Science.gov

Sample records for surface-specific anti-weathering stone

  1. Development of a surface-specific, anti-weathering stone preservative treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S.M.; Brinkar, C.J.; Rao, S.M.; Ross, T.J.

    1997-04-01

    We are testing an anti-weathering preservation strategy that is specific to limestone surfaces. The strategy involves the application of a mineral-specific, bifunctional, passivating/coupling agent that binds to both the limestone surface and to the consolidating inorganic polymer matrix. The sol-gel based reactions form composite materials with desirable conservation and anti-weathering properties. We present the results of our efforts, the highlights of which are: (1) scanning probe microscopy of moisture-free calcite crystals treated with the trisilanol form of silylalkylaminocarboxylate (SAAC), reveals porous agglomerates that offer no significant resistance to the mild leaching action of deionized water. When the crystals are further consolidated with a silica-based consolidant (A2**), no dissolution is seen although the positive role of the passivant molecule is not yet delineated. (2) Modulus of rupture tests on limestone cores treated with an aminoalkylsilane (AEAPS) and A2** showed a 25-35% increase in strength compared to the untreated samples. (3) Environmental scanning electron microscopy of treated limestone subjected to a concentrated acid attack showed degradation of the surface except in areas where thick layers of the consolidant were deposited.

  2. Kidney stones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Calcium stones can also form from combining with phosphate or carbonate. Other types of stones include: Cystine ... uric acid stones) Antibiotics (for struvite stones) Diuretics Phosphate solutions Sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate Water pills ( ...

  3. Bladder stones

    MedlinePLUS

    Stones - bladder; Urinary tract stones; Bladder calculi ... Benway BM, Bhayani SM. Lower urinary tract calculi. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 89. Sharma R, Dill CE, Gelman DY. Urinary ...

  4. Dimension stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, T.P.

    2003-01-01

    Dimension stone can be defined as natural rock material quarried to obtain blocks or slabs that meet specifications as to size (width, length and thickness) and shape for architectural or engineering purposes. Color, grain texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Other important selection criteria are durability (based on mineral composition, hardness and past performance), strength and the ability of the stone to take a polish.

  5. Stone chewing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picking stones up into the mouth and chewing them has been commonly reported in pigs and also in dogs. It has variously been described as play behavior, redirected foraging behavior or a stereotypic behavior. In pigs, stone chewing is often observed in sows housed on paddocks, and most frequently o...

  6. Kidney Stones

    PubMed Central

    Kleeman, Charles R.; Coburn, Jack W.; Brickman, Arnold S.; Lee, David B. N.; Narins, Robert G.; Ehrlich, Richard M.

    1980-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones has steadily risen during this century; passage of a calculus and a positive family history increase the probability of recurrence. Findings from recent studies on the cause of renal calculi have stressed crystallization and crystal aggregation of stone minerals from supersaturated urine, rather than excessive organic matrix. Absence of normal urine inhibitors of calcium salts is also stressed. Formation of calcium oxalate stones is the major problem. Therapy with decreased calcium and oxalate intake, thiazides, phosphate salts and allopurinol in various combinations has substantially decreased the prevalence of recurrent stones. The rationale for the use of allopurinol is that uric acid salts enhance the tendency for calcium oxalate to crystallize from supersaturated urine. The hypercalciuria seen in 30 percent to 40 percent of patients with oxalate stones is usually caused by intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium. Although patients with uric acid calculi constitute only a small fraction of those in whom stones form, they represent a group in whom good medical therapy, based on sound physiologic principles, has proved extremely successful. Renal tubular syndromes lead to nephrocalcinosis and lithiasis through hypercalciuria, alkaline urine and hypocitraturia, the latter an inhibitor of calcium salt precipitation. Recent advances in surgical techniques are discussed, including the rationale for removing staghorn calculi. The ileal ureter and coagulum pyelolithotomy deserve special emphasis. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 7. PMID:7385835

  7. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can develop in the urinary tract . Also called calculi or nephrolithiasis, kidney stones form when salts and ... form a stone. Struvite stones: Also called staghorn calculi because they look like a stag's antlers, these ...

  8. Kidney Stones in Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people than in non-Hispanic black people and Mexican Americans. Overweight and obese people are more likely ... more struvite stones. Cystine stones result from a genetic disorder that causes cystine to leak through the ...

