed continents. This process is named a 'waterworld self-arrest', and it implies that waterworlds can go through a moist greenhouse stage and end up as planets like Earth with partial ocean coverage. This work stresses the importance of surface and geologic effects, in addition to the usual incident stellar flux, for habitability.

Abbot, Dorian S.; Ciesla, Fred J. [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Cowan, Nicolas B., E-mail: abbot@uchicago.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

2012-09-10

88

Laboratory Simulations of Space Weathering of Asteroid Surfaces by Solar Wind Ions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies into the formation of the terrestrial planets rely on the analysis of asteroids and meteorites. Asteroids are solar system remnants from the planetary formation period. By characterizing their mineralogical composition we can better constrain the formation and evolution of the inner planets.Remote sensing is the primary means for studying asteroids. Sample return missions, such as Hayabusa, are complex and expensive, hence we rely on asteroid reflectance spectra to determine chemical composition. Links have been made and debated between meteorite classes and asteroid types [1, 2]. If such relationships can be confirmed, then meteorites would provide a low cost asteroid sample set for study. However, a major issue in establishing this link is the spectral differences between meteorite samples and asteroid surfaces. The most commonly invoked explanation for these differences is that the surfaces of asteroids are space weathered [2, 3]. The dominant mechanism for this weathering is believed to be solar-wind ion irradiation [2, 4, 5]. Laboratory simulations of space weathering have demonstrated changes in the general direction required to alter spectra from unweathered meteorite samples to asteroid observations [3, 6 -10], but many open questions remain and we still lack a comprehensive understanding. We propose to explore the alleged connection of ordinary chondrite (OC) meteorites to S-type asteroids through a series of systematic laboratory simulations of solar-wind space weathering of asteroid surface materials. Here we describe the issue in more detail and describe the proposed apparatus. [1] Chapman C. R. (1996) Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 31, 699-725. [2] Chapman C. R. (2004), Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 32, 539-567. [3] Hapke B. (2001) J. Ge-ophys. Res., 106, 10039-10074. [4] Pieters C.M. et al. (2000) Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 35, 1101-1107. [5] Ver-nazza P. et al. (2009) Nature, 458, 993-995. [6] Stra-zulla G. et al. (2005) Icarus, 174, 31-35 (2005). [7] Brunetto R and Strazzulla G (2005) Icarus, 179, 265-273. [8] Marchi S et al. (2005) Astron. Astrophys., 443, 769-775. [9] Loeffler M. J. et al. (2009) J. Geo-phys. Res., 114, E03003. [10] Fu X. et al. (2012) Ica-rus, 219, 630-640

Miller, Kenneth A.; De Ruette, Nathalie; Harlow, George; Domingue, Deborah L.; Savin, Daniel Wolf

2014-06-01

89

Space weathered rims found on the surfaces of the Itokawa dust particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of observations using Cs-corrected STEM, we identified three types of surface modification probably formed by space weathering on the surfaces of Itokawa particles. They are (1) redeposition rims (2-3 nm), (2) composite rims (30-60 nm), and (3) composite vesicular rims (60-80 nm). These rims are characterized by a combination of three zones. Zone I occupies the outermost part of the surface modification, which contains elements that are not included in the unchanged substrate minerals, suggesting that this zone is composed of sputter deposits and/or impact vapor deposits originating from the surrounding minerals. Redeposition rims are composed only of Zone I and directly attaches to the unchanged minerals (Zone III). Zone I of composite and composite vesicular rims often contains nanophase (Fe,Mg)S. The composite rims and the composite vesicular rims have a two-layered structure: a combination of Zone I and Zone II, below which Zone III exists. Zone II is the partially amorphized zone. Zone II of ferromagnesian silicates contains abundant nanophase Fe. Radiation-induced segregation and in situ reduction are the most plausible mechanisms to form nanophase Fe in Zone II. Their lattice fringes indicate that they contain metallic iron, which probably causes the reddening of the reflectance spectra of Itokawa. Zone II of the composite vesicular rims contains vesicles. The vesicles in Zone II were probably formed by segregation of solar wind He implanted in this zone. The textures strongly suggest that solar wind irradiation damage and implantation are the major causes of surface modification and space weathering on Itokawa.

Noguchi, Takaaki; Kimura, Makoto; Hashimoto, Takahito; Konno, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Tomoki; Zolensky, Michael E.; Okazaki, Ryuji; Tanaka, Masahiko; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Nakato, Aiko; Ogami, Toshinori; Ishida, Hatsumi; Sagae, Ryosuke; Tsujimoto, Shinichi; Matsumoto, Toru; Matsuno, Junya; Fujimura, Akio; Abe, Masanao; Yada, Toru; Mukai, Toshifumi; Ueno, Munetaka; Okada, Tatsuaki; Shirai, Kei; Ishibashi, Yukihiro

2014-02-01

90

Rates of oxidative weathering on the surface of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of acid weathering is proposed for the iron-rich basalts on Mars. Aqueous oxidation of iron sulfides released SO4(2-) and H(+) ions that initiated the dissolution of basaltic ferromagnesian silicates and released Fe(2+) ions. The Fe(2+) ions eventually underwent ferrolysis reactions and produced insoluble hydrous ferric oxide phases. Measurements of the time-dependence of acid weathering reactions show that pyrrhotite is rapidly converted to pyrite plus dissolved ferrous iron, the rate of pyrite formation decreasing with rising pH and lower temperatures. On Mars, oxidation rates of dissolved Fe(2+) ions in equatorial melt-waters in contact with the atmosphere are estimated to lie in the range 0.3-3.0 ppb Fe/yr over the pH range 2 to 6. Oxidation of Fe(2+) ions is estimated to be extremely slow in brine eutectic solutions that might be present on Mars and to be negligible in the frozen regolith.

Burns, Roger G.; Fisher, Duncan S.

1993-01-01

91

Plymouth State Weather Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Plymouth State Weather Center provides a variety of weather information, including a tropical weather menu with current and archived data on tropical depressions, storms, or hurricanes in the Atlantic or Eastern Pacific Oceans. An interactive Weather Product Generator allows students to make their own surface data maps and meteograms (24-hour summaries of weather at a specific location), and view satellite imagery. There are also interactive weather maps for the U.S., Canada, and Alaska that display the latest observations, and text servers which provide current written observations for New England and North America. A set of past and current weather data products provides information on minimum and maximum temperatures, wind chill, and heat index. In addition, there are collections of satellite loops/movies, radar/lightning images, loops, and movies, and a set of tutorials on clouds, the sun and its effects on the environment, and balanced atmospheric flows.

92

Optimal Sites for Supplementary Weather Observations: Simulation with a Small Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Anticipating the opportunity to make,supplementary,observations at locations that can depend upon the current weather situation, the question is posed as to what strategy should be adopted to select the locations, if the greatest improvement in analyses and forecasts is to be realized. To seek a preliminary answer, the authors introduce a model consisting of 40 ordinary differential equations, with

Edward N. Lorenz; Kerry A. Emanuel

1998-01-01

93

U, S. Weather Bureau. IIHurricane Carla, surface charts for 6 hourly  

E-print Network

U, S. Weather Bureau. IIHurricane Carla, surface charts for 6 hourly periods and 500 millibar charts for 12 hourly periods z OOZ, Sept,5, 1961 through 182, Sept.13, 1961. #12;dcs-is& ,C371 0,s. \\f.z4Addb-& ( i 3 u - U - k Y e 1961 HURRICANE- CARLA SURFACE CHARTS FOR 6 HOURLY PERIODS c. AND 500

94

U. S. -Weather Bureau. Hurricane Esther, surface charts for 6 hourly  

E-print Network

F 7 QC 945.2 .E821 H8 1961 U. S. -Weather Bureau. Hurricane Esther, surface charts for 6 hourly periods and 500 millibar charts for 12 hourly periods; 002, September 16, 1961 t h o u & 18Z, September 26, 1961. #12;0.5.w1 1 -HURRICANE ESTHER SURFACE CHARTS FOR 6 HOURLY PERIODS AND L 500 MILLIBAR CHARTS

95

Seasonal cycles of Antarctic surface energy balance from automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the seasonal cycle of the Antarctic surface energy balance (SEB) using 4 years (1998 2001) of automatic weather station (AWS) data. The four AWSs are situated on an ice shelf, in the coastal and inland katabatic wind zone and the interior plateau of Dronning Maud Land. To calculate surface temperature we use a SEB closure assumption for a

Michiel van den Broeke; Carleen Reijmer; Dirk van As; Roderik van de Wal; J. Oerlemans

2005-01-01

96

Evolution of Stratocumulus Over Land: Comparison of Ground and Aircraft Observations with Numerical Weather Prediction Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forecasting of low cloud continues to challenge numerical weather prediction. With this in mind, surface and airborne observations were made over East Anglia, UK, during March 2011 to investigate stratus and stratocumulus advecting from the sea over land. Four surface sites were deployed at various distances inland aligned approximately along the flow. In situ data include cloud-droplet measurements from an aircraft operating off the coast and a tethered balloon 100 km inland. Comparisons of thermodynamic and cloud properties are made with Met Office operational model simulations at horizontal resolutions of 4 and 1.5 km. The clouds contained droplet concentrations up to 600 cm^{-3} within polluted outflow off Europe. These measurements were compared to three different model schemes for predicting droplet concentration: two of them perform well at low to moderate concentrations but asymptote to 375 cm^{-3} . Microwave radiometers at the ground sites retrieved liquid water paths that reduced with distance inland and were generally below 200 g m^{-2} . The modelled water path performs well upstream but more erratically far inland. Comparisons of thermodynamic profiles are made within both Lagrangian and Eulerian frameworks and show the model predicted changes in equivalent potential temperature generally within 1 K, with occasional errors of 2 K or more. The modelled cloud-top temperatures were in good agreement with the observations down to - 7° C, but the magnitude of the temperature inversion, although good at times, was too small by on average 1.6 K. The different simulations produced different cloud-top water contents due to a combination of resolution and scientific upgrades to the model, but they generally underestimate the amount of cloud water. Major changes, such as the mesoscale temporary cloud breaks on 2 March 2011 and the complete clearance on 4 March, were seemingly predicted by the model for the correct reasons.

Osborne, Simon R.; Abel, Steven J.; Boutle, Ian A.; Marenco, Franco

2014-07-01

97

Observation of Dyakonov Surface Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. A special type of surface wave was predicted by M. I. Dyakonov in 1988. Such waves exist under special conditions at the interface of transparent anisotropic materials, and hens they are lossless. This surface waves require at least one of the two media to be an anisotropic medium, either biaxial or positive uniaxial, and various configurations

O. Takayama; L. Crasovan; D. Artigas; L. Torner

2009-01-01

98

Identifying the rotation rate and the presence of dynamic weather on extrasolar Earth-like planets from photometric observations  

E-print Network

With the recent discoveries of hundreds of extrasolar planets, the search for planets like Earth and life in the universe, is quickly gaining momentum. In the future, large space observatories could directly detect the light scattered from rocky planets, but they would not be able to spatially resolve a planet's surface. Using reflectance models and real cloud data from satellite observations, here we show that, despite Earth's dynamic weather patterns, the light scattered by the Earth to a hypothetical distant observer as a function of time contains sufficient information to accurately measure Earth's rotation period. This is because ocean currents and continents result in relatively stable averaged global cloud patterns. The accuracy of these measurements will vary with the viewing geometry and other observational constraints. If the rotation period can be measured with accuracy, data spanning several months could be coherently combined to obtain spectroscopic information about individual regions of the planetary surface. Moreover, deviations from a periodic signal can be used to infer the presence of relatively short-live structures in its atmosphere (i.e., clouds). This could provide a useful technique for recognizing exoplanets that have active weather systems, changing on a timescale comparable to their rotation. Such variability is likely to be related to the atmospheric temperature and pressure being near a phase transition and could support the possibility of liquid water on the planet's surface.

E. Palle; Eric B. Ford; S. Seager; P. Montanes-Rodriguez; M. Vazquez

2008-02-13

99

Amplitude Statistics of Weather Clutter Observed by L-band Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed weather clutter from rain clouds using an L-band long-range air-route surveillance radar (ARSR) having a frequency 1.3 GHz, a beamwidth 1.2°, and a pulsewidth 3.0 ?s. To determine the weather clutter amplitude, we introduce the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), which is more rigorous fit of the distribution to the data than the least squares method. It is discovered that the weather clutter amplitudes obey almost the Rayleigh distribution for entire data and the Weibull, log-Weibull, and K-distributions with the shape parameters of 1.73 to 2.43, 10.60, and 5.13 to 50.93, respectively, for data within the beam width of an antenna.

Sayama, Shuji; Ishii, Seishiro; Sekine, Matsuo

100

JPL's Real-Time Weather Processor project (RWP) metrics and observations at system completion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As an integral part of the overall upgraded National Airspace System (NAS), the objective of the Real-Time Weather Processor (RWP) project is to improve the quality of weather information and the timeliness of its dissemination to system users. To accomplish this, an RWP will be installed in each of the Center Weather Service Units (CWSUs), located in 21 of the 23 Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCCs). The RWP System is a prototype system. It is planned that the software will be GFE and that production hardware will be acquired via industry competitive procurement. The ARTCC is a facility established to provide air traffic control service to aircraft operating on Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) flight plans within controlled airspace, principally during the en route phase of the flight. Covered here are requirement metrics, Software Problem Failure Reports (SPFRs), and Ada portability metrics and observations.

Loesh, Robert E.; Conover, Robert A.; Malhotra, Shan

1990-01-01

101

Monitoring Inland Ice Cover under All-weather Conditions with the Combined Use of Microwave and GOES-R Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cryosphere exists at all latitudes and in about one hundred countries. Not only does the cryosphere play a significant role in climate, but also it has profound socio-economic value, especially over inland water, including lakes and rivers, due to its role in water resources and its impact on transportation, fisheries, hunting, herding, and agriculture. A number of ice characterization algorithms have been improved and/or developed for the next generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), including ice identification, ice concentration, ice thickness and age, and ice motion. These products will play an important role in monitoring ice cover over inland water considering its high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. However, the effectiveness of such products is constrained by cloud cover. Lake ice products from microwave observations are less affected by clouds, but their quality is hindered by coarse spatial and temporal resolution as well as contamination by the land surface. Optimization of all-weather ice products from microwave observations, and ice products with higher spatial and temporal resolutions from GOES-R enables us to monitor the ice characteristics over the inland water surfaces, e.g., the Great Lakes, effectively in real time under all-weather conditions, and improves the products that are being developed for ABI. The combined used of both products provides accurate, timely information on ice characteristics over inland water surfaces to meet the needs of transportation and winter weather forecasting. An overview of the ice cover, concentration, and motion products for both GOES-R and microwave observation will be given, and case studies of combining both products for monitoring ice characteristics over inland water will be presented.

Liu, Y.; Key, J. R.; Wang, X.

2010-12-01

102

HOW DOES SPACE WEATHERING DEPEND ON THE SURFACE CONDITION OF AIRLESS BODIES (ASTEROIDS, THE MOON, AND MERCURY)? S. Sasaki1  

E-print Network

HOW DOES SPACE WEATHERING DEPEND ON THE SURFACE CONDITION OF AIRLESS BODIES (ASTEROIDS, THE MOON, spectral redden- ing, and attenuation of absorption bands in time. Space weathering is considered confirmed the formation of nanophase ion is responsible for the space weathering [6-10]. Itokawa has changed

Hiroi, Takahiro

103

Porosity and surface area evolution during weathering of two igneous rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During weathering, rocks release nutrients and store water vital for growth of microbial and plant life. Thus, the growth of porosity as weathering advances into bedrock is a life-sustaining process for terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we use small-angle and ultra small-angle neutron scattering to show how porosity develops during initial weathering under tropical conditions of two igneous rock compositions, basaltic andesite and quartz diorite. The quartz diorite weathers spheroidally while the basaltic andesite does not. The weathering advance rates of the two systems also differ, perhaps due to this difference in mechanism, from 0.24 to 100 mm kyr-1, respectively. The scattering data document how surfaces inside the feldspar-dominated rocks change as weathering advances into the protolith. In the unaltered rocks, neutrons scatter from two types of features whose dimensions vary from 6 nm to 40 ?m: pores and bumps on pore-grain surfaces. These features result in scattering data for both unaltered rocks that document multi-fractal behavior: scattering is best described by a mass fractal dimension (Dm) and a surface fractal dimension (Ds) for features of length scales greater than and less than ˜1 ?m, respectively. In the basaltic andesite, Dm is approximately 2.9 and Ds is approximately 2.7. The mechanism of solute transport during weathering of this rock is diffusion. Porosity and surface area increase from ˜1.5% to 8.5% and 3 to 23 m2 g-1 respectively in a relatively consistent trend across the mm-thick plagioclase reaction front. Across this front, both fractal dimensions decrease, consistent with development of a more monodisperse pore network with smoother pore surfaces. Both changes are consistent largely with increasing connectivity of pores without significant surface roughening, as expected for transport-limited weathering. In contrast, porosity and surface area increase from 1.3% to 9.5% and 1.5 to 13 m2 g-1 respectively across a many cm-thick reaction front in the spheroidally weathering quartz diorite. In that rock, Dm is approximately 2.8 and Ds is approximately 2.5 prior to weathering. These two fractals transform during weathering to multiple surface fractals as micro-cracking reduces the size of diffusion-limited subzones of the matrix. Across the reaction front of plagioclase in the quartz diorite, the specific surface area and porosity change very little until the point where the rock disaggregates into saprolite. The different patterns in porosity development of the two rocks are attributed to advective infiltration plus diffusion in the rock that spheroidally fractures versus diffusion-only in the rock that does not. Fracturing apparently diminishes the size of the diffusion-limited parts of the spheroidally weathering rock system to promote infiltration of meteoric fluids, therefore explaining the faster weathering advance rate into that rock.

Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K.; Cole, David R.; Rother, Gernot; Jin, Lixin; Buss, Heather L.; Brantley, Susan L.

2013-05-01

104

Porosity and surface area evolution during weathering of two igneous rocks  

SciTech Connect

During weathering, rocks release nutrients and storewater vital for growth ofmicrobial and plant life. Thus, the growth of porosity as weathering advances into bedrock is a life-sustaining process for terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we use small-angle and ultra small-angle neutron scattering to show how porosity develops during initial weathering under tropical conditions of two igneous rock compositions, basaltic andesite and quartz diorite. The quartz diorite weathers spheroidally while the basaltic andesite does not. The weathering advance rates of the two systems also differ, perhaps due to this difference in mechanism, from 0.24 to 100 mm kyr1, respectively. The scattering data document how surfaces inside the feldspar-dominated rocks change as weathering advances into the protolith. In the unaltered rocks, neutrons scatter fromtwo types of featureswhose dimensions vary from6 nmto 40 lm: pores and bumps on pore grain surfaces. These features result in scattering data for both unaltered rocks that document multi-fractal behavior: scattering is best described by amass fractal dimension (Dm) and a surface fractal dimension (Ds) for features of length scales greater than and less than 1 lm, respectively. In the basaltic andesite, Dm is approximately 2.9 and Ds is approximately 2.7. The mechanism of solute transport during weathering of this rock is diffusion. Porosity and surface area increase from 1.5%to 8.5%and 3 to 23 m2 g1 respectively in a relatively consistent trend across themm-thick plagioclase reaction front. Across this front, both fractal dimensions decrease, consistentwith development of amoremonodisperse pore networkwith smoother pore surfaces. Both changes are consistent largely with increasing connectivity of pores without significant surface roughening, as expected for transport-limited weathering. In contrast, porosity and surface area increase from 1.3% to 9.5% and 1.5 to 13 m2 g1 respectively across a many cm-thick reaction front in the spheroidally weathering quartz diorite. In that rock, Dm is approximately 2.8 andDs is approximately 2.5 prior to weathering. These two fractals transform during weathering to multiple surface fractals as micro-cracking reduces the size of diffusion-limited subzones of thematrix.Across the reaction front of plagioclase in the quartz diorite, the specific surface area and porosity change very little until the pointwhere the rock disaggregates into saprolite. The different patterns in porosity development of the two rocks are attributed to advective infiltration plus diffusion in the rock that spheroidally fractures versus diffusion-only in the rock that does not. Fracturing apparently diminishes the size of the diffusion-limited parts of the spheroidally weathering rock system to promote infiltration of meteoric fluids, thereforeexplaining the faster weathering advance rate into that rock.

Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis [Colorado School of Mines, Golden; Cole, David [Ohio State University; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Jin, Lixin [University of Texas, El Paso; Buss, Heather [University of Bristol, UK; Brantley, S. L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

2013-01-01

105

Weathering of iron sulfides under Mars surface ambient conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study of iron sulfide surface alternation reactions under Mars' surface ambient conditions begun during 1980 was extended through improved irradiation design and experimental protocols. A wider range of humidities and more intense irradiation were incorporated in the study. X-ray photoelectron spectra of irradiated chips suggest formation of FeSO4, FeCO3, and an iron oxide on the iron sulfide substrates studied.

Blackburn, T. R.

1981-01-01

106

Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizobium sp. H41, a Rock-Weathering Bacterium from a Weathered Rock Surface  

PubMed Central

Rhizobium sp. H41 isolated from weathered tuff can weather tuff and release Fe, Si, and Al from the rock under nutrient-poor conditions. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain H41, which may facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in rock weathering by the bacterium. PMID:25377707

Xi, Jun; He, Linyan

2014-01-01

107

Draft Genome Sequence of Rhizobium sp. H41, a Rock-Weathering Bacterium from a Weathered Rock Surface.  

PubMed

Rhizobium sp. H41 isolated from weathered tuff can weather tuff and release Fe, Si, and Al from the rock under nutrient-poor conditions. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of strain H41, which may facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in rock weathering by the bacterium. PMID:25377707

Xi, Jun; Sheng, Xiafang; He, Linyan

2014-01-01

108

Conversion of bedrock to soil and feedback processes between the surface and the weathering front in a deeply weathered regolith, Central Sri Lankan Highlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Sri Lankan highlands denudation rates and chemical weathering rates represent the low-end-member in global weathering rates [1, 2]. Here we explore the causes for these low rates by a detailed soil-mineralogical study of a highly weathered deep saprolite profile developed from charnockite bedrock. Spheroidal weathering of the bedrock characterized the weathering front where rounded corestones are produced at the rock-saprolite interface. The first mineral attacked by weathering was found to be pyroxene but plagioclase is the first mineral depleted to near-completion at the corestone-saprolite-boundary. Weathering of pyroxene is initiated by in situ iron oxidation, leading to an increase of porosity due to micro-cracking [3]. The accrued micro cracks allow for fluid transport and the dissolution of biotite and plagioclase. The strong plagioclase weathering leads to formation of high secondary porosity over a small distance and the final disaggregation of bedrock to saprolite. Sequential extraction showed that the first secondary phases are amorphous oxides from which secondary minerals (gibbsite, kaolinite, goethite and minor amounts of smectites) precipitate. Modeling of the strain formation due to increasing volume during iron oxidation in pyroxene and biotite showed that spheroidal weathering can be explained with this process only if the formation of secondary porosity, due to a negative volume budget during primary mineral weathering to secondary phases, occurs. As oxidation is the first occurring reaction, O2 is a rate limiting factor for chemical weathering in this setting. Hence the supply of oxygen and the consumption at depth connects processes at the weathering front with those at the surface as a feedback mechanism. Advective and diffusive transport modeling shows that the feedback will be much more pronounced with dominating diffusive transport. Due to the low porosity of the bedrock the O2 transport in the pristine bedrock occurs via diffusion. The slow weathering rate is, beside tectonic quiescence, related to this feedback and to lithological factors such as low porosity and the amount of Fe-bearing primary minerals. 1. Hewawasam, T., et al., Slow advance of the weathering front during deep, supply-limited saprolite formation in the tropical Highlands of Sri Lanka. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2013. 118: p. 202-230. 2. von Blanckenburg, F., T. Hewawasam, and P. Kubik, Cosmogenic nuclide evidence for low weathering and denudation in the wet tropical Highlands of Sri Lanka. J. Geoph. Res., 2004. 109: p. doi10.1029/2003JF000049. 3. Buss, H.L., et al., Weathering of the Rio Blanco quartz diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Coupling oxidation, dissolution, and fracturing. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2008. 72(18): p. 4488-4507.

Behrens, Ricarda; Bouchez, Julien; Schuessler, Jan A.; Dultz, Stefan; Hewawasam, Tilak; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

2014-05-01

109

Superhydrophobic Aluminum Surfaces: Preparation routes, properties and artificial weathering impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the materials that can show superhydrophobic properties are hydrophilic metals which must undergo a sequential treatment, including roughening and hydrophobic coating. This contribution presents various preparation routes along with characterization work employing dynamic contact angle measurements (CA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spec- trometric techniques (FT-IRRAS, XPS, EIS). Micro-rough surfaces of pure and alloyed aluminum were generated most easily

M. Thieme; C. Blank; A. Pereira de Oliveira; H. Worch; R. Frenzel; S. Höhne

110

Weathering Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weathering is the term that describes all the processes that break down rocks in the environment near the Earth's surface. This module will help you to understand two weathering processes: mechanical and chemical.

2002-01-01

111

Weathering pits as indicators of the relative age of granite surfaces in the Cairngorm mountains, Scotland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weathering pits 1-140 cm deep occur on granite surfaces in the Cairngorms associated with a range of landforms, including tors, glacially exposed slabs, large erratics and blockfields. Pit depth is positively correlated with cosmogenic exposure age, and both measures show consistent relationships on individual rock landforms. Rates of pit deepening are non-linear and a best fit is provided by the sigmoidal function D = b1+ exp(b2+b3/t). The deepest pits occur on unmodified tor summits, where 10 Be exposure ages indicate that surfaces have been exposed to weathering for a minimum of 52-297 ka. Glacially exposed surfaces with pits 10-46 cm deep have given 10 Be exposure durations of 21-79 ka, indicating exposure by glacial erosion before the last glacial cycle. The combination of cosmogenic exposure ages with weathering pit depths greatly extends the area over which inferences can be made regarding the ages of granite surfaces in the Cairngorms. Well-developed weathering pits on glacially exposed surfaces in other granite areas are potential indicators of glacial erosion before the Last Glacial Maximum. ?? Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography.

Hall, A.M.; Phillips, W.M.

2006-01-01

112

Comparison of observed and modeled isoplanatic angles using synoptic weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comparison of observed and modeled isoplanatic angles using synoptic meteorological data is performed over an annual cycle during 1993 - 1994. Time series of isoplanatic angles were observed during 58 night-time episodes at the Phillips Laboratory (PL) Starfire Optical Range. Isoplanatic angles were also computed for corresponding times by integration of modeled Cn2 vertical profiles derived from the Dewan and Hufnagel models. Both models used adjacent Albuquerque rawinsonde data for model input. Results show significantly smaller model error associated with the Dewan isoplanatic angles than associated with the Hufnagel isoplanatic angles. The Dewan model is also sensitive to tropopause height which is used as part of its scale length determination. Synoptic weather comparisons are accomplished for the winter period of December 1993 - February 1994. The comparisons tend to support the correlation of low isoplanatic angle with disturbed and higher isoplanatic angle with undisturbed synoptic weather patterns, respectively.

Roadcap, John R.; Morgenstern, Carolyn D.

1995-04-01

113

WORLD SURFACE CURRENTS FROM SHIP'S DRIFT OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Over 4 million observations of ship's drift are on file at the U.S. National Oceanographic Data Centre, in Washington, D. C., representing a vast amount of information on ocean surface currents. The observed drift speeds are dependent on the frequency of occurence of the particular current speeds and the frequency of observation. By comparing frequency of observation with the drift speeds observed it is possible to confirm known current patterns and detect singularities in surface currents.

Duncan, C.P.; Schladow, S.G.

1980-11-01

114

Effect of artificial weathering on surface properties of unsaturated polyester (UP) resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsaturated polyester resin samples were exposed to artificial weathering environment for different time intervals. The change of appearance, morphology, chemical structure and contact angle on unsaturated polyester resin surface before and after exposure in this environment was monitored by spectrophotometer, gloss meter, microscope, Specula Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (SR-FTIR) spectroscopy and optical contact angle measuring device. The results showed that

Zhijun Jia; Xiaogang Li; Quanlin Zhao

2010-01-01

115

A study of the surface mass balance in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, using automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use data from four automatic weather stations (AWSs) in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, to study the surface mass balance and its components. Distinct differences were found between the moisture climates of the high plateau, the katabatic wind zone and the coastal ice shelves: significant undersaturation occurs year-round in the katabatic wind zone, while on the high plateau and

Michiel R. van den Broeke; Carleen H. Reijmer

2004-01-01

116

Sensible heat exchange at the Antarctic snow surface: a study with automatic weather stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data of four automatic weather stations (AWSs) are used to calculate the turbulent exchange of sensible heat at the Antarctic snow surface for a 4 year period (1998-2001). The AWSs are situated on the ice shelf, in the coastal\\/inland katabatic wind zone and on the interior plateau in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. Sensible heat flux (SHF) is calculated using

Michiel van den Broeke; Dirk van As; Carleen Reijmer; Roderik van de Wal

2005-01-01

117

Evaluation of "all weather" microwave-derived land surface temperatures with in situ CEOP measurements  

E-print Network

retrieval. Microwave wavelengths, being much less affected by water vapor and clouds than infraredEvaluation of "all weather" microwave-derived land surface temperatures with in situ CEOP microwave measurements are much less affected by clouds and can provide Ts regardless of the cloud

118

Surface weathering of rapakivi granite outcrops – implications for natural stone exploration and quality evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implications of surface weathering of rapakivi granite outcrops for natural stone evaluation were studied in the Wiborg rapakivi granite batholith in southeastern Finland. The study was performed as field mapping, comprising the whole batholith and as detailed investigations on selected outcrops. The Wiborg batholith is composed of wiborgite, pyterlite, even-grained rapakivi granite, porphyritic rapakivi granite, porphyry aplite, and gabbro-anorthosite. Wiborgite

Paavo Härmä; Olavi Selonen

2008-01-01

119

Chemical Weathering of Black Shales and Rare Earth Element Composition of Surface Waters and Groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weathering processes dominate the dissolved and suspended loads of most of the world's major rivers. Among sedimentary rocks, black shales are particularly sensitive to chemical weathering. Therefore, shale systems are useful for investigating the partitioning of chemical elements during chemical weathering. Recent studies, such as those by Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Ravizza and others, link chemical weathering of black shales to changes in marine isotopic composition. Rare earth elements (REE) have a unique chemistry and are ideal for such tracer studies. We explored the effect of modern chemical weathering of black shales on the hydrochemistry of surface and groundwaters in the Mohawk Valley of New York State. This region provides an ideal site for the investigation of trace element remobilization during the chemical weathering of black shales. In this region, surface and groundwaters, in intimate contact with black shales and have high dissolved metal concentrations presumably due to water-rock interactions. The extent to which the dissolved REE composition of the surface and ground waters retains the rock signature is, in someway related to the length of time that the water remains in contact with the rock. We compared the REE compositions of surface and groundwaters in areas draining black shale to those of waters draining regions of dolostone-limestone to explore the extent of metal release due to chemical weathering. Shale normalized REE patterns for stream waters exhibit slight heavy REE enrichments and, at some locations, LREE depletion. REE patterns of the waters normalized to their respective sediments show some LREE depletion. However, waters associated with the Little Falls dolomite show fractionation predominantly enriched in the heavy REEs. Differences between the black shale sites, recorded as light REE depletion and/or middle REE enrichment, may be related to the discharge of the streams and the total dissolved solids. The dissolved REE chemistry of rivers draining the limestone-dolostone facies to the north and west of the black shale facies is dominated by the Ln-carbonate species. REE speciation in the black shale sites when compared to the dolomitic sites show interesting features. For example, the "dolomite" lake exhibits a significant amount of free metal species as well as lanthanide-fluoride complexation. Our preliminary results indicate that the surface and groundwaters discretely record metal release from black shales. These data lend further credence to the hypothesis that black shale weathering may significantly contribute to the ocean metal budget.

Hannigan, R. E.; Johannesson, K. H.

2001-05-01

120

Modelling convective severe weather occurrence using observations, reanalysis data and decadal climate predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of local severe convective events can be combined with atmospheric reanalyses to compute severe weather probability as a function of parameters characterizing the local state of the atmosphere. Using ERA-Interim reanalysis data and observations from the European Severe Weather Database, we have investigated several ways to express the probability of large hail, tornadoes, flash floods or wind gusts as a function of parameters such as convective available potential energy, vertical wind shear and precipitation. Our attempts include fitting analytic functions, using smoothers of various kinds, and binning the data within the multidimensional parameter space according to various algorithms. We imposed that any difference between binned observations and the modelled probability function be insignificant at the 95% confidence level. Further tests of robustness of the model were conducted. A probability function fulfilling this criterion was selected and subsequently applied to the ERA-Interim data as well as to predictions of the decadal forecasting system developed in the MiKlip programme. We investigated climatic and modelled past and future trends of severe convective weather. We will present the (preliminary) results of that effort.

Pistotnik, Georg; Groenemeijer, Pieter

2014-05-01

121

Combining solar science and asteroid science with the space weather observation network (SWON)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The peculiarity of space weather for Earth orbiting satellites, air traffic and power grids on Earth and especially the financial and operational risks posed by damage due to space weather, underline the necessity of space weather observation. The importance of such observations is even more increasing due to the impending solar maximum. In recognition of this importance we propose a mission architecture for solar observation as an alternative to already published mission plans like Solar Probe (NASA) or Solar Orbiter (ESA). Based upon a Concurrent Evaluation session in the Concurrent Engineering Facility of the German Aerospace Center, we suggest using several spacecraft in an observation network. Instead of placing such spacecraft in a solar orbit, we propose landing on several asteroids, which are in opposition to Earth during the course of the mission and thus allow observation of the Sun's far side. Observation of the far side is especially advantageous as it improves the warning time with regard to solar events by about 2 weeks. Landing on Inner Earth Object (IEO) asteroids for observation of the Sun has several benefits over traditional mission architectures. Exploiting shadowing effects of the asteroids reduces thermal stress on the spacecraft, while it is possible to approach the Sun closer than with an orbiter. The closeness to the Sun improves observation quality and solar power generation, which is intended to be achieved with a solar dynamic system. Furthermore landers can execute experiments and measurements with regard to asteroid science, further increasing the scientific output of such a mission. Placing the spacecraft in a network would also benefit the communication contact times of the network and Earth. Concluding we present a first draft of a spacecraft layout, mission objectives and requirements as well as an initial mission analysis calculation.

Maiwald, Volker; Weiß, André; Jansen, Frank

2012-12-01

122

Identifying the rotation rate and the presence of dynamic weather on extrasolar Earth-like planets from photometric observations  

E-print Network

With the recent discoveries of hundreds of extrasolar planets, the search for planets like Earth and life in the universe, is quickly gaining momentum. In the future, large space observatories could directly detect the light scattered from rocky planets, but they would not be able to spatially resolve a planet's surface. Using reflectance models and real cloud data from satellite observations, here we show that, despite Earth's dynamic weather patterns, the light scattered by the Earth to a hypothetical distant observer as a function of time contains sufficient information to accurately measure Earth's rotation period. This is because ocean currents and continents result in relatively stable averaged global cloud patterns. The accuracy of these measurements will vary with the viewing geometry and other observational constraints. If the rotation period can be measured with accuracy, data spanning several months could be coherently combined to obtain spectroscopic information about individual regions of the pla...

Palle, E; Seager, S; Montanes-Rodriguez, P; Vázquez, M

2008-01-01

123

Space-weather Parameters for 1,000 Active Regions Observed by SDO/HMI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present statistical studies of several space-weather parameters, derived from observations of the photospheric vector magnetic field by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, for a thousand active regions. Each active region has been observed every twelve minutes during the entirety of its disk passage. Some of these parameters, such as energy density and shear angle, indicate the deviation of the photospheric magnetic field from that of a potential field. Other parameters include flux, helicity, field gradients, polarity inversion line properties, and measures of complexity. We show that some of these parameters are useful for event prediction.

Bobra, M.; Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Sun, X.

2013-12-01

124

Mars surface weathering products and spectral analogs: Palagonites and synthetic iron minerals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several hypotheses regarding the formation of Martian surface fines. These surface fines are thought to be products of weathering processes occurring on Mars. Four major weathering environments of igneous rocks on Mars have been proposed; (1) impact induced hydrothermal alterations; (2) subpermafrost igneous intrusion; (3) solid-gas surface reactions; and (4) subaerial igneous intrusion over permafrost. Although one or more of these processes may be important on the Martian surface, one factor in common for all these processes is the reaction of solid or molten basalt with water (solid, liquid, or gas). These proposed processes, with the exception of solid-gas surface reactions, are transient processes. The most likely product of transient hydrothermal processes are layer silicates, zeolites, hydrous iron oxides and palagonites. The long-term instability of hydrous clay minerals under present Martian conditions has been predicted; however, the persistence of such minerals due to slow kinetics of dehydration, or entrapment in permafrost, where the activity of water is high, can not be excluded. Anhydrous oxides of iron (e.g., hematite and maghemite) are thought to be stable under present Martian surface conditions. Oxidative weathering of sulfide minerals associated with Martian basalts has been proposed. Weathering of sulfide minerals leads to a potentially acidic permafrost and the formation of Fe(3) oxides and sulfates. Weathering of basalts under acidic conditions may lead to the formation of kaolinite through metastable halloysite and metahalloysite. Kaolinite, if present, is thought to be a thermodynamically stable phase at the Martian surface. Fine materials on Mars are important in that they influence the surface spectral properties; these fines are globally distributed on Mars by the dust storms and this fraction will have the highest surface area which should act as a sink for most of the absorbed volatiles near the surface of Mars. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to: (1) examine the fine fraction mineralogy of several palagonitic materials from Hawaii; and (2) compare spectral properties of palagonites and submicron sized synthetic iron oxides with the spectral properties of the Martian surface.

Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.

1992-01-01

125

Using MSG-SEVIRI Cloud Physical Properties and Weather Radar Observations for the Detection of Cb/TCu Clouds  

E-print Network

Using MSG-SEVIRI Cloud Physical Properties and Weather Radar Observations for the Detection of Cb (SEVIRI) on board Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites and weather radar reflectivity factors/TCu clouds for the collection of pixels that pass the CCM. In this model, MSG-SEVIRI cloud physical

Schmeits, Maurice

126

Optimizing next-generation operational observation networks for the short-term forecast of Mediterranean high-impact weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather forecasting authorities are perceiving increasing pressure from the public to extend and improve the quality of short-range predictions while reducing costs and increasing the overall forecasting efficiency. The European community is strongly committed to attain this increased efficiency by focusing on the observational component of the weather forecasting process. One important research commitment is oriented to optimize the integrated

L. Garcies Artigues; V. Homar Santaner

2010-01-01

127

Observed change for the atmosphere and surface, and for extremes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evidence of climate change from observations of the atmosphere and surface has grown significantly during recent years. Advances in the global climate observing system (in particular using satellites and reanalyses) have contributed to improved monitoring capabilities. At the same time, new dataset developments since AR4 have improved understanding of data issues and observational uncertainties. Developing homogeneous long-term global and regional data records from different sources remains a challenge. Instrumental observations since about 1850 and satellite observations since 1979 indicate changes in atmospheric composition, radiation budgets, temperature, the hydrological cycle (including precipitation and clouds) and atmospheric circulation. Each of the last three decades has been successively warmer at the Earth's surface than any preceding decade since 1850. Confidence in precipitation change averaged over global land areas since 1901 is low prior to 1951 and medium afterwards. Changes in many extreme weather and climate events (such as cold spells, heat waves, heavy precipitation events, droughts and tropical cyclones) have been observed since about 1950, consistent with the warming. For some of these extremes, a revised global-scale assessment from previous IPCC reports is provided. Especially for extremes, assessments of recent observed changes are hampered by limited availability of long-term observations, changes in observing capabilities and practices over time, and methodological differences in the assessed studies.

Klein Tank, Albert M. G.; Rusticucci, Matilde; Hartmann, Dennis L.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Thorne, Peter W.

2014-05-01

128

Effects of UV weathering on surface properties of polypropylene composites reinforced with wood flour, lignin, and cellulose  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the influence of accelerated weathering on polypropylene composites reinforced with wood flour (WF), lignin, and cellulose at different loading levels were evaluated. Six groups of samples were exposed in a QUV accelerated weathering tester for a total of 960 h. The surface color, surface gloss, contact angle and flexural properties of the samples were tested. Besides, the weathered surface was characterized by SEM and ATR-FTIR. The results revealed that (1) the discoloration of composites was accelerated by the presence of lignin, especially at high content; (2) composites containing lignin showed less loss of flexural strength and modulus, less cracks, and better hydrophobicity on weathered surface than other groups, confirming its functions of stabilization and antioxidation; (3) cellulose-based composites exhibited better color stability but more significant deterioration in flexural properties after weathering compared to other composites, suggesting that such kind of composites could not be used as load-bearing structure in outdoor applications.

Peng, Yao; Liu, Ru; Cao, Jinzhen; Chen, Yu

2014-10-01

129

Data Assimilation of SMAP Observations and the Impact on Weather Forecasts and Heat Stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SPoRT produces real-time LIS soil moisture products for situational awareness and local numerical weather prediction over CONUS, Mesoamerica, and East Africa ?Currently interact/collaborate with operational partners on evaluation of soil moisture products ?Drought/fire ?Extreme heat ?Convective initiation ?Flood and water borne diseases ?Initial efforts to assimilate L2 soil moisture observations from SMOS (as a precursor for SMAP) have been successful ?Active/passive blended product from SMAP will be assimilated similarly and higher spatial resolution should improve on local-scale processes

Zavodsky, Bradley; Case, Jonathan; Blankenship, Clay; Crosson, William; White, Khristopher

2014-01-01

130

On the dynamic estimation of relative weights for observation and forecast in numerical weather prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problem of merging direct and remotely sensed (indirect) data with forecast data to get an estimate of the present state of the atmosphere for the purpose of numerical weather prediction is examined. To carry out this merging optimally, it is necessary to provide an estimate of the relative weights to be given to the observations and forecast. It is possible to do this dynamically from the information to be merged, if the correlation structure of the errors from the various sources is sufficiently different. Some new statistical approaches to doing this are described, and conditions quantified in which such estimates are likely to be good.

Wahba, Grace; Deepak, A. (editor)

1988-01-01

131

An observed database to characterize the weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclogenesis over southern-southeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project to study the climatic, dynamic and synoptic aspects of subtropical cyclones that develop in southern-southeastern coast of Brazil is in development. The weather conditions associated with such cyclones is an important question that must be answered in this project. However, for such characterization it is necessary to use the local meteorological observations of wind, wind gust, rainfall, air temperature, etc. The NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis have spatial and time resolutions that provide elements to study the synoptic and dynamics of meteorological events (cyclone, anticyclones, troughs, ridges, monsoons circulations, etc) until the production of complex climatology. However, this analysis has coarse horizontal resolution (~250 Km) that often does not allow the identification of intense meteorological phenomena. A more precise characterization of location and intensity of weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclones would be performed using local observations. Therefore, this work describes the methodology to construct a database of surface weather observations using a relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL. The data source are SYNOP (Surface Synoptic Observations), METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) and CETESB (Environmental Agency of Sao Paulo State) that are available online through dynamic web page. An iterative algorithm robot was developed to automate the data extraction. Most of the data source are encoded or at non-standard format, hence was developed an algorithm in C++, using the REGEX library, an engine of text pattern search, for decode and handle the exception (erroneous and corrupted data). After the data decoding and formatting it is stored into the MySQL database. The structure of database was divided into categories of tables: a table with the source of data definition, a table with stations information and two sets of tables (for hourly and daily data) for each variable (temperature, pressure, wind, rain, etc). The data in NCDC, SYNOP, METAR, and CETESB are available from 1942, 1999, 1997 and 1997, respectively. The work was extended to a data set that included the entire Latin America using the MySQL that give us a simple and versatile platform allowing the continued growth of the database. The next step is to establish a web interface to make the data available to general public.

Yamamoto, R.; Porfirio da Rocha, R.

2012-04-01

132

Antarctic Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site can read a discussion about the weather in Anarctica, including why it is so cold, how weather observations are conducted there, and what role the continent plays in the global weather system. Links to related topics, a wind chill calculator, and a Fahrenheit-Celsius-Kelvin temperature converter are also provided.

133

Optical effects of space weathering in lunar crustal magnetic anomaly regions based on CE-1 observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of mini-magnetospheres above the lunar surface suggests that magnetic shielding could have led to anomalous space weathering (little darkening with limited reddening) in magnetic anomaly regions. Using spectral data from Chang'E 1 Imaging Interferometer (IIM) and data from Lunar Prospector's magnetometer, we instigate the relationship between lunar crustal magnetic anomalies and the optical effects in those areas in association with space weathering. The IIM onboard China's Chang'E 1 (CE-1) spacecraft is a Fourier transform Sagnac imaging spectrometer operating in the visible to near infrared (0.48-0.96 ?m) spectral range, with 32 channels at spectral intervals of 325.5 cm-1. We selected four regions with crustal magnetic anomalies to study their albedo properties: three lunar swirls (Gerasimovich, Mare Marginis, and Reiner Gamma) and the area antipodal to Herzsprung. We found that all three of the anomalous albedo areas are associated with magnetic anomalies, however, no anomalous albedo feature is found in the last magnetic anomaly area. In addition, we also studied the correlation between magnetic anomaly strength and albedo anomaly on a global scale. Our initial analysis suggests an overall tread of less darkening with increased magnetic anomaly.

Li, H.; Wang, X.; Cui, J.; Fu, X.; Zhang, G.; Yao, M.; Liu, B.; Liu, J.; Li, C.; Ouyang, Z.

2013-12-01

134

Evaluating the Impacts of NASA/SPoRT Daily Greenness Vegetation Fraction on Land Surface Model and Numerical Weather Forecasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center develops new products and techniques that can be used in operational meteorology. The majority of these products are derived from NASA polar-orbiting satellite imagery from the Earth Observing System (EOS) platforms. One such product is a Greenness Vegetation Fraction (GVF) dataset, which is produced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data aboard the NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites. NASA SPoRT began generating daily real-time GVF composites at 1-km resolution over the Continental United States (CONUS) on 1 June 2010. The purpose of this study is to compare the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climatology GVF product (currently used in operational weather models) to the SPoRT-MODIS GVF during June to October 2010. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) was employed to study the impacts of the new SPoRT-MODIS GVF dataset on land surface models apart from a full numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. For the 2010 warm season, the SPoRT GVF in the western portion of the CONUS was generally higher than the NCEP climatology. The eastern CONUS GVF had variations both above and below the climatology during the period of study. These variations in GVF led to direct impacts on the rates of heating and evaporation from the land surface. The second phase of the project is to examine the impacts of the SPoRT GVF dataset on NWP using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Two separate WRF model simulations were made for individual severe weather case days using the NCEP GVF (control) and SPoRT GVF (experimental), with all other model parameters remaining the same. Based on the sensitivity results in these case studies, regions with higher GVF in the SPoRT model runs had higher evapotranspiration and lower direct surface heating, which typically resulted in lower (higher) predicted 2-m temperatures (2-m dewpoint temperatures). The opposite was true for areas with lower GVF in the SPoRT model runs. These differences in the heating and evaporation rates produced subtle yet quantifiable differences in the simulated convective precipitation systems for the selected severe weather case examined.

Bell, Jordan R.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.

2011-01-01

135

A much warmer Earth surface for most of geologic time: implications to biotic weathering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors present two scenarios for the temperature history of Earth. One scenario is conventional, the other relies on a warmer history. Both scenarios include surface cooling determined by the evolution of the biosphere and are similar until the Proterozoic period. The warmer scenario requires a higher plant/lichen terrestrial biota to increase weathering intensity. Justification for a warmer surface includes period temperatures from the oxygen isotope record of coexisting phosphates and cherts, an upper limit of 58 degrees C from primary gypsum precipitation, and the lack of fractionation of sulfur isotopes between sulfide and sulfates in Archean sediments.

Schwartzman, D. W.; McMenamin, M.

1993-01-01

136

Surface of Titan : model and VIMS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Huygens probe has allowed to describe the atmosphere and the surface of Titan in detail. To date, the surface reflectivity as observed by DISR is not fully understood.In this work, we first propose a model of the surface reflectivity made of a layer of ice covered by a layer of fluffy aerosols. This well explains the observed surface reflectivity by DISR, with a reflectivity having a maximum (peak) at 750 nm and a blue slope at longer wavelength and a red slope at shorter wavelength. Our model essentially relies on our ability to model the radiative transfer inside the continuous layer of aerosol sedimented at the surface. However, we also find a shift in the reflectivity peak between the surface reflectivity as observed by DISR and the results obtained when using the aerosol refractive index of airborne aerosols. We propose an explanation for this effect.The second part of the work consists in checking the data. We find that this shift in the reflectivity peak also exits in the data. Using a model of radiative transfer, with a description of the atmosphere properties derived from analysis made by Huygens instruments, we are able to reproduce the intensity observed by VIMS, and we can retrieve the surface albedo. We essentially focus on the aera around Huygens landing site, and we characterize the differences between the bright and dark zones.

Rannou, Pascal; Toledo, Daniel; Adriani, Alberto; Moriconi, Maria Luisa; D'Aversa, Emiliano; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Sotin, Christophe; Brown, Robert H.

2014-11-01

137

Earth surface erosion and weathering from the 10Be (meteoric)/9Be ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotope ratio of the meteoric cosmogenic nuclide 10Be to the mineral-derived stable isotope 9Be discloses both the Earth surface denudation rate and its weathering intensity. We develop a set of steady state mass balance equations that describes this system from a soil column over the hillslope scale to an entire river basin. The prerequisites making this new approach possible are: (1) the 9Be concentration of parent rock (typically 2.5±0.5 ppm in granitic and clastic sedimentary lithologies) is known; (2) both Be isotopes equilibrate between the fluids decomposing rock and reactive solids formed during weathering; and (3) a critical spatial scale is exceeded at which the fluxes of both isotopes into and out of the weathering zone are at steady state over the time scale of weathering (typically ˜10 kyr). For these cases the isotope ratios can be determined in bulk sediment or soil, on leachates from the reactive (adsorbed and pedogenic mineral-bound) phase in sediment or soil, and even on the dissolved phase in river water. The 10Be/9Be ratio offers substantial advantages over the single-isotope system of meteoric 10Be. The latter system allows to directly determine erosion rates only in the case that 10Be is fully retentive in the weathering zone and that riverine sorting has not introduced grain size-dependent 10Be concentration gradients in sediments. We show the feasibility of the 10Be/9Be tracer approach at the river scale for sediment and water samples in the Amazon basin, where independent estimates of denudation rates from in situ-produced 10Be exist. We furthermore calculate meaningful denudation rates from a set of published 10Be/9Be ratios measured in the dissolved load of globally distributed rivers. We conclude that this isotope ratio can be used to reconstruct global paleo-denudation from sedimentary records.

von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Bouchez, Julien; Wittmann, Hella

2012-10-01

138

Accurately Estimating the State of a Geophysical System with Sparse Observations: Predicting the Weather  

E-print Network

Utilizing the information in observations of a complex system to make accurate predictions through a quantitative model when observations are completed at time $T$, requires an accurate estimate of the full state of the model at time $T$. When the number of measurements $L$ at each observation time within the observation window is larger than a sufficient minimum value $L_s$, the impediments in the estimation procedure are removed. As the number of available observations is typically such that $L \\ll L_s$, additional information from the observations must be presented to the model. We show how, using the time delays of the measurements at each observation time, one can augment the information transferred from the data to the model, removing the impediments to accurate estimation and permitting dependable prediction. We do this in a core geophysical fluid dynamics model, the shallow water equations, at the heart of numerical weather prediction. The method is quite general, however, and can be utilized in the a...

An, Zhe; Abarbanel, Henry D I

2014-01-01

139

Accurately Estimating the State of a Geophysical System with Sparse Observations: Predicting the Weather  

E-print Network

Utilizing the information in observations of a complex system to make accurate predictions through a quantitative model when observations are completed at time $T$, requires an accurate estimate of the full state of the model at time $T$. When the number of measurements $L$ at each observation time within the observation window is larger than a sufficient minimum value $L_s$, the impediments in the estimation procedure are removed. As the number of available observations is typically such that $L \\ll L_s$, additional information from the observations must be presented to the model. We show how, using the time delays of the measurements at each observation time, one can augment the information transferred from the data to the model, removing the impediments to accurate estimation and permitting dependable prediction. We do this in a core geophysical fluid dynamics model, the shallow water equations, at the heart of numerical weather prediction. The method is quite general, however, and can be utilized in the analysis of a broad spectrum of complex systems where measurements are sparse. When the model of the complex system has errors, the method still enables accurate estimation of the state of the model and thus evaluation of the model errors in a manner separated from uncertainties in the data assimilation procedure.

Zhe An; Daniel Rey; Henry D. I. Abarbanel

2014-05-11

140

Observations and Modeling of Dust Deposition and Disturbed Surfaces on Mars and Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible\\/near-infrared and thermal infrared spectroscopy of planetary surfaces undergoing physical weathering provides opportunities to study the compositional properties of subsurface and surface materials. Field, laboratory, and remote observations of surfaces subjected to either natural erosion or deposition (e.g., aeolian, fluvial, or slope processes) or man-made disturbances (e.g., robotic rover operations) can be combined with theoretical modeling to better understand spectral

J. R. Johnson

2002-01-01

141

The land surface-atmosphere interaction: A review based on observational and global modeling perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the land-surface-atmosphere interaction using observations from two North American field experiments (First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment (FIFE) and Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (BOREAS)) and the application of research data to the improvement of land surface and boundary layer parameterizations in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global forecast model. Using field

Alan K. Betts; John H. Ball; Anton C. M. Beljaars; Martin J. Miller; Pedro A. Viterbo

1996-01-01

142

Reprinted from: Proceedings, International Workshop on Observations/Forecasting of Meso-scale Severe Weather and  

E-print Network

-scale Severe Weather and Technology of Reduction of Relevant Disasters (Tokyo, Japan), 22-26 February 1993, 181 on the ingredients for particular severe weather events, a focus is provided for the forecasting process of forecasters is discussed also, as a necessary component in a balanced approach to weather forecasting

Doswell III, Charles A.

143

The influence of variations of vegetation and soil moisture on surface weather and atmospheric circulation  

SciTech Connect

The influence of variations of vegetation and soil moisture on surface weather and atmospheric circulation is studied through the use of the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) and the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere interactions (COLA) GCM. Tests for the SiB sensitivity to the conversion of the forest to other short vegetation or bare soil were performed at Amazonian and Great Plains sites, and a North Wales spruce forest site respectively. The results show that deforestation has a significant influence on the local surface energy budget and surface weather. The influence is especially prominent at the Amazon and Great Plains sites, and larger in summer than in other seasons. The influence on the partitioning of surface incoming radiative energy is generally constrained by the local atmospheric boundary condition. The sensitivity of the COLA GCM to changes in initial soil wetness (ISW) is determined by repeating three 10-day model integrations with the same initial and boundary conditions as the control runs except the values of ISW, which are revised at 69 model grid points covering much of the continental U.S. It is found that the relations between the changes in the 5-day mean forecast surface air temperature/surface specific humidity and the changes in ISW depend upon vegetation type and the values of ISW, and can be approximated by regression equations. These relations are also confirmed with independent data. With the ISW revised based on these regression equations the surface forecasts of the revised runs are consistently improved. The spatial scale of the ISW anomaly determines the degree and range of the influence. The influence of a small regional ISW change is mainly confined to the local region and to low atmospheric levels. The influence on surface fluxes is strong and persists for more than one month, but the effects on precipitation are relatively weak, changeable, and complex, particularly when an interactive cloud scheme is used.

Yang, R.

1992-01-01

144

Plateau weather: A synoptic study of IAGO and ANARE observations in east Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

Automatic weather stations (AWS) have been operated for a number of years by U.S. and French scientists cooperating in Project Interactions Atmosphere, Glace, Ocean (IAGO) and by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE). Six of these stations are sufficiently close to one another on the East Antarctic Plateau for a synoptic interpretation of their observations. The data for 1987 have been reduced to a common format in order to identify episodes of regionally coherent changes. One of these episodes is described and used to outline steps that will be needed for clarifying the relative importance of the local energy balance and the large-scale circulation for the onset, duration, and cessation of katabatic winds on the plateau.

Radok, U.; Wendler, G.

1992-03-01

145

A twenty-first century California observing network for monitoring extreme weather events  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During Northern Hemisphere winters, the West Coast of North America is battered by extratropical storms. The impact of these storms is of paramount concern to California, where aging water supply and flood protection infrastructures are challenged by increased standards for urban flood protection, an unusually variable weather regime, and projections of climate change. Additionally, there are inherent conflicts between releasing water to provide flood protection and storing water to meet requirements for water supply, water quality, hydropower generation, water temperature and flow for at-risk species, and recreation. In order to improve reservoir management and meet the increasing demands on water, improved forecasts of precipitation, especially during extreme events, is required. Here we describe how California is addressing their most important and costliest environmental issue – water management – in part, by installing a state-of-the-art observing system to better track the area’s most severe wintertime storms.

White, A. B.; Anderson, M. L.; Dettinger, M. D.; Ralph, F. M.; Hinojosa, A.; Cayan, D. R.; Hartman, R. K.; Reynolds, D. W.; Johnson, L. E.; Schneider, T. L.; Cifelli, R.; Toth, Z.; Gutman, S. I.; King, C. W.; Gehrke, F.; Johnston, P. E.; Walls, C.; Mann, D.; Gottas, D. J.; Coleman, T.

2013-01-01

146

Surface Material Analysis of the S-type Asteroids: Removing the Space Weathering Effect from Reflectance Spectrum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent years, many researchers have been observing a lot of asteroid reflectance spectra in the UV, visible to NIR at wavelength region. Reflectance spectroscopy of asteroid at this range should bring us a lot of information about its surface materials. Pyroxene and olivine have characteristic absorption bands in this wavelength range. Low-Ca pyroxene has two absorption bands around 0.9 microns and 1.9 microns. The more Ca and Fe content, the longer both absorption band centers. On the other hand, reflectance spectrum of olivine has three complicated absorption bands around 1 m, and no absorption feature around 2 microns. In general, reflectance spectra of many asteroids that are considered to be silicate rich (i.e., S- and A type asteroids) show redder slope and more subdued absorption bands than those of terrestrial minerals and meteorites. These features are now believed to be caused by the space weathering effect, which is probably caused by micrometeorite bombardment and/or solar wind. This process causes nanophase reduced iron (npFe(sup 0)) particles near the surface of mineral grains, which leads the optical change. Therefore, the space weathering effect should be removed from asteroid reflectance spectra to compare with those of meteorite and terrestrial minerals. In this report, we will apply the expanded modified Gaussian model (MGM) to the reflectance spectra of S-type asteroids 7 Iris and 532 Herculina and compare them with those of meteorites.

Ueda, Y.; Miyamoto, M.; Mikouchi, T.; Hiroi, T.

2003-01-01

147

Development of a surface-specific, anti-weathering stone preservative treatment  

SciTech Connect

We are testing an anti-weathering preservation strategy that is specific to limestone surfaces. The strategy involves the application of a mineral-specific, bifunctional, passivating/coupling agent that binds to both the limestone surface and to the consolidating inorganic polymer matrix. The sol-gel based reactions form composite materials with desirable conservation and anti-weathering properties. We present the results of our efforts, the highlights of which are: (1) scanning probe microscopy of moisture-free calcite crystals treated with the trisilanol form of silylalkylaminocarboxylate (SAAC), reveals porous agglomerates that offer no significant resistance to the mild leaching action of deionized water. When the crystals are further consolidated with a silica-based consolidant (A2**), no dissolution is seen although the positive role of the passivant molecule is not yet delineated. (2) Modulus of rupture tests on limestone cores treated with an aminoalkylsilane (AEAPS) and A2** showed a 25-35% increase in strength compared to the untreated samples. (3) Environmental scanning electron microscopy of treated limestone subjected to a concentrated acid attack showed degradation of the surface except in areas where thick layers of the consolidant were deposited.

Rao, S.M.; Brinkar, C.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rao, S.M.; Ross, T.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1997-04-01

148

Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. The National Weather Service (NWS)--which is part of NOAA and its parent agency, the Department of Commerce--is charged with the critical responsibility of observing and reporting the weather and with issuing forecasts and warnings of weather and floods in the interest of national safety and economy. Through a massive network of weather-monitoring and reporting stations around the globe, including land, sea, air, and space-borne instruments, NWS scientists constantly assimilate all of the reliable weather data available. Much of this data are then used in numerical computer models of the atmosphere that help to accurately describe and interpret current conditions and produce the best possible forecasts of future weather.

Forde, Evan B.

2004-04-01

149

Monitoring ionospheric plasmas in space weather context via DSLP observations on board Proba-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiment Dual Segmented Langmuir Probe (DSLP) on board Proba-2 spacecraft (ESA) provides a long-term continual survey of basic plasma properties measured in situ in the dawn and dusk sectors of the upper terrestrial ionosphere. DSLP observations are acquired by two identical segmented spherical Langmuir probes representing a novel approach to a well developed plasma diagnostic technique. Starting its nominal operations in May 2010 almost four years of regular observations are currently being available providing a substantial data set for monitoring observed ionospheric disturbances and irregularities in view of potential space weather drivers. Here we present initial DSLP data scientific applications including seasonal or immediate variations of derived plasma properties in comparison with possible effects of sudden solar events or long term trends in the overall solar activity. In addition we present an on-line data archive build on complete DSLP data set where all raw measurements are routinely being processed into calibrated higher level data products derived from the PDS and CDF standards and made available throughout web interface.

Travnicek, Pavel; Stverak, Stepan; Hercik, David; Pavelka, Roman

2014-05-01

150

Chemical Weathering of Black Shales and Rare Earth Element Composition of Surface Waters and Groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weathering processes dominate the dissolved and suspended loads of most of the world's major rivers. Among sedimentary rocks, black shales are particularly sensitive to chemical weathering. Therefore, shale systems are useful for investigating the partitioning of chemical elements during chemical weathering. Recent studies, such as those by Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Ravizza and others, link chemical weathering of black shales to changes in

R. E. Hannigan; K. H. Johannesson

2001-01-01

151

Sublimation on the Greenland ice sheet from automated weather station observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net) surface meteorological observations are used to estimate net surface water vapor flux at ice sheet sites. Results from aerodynamic profile methods are compared with eddy correlation and evaporation pan measurements. Two profile method types are applied to hourly data sets spanning 1995.4 to 2000.4. One method type is shown to accurately gauge sublimation using two humidity

Jason E. Box; Konrad Steffen

2001-01-01

152

Space Weathering Effects in Lunar Soils: The Roles of Surface Exposure Time and Bulk Chemical Composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weathering effects on lunar soil grains result from both radiation-damaged and deposited layers on grain surfaces. Typically, solar wind irradiation forms an amorphous layer on regolith silicate grains, and induces the formation of surficial metallic Fe in Fe-bearing minerals [1,2]. Impacts into the lunar regolith generate high temperature melts and vapor. The vapor component is largely deposited on the surfaces of lunar soil grains [3] as is a fraction of the melt [4, this work]. Both the vapor-deposits and the deposited melt typically contain nanophase Fe metal particles (npFe0) as abundant inclusions. The development of these rims and the abundance of the npFe0 in lunar regolith, and thus the optical properties, vary with the soil mineralogy and the length of time the soil grains have been exposed to space weathering effects [5]. In this study, we used the density of solar flare particle tracks in soil grains to estimate exposure times for individual grains and then perform nanometer-scale characterization of the rims using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The work involved study of lunar soil samples with different mineralogy (mare vs. highland) and different exposure times (mature vs. immature).

Zhang, Shouliang; Keller, Lindsay P.

2011-01-01

153

Satellite observation of atmosphere and surface interaction parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmosphere and ocean surface parameters are being derived from weather satellite data acquired by the High Resolution Infrared Sounder and the Microwave Sounding Unit. In this paper, the global distribution and accuracy of the derived parameters are described, and the satellite-derived skin surface temperature is compared with available shelter temperature. Seasonal and interannual changes are examined to study the response time of large-scale atmospheric changes to changes in surface conditions.

Chahine, Moustafa T.; Haskins, Robert D.; Susskind, Joel; Reuter, Dennis

1987-01-01

154

The Modulation of Potential Vorticity Streamers and Surface Weather Patterns by the Madden Julian Oscillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO), a large-scale coupled pattern between tropical deep convection and atmospheric circulation, is known to be the dominant source of intraseasonal variability in the tropics. Its impacts, however, are not limited to tropical regions: latent heat release associated with MJO convection can force planetary scale Rossby wave trains that propagate over the globe. On the synoptic scale, propagating Rossby wave trains can culminate in Rossby wave breaking, a process that generates so-called potential vorticity (PV) streamers. PV streamers have been linked to positive upper-level PV anomalies that can influence surface weather, extreme precipitation events and the enhanced exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere. The primary goal of the present study is to investigate the possible relationship between the MJO and PV streamers. Ten MJO indices (representing MJO activity at ten specific tropical longitudes) have been obtained from the Climate Prediction Center for the boreal winter between 1978 and 2001. The data are subsequently separated into terciles (allowing for the designation of convectively active and suppressed periods of the MJO) and compared with a unique PV streamer dataset that has been previously computed from ECMWF Re-analysis data (ERA-40). The streamer dataset allows for the dynamically useful separation of streamers into cyclonically and anticyclonically breaking waves, referred to as LC2 and LC1 streamers, respectively. Statistically significant differences are found regarding the amount, location and type of PV streamers during different phases of the MJO. When the MJO is convectively active over the Indian Ocean and Indonesia, the North Central Pacific is dominated by a positive 500 hPa height anomaly, a co-located reduction in LC2 streamers and increased LC1 streamers to the south and southeast. As the convection enters the Western Pacific warm pool and approaches the international dateline, a distinct regime shift occurs: over an approximately 10-15 day period, a negative 500 hPa height anomaly forms, supplanting the previous positive anomaly. Subsequent to this time, the negative height anomaly strengthens and there is a significant increase (decrease) in LC1 (LC2) streamers. To illustrate the connection between the MJO, Rossby wave breaking and surface weather in the extratropics, a comparison between PV streamers and surface cyclone frequency (also computed from ERA-40 data; see Wernli et al. 2006) is made. A fairly good agreement between LC2 streamer and surface cyclone frequency anomalies throughout the life cycle of the MJO is found in the North Pacific basin, further highlighting the ability of organized tropical convection to modulate extratropical weather.

Moore, R.; Martius, O.

2007-12-01

155

The Link between Clay Mineral Weathering and the Stabilization of  

E-print Network

The Link between Clay Mineral Weathering and the Stabilization of Ni Surface Precipitates R O B E R of the observed increase in dissolution resistance. Thus, clay mineral weathering and the time-dependent release was derived from weathering of the clay mineral surface. A time-dependent extended X

Sparks, Donald L.

156

Forecasting near-surface weather conditions and precipitation in Alaska's Prince William Sound with the PWS-WRF modeling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2009, several scientific teams engaged in a field program in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska to test an end-to-end atmosphere/ocean prediction system specially designed for this region. The "Sound Predictions Field Experiment" (FE) was a test of the PWS-Observing System (PWS-OS) and the culmination of a five-year program to develop an observational and prediction system for the Sound. This manuscript reports on results of an 18-day high-resolution atmospheric forecasting field project using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.Special attention was paid to surface meteorological properties and precipitation. Upon reviewing the results of the real-time forecasts, modifications were incorporated in the PWS-WRF modeling system in an effort to improve objective forecast skill. Changes were both geometric (model grid structure) and physical (different physics parameterizations).The weather during the summer-time FE was typical of the PWS in that it was characterized by a number of minor disturbances rotating around an anchored low, but with no major storms in the Gulf of Alaska. The basic PWS-WRF modeling system as implemented operationally for the FE performed well, especially considering the extremely complex terrain comprising the greater PWS region.Modifications to the initial PWS-WRF modeling system showed improvement in predicting surface variables, especially where the ambient flow interacted strongly with the terrain. Prediction of precipitation on an accumulated basis was more accurate than prediction on a day-to-day basis. The 18-day period was too short to provide reliable assessment and intercomparison of the quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) skill of the PWS-WRF model variants.

Olsson, Peter Q.; Volz, Karl P.; Liu, Haibo

2013-07-01

157

Forecasting near-surface weather conditions and precipitation in Alaska's Prince William Sound with the PWS-WRF modeling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the summer of 2009, several scientific teams engaged in a field program in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska to test an end-to-end atmosphere/ocean prediction system specially designed for this region. The "Sound Predictions Field Experiment" (FE) was a test of the PWS-Observing System (PWS-OS) and the culmination of a five-year program to develop an observational and prediction system for the Sound. This manuscript reports on results of an 18-day high-resolution atmospheric forecasting field project using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Special attention was paid to surface meteorological properties and precipitation. Upon reviewing the results of the real-time forecasts, modifications were incorporated in the PWS-WRF modeling system in an effort to improve objective forecast skill. Changes were both geometric (model grid structure) and physical (different physics parameterizations). The weather during the summer-time FE was typical of the PWS in that it was characterized by a number of minor disturbances rotating around an anchored low, but with no major storms in the Gulf of Alaska. The basic PWS-WRF modeling system as implemented operationally for the FE performed well, especially considering the extremely complex terrain comprising the greater PWS region. Modifications to the initial PWS-WRF modeling system showed improvement in predicting surface variables, especially where the ambient flow interacted strongly with the terrain. Prediction of precipitation on an accumulated basis was more accurate than prediction on a day-to-day basis. The 18-day period was too short to provide reliable assessment and intercomparison of the quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) skill of the PWS-WRF model variants.

Olsson, Peter Q.; Volz, Karl P.; Liu, Haibo

158

Oscillation Responses to an Extreme Weather Event from a Deep Moored Observing System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2007 tropical Cyclone Gonu passed directly over an ocean observing system consisting of four, deep autonomous mooring stations along the 3000 m isobath in the northern Arabian Sea. Gonu was the largest cyclone known to have occurred in the Arabian Sea or to strike the Arabian Peninsula. The mooring system was designed by Lighthouse R & D Enterprises, Inc. and installed in cooperation with the Oman Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Wealth. The instruments on the moorings continuously recorded water velocities, temperature, conductivity, pressure, dissolved oxygen and turbidity at multiple depths and at hourly intervals during the storm. Near-inertial oscillations at all moorings from thermocline to seafloor are coincident with the arrival of Gonu. Sub-inertial oscillations with periods of 2-10 days are recorded at the post-storm relaxation stage of Gonu, primarily in the thermocline. These oscillations consist of warm, saline water masses, likely originating from the Persian Gulf. Prominent 12.7-day sub-inertial waves, measured at a station ~300 km offshore, are bottom-intensified and have characteristics of baroclinic, topographically-trapped waves. Theoretical results from a topographically-trapped wave model are in a good agreement with the observed 12.7-day waves. The wavelength of the 12.7-day waves is about 590 km calculated from the dispersion relationship. Further analysis suggests that a resonant standing wave is responsible for trapping the 12.7-day wave energy inside the Sea of Oman basin. The observational results reported here are the first measurements of deepwater responses to a tropical cyclone in the Sea of Oman/Arabian Sea. Our study demonstrates the utility of sustained monitoring for studying the impact of extreme weather events on the ocean.

Wang, Z.; Dimarco, S. F.; Stoessel, M. M.; Zhang, X.; Ingle, S.

2011-12-01

159

Statistical relationship between surface PM10 concentration and aerosol optical depth over the Sahel as a function of weather type, using neural network methodology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

work aims at assessing the capability of passive remote-sensed measurements such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) to monitor the surface dust concentration during the dry season in the Sahel region (West Africa). We processed continuous measurements of AODs and surface concentrations for the period (2006-2010) in Banizoumbou (Niger) and Cinzana (Mali). In order to account for the influence of meteorological condition on the relationship between PM10 surface concentration and AOD, we decomposed the mesoscale meteorological fields surrounding the stations into five weather types having similar 3-dimensional atmospheric characteristics. This classification was obtained by a clustering method based on nonlinear artificial neural networks, the so-called self-organizing map. The weather types were identified by processing tridimensional fields of meridional and zonal winds and air temperature obtained from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output centered on each measurement station. Five similar weather types have been identified at the two stations. Three of them are associated with the Harmattan flux; the other two correspond to northward inflow of the monsoon flow at the beginning or the end of the dry season. An improved relationship has been found between the surface PM10 concentrations and the AOD by using a dedicated statistical relationship for each weather type. The performances of the statistical inversion computed on the test data sets show satisfactory skills for most of the classes, much better than a linear regression. This should permit the inversion of the mineral dust concentration from AODs derived from satellite observations over the Sahel.

Yahi, H.; Marticorena, B.; Thiria, S.; Chatenet, B.; Schmechtig, C.; Rajot, J. L.; Crepon, M.