  9. Treatment of the Infected Stone.

    PubMed

    Marien, Tracy; Miller, Nicole L

    2015-11-01

    Infected kidney stones refer to stones that form because of urinary tract infections with urease-producing bacteria, secondarily infected stones of any composition, or stones obstructing the urinary tract leading to pyelonephritis. The mainstay of treatment of infection stones is complete stone removal. Kidney stones that obstruct the urinary tract and cause obstructive pyelonephritis are also frequently referred to as infected stones. Obstructive pyelonephritis is a urologic emergency as it can result in sepsis and even death. Infection stones and obstructive stones causing pyelonephritis are different disease processes, and their workup and management are described separately. PMID:26475943

  10. Managing caliceal stones

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Andreas J.; Knipper, Sophie; Netsch, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The natural course of untreated asymptomatic caliceal calculi has not been clearly defined, especially in terms of disease progression, and the indications for and outcomes of surgical intervention are not precise. Caliceal stones may remain asymptomatic but, in case of migration, ureteral calculi can cause acute ureteric colic with severe complications. The decision for an active treatment of caliceal calculi is based on stone composition, stone size and symptoms. Extracorporal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has a low complication rate and is recommended by the current guidelines of the European Association of Urology as a first-line therapy for the treatment of caliceal stones <2 cm in diameter. However, immediate stone removal is not achieved with ESWL. The primary stone-free rates (SFR) after ESWL depend on stone site and composition and, especially for lower pole calculi, the SFR differ widely from other caliceal stones. Minimally-invasive procedures including percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy are alternatives for the treatment of caliceal stones, associated with low morbidity and high primary SFR when performed in centers of excellence. PMID:24497690

  11. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in urine (pee) become extra concentrated and form crystals. Over a few weeks or months, the crystals can build up and become stones. Kidney stones ... changes the level of a substance in it, crystals can begin to form. The crystals can become ...

  12. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing

    PubMed Central

    Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Kalan, Ammie K.; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D’Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E.; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M.; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  13. Old Stone Field Marker

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This is a stone field marker that marked boundaries for land ownership. In the early days of Land Office Recordings, this is one type of monument used. Trees, Posts, Iron Pipes and as shown stones were used to mark off land during the Land Rush days. Later, when mapping was being done, Brass Caps wi...

  14. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: CRUSHED STONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of air emissions from crushed stone production. The potential environmental effect of the source is evaluated. Crushed stone production in 1972 was 1.07 x 10 to the 8th power metric tons (1.18 x 10 to the 8th power tons), 68% of which was traprock. C...

  15. Chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing.

    PubMed

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Kalan, Ammie K; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Aubert, Floris; D'Auvergne, Lucy; Goedmakers, Annemarie; Jones, Sorrel; Kehoe, Laura; Regnaut, Sebastien; Tickle, Alexander; Ton, Els; van Schijndel, Joost; Abwe, Ekwoge E; Angedakin, Samuel; Agbor, Anthony; Ayimisin, Emmanuel Ayuk; Bailey, Emma; Bessone, Mattia; Bonnet, Matthieu; Brazolla, Gregory; Buh, Valentine Ebua; Chancellor, Rebecca; Cipoletta, Chloe; Cohen, Heather; Corogenes, Katherine; Coupland, Charlotte; Curran, Bryan; Deschner, Tobias; Dierks, Karsten; Dieguez, Paula; Dilambaka, Emmanuel; Diotoh, Orume; Dowd, Dervla; Dunn, Andrew; Eshuis, Henk; Fernandez, Rumen; Ginath, Yisa; Hart, John; Hedwig, Daniela; Ter Heegde, Martijn; Hicks, Thurston Cleveland; Imong, Inaoyom; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Junker, Jessica; Kadam, Parag; Kambi, Mohamed; Kienast, Ivonne; Kujirakwinja, Deo; Langergraber, Kevin; Lapeyre, Vincent; Lapuente, Juan; Lee, Kevin; Leinert, Vera; Meier, Amelia; Maretti, Giovanna; Marrocoli, Sergio; Mbi, Tanyi Julius; Mihindou, Vianet; Moebius, Yasmin; Morgan, David; Morgan, Bethan; Mulindahabi, Felix; Murai, Mizuki; Niyigabae, Protais; Normand, Emma; Ntare, Nicolas; Ormsby, Lucy Jayne; Piel, Alex; Pruetz, Jill; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette; Sommer, Volker; Stewart, Fiona; Tagg, Nikki; Vanleeuwe, Hilde; Vergnes, Virginie; Willie, Jacob; Wittig, Roman M; Zuberbuehler, Klaus; Boesch, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The study of the archaeological remains of fossil hominins must rely on reconstructions to elucidate the behaviour that may have resulted in particular stone tools and their accumulation. Comparatively, stone tool use among living primates has illuminated behaviours that are also amenable to archaeological examination, permitting direct observations of the behaviour leading to artefacts and their assemblages to be incorporated. Here, we describe newly discovered stone tool-use behaviour and stone accumulation sites in wild chimpanzees reminiscent of human cairns. In addition to data from 17 mid- to long-term chimpanzee research sites, we sampled a further 34 Pan troglodytes communities. We found four populations in West Africa where chimpanzees habitually bang and throw rocks against trees, or toss them into tree cavities, resulting in conspicuous stone accumulations at these sites. This represents the first record of repeated observations of individual chimpanzees exhibiting stone tool use for a purpose other than extractive foraging at what appear to be targeted trees. The ritualized behavioural display and collection of artefacts at particular locations observed in chimpanzee accumulative stone throwing may have implications for the inferences that can be drawn from archaeological stone assemblages and the origins of ritual sites. PMID:26923684

  16. 12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. FLOOR 2; STONE CRANE IN PLACE FOR ROCK STONES; STONE CRANE HAS OAK SPAR, JIB AND BRACE, METAL SCREW, IRON YOKE AND DOGS; IRON PINS FIT THROUGH HOLES IN DOGS INTO HOLES DRILLED IN RUNNER STONE - Hook Windmill, North Main Street at Pantigo Road, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  17. Skimming and Skipping Stones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humble, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an example of skimming and skipping stone motion in mathematical terms available to students studying A-level mathematics. The theory developed in the article postulates a possible mathematical model that is verified by experimental results.

  18. Adenoid Stones Adenoliths

    PubMed Central

    Sakano, Hitomi; Thaker, Ameet I.; Davis, Greg E.

    2015-01-01

    Stones made of bacterial aggregates can be found in chronically inflamed lymphoid tissue such as hypertrophied tonsils. Although it is common to find tonsilloliths in cryptic tonsils, it is rare to find stones in adenoid tissue. Here we present an interesting case of a patient who underwent adenoidectomy for adenoid hypertrophy, recurrent malaise and upper respiratory infections. Intraoperatively we found numerous bright green stones in the crypts of the adenoid tissue, reminiscent of tonsilloliths in tonsillar crypts. Pathology revealed polymicrobial bacterial aggregates surrounded by neutrophils. Our findings suggest that the pathophysiology is similar to that of tonsillolith formation. Thus, we should at least consider the presence of adenoid stones and consider adenoidectomy for symptoms often attributed to tonsilloliths. We have coined the term adenoliths to describe this interesting finding and present it as a potential source of recurrent infection. PMID:26798664

  19. Kidney Stones in Children

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Nephrology American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: ...

  20. Diet for Kidney Stone Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may also help prevent kidney stones, such as citrus drinks. Recommendations based on the specific type of ... do to prevent kidney stones. Some studies suggest citrus drinks like lemonade and orange juice protect against ...

  1. Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Kidney Stone Treatment with Lithotripsy Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 11, 2011 I'm ... got at least three stones in his left kidney. He's been having pain and blood in his ...

  2. Surface-specific fall injury rates on Utah school playgrounds.

    PubMed

    Sosin, D M; Keller, P; Sacks, J J; Kresnow, M; van Dyck, P C

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate surface-specific rates of fall injuries on school playgrounds. Playground injuries related to falls from climbing equipment and the surfaces involved were identified from injury reports for 1988 to 1990 from 157 Utah elementary schools. Enrollment data and playground inspections were used to estimate student-years spent over each surface. The fall injury rates per 10,000 student-years were asphalt, 44; grass, 12; mats, 16; gravel, 15; and sand, 7. These data did not show that impact-absorbing surfaces reduce fall injuries on playgrounds better than grass. Improved field studies are needed to guide policy decisions for playground surfacing. PMID:8484459