2013-12-01

160

Groundwater/surface-water interactions on deeply weathered surfaces of low relief: evidence from Lakes Victoria and Kyoga, Uganda  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known of the interactions between groundwater and surface water on deeply weathered landscapes of low relief in the Great Lakes Region of Africa (GLRA). The role of groundwater in sustaining surface-water levels during periods of absent rainfall is disputed and groundwater is commonly excluded from estimations of surface-water balances. Triangulated piezometers installed beside lake gauging stations on Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga in Uganda provide the first evidence of the dynamic interaction between groundwater and surface water in the GLRA. Stable isotope ratios (2H:1H, 18O:16O) support piezometric evidence that groundwater primarily discharges to lakes but show further that mixing of groundwater and lake water has occurred at one site on Lake Victoria (Jinja). Layered-aquifer heterogeneity, wherein fluvial-lacustrine sands overlie saprolite, gives rise to both rapid and slow groundwater fluxes to lakes which is evident from the recession of borehole hydrographs following recharge events. Darcy throughflow calculations suggest that direct contributions from groundwater to Lake Victoria comprise <1% of the total inflows to the lake. Groundwater/surface-water interactions are strongly influenced by changing drainage base (lake) levels that are controlled, in part, by regional climate variability and dam releases from Lake Victoria (Jinja).

Owor, Michael; Taylor, Richard; Mukwaya, Christine; Tindimugaya, Callist

2011-11-01

161

Impact of the winter North-Atlantic weather regimes on subtropical sea-surface height variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interannual variability of subtropical sea-surface-height (SSH) anomalies, estimated by satellite and tide-gauge data, is investigated in relation to wintertime daily North-Atlantic weather regimes. Sea-level anomalies can be viewed as proxies for the subtropical gyre intensity because of the intrinsic baroclinic structure of the circulation. Our results show that the strongest correlation between SSH and weather regimes is found with the so-called Atlantic-Ridge (AR) while no significant values are obtained for the other regimes, including those related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), known as the primary actor of the Atlantic dynamics. Wintertime AR events are characterized by anticyclonic wind anomalies off Europe leading to a northward shift of the climatological wind-stress curl. The latter affects subtropical SSH annual variability by altered Sverdrup balance and ocean Rossby wave dynamics propagating westward from the African coast towards the Caribbean. The use of a simple linear planetary geostrophic model allows to quantify those effects and confirms the primary importance of the winter season to explain the largest part of SSH interannual variability in the Atlantic subtropical gyre. Our results open new perspectives in the comprehension of North-Atlantic Ocean variability emphasizing the role of AR as a driver of interannual variability at least of comparable importance to NAO.

Barrier, Nicolas; Treguier, Anne-Marie; Cassou, Christophe; Deshayes, Julie

2013-09-01

162

Temporal and spatial variation of surface reaction rates in porous media: Applications to silicate weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Percolation theory provides a promising framework for modeling transport in heterogeneous porous media, including hydraulic and electrical conductivity, air permeability, gas diffusivity, and solute transport. Using percolation concepts (e.g., critical path analysis, fractal scaling of percolation clusters, and cluster statistics), we developed a physically-based model for predicting solute transport. Our model predicted spatial solute distributions as a function of time, and arrival time distributions as a function of system size. Our solute transport predictions gave good matches to a wide range of experiments. We now apply our solute transport model to silicate weathering. We assume that surface chemical reactions are at equilibrium at the scale of a single pore, but that at larger length scales, reactions are limited by transport of reactants or products. Using results from published field experiments, we find that the temporal and spatial dependence derived from solute velocity successfully predicts the measured time- and length-dependence of reaction rates and weathering of silicate minerals over a wide range of time and length scale. A similar analysis of lab experiments (uranium breakthrough curves measured in two short and long columns from the Hanford site) indicates that normalized reaction rate versus normalized time follow 2D invasion and 3D random percolation.

Ghanbarian, B.; Hunt, A. G.; Skinner, T. E.; Ewing, R. P.

2013-12-01

163

Sensitivity of Spacebased Microwave Radiometer Observations to Ocean Surface Evaporation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ocean surface evaporation and the latent heat it carries are the major components of the hydrologic and thermal forcing on the global oceans. However, there is practically no direct in situ measurements. Evaporation estimated from bulk parameterization methods depends on the quality and distribution of volunteer-ship reports which are far less than satisfactory. The only way to monitor evaporation with sufficient temporal and spatial resolutions to study global environment changes is by spaceborne sensors. The estimation of seasonal-to-interannual variation of ocean evaporation, using spacebased measurements of wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), and integrated water vapor, through bulk parameterization method,s was achieved with reasonable success over most of the global ocean, in the past decade. Because all the three geophysical parameters can be retrieved from the radiance at the frequencies measured by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on Nimbus-7, the feasibility of retrieving evaporation directly from the measured radiance was suggested and demonstrated using coincident brightness temperatures observed by SMMR and latent heat flux computed from ship data, in the monthly time scale. However, the operational microwave radiometers that followed SMMR, the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), lack the low frequency channels which are sensitive to SST. This low frequency channels are again included in the microwave imager (TMI) of the recently launched Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM). The radiance at the frequencies observed by both TMI and SSM/I were simulated through an atmospheric radiative transfer model using ocean surface parameters and atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles produced by the reanalysis of the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). From the same ECMWF data set, coincident evaporation is computed using a surface layer turbulent transfer model. The sensitivity of the radiance to evaporation over various seasons and geographic locations are examined. The microwave frequencies with radiance that are significant correlated with evaporation are identify and capability of estimating evaporation directly from TMI will be discussed.

Liu, Timothy W.; Li, Li

2000-01-01

164

Data management of geostationary communication satellite telemetry and correlation to space weather observations  

E-print Network

To understand and mitigate the effects of space weather on the performance of geostationary communications satellites, we analyze sixteen years of archived telemetry data from Inmarsat, the UK-based telecommunications ...

Lohmeyer, Whitney Quinne

2013-01-01

165

The Main Pillar: Assessment of Space Weather Observational Asset Performance Supporting Nowcasting, Forecasting and Research to Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weather forecasting critically depends upon availability of timely and reliable observational data. It is therefore particularly important to understand how existing and newly planned observational assets perform during periods of severe space weather. Extreme space weather creates challenging conditions under which instrumentation and spacecraft may be impeded or in which parameters reach values that are outside the nominal observational range. This paper analyzes existing and upcoming observational capabilities for forecasting, and discusses how the findings may impact space weather research and its transition to operations. A single limitation to the assessment is lack of information provided to us on radiation monitor performance, which caused us not to fully assess (i.e., not assess short term) radiation storm forecasting. The assessment finds that at least two widely spaced coronagraphs including L4 would provide reliability for Earth-bound CMEs. Furthermore, all magnetic field measurements assessed fully meet requirements. However, with current or even with near term new assets in place, in the worst-case scenario there could be a near-complete lack of key near-real-time solar wind plasma data of severe disturbances heading toward and impacting Earth's magnetosphere. Models that attempt to simulate the effects of these disturbances in near real time or with archival data require solar wind plasma observations as input. Moreover, the study finds that near-future observational assets will be less capable of advancing the understanding of extreme geomagnetic disturbances at Earth, which might make the resulting space weather models unsuitable for transition to operations.

Posner, Arik; Hesse, Michael; SaintCyr, Chris

2014-01-01

166

Effects Of Fungal-Mineral Interactions On Chemical Weathering And Denudation Processes - Observations From Experimental Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mesoscale (`sandbox') lysimeter experiment was performed at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, to study plant-growth influences on chemical weathering and chemical denudation. Weathering was estimated by mass balance for 5 and 15-year intervals, and denudation was monitored as the product of drainage flow and concentration for 20 years in large (7.5x7.5x1.5m) fully lined sandboxes a.) planted with red

Z. Balogh; C. Keller; J. Dickinson

2003-01-01

167

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into meteorology and forecasting. Learners will research weather folklore, specifically looking for old-fashioned ways of predicting the weather. Then, they'll record observations of these predictors along with readings from their own homemade barometer, graphing the correct predictions for analysis. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Forecasting.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2005-01-01

168

Weather Instruments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth discusses the variety of instruments used to collect climate and weather data. The first two websites provide simple introductions to the many weather instruments. Bethune Academy's Weather Center (1) discusses the functions of psychrometers, anemometers, weather balloons, thermometers, and barometers. The Illinois State Water Survey (2) furnishes many images of various instruments that collect data daily for legal issues, farmers, educators, students, and researchers. The third website (3), created by the Center for Improving Engineering and Science Education (CIESE), provides a classroom activity to educate users on how to build and use weather instruments. By the end of the group project, students should know all about wind vanes, rain gauges, anemometers, and thermometers. Next, the Miami Museum of Science provides a variety of activities to help students learn about the many weather instruments including wind scales and wind chimes (4). Students can learn about the wind, air pressure, moisture, and temperature. At the fifth website, the Tyson Research Center at Washington University describes the devices it uses in its research (5). At the various links, users can find out the center's many projects that utilize meteorological data such as acid rain monitoring. The sixth website, a pdf document created by Dr. John Guyton at the Mississippi State University Extension Service, provides guidance to teachers about the education of weather patterns and instruments (6). Users can find helpful information on pressure systems, humidity, cloud patterns, and much more. Next, the University of Richmond discusses the tools meteorologists use to learn about the weather (7). While providing materials about the basic tools discussed in the other websites, this site also offers information about weather satellites, radar, and computer models. After discovering the many weather instruments, users can learn about weather data output and analysis at the Next Generation Weather Lab website (8). This expansive website provides an abundance of surface data and upper air data as well as satellite and radar images for the United States.

169

Sensitivity of free tropospheric carbon monoxide to atmospheric weather states and their persistency: an observational assessment over the Nordic countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among various factors that influence the long-range transport of pollutants in the free troposphere (FT), the prevailing atmospheric weather states probably play the most important role in governing characteristics and efficacy of such transport. The weather states, such as a particular wind pattern, cyclonic or anticyclonic conditions, and their degree of persistency determine the spatio-temporal distribution and the final fate of the pollutants. This is especially true in the case of Nordic countries, where baroclinic disturbances and associated weather fronts primarily regulate local meteorology, in contrast to the lower latitudes where a convective paradigm plays a similarly important role. Furthermore, the long-range transport of pollutants in the FT has significant contribution to the total column burden over the Nordic countries. However, there is insufficient knowledge on the large-scale co-variability of pollutants in the FT and atmospheric weather states based solely on observational data over this region. The present study attempts to quantify and understand this statistical co-variability while providing relevant meteorological background. To that end, we select eight weather states that predominantly occur over the Nordic countries and three periods of their persistency (3 days, 5 days, and 7 days), thus providing in total 24 cases to investigate sensitivity of free tropospheric carbon monoxide, an ideal tracer for studying pollutant transport, to these selected weather states. The eight states include four dominant wind directions (namely, NW, NE, SE and SW), cyclonic and anticyclonic conditions, and the enhanced positive and negative phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). For our sensitivity analysis, we use recently released Version 6 retrievals of CO at 500 hPa from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard Aqua satellite covering the 11-year period from September 2002 through August 2013 and winds from the ECMWF's ERA-Interim project to classify weather states for the same 11-year period. We show that, among the various weather states studied here, southeasterly winds lead to highest observed CO anomalies (up to +8%) over the Nordic countries while transporting pollution from the central and eastern parts of Europe. The second (up to +4%) and third highest (up to +2.5%) CO anomalies are observed when winds are northwesterly (facilitating inter-continental transport from polluted North American regions) and during the enhanced positive phase of the NAO respectively. Higher than normal CO anomalies are observed during anticyclonic conditions (up to +1%) compared to cyclonic conditions. The cleanest conditions are observed when winds are northeasterly and during the enhanced negative phases of the NAO, when relatively clean Arctic air masses are transported over the Nordic regions in the both cases. In the case of nearly all weather states, the CO anomalies consistently continue to increase or decrease as the degree of persistency of a weather state is increased. The results of this sensitivity study further provide an observational basis for the process-oriented evaluation of chemistry transport models, especially with regard to the representation of large-scale coupling of chemistry and local weather states and its role in the long-range transport of pollutants in such models.

Thomas, M. A.; Devasthale, A.

2014-11-01

170

GEM: Statistical weather forecasting procedure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the Generalized Exponential Markov (GEM) Program was to develop a weather forecast guidance system that would: predict between 0 to 6 hours all elements in the airways observations; respond instantly to the latest observed conditions of the surface weather; process these observations at local sites on minicomputing equipment; exceed the accuracy of current persistence predictions at the shortest prediction of one hour and beyond; exceed the accuracy of current forecast model output statistics inside eight hours; and be capable of making predictions at one location for all locations where weather information is available.

Miller, R. G.

1983-01-01

171

The impact of observation systems on medium-range weather forecasting in a global forecast system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the impact of various types of data on medium-range forecasts, observing system experiments are performed using an assimilation algorithm based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis system. Data-denial experiments for radiosonde, satellite, aircraft, and sea surface observations, and selected data experiments for radiosonde and surface data, are conducted for the boreal summer of 1997 and the boreal winter of 1997/1998. The data assimilation system used in this study is remarkably dependent on radiosonde data, which provides information about the three-dimensional structure of the atmosphere. As expected, the impact of radiosonde observations on medium-range forecasts is strongly positive over the Northern Hemisphere and tropics, whereas the satellite system is most beneficial over the Southern Hemisphere. These results are also found in experiments simulating historical changes in observation systems. Over the tropics, assimilation without radiosonde observations generates unbalanced analyses resulting in unrealistic forecasts that must be corrected by the forecast model. Forecasts based on analysis from the observation data before the era of radiosonde observation are found to be less meaningful. In addition, the impacts on forecasts are closely related to the geographical distribution of observation data. The memory of observation data embedded in the analysis tends to persist throughout forecasts. However, cases exist where the effect of forecast error growth is more dominant than that of analysis error, e.g., over East Asia in summer, and where the deficiency in observations is supplemented or the imbalance in analysis is adjusted by the forecast model during the period of forecasts. Forecast error growth may be related to the synoptic correction performed by the data assimilation system. Over data-rich areas, analysis fields are corrected to a greater extent by the data assimilation system than are those over data-poor areas, which can cause the forecast model to produce more forecast errors in medium-range forecasts. It is found that even one month per season is sufficient for forecast skill verification in data impact experiments. Additionally, the use of upper-air observations is found to benefit areas that are downstream of observation data-rich areas.

Hwang, Seung-On; Hong, Song-You

2012-05-01

172

Mechanism of tropical low-cloud response to surface warming using weather and climate simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand mechanisms of shortwave cloud-radiative feedback to global warming in a general circulation model (GCM), we analyzed the response of tropical clouds to uniform increase of sea surface temperature in an atmospheric GCM with two different experimental designs: a single Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) run for 30 years and a series of 10 day weather hindcasts following the Transpose AMIP II (TAMIP). Given the fast time scale of cloud processes, the hindcast ensemble can capture initial transient responses toward equilibrium obtained in the AMIP experiment, which shows a reduction of low clouds over tropical subsidence regions. The reduction of clouds occurs in the first 10 days in TAMIP when the marine boundary layer (MBL) is destabilized because of contrast between fast and slow warming in the MBL and aloft. Enhanced evaporation from the sea surface that should moisten the MBL through turbulent mixing is suppressed by a reduced surface wind speed associated with a slowdown of the Walker circulation. The sign of the low-cloud change over the subsidence regime is thus determined roughly by competition between convective drying and turbulent moistening of the MBL.

Demoto, Satoru; Watanabe, Masahiro; Kamae, Youichi

2013-05-01

173

[Effect of the weather on acute hospital admissions. Observations at a neurologic clinic].  

PubMed

In 1,286 acute admissions to a neurological department in 1987/88, the relationship between admission rate and the continuously recorded meteorological parameters air pressure, temperature, and humidity, together with their differences over 24 hours (previous day and next day), as well as subjective weather effects, were submitted to factor analysis. No correlation was found between admission rate and absolute meterological parameters, but there was a relationship between admission rate and 24-hour differences, which was age-dependent and decreased from younger to older patients. This was considered to show that in the elderly, the usual course of their disease is more decisive than any influences of the weather. This contrasts with the results of demoscopic polls that show an increase in weather-dependent complaints with age. PMID:2397927

Weitbrecht, W U; Simon, F

1990-05-20

174

Evaluation of regional numerical weather prediction model surface fields over the Middle Atlantic Bight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal ocean models often rely on the surface fields from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models for realistic surface boundary conditions, but the errors in these fields are poorly understood. We evaluate the surface meteorological and flux fields provided by three of the regional NWP models in operation during 1996 and 1997 at the U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP): the Eta-48, Eta-29, and Rapid Update Cycle (RUC-1) models. These model fields are compared to in situ measurements made from an air-sea interaction buoy deployed from July 1996 to June 1997 at a midshelf location in the Middle Atlantic Bight during the Coastal Mixing and Optics experiment. In addition, data from six National Data Buoy Center buoys are used to evaluate spatial errors in the model fields. The Eta-29 and RUC-1 models overestimate the net ocean-to-atmosphere heat flux by an average 83 and 74 W m-2, respectively, with notable errors in each of the individual heat flux components. The poorly resolved sea surface temperature fields used in the 1996-1997 regional NWP models lead to significant errors in the latent and sensible heat fluxes over the continental shelf and slope. Moreover, wind speeds are slightly overestimated in the Eta-48 and Eta-29 models while the RUC-1 model underestimates them by more than 1 m s-1. All of the models have mean wind direction errors of 7° to 13° east of north. In light of these evaluations, considerations for improving the accuracy of the surface flux fields for use in future ocean modeling studies are discussed.

Baumgartner, Mark F.; Anderson, Steven P.

1999-08-01

175

Meeting Report: Integrating Space Weather Observations and Forecasts into Aviation Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The policy and operational aspects of applying space weather information to the international aviation industry are of growing concern to both operators and regulators, especially since the number of cross-polar flights have increased from a handful of demonstration flights in 1999 to over a dozen daily schedules today. The aviation industry is primarily concerned about risks during high latitude (>50°N)

Genene Fisher; Bryn Jones

2007-01-01

176

Exploring Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday, February 1st: Look at the five-day forecast for Salt Lake City, Utah at Five day forecasts. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Make sure you look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make ...

Emily, Miss

2010-01-29

177

Characterization of space weathering from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera ultraviolet observations of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

investigate the effects of space weathering at ultraviolet wavelengths using a near-global seven-band (321-689 nm) mosaic from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC). We confirm that for moderate- to high-iron compositions (? 5 wt % FeO), the steeply positive UV slope at wavelengths <415 nm shallows with increasing exposure to space weathering. We measure these differences in LROC WAC data as variations in the 321/415 nm ratio, which has low values for fresh craters in the mare and moderate-iron highlands. For low-iron highland compositions, the break in slope occurs at shorter wavelengths, and it is instead the 321/360 nm ratio that increases with exposure to the space-weathering environment, whereas the 321/415 nm ratio appears to be largely controlled by the degree of shock experienced during the impact. The effects of shock may be more important at highland craters because modest shock pressures result in the solid-state transformation of plagioclase to its glass equivalent, maskelynite, and can help distinguish between primary shocked ejecta and locally exposed fresh material in rays. While all of the "fresh" craters we examined have UV spectral properties consistent with substantial alteration due to space weathering, the UV spectra of lunar swirls (magnetically shielded from the solar wind) are consistent with exposure of immature, crystalline material. Together these results suggest that lunar space weathering is dominated by the solar wind and "saturates" in the UV at Is/FeO values of ~40 (submature).

Denevi, Brett W.; Robinson, Mark S.; Boyd, Aaron K.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hapke, Bruce W.; Hawke, B. Ray

2014-05-01

178

Impact of synoptic weather patterns on spatio-temporal variation in surface O3 levels in Hong Kong during 1999-2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential impacts of circulation patterns on surface ozone (O3) concentrations over Hong Kong were investigated for the time period of 1999-2011. Synoptic weathers during the study period were classified into seven typical patterns using a semi-objective weather typing technique. Temporal and spatial variations of O3 and total oxidant (Ox = O3 + NO2) in Hong Kong were found to be closely connected with weather/circulation patterns. The highest O3 concentrations (25 ppbv in average) among the 7 categories were found to be associated with the influence of Northwest Pacific typhoons, whereas the lowest average concentrations (13 pbbv) were linked to southerly flow introduced by summer monsoons. Ozone episodes with hourly mixing ratios exceeding 120 ppbv were found to be caused primarily by regional transport under influence of the tropical cyclone and by photochemical reactions upon prevalence of anti-cyclonic circulation. Taking into account interannual variabilities in frequency and intensity of circulation patterns, a reconstructed time series of O3 captured up to 50% of the observed interannual variability and 36% of the increasing trend. The study highlights an important linkage between weather/climate and air quality.

Zhang, Yang; Mao, Huiting; Ding, Aijun; Zhou, Derong; Fu, Congbin

2013-07-01

179

Unisys Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Unisys weather website offers a host of weather analyses and forecasts. In the Analyses link, visitors can find satellite images as well as surface, upper air, and radar images. Visitors can learn the intricacies of Unisys's many forecast models such as the Nested Grid Model (NGM), Aviation Model, and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) Model. Users can find archived hurricane data for the Atlantic, the Eastern Pacific, and the Western Pacific. The site also furnishes archived surface maps, infrared satellite images, upper air charts, and sea surface temperature (SST) plots.

180

Observation and modelling of stable isotopes in precipitation for midlatitude weather systems in Melbourne, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of stable water isotopes as tracers of moisture throughout the hydrological cycle is often hindered by the relatively coarse temporal and spatial resolution of observational data. Intensive observation periods (IOPs) of isotopes in precipitation have been valuable in this regard enabling the quantification of the effects of vapour recycling, convection, cloud top height and droplet reevaporation (Dansgaard, 1953; Miyake et al., 1968; Gedzelman and Lawrence, 1982; 1990; Pionke and DeWalle, 1992; Risi et al., 2008; 2009) and have been used as a basis to develop isotope models of varying complexity (Lee and Fung, 2008; Bony et al., 2008). This study took a unified approach combining observation and modelling of stable isotopes in precipitation in an investigation of three key circulation types that typically bring rainfall to southeastern Australia. The observational component of this study involved the establishment of the Melbourne University Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (MUNIP). MUNIP was devised to sample rainwater simultaneously at a number of collection sites across greater Melbourne to record the spatial and temporal isotopic variability of precipitation during the passage of particular events. Samples were collected at half-hourly intervals for three specific rain events referred to as (1) mixed-frontal, (2) convective, and (3) stratiform. It was found that the isotopic content for each event varied over both high and low frequencies due to influences from local changes in rain intensity and large scale rainout respectively. Of particular note was a positive relationship between deuterium excess and rainfall amount under convective conditions. This association was less well defined for stratiform rainfall. As a supplement to the data coverage of the observations, the events were simulated using a version of NCAR CAM3 running with an isotope hydrology scheme. This was done by periodically nudging the model dynamics with data from the NCEP Reanalysis (Noone, 2006). Results from the simulations showed that the model represented well the large scale evolution of vapour profiles of deuterium excess and 18O for the mixed-frontal and stratiform events. Reconstruction of air mass trajectories provided further detail of the evolution and structure of the vapour profiles revealing a convergence of air masses from different source regions for the mixed-frontal event. By combining observations and modelling in this way, much detail of the structure and isotope moisture history of the observed events was provided that would be unavailable from the sampling of precipitation alone. References Bony, S., C. Risi, and F. Vimeux (2008), Influence of convective processes on the isotopic composition (?18O and ?D) of precipitation and water vapor in the tropics: 1. Radiative-convective equilibrium and Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere-Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response (TOGA-COARE) simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D19305, doi:10.1029/2008JD009942. Dansgaard, W. (1953), The abundance of 18O in atmospheric water and water vapor. Tellus, 5, 461-469. Gedzelman, S. D., and J. R. Lawrence (1982), The isotopic composition of cyclonic precipitation. J. App. Met., 21, 1385-1404. Gedzelman, S. D., and J. R. Lawrence (1990), The isotopic composition of precipitation from two extratropical cyclones, Mon. Weather Rev., 118 , 495-509. Lee, J., and I. Fung (2008), 'Amount effect' of water isotopes and quantitative analysis of post-condensation processes, Hydrol. Process., 22, 1-8. Miyake, Y., O. Matsubaya, and C. Nishihara (1968), An isotopic study on meteoric precipitation, Pap. Meteorol. Geophys., 19, 243-266. Noone, D. (2006), Isotopic composition of water vapor modeled by constraining global climate simulations with reanalyses, in Research activities in atmospheric and oceanic modeling, J. Côté (ed.), Report No. 36, WMO/TD-No. 1347, p. 2.37-2.38. Pionke, H. B., and D. R. DeWalle (1992), Intra- and inter-storm 18O trends for selected rainstorms in Pennsylvania. J. Hydrol., 138, 131-143. Risi, C., S. Bony, and F. Vimeux (20

Barras, Vaughan; Simmonds, Ian

2010-05-01

181

GPS Water Vapor Estimation Using Interpolated Surface Meteorological Data from Australian Automatic Weather Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existing GPS tracking networks established primarily for surveying, geodesy and navigation purposes may also be used for meteorology studies. This research uses hourly surface temperature and pressure (T & P) observations from Australia for GPS Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) estimation. The paper outlines the basic meteorological data requirements, and presents experimental results to show the comparison between interpolated and

Zhengdong Bai; Yanming Feng

2003-01-01

182

Comparative Analysis of Thunderstorm Activity in the West Caucasus According to the Instrumental Measurements and Weather Stations Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of thunderstorms days is one of the main characteristics of thunderstorms. In most cases, the number of days with different meteorological phenomena are the climate characteristic of the area. This characteristic is a common climate indicator. The comparative analysis of thunderstorms days quantity, received with lightning detector LS 8000 by Vaisala and weather stations of Krasnodar District (Russia), is presented. For this purpose the Krasnodar region was divided into 19 sites. The thunderstorm days amount and their comparison were conducted for each site according to the data of weather stations and LS 8000 lightning detectors. Totally 29 weather stations are located in this area. The number of thunderstorm days per year for the period of 2009-2012 was determined according to data, received from stations. It was received that average annual number of thunderstorm days for this area was from 33 to 39 days. The majority of thunderstorm days per year (up to 77) was registered in the south of Krasnodar region and on the Black Sea coast. The lowest thunderstorm activity (about 20 days) was observed in the North of the region. To compare visual and voice data for calculating thunderstorm days quantity of the Krasnodar region, the day was considered thundery if at least one weather station registered a storm. These instrumental observations of thunderstorms allow to obtain the basic characteristics and features of the distribution of thunderstorm activity over a large territory for a relatively short period of time. However, some characteristics such as thunderstorms intensity, damages from lightning flashes and others could be obtained only with instrumental observations. The territory of gathering thunderstorm discharges data by system LS8000 is limited by perimeter of 2250 km and square of 400 000 km2. According to the instrumental observations, the majority of storm activity also takes place on the Black Sea coast, near the cities of Sochi and Tuapse. Thus the number of thunderstorm days data characterized by the values from 49 to 158. To compare instrumental and visual-voice observations the difference between thunderstorms days quantity, obtained with visual-voice and instrumental methods, was selected as an indicator of thunderstorm activity. Total number of thunderstorm days in the Krasnodar region during 4 years is 565 according to the lightning detectors and 519 according to the weather stations. The presence of significant differences was revealed to compare number of thunderstorm days between instrumental observations and weather stations data. Thus the value of the average number of thunderstorms days on 29 meteorological stations of the Krasnodar region is reached 33-39 days. At the same time, 49-138 thunderstorm days were recorded according to the LS8000 system. This difference is caused by two factors: 1) limitations of visual-audio thunderstorms detection method at weather stations; 2) development of thunderstorms in a limited areas of the Krasnodar region, which is not the whole territory.

Knyazeva, Zalina; Gergokova, Zainaf; Gyatov, Ruslan; Boldyreff, Anton

2014-05-01

183

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is a set of computer-based learning modules that teach students about meteorology from the point of view of learning how to forecast the weather. The modules were designed as the primary teaching resource for a seminar course on weather forecasting at the introductory college level (originally METR 151, later ATMO 151) and can also be used in the laboratory component of an introductory atmospheric science course. The modules assume no prior meteorological knowledge. In addition to text and graphics, the modules include interactive questions and answers designed to reinforce student learning. The module topics are: 1. How to Access Weather Data, 2. How to Read Hourly Weather Observations, 3. The National Collegiate Weather Forecasting Contest, 4. Radiation and the Diurnal Heating Cycle, 5. Factors Affecting Temperature: Clouds and Moisture, 6. Factors Affecting Temperature: Wind and Mixing, 7. Air Masses and Fronts, 8. Forces in the Atmosphere, 9. Air Pressure, Temperature, and Height, 10. Winds and Pressure, 11. The Forecasting Process, 12. Sounding Diagrams, 13. Upper Air Maps, 14. Satellite Imagery, 15. Radar Imagery, 16. Numerical Weather Prediction, 17. NWS Forecast Models, 18. Sources of Model Error, 19. Sea Breezes, Land Breezes, and Coastal Fronts, 20. Soundings, Clouds, and Convection, 21. Snow Forecasting.

Nielsen-Gammon, John

1996-09-01

184

Satellite-based albedo, sea surface temperature and effective land roughness maps used in the HIRLAM model for weather and climate scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is conducted on the effect of introducing maps of geophysical parameters retrieved from satellite Earth Observation data into the atmospheric model HIRLAM (HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model). . The HIRLAM system was developed by the HIRLAM project group, a cooperative project of the national weather services in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. It is currently used by weather services in several European countries. The exchanges of sensible heat, water vapour and momentum between the land- and ocean surface and the atmosphere are very important dynamical processes in this type of model. The results from the HIRLAM model when using the improved surface boundary conditions is validated from wind and temperature data at synoptic weather stations and surface flux data from land- and ocean meteorological masts in Denmark. The results from a set of scenarios covering the hurricane in Denmark in December 1999 and several springtime cases in 2000 show improved weather forecasts. The methodology on retrieving improved boundary conditions is based on satellite image data. Maps on the geophysical parameters albedo and sea surface temperature are retrieved at a 1 km spatial resolution from NOAA AVHRR. Furthermore, land cover maps based on Landsat TM satellite data are used to assess the regional roughness. The high-resolution land roughness map (Areal Systems Information in a 25 m pixel resolution) is area-averaged into effective roughness values (15 km grid) by using a non-linear aggregation technique (QJRMS 1999, vol 125, 2075-2102). The area-averaging is highly non-linear due to the turbulent physical processes involved. Thus the effective surface conditions cannot be obtained by simple averaging but only by a flow model taking horizontal advection into consideration. The effect of hedges in the landscape is included as a correction index based on a vector-based map. The land surface fluxes of heat and water vapour is also estimated from a new concept using vegetation state and surface temperatures from either NOAA AVHRR satellite data or HIRLAM model results. Furthermore, a one-year climate simulation will be carried out with the seasonal land surface effects included in the input conditions. This work is basic to improvements in global climate change predictions. Funding from Danish Research Agency to the SAT-MAP-CLIMATE project (5006-00-0063) is acknowledged.

Hasager, C. B.; Nielsen, N. W.; Christensen, J. H.; Soegaard, H.; Boegh, E.; Rasmussen, M. S.; Jensen, N. O.

2001-12-01

185

Observations of the surface boundary structure within supercell thunderstorms.  

E-print Network

??Observations of the surface structure of supercell thunderstorms are presented utilizing data collected with a recently developed, rapidly-deployable surface observing system dubbed StickNet. Boundaries within… (more)

Skinner, Patrick Stanton

2009-01-01

186

A regression-based statistical correction of mesoscale simulations for near-surface wind speed using remotely sensed surface observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind speed is an important meteorological variable for various scientific communities. In this study, numerical mesoscale simulations were performed over the Republic of Korea in 2006, to produce wind information distributed homogeneously with space. Then, an attempt was made to statistically correct the simulated nearsurface wind speed using remotely sensed surface observations. The weak wind season (WWS, from May to October) and strong wind season (SWS, from November to April) were classified on the basis of the annual mean wind speed. Although the spatial features and monthly variation pattern of the near-surface wind speed were reasonably simulated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the simulations overestimated the observed values. To correct the simulated wind speeds, a regression-based statistical algorithm with different constants and coefficients for WWS and SWS was developed using match-up datasets of wind observations and satellitederived variables (land surface temperature and normalized difference water index). The corrected wind speeds showed reasonable performance for both WWS and SWS with respect to observed values. The monthly variation in the corrected wind speeds over the Republic of Korea also matched better with observations throughout the year, within a monthly bias range of approximately ± 0.2 m s-1. The proposed algorithm using remotely sensed surface observations may be useful for correcting simulated near-surface wind speeds and improving the accuracy of wind assessments over the Republic of Korea.

Kim, Do-Yong; Kim, Jin-Young; Kim, Jae-Jin

2012-11-01

187

Urban and land surface effects on the 30 July 2003 mesoscale convective system event observed in the southern Great Plains  

E-print Network

Urban and land surface effects on the 30 July 2003 mesoscale convective system event observed] The urban canopy of excess heat, water vapor, and roughness can affect the evolution of weather systems/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS 1 ) to investigate the impact of urban and land vegetation processes

Niyogi, Dev

188

Impact of atmospheric CO2 rise on chemical weathering of the continental surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continental weathering consumes atmospheric CO2. Recent analysis of field data has shown that this flux is rapidly reacting to ongoing climate (ref 1) and land use changes (ref 2), displaying an increase of up to 40 % over a few decades. Weathering processes are thus a potentially important component of the present day global carbon cycle. We developed numerical model describing continental weathering reactions based on laboratory kinetic laws and coupled to numerical model of the productivity of the biosphere (B-WITCH)(ref 3,4). This model is able to simulate the chemical composition of streams for both small and large continental watersheds. In this model, we emphasized the role of land plants in controlling belowground hydrological fluxes and decreasing the pH of percolating water through root respiration, both of which heavily impact weathering rates. Both climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations affect the productivity and biogeography of the terrestrial biosphere through direct climate effects and CO2 fertilization. With our weathering model coupled to a dynamic global vegetation model, we have the capability to explore the impact of CO2 and climate change on rock weathering. With regards to CO2 fertilization, we calculate that the overall weathering rate may potentially rise by 20 % when CO2 increases up to 8 times the present day pressure for a large tropical watershed (Orinoco). This change is driven by a decrease in evapotranspiration when CO2 rises, and thus by an increase in the weathering profile drainage. We extend our sensitivity tests to the fertilization effect to 20 sites all over the world under various climatic, biospheric and lithologic conditions, and the results will be discussed. ref 1: Gislason et al., EPSL, 277, 213-222, 2008 ref 2: Raymond et al.,Nature, 451, 449-452, 2008 ref 3: Godd

Godderis, Y.; Roelandt, C.; Beaulieu, E.; Kaplan, J. O.; Schott, J.

2009-04-01

189

Comparative study of pulsed laser cleaning applied to weathered marble surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The removal of unwanted matter from surface stones is a demanding task in the conservation of cultural heritage. This paper investigates the effectiveness of near-infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) laser pulses for the cleaning of surface deposits, iron oxide stains and different types of graffiti (black, red and green sprays and markers, and black cutting-edge ink) on dolomitic white marble. The performance of the laser techniques is compared to common cleaning methods on the same samples, namely pressurized water and chemical treatments. The degree of cleaning achieved with each technique is assessed by means of colorimetric measurements and X-ray microfluorescence. Eventual morphological changes induced on the marble substrate are monitored with optical and electronic microscopy. It is found that UV pulsed laser ablation at 266 nm manages to clean all the stains except the cutting-edge ink, although some degree of surface erosion is produced. The IR laser pulses at 1064 nm can remove surface deposits and black spray acceptably, but a yellowing is observed on the stone surface after treatment. An economic evaluation shows that pulsed laser cleaning techniques are advantageous for the rapid cleaning of small or inaccessible surface areas, although their extensive application becomes expensive due to the long operating times required.

Ortiz, P.; Antúnez, V.; Ortiz, R.; Martín, J. M.; Gómez, M. A.; Hortal, A. R.; Martínez-Haya, B.