  3. Stones and urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Miano, Roberto; Germani, Stefano; Vespasiani, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    The term infection stones refers to calculi that occur following urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by urease-producing gram-negative organisms. They consist of magnesium ammonium phosphate, carbonate apatite and monoammonium urate. Alkaline urine is most favorable to their formation. Urinary tract obstruction, neurogenic bladder, voiding dysfunction, temporary or indwelling urinary catheters, distal renal tubular acidosis and medullary sponge kidney are considered the main risk factors for developing infection stones. Urinalysis and urine culture are essential for diagnosis. A typical finding on imaging is a moderately radiopaque, staghorn or branched stone. Curative treatment is possible only by eliminating all of the stone fragments and by eradicating UTI. A variety of operative and pharmaceutical approaches is available. Metaphylactic treatment is mandatory to prevent recurrences. The relationship between urinary stones and UTIs is well known and shows two different clinical pictures: (1) stones that develop following UTIs (infection stones) which play a key role in stone pathogenesis, and (2) stones complicated by UTIs (stones with infection) which are metabolic stones that passively trap bacteria from coexistent UTIs and may consist of calcium or non-calcium. This article presents an overview of infection stones, analyzing the epidemiology, composition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this type of calculi. PMID:17726350

  4. When Stones Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucier, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of

  5. When Stones Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucier, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Creating towers of balanced stones is a versatile outdoor learning activity that can be experienced in the classroom, school yard, forest, or parking lot. Students discover hidden talents, learn to work and communicate clearly with others, and reconnect with the natural world. Several variations on the exercise are given, along with principles of…

  6. Stone composition and metabolic status.

    PubMed

    Bibilash, B S; Vijay, Adarsh; Fazil Marickar, Y M

    2010-06-01

    This paper aims to study the correlation between biochemical risk factors of the stone former and the type of oxalate stone formed, namely calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD). A retrospective study of 487 patients who had been attending the urinary stone clinic, Trivandrum during 1998-2007 was conducted. The stones retrieved from them were subjected to chemical analysis and FTIR spectrographic analysis. They were categorized into COM, COD, mixed COM+COD and others. Of 142 pure calcium oxalate stone patients, 87 were predominantly COM stone formers and 55 COD stone formers. Their metabolic status of 24 h urine and serum was assessed. The values of urine calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, magnesium, creatinine, oxalate, citric acid, sodium and potassium, serum values of calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, magnesium and creatinine and calculated values of creatinine clearance, tubular reabsorption of phosphate, calcium magnesium ratio and calcium oxalate ratio were recorded. Comparison was made between the COM stone group and the COD stone group. Patients forming COM stones had significantly higher mean values for urine calcium (P < 0.05), oxalate (P < 0.01) and magnesium (P < 0.05) levels and significantly lower level of urine calcium-oxalate ratio (P < 0.01) and urine calcium-magnesium ratio (P < 0.01) compared to COD stone forming patients. All other values failed to show significant difference. Patients, with higher urine oxalate, formed COM stones. Those with low magnesium (which is an inhibitor) formed more of COD stones. Urine calcium was high in both groups without showing significant variation from the mean. In patients with high calcium-oxalate and calcium-magnesium ratios, there is higher chance of forming a COD stone than COM. Identification of the crystallization pattern of the calcium stone will help in selecting treatment modalities. PMID:19921167

  7. Economic impact of urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    Hyams, Elias S.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney stones have been rising in prevalence in the United States and worldwide, and represent a significant cost burden. Cost effectiveness research in this area may enable improvements in treatment efficiency that can benefit patients, providers and the healthcare system. There has been limited research in the cost effectiveness of surgical interventions for stone disease, despite the diverse treatment approaches that are available. Medical expulsive therapy (MET) has been shown to improve rates of stone passage for ureteral stones, and there is evidence that this practice should be liberalized from the standpoint of both clinical and cost effectiveness. While conservative treatment following a primary stone event appears to be cost effective, the economic impact of medical therapy for recurrent stone formers requires clarification despite its clinical efficacy. Future study regarding the cost effectiveness of prevention and interventions for stone disease are likely to improve both the quality and efficiency of care. PMID:26816777

  8. Wanted: suitable replacement stones for the Lede stone (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Kock, T.; Dewanckele, J.; Boone, M. A.; De Boever, W.; De Schutter, G.; Jacobs, P.; Cnudde, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Lede stone is an arenaceous limestone with a Lutetian age, occurring as discrete (most of the times three) stone banks in the marine sandy sediments of the Lede Formation (Belgium). It has a quartz content of approximate 40%. This increases abrasion strength and together with the cementation results in an average compressive strength of about 80-85 MPa. The cement is a microsparitic calcite cement. Other carbonate particles are both microfossils (mainly foraminifers) and macrofossils (bivalves, serpulids, echinoderms, …). This great diversity gives the stone a heterogeneous, animated appearance. The intra- and interparticle porosity is in total 5-10 % in average and the apparent density is 2400-2550 kg/m3. Another important constituent is glauconite, present in a few percent. In fresh state, the stone has a greenish-grey colour, but when it is exposed to atmospheric conditions for a couple of years, the stone acquires a yellowish to rust-coloured patina due to the weathering of glauconite. Sulphatation causes severe damage to the stone, and black gypsum crusts are common in urban environments on stones protected from runoff. This stone was excavated in both open air and underground quarries in the areas of Brussels and Ghent. The proximity of main rivers such as the Scheldt and Zenne provided transport routes for export towards the north (e.g. Antwerp and The Netherlands). Its first known use dates back to Roman times but the stone flourished in Gothic architecture due to its easy workability and its 'divine' light coloured patina. This results nowadays in a dominant occurrence in the cultural heritage of northwestern Belgium and the south of The Netherlands. Socio-economical reasons caused several declines and revivals of Lede stone in use. In the beginning of the 20th century, only a few excavation sites remained, with as main quarry the one located at Bambrugge (Belgium). By the end of the first half of the 20th century, however, no quarry sites remained. In the sixties, a sand quarry located in Balegem (Belgium) started with the extraction of Lede stone combined with its other activities. Until now, only this site supplies blocks of fresh Lede stones and it doesn't seem there will rise an opportunity of a new site in the near future. Therefore, during the huge amount of renovation works in the past century, the Lede stone was often replaced by imported (mostly French) limestones such as Massangis stone, Savonnières stone and Euville stone. The commercial value seems to have had a large impact and too little attention was paid on the optical appearance, ageing and technical compatibility of the stones. The use of especially Massangis stone was taken for granted. In the 21st century, there is a growing awareness of the impact of such consequent replacement for the historical value of our cultural heritage and several alternative stones are suggested and even used. These include stones from France, Spain and Portugal, but also from other regions in Belgium. For the moment, there is no consensus on the most appropriate replacement stone and further research should be done in order to evaluate compatibility of the different stone types with Lede stone. In this context, it is also very important to actively search for better alternatives, which resemble the Lede stone in both a mechanical and aesthetical point of view. Therefore, this abstract is an open question to its readers. Any commercial natural stone suggestions with affiliation to the aforementioned properties are welcome by e-mailing the corresponding author.

  9. Complicated bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Ashwin; Martin, Derrick

    2013-01-01

    Common bile duct stones (CBDSs) are solid deposits that can either form within the gallbladder or migrate to the common bile duct (CBD), or form de novo in the biliary tree. In the USA around 15% of the population have gallstones and of these, 3% present with symptoms annually. Because of this, there have been major advancements in the management of gallstones and related conditions. Management is based on the patient's risk profile; young and healthy patients are likely to be recommended for surgery and elderly patients with comorbidities are usually recommended for endoscopic procedures. Imaging of gallstones has advanced in the last 30 years with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography evolving from a diagnostic to a therapeutic procedure in removing CBDSs. We present a complicated case of a patient with a CBDS and periampullary diverticulum and discuss the techniques used to diagnose and remove the stone from the biliary system. PMID:23946532

  10. Pyrophosphate Transport and Stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayer, John A.; Carr, Georgina; Moochhala, Shabbir H.; Simmons, Nicholas L.

    2008-09-01

    Since the 1960's, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) has been known to inhibit apatite precipitation. Recent findings suggest that PPi plays a central role in the control of normal bone mineralization. Knockout mice have established the functional importance of PPi transmembrane transport, via the pyrophosphate transporter ANKH. The molecular nature and transport function of ANKH are reviewed. PPi is present in urine and ANKH is expressed in the cortical collecting duct where PPi transport to both the tubular lumen and renal interstitium may occur. Arginine vasopressin stimulation of cortical collecting duct cells grown on semi-permeable supports appears to upregulate apical ANKH expression, which we postulate may be a mechanism of stone inhibition during urinary concentration and supersaturation of calcium salts. Hypopyrophosphaturia may be a forgotten metabolic risk factor for stone formation and polymorphisms of the ANKH gene may underlie this defect. The physiological importance and clinical significance of PPi generation and transport in preventing idiopathic renal stone disease and nephrocalcinosis now needs to be established.