2013-10-01

190

Comparison of Approaches to Calibrate a Surface Complexation Model for U(VI) Sorption to Weathered Saprolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surface complexation model describing the sorption of uranyl ions and uranyl carbonate on weak and strong sites was used\\u000a to analyze experiments conducted on pH-dependent U(VI) sorption to weathered shale\\/limestone saprolite. Sorption data were\\u000a collected at two different solid to solution ratios. Various methods of estimating equilibrium reaction coefficients and site\\u000a densities were investigated. As a first approximation, extractable

Fan Zhang; Jack C. Parker; Scott C Brooks; Young Jin Kim; Guoping Tang; Philip M Jardine; David B Watson

2009-01-01

191

Space Weathering Products Found on the Surfaces of the Itokawa Dust Particles: A Summary of the Initial Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surfaces of airless bodies exposed to interplanetary space gradually have their structures, optical properties, chemical compositions, and mineralogy changed by solar wind implantation and sputtering, irradiation by galactic and solar cosmic rays, and micrometeorite bombardment. These alteration processes and the resultant optical changes are known as space weathering [1, 2, 3]. Our knowledge of space weathering has depended almost entirely on studies of the surface materials returned from the Moon and regolith breccia meteorites [1, 4, 5, 6] until the surface material of the asteroid Itokawa was returned to the Earth by the Hayabusa spacecraft [7]. Lunar soil studies show that space weathering darkens the albedo of lunar soil and regolith, reddens the slopes of their reflectance spectra, and attenuates the characteristic absorption bands of their reflectance spectra [1, 2, 3]. These changes are caused by vapor deposition of small (<40 nm) metallic Fe nanoparticles within the grain rims of lunar soils and agglutinates [5, 6, 8]. The initial analysis of the Itokawa dust particles revealed that 5 out of 10 particles have nanoparticle-bearing rims, whose structure varies depending on mineral species. Sulfur-bearing Fe-rich nanoparticles (npFe) exist in a thin (5-15 nm) surface layer (zone I) on olivine, low-Ca pyroxene, and plagioclase, suggestive of vapor deposition. Sulfur-free npFe exist deeper inside (<60 nm) ferromagnesian silicates (zone II). Their texture suggests formation by amorphization and in-situ reduction of Fe2+ in ferromagnesian silicates [7]. On the other hand, nanophase metallic iron (npFe0) in the lunar samples is embedded in amorphous silicate [5, 6, 8]. These textural differences indicate that the major formation mechanisms of the npFe0 are different between the Itokawa and the lunar samples. Here we report a summary of the initial analysis of space weathering of the Itokawa dust particles.

Noguchi, T.; Kimura, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Konno, M.; Nakamura, T.; Ogami, T.; Ishida, H.; Sagae, R.; Tsujimoto, S.; Tsuchiyama, A,; Zolensky, M. E.; Tanaka, M.; Fujimura, A.; Abe, M.; Yada, T.; Mukai, T.; Ueno, M.; Okada, T.; Shirai, K.; Ishibashi, Y.; Okazaki, R.

2012-01-01

192

Environmental Education Tips: Weather Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides weather activities including questions, on weather, heating the earth's surface, air, tools of the meteorologist, clouds, humidity, wind, and evaporation. Shows an example of a weather chart activity. (RT)

Brainard, Audrey H.

1989-01-01

193

Two Rare Northern Entoloma Species Observed in Sicily under Exceptionally Cold Weather Conditions  

PubMed Central

The biology and ecology of many Entoloma species is still poorly known as well as their geographical distribution. In Italy, there are no studies on the influence of weather on fungal abundance and richness and our knowledge on the ecology and distribution of Entoloma species needs to be improved. The discovery of two Entoloma species in Sicily (southern Italy), reported in the literature as belonging to the habitat of north European countries, was the basis leading to the assumption that anomalous climatic conditions could stimulate the growth of northern entolomas in the southernmost Mediterranean regions. The results of this study show that the presence of northern Entoloma species in Sicily is not influenced by the Mediterranean type of vegetation, by edaphic or altitudinal factors but by anomalous climatic trends of precipitations and temperatures which stimulate the fructification of basidiomata in correspondence with a thermal shock during autumn. PMID:22645481

Venturella, Giuseppe; Saitta, Alessandro; Mandracchia, Gerlando; Gargano, Maria Letizia

2012-01-01

194

Weathering Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This experiment is designed to allow students to observe and understand chemical and physical weathering of simulated "rocks". They will place the materials in plastic bags, one wet and one dry, and store them for 3-4 days. At the end of the storage period, they will observe the contents of both bags and answer some questions about what they see.

195

Characteristics of intense space weather events as observed from a low latitude station during solar minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a dual-frequency high-resolution software-based GPS receiver, TEC and phase have been monitored from Calcutta, India situated near the northern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly for studying some Space Weather events during 2008-2010. Data from a dual-frequency Ionospheric TEC and Scintillation Monitor operational at this station under the international SCINDA program of the U.S. Air Force have also been used. This paper presents two cases of intense Space Weather events occurring in the equatorial latitudes under magnetically quiet conditions during the abnormally prolonged minimum of solar cycle 24. High values of S4 with maximum ˜0.8 were noted on GPS links located almost due south of Calcutta (22.58°N, 88.38°E geographic; magnetic dip: 32°N) when the look angles of the satellites are more-or-less aligned with the axis of the anisotropic field-aligned irregularities over the magnetic equator. Associated bite-outs in TEC of amplitude 40 units were recorded in the local post-sunset hours. Well-defined patches of phase scintillations and associated cycle slips were identified. On these days, higher values of ambient ionization were noted and the diurnal maximum of the electrojet strength was found to be delayed followed by a significant rise of the F region with a high upward drift velocity over the magnetic equator around sunset indicated by ionosonde. Measurements of in situ ion density using LEO DMSP corroborate the F region height rise. Presence of irregularities in ionization density distributions around 450km was found from C/NOFS measurements.

Paul, A.; Roy, B.; Ray, S.; Das, A.; Dasgupta, A.

2011-10-01

196

Australian Severe Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Australian Severe Weather Web site is maintained by self proclaimed severe weather enthusiasts Michael Bath and Jimmy Deguara. Other weatherphobes will fully appreciate what the authors have assembled. Everything from weather images, storm news, tropical cyclone data, bush fire and wild fire information, weather observation techniques, and even video clips and Web cam links. Although these other items make the site well rounded, the extensive amount of categorized weather pictures (which are quite extraordinary) are reason enough to visit.

197

What's the Weather?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students use daily observations, videos, and activities to learn about meteorology and the changing nature of weather. They will also identify weather events that are commonly reported in the news and discuss how weather affects lives. They should understand that weather can change daily and weather patterns change over the seasons, and that it has characteristics that can be measured and predicted. Suggestions for an optional field trip are also provided.

2005-01-01

198

Wonderful Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Second Grade Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 2: Observe and describe weather. Indicator a: Observe and describe patterns of change in weather. Monday November 6th: Look at the five-day forecast for Logan Utah at Five Day Forecast in Utah. The high temperature for the day will be in red and the low temperature will be in blue. Look at the temperature listed in degrees Farenheit (F) not degrees Celcius (C). Make a bar graph for the ...

Broadhead, Ms.

2007-11-06

199

Coastal radar observations reveal complex surface circulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior of nearshore ocean surface currents has important effects on the coastal ecosystem, with the alongshore propagating waves helping transport marine organisms and affecting how nutrients, salt, and heat are distributed. Using a network of 61 high-frequency radar stations off the U.S. West Coast, Kim et al. got a detailed look at the motion of the coastal ocean. They found that there are essentially two distinct sets of poleward propagating waves driving the nearshore flow.

Schultz, Colin

2013-11-01

200

Climatological weather observations Rainfall records at the University date back to 1901, with comprehensive  

E-print Network

and the lower atmosphere, the surface energy balance, measurements and instruments. It gives students and research, particularly concerned with study of the energy and momentum exchange between the surface, on board US navy ships or in urban environments. A new upward looking LIDAR was recently acquired

Matthews, Adrian

201

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Weather Forecasting is one of several online guides produced by the Weather World 2010 project at the University of Illinois. These guides use multimedia technology and the dynamic capabilities of the web to incorporate text, colorful diagrams, animations, computer simulations, audio, and video to introduce topics and concepts in the atmospheric sciences. This module introduces forecast methods and the numerous factors one must consider when attempting to make an accurate forecast. Sections include forecasting methods for different scenarios, surface features affecting forecasting, forecasting temperatures for day and night, and factors for forecasting precipitation.

2010-01-01

202

Optimizing next-generation operational observation networks for the short-term forecast of Mediterranean high-impact weather  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather forecasting authorities are perceiving increasing pressure from the public to extend and improve the quality of short-range predictions while reducing costs and increasing the overall forecasting efficiency. The European community is strongly committed to attain this increased efficiency by focusing on the observational component of the weather forecasting process. One important research commitment is oriented to optimize the integrated observing system networks to achieve better representations of the atmosphere and eventually more accurate forecasts. In this context, sensitivity analysis techniques aim at identifying causal atmospheric structures that have a relevant effect on a particular aspect of interest, such as strong winds or heavy rains. Indeed, information derived from such sensitivity analysis should be the guiding basis for decision makers to focus on areas where an increased observational effort would significantly improve the quality and value of short-range numerical weather predictions across the region. Although several sensitivity calculation techniques exist that aim at computing the relevant areas for a particular weather event -such as those used in real-time targeting campaigns- permanent redesigns of the observational strategies require climatological sensitivity information. However, no consensus exists on how climatological sensitivity information should be derived or even verified in a relevant and useful way. The aim of this work is twofold, on the one side, the essential results from 3 sensitivity climatologies (an adjoint-based and two different ensemble-based) for the short-range prediction of Mediterranean intense cyclones are presented. On the other hand, a verification testbed to evaluate and compare the skill of each climatological sensitivity estimate is developed. The verification of these climatologies is essential to ensure the reliability of the sensitivity products and ultimately provide robust guidance to policy-makers on plans to redefine routine observational strategies. We propose the use of Observing System Simulation Experiments to quantify the reliability of the available adjoint and ensemble sensitivity climatologies. In particular, verification experiments with the NCAR Advanced Research WRF ARW model are conducted for the 25 most intense Mediterranean cyclones of the ERA-40 database to test the ability of each method in identifying areas where perturbations in the initial conditions derived from the sensitivity fields lead to a greater impact on the forecast of the intense cyclone. For the sake of calibration of the verification results, the performance of the sensitivity climatologies is tested against a reference sensitivity proxy consisting of the judgement of an experienced severe weather meteorologist who was asked to indicate the region where a perturbation in the initial conditions would have the largest impact on the forecasted cyclone's depth. Our results reveal the significantly superior skill of the human and adjoint sensitivity fields against both climatological ensemble sensitivity methods. Also, an optimized ensemble sensitivity climatology based on an ad hoc classification of Mediterranean intense cyclones show a moderate advantage over the previous ensemble sensitivity version.

Garcies Artigues, L.; Homar Santaner, V.

2010-09-01

203

Observations of Ultracool dwarfs with ULTRACAM on the VLT: a search for weather  

E-print Network

We present multi-colour photometry of four field ultracool dwarfs with the triple-beam photometer ultracam. Data were obtained simultaneously in the Sloan-g' band and a specially designed narrow-band NaI filter. The previously reported 1.8-hr period of Kelu-1 is here recovered in the g'-band, but the lack of any significant variability in the NaI light of this object precludes any conclusion as to the cause of the variability. 2MASS 2057-0252 and DENIS 1441-0945 show no convincing evidence for variability. 2MASS 1300+1912, on the other hand, shows good evidence for gradual trends in both bands at the 5% level. These trends are anti-correlated at a high level of significance, a result which is incompatible with models of starspot-induced variability. It would seem likely that dust cloud "weather" is responsible for the short-term variability in this object.

S. P. Littlefair; V. S. Dhillon; T. R. Marsh; T. Shahbaz; E. L. Martin

2006-05-09

204

Comparison of Approaches to Calibrate a Surface Complexation Model for U(VI) Sorption to Weathered Saprolite  

SciTech Connect

A surface complexation model describing the sorption of uranyl ions and uranyl carbonate on weak and strong sites was used to analyze experiments on pH-dependent U(VI) sorption to weathered shale/limestone saprolite. Sorption data were collected at two different solid to solution ratios. Various methods of estimating equilibrium reaction coefficients and site densities were investigated. As a first approximation, extractable iron oxides were assumed to behave as ferrihydrite with reaction coefficients as reported by Waite et al. (1994). A generalized composite (GC) approach was then employed with coefficients estimated by an inverse modeling method applied both in a stepwise fashion and simultaneously to whole data set. Uncertainty in model parameters and predictions was lowest using the simultaneous inverse method, but results from the stepwise method were very similar. The generalized reaction network accurately described pH-dependent U(VI) sorption on weathered saprolite between pH 4 to 9.

Zhang, Fan [ORNL; Parker, Jack C. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Kim, Young Jin [ORNL; Tang, Guoping [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Watson, David B [ORNL

2009-01-01

205

Surface analysis and anti-graffiti behavior of a weathered polyurethane-based coating embedded with hydrophobic nano silica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a permanent anti-graffiti polyurethane coating was prepared using concomitant loading of an OH-functional silicone modified polyacrylate additive ranging from 2 to 15 mol% and hydrophobic silica nanoparticles from 1 to 5 wt%. UV-visible spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) analysis were conducted on selected samples to study the weathering performance of samples containing various amounts of silica nanoparticles before and after accelerated weathering conditions. The results showed that higher amounts of additive had inferior effects on the anti-graffiti performance of the coating samples after exposure. However, silica nanoparticles could positively affect the anti-graffiti performance against ageing cycles. This improvement was attributed to lower degradation of samples containing silica nanoparticles and barrier property of nanoparticles against graffiti penetration. The presence of silica nanoparticles did not have any significant effect on the surface free energy of the samples prior and after ageing.

Rabea, A. Mohammad; Mohseni, M.; Mirabedini, S. M.; Tabatabaei, M. Hashemi

2012-03-01

206

Artificial weathering of Spanish granites subjected to salt crystallization tests: Surface roughness quantification  

Microsoft Academic Search

For hundreds of years, two types of granite (Zarzalejo and Alpedrete) from the Madrid region, Spain, have been extensively used as building stones. Fresh specimens of both stone types have been sampled from their respective quarries and subjected to sodium sulphate salt crystallization test (SCT). The resulting physical and chemical weathering patterns have been characterized by polarized light optical and

P. López-Arce; M. J. Varas-Muriel; B. Fernández-Revuelta; M. Álvarez de Buergo; R. Fort; C. Pérez-Soba

2010-01-01

207

Magnetopause surface fluctuations observed by Voyager 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moving out of the dawnside of the earth's magnetosphere, Voyager 1 crossed the magnetopause apparently seven times, despite the high spacecraft speed of 11 km/sec. Normals to the magnetopause and their associated error cones were estimated for each of the crossings using a minimum variance analysis of the internal magnetic field. The oscillating nature of the ecliptic plane component of these normals indicates that most of the multiple crossings were due to a wave-like surface disturbance moving tailward along the magnetopause. The wave, which was aperiodic, was modeled as a sequence of sine waves. The amplitude, wavelength, and speed were determined for two pairs of intervals from the measured slopes, occurrence times, and relative positions of six magnetopause crossings. The magnetopause thickness was estimated to lie in the range 300 to 700 km with higher values possible. The estimated amplitude of these waves was obviously small compared to their wavelengths.

Lepping, R. P.; Burlaga, L. F.

1979-01-01

208

The Role of Model and Initial Condition Error in Numerical Weather Forecasting Investigated with an Observing System Simulation Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of experiments that explore the roles of model and initial condition error in numerical weather prediction are performed using an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA/GMAO). The use of an OSSE allows the analysis and forecast errors to be explicitly calculated, and different hypothetical observing networks can be tested with ease. In these experiments, both a full global OSSE framework and an 'identical twin' OSSE setup are utilized to compare the behavior of the data assimilation system and evolution of forecast skill with and without model error. The initial condition error is manipulated by varying the distribution and quality of the observing network and the magnitude of observation errors. The results show that model error has a strong impact on both the quality of the analysis field and the evolution of forecast skill, including both systematic and unsystematic model error components. With a realistic observing network, the analysis state retains a significant quantity of error due to systematic model error. If errors of the analysis state are minimized, model error acts to rapidly degrade forecast skill during the first 24-48 hours of forward integration. In the presence of model error, the impact of observation errors on forecast skill is small, but in the absence of model error, observation errors cause a substantial degradation of the skill of medium range forecasts.

Prive, Nikki C.; Errico, Ronald M.

2013-01-01

209

Climate, weather, and north polar observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Color Imager  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter observes Mars from a nearly circular, polar orbit. From this vantage point, the Mars Color Imager extends the ˜5 Mars years record of Mars Global Surveyor global, visible-wavelength multi-color observations of meteorological events and adds measurements at three additional visible and two ultraviolet wavelengths. Observations of the global distribution of ozone (which anti-correlates with water vapor)

Michael C. Malin; Wendy M. Calvin; Bruce A. Cantor; R. Todd Clancy; Robert M. Haberle; Philip B. James; Peter C. Thomas; Michael J. Wolff; James F. Bell; Steven W. Lee

2008-01-01

210

Climate, weather, and north polar observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Color Imager  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter observes Mars from a nearly circular, polar orbit. From this vantage point, the Mars Color Imager extends the ?5 Mars years record of Mars Global Surveyor global, visible-wavelength multi-color observations of meteorological events and adds measurements at three additional visible and two ultraviolet wavelengths. Observations of the global distribution of ozone (which anti-correlates with water vapor)

Michael C. Malin; Wendy M. Calvin; Bruce A. Cantor; R. Todd Clancy; Robert M. Haberle; Philip B. James; Peter C. Thomas; Michael J. Wolff; James F. Bell; Steven W. Lee

2008-01-01

211

Surface degradation of ethylene–propylene–diene monomer (EPDM) containing 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB) as diene in artificial weathering environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethylene–propylene–diene monomer (EPDM) containing 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB) as diene was exposed to an artificial weathering environment produced by a xenon lamp light exposure and weathering equipment for different time periods. The surface chemical changes were detected by Specular Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (SR-FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The change in surface color, contact angle and morphology was

Quanlin Zhao; Xiaogang Li; Jin Gao

2008-01-01

212

Fractal scaling of surface roughness in artificially weathered smectite-rich soil regoliths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory trials were established to simulate, under controlled conditions, the natural weathering sequence of smectite-rich soil regoliths from a highly degraded badland area at Vallcebre, Eastern Pyrenees Range (Spain). Experiments were carried out to deepen the knowledge on the response of the bulk materials to experimental freezing–thawing and wetting–drying cycles, and the role of the mineral components in the path

G. Pardini

2003-01-01

213

Surface chemistry changes of weathered HDPE\\/wood-flour composites studied by XPS and FTIR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of wood-derived fillers by the thermoplastic industry has been growing, fueled in part by the use of wood-fiber–thermoplastic composites by the construction industry. As a result, the durability of wood-fiber–thermoplastic composites after ultraviolet exposure has become a concern. Samples of 100% high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and HDPE filled with 50% wood-flour (WF) were weathered in a xenon arc-type accelerated

Nicole M. Stark; Laurent M. Matuana

2004-01-01

214

Space Weathering Processes on Mercury  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Like the Moon, Mercury has no atmosphere to protect it from the harsh space environment and therefore it is expected that it will incur the effects of space weathering. These weathering processes are capable of both creating regolith and altering its optical properties. However, there are many important differences between the environments of Mercury and the Moon. These environmental differences will almost certainly affect the weathering processes as well as the products of those processes. It should be possible to observe the effects of these differences in Vis/NIR spectra of the type expected to be returned by MESSENGER. More importantly, understanding these weathering processes and their consequences is essential for evaluating the spectral data returned from MESSENGER and other missions in order to determine the mineralogy and the iron content of the Mercurian surface. Theoretical and experimental work has been undertaken in order to better understand these consequences.

Noble, S. K.; Pieters, C. M.

2002-01-01

215

Impact of Kalpana-1 derived land surface albedo on short-range weather forecasting over the Indian subcontinent  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

skill of weather forecasts at high spatial resolution depends on accurate representation of land surface states at appropriate spatial and temporal scales that modulate flux partitioning in the numerical weather prediction models. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is customized to assess the impact of land surface albedo (LSA) derived from Kalpana-1 Very High Resolution Radiometer (K1VHRR) in comparison to default monthly climatological albedo from the United States Geological Survey (USGS). A two-stage upscaling of ground-measured albedo from Agro-Met Stations is performed to derive K1VHRR LSA. This combines multispectral reflectance at intermediate scales from the Advanced Wide Field Sensor on board Resourcesat-2 at Low Earth Orbiting platform and the planetary (Earth-atmosphere system) albedo from Kalpana-1 visible band at Geostationary Earth Orbiting platform. Two separate experiments, with real-time K1VHRR LSA and USGS climatological LSA (CNT), are performed to evaluate the impact of real-time K1VHRR LSA on daily WRF model forecasts during July 2009. Additional experiments are performed to assess the impact of real-time and climatological K1VHRR albedo against USGS climatological albedo based experiment. Results show that real-time K1VHRR albedo improves the surface temperature, specific humidity, and wind speed forecasts as compared to CNT experiments. The impact of climatological and real-time K1VHRR LSA is small compared to the advantage of using K1VHRR over USGS. Moreover, real-time K1VHRR albedo has additional benefits to improve the representation of seasonal variability. Results show that the real-time K1VHRR LSA has slight positive impact on rainfall forecast.

Kumar, Prashant; Bhattacharya, Bimal K.; Nigam, Rahul; Kishtawal, C. M.; Pal, P. K.

2014-03-01

216

Plasmon Surface Polariton Dispersion by Direct Optical Observation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes several simple experiments that can be used to observe directly the dispersion curve of plasmon surface polaritons (PSP) on flat metal surfaces. A method is described of observing the increonental change in the wave vector of the PSP due to coatings that differ in thickness by a few nanometers. (Author/CS)

Swalen, J. D.; And Others

1980-01-01

217

Annual carbon dioxide cycle in a montane soil: observations, modeling, and implications for weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profiles of COâ concentrations in soil and snow, soil respiration, soil and snow temperatures, and shallow ground water chemistry were monitored from March 1984 to July 1985 in a montane region neat Brighton, Utah. Significant seasonal variations in the concentrations of COâ in soil and snow occurred, and two principal rise-decline cycles were observed. During the first cycle the concentration

D. Kip Solomon; Thure E. Cerling

1987-01-01

218

Doppler weather radar observations of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a transportable Doppler C-band radar during the precursory stage of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska that provided valuable information during subsequent explosive events. We describe the capabilities of this new monitoring tool and present data captured during the Redoubt eruption. The MiniMax 250-C (MM-250C) radar detected seventeen of the nineteen largest explosive events between March 23 and April 4, 2009. Sixteen of these events reached the stratosphere (above 10 km) within 2-5 min of explosion onset. High column and proximal cloud reflectivity values (50 to 60 dBZ) were observed from many of these events, and were likely due to the formation of mm-sized accretionary tephra-ice pellets. Reflectivity data suggest that these pellets formed within the first few minutes of explosion onset. Rapid sedimentation of the mm-sized pellets was observed as a decrease in maximum detection cloud height. The volcanic cloud from the April 4 explosive event showed lower reflectivity values, due to finer particle sizes (related to dome collapse and related pyroclastic flows) and lack of significant pellet formation. Eruption durations determined by the radar were within a factor of two compared to seismic and pressure-sensor derived estimates, and were not well correlated. Ash dispersion observed by the radar was primarily in the upper troposphere below 10 km, but satellite observations indicate the presence of volcanogenic clouds in the stratosphere. This study suggests that radar is a valuable complement to traditional seismic and satellite monitoring of explosive eruptions.

Schneider, David J.; Hoblitt, Richard P.

2013-06-01

219

Doppler weather radar observations of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) deployed a transportable Doppler C-band radar during the precursory stage of the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska that provided valuable information during subsequent explosive events. We describe the capabilities of this new monitoring tool and present data captured during the Redoubt eruption. The MiniMax 250-C (MM-250C) radar detected seventeen of the nineteen largest explosive events between March 23 and April 4, 2009. Sixteen of these events reached the stratosphere (above 10 km) within 2–5 min of explosion onset. High column and proximal cloud reflectivity values (50 to 60 dBZ) were observed from many of these events, and were likely due to the formation of mm-sized accretionary tephra-ice pellets. Reflectivity data suggest that these pellets formed within the first few minutes of explosion onset. Rapid sedimentation of the mm-sized pellets was observed as a decrease in maximum detection cloud height. The volcanic cloud from the April 4 explosive event showed lower reflectivity values, due to finer particle sizes (related to dome collapse and related pyroclastic flows) and lack of significant pellet formation. Eruption durations determined by the radar were within a factor of two compared to seismic and pressure-sensor derived estimates, and were not well correlated. Ash dispersion observed by the radar was primarily in the upper troposphere below 10 km, but satellite observations indicate the presence of volcanogenic clouds in the stratosphere. This study suggests that radar is a valuable complement to traditional seismic and satellite monitoring of explosive eruptions.

Schneider, David J.; Hoblitt, Richard P.

2013-01-01

220

Coastal Observations of Weather Features in Senegal during the AMMA SOP-3 Period  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 15 August through 30 September 2006, ground and aircraft measurements were obtained from a multi-national group of students and scientists in Senegal. Key measurements were aimed at investigating and understanding precipitation processes, thermodynamic and dynamic environmental conditions, cloud, aerosol and microphysical processes and spaceborne sensors (TRMM, CloudSat/Calipso) validation. Ground and aircraft instruments include: ground based polarimetric radar, disdrometer measurements, a course and a high-density rain gauge network, surface chemical measurements, a 10 m flux tower, broadband IR, solar and microwave measurements, rawinsonde and radiosonde measurements, FA-20 dropsonde, in situ microphysics and cloud radar measurements. Highlights during SOP3 include ground and aircraft measurements of squall lines, African Easterly Waves (AEWs), Saharan Air Layer advances into Senegal, and aircraft measurements of AEWs -- including the perturbation that became Hurricane Isaac.

Jenkins, G.; Kucera, P.; Joseph, E.; Fuentes, J.; Gaye, A.; Gerlach, J.; Roux, F.; Viltard, N.; Papazzoni, M.; Protat, A.; Bouniol, D.; Reynolds, A.; Arnault, J.; Badiane, D.; Kebe, F.; Camara, M.; Sall, S.

2009-01-01

221

Estimation of planetary surface roughness by HF sounder observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japanese Martian exploration project "Nozomi" was to carry out several science missions. Plasma Wave Sounder, one of those onboard missions, was an HF sounder to study Martian plasma environment, and Martian surface with the altimetry mode (Oya and Ono, 1998) as well. The altimetry mode observation was studied by means of computer simulations utilizing the KiSS code which had been originally designed to simulate the SELENE Lunar Radar Sounder, a spaceborne HF GPR, based on Kirchhoff approximation theory (Kobayashi, Oya and Ono, 2002). We found an empirical power law for the standard deviation of observed altitudes over Gaussian random rough surfaces: it varies in proportion to the square of the RMS gradient of the surface ?{2} hRMS{?_0, where hRMS and ?_0 are the RMS height of the surface and the correlation distance of the surface, respectively. We applied Geometrical optics to understand this empirical power law, and derived a square power law for the standard deviation of the observed altitude. Our Geometrical optics model assumed the followings: 1) the observed surface is a Gaussian random rough surface, 2) the mean surface is a flat horizontal plane, 3) the observed surface echo is the back scattering echoes, 4) the observed altitude is the mean value of the apparent range of those back scattering echoes. These results imply that HF sounder may be utilized to measure the surface roughness of planetary bodies in terms of the RMS gradient of the surface. Refrence: H. Oya and T. Ono, A new altimeter for Mars land shape observations utilizing the ionospheric sounder system onboard the Planet-B spacecraft, Earth Planets Space, Vol. 50, pp.229-234, 1998 T. Kobayashi, H. Oya, and T. Ono, A-scope analysis of subsurface radar sounding of lunar mare region, Earth Planets Space, Vol. 54, pp.973-982, 2002

Kobayashi, T.; Ono, T.

222

Comparison of Historical CMIP5 Surface Temperatures to the Berkeley Earth Gridded Observational Temperature Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Berkeley Earth surface temperature research program uses observations from nearly 40,000 weather stations to reconstruct monthly land-surface temperature fields over a longer duration (250 years) and with higher resolution than other comparable global efforts. This submission will compare and contrast the observation-based Berkeley Earth temperature fields to the land component of historical CMIP5 climate model temperature fields. Emphasis will be given to examining long-term trends and spatial variations in climate response. Though the models all broadly reproduce the historical warming of the last 150 years, we observe numerous differences among them. When compared to observations, many models overpredict warming at high northern latitudes and underpredict warming at mid northern latitudes. Similarly, most models predict a greater surface temperature response to volcanic eruptions than has been observed. By using these and other comparisons between models and observations, it is possible to identify both strengths and weaknesses in the current generation of models. It is hoped that such comparisons can help guide the development of the next generation of models. In addition, identifying models that are relatively more accurate in reproducing the climate change of the historical period may also suggest which models might be more reliable in their predictions of future climate change. The implications for constraining climate sensitivity will be discussed.

Rohde, R. A.; Mosher, S.; Hausfather, Z.

2013-12-01

223

Space Weathering of Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

Noble, Sarah

2011-01-01

224

Evaluation of Nimbus 7 SMMR sensor with airborne radiometers and surface observations in the Norwegian Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements made by the Nimbus 7 SMMR are compared with near simultaneous observations using the airborne SMMR simulator and with surface observations. The area of the test is in the Norwegian Sea between Bear Island and Northern Norway. It is noted that during the observation period two low-pressure systems were located in the test area, giving a spatial wind variation from 3-20 m/s. It is shown that the use of the currently available brightness temperatures and algorithms for SMMR does not give universally satisfactory results for SST and wind speed under extreme weather conditions. In addition, the SMMR simulator results are seen as indicating the need for more work on calibration.

Gloersen, P.; Cavalieri, D.; Crawford, J.; Campbell, W. J.; Farrelly, B.; Johannessen, J.; Johannessen, O. M.; Svendsen, E.; Kloster, K.

1981-01-01

225

Deeply weathered basement rocks in Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies show that, in addition to tectonic processes, surface processes have also had a profound impact on the topography of Norway. This is especially obvious for the northernmost part of the Nordland county and for western Norway, where the current immature Alpine-type topography cannot be easily explained by tectonic processes only. Erosion of the sedimentary succession also does not seem sufficient to explain the observed relief. Common remnants of deeply weathered basement rocks, however, indicate a history of deep alteration and later erosion of the bedrock, which needs to be considered as another important factor in the development of the topographic relief. Most of the sites with deeply weathered basement exhibit a clay-poor grussy type of weathering, which is generally considered to be of relatively young age (Plio-/Pleistocene) and thought to represent an intermediate stage of weathering. Unfortunately, small amounts or complete absence of clay minerals in these weathering products precluded the accurate dating of this weathered material. Scandinavia was exposed to a large range of glaciations and the once extensive sedimentary successions have been almost entirely eroded, which impedes a minimum age estimate of the weathering profile. Although several sites preserving remnants of deep weathering can still be observed onshore Norway, they are all covered by Quaternary overburden and the age of the regolith remains thus unconstrained and a matter of debate. The only exception is a small Mesozoic basin on Andøya, northern Norway, where weathered and clay-poor saprolite was found underlying Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Over the last few years the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) has mapped and investigated deep weathering onshore Norway to better understand weathering processes and to constrain the age of the weathering remnants. The combined interpretation of geophysical, mineralogical and geochemical data, together with recent observations from the Norwegian shelf, where grussy type of weathered bedrock was found buried under Mesozoic sediments, leads to the conclusion that coarse-grained, clay-poor saprolite does not necessarily indicate a young age of weathering but could in fact be of Early Mesozoic age or even older. The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous faults in the Lofoten-Vesterålen area are for instance little affected by weathering processes. With the goal to refine our understanding of the complex weathering processes and to constrain them in time, the NGU is establishing a new K-Ar laboratory for the dating and characterization of illite grown authigenically in the saprolites. It is expected that the data generated therein will contribute new quantitative constraints to the long-lasting debate as to the age of weathering processes in Scandinavia.

Bönner, Marco; Knies, Jochen; Fredin, Ola; Olesen, Odleiv; Viola, Giulio

2014-05-01

226

Observational and theoretical studies of the evolving structure of baroclinic waves: Attractor dynamics of global weather systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant progress was made in developing a six-component dry model of mid-latitude baroclinic wave evolution, and a ten-component moist model. These models include representations of airflow over mountians and non-adiabatic processes. As a first step, the properties of a reduced, three component, baroclinic system are studied. The classical baroclinic stability criteria emerge as the properties of one of the three equilibria admitted, with the remaining two equilibria forming the attractor region for the observed weather activity. Passive tracer evolution in a baroclinic wave was studied. A model in which only constituents trapped within low atmospheric levels are considered, has been extended to include the possibility for fluxes into the upper levels of the atmosphere. The reported results for the lower levels achieved previously are shown to be qualitatively similar to those obtained by these new calculations in which the vertical flux constraint is removed. An extensive study of an 8-year record of global outgoing longwave radiation for the Northern Hemisphere reveals that blocking events exhibit only a weak signature of blocking highs, as measured by relatively low values of the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean value of the observed long wave outgoing radiation. Though present in many cases, the signature is not a strongly distinctive feature of the blocking episodes.

Saltzman, B.; Hansen, A. R.; Nagle, R. N.; Tang, C. M.

1985-01-01

227

Body and Surface Wave Modeling of Observed Seismic Events.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major accomplishments during the first four-year-period are summarized under the categories of (1) Application of Lunar Inversion Theory, (2) Seismic Source Theory and (3) Synthetic Body and Surface Wave Modeling of Observed Seismic Events. The detail...

D. G. Harkrider, D. V. Helmberger

1976-01-01

228

A Dozen Years of Temperature Observations at the Summit: Central Greenland Automatic Weather Stations 1987-99.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 4 May 1987, the first automatic weather station (AWS) near the summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet began transmitting data. Air temperature records from this site, AWS Cathy, as well as nearby AWS at the Greenland Ice Sheet Project II (GISP2, now Summit) camp have been combined with Special Sensor Microwave Imager brightness temperature data to create a composite temperature history of the Greenland summit. This decadal-plus-length (4536 days) record covers the period from May 1987 to October 1999 and continues currently. The record is derived primarily from near-surface temperature data from AWS Cathy (May 1987-May 1989), AWS GISP2 (June 1989-November 1996), and AWS Summit (May 1996 and continuing). Despite the 35-km distance between them, the AWS Cathy data have been converted to the equivalent basis of temperatures from the AWS GISP2 and AWS Summit locations. The now completed `Summit' temperature time series represents a unique record that documents a multiyear temperature recovery after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in June 1991 and that initiates a baseline needed for climate change detection.

Shuman, Christopher A.; Steffen, Konrad; Box, Jason E.; Stearns, Charles R.

2001-04-01

229

Observation of rotational polarization produced in molecule-surface collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rotational polarization produced by scattering a rotationally cold beam of NO from Ag(111) has been measured by laser-induced fluorescence. A strong rotational polarization perpendicular to the surface normal is observed. The degree of polarization depends strongly on final rotational state, incident energy, incident angle, and surface temperature.

A. C. Luntz; A. W. Kleyn; D. J. Auerbach

1982-01-01

230

Application of conditional non-linear optimal perturbations to tropical cyclone adaptive observation using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conditional non-linear optimal perturbation (CNOP), which is a natural extension of the linear singular vector into the non-linear regime, has been suggested to identify data-sensitive regions in the adaptive observation strategy. CNOP is the global maximum of a cost function, whereas, local CNOP is the local maximum of the cost function if the local maximum exists. The potential application of CNOPs to tropical cyclone adaptive observation is researched. The CNOPs and the first singular vector (FSV) are numerically obtained by a spectral projected gradient algorithm with the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model. This paper examines two tropical cyclone cases, a fast straight moving typhoon Matsa (2005) and a slow moving recurving typhoon Shanshan (2006). The CNOPs and FSVs are obtained using the norms of background error at initial time and total dry energy at final time with a 36-h optimization time interval. The spatial structures of CNOPs, their energies, non-linear evolutions and impacts on track simulations are compared with those of the FSVs. The results show that both the CNOPs and the FSVs are localized, and evolve into the verification area at the final time with the upscale growth of perturbations. However, the CNOPs are different from the FSVs in spatial patterns, wind maximum distribution, growth rate of energy and impact on track simulation. Compared to FSV, CNOP and local CNOP have greater impact on the forecast in the verification region at the final time in terms of total energy, and have larger, at least similar impact on track simulation too. This indicates the CNOP method with constraint of the norm of background error at initial time and total energy norm at final time is a reasonable candidate in tropical cyclone adaptive observation. Therefore, both CNOP and local CNOP are suggested to be considered in tropical cyclone adaptive observation.

Wang, Hongli; Mu, Mu; Huang, Xiang-Yu

2011-10-01

231

Simultaneous Observations and Analysis of Severe Storms Using Polarimetric X-Band SAR and Ground-Based Weather Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology have revived meteorological applications with this type of radar. SARs are designed for surface imaging, but now that several X-band multipolarization SAR satellites are in orbit, the attenuation and backscatter caused by precipitation can be better studied. The results presented here demonstrate some of the possibilities by analyzing observations from dual-polarization (HH,

Jason P. Fritz; V. Chandrasekar

2010-01-01

232

Weather Vane  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this meteorology activity, learners build weather vanes using straws, paperclips, and cardstock. Learners will explore wind and air resistance as well as how weather vanes are used to understand and predict weather.

Workshop, Fresno C.

2011-01-01

233

Weather Watch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests a number of ways in which Federal Aviation Agency weather report printouts can be used in teaching the weather section of meteorology. These weather sequence reports can be obtained free of charge at most major airports. (JR)

Bratt, Herschell Marvin

1973-01-01

234

Mechanism of surface microcracking of matrix in glass-reinforced polyester by artificial weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first stage in the deterioration of glass-fibre reinforced polyester (GRP) composites, fibre prominence, has been reported. The mechanism of the second stage, surface microcracking, is now described. Under controlled conditions GRP sheets were subjected to cyclic variation of moisture and temperature and to radiation. It is proposed that surface microcracking takes place under the combined action of radiation-induced tensile

A. Blaga; R. S. Yamasaki

1973-01-01

235

Studying the Space Weather Features of the High-Latitude Ionosphere by Using a Physics-Based Data Assimilation Model and Observational Data from Ground Magnetometer Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-latitude ionosphere is a very dynamic region in the solar-terrestrial environment. Frequent disturbances in the region can adversely affect numerous military and civilian technologies. Accurate specifications and forecasts of the high-latitude electrodynamic and plasma structures have fundamental space weather importance for enabling mitigation of adverse effects. Presently, most of the space-weather models use limited observations and/or indices to define a set of empirical drivers for physical models to move forward in time. Since the empirical drivers have a "climatological" nature and there are significant physical inconsistencies among various empirical drivers due to independent statistical analysis of different observational data, the specifications of high-latitude space environment from these space weather models cannot truthfully reflect the weather features. In fact, unrealistic small- and large-scale structures could be produced in the specifications and forecasts from these models. We developed a data assimilation model for the high-latitude ionospheric plasma dynamics and electrodynamics to overcome these hurdles. With a set of physical models and an ensemble Kalman filter, the data assimilation model can determine the self-consistent structures of the high-latitude convection electric field, ionospheric conductivity, and the key drivers associated with these quantities by ingesting data from multiple observations. These ingested data include the magnetic perturbation from the ground-based magnetometers in the high-latitude regions, magnetic measurements of IRIDIUM satellites, SuperDARN line-of-sight velocity, and in-situ drift velocity measured by DMSP satellites. As a result, the assimilation model can capture the small- and large-scale plasma structures and sharp electrodynamic boundaries, thus, can provide a more accurate picture of the high-latitude space weather. In this presentation, we will first briefly describe the data-assimilation model of high-latitude electrodynamics and its strengths over the other space-weather models. Then we will present the space weather features produced by the model for quiet and storm periods constrained by the data from ground magnetometer arrays. This will demonstrate the dynamic variability of the high-latitude ionosphere. Finally, we will present high-resolution ionospheric modeling results of the time-evolution and spatial features of the high-latitude plasma structures to further demonstrate the model's capability in producing the space weather features in the high-latitude ionosphere. These results will illuminate the importance of real-time data availability and data assimilation models for accurate specification and forecasting of space weather.

Zhu, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Scherliess, L.; Sojka, J. J.; Eccles, J. V.

2011-12-01

236

Contrail Frequency over the United States from Surface Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrails have the potential for affecting climate because they impact the radiation budget and the vertical distribution of moisture. Estimating the effect requires additional knowledge about the temporal and spatial variations of contrails. The mean hourly, monthly, and annual frequencies of daytime contrail occurrence are estimated using 2 yr of observations from surface observers at military installations scattered over the

Patrick Minnis; J. Kirk Ayers; Michele L. Nordeen; Steven P. Weaver

2003-01-01

237

Variations in surface air temperature observations in the Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The statistics of surface air temperature observations obtained from buoys, manned drifting stations, and meteorological,land stations in the Arctic during 1979?97 are analyzed. Although the basic statistics agree with what has been published in various climatologies, the seasonal correlation length scales between the observations are shorter than the annual correlation length scales, especially during summer when the inhomogeneity between

I. G. Rigor; R. L. Colony; S. Martin

2000-01-01

238

Correction of Sampling Errors in Ocean Surface Cross-Sectional Estimates from Nadir-Looking Weather Radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The return from the ocean surface has a number of uses for airborne meteorological radar. The normalized surface cross section has been used for radar system calibration, estimation of surface winds, and in algorithms for estimating the path-integrated attenuation in rain. However, meteorological radars are normally optimized for observation of distributed targets that fill the resolution volume, and so a point target such as the surface can be poorly sampled, particularly at near-nadir look angles. Sampling the nadir surface return at an insufficient rate results in a negative bias of the estimated cross section. This error is found to be as large as 4 dB using observations from a high-altitude airborne radar. An algorithm for mitigating the error is developed that is based upon the shape of the surface echo and uses the returned signal at the three range gates nearest the peak surface echo.

Caylor, I. Jeff; Meneghini, R.; Miller, L. S.; Heymsfield, G. M.

1997-01-01

239

Climatological characteristics of fronts in the western North Pacific based on surface weather charts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

front climatology in the western North Pacific is determined using a newly developed 1.0° gridded data set. Here we propose a research strategy for determining the spatiotemporal distribution of fronts using weather chart images published by the Japan Meteorological Agency, one of the major data providers in the region. A preliminarily investigation of the internal data characteristics for the period of 2000-2010 is undertaken, and the final 4 years of data are used for an analysis of front climatology to avoid the effect of any spurious trends. This enables in-depth analyses to be conducted, which have not previously been possible in the region, including the composites of cross-sectional patterns for the thermal fields and precipitation near fronts, front length seasonality, and the significance of the thermal gradient near the fronts, in addition to determining the frontal frequency and spatial distribution of frontal precipitation. Pixel-wise analysis reveals that 56% of the local precipitation maximum is located on the warm side of a cold front caused by less tilted upward motion on the warm side, with the intrusion of the upper level cold dry air into the warm side. This new data set also enables a further analysis of the occluded fronts, which are not correctly distinguished in the existing objective detection method.

Utsumi, Nobuyuki; Kim, Hyungjun; Seto, Shinta; Kanae, Shinjiro; Oki, Taikan

2014-08-01

240

Infrared land surface remote sensing using high spectral resolution observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a new technique for the separation of land surface infrared emissivity and surface skin temperature using high spectral resolution infrared observations. High spectral resolution observations of upwelling radiance at 20 km altitude were obtained by the Scanning High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS) aboard the NASA ER-2 aircraft during the TX-2001 experiment. These aircraft observations are used in conjunction with complementary ground-based observations of downwelling radiance at the surface to estimate the surface skin temperature and absolute emissivity for a region in north central Oklahoma, USA. Coincident MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) observations are used to quantify the land surface variability within the S-HIS scene in the vicinity of the DOE ARM Southern Great Plain central facility. Ground truth data is presented from a ground based Scanning Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer. This remote sensing technique has application to satellite based observations from the NASA AIRS, the NPOESS CrIS, the EUMETSAT IASI, and the NASA GIFTS instruments.

Knuteson, Robert O.; Deslover, Daniel H.; Larar, Allen M.; Osborne, Brian; Revercomb, Henry E.; Short, John F.; Smith, William L.; Tanamachi, Robin

2003-06-01

241

Chapter 9 Weathering of the meade peak phosphatic shale member, phosphoria formation: Observations based on uranium and its decay products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variably weathered outcrop samples of the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Member of the Phosphoria Formation have 5-10% of the contained uranium (U) in a form readily extractable by 0.1 M sodium bicarbonate. Fission track radiography of outcrop samples and other less-weathered channel and core samples indicate that this mobile fraction of U is likely hosted by organic matter, secondary iron

R. A. Zielinski; J. R. Budahn; R. I. Grauch; J. B. Paces; K. R. Simmons

2004-01-01

242

SEM and TEM Observation of the Surfaces of the Fine-Grained Particles Retrieved from the Muses-C Regio on the Asteroid 25413 Itokawa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface materials on airless solar system bodies exposed to interplanetary space are gradually changed their visible to near-infrared reflectance spectra by the process called "space weathering", which makes the spectra darker and redder. Hapke et al. proposed a model of space weathering: vapor deposition of nanophase reduced iron (npFe(sup 0)) on the surfaces of the grains within the very surface of lunar regolith. This model has been proved by detailed observation of the surfaces of the lunar soil grains by transmission electron microscope (TEM). They demonstrated that npFe(sup 0) was formed by a combination of vapor deposition and irradiation effects. In other words, both micrometeorite impacts and irradiation by solar wind and galactic cosmic ray play roles on the space weathering on the Moon. Because there is a continuum of reflectance spectra from those of Q-type asteroids (almost the same as those of ordinary chondrites) to those of S-type asteroids, it is strongly suggested that reflectance spectra of asteroids composed of ordinary chondrite-like materials were modified over time to those of S-type asteroids due to space weathering. It is predicted that a small amount of npFe(sup 0) on the surface of grains in the asteroidal regolith composed of ordinary chondrite-like materials is the main agent of asteroidal space weathering.

Noguchi, T.; Nakamura, T.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Tanaka, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Konno, M.; Nakato, A.; Ogami, T.; Fujimura, A.; Abe, M.; Yada, T.; Mukai, T.; Ueno, M.; Okada, T.; Shirai, K.; Ishibashi, Y.; Okazaki, R.

2011-01-01

243

Surface Turbulent Fluxes Over Pack Ice Inferred from TOVS Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional, atmospheric boundary layer model is coupled to a thermodynamic ice model to estimate the surface turbulent fluxes over thick sea ice. The principal forcing parameters in this time-dependent model are the air temperature, humidity, and wind speed at a specified level (either at 2 m or at 850 mb) and the downwelling surface radiative fluxes. The free parameters. are the air temperature, humidity, and wind speed profiles below the specified level, the surface skin temperature, the ice temperature profile, and the surface turbulent fluxes. The goal is to determine how well we can estimate the turbulent surface heat and momentum fluxes using forcing parameters from atmospheric temperatures and radiative fluxes retrieved from the TIROS-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) data. Meteorological observations from the Lead Experiment (LeadEx, April 1992) ice camp are used to validate turbulent fluxes computed with the surface observations and the results are used to compare with estimates based on radio-sonde observations or with estimates based on TOVS data. We find that the TOVS-based estimates of the stress are significantly more accurate than those found with a constant geostrophic drag coefficient, with a root-mean-square error about half as large. This improvement is due to stratification effects included in the boundary layer model. The errors in the sensible heat flux estimates, however, are large compared to the small mean values observed during the field experiment.

Lindsay, R. W.; Francis, J. A.; Persson, P. O. G.; Rothrock, D. A.; Schweiger, A. J.

1996-01-01

244

NOAA Daily Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The charts on this website are the principal charts of the former Weather Bureau publication, "Daily Weather Map." They are the Surface Weather Map, the 500-Millibar Height Contours chart, the Highest and Lowest Temperatures chart, and the Precipitation Areas and Amounts chart. For each day, simple charts are arranged on a single page. These charts are the surface analysis of pressure and fronts, color shading, in ten degree intervals,of maximum and minimum temperature, 500-Millibar height contours, and color shaded 24-hour total precipitation. These charts act as links to their respective Daily Weather Map charts. All charts are derived from the operational weather maps prepared at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, National Weather Service.

Center, Hydrometeorological P.

2011-01-01

245

Weather Stations: Phase Change  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners observe the water cycle in action! Water vapor in a tumbler condenses on chilled aluminum foil â producing the liquid form of water familiar to us as rain and dew. Learners discuss how Jupiter's lack of a surface simplifies its water cycle. Learners then consider the roles ammonia and ammonia compounds play in Jupiter's more complicated atmosphere. This activity is one station that can be combined with other stations for an hour and half lesson on weather patterns on Jupiter and Earth.

Institute, Lunar A.; Nasa

2011-01-01

246

The surface mass and energy balance of Nordenskiöldbreen, Svalbard: 7 years of in situ observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spring 2006 a climate monitoring program on Nordenskiöldbreen, Svalbard, was initiated, which is still on going. The program focuses on the dynamics and mass budget of the glacier, and includes mass balance (stake and sonic height ranger) and automatic weather station (AWS) observations. The annual mass balance observations show large variability and no trend over the observational period (2006-2013). The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) during this period is located at about 610 m a.s.l. This is in line with the average ELA over the period 1989-2010 of 631 m a.s.l. based on output of a distributed energy balance model (EBM), and slightly higher than presented in literature for this area. At the AWS site (±600 m a.s.l.) the average annual temperature is about -8.5°C. Annual mean wind speed is about 4.5 m/s and is predominantly directed down glacier with a directional constancy of about 0.65, a predominant katabatic wind. Throughout the year the sensible heat flux is positive due to a constant surface based temperature inversion. From May to September this temperature inversion is caused by cooling of the surface by long wave radiation while in the summer months the surface temperature is limited by 0°C, the temperature of a melting surface. At the AWS site the amount of melt energy available in the summer months corresponds to about 0.82 m w.e. snow and ice melt. This is less than derived from the observations (1.1 m w.e. of which 0.7 m w.e. is ice melt). This is due to problems with the temperature observations in the summer months resulting in an underestimation of the sensible heat flux towards the surface and consequently an underestimation of the melt flux.

Tijm-Reijmer, Carleen; Pohjola, Veijo; Van Pelt, Ward; Pettersson, Rickard

2014-05-01

247

Estimating long-term surface hydrological components by coupling remote sensing observation with surface flux model.  

SciTech Connect

A model framework for parameterized subgrid-scale surface fluxes (PASS) has been applied to use satellite data, models, and routine surface observations to infer root-zone available moisture content and evapotranspiration rate with moderate spatial resolution within Walnut River Watershed in Kansas. Biweekly composite normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) data are derived from observations by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellites. Local surface observations provide data on downwelling solar irradiance, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed. Surface parameters including roughness length, albedo, surface water conductance, and the ratio of soil heat flux to net radiation are estimated; pixel-specific near-surface meteorological conditions such as air temperature, vapor pressure, and wind speed are adjusted according to local surface forcing. The PASS modeling system makes effective use of satellite data and can be run for large areas for which flux data do not exist and surface meteorological data are available from only a limited number of ground stations. The long-term surface hydrological budget is evaluated using radar-derived precipitation estimates, surface meteorological observations, and satellite data. The modeled hydrological components in the Walnut River Watershed compare well with stream gauge data and observed surface fluxes during 1999.

Song, J.; Wesely, M. L.

2002-05-02

248

Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

NONE

1996-08-01

249

A scheme for computing surface layer turbulent fluxes from mean flow surface observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A physical model and computational scheme are developed for generating turbulent surface stress, sensible heat flux and humidity flux from mean velocity, temperature and humidity at some fixed height in the atmospheric surface layer, where conditions at this reference level are presumed known from observations or the evolving state of a numerical atmospheric circulation model. The method is based on coupling the Monin-Obukov surface layer similarity profiles which include buoyant stability effects on mean velocity, temperature and humidity to a force-restore formulation for the evolution of surface soil temperature to yield the local values of shear stress, heat flux and surface temperature. A self-contained formulation is presented including parameterizations for solar and infrared radiant fluxes at the surface. Additional parameters needed to implement the scheme are the thermal heat capacity of the soil per unit surface area, surface aerodynamic roughness, latitude, solar declination, surface albedo, surface emissivity and atmospheric transmissivity to solar radiation.

Hoffert, M. I.; Storch, J.

1978-01-01

250

Cassini ISS observations of Titan's surface and changes in its south-polar lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) has been returning images of Titan since early 2004, continuing through the 65 close Titan encounters that have been performed to date. These ob-servations have been combined to produce a 938-nm albedo map of the surface with resolutions ranging from several kilometers to several hundred meters. The morphologies observed on Titan's surface reflect a wide variety of geological features [1]: roughly east-west streamlined shapes, suggestive of aeolian processes, consistent with Cassini RADAR observations of dunes at low latitudes [2]; narrow, curvilinear channels; dark lakes and seas at high latitudes [e.g., 3]; rare impact structures, further evidence for a geologically young surface; and possible tec-tonic and cryovolcanic structures. Changes have also been observed: a new large dark area appeared between July 2004 and June 2005 [3] and may have subsequently faded. Recent ISS observations of Ontario Lacus suggest that its shoreline may have receded as well [cf. 4]. Such changes are interpreted to be the result of precipitation and ponding of liquid methane and the subsequent infiltration into the subsurface or evaporation thereof [3]. No changes have been observed to date in the lakes and seas at high northern latitudes. We will present ISS' most recent map of Titan's surface, documenting changes that may have resulted from weather and seasonal changes and their implications for Titan's active methane cycle. References: [1] Porco et al. (2005) Nature 434, 159-168. [2] Lorenz et al. (2006) Science 312, 724-727. [3] Turtle et al. (2009) GRL 36, DOI 0.1029/2008GL036186. [4] Hayes et al. (2009) Eos Trans. AGU, 90, Abstract P54C-02.

Turtle, Elizabeth; Perry, Jason; McEwen, Alfred; Hayes, Alexander; West, Robert

251

Thermal infrared spectroscopic observations of Mars from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO): Constraints on past climates and weathering products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectral observations providing evidence for the presence of volatile-bearing minerals on the surface of Mars were obtained in 1988 and 1990 from the KAO. The 1988 data suggest the presence of 1-3 weight percent (wt%) of carbonate/bicarbonate and 10-15 wt% sulfate/bisulfate associated with martian atmospheric dust. Estimates of the optical depths are approximately 0.60 and approximately 0.35 in 1988 and 1990, respectively.

Roush, Ted L.; Pollack, James B.; Witteborn, Fred C.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Bell, James F., III; Sitton, Bradley

1995-01-01

252

Space Weathering of Lunar Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All materials exposed at the lunar surface undergo space weathering processes. On the Moon, boulders make up only a small percentage of the exposed surface, and areas where such rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions identified from remote sensing data. Yet space weathered surfaces (patina) are relatively common on returned rock samples, some of which directly sample the surface of larger boulders. Because, as witness plates to lunar space weathering, rocks and boulders experience longer exposure times compared to lunar soil grains, they allow us to develop a deeper perspective on the relative importance of various weathering processes as a function of time.

Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

2012-01-01

253

SURFACE WATER VAPOR EXCHANGES ON THE GREENLAND ICE SHEET DERIVED FROM AUTOMATED WEATHER STATION DATA  

E-print Network

]. Annual blowing snow sublimation is estimated using a bulk snow transport formulation and a conceptual model of maximum blowing snow transport distance. The actual blowing snow transport is estimated using air temperature and surface height measurements. Blowing snow sublimation rates are estimated

Box, Jason E.

254

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This month's insert, Severe Weather, has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in this poster are hurricanes,…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

255

Severe Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educating the public about safety issues related to severe weather is part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) mission. This article deals with a poster entitled, "Severe Weather," that has been created by NOAA to help educate the public about hazardous weather conditions. The four types of severe weather highlighted in…

Forde, Evan B.

2004-01-01

256

External Resource: Erosion and Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a Teachers' Domain photo essay with images that depict surface features on Earth that result from weathering and erosion, as well as measures designed to mitigate their unwanted effects. Topics: weathering, erosion, sediments, dunes, deltas, glaci

1900-01-01

257

UM Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by The Weather Underground at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, UM Weather bills itself as the "Internet's premier source of weather information." The site offers several general audience tools such as the Fast Forecast for any city in the US, ski weather, and weather cams. But, it also provides access to over two dozen weather software packages, a new computer model forecasts page, and most impressively a list of close to 400 other weather related Web sites. Professionals and researchers will appreciate the non-technical feel of the site and the valuable information they can procure from it.

1994-01-01

258

Progress in Space Weather Modeling and Observations Needed to Improve the Operational NAIRAS Model Aircraft Radiation Exposure Predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. Addressing these science questions require improvements in both space weather modeling and observations. The focus of this talk is to present these science questions, the proposed methodologies for addressing these science questions, and the anticipated improvements to the operational predictions of atmospheric radiation exposure. The overarching goal of this work is to provide a decision support tool for the aviation industry that will enable an optimal balance to be achieved between minimizing health risks to passengers and aircrew while simultaneously minimizing costs to the airline companies.

Mertens, C. J.; Kress, B. T.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Tobiska, W.; Xu, X.

2011-12-01

259

Naturally weathered feldspar surfaces in the Navajo Sandstone aquifer, Black Mesa, Arizona: Electron microscopic characterization  

E-print Network

emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG- SEM). Here, we report the first HRTEM observation of a 10 the possibility of its wide occurrence in geological systems. Rate laws and proposed mechanisms should consider

Zhu, Chen

260

Estimating Long Term Surface Soil Moisture in the GCIP Area From Satellite Microwave Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soil moisture is an important component of the water and energy balances of the Earth's surface. Furthermore, it has been identified as a parameter of significant potential for improving the accuracy of large-scale land surface-atmosphere interaction models. However, accurate estimates of surface soil moisture are often difficult to make, especially at large spatial scales. Soil moisture is a highly variable land surface parameter, and while point measurements are usually accurate, they are representative only of the immediate site which was sampled. Simple averaging of point values to obtain spatial means often leads to substantial errors. Since remotely sensed observations are already a spatially averaged or areally integrated value, they are ideally suited for measuring land surface parameters, and as such, are a logical input to regional or larger scale land process models. A nine-year database of surface soil moisture is being developed for the Central United States from satellite microwave observations. This region forms much of the GCIP study area, and contains most of the Mississippi, Rio Grande, and Red River drainages. Daytime and nighttime microwave brightness temperatures were observed at a frequency of 6.6 GHz, by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), onboard the Nimbus 7 satellite. The life of the SMMR instrument spanned from Nov. 1978 to Aug. 1987. At 6.6 GHz, the instrument provided a spatial resolution of approximately 150 km, and an orbital frequency over any pixel-sized area of about 2 daytime and 2 nighttime passes per week. Ground measurements of surface soil moisture from various locations throughout the study area are used to calibrate the microwave observations. Because ground measurements are usually only single point values, and since the time of satellite coverage does not always coincide with the ground measurements, the soil moisture data were used to calibrate a regional water balance for the top 1, 5, and 10 cm surface layers in order to interpolate daily surface moisture values. Such a climate-based approach is often more appropriate for estimating large-area spatially averaged soil moisture because meteorological data are generally more spatially representative than isolated point measurements of soil moisture. Vegetation radiative transfer characteristics, such as the canopy transmissivity, were estimated from vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the 37 GHz Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI). Passive microwave remote sensing presents the greatest potential for providing regular spatially representative estimates of surface soil moisture at global scales. Real time estimates should improve weather and climate modelling efforts, while the development of historical data sets will provide necessary information for simulation and validation of long-term climate and global change studies.

Owe, Manfred; deJeu, Vrije; VandeGriend, Adriaan A.

2000-01-01

261

Surface heat budget at the Nordic Seas in Lagrangian observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Nordic Seas, the warm, inflowing Atlantic Water is cooled until it is dense enough to sink. Thereafter it circulates at depth, eventually feeding the North Atlantic Deep Water. The air-sea interaction which facilitates this cooling is a complex process involving diverse phenomena, from surface heating to turbulent entrainment at the base of the ocean surface mixed layer. In the present study, we use 486 freely-drifting surface buoys to observe temperature changes on water parcels and the response to air-sea heat fluxes. Such Lagrangian observations advantageously 'filter out' horizontal heat fluxes, since the buoys are advected by the flow, allowing one to focus on the vertical exchanges. We examine the temporal evolution of temperature on the drifters and the correlations with surface heat fluxes, obtained from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalyses. The frequency spectra indicate a clear ?-2 dependence at frequencies higher than roughly 1/40 days-1. The temperature fluctuations on the other hand are correlated with surface fluxes only at the longer time scales. We then show how the Lagrangian temperature can be represented as a stochastic process, with a deterministic portion determined by the low frequency atmospheric forcing and a white noise perturbation. This is in line with previous studies of the ocean surface response to stochastic wind forcing. What distinguishes the present model is the deterministic part, which must account for the gradual cooling of the water parcels.

de La Lama, Marta S.; Isachsen, Pål E.; Koszalka, Inga; Lacasce, Joseph H.

2014-05-01

262

Mountain Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mountains can be awe-inspiring both for the vistas they provide and for the weather events and long-term climate systems they support. This interactive feature illustrates how a moisture-laden air mass interacts with a mountain slope to produce characteristic patterns of precipitation over the mountain and surrounding areas. Viewers can see how clouds and precipitation form as the air mass ascends the windward side of the peak, and observe the rain shadow created on the leeward side by the descending, warmed, and moisture-depleted air. A background essay and list of discussion questions supplement the interactive feature.

263

Observation of rotational polarization produced in molecule-surface collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rotational polarization produced by scattering a rotationally cold beam of NO from Ag(111) has been measured by laser-induced fluorescence. A strong rotational polarization perpendicular to the surface normal is observed. The degree of polarization depends strongly on final rotational state, incident energy, and incident angle.

A. C. Luntz; A. W. Kleyn; D. J. Auerbach

1982-01-01

264

Observations of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at a cloud base with the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) and weather radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the very high frequency (46.5 MHz) middle and upper atmosphere radar (MUR), Ka band (35 GHz) and X band (9.8 GHz) weather radars, a Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability occurring at a cloud base and its impact on modulating cloud bottom altitudes are described by a case study on 8 October 2008 at the Shigaraki MU Observatory, Japan (34.85°N, 136.10°E). KH braids were monitored by the MUR along the slope of a cloud base gradually rising with time around an altitude of ˜5.0 km. The KH braids had a horizontal wavelength of about 3.6 km and maximum crest-to-trough amplitude of about 1.6 km. Nearly monochromatic and out of phase vertical air motion oscillations exceeding ±3 m s-1 with a period of ˜3 min 20 s were measured by the MUR above and below the cloud base. The axes of the billows were at right angles of the wind and wind shear both oriented east-north-east at their altitude. The isotropy of the radar echoes and the large variance of Doppler velocity in the KH billows (including the braids) indicate the presence of strong turbulence at the Bragg (˜3.2 m) scale. After the passage of the cloud system, the KH waves rapidly damped and the vertical scale of the KH braids progressively decreased down to about 100 m before their disappearance. The radar observations suggest that the interface between clear air and cloud was conducive to the presence of the dynamical shear instability by reducing static stability (and then the Richardson number) near the cloud base. Downward cloudy protuberances detected by the Ka band radar had vertical and horizontal scales of about 0.6-1.1 and 3.2 km, respectively, and were clearly associated with the downward air motions. Observed oscillations of the reflectivity-weighted Doppler velocity measured by the X band radar indicate that falling ice particles underwent the vertical wind motions generated by the KH instability to form the protuberances. The protuberances at the cloud base might be either KH billow clouds or perhaps some sort of mamma. Reflectivity-weighted particle fall velocity computed from Doppler velocities measured by the X band radar and the MUR showed an average value of 1.3 ms-1 within the cloud and in the protuberance environment.

Luce, Hubert; Mega, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Masayuki K.; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Fukao, Shoichiro; Nishi, Noriyuki; Tajiri, Takuya; Nakazato, Masahisa

2010-10-01

265

Geostatistical improvements of evapotranspiration spatial information using satellite land surface and weather stations data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the present study was to use the simple cokriging methodology to characterize the spatial variability of Penman-Monteith reference evapotranspiration and Thornthwaite potential evapotranspiration methods based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spetroradiometer (MODIS) global evapotranspiration products and high-resolution surfaces of WordClim temperature and precipitation data. The climatic element data referred to 39 National Institute of Meteorology climatic stations located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil and surrounding states. The use of geostatistics and simple cokriging technique enabled the characterization of the spatial variability of the evapotranspiration providing uncertainty information on the spatial prediction pattern. Evapotranspiration and precipitation surfaces were implemented for the climatic classification in Minas Gerais. Multivariate geostatistical determined improvements of evapotranspiration spatial information. The regions in the south of Minas Gerais derived from the moisture index estimated with the MODIS evapotranspiration (2000-2010), presented divergence of humid conditions when compared to the moisture index derived from the simple kriged and cokriged evapotranspiration (1961-1990), indicating climate change in this region. There was stronger pattern of crossed covariance between evapotranspiration and precipitation rather than temperature, indicating that trends in precipitation could be one of the main external drivers of the evapotranspiration in Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

de Carvalho Alves, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Luiz Gonsaga; Vianello, Rubens Leite; Sediyama, Gilberto C.; de Oliveira, Marcelo Silva; de Sá Junior, Arionaldo

2013-07-01

266

Technical Note: Surface water velocity observations from a camera: a case study on the Tiber River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring surface water velocity during flood events is a challenging task. Techniques based on deploying instruments in the flow are often unfeasible due to high velocity and abundant sediment transport. A low-cost and versatile technology that provides continuous and automatic observations is still not available. LSPIV (large scale particle imaging velocimetry) is a promising approach to tackle these issues. Such technique consists of developing surface water velocity maps analyzing video frame sequences recorded with a camera. In this technical brief, we implement a novel LSPIV experimental apparatus to observe a flood event in the Tiber river at a cross-section located in the center of Rome, Italy. We illustrate results from three tests performed during the hydrograph flood peak and recession limb for different illumination and weather conditions. The obtained surface velocity maps are compared to the rating curve velocity and to benchmark velocity values. Experimental findings confirm the potential of the proposed LSPIV implementation in aiding research in natural flow monitoring.

Tauro, F.; Olivieri, G.; Petroselli, A.; Porfiri, M.; Grimaldi, S.

2014-10-01

267

Large Scale Surface Radiation Budget from Satellite Observation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the current reporting period, the focus of our work was on preparing and testing an improved version of our Surface Radiation Budget algorithm for processing the ISCCP D1 data routinely at the SRB Satellite Data Analysis Center (SDAC) at NASA Langley Research Center. The major issues addressed are related to gap filling and to testing whether observations made from ERBE could be used to improve current procedures of converting narrowband observations, as available from ISCCP, into broadband observations at the TOA. The criteria for selecting the optimal version are to be based on results of intercomparison with ground truth.

Pinker, R. T.

1995-01-01

268

On comparison of modeled surface flux variations to aircraft observations.  

SciTech Connect

Evaluation of models of air-surface exchange is facilitated by an accurate match of areas simulated with those seen by micrometeorological flux measurements. Here, spatial variations in fluxes estimated with the parameterized subgrid-scale surface (PASS) flux model were compared to flux variations seen aboard aircraft above the Walnut River Watershed (WRW) in Kansas. Despite interference by atmospheric eddies, the areas where the modeled sensible and latent heat fluxes were most highly correlated with the aircraft flux estimates were upwind of the flight segments. To assess whether applying a footprint function to the surface values would improve the model evaluation, a two-dimensional correlation distribution was used to identify the locations and relative importance of contributing modeled surface pixels upwind of each segment of the flight path. The agreement between modeled surface fluxes and aircraft measurements was improved when upwind fluxes were weighted with an optimized footprint parameter {var_phi}, which can be estimated from wind profiler data and surface eddy covariance. Variations of the flight-observed flux were consistently greater than those modeled at the surface, perhaps because of the smoothing effect of using 1 km pixels in the model. In addition, limited flight legs prevented sufficient filtering of the effects of atmospheric convection, possibly accounting for some of the more prominent changes in fluxes measured along the flight paths.

Song, J.; Wesely, M. L.; Environmental Research; Northern Illinois Univ.

2003-07-30

269

Using Forecasting to Teach Weather Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Weather affects our lives and hence, is a popular topic in daily conversations and in the media. Therefore, it is not only important to teach weather, but is also a good idea to use 'weather' as a topic in science teaching. Science education has two main objectives: to acquire scientific concepts and methods. Weather forecasting is an adequate theme to teach scientific methods because it is dependent on observation. However, it is not easy to forecast weather using only temporal observation. We need to know the tendency of 'weather change' via consecutive and/or continuous weather observation. Students will acquire scientific-observation skills through weather observation. Data-processing skills would be enhanced through a weather-forecasting contest. A contest should be announced within 5 days of school events, such as a school excursion and field day. Students submit their own weather forecast by gathering weather information through the internet, news paper and so on. A weather-forecasting contest compels the student to observe the weather more often. We currently have some different weather forecasts. For example, American weather-related companies such as ACCU weather and Weather Channel provide weather forecast for the many locations all over the world. Comparing these weather forecasting with actual weather, participants such as students could evaluate the differences between forecasted and actual temperatures. Participants will judge the best weather forecast based on the magnitude of the difference. Also, participants evaluate the 'hitting ratio' of each weather forecast. Students can learn elementary statistics by comparing various weather forecasts. We have developed our weather web-site that provides our own weather forecasting and observation. Students acquire science skills using our weather web-site. We will report our lessen plans and explain our weather web-site.

Tsubota, Y.; Takahashi, T.

2009-09-01

270

Weather and climate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human losses caused by weather, (3) development of space system capability to manage and control air pollutant concentrations, and (4) establish mechanisms for the national examination of deliberate and inadvertent means for modifying weather and climate.

1975-01-01

271

IDENTIFYING THE ROTATION RATE AND THE PRESENCE OF DYNAMIC WEATHER ON EXTRASOLAR EARTH-LIKE PLANETS FROM PHOTOMETRIC OBSERVATIONS  

E-print Network

of hundreds of extrasolar planets, the search for planets like Earth and life in the uni- verse is quickly 240 planets have been discovered orbiting stars other than the Sun. To date, all planets discoveredIDENTIFYING THE ROTATION RATE AND THE PRESENCE OF DYNAMIC WEATHER ON EXTRASOLAR EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

Seager, Sara

272

A Dozen Years of Temperature Observations at the Summit: Central Greenland Automatic Weather Stations 1987-99  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 4 May 1987, the first automatic weather station (AWS) near the summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet began transmitting data. Air temperature records from this site, AWS Cathy, as well as nearby AWS at the Greenland Ice Sheet Project II (GISP2, now Summit) camp have been combined with Special Sensor Microwave Imager brightness temperature data to create a composite

Christopher A. Shuman; Konrad Steffen; Jason E. Box; Charles R. Stearns

2001-01-01

273

Observations of the urban land surface energy balance in a Phoenix, AZ, residential suburb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct measurements of the surface energy balance (SEB) in urban areas through micro-meteorological observation platforms are relatively uncommon, but these observations are critical for a scientific understanding the connections between urban anthropogenic activity and the Earth's local and global climate. Observations of the SEB may be applied to assess the accuracy of urban canopy models and to understand urban climate phenomena, such as the heat island and its human health, energy, and water impacts. We present initial results of local-scale (~1 km2) eddy covariance observations taken from a 23 meter tall micro-meteorological eddy-covariance flux tower sited within a typical residential suburb located in the hot semiarid city of Phoenix, Arizona. Diurnal ensemble patterns of SEB for summer (MJJ) and winter (DJF) are presented, with consideration for synoptic and regional weather conditions (e.g. cloud/non-cloud conditions, as well as the onset of the North American Monsoon), as well as several descriptive statistics (e.g. mean and variability of each flux, as well as the relative partitioning of each flux over time). Comparisons with SEB fluxes measured in other cities of similar climates will also be discussed, along with the implications of these new observations for urban climate science.

Chow, W. T.; Volo, T. J.; Vivoni, E. R.; Jenerette, D.; Ruddell, B. L.

2012-12-01

274

OBSERVED POLARIZATION OF BROWN DWARFS SUGGESTS LOW SURFACE GRAVITY  

SciTech Connect

Light scattering by atmospheric dust particles is responsible for the polarization observed in some L dwarfs. Whether this polarization arises from an inhomogeneous distribution of dust across the disk or an oblate shape induced by rotation remains unclear. Here, we argue that the latter case is plausible and, for many L dwarfs, the more likely one. Furthermore, evolutionary models of mature field L dwarfs predict surface gravities ranging from about 200 to 2500 m s{sup -2} (corresponding to masses of {approx}15-70 M {sub Jupiter}). Yet comparison of observed spectra to available synthetic spectra often does not permit more precise determination of the surface gravity of individual field L dwarfs, leading to important uncertainties in their properties. Since rotationally induced non-sphericity, which gives rise to non-zero disk-integrated polarization, is more pronounced at lower gravities, polarization is a promising low gravity indicator. Here, we combine a rigorous multiple scattering analysis with a self-consistent cloudy atmospheric model and observationally inferred rotational velocities and find that the observed optical polarization can be explained if the surface gravity of the polarized objects is about 300 m s{sup -2} or less, potentially providing a new method for constraining L dwarf masses.

Sengupta, Sujan [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala 2nd Block, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Marley, Mark S., E-mail: sujan@iiap.res.i, E-mail: Mark.S.Marley@NASA.go [NASA Ames Research Center, MS-245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

2010-10-20

275

Global Surface Thermal Inertia Derived from Dawn VIR Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparisons of surface temperatures, derived from Dawn [1] Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR-MS) [2] observations , to thermal models suggest that Vesta generally has a low-thermal-inertia surface, between 25 and 35 J m^-2 K^-1 s^-½, consistent with a thick layer of fine-grain material [3]. Temperatures were calculated using a Bayesian approach to nonlinear inversion as described by Tosi et al. [4]. In order to compare observed temperatures of Vesta to model calculations, several geometric and photometric parameters must be known or estimated. These include local mean solar time, latitude, local slope, bond bolometric albedo, and the effective emissivity at 5?m. Local time, latitude, and local slope are calculated using the USGS ISIS software system [5]. We employ a multi-layered thermal-diffusion model called 'KRC' [6], which has been used extensively in the study of Martian thermophysical properties. This thermal model is easily modified for use with Vesta by replacing the Martian ephemeris input with the Vesta ephemeris and disabling the atmosphere. This model calculates surface temperatures throughout an entire Vesta year for specific sets of slope, azimuth, latitude and elevation, and a range of albedo and thermal-inertia values. The ranges of albedo and thermal inertia values create temperature indices that are closely matched to the dates and times observed by VIR. Based on observed temperatures and best-fit KRC thermal models, estimates of the annual mean surface temperatures were found to range from 176 K - 188 K for flat zenith-facing equatorial surfaces, but these temperatures can drop as low as 112 K for polar-facing slopes at mid-latitudes. [7] In this work, we will compare observed temperatures of the surface of Vesta (using data acquired by Dawn VIR-MS [2] during the approach, survey, high-altitude mapping and departure phases) to model temperature results using the KRC thermal model [5]. Where possible, temperature observations from multiple times of day or seasons will be used to better constrain the thermal inertia. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Dawn Instrument, Operations, and Science Teams. This work was funded by the Dawn at Vesta Participating Science Program. [1] C.T. Russell et al. (2004) P&SS, 52, 465-489. [2] M.C. De Sanctis et al. (2011) SSRv 163, 329. [3] M.T. Capria et al. (2012) LPSC XLIII #1863 [4] F. Tosi et al. (2012) LPSC XLIII #1886. [5] J. Anderson et al. (2011) AGU Fall Meeting, #U31A-0009. [6] H.H. Kieffer H., et al. (1977) JGR, 82, 4249-4291. [7] Titus et al. (2012) EPSC, #800.

Titus, T. N.; Becker, K. J.; Anderson, J.; Capria, M.; Tosi, F.; Prettyman, T. H.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Palomba, E.; Grassi, D.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Combe, J.; McCord, T. B.; Li, J. Y.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

2012-12-01

276

Emergent relation between surface vapor conductance and relative humidity profiles yields evaporation rates from weather data  

PubMed Central

The ability to predict terrestrial evapotranspiration (E) is limited by the complexity of rate-limiting pathways as water moves through the soil, vegetation (roots, xylem, stomata), canopy air space, and the atmospheric boundary layer. The impossibility of specifying the numerous parameters required to model this process in full spatial detail has necessitated spatially upscaled models that depend on effective parameters such as the surface vapor conductance (Csurf). Csurf accounts for the biophysical and hydrological effects on diffusion through the soil and vegetation substrate. This approach, however, requires either site-specific calibration of Csurf to measured E, or further parameterization based on metrics such as leaf area, senescence state, stomatal conductance, soil texture, soil moisture, and water table depth. Here, we show that this key, rate-limiting, parameter can be estimated from an emergent relationship between the diurnal cycle of the relative humidity profile and E. The relation is that the vertical variance of the relative humidity profile is less than would occur for increased or decreased evaporation rates, suggesting that land–atmosphere feedback processes minimize this variance. It is found to hold over a wide range of climate conditions (arid–humid) and limiting factors (soil moisture, leaf area, energy). With this relation, estimates of E and Csurf can be obtained globally from widely available meteorological measurements, many of which have been archived since the early 1900s. In conjunction with precipitation and stream flow, long-term E estimates provide insights and empirical constraints on projected accelerations of the hydrologic cycle. PMID:23576717

Salvucci, Guido D.; Gentine, Pierre

2013-01-01

277

Weathering of Martian Evaporites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaporites in martian meteorites contain weathering or alteration features that may provide clues about the martian near-surface environment over time. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Wentworth, S. J.; Velbel, M. A.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Longazo, T. G.; McKay, D. S.

2001-01-01

278

Microbial Weathering of Olivine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature.

Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.; McKay, D. S.

2002-03-01

279

A simplified bi-dimensional variational analysis of soil moisture from screen-level observations in a mesoscale numerical weather-prediction model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of soil moisture for the initialization of a mesoscale numerical weather-prediction (NWP) model is considered subject to operational constraints, both in terms of computational cost and data availability. A variational technique is used to analyse the soil moisture by assimilating screen-level observations of temperature and relative humidity. We consider a simplified bi-dimensional (z and t) variational approach (simplified

G. Balsamo; F. Bouyssel; J. Noilhan

2004-01-01

280

Using Forecast and Observed Weather Data to Assess Performance of Forecast Products in Identifying Heat Waves and Estimating Heat Wave Effects on Mortality  

PubMed Central

Background: Heat wave and health warning systems are activated based on forecasts of health-threatening hot weather. Objective: We estimated heat–mortality associations based on forecast and observed weather data in Detroit, Michigan, and compared the accuracy of forecast products for predicting heat waves. Methods: We derived and compared apparent temperature (AT) and heat wave days (with heat waves defined as ? 2 days of daily mean AT ? 95th percentile of warm-season average) from weather observations and six different forecast products. We used Poisson regression with and without adjustment for ozone and/or PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 10 ?m) to estimate and compare associations of daily all-cause mortality with observed and predicted AT and heat wave days. Results: The 1-day-ahead forecast of a local operational product, Revised Digital Forecast, had about half the number of false positives compared with all other forecasts. On average, controlling for heat waves, days with observed AT = 25.3°C were associated with 3.5% higher mortality (95% CI: –1.6, 8.8%) than days with AT = 8.5°C. Observed heat wave days were associated with 6.2% higher mortality (95% CI: –0.4, 13.2%) than non–heat wave days. The accuracy of predictions varied, but associations between mortality and forecast heat generally tended to overestimate heat effects, whereas associations with forecast heat waves tended to underestimate heat wave effects, relative to associations based on observed weather metrics. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that incorporating knowledge of local conditions may improve the accuracy of predictions used to activate heat wave and health warning systems. Citation: Zhang K, Chen YH, Schwartz JD, Rood RB, O’Neill MS. 2014. Using forecast and observed weather data to assess performance of forecast products in identifying heat waves and estimating heat wave effects on mortality. Environ Health Perspect 122:912–918;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306858 PMID:24833618

Chen, Yeh-Hsin; Schwartz, Joel D.; Rood, Richard B.; O'Neill, Marie S.

2014-01-01

281

Mechanical Weathering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity was designed to give students an opportunity to realize that all rocks weather mechanically and each specific rock type has its own particular rate of weathering. Students discover that mechanical weathering is the process of breaking down bedrock into smaller fragments by physical as opposed to chemical means and that rock weathering, although it seems to occur slowly in human terms, is an extremely significant part of the rock cycle. They will learn that weathered rock materials are called sediments and are the structural basis for soils and can also be compacted into sedimentary rock. Students will realize that rock weathering rates vary widely depending on mineral content, texture, rock type, and climate and that differential weathering (varying weathering rates for two or more rock types in physical contact with each other) has given rise to some of the world's most breathtaking scenery.

282

Three-dimensional sensitivity kernels for surface wave observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We calculate three dimensional (3-D) sensitivity kernels for fundamental-mode surface wave observables based on the single-scattering (Born) approximation. The sensitivity kernels for measured phases, amplitudes and arrival angles are formulated in the framework of surface wave mode summation. We derive kernels for cross-spectral multitaper measurements; as a special case, the results are applicable to single-taper measurements. Cross-branch mode-coupling effects are fully accounted for in the kernels; however, these effects can probably be ignored at the present level of spatial resolution in global phase-delay tomography. The narrowly concentrated spectra of the windows and tapers commonly used in global surface wave studies enable the kernels to be computed extremely efficiently.

Zhou, Ying; Dahlen, F. A.; Nolet, Guust

2004-07-01

283

Surface moisture and satellite microwave observations in semiarid southern Africa  

SciTech Connect

Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer 6.6-GHz passive microwave data were studied in relation to large-scale soil moisture estimates over a 3-year period in southeastern Bostwana. An extensive data base of weekly surface soil moisture measurements was used with meteorological data to estimate pixel average soil moisture on a daily basis. The influence of the vegetation canopy on the surface emissivity was studied by partitioning the data set into classes on the basis of the normalized difference vegetation index. After correcting for the vegetation optical depth, a correlation of r = 0.84 was established between the normalized brightness temperature observations and surface soil moisture for the 3-year period.

Owe, M.; Chang, A.T.C. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)); Van de Griend, A.A. (Free Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1992-03-01

284

Locating potential biosignatures on Europa from surface geology observations.  

PubMed

We evaluated the astrobiological potential of the major classes of geologic units on Europa with respect to possible biosignatures preservation on the basis of surface geology observations. These observations are independent of any formational model and therefore provide an objective, though preliminary, evaluation. The assessment criteria include high mobility of material, surface concentration of non-ice components, relative youth, textural roughness, and environmental stability. Our review determined that, as feature classes, low-albedo smooth plains, smooth bands, and chaos hold the highest potential, primarily because of their relative young age, the emplacement of low-viscosity material, and indications of material exchange with the subsurface. Some lineaments and impact craters may be promising sites for closer study despite the comparatively lower astrobiological potential of their classes. This assessment will be expanded by multidisciplinary examination of the potential for habitability of specific features. PMID:14987486

Figueredo, Patricio H; Greeley, Ronald; Neuer, Susanne; Irwin, Louis; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

2003-01-01

285

ATLAS-3 correlative measurement opportunities with UARS and surface observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The third ATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) mission was flown aboard the Space Shuttle launched on November 3, 1994. The mission length was approximately 10 days and 22 hours. The ATLAS-3 Earth-viewing instruments provided a large number of measurements which were nearly coincident with observations from experiments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Based on ATLAS-3 instrument operating schedules, simulations were performed to determine when and where correlative measurements occurred between ATLAS and UARS instruments, and between ATLAS and surface observations. Results of these orbital and instrument simulations provide valuable information for scientists to compare measurements between various instruments on the two satellites and at selected surface sites.

Harrison, Edwin F.; Denn, Fred M.; Gibson, Gary G.

1995-01-01

286

Assessment and ground-based correction of the Level-3 MODIS daily aerosol optical depth: Implications in the context of surface solar radiation prediction and numerical weather modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Level-3 MODIS (L3M) aerosol optical depth (AOD) product offers interesting features for surface solar radiation and numerical weather modeling applications. However, most of the validation efforts so far have been focused on Level-2 (L2M) products and only rarely on L3M. We compare the Collection 5.1 L3M AOD (Terra dataset) available since 2000 against observed daily AOD values at 550 nm from more than 500 AERONET ground stations. The aim is to check the advisability of this dataset for surface solar radiation calculations using numerical weather models. Overall, the mean error (ME) is 0.03 (17%, relative to the mean observed AOD), with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.14 (73%), albeit these values are found highly dependent on geographical region. For AOD values above about 0.3 the expected error (EE) is found higher than that of the L2M product. We propose specific parameterizations for the EE of the L3M AOD, as well as for both its ME and its standard deviation. We also found that, roughly, half of the uncertainty of the L3M AOD dataset might be attributable to its sub-pixel variability. Finally, we used a radiative transfer model to investigate how the L3M AOD uncertainty propagates into the direct normal (DNI) and global horizontal (GHI) irradiances evaluation. Overall, for AODs smaller than 0.5, the induced uncertainty in DNI due to AOD alone is below 15% on average, and below 5% for GHI (for a solar zenith angle of 30 degrees). But the uncertainty in AOD is highly spatially variable, so is that in irradiance. These results suggest the necessity of a correction method to reduce the bias of the L3M AOD. Ground-based AOD measurements can be also used in a data fusion procedure. We present the results of a preliminary study using optimal interpolation of L3M daily AOD data based on daily AERONET AOD measurements in the US in the period since June to August 2009. The method removes the data gaps in the original dataset, assesses the spatial distribution of uncertainty and corrects the resultant gridded-AOD based on point-wise ground measurements. Overall, based on a cross-validation procedure, the method was able to reduce the ME from 0.013 (9%) to -0.002 (-2%), the RMSE from 0.084 (59%) to 0.070 (49%) and increase the correlation coefficient from 10% to 92%. Fig 1 shows the time series of the mean daily AOD for the original (blue) and the data-fused (red) datasets over the study region. The methodology shall allow creating an accurate and long-term gridded-AOD database suitable to be ingested in numerical weather models so that the effect in the atmospheric system of AOD and its daily variability can be better assessed. Such a dataset is crucial for DNI calculations at surface.

Ruiz-Arias, J. A.; Dudhia, J.; Pozo-Vazquez, D.

2012-12-01

287

Weather Forecasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, supplied by Annenberg / CPB, discusses weather satellites, Doppler radar, and additional tools forecasters use to predict the weather. Students can find a wind chill calculator along with a brief discussion of the history of forecasting and weather lore. Once you have a firm grasp on the science of weather forecasting, be sure to check out the other sections of this site, which include: "ice and snow," "our changing climate," "the water cycle," and "powerful storms."

2008-03-27

288

Observation of surface dark solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media.  

PubMed

We investigated surface dark solitons (SDSs) at the interface between a self-defocusing nonlocal nonlinear medium and a linear medium, both theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate that fundamental and higher-order SDSs can exist when the linear refractive index of the self-defocusing medium is much greater than that of the linear medium. The fundamental and second-order solitons are observed at the interface between air and a weakly absorbing liquid. PMID:24978730

Gao, XingHui; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Luohong; Yang, ZhenJun; Ma, Xuekai; Lu, Daquan; Guo, Qi; Hu, Wei

2014-07-01

289

TIMS observations of surface emissivity in HAPEX-Sahel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) was flown on the NASA C-130 aircraft for a series of 12 flights during HAPEX-Sahel at altitudes ranging from 0.25 to 6 km (0.6 to 15 m resolution). TIMS provides coverage of the 8 to 12 micrometer thermal infrared band in 6 contiguous channels. Thus it is possible to observe the spectral behavior of the surface emissivity over this wavelength interval.

Schmugge, Thomas; Hook, Simon; Kahle, Anne

1995-01-01

290

Determination of Precipitable Water Vapors by Combining Ground-based GPS Measurements and Automatic Weather Station Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) has initiated a research project to obtain near-real-time estimates of precipitable water vapor (PWV) based on ground-based GPS measurements. About 80 GPS permanent stations are being utilized to calculate GPS PWV. Currently, however, only 10 GPS permanent stations have their own weather sensors connected to the GPS receiver. To overcome this limitation, interpolation of

D. Kim; J. Won; H. Kim; K. Kim

2010-01-01

291

Preliminary observations on the impact of complex stress histories on sandstone response to salt weathering: laboratory simulations of process combinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic sandstone structures carry an inheritance, or a ‘memory’, of past stresses that the stone has undergone since its\\u000a placement in a façade. This inheritance, which conditions present day performance, may be made up of long-term exposure to\\u000a a combination of low magnitude background environmental factors (for example, salt weathering, temperature and moisture cycling)\\u000a and, superimposed upon these, less frequent

S. McCabe; B. J. Smith; P. A. Warke

2007-01-01

292

Salt weathering on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large well rounded boulders and angular rock fragments characterizes the Martian landscape as seen on the recent excellent quality photos. Analyzing the different rock-shapes indicates a time sequence of emplacement, fragmentation and transport of different rocks on Mars, which might give interesting insight into transport and weathering processes. Larger commonly well rounded boulders were emplaced onto gravel plains. After emplacement, these rocks were fragmented and disassembled. Nests of angular rock fragments are marking the locations of preexisting larger rocks. Frequently it is possible to reconstruct larger rounded rocks from smaller angular fragments. In other cases transport after fragmentation obscured the relationship of the fragments. However, a strewn field of fragments is still reminiscent of the preexisting rock. Mechanical salt weathering could be a plausible explanation for the insitu fragmentation of larger rounded blocks into angular fragments. Impact or secondary air fall induced fragmentation produces very different patterns, as observed around impact crates on Earth. Salt weathering of rocks is a common process in terrestrial environments. Salt crystallization in capillaries causes fragmentation of rocks, irrespective of the process of salt transportation and concentration. On Earth significant salt weathering can be observed in different climatic environments: in the transition zone of alluvial aprons and salt playas in desserts and in dry valleys of Antarctica. In terrestrial semi-arid areas the salt is transported by salt solution, which is progressively concentrated by evaporation. In Antarctic dry valleys freeze-thaw cycles causes salt transportation and crystallization resulting in rock fragmentation. This salt induced process can lead to complete destruction of rocks and converts rocks to fine sand. The efficient breakdown of rocks is dominating the landscape in some dry valleys of the Earth but possibly also on Mars. (Malin, 1974). However, irrespectively of the climatic environment a liquid brine is a necessity for salt induced fragmentation of rocks. If salt weathering is responsible for the fragmented rocks on the Martian surface it implies a temporary present of liquid H_2O. However, due to the present dry atmosphere on Mars brines can only be present in restricted places without being in equilibrium with the atmosphere (Clark and van Hart 1980). M. C. Malin (1974) JGR Vol 79,26 p 3888-3894 B. C. Clark and D. C. vanHart (1980) ICARUS 45, 370-378

Jagoutz, E.

293

Sensitivity of surface meteorological analyses to observation networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computationally efficient variational analysis system for two-dimensional meteorological fields is developed and described. This analysis approach is most efficient when the number of analysis grid points is much larger than the number of available observations, such as for large domain mesoscale analyses. The analysis system is developed using MATLAB software and can take advantage of multiple processors or processor cores. A version of the analysis system has been exported as a platform independent application (i.e., can be run on Windows, Linux, or Macintosh OS X desktop computers without a MATLAB license) with input/output operations handled by commonly available internet software combined with data archives at the University of Utah. The impact of observation networks on the meteorological analyses is assessed by utilizing a percentile ranking of individual observation sensitivity and impact, which is computed by using the adjoint of the variational surface assimilation system. This methodology is demonstrated using a case study of the analysis from 1400 UTC 27 October 2010 over the entire contiguous United States domain. The sensitivity of this approach to the dependence of the background error covariance on observation density is examined. Observation sensitivity and impact provide insight on the influence of observations from heterogeneous observing networks as well as serve as objective metrics for quality control procedures that may help to identify stations with significant siting, reporting, or representativeness issues.

Tyndall, Daniel Paul

294

Cassini First Radio Science Observations of Titan's Atmosphere and Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first two Cassini radio occultations of Titan's atmosphere occurred on March 18 (T12) and May 20 (T14), 2006. The atmosphere was probed on the ingress and egress sides, yielding observations at four mid-southern latitudes. Titan's surface was also probed using bistatic-scattering during the inbound period on T12 and the inbound and outbound periods on T14. In all cases, quasi-monochromatic S-, X-, and Ka-bands RCP signals (13, 3.6, and 0.94 cm-wavelength, respectively) were transmitted from Cassini. Both the RCP and LCP signal components were observed at multiple ground receiving stations of the NASA/DSN. Demanding spacecraft maneuvers to point the Cassini high-gain antenna to virtual Earth during the occultations, and to track the specular region on Titan's surface during the bistatic observations were successfully implemented. For the first time ever, quasi-specular bistatic scattering surface echo is detected on both the inbound and outbound T14 observations. Although weak, an X-band RCP and LCP reflected spectral components are clearly detectable. Their total power ratio determines the refractive index of the regions probed and its likely nature (liquid vs solid). The echo appears consistent with reflection from localized hydrocarbon liquid regions embedded in mostly nonspecularly reflecting terrain. The atmospheric refracted S and X signals were tracked down to Titan's surface. The Ka signal was consistently extinguished by atmospheric absorption at about 10 km above the surface. Observed changes of signal frequency is used to recover the refractivity profiles of the neutral atmosphere, hence determine the corresponding temperature-pressure profiles assuming 100% N2 composition. Changes of signal strength, corrected to remove refractive defocusing, reveals both small-scale and large-scale effects. The former is likely due to gravity waves, turbulence, and layers. The latter exhibits remarkable wavelength dependence and is likely caused by dispersive N2-N2 collision-induced gaseous absorption, although additional extinction mechanisms may also be responsible.

Marouf, Essam A.; Flasar, F. M.; French, R. G.; Kliore, A. J.; Nagy, A. F.; Rappaport, N. J.; Schinder, P. J.; McGhee, C. A.; Simpson, R.; Anabtawi, A.; Asmar, S.; Barbinis, E.; Goltz, G.; Fleischman, D.; Kahan, D.; Rochblatt, D.

2006-09-01

295

Space Weather Simulators Developed at NICT : the Solar Surface-Solar Wind Coupling Model and the Next Generation Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report two global MHD simulators developed at NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology): one is for the solar surface-solar wind coupling system and the other is for the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling system. One important feature of our simulation model is the 3-D grid system, which has no polar singularity despite of a spherical grid configuration. By this grid system, fine grids can be allocated near the inner boundary which represents the sun or the earth. Some complicated magnetic structures on the solar surface is closely related with the solar disturbances, and in the same way the ionospheric aurora is closely related with the the magnetospheric reconfiguration processes. In views of these situation, it is very crucial for both models to achieve the simultaneous implementations for the fine grid structure on the inner boundary and the wide range grids in global configuration. For the solar surface-solar wind coupling system, the observed magnetic field data are input at the inner boundary, and the solar wind structure can be updated at every day by optimizing the simulation code. For the magnetospheric model, we are developing "the next generation" realtime MHD simulation system. The model is developed by NICT and co-workers, and the extreme phenomena such as the magnetopause crossing are simulated successfully. For the magnetic disturbance event, the westward traveling surge, the most characteristic feature of the substorm, is reproduced quite realistically. In this paper, we describe those two space weather simulator systems and represent several numerical results obtained by using these models.

Den, Mitsue; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Tanaka, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru; Kubo, Yuki; Kubota, Yasubumi; Washimi, Haruichi

296

Destabilization of olivine by 30-keV electron irradiation: a possible mechanism of space weathering affecting interplanetary dust particles and planetary surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electron irradiation experiments were performed using a 30-keV electron beam on single crystals of olivine in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in an electron microprobe (EMP). We determined that, under certain conditions, structural damage is caused to the irradiated surface of iron-bearing olivines. The irradiated areas comprise spherules with sizes of hundreds of nanometers and micrometer-sized holes. In the immediate vicinities of the irradiated areas, droplets with sizes of tens of nanometers and branching tracks are observed. With increasing total charge, the hundreds of nanometer-sized spherules become larger and more irregular in shape. The size and shape of the nanometer-sized droplets remain almost constant, but their surface density increases (in m -2). Chemical fractionations compared to the initial olivine were found: the irradiated areas are slightly enriched in MgO, whereas the deposits are enriched in SiO 2. Destabilization of olivine is not due to the dissipation of the implanted energy as heat, but results most probably from electrostatic discharges leading to the breakdown of the dielectric lattice. The possibility that such processes could be responsible for significant space weathering of interplanetary dust particles and regoliths of planetary surfaces should be taken into account. In the interplanetary medium, 10-keV range electrons are carried by the solar wind, whereas at 1 AU from the Sun, the lifetime of cometary dust and the exposure time of lunar regolith are, at least, 10 to 100 times greater than the duration required to accumulate the damaging electronic doses applied in this study. Moreover, the comparison of the microstructures of samples irradiated in the present study with features of lunar regolith grains reveals several chemical and structural similarities.

Lemelle, L.; Beaunier, L.; Borensztajn, S.; Fialin, M.; Guyot, F.

2003-05-01

297

Space Weathering in the Mercurian Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weathering processes are known to be important on the Moon. These processes both create the lunar regolith and alter its optical properties. Like the Moon, Mercury has no atmosphere to protect it from the harsh space environment and therefore it is expected that it will also incur the effects of space weathering. However, there are many important differences between the environments of Mercury and the Moon. These environmental differences will almost certainly affect the weathering processes and the products of those processes. It should be possible to observe the effects of these differences in Vis (visible)/NIR (near infrared) spectra of the type expected to be returned by MESSENGER. More importantly, understanding these weathering processes and their consequences is essential for evaluating the spectral data returned from MESSENGER and other missions in order to determine the mineralogy and the Fe content of the Mercurian surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Noble, S. K.; Pieters, C. M.

2001-01-01

298

Weather Scope : An Investigative Study of Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the course of this project, students will learn how to build instruments to measure weather, access online weather observations, collect weather data for an extended period, analyze weather data to reveal trends, and make predictions. They will develop a basic understanding of how weather can be described in measurable quantities such as temperature, wind and precipitation. The module contains five lessons relating to weather, five relating to climate, and three enrichment activities. Project information, a teacher guide, reference materials, and an ask an expert feature are also provided.

2007-12-12

299

Structure of precipitating systems over Taiwan’s complex terrain during Typhoon Morakot (2009) as revealed by weather radar and rain gauge observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study documents from an observational perspective the structure of precipitation systems over the complex topography of Taiwan as Typhoon Morakot (2009) impinged on the island on 8 August 2009. An advanced multiple-Doppler radar synthesis technique particularly designed for dealing with non-flat surfaces is applied to analyze the three-dimensional wind fields over the ocean and terrain. In the northern and southern portion of the analysis domain where the mountain slope is relatively gentle and steep, respectively, the radar reflectivity measurements indicate that the precipitation systems exhibit very distinct features, namely, horizontal translation in the north and abrupt intensification in the south. While still far from the southern mountainous region, a north-south oscillation of an east-west-oriented band of strong radar reflectivity (>40 dBZ) with a horizontal span of 20 km is observed. Along the mountain slopes, the band of strong radar reflectivity has a much wider north-south extent. Both the radar and rain gauge observations show that the major precipitation is primarily confined to the windward side of the mountains. An analysis of the saturated Brunt-Väisälä frequency reveals that the upstream atmosphere is statically unstable, which implies that the lifting of the incoming convective cells by the topography will easily trigger precipitation. Thus, most of the moisture will be consumed before the air reaches the leeward side of the mountains. The long duration and the wide range of heavy precipitation in the mountainous regions resulted in a record-breaking average (over the gauges) rainfall amount of 2000 mm over 4 days. The prevailing winds approaching the mountains are from the west. The cross-barrier wind speed has a maximum (?40 m s-1) above the mountain crest that can be reasonably explained by a simplified shallow water model. The capability of applying the weather radar to provide a reliable quantitative estimate of the rainfall over a large area with high temporal and spatial resolution is demonstrated using dual-polarimetric radar data. The potential applications of the knowledge of the wind and precipitation characteristics in hydrology and other fields are addressed in this manuscript.

Liou, Yu-Chieng; Wang, Tai-Chi Chen; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Tang, Yu-Shuang; Lin, Pay-Liam; Lee, Yung-An

2013-12-01

300

Improving Numerical Weather Predictions of Summertime Precipitation Over the Southeastern U.S. Through a High-Resolution Initialization of the Surface State  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is hypothesized that high-resolution, accurate representations of surface properties such as soil moisture and sea surface temperature are necessary to improve simulations of summertime pulse-type convective precipitation in high resolution models. This paper presents model verification results of a case study period from June-August 2008 over the Southeastern U.S. using the Weather Research and Forecasting numerical weather prediction model. Experimental simulations initialized with high-resolution land surface fields from the NASA Land Information System (LIS) and sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are compared to a set of control simulations initialized with interpolated fields from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction 12-km North American Mesoscale model. The LIS land surface and MODIS SSTs provide a more detailed surface initialization at a resolution comparable to the 4-km model grid spacing. Soil moisture from the LIS spin-up run is shown to respond better to the extreme rainfall of Tropical Storm Fay in August 2008 over the Florida peninsula. The LIS has slightly lower errors and higher anomaly correlations in the top soil layer, but exhibits a stronger dry bias in the root zone. The model sensitivity to the alternative surface initial conditions is examined for a sample case, showing that the LIS/MODIS data substantially impact surface and boundary layer properties.

Case, Jonathan L.; Kumar, Sujay V.; Krikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary J.

2011-01-01

301

Comparison of ECMWF surface meteorology and buoy observations in the Ligurian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. Since numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are usually used to force ocean circulation models, it is important to investigate their skill in reproducing surface meteorological parameters in open sea conditions. Near-surface meteorological data (air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction) have been acquired from several sensors deployed on an offshore large spar buoy in the Ligurian Sea (Northern Mediterranean Sea) from February to December 2000. The buoy collected 7857 valid records out of 8040 during 335 days at sea. These observations have been compared with data from NWP models and specifically, the outputs of the ECMWF analysis in the two grid points closest to the buoy position. Hourly data acquired by the buoy have been undersampled to fit the data set of the model composed by values computed at the four synoptic hours. For each mentioned meteorological parameter an analysis has been performed by evaluating instantaneous synoptic differences, distributions, daily and annual variations and related statistics. The comparison shows that the model reproduces correctly the baric field while significant differences result for the other variables, which are more affected by local conditions. This suggests that the observed discrepancies may be due to the poor resolution of the model that probably is not sufficient to appropriately discriminate between land and ocean surfaces in a small basin such as the Ligurian Sea and to take into account local peculiarities. The use of time- and space-averaged model data reduces the differences with respect to the in situ observations, thus making the model data usable for analysis with minor requirements about time and space resolution. Although this comparison is strongly limited and we cannot exclude measurement errors, its results suggest a great caution in the use of the model data, especially at high frequency resolution. They may lead to incorrect estimates of atmospheric forcing into ocean circulation models, causing important errors in those areas, such as the Mediterranean Sea, where ocean circulation is strongly coupled with atmosphere and its high variability.

Bozzano, R.; Siccardi, A.; Schiano, M.; Borghini, M.; Castellari, S.

2004-02-01

302

Hyperspectral Observations of Land Surfaces Using Ground-based, Airborne, and Satellite Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center (UW-SSEC) has helped pioneer the use of high spectral resolution infrared spectrometers for application to atmospheric and surface remote sensing. This paper is focused on observations of land surface infrared emission from high spectral resolution measurements collected over the past 15 years using airborne, ground-based, and satellite platforms. The earliest data was collected by the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS), an instrument designed in the 1980s for operation on the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft. The HIS was replaced in the late 1990s by the Scanning-HIS instrument which has flown on the NASA ER-2, WB-57, DC-8, and Scaled Composites Proteus aircraft and continues to support field campaigns, such as those for EOS Terra, Aqua, and Aura validation. Since 1995 the UW-SSEC has fielded a ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) in a research vehicle (the AERIBAGO) which has allowed for direct field measurements of land surface emission from a height of about 16 ft above the ground. Several ground-based and aircraft campaigns were conducted to survey the region surrounding the ARM Southern Great Plains site in north central Oklahoma. The ground- based AERIBAGO has also participated in surface emissivity campaigns in the Western U.S.. Since 2002, the NASA Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) has provided similar measurements from the Aqua platform in an afternoon sun-synchronous polar orbit. Ground-based and airborne observations are being used to validate the land surface products derived from the AIRS observations. These cal/val activities are in preparation for similar measurements anticipated from the operational Cross-track InfraRed Sounder (CrIS) on the NPOESS Preparatory Platform (NPP), expected to be launched in 2008. Moreover, high spectral infrared observations will soon be made by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) on the European MetOp platform as well as a planned series of Chinese polar orbiting satellites. The detailed understanding of the land surface infrared emission is a crucial step in the effective utilization of these advanced sounder instruments for the extraction of atmospheric composition information (esp. water vapor vertical profile) over land, which is a key goal for numerical weather prediction data assimilation.

Knuteson, R. O.; Best, F. A.; Revercomb, H. E.; Tobin, D. C.

2006-12-01

303

[The effect of weather on blood sugar fluctuations in insulin-dependent patients. Medical meteorological observations (author's transl)].  

PubMed

In agreement with the results of urinary sugar examinations obtained by other authors it was established that there are probable connections between biochemical parameters and climatic events and that the reaction of the blood sugar to meterological changes may be an index for the changing responses of the body to weather as a stress factor. Further investigations, especially on the temporal distribution of hypoglycemias should contribute to a clearer explanation of the undoubtedly important correlation which could be shown to be helpful in the optimal stabilization of diabetics. PMID:111113

Jendritzky, G; Winkler, G

1979-07-20

304

Observations of Electron Irradiation Effects at Transition Metal Oxide Surfaces.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation the effects of electron irradiation on several maximally-valent transition-metal oxides have been investigated using a combination of surface profile imaging, selected-area-electron diffraction, optical diffractograms, and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy. It was found that the surfaces of TiO_2, Nb _2O_5, V_2 O_5 and Ti_2 Nb_{10}O _{29} were reduced to the corresponding binary oxide phase inside a 400keV high-resolution electron microscope during observation at high magnification and high current density (5-50A/cm^2). These reduced surface phases, which are all based on cubic rock -salt structures, grow with a well-defined three-dimensional epitaxial relationship with the bulk oxide. Certain structural features of the epitaxy were found to be common to the oxides studied and computer-drawn models of the crystalline structures were used to gain insight into the atomic rearrangements which took place during the monoxide growth. In the case of WO_3, for which no stable monoxide phase has been reported, the striking similarity in the epitaxial growth of a surface phase led to the proposal of a novel monoxide phase. The metallic conductivity of each of these monoxide phases was considered to be significant in terms of the mechanism which is proposed to initiate the electron-stimulated-desorption of oxygen from the original oxides. Evidence for a current density threshold for the accumulation of the monoxide phase and observation of recrystallization below this threshold are reported. In contrast, in response to extremely high-current density irradiation (10 ^3-10^4A/cm ^2), the surfaces of these oxides developed sputter pits and were reduced beyond the monoxide phase. These observations were repeated for TiO_2 in a ultra-high-vacuum microscope. Secondary electron images, high-angle annular dark-field images and EELS confirmed that the improved vacuum did not affect substantially the beam-induced reactions.

McCartney, Martha Rogers

305

Experimental observation of dark solitons on the surface of water.  

PubMed

We present the first ever observation of dark solitons on the surface of water. It takes the form of an amplitude drop of the carrier wave which does not change shape in propagation. The shape and width of the soliton depend on the water depth, carrier frequency, and the amplitude of the background wave. The experimental data taken in a water tank show an excellent agreement with the theory. These results may improve our understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of water waves at finite depths. PMID:25166807

Chabchoub, A; Kimmoun, O; Branger, H; Hoffmann, N; Proment, D; Onorato, M; Akhmediev, N

2013-03-22

306

Titan's Surface Composition from Cassini VIMS Solar Occultation Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Titan's surface is obscured by a thick absorbing and scattering atmosphere, allowing direct observation of the surface within only a few spectral win-dows in the near-infrared, complicating efforts to identify and map geologi-cally important materials using remote sensing IR spectroscopy. We there-fore investigate the atmosphere's infrared transmission with direct measure-ments using Titan's occultation of the Sun as well as Titan's reflectance measured at differing illumination and observation angles observed by Cas-sini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). We use two im-portant spectral windows: the 2.7-2.8-mm "double window" and the broad 5-mm window. By estimating atmospheric attenuation within these windows, we seek an empirical correction factor that can be applied to VIMS meas-urements to estimate the true surface reflectance and map inferred composi-tional variations. Applying the empirical corrections, we correct the VIMS data for the viewing geometry-dependent atmospheric effects to derive the 5-µm reflectance and 2.8/2.7-µm reflectance ratio. We then compare the cor-rected reflectances to compounds proposed to exist on Titan's surface. We propose a simple correction to VIMS Titan data to account for atmospheric attenuation and diffuse scattering in the 5-mm and 2.7-2.8 mm windows, generally applicable for airmass < 3.0. We propose a simple correction to VIMS Titan data to account for atmospheric attenuation and diffuse scatter-ing in the 5-mm and 2.7-2.8 mm windows, generally applicable for airmass < 3.0. The narrow 2.75-mm absorption feature, dividing the window into two sub-windows, present in all on-planet measurements is not present in the occultation data, and its strength is reduced at the cloud tops, suggesting the responsible molecule is concentrated in the lower troposphere or on the sur-face. Our empirical correction to Titan's surface reflectance yields properties shifted closer to water ice for the majority of the low-to-mid latitude area covered by VIMS measurements. Four compositional units are defined and mapped on Titan's surface based on the positions of data clusters in 5-mm vs. 2.8/2.7-mm scatter plots; a simple ternary mixture of H2O, hydrocarbons and CO2 might explain the reflectance properties of these surface units. The vast equatorial "dune seas" are compositionally very homogeneous, perhaps suggesting transport and mixing of particles over very large distances and/or and very consistent formation process and source material. The composi-tional branch characterizing Tui Regio and Hotei Regio is consistent with a mixture of typical Titan hydrocarbons and CO2, or possibly methane/ethane; the concentration mechanism proposed is something similar to a terrestrial playa lake evaporate deposit, based on the fact that river channels are known to feed into at least Hotei Regio.

McCord, Thomas; Hayne, Paul; Sotin, Christophe

2013-04-01

307

Geologic interpretation of new observations of the surface of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New radar observations of the surface of Venus provide further evidence of a diverse and complex geologic evolution. The radar bright feature 'Beta' (24 deg N, 85 deg W) is seen to be a 700 km diameter region elevated a maximum of approximately 10 km relative to its surroundings with a 60 x 90 km wide depression at its summit. 'Beta' is interpreted to be a large volcanic construct, analogous to terrestrial and Martian shield volcanoes. Two large, quasi-circular areas of low reflectivity, examples of a class of features interpreted to be impact basins by previous investigators who were without the benefit of actual topographic information, are shown in altimetry maps to be depressions. Thus the term 'basin' can be applied, although we urge a non-genetic usage until more complete understanding of their origin is achieved through analysis of future observations.

Saunders, R. S.; Malin, M. C.

1977-01-01

308

Global Monitoring of Martian Surface Albedo Changes from Orbital Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Martian surface changes were first observed from orbit during the Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter missions. They were found to be caused by eolian processes, produced by deposition of dust during regional and global dust storms and subsequent darkening of the surface through erosion and transportation of dust and sand. The albedo changes accumulated in the 20 years between Viking and Mars Global Surveyor were sufficient to alter the global circulation of winds and the climate of Mars according to model calculations (Fenton et al., Nature 2007), but little was known about the timing or frequency of the changes. Since 1999, we have had the benefit of continuous monitoring by a series of orbiting spacecraft that continues today with Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express. Daily synoptic observations enable us to determine whether the surface albedo changes are gradual or episodic in nature and to record the seasons that the changes take place. High resolution images of surface morphology and atmospheric phenomena help identify the physical mechanisms responsible for the changes. From these data, we hope to learn the combinations of atmospheric conditions and sediment properties that produce surface changes on Mars and possibly predict when they will take place in the future. Martian surface changes are particularly conspicuous in low albedo terrain, where even a thin layer of bright dust brightens the surface drastically. Equatorial dark areas are repeatedly coated and recoated by dust, which is later shed from the surface by a variety of mechanisms. An example is Syrtis Major, suddenly buried in bright dust by the global dust storm of 2001. Persistent easterly winds blew much of the dust cover away over the course of the next Martian year, but episodic changes continue today, particularly during southern summer when regional dust storms are rife. Another such region is Solis Planum, south of the Valles Marineris, where changes take place relentlessly in all seasons as bright dust and dark sand battle to dominate the landscape. Elsewhere, gradual processes steadily shift albedo boundaries between bright and dark terrain. Dark terrain near the Spirit rover landing site is gradually spreading to the north, driven by seasonal southerly winds. A bright fringe of newly deposited dust appears ahead of the moving boundary, populated by wind streaks and dust avalanches. Dark terrain at higher latitudes gradually creeps towards the equator by the dust cleaning action of dust devils, for example at Nilosytis (43°N, 85°E). Much less obvious is the deposition and erosion of dust on already bright, dust-covered terrain. Changes in the distribution of fresh dust take place frequently in the region surrounding the Tharsis Montes. Dust in this high altitude zone is constantly on the move as faint dark streaks mark the removal of recently deposited dust that is only slightly brighter than the dust already settled on the surface. Dramatic deposition of dust onto dusty terrain took place at much lower elevations in northwestern Amazonis between 2002 and 2005. Since then, the dust has been energetically eroded by towering dust devils that cluster here each summer.

Geissler, P.; Enga, M.; Mukherjee, P.

2013-12-01

309

Assimilation of Smos Observations to Generate a Prototype SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture Product  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP; [1]) mission is being implemented by NASA for launch in October 2014. The primary science objectives of SMAP are to enhance understanding of land surface controls on the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to determine their linkages. Moreover, the high-resolution soil moisture mapping provided by SMAP has practical applications in weather and seasonal climate prediction, agriculture, human health, drought and flood decision support. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS; [2]) mission was launched by ESA in November 2009 and has since been observing L-band (1.4 GHz) upwelling passive microwaves. In this paper we describe our use of SMOS brightness temperature observations to generate a prototype of the planned SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product [5].

Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Crow, Wade T.; Koster, Randal D.; Kimball, John

2012-01-01

310

Weathering in a Cup.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two easy student activities that demonstrate physical weathering by expansion are described. The first demonstrates ice wedging and the second root wedging. A list of the needed materials, procedure, and observations are included. (KR)

Stadum, Carol J.

1991-01-01

311

Weather and Climate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recommendations for using space observations of weather and climate to aid in solving earth based problems are given. Special attention was given to: (1) extending useful forecasting capability of space systems, (2) reducing social, economic, and human lo...

1975-01-01

312

The Impact of Ensemble Kalman Filter Assimilation of Near-Surface Observations on the Predictability of Atmospheric Conditions over Complex Terrain: Results from Recent MATERHORN Field Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-surface atmospheric observations are the main conventional observations for weather forecasts. However, in modern numerical weather prediction, the use of surface observations, especially those data over complex terrain, remains a unique challenge. There are fundamental difficulties in assimilating surface observations with three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR). In our early study[1] (Pu et al. 2013), a series of observing system simulation experiments was performed with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and compared with 3DVAR for its ability to assimilate surface observations with 3DVAR. Using the advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, results demonstrate that the EnKF can overcome some fundamental limitations that 3DVAR has in assimilating surface observations over complex terrain. Specifically, through its flow-dependent background error term, the EnKF produces more realistic analysis increments over complex terrain in general. Over complex terrain, the EnKF clearly performs better than 3DVAR, because it is more capable of handling surface data in the presence of terrain misrepresentation. With this presentation, we further examine the impact of EnKF data assimilation on the predictability of atmospheric conditions over complex terrain with the WRF model and the observations obtained from the most recent field experiments of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program. The MATERHORN program provides comprehensive observations over mountainous regions, allowing the opportunity to study the predictability of atmospheric conditions over complex terrain in great details. Specifically, during fall 2012 and spring 2013, comprehensive observations were collected of soil states, surface energy budgets, near-surface atmospheric conditions, and profiling measurements from multiple platforms (e.g., balloon, lidar, radiosondes, etc.) over Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah. With the near-surface observations and sounding data obtained during the MATERHORN fall 2012 field experiment, a month-long cycled EnKF analysis and forecast was produced with the WRF model and an advanced EnKF data assimilation system. Results are compared with the WRF near real-time forecasting during the same month and a set of analysis with 3DVAR data assimilation. Overall evaluation suggests some useful insights on the impacts of different data assimilation methods, surface and soil states, terrain representation on the predictability of atmospheric conditions over mountainous terrain. Details will be presented. References [1] Pu, Z., H. Zhang, and J. A. Anderson,. 'Ensemble Kalman filter assimilation of near-surface observations over complex terrain: Comparison with 3DVAR for short-range forecasts.' Tellus A, vol. 65,19620. 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v65i0. 19620.

Pu, Z.; Zhang, H.

2013-12-01

313

Surface-focused Seismic Holography of Sunspots: I. Observations  

E-print Network

We present a comprehensive set of observations of the interaction of p-mode oscillations with sunspots using surface-focused seismic holography. Maps of travel-time shifts, relative to quiet-Sun travel times, are shown for incoming and outgoing p modes as well as their mean and difference. We compare results using phase-speed filters with results obtained with filters that isolate single p-mode ridges, and further divide the data into multiple temporal frequency bandpasses. The f mode is removed from the data. The variations of the resulting travel-time shifts with magnetic-field strength and with the filter parameters are explored. We find that spatial averages of these shifts within sunspot umbrae, penumbrae, and surrounding plage often show strong frequency variations at fixed phase speed. In addition, we find that positive values of the mean and difference travel-time shifts appear exclusively in waves observed with phase-speed filters that are dominated by power in the low-frequency wing of the p1 ridge. We assess the ratio of incoming to outgoing p-mode power using the ridge filters and compare surface-focused holography measurements with the results of earlier published p-mode scattering measurements using Fourier-Hankel decomposition.

D. C. Braun; A. C. Birch

2008-02-19

314

Predicting Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By performing the activities presented in this website, fourth grade students can learn about weather instruments and data collection. This website, produced by the Government of Saskatchewan, also explores how the weather can impact local communities. Each activity presented here includes both objectives and assessment techniques for the lesson. Sixteen different activity suggestions provide students and teachers with ample opportunities to explore weather in the classroom.

2008-03-28

315

Weather Experiments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Looking for fun ways to learn about weather? Weather Wiz Kids has 39 fun weather related experiments for you to try. These experiments can be done in the classroom with your friends or even at home! Some of the experiments on the site include: tornado in a bottle, make lightning, make it rain, cloud in a bottle, what's in the wind, the Doppler Effect, and baking soda volcano.

2010-01-01

316

Isotopic Excesses of Proton-rich Nuclei Related to Space Weathering Observed in a Gas-rich Meteorite Kapoeta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea that solar system materials were irradiated by solar cosmic rays from the early Sun has long been suggested, but is still questionable. In this study, Sr, Ba, Ce, Nd, Sm, and Gd isotopic compositions of sequential acid leachates from the Kapoeta meteorite (howardite) were determined to find systematic and correlated variations in their isotopic abundances of proton-rich nuclei, leading to an understanding of the irradiation condition by cosmic rays. Significantly large excesses of proton-rich isotopes (p-isotopes), 84Sr, 130Ba, 132Ba, 136Ce, 138Ce, and 144Sm, were observed, particularly in the first chemical separate, which possibly leached out of the very shallow layer within a few ?m from the surface of regolith grains in the sample. The results reveal the production of p-isotopes through the interaction of solar cosmic rays with the superficial region of the regolith grains before the formation of the Kapoeta meteorite parent body, suggesting strong activity in the early Sun.

Hidaka, Hiroshi; Yoneda, Shigekazu

2014-05-01

317

Coupled atmosphere and land-surface assimilation of surface observations with a single column model and ensemble data assimilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical weather prediction and data assimilation models are composed of coupled atmosphere and land-surface (LS) components. If possible, the assimilation procedure should be coupled so that observed information in one module is used to correct fields in the coupled module. There have been some attempts in this direction using optimal interpolation, nudging and 2/3DVAR data assimilation techniques. Aside from satellite remote sensed observations, reference height in-situ observations of temperature and moisture have been used in these studies. Among other problems, difficulties in coupled atmosphere and LS assimilation arise as a result of the different time scales characteristic of each component and the unsteady correlation between these components under varying flow conditions. Ensemble data-assimilation techniques rely on flow dependent observations-model covariances. Provided that correlations and covariances between land and atmosphere can be adequately simulated and sampled, ensemble data assimilation should enable appropriate assimilation of observations simultaneously into the atmospheric and LS states. Our aim is to explore assimilation of reference height in-situ temperature and moisture observations into the coupled atmosphere-LS modules(simultaneously) in NCAR's WRF-ARW model using the NCAR's DART ensemble data-assimilation system. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) are performed using the single column model (SCM) version of WRF. Numerical experiments during a warm season are centered on an atmospheric and soil column in the South Great Plains. Synthetic observations are derived from "truth" WRF-SCM runs for a given date,initialized and forced using North American Regional Reanalyses (NARR). WRF-SCM atmospheric and LS ensembles are created by mixing the atmospheric and soil NARR profile centered on a given date with that from another day (randomly chosen from the same season) with weights drawn from a logit-normal distribution. Three types of one-week long numerical experiments are performed: (a) free ensemble runs; (b) ensemble assimilation that directly impacts the atmospheric-state vector only; (c) ensemble assimilation that directly impacts the coupled atmospheric-LS-state vector. The WRF-SCM is run in two modes: with and without inclusion of externally imposed horizontal advection terms in the atmospheric column (derived from the NARR, too). Preliminary examination of analyses and 30-min forecasts of reference height temperature and moisture, soil temperature and moisture at four depths (0.05m, 0.25m, 0.7m and 1.5m), fluxes at the surface, and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height shows that: 1. Horizontal advection is important to the realism of PBL heights and fluxes in the "truth", and affects the depth of influence of the assimilation on the soil state; a deeper effect (that could be non-realistic) is more often observed when advection is not included. 2. Inclusion of soil variables in the state vector can be beneficial to estimates of soil temperature and moisture,of moisture- and net latent heat fluxes at the surface, and of atmospheric variables (for the latter especially when no advection is included), However, no benefit is observed on PBL heights. Further analysis and improvement of the WRF-SCM/DART system (in particular the treatment of advection) is under way.

Rostkier-Edelstein, Dorita; Hacker, Joshua P.; Snyder, Chris

2014-05-01

318

Soil weathering rates in 21 catchments of the Canadian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil mineral weathering represents an essential source of nutrient base cation (Ca, Mg and K) for forest growth in addition to provide a buffering power against precipitation acidity for soils and surface waters. Weathering rates of base cations were obtained for 21 catchments located within the temperate and the boreal forest of the Canadian Shield with the geochemical model PROFILE. Weathering rates ranged from 0.58 to 4.46 kmolc ha-1 yr-1 and their spatial variation within the studied area was mostly in agreement with spatial variations in soil mineralogy. Weathering rates of Ca and Mg were significantly correlated (r = 0.80 and 0.64) with their respective lake concentrations. Weathering rates of K and Na did not correlate with lake concentrations of K and Na. The modeled weathering rates for each catchment were also compared with estimations of net catchment exportations. The result show that modeled weathering rates of Ca were not significantly different than the net catchment exportations while modeled weathering rates of Mg were higher by 51%. Larger differences were observed for K and Na weathering rates that were significantly different than net catchment exportations being 6.9 and 2.2 times higher than net exportations, respectively. The results for K were expected given its high reactivity with biotic compartments and suggest that most of the K produced by weathering reactions was retained within soil catchments and/or above ground biomass. This explanation does not apply to Na, however, which is a conservative element in forest ecosystems because of the insignificant needs of Na for soil microorganisms and above ground vegetations. It raises concern about the liability of the PROFILE model to provide reliable values of Na weathering rates. Overall, we concluded that the PROFILE model is powerful enough to reproduce spatial geographical gradients in weathering rates for relatively large areas as well as adequately predict absolute weathering rates values for the sum of base cations, Ca and Mg.

Houle, D.; Lamoureux, P.; Bélanger, N.; Bouchard, M.; Gagnon, C.; Couture, S.; Bouffard, A.

2012-03-01

319

Soil weathering rates in 21 catchments of the Canadian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil mineral weathering represents an essential source of nutrient base cation (Ca, Mg and K) for forest growth in addition to provide a buffering power against precipitation acidity for soils and surface waters. Weathering rates of base cations were obtained for 21 catchments located within the temperate and the boreal forest of the Canadian Shield with the geochemical model PROFILE. Weathering rates ranged from 0.58 to 4.46 kmolc ha-1 yr-1 and their spatial variation within the studied area was mostly in agreement with spatial variations in soil mineralogy. Weathering rates of Ca and Mg were significantly correlated (r = 0.80 and 0.64) with their respective lake concentrations. Weathering rates of K and Na did not correlate with lake concentrations of K and Na. The modeled weathering rates for each catchment were also compared with estimations of net catchment exportations. The result show that modeled weathering rates of Ca were not significantly different than the net catchment exportations while modeled weathering rates of Mg were higher by 51 %. Larger differences were observed for K and Na weathering rates that were significantly different than net catchment exportations being 6.9 and 2.2 times higher than net exportations, respectively. The results for K were expected given its high reactivity with biotic compartments and suggest that most of the K produced by weathering reactions was retained within soil catchments and/or above ground biomass. This explanation does not apply to Na, however, which is a conservative element in forest ecosystems because of the insignificant needs of Na for soil microorganisms and above ground vegetations. It raises concern about the liability of the PROFILE model to provide reliable values of Na weathering rates. Overall, we concluded that the PROFILE model is powerful enough to reproduce spatial geographical gradients in weathering rates for relatively large areas as well as adequately predict absolute weathering rates values for the sum of base cations, Ca and Mg.

Houle, D.; Lamoureux, P.; Bélanger, N.; Bouchard, M.; Gagnon, C.; Couture, S.; Bouffard, A.

2011-06-01

320

The surface composition and photometric properties of 21 Lutetia as observed by VIRTIS onboard ROSETTA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) aboard Rosetta has successfully returned spatially-resolved 0.4-5.1 ?m hyperspectral data as well as high spectral resolution 2-5 ?m data of the main belt asteroid 21 Lutetia during the July 2010 fly-by. At the time of the data analysis for our first paper on the Lutetia's results (Coradini et al., Science in press) we were not able to perform any photometric correction due to the limited accuracy of the spacecraft orbit and attitude reconstruction from flight data. This implied that, for instance, we could not account for any subtle color variegation on the surface of the asteroid. On the contrary the Osiris team reported (Sierks et al, Science in Press) a reflectivity variation of up to 30%, in some spectral bands, inside craters located in the Baetica region. Using corrected S/C trajectory and attitude kernels derived from the combination of Virtis and Miro data, we are now in the position to verify Osiris findings and to extend them to a more thorough spectral coverage, removing the effect of variation in illumination conditions due to the real shape of the asteroid and to the local topography. The Hapke's light scattering theory can be applied to the spectral reflectance in the range were the radiance is not affected by the thermal emission contribution from the surface (the analysis of the thermal region is part of a separate work, Keihm et al, EPSC-DPS2011-39, 201, and shall not be treated here). The phase angle coverage is suitable to this task as it covers from 0° up to 140°, thus providing good constraints on the true reflectance (single scattering albedo) of the materials making up the surface as well as on the other parameters related to the scattering properties of the regolith. This analysis permits to determine the presence and surface coverage of any weathering products, at least in the region observed by Virtis which extend to from North pole to the equatorial regions. The analysis allows to verify preliminary evaluation of the Lutetia data which gave a clear phase reddening of the IR spectrum in the range 1.2-2.3 ?m with a slope of 1.3x10-3 /deg. It allows also to put Lutetia in the context of the previous asteroid in-situ observations (951 Gaspra, 243 Ida, 433 Eros) for which color variation as well as albedo variations were observed and quantified across the surface.

Capaccioni, F.; Coradini, A.; Erard, S.; Tosi, F.; Filacchione, G.; De sanctis, M.; Capria, M. T.; Kamp, L.; Keihm, S. J.; Gulkis, S.; Arnold, G.; Ammannito, E.; Barucci, A.; Giuppi, S.

2011-12-01

321

Linking the Weather Generator with Regional Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the downscaling approaches, which transform the raw outputs from the climate models (GCMs or RCMs) into data with more realistic structure, is based on linking the stochastic weather generator with the climate model output. The present contribution, in which the parametric daily surface weather generator (WG) M&Rfi is linked to the RCM output, follows two aims: (1) Validation of the new simulations of the present climate (1961-1990) made by the ALADIN-Climate Regional Climate Model at 25 km resolution. The WG parameters are derived from the RCM-simulated surface weather series and compared to those derived from weather series observed in 125 Czech meteorological stations. The set of WG parameters will include statistics of the surface temperature and precipitation series (including probability of wet day occurrence). (2) Presenting a methodology for linking the WG with RCM output. This methodology, which is based on merging information from observations and RCM, may be interpreted as a downscaling procedure, whose product is a gridded WG capable of producing realistic synthetic multivariate weather series for weather-ungauged locations. In this procedure, WG is calibrated with RCM-simulated multi-variate weather series in the first step, and the grid specific WG parameters are then de-biased by spatially interpolated correction factors based on comparison of WG parameters calibrated with gridded RCM weather series and spatially scarcer observations. The quality of the weather series produced by the resultant gridded WG will be assessed in terms of selected climatic characteristics (focusing on characteristics related to variability and extremes of surface temperature and precipitation). Acknowledgements: The present experiment is made within the frame of projects ALARO-Climate (project P209/11/2405 sponsored by the Czech Science Foundation), WG4VALUE (project LD12029 sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of CR) and VALUE (COST ES 1102 action).

Dubrovsky, Martin; Farda, Ales; Skalak, Petr; Huth, Radan

2013-04-01

322

Observed near-surface currents under four super typhoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper ocean currents under four category-5 (super) typhoons [Chaba (2004), Maon (2004), Saomai (2006), and Jangmi (2008)] were studied using data from four drifters of the Surface Velocity Program (SVP) (Niiler, 2001) in the northwestern Pacific. Maximum current velocities occurring to the right of the super typhoon tracks were observed as 2.6 m s- 1 for slow-moving (2.9 m s- 1) Maon, 2.1 m s- 1 for typical-moving Chaba (5.1 m s- 1), 1.4 m s- 1 for fast-moving Jangmi (6.8 m s- 1), and 1.2 m s- 1 for fast-moving Saomai (8.1 m s- 1). Furthermore, dependence of the mixed layer current velocity under a super typhoon on its translation speed and statistical relationships between the maximum current speed and the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale are also provided.

Chang, Yu-Chia; Chu, Peter C.; Centurioni, Luca R.; Tseng, Ruo-Shan

2014-11-01

323

Space Weather  

E-print Network

Space Weather :: Printer Friendly Version of Article 2004SW000119 http://www.agu magnetic Faraday cages, to designing artificial magnetospheres around the spacecraft, to employing into nature. Louis J. Lanzerotti is Editor of Space Weather, Distinguished Research Professor at the New

Shepherd, Simon

324

Wacky Weather  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

2013-01-01

325

Joint inversion of receiver function and surface wave dispersion observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We implement a method to invert jointly teleseismic P-wave receiver functions and surface wave group and phase velocities for a mutually consistent estimate of earth structure. Receiver functions are primarily sensitive to shear wave velocity contrasts and vertical traveltimes, and surface wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to vertical shear wave velocity averages. Their combination may bridge resolution gaps associated with each individual data set. We formulate a linearized shear velocity inversion that is solved using a damped least-squares scheme that incorporates a priori smoothness constraints for velocities in adjacent layers. The data sets are equalized for the number of data points and physical units in the inversion process. The combination of information produces a relatively simple model with a minimal number of sharp velocity contrasts. We illustrate the approach using noise-free and realistic noise simulations and conclude with an inversion of observations from the Saudi Arabian Shield. Inversion results for station SODA, located in the Arabian Shield, include a crust with a sharp gradient near the surface (shear velocity changing from 1.8 to 3.5kms-1 in 3km) underlain by a 5-km-thick layer with a shear velocity of 3.5kms-1 and a 27-km-thick layer with a shear velocity of 3.8kms-1, and an upper mantle with an average shear velocity of 4.7kms-1. The crust-mantle transition has a significant gradient, with velocity values varying from 3.8 to 4.7kms-1 between 35 and 40km depth. Our results are compatible with independent inversions for crustal structure using refraction data.

Julià, J.; Ammon, C. J.; Herrmann, R. B.; Correig, A. M.

2000-10-01

326

Observations of Lightning on Earth from the Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Optical Transient Detector (OTD) launched into a 70deg inclination orbit in April 1995 aboard the MicroLab-1 satellite and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) launched into a 35deg inclination orbit in November 1997 (and still operating today) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission have produced the most comprehensive global observations of lightning activity on Earth. The OTD collected data for 5-yr from an altitude of 740 km while the LIS, in its 10th year of operations, is still collecting data from its current altitude of 402 km. From these altitudes the OTD observes an individual storm within its field of view for approx.3 min and the LIS for approx.90 sec as the satellites orbit the earth. Figures 1-4 show the combined LIS/OTD distribution of lightning for day and night during the Northern Hemisphere warm season from April through August (Fig. 1,2) and the cool season from October through February (Fig. 3,4) as might be observed from the lunar surface (12-h daylight and 12-h nighttime observations). The day and night plots are for the twelve hour periods centered on local noon and midnight. The total viewtime of the global lightning activity is 200 hours or less, depending on latitude (Fig. 5). Most of the observed lightning occurs over the northern hemisphere land areas as reported in previous studies. More lightning activity is seen at the higher northern latitudes during the day. The greatest lightning maxima occurs in the southeastern US, during the day. The corresponding region at night shows much less lightning activity. In contrast, there is a maxima in lightning activity at night over the high Plains area of the U.S. This region had lower lightning rates during the daytime period. During the cold season, the southern hemisphere has significantly more lightning. The maxima in Central Africa is still present, and a secondary maxima is observed in South Africa. In South America, the maxima in Argentina occurs at night in association with large-scale mesoscale convective storm complexes. This is the region on the earth having the greatest frequency of extreme storms with flash rates exceeding 1000 flashes/min. daytime maxima is seen extending from Northern Argentina to Brazil. In the US., the Gulf of Mexico and the Gulf Coast states exhibit a maximum in lightning activity both day and night.

Goodman, S. J.; Buechler, D. E.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Stahl, H. P.

2007-01-01

327

STATISTICAL CORRELATIONS OF SURFACE WIND DATA: A COMPARISON BETWEEN A NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE STATION AND A NEARBY AEROMETRIC MONITORING NETWORK  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents a statistical analysis of wind data collected at a network of stations in the Southeast Ohio River Valley. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which wind measurements made by the National Weather Service (NWS) station at the Tri-State Airp...

328

Where fast weathering creates thin regolith and slow weathering creates thick regolith  

SciTech Connect

Weathering disaggregates rock into regolith the fractured or granular earthmaterial that sustains life on the continental land surface. Here, we investigate what controls the depth of regolith formed on ridges of two rock compositions with similar initial porosities in Virginia (USA).A priori, we predicted that the regolith on diabasewould be thicker than on granite because the dominant mineral (feldspar) in the diabase weathers faster than its granitic counterpart. However, weathering advanced 20deeper into the granite than the diabase. The 20-thicker regolith is attributed mainly to connected micron-sized pores, microfractures formed around oxidizing biotite at 20m depth, and the lower iron (Fe) content in the felsic rock. Such porosity allows pervasive advection and deep oxidation in the granite. These observations may explainwhy regolithworldwide is thicker on felsic compared tomafic rock under similar conditions. To understand regolith formationwill require better understanding of such deep oxidation reactions and how they impact fluid flow during weathering.

Bazilevskaya, Ekaterina [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Lebedeva, Marina [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Pavich, Milan [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Parkinson, D. Y. [Advanced Light Source, LBNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University; Brantley, S. L. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA

2012-01-01

329

Stationary determinism in Observed Time Series: the earth's surface temperature  

E-print Network

In this work we address the feasibility of estimating and isolating the stationary and deterministic content of observational time series, {\\bf Ots}, which in general have very limited characteristics. In particular, we study the valuable earth's surface mean temperature time series, {\\bf Tts}, by applying several treatments intended to isolate the stationary and deterministic content. We give particular attention to the sensitivity of results on the different parameters involved. The effects of such treatments were assessed by means of several methods designed to estimate the stationarity of time series. In order to strengthen the significance of the results obtained we have created a comparative framework with seven test time series of well-know origin and characteristics with a similar small number of data points. We have obtained a greater understanding of the potential and limitations of the different methods when applied to real world time series. The study of the stationarity and deterministic content of the {\\bf Tts} gives useful information about the particular complexity of global climatic evolution and the general important problem of the isolation of a real system from its surroundings by measuring and treating the obtained observations without any other additional information about the system.

Rafael M. Gutierrez

1999-08-06

330

Long-term snow and weather observations at Weissfluhjoch and its relation to other high-altitude observatories in the Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow and weather observations at Weissfluhjoch were initiated in 1936, when a research team set a snow stake and started digging snow pits on a plateau located at 2,540 m asl above Davos, Switzerland. This was the beginning of what is now the longest series of daily snow depth, new snow height and bi-monthly snow water equivalent measurements from a high-altitude research station. Our investigations reveal that the snow depth at Weissfluhjoch with regard to the evolution and inter-annual variability represents a good proxy for the entire Swiss Alps. In order to set the snow and weather observations from Weissfluhjoch in a broader context, this paper also shows some comparisons with measurements from five other high-altitude observatories in the European Alps. The results show a surprisingly uniform warming of 0.8°C during the last three decades at the six investigated mountain stations. The long-term snow measurements reveal no change in mid-winter, but decreasing trends (especially since the 1980s) for the solid precipitation ratio, snow fall, snow water equivalent and snow depth during the melt season due to a strong temperature increase of 2.5°C in the spring and summer months of the last three decades.

Marty, Christoph; Meister, Roland

2012-12-01

331

Suzaku observations of the low surface brightness cluster A76  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We present the results of Suzaku observations of a nearby galaxy cluster, A76 at z = 0.0395. This cluster is characterized by extremely low X-ray surface brightness and is hereafter referred to as the LSB cluster. We investigate the nature and thermodynamic evolution of the LSB cluster by studying the physical properties of the hot intracluster medium in A76. Methods: We conducted two-pointed Suzaku observations of A76 and examined the global gas properties of the cluster by XIS spectral analysis. We also performed deprojection analysis of annular spectra and derived radial profiles of gas temperature, density, and entropy out to approximately 850 kpc (~0.6r200) in A76 East and 560 kpc (~0.4r200) in A76 West. Results: The measured global temperature and metal abundance are approximately 3.3 keV and 0.24 solar, respectively. From the deprojection analysis, the entropy profile is found to be flat with respect to radius. The entropy within the central region (r < 0.2r200) is exceptionally high (~400 keV cm2), a phenomenon that is not readily explained by either gravitational heating or preheating. The X-ray morphology is clumped and irregular, and the electron density is extremely low (10-4-10-3 cm-3) for the observed high temperature, suggesting that A76 is in the early phase of cluster formation and that the gas compression due to gravitational potential confinement is lagging behind the gas heating.

Ota, N.; Fujino, Y.; Ibaraki, Y.; Böhringer, H.; Chon, G.

2013-08-01

332

Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

Wedan, R. W.

1983-01-01

333

A climatology of dust emission events from northern Africa using long-term surface observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term (1984-2012) surface observations from 70 stations in the Sahara and Sahel are used to explore the diurnal, seasonal and geographical variations in dust emission events and thresholds. The frequency of dust emission (FDE) is calculated using the present weather codes of SYNOP reports. Thresholds are estimated as the wind speed for which there is a 50% probability of dust emission and are then used to calculate strong wind frequency (SWF) and dust uplift potential (DUP), where the latter is an estimate of the dust-generating power of winds. Stations are grouped into six coherent geographical areas for more in-depth analysis. FDE is highest at stations in Sudan and overall peaks in spring north of 23° N. South of this, where stations are directly influenced by the summer monsoon, the annual cycle in FDE is more variable. Thresholds are highest in northern Algeria, lowest in the latitude band 16-21° N and have greatest seasonal variations in the Sahel. Spatial variability in thresholds partly explain spatial variability in frequency of dust emission events on an annual basis. However, seasonal variations in thresholds for the six grouped areas are not the main control on seasonal variations in FDE. This is demonstrated by highly correlated seasonal cycles of FDE and SWF which are not significantly changed by using a fixed, or seasonally varying, threshold. The likely meteorological mechanisms generating these patterns such as low-level jets and haboobs are discussed.

Cowie, S. M.; Knippertz, P.; Marsham, J. H.

2014-08-01

334

A climatology of dust emission events from northern Africa using long-term surface observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term (1984-2012) surface observations from 70 stations in the Sahara and Sahel are used to explore the diurnal, seasonal and geographical variations in dust emission events and thresholds. The frequency of dust emission (FDE) is calculated using the present weather codes of SYNOP reports. Thresholds are estimated as the wind speed for which there is a 50% probability of dust emission and are then used to calculate strong wind frequency (SWF) and dust uplift potential (DUP), where the latter is an estimate of the dust-generating power of winds. Stations are grouped into six coherent geographical areas for more in-depth analysis. FDE is highest at stations in Sudan and overall peaks in spring north of 23° N. South of this, where stations are directly influenced by the summer monsoon, the annual cycle in FDE is more variable. Thresholds are highest in northern Algeria, lowest in the latitude band 16-21° N and have greatest seasonal variations in the Sahel. Spatial variability in thresholds partly explain spatial variability in frequency of dust emission events on an annual basis. However, seasonal variations in thresholds for the six grouped areas are not the main control on seasonal variations in FDE. This is demonstrated by highly correlated seasonal cycles of FDE and SWF which are not significantly changed by using a fixed, or seasonally varying, threshold. The likely meteorological mechanisms generating these patterns such as low-level jets and haboobs are discussed.

Cowie, S. M.; Knippertz, P.; Marsham, J. H.

2014-03-01

335

Planetary Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on the weather conditions on other planets. After learning more about weather patterns, students research the weather on a given planet and create a visual display of the conditions there. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

336

Effect of Bacillus subtilis on Granite Weathering: A Laboratory Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a comparative experiment to investigate how the ubiquitous soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis weathers granite and which granite-forming minerals weather more rapidly via biological processes. Batch type experiments (granite specimen in a 500 ml solution including NaCl, glucose, yeast extract and bacteria Bacillus subtilis at 27°E C) were carried out for 30 days. Granite surfaces were observed by SEM

W. Song; N. Ogawa; C. T. Oguchi; T. Hatta; Y. Matsukura

2006-01-01

337

Effect of Bacillus subtilis on granite weathering: A laboratory experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a comparative experiment to investigate: (1) how the ubiquitous soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis weathers granite; and (2) which granite-forming minerals weather more rapidly via biological processes. Batch system experiments (granite specimen in a 500 ml solution including NaCl, glucose, yeast extract and bacteria B. subtilis at 27 °C) were carried out for 30 days. Granite surfaces were observed by SEM before

W. Song; N. Ogawa; C. T. Oguchi; T. Hatta; Y. Matsukura

2007-01-01

338

Simulating spaceborne X-band polarimetric SAR observations of precipitation using ground-based S-band weather radar data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (XSAR) technology have revived meteorological applications with this type of radar. At this wavelength, attenuation and backscatter caused precipitation can be detected, and has been observed in current and past XSAR systems. Based on real fully polarimetric S-band ground radar observations of storms, a model is constructed to simulate spaceborne XSAR observations. Simulation results are compared to storm observations from several repeat pass dual polarization TerraSAR-X acquisitions over Florida. Development of these simulations provides a mechanism to explore the capabilites of precipitation surveillance from from XSAR as well as progress towards mitigation of storm effects for traditional SAR applications.

Fritz, Jason; Chandresekar, V.

2010-04-01

339

Large-scale dynamic observation planning for unmanned surface vessels  

E-print Network

With recent advances in research and technology, autonomous surface vessel capabilities have steadily increased. These autonomous surface vessel technologies enable missions and tasks to be performed without the direction ...

Miller, John V. (John Vaala)

2007-01-01

340

Utilization of satellite imagery by in-flight aircraft. [for weather information  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present and future utilization of satellite weather data by commercial aircraft while in flight was assessed. Weather information of interest to aviation that is available or will become available with future geostationary satellites includes the following: severe weather areas, jet stream location, weather observation at destination airport, fog areas, and vertical temperature profiles. Utilization of this information by in-flight aircraft is especially beneficial for flights over the oceans or over remote land areas where surface-based observations and communications are sparse and inadequate.

Luers, J. K.

1976-01-01

341

Characteristics and planation surface formation environment of the red weathering crust in Hunan, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou and Tibet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of red karst weathering crust in the research region can be divided into three subtypes. The first one\\u000a includes the silicon to aluminum ratio, the composition of the clay minerals, etc., and reflects the weak action of de-silicon\\u000a and aluminum enrichment. The second one, for example the granularity, shows that the viscous action is strong. The third one,

Zhijiu Cui; Dewen Li; Gengnian Liu; Jinliang Feng; Wei Zhang

2001-01-01

342

Surface observations for monitoring urban fossil fuel CO2 emissions: Minimum site location requirements for the Los Angeles megacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contemporary global carbon cycle is dominated by perturbations from anthropogenic CO2 emissions. One approach to identify, quantify, and monitor anthropogenic emissions is to focus on intensely emitting urban areas. In this study, we compare the ability of different CO2 observing systems to constrain anthropogenic flux estimates in the Los Angeles megacity. We consider different observing system configurations based on existing observations and realistic near-term extensions of the current ad hoc network. We use a high-resolution regional model (Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport-Weather Research and Forecasting) to simulate different observations and observational network designs within and downwind of the Los Angeles (LA) basin. A Bayesian inverse method is employed to quantify the relative ability of each network to improve constraints on flux estimates. Ground-based column CO2 observations provide useful complementary information to surface observations due to lower sensitivity to localized dynamics, but column CO2 observations from a single site do not appear to provide sensitivity to emissions from the entire LA megacity. Surface observations from remote, downwind sites contain weak, sporadic urban signals and are complicated by other source/sink impacts, limiting their usefulness for quantifying urban fluxes in LA. We find a network of eight optimally located in-city surface observation sites provides the minimum sampling required for accurate monitoring of CO2 emissions in LA, and present a recommended baseline network design. We estimate that this network can distinguish fluxes on 8 week time scales and 10 km spatial scales to within ~12 g C m-2 d-1 (~10% of average peak fossil CO2 flux in the LA domain).

Kort, Eric A.; Angevine, Wayne M.; Duren, Riley; Miller, Charles E.

2013-02-01

343

Collision and Break-off : Numerical models and surface observables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of continental collision and slab break-off has been explored by many authors using a number of different numerical models and approaches (Andrews and Billen, 2009; Gerya et al., 2004; van Hunen and Allen, 2011). One of the challenges of using numerical models to explore collision and break-off is relating model predictions to real observables from current collision zones. Part of the reason for this is that collision zones by their nature destroy a lot of potentially useful surface evidence of deep dynamics. One observable that offers the possibility for recording mantle dynamics at collision zones is topography. Here we present topography predictions from numerical models and show how these can be related to actual topography changes recoded in the sedimentary record. Both 2D and 3D numerical simulation of the closure of a small oceanic basin are presented (Bottrill et al., 2012; van Hunen and Allen, 2011). Topography is calculated from the normal stress at the surface applied to an elastic beam, to give a more realist prediction of topography by accounting for the expected elasticity of the lithosphere. Predicted model topography showed a number of interesting features on the overriding plate. The first is the formation of a basin post collision at around 300km from the suture. Our models also showed uplift postdating collision between the suture and this basin, caused by subduction of buoyant material. Once break-off has occurred we found that this uplift moved further into the overriding plate due to redistribution of stresses from the subducted plate. With our 3D numerical models we simulate a collision that propagates laterally along a subduction system. These models show that a basin forms, similar to that found in our 2D models, which propagates along the system at the same rate as collision. The apparent link between collision and basin formation leads to the investigation into the stress state in the overriding lithosphere. Preliminary results in this area indicate the stress experienced by the overriding lithosphere changes through the collision and slab break-off process. This change is stress affects the topography, but also offers another observable for understanding collision zones. We relate our numerical model to Arabia-Eurasia collision which is thought to have begun around 35 Ma (Allen and Armstrong, 2008; Vincent et al., 2007). The post collision basin predicted by our numerical model can be associated with the Miocene carbonate deposits of the Qom formation (Morley et al., 2009). These Miocene carbonate deposits are found at approximately 200-300km from the suture zone and are stratigraphically "sandwiched" between terrestrial clastic sedimentary formations. The position of these deposits shows that they are intimately related with the collision process, and that this area of the overriding plate has dipped below sea level for about 10 Myrs during the Early Miocene. Another geographic area that offers possibility for observation of topography change produced during continental collision is the Italian Apennines. Here, slab detachment is proposed to have started around 30 Ma and a tear propagated north to south along Italy (Wortel, 2000). Van der Meulen et al., (1998) observed a period of basin formation followed by uplift using the sedimentary record. Migrating depocentres were interpreted as evidence of a slab tear propagating north to south. These depocentres are located on the overriding plate with the maximum observed depression around 100 km from the suture (Ascione et al., 2012). These observed depocentres could be analogous to the depressions observed in our numerical models. Allen, M. B. and Armstrong, H. A.: Arabia-Eurasia collision and the forcing of mid-Cenozoic global cooling, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 265(1-2), 52-58, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.04.021, 2008. Andrews, E. R. and Billen, M. I.: Rheologic controls on the dynamics of slab detachment, Tectonophysics, 464(1-4), 60-69, doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2007.09.004, 2009. Ascione, A., Ciarcia, S.,

Bottrill, Andrew; van Hunen, Jeroen; Allen, Mark

2013-04-01

344

Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Estimation from MODIS Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land surface temperature (LST) is a key variable for studying global or regional land surface processes, energy and water cycle, and thus, has important applications in various areas. LST retrieval, however, is a difficult subject and a challenge issue due to complex interactions between land surface and atmosphere. Based on the water vapor dependent (WVD) and the extended water vapor

H. Liu; L. Xu; J. Ding; Bianba Ciren; Z. Liu; Basang Zhuoga; X. Deng; S. Zhang

2009-01-01

345

Hepatitis B surface antigen in blood donors: further observations.  

PubMed

A survey of 128,000 volunteer blood donors from the Greater New York metropolitan area revealed that first-time male donors were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) 2.5 times more frequently than were first-time female donors; Negroes and Mongols were positive four to 20 times more frequently than Caucasians. The ratio of ad to ay seemed to be higher in non-Caucasian antigen carriers than in Caucasian carriers. Among both Caucasians and non-Caucasians the rate of positivity declined after the age of 50. An excess prevalence of HBsAg was observed in donors with the lowest level of education and in those with the highest level. HBsAg was detectable nine times less frequently among repeat donors than among first-time donors (0.2 vs.1.90 per 1,000). Detection of HBsAg was unrelated to ABO-Rh blood groups. Several mechanisms for these wide variations of antigen detection are possible. PMID:46905

Szmuness, W; Hirsch, R L; Prince, A M; Levine, R W; Harley, E J; Ikram, H

1975-02-01

346

Weatherizing America  

ScienceCinema

As Recovery Act money arrives to expand home weatherization programs across the country, Zachary Stewart of Phoenix, Ariz., and others have found an exciting opportunity not only to start working again, but also to find a calling.

Stewart, Zachary; Bergeron, T.J.; Barth, Dale; Qualis, Xavier; Sewall, Travis; Fransen, Richard; Gill, Tony;

2013-05-29

347

Weather One  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains summaries and lessons about various aspects of weather. This includes the seasons, types of clouds, air, winds, global warming, hurricanes, tornadoes and lightning. Worksheets are provided to accompany the lesson themes.

Friend, Duane

348

Winter Weather  

MedlinePLUS

... During a Wildfire Responders Wildfire Smoke After a Fire Worker Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather Extreme ... at Disaster Sites Preventing Chain Saw Injuries During Tree Removal Electrical Safety and Generators Handling Human Remains ...

349

Numerical modelling of the effect of weathering on the progressive failure of underground limestone mines  

E-print Network

Numerical modelling of the effect of weathering on the progressive failure of underground limestone cite this paper as: Ghabezloo S.,Pouya A. (2006) Numerical modelling of the effect of weathering Observations on various cases show a typical type of failure that emerges brutally to the ground surface

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

Weather Measurements around Your School. Mapping Variations in Temperature and Humidity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is an activity where students conduct a micrometeorological study in their neighborhood using temperature, humidity measurements, and mapping skills. Included are a discussion of surface weather observations, the experiment, and directions. (KR)

Smith, David R.; And Others

1991-01-01

351

Weather Creator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project explores factors that help create severe winter weather. An interactive simulation provides hands-on experience, followed by guiding questions and resource exploration. Form groups of three. Explore the following simulation: Weather Maker Simulator Use the simulation to answer the following questions on paper. 1. In general, when are winds formed? 2. When winds are blowing, how can you get them to stop? 3. What can you do to make it rain or even snow? 4. Does it always snow when ...

Kshumway

2009-09-28

352

Weather Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades K-5. It focuses on basic information about the weather and how different weather maps depict conditions. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

353

Weather Information Processing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

1991-01-01

354

Fitting the observed changes of global surface temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of the fit of a trivial or, conversely, delicately-designed model to the observed natural phenomena is the fundamental pillar stone of any forecasting, including forecasting of the Earth's Climate. Using precise mathematical and logical systems outside their range of applicability can be scientifically groundless, unwise, and even dangerous. The temperature data sets are naturally in the basis of any hypothesizing on variability and forecasting the Earth's Climate. Leaving open the question of the global temperature definitions and their determination (T), we have analyzed hemispheric and global monthly temperature anomaly series produced by the Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia (CRUTEM4 database) and more recently by the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature consortium (BEST database). We first fit the data in 1850-2010 with polynomials of degrees 1 to 9 and compare it with exponential fit by the adjusted R-squared criterion that takes into consideration the number of free parameters of the model. In all the cases considered, the adjusted R-squared values for polynomials are larger than for the exponential as soon as the degree exceeds 1 or 2. The polynomial fits become even more satisfactory as soon as degree 5 or 6 is reached. Extrapolations of these trends outside of the data domain show quick divergence. For example, the CRUTEM4vNH fit in the decade 2010-2020, for degrees 2 to 5, rises steeply then, for degrees 6 to 9, reverses to steep decreasing: the reversal in extrapolated trends arises from improved ability to fit the observed "~60-yr" wave in 150 years of data prior to 2010. The extrapolations prior to 1850 are even more erratic, linked with the increased dispersion of the early data. When focusing the analysis of fits on 1900-2010 we find that the apparent oscillations of T can be modeled by a series of linear segments: An optimal fit suggests 4 slope breaks indicating two clear transitions in 1940 and 1975, and two that are less certain in 1905 and 2005. Interestingly, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index underwent major changes around 1940-1950 and 1974-1984, i.e. the time of the breaks in slope of the T curve, suggesting a good correlation at the multi-decadal scale between the derivatives of T and PDO index. Therefore, one may speculate that the Earth's climate system may have entered a new multi-decadal regime in the last years of the 20th century and we should expect global temperature to remain constant or decrease slightly while the PDO index remains dominantly negative up to about 2030.

Courtillot, V.; Le Mouël, J.; Kossobokov, V. G.; Gibert, D.; Lopes, F.

2012-12-01

355

Synergy of Satellite-Surface Observations for Studying the Properties of Absorbing Aerosols in Asia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through interaction with clouds and alteration of the Earth's radiation budget, atmospheric aerosols significantly influence our weather and climate. Monsoon rainfalls, for example, sustain the livelihood of more than half of the world's population. Thus, understanding the mechanism that drives the water cycle and freshwater distribution is high-lighted as one of the major near-term goals in NASA's Earth Science Enterprise Strategy. Every cloud droplet/ice-crystal that serves as an essential element in portraying water cycle and distributing freshwater contains atmospheric aerosols at its core. In addition, the spatial and temporal variability of atmospheric aerosol properties is complex due to their dynamic nature. In fact, the predictability of the tropical climate system is much reduced during the boreal spring, which is associated with the peak season of biomass burning activities and regional/long-range transport of dust aerosols. Therefore, to accurately assess the impact of absorbing aerosols on regional-to-global climate requires not only modeling efforts but also continuous observations from satellites, aircraft, networks of ground-based instruments and dedicated field experiments. Since 1997 NASA has been successfully launching a series of satellites the Earth Observing System - to intensively study, and gain a better understanding of, the Earth as an integrated system. Through participation in many satellite remote-sensing/retrieval and validation projects over the years, we have gradually developed and refined the SMART (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer) and COMMIT (Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere) mobile observatories, a suite of surface remote sensing and in-situ instruments that proved to be vital in providing high temporal measurements, which complement the satellite observations. In this talk, we will present SMART-COMMIT which has played key roles, serving as network or supersite, in major international research projects such as the Joint Aerosol Monsoon Experiment (JAM EX), a core element of the Asian Monsoon Years (AMY, 2008-2012). SMART-COMMIT deployments during 2008 AMY/JAMEX were conducted in northwestern China to characterize the properties of dust-laden aerosols and in the vicinity of Beijing for mega-city aerosols. In 2009, SMART-COMMIT also participated in the JAMEX/RAJO-MEGHA (Radiation, Aerosol Joint Observations-Monsoon Experiment in the Gangetic-Himalayan Area; Sanskrit for Dust-Cloud) to study the aerosol properties, solar absorption and the associated atmospheric warming, and the climatic impact of elevated aerosols during the pre-monsoon season in South Asia. We will show results from these field experiments, as well as discuss a new initiative of 7-SEAS (7 South East Asian Studies) to study the interaction of anthropogenic aerosols with regional meteorology, particularly with clouds.

Tsay, Si-Chee

2010-01-01

356

Cockpit weather information system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

2000-01-01

357

Effect of land surface interactions on cloud convection processes - A mesoscale modeling study using the ARM CLASIC-2007 field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneity of the land surface representation could play an important role in the convection initiation of clouds and thunderstorm. The investigation of the complex interactions among land surface, planetary boundary layer (PBL), and cloud- radiation processes, and their effects on the development of deep convection is needed to improve model skills. Using observations made during the ARM CLASIC_2007 field experiment and high resolution (~ 1 - 3 km) modeling studies, we investigated the impact of improved land surface representation on the ability of coupled models to simulate cumulus and convection initiation under different soil moisture conditions? We conducted experiments with an offline land data assimilation system to simulate the surface energy balance and the soil moisture/temperature fields using two different vegetation schemes. We then used these fields to test the impact of improved soil moisture and temperature initial conditions on the convection initiation and cloud convection simulated by the Weather Research Forecasting model (WRF - ARW). The coupled model was used to perform additional experiments involving different vegetation and soil representations (MODIS landuse, different vegetation resistance, soil moisture fields) and the impact on the boundary layer - convergence, convection initiation, and dynamical fields were analyzed using CLASIC field observations from insitu flux sites, ER2, and as available satellite scans. Three typical cases involving clear sky condition, shallow convection, and deep convection events were analyzed with the model setup to understand the role of land atmosphere interaction on the convection and rainfall processes over the southern great plains.

Charusambot, U.; Niyogi, D.; Miller, M. A.

2010-12-01

358

Land-surface controls on afternoon precipitation diagnosed from observational data: uncertainties and confounding factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feedback between soil moisture and precipitation has long been a topic of interest due to its potential for improving weather and seasonal forecasts. The generally proposed mechanism assumes a control of soil moisture on precipitation via the partitioning of the surface turbulent heat fluxes, as assessed via the evaporative fraction (EF), i.e., the ratio of latent heat to the sum of latent and sensible heat, in particular under convective conditions. Our study investigates the poorly understood link between EF and precipitation by relating the before-noon EF to the frequency of afternoon precipitation over the contiguous US, through statistical analyses of multiple EF and precipitation data sets. We analyze remote-sensing data products (Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM) for EF, and radar precipitation from the NEXt generation weather RADar system (NEXRAD)), FLUXNET station data, and the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). Data sets agree on a region of positive relationship between EF and precipitation occurrence in the southwestern US. However, a region of strong positive relationship over the eastern US in NARR cannot be confirmed with observation-derived estimates (GLEAM, NEXRAD and FLUXNET). The GLEAM-NEXRAD data set combination indicates a region of positive EF-precipitation relationship in the central US. These disagreements emphasize large uncertainties in the EF data. Further analyses highlight that much of these EF-precipitation relationships could be explained by precipitation persistence alone, and it is unclear whether EF has an additional role in triggering afternoon precipitation. This also highlights the difficulties in isolating a land impact on precipitation. Regional analyses point to contrasting mechanisms over different regions. Over the eastern US, our analyses suggest that the EF-precipitation relationship in NARR is either atmospherically controlled (from precipitation persistence and potential evaporation) or driven by vegetation interception rather than soil moisture. Although this aligns well with the high forest cover and the wet regime of that region, the role of interception evaporation is likely overestimated because of low nighttime evaporation in NARR. Over the central and southwestern US, the EF-precipitation relationship is additionally linked to soil moisture variations, owing to the soil-moisture-limited climate regime.

Guillod, B. P.; Orlowsky, B.; Miralles, D.; Teuling, A. J.; Blanken, P. D.; Buchmann, N.; Ciais, P.; Ek, M.; Findell, K. L.; Gentine, P.; Lintner, B. R.; Scott, R. L.; Van den Hurk, B.; Seneviratne, S. I.

2014-08-01

359

Development of a New Data Tool for Computing Launch and Landing Availability with Respect to Surface Weather  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Branch has a long history of expertise in the modeling and computation of statistical launch availabilities with respect to weather conditions. Their existing data analysis product, the Atmospheric Parametric Risk Assessment (APRA) tool, computes launch availability given an input set of vehicle hardware and/or operational weather constraints by calculating the climatological probability of exceeding the specified constraint limits, APRA has been used extensively to provide the Space Shuttle program the ability to estimate impacts that various proposed design modifications would have to overall launch availability. The model accounts for both seasonal and diurnal variability at a single geographic location and provides output probabilities for a single arbitrary launch attempt. Recently, the Shuttle program has shown interest in having additional capabilities added to the APRA model, including analysis of humidity parameters, inclusion of landing site weather to produce landing availability, and concurrent analysis of multiple sites, to assist in operational landing site selection. In addition, the Constellation program has also expressed interest in the APRA tool, and has requested several additional capabilities to address some Constellation-specific issues, both in the specification and verification of design requirements and in the development of operations concepts. The combined scope of the requested capability enhancements suggests an evolution of the model beyond a simple revision process. Development has begun for a new data analysis tool that will satisfy the requests of both programs. This new tool, Probabilities of Atmospheric Conditions and Environmental Risk (PACER), will provide greater flexibility and significantly enhanced functionality compared to the currently existing tool.

Burns, K. Lee; Altino, Karen

2008-01-01

360

29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36...LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when...

2010-07-01

361

29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36...LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when...

2012-07-01

362

29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36...LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when...

2011-07-01

363

29 CFR 1918.36 - Weather deck rails.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weather deck rails. 1918.36 Section 1918.36...LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.36 Weather deck rails. Removable weather deck rails shall be kept in place except when...

2013-07-01

364

Identifying the rotation rate and the presence of dynamic weather on extrasolar Earth-like planets from photometric observations.  

E-print Network

planets, the search for planets like Earth and life in the universe, is quickly gaining momentum the past two decades, more than 240 planets have been discovered orbiting stars other than the Sun. To date-like planets from photometric observations. E. Pall´e1 , Eric B. Ford2 , S. Seager3 , P. Monta~n´es-Rodr´iguez1

Bago, Enric Palle

365

Land Surface Hydrological Processes: Remote Sensing Observations and  

E-print Network

-based WMO/NCDC: Global Surface Summary of Day Data Ground-based Radio Detection and Ranging (Radar) Internet unsaturated flow model 2-D overland flow model Snow melt model Canopy interception model Rain and snow algorithm: Evapotranspiration estimation Deterministic method (RS & Land Surface Modeling ) 1 2 3 #12;Land

Washington at Seattle, University of

366

‘Clean’ observations of magnetic field fluctuations on planetary surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic field measurements on planetary surfaces are disturbed by various internal and external sources. We discuss methods to reduce their influence on the quality of magnetic field experiments aboard surface stations. Our major emphasis is on terrestrial seismo-magnetic measurements, but magnetic cleanliness procedures for the ROSETTA lander magnetic field experiment is discussed too. We consider not only disturbing magnetic field

K. Schwingenschuh; G. Prattes; M. Delva; H. U. Eichelberger; G. Berghofer; W. Magnes; M. Vellante; P. Nenovski; V. Wesztergom; H. U. Auster; K.-H. Fornacon

2012-01-01

367

Observation of the focusing of liquid surface waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission properties of liquid surface waves through a biconvex array of rigid cylinders, arranged in a two-dimensional periodic lattice, are studied experimentally and numerically. Both experimental and numerical results show that this biconvex array of rigid cylinders can act as a lens, which can focus plane liquid surface waves in a wide range of frequencies.

J. Yang; Y. F. Tang; C. F. Ouyang; X. H. Liu; X. H. Hu; J. Zi

2009-01-01

368

Observation of the focusing of liquid surface waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmission properties of liquid surface waves through a biconvex array of rigid cylinders, arranged in a two-dimensional periodic lattice, are studied experimentally and numerically. Both experimental and numerical results show that this biconvex array of rigid cylinders can act as a lens, which can focus plane liquid surface waves in a wide range of frequencies.

Yang, J.; Tang, Y. F.; Ouyang, C. F.; Liu, X. H.; Hu, X. H.; Zi, J.

2009-08-01

369

Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the rocks' permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of the causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between disolution, crack-corrosion, and expansion-contraction cycies triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

Winkler, Erhard M.

1987-06-01

370

Comparing variability and trends in observed and modelled globalmean surface temperature  

E-print Network

land surface temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) datasets [Brohan et al., 2006Comparing variability and trends in observed and modelled globalmean surface temperature John C; accepted 6 July 2010; published 19 August 2010. [1] The observed evolution of the globalmean surface

371

Microbial Weathering of Olivine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

McKay, D. S.; Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.

2002-01-01

372

THE WEATHER AND CLIMATE TOOLKIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) is free, platform independent software distributed from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The WCT allows the visualization and data export of weather and climate data, including NEXRAD Radar, GOES Satellite, NOMADS Model and surface in-situ data. By leveraging the NetCDF for Java library and Common Data Model, the WCT is extremely scalable and

Steve Ansari; Chad Hutchins; Stephen Del Greco; Mark Phillips

373

Application of conditional non-linear optimal perturbations to tropical cyclone adaptive observation using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditional non-linear optimal perturbation (CNOP), which is a natural extension of the linear singular vector into the non-linear regime, has been suggested to identify data-sensitive regions in the adaptive observation strategy. CNOP is the global maximum of a cost function, whereas, local CNOP is the local maximum of the cost function if the local maximum exists. The potential application of

Hongli Wang; Mu Mu; Xiang-Yu Huang

2011-01-01

374

Observations of atmosphere and ocean\\/land surfaces using UAVs in Ny-Alesund  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a Norwegian small robotic aircraft called the Cryowing, atmospheric and ocean\\/land surface observations were made over Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norway from 31 July to 17 August 2008. The aircraft has meteorological sensors to observe dynamic and static air pressures, air temperature, and relative humidity, infrared thermometer to observe surface temperature, and digital camera to record the surface characteristics. From the

J. Inoue; R. Storvold

2008-01-01

375

Spaceborne observations from AVHRR and GOES weather satellites during the November 2002 eruption of Reventador Volcano, Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite data were used to document the sequence of events during the November 2002 eruption of Reventador Volcano, Ecuador. Single-, multi-band and brightness temperature difference ash detection and monitoring techniques using data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) revealed two primary stages of the eruption: a paroxysmal explosive phase between 3 and 4 November 2002 (Phase I), and an intermittent and mildly explosive phase between 5 and 25 November 2002 (Phase II). Initial phreatic activity at Reventador was observed by GOES at 1045z on 3 November, and by 1412z the volcano had entered a Vulcanian explosion that was not observed from space until the GOES scan at 1415z. This eruption generated a 16-km high, near-circular umbrella cloud 40 km in diameter characterized by long period gravity waves that were discernable from space. Similar processes were observed following the eruptions of Mt. St. Helens (1980) and Mt. Pinatubo (1991). The initial spreading rate of Reventador’s umbrella region was measured at 8.6 ms-1, and had a minimum cloud top-temperature of approximately 195°K (-78° C). After the initial 90 minutes, the radial umbrella cloud evolved into an ellipse due to entrainment by regional winds. Our analyses of plume-top temperatures, plume front velocities, and shadow clinometry indicate that the umbrella cloud transitioned into two elongated ash clouds due to wind shear effects at the Tropopause. The ash reached approximately 14 km (Troposphere) and 16 km (Stratosphere) above sea level and advanced westward and eastward, respectively. Over a period of 60 hours, the ash clouds advanced at 5 - 11 ms-1 and traveled 1900 km W and 400 km E of Reventador before falling below satellite detection thresholds. Volcanic ash dispersion model simulations from HYSPLIT and PUFF independently corroborated the observed transport velocities and trajectories. Ground-based data showed good correlations with satellite-derived observations, but also evidenced the inherent limitations that space-based monitoring platforms can have (i.e.: spatial resolution, scanning intervals, occlusion due to 2-dimensional perspective, scan angle). Overall, the GOES and AVHRR satellite data provided valuable synoptic multispectral measurements that allowed for the detection and characterization of the 2002 eruption of Reventador Volcano.

Moxey, L.; Harris, A. J.; Dehn, J.; Rowland, S. K.

2009-12-01

376

Simulations and Observations of GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GNSS coherent and incoherent reflected signals have the potential of deriving large scale parameters of ocean and ice surfaces, as barotropic variability, eddy currents and fronts, Rossby waves, coastal upwelling, mean ocean surface heights, and patterns of the general ocean circulation. In the reflection zone the measurements may derive parameters as sea surface roughness, winds, waves, heights and tilts from the spectral measurements. Previous measurements from mountain tops and airplanes have shown results leading to some of these parameters. Coming satellite missions, as CYGNSS, COSMIC-2, and GEROS on the International Space Station, have underlined the need for simulation studies highlighting the assumptions for the data retrievals and the precision and the accuracy of such measurements. Forward simulation of the measured signals has often been used in the development of retrieval algorithms. The retrieval algorithms are used in the calculations of the geophysical parameters. This presentation describes a wave propagator that can be used to simulate GNSS reflected signals from ocean surfaces. The theory of propagation of microwaves in the atmosphere is well established, and methods for propagation modeling range from ray tracing to numerical solutions to the wave equation. Besides ray tracing there are propagation methods that use mode theory and a finite difference solution to the parabolic equation. The presented propagator is based on the solution of the parabolic equation. The parabolic equation in our simulator is solved using the split-step sine transformation. The Earth's surface is modeled with the use of an impedance model. The value of the Earth impedance is given as a function of the range along the surface of the Earth. This impedance concept gives an accurate lower boundary condition in the determination of the electromagnetic field, and makes it possible to simulate reflections and the effects of transitions between different mediums. A semi-isotropic Philips spectrum is used to represent the air-sea interaction. Simulated GPS ocean surface reflections will be presented and discussed based on different ocean characteristics. The spectra of the simulated surface reflections will be analyzed, and the results from the presented from the simulations will be compared both to measured GPS surface reflections and to similar results from a simulator developed by Zavorotny and Voronovich, based on a bistatic radar equation derived using the geometric optics limit of the Kirchhoff approximation. The analysis of both the simulated surface reflection signals and the measured reflection signals will reveal spectral structures of the reflected signals leading to the extraction of sea surface roughness, surface wind speed and direction.

Hoeg, P.; Benzon, H.

2013-12-01

377

Satellite Observation of Surface Forcing Over the Warm Pool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Daily variations of wind and solar forcing derived from satellite data were compared with sea surface temperature and temperature tendency during the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere - Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment.

Liu, W. T.; Gautier, C.; Landsfeld, M.; Tang, W.

1994-01-01

378

First observation of surface plasmon-coupled electrochemiluminescence  

PubMed Central

Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) is often used for high sensitivity detection. We describe a new approach to collecting the ECL signal, by coupling of the excited state of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ with the surface plasmons in a thin gold film. The energy then radiates into the substrate at a defined angle. Surface plasmon-coupled ECL promises to be useful in chemical and biological assays. PMID:19763232

Zhang, Jian; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

2009-01-01

379

Surface moisture and satellite microwave observations in semiarid southern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer 6.6-GHz passive microwave data were studied in relation to large-scale soil moisture estimates over a 3-year period in southeastern Bostwana. An extensive data base of weekly surface soil moisture measurements was used with meteorological data to estimate pixel average soil moisture on a daily basis. The influence of the vegetation canopy on the surface

M. Owe; A. T. C. Chang; A. A. Van de Griend

1992-01-01

380

Space weathering of asteroids  

E-print Network

Analysis of laboratory experiments simulating space weathering optical effects on atmosphereless planetary bodies reveals that the time needed to alter the spectrum of an ordinary chondrite meteorite to resemble the overall spectral shape and slope of an S-type asteroid is about ~ 0.1 Myr. The time required to reduce the visible albedo of samples to ~ 0.05 is ~ 1 Myr. Since both these timescales are much less than the average collisional lifetime of asteroids larger than several kilometers in size, numerous low-albedo asteroids having reddish spectra with subdued absorption bands should be observed instead of an S-type dominated population. It is not the case because asteroid surfaces cannot be considered as undisturbed, unlike laboratory samples. We have estimated the number of collisions occurring in the time of 105 yr between asteroids and projectiles of various sizes and show that impact-activated motions of regolith particles counteract the progress of optical maturation of asteroid surfaces. Continual r...

Shestopalov, D I; Cloutis, E A

2012-01-01

381

Wild Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online, interactive module, students learn about severe weather (thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes, and blizzards) and the key features for each type of "wild weather" using satellite images. The module is part of an online course for grades 7-12 in satellite meteorology, which includes 10 interactive modules. The site also includes lesson plans developed by teachers and links to related resources. Each module is designed to serve as a stand-alone lesson, however, a sequential approach is recommended. Designed to challenge students through the end of 12th grade, middle school teachers and students may choose to skim or skip a few sections.

382

Space Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With three levels to choose from on each page - beginner, intermediate or advanced - this site provides information on Space Weather and the terms scientists use to describe the everchanging conditions in space. Explosions on the Sun create storms of radiation, fluctuating magnetic fields, and swarms of energetic particles. These phenomena travel outward through the Solar System with the solar wind. Upon arrival at Earth, they interact in complex ways with Earth's magnetic field, creating Earth's radiation belts and the Aurora. Some space weather storms can damage satellites, disable electric power grids, and disrupt cell phone communications systems. This site provides images, activities, and interesting facts about all of these events.

2004-02-06

383

Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

2005-01-01

384

Cold Weather I usually start my climate presentations with a chart showing maps of the surface temperature  

E-print Network

. Figure 1. Global distributions of surface temperature anomalies of the last four months (GISS analysis-global temperature, as well as the trend over recent decades can be seen in Figure 2 for the GISS surface temperature, close to the surface temperature trend (0.17°C per decade). The large short-term temperature

Hansen, James E.

385

Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in MIDDS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this task was to upgrade the severe weather database from the previous phase by adding weather observations from the years 2004 - 2009, re-analyze the data to determine the important parameters, make adjustments to the index weights depending on the analysis results, and update the MIDDS GUI. The added data increased the period of record from 15 to 21 years. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. Four of the stability indices showed increased severe weather predication. The Total Threat Score (TTS) of the previous work was verified for the warm season of 2009 with very good skill. The TTS Probability of Detection (POD) was 88% and the False alarm rate (FAR) of 8%. Based on the results of the analyses, the MIDDS Severe Weather Worksheet GUI was updated to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters and synoptic-scale dynamics.

Wheeler, Mark M.

2010-01-01

386

Observations of quenching of downward-facing surfaces  

SciTech Connect

This report documents results of a series of scoping experiments on boiling from downward-facing surfaces in support of the Sandia New Production Reactor, Vessel-Pool Boiling Heat Transfer task. Quenching experiments have been performed to examine the boiling processes from downward-facing surfaces using two 61-centimeter diameter test masses, one with a flat test surface and one with a curved test surface having a radius of curvature of 335 cm, matching that of the Cylindrical Boiling facility test vessel. Boiling curves were obtained for both test surfaces facing horizontally downward. The critical beat flux was found to be essentially the same, having an average value of approximately 0.5 MW/m{sup 2}. This value is substantially higher than current estimates of the heat dissipation rates required for in-vessel retention of core debris in the Heavy Water New Production Reactor as well as some of the advanced light water reactors under design. The nucleate boiling process was found to be cyclic with four relatively distinct phases: direct liquid/solid contact, nucleation and growth of bubbles, coalescence, and ejection.

Chu, T.Y.; Bainbridge, B.L.; Bentz, J.H.; Simpson, R.B.

1994-01-01

387

Daymet: Gridded subdaily weather data for North America  

SciTech Connect

A core requirement for many ecosystem modeling approaches is surface weather fields, including temperature, precipitation, humidity, and incident solar radiation. Carbon dynamics and flux estimates from process models depend strongly on daily and subdaily weather conditions. One common obstacle to model implementation over continental scale regions is the difficulty of obtaining the relevant surface weather observations from in situ networks, and producing spatially interpolated (gridded) surfaces of the necessary weather fields at the appropriate spatial and temporal resolution. One approach that has been developed to overcome this obstacle is Daymet, a numerical method for producing gridded surfaces of subdaily temperature (daily maximum and minimum temperature), and daily precipitation, humidity, and radiation over large regions of complex terrain, using daily surface weather observations and an accurate elevation grid as input. We are providing a high-quality gridded surface weather product over North America for input to NACP process modeling studies by expanding on the conterminous U.S. Daymet domain to include Canada (south of 52N) and Mexico. Download Daymet Data: http://daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1219. Input data requirements for the conterminous US, Mexico, and Canada for 1980 - 2008 have been used to produce the Daymet product for these areas; the data will be released in Fall 2010. MAST-DC is developing several ways to select and distribute the Daymet data: ftp download, single-pixel extraction, and access through THREDDS (Thematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services) Data Server (TDS). Periodic updates to the continental data set will be implemented as new years of surface observations become available.

Thornton, Michele M [ORNL] [ORNL; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL] [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL] [ORNL; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL] [ORNL; Eby, Pete I [ORNL] [ORNL; Devarakonda, Ranjeet [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

388

Weather control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather modification, the intentional altering of atmospheric conditions to suit the purposes of humankind, has five basic forms: (1) fog dissipation; (2) rain and snow enhancement; (3) hail suppression; (4) lightning suppression; and (5) the abatement of severe storms such as hurricanes and tornadoes. The dissipation of fog and the seeding of clouds with dry ice or silver iodide to

Leepson

1980-01-01

389

Wonderful Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners conduct three experiments to examine temperature, the different stages of the water cycle, and how convection creates wind. These activities can be used individually or as a group for a lesson on weather. Note: boiling water is required for this activity; adult supervision required.

Workshop, Mission S.

2013-01-01

390

Weather Stations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of seven brief activities about Jupiter's atmosphere and weather. Learners will look at Jupiter's distinct banded appearance, violent storms, and clouds of many different colors. The activities are part of Explore! Jupiter's Family Secrets, a series designed to engage children in space and planetary science in libraries and informal learning environments.

391

Land Surface Temperature Forecasting using spectral observations of MODIS and Modular Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a significant parameter for many applications including numerical weather prediction, climate and environmental studies. The goal of this study is using a combination of Modular neural networks and satellite image as input to predict the LST in Tehran ,Iran.In this study, two MLP and RBF neural networks and an algorithm for calculating of LST based spectral observations of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectra-radiometer (MODIS) are used This algorithm include Brightness Temperature of channel 31(BT31) and 32(BT32) on thermal band of MODIS. The algorithm are written using Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) calibrated data which has the spatial resolution of 1km by ENVI (Environment for Visualizing Images) software, and output products are in HDF format. Initial results show that modular neural network helps to improve networks' generalization and learning speed and the main reason for selecting these networks is their good performance in this problem.The model has a modular learning and structure. Since the task decomposition at first and the combination of results to get the final prediction at the end are key and effective points on the performance of modular neural network, in this study we propose a new approach to this issue. This method uses the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization(PSO) algorithm for task decomposition. The proposed model combines this neural networks and optimization algorithms. Results indicate that use of PSO algorithm has caused suitable distribution of clusters obtained from SOM algorithm. In addition to the use of satellite images has improved the performance of the proposed model. Finally, the results obtained from this model will be compared with some other methods with non-modular structure and learning and it is shown that this proposed model is able to produce accurate results. The result of this comparison show that training time of model in the forecasting of land surface temperature reduces and accuracy of model increase. Key words: Land Surface Temperature, forecasting, satellite images, Modular neural network.

Taghavi, Farahnaz; Zargaran, Zahrah; Ahmadi, Abbas

392

The Weather Doctor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published by Spectrum Educational Enterprises, The Weather Doctor Web site is maintained by meteorologist Keith Heidorn. Visitors to the site will find everything from the joys of weather watching, to making rain, to weather history, to much more. Coming from someone who clearly enjoys what they do, this site explores unique aspects of weather including weather people, weather history, and weather and arts.

Heidorn, Keith.

2002-01-01

393

Spaceborne weather radar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work on the development status of spaceborne weather radar systems and services discusses radar instrument complementarities, the current forms of equations for the characterization of such aspects of weather radar performance as surface and mirror-image returns, polarimetry, and Doppler considerations, and such essential factors in spaceborne weather radar design as frequency selection, scanning modes, and the application of SAR to rain detection. Attention is then given to radar signal absorption by the various atmospheric gases, rain drop size distribution and wind velocity determinations, and the characteristics of clouds, as well as the range of available est