  11. Medical management of renal stones.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Monica S C; Pearle, Margaret S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing in industrialized nations, resulting in a corresponding rise in economic burden. Nephrolithiasis is now recognized as both a chronic and systemic condition, which further underscores the impact of the disease. Diet and environment play an important role in stone disease, presumably by modulating urine composition. Dietary modification as a preventive treatment to decrease lithogenic risk factors and prevent stone recurrence has gained interest because of its potential to be safer and more economical than drug treatment. However, not all abnormalities are likely to be amenable to dietary therapy, and in some cases drugs are necessary to reduce the risk of stone formation. Unfortunately, no new drugs have been developed for stone prevention since the 1980s when potassium citrate was introduced, perhaps because the long observation period needed to demonstrate efficacy discourages investigators from embarking on clinical trials. Nonetheless, effective established treatment regimens are currently available for stone prevention. PMID:26977089

  12. Villamayor stone (Golden Stone) as a Global Heritage Stone Resource from Salamanca (NW of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Villamayor stone is an arkosic stone of Middle Eocene age and belongs to the Cabrerizos Sandstone Formation that comprising braided fluvial systems and paleosoils at the top of each stratigraphic sequence. The sandstone is known by several names: i) the Villamayor Stone because the quarries are located in Villamayor de Armuña village that are situated at 7 km to the North from Salamanca city; ii) the Golden Stone due to its patina that produced a ochreous/golden color on the façades of monuments of Salamanca (World Heritage City,1988) built in this Natural stone (one of the silicated rocks utilised). We present in this work, the Villamayor Stone to be candidate as Global Heritage Stone Resource. The Villamayor Stone were quarrying for the construction and ornamentation of Romanesque religious monuments as the Old Cathedral and San Julian church; Gothic (Spanish plateresc style) as the New Cathedral, San Esteban church and the sculpted façade of the Salamanca University, one of the oldest University in Europe (it had established in 1250); and this stone was one of the type of one of the most sumptuous Baroque monuments is the Main Square of the its galleries and arcades (1729). Also, this stone was used in building palaces, walls and reconstruction of Roman bridge. Currently, Villamayor Stone is being quarried by small and family companies, without a modernized processing, for cladding of the façades of the new buildings until that the construction sector was burst (in 2008 the international economic crisis). However, Villamayor Stone is the main stone material used in the city of Salamanca for the restoration of monuments and, even in small quantities when compared with just before the economic crisis, it would be of great importance for future generations protect their quarries and the craft of masonry. Villamayor Stone has several varieties from channels facies to floodplains facies, in this work the selected varieties are: i) the fine-grained stone, microporous, is partially cemented by dolomite, 27% (bulk porosity), ii) the ochre and fine-grained stone, microporous, with smectite, 30% (bulk porosity), iii) the medium-grained stone, 38% (bulk porosity). Main components for all three varieties: Quartz (up to 60%), feldspars, 2:1 layered silicates (smectites), palygorskite-type fibrous silicates, and small amounts of micaceous minerals (illite/mica).

  13. The Systematic Classification of Gallbladder Stones

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Zhen-liang; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background To develop a method for systematic classification of gallbladder stones, analyze the clinical characteristics of each type of stone and provide a theoretical basis for the study of the formation mechanism of different types of gallbladder stones. Methodology A total of 807 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones were enrolled and their gallstones were studied. The material composition of gallbladder stones was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the distribution and microstructure of material components was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition and distribution of elements were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer. Gallbladder stones were classified accordingly, and then, gender, age, medical history and BMI of patients with each type of stone were analyzed. Principal Findings Gallbladder stones were classified into 8 types and more than ten subtypes, including cholesterol stones (297), pigment stones (217), calcium carbonate stones (139), phosphate stones (12), calcium stearate stones (9), protein stones (3), cystine stones (1) and mixed stones (129). Mixed stones were those stones with two or more than two kinds of material components and the content of each component was similar. A total of 11 subtypes of mixed stones were found in this study. Patients with cholesterol stones were mainly female between the ages of 30 and 50, with higher BMI and shorter medical history than patients with pigment stones (P<0.05), however, patients with pigment, calcium carbonate, phosphate stones were mainly male between the ages of 40 and 60. Conclusion The systematic classification of gallbladder stones indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of the microstructure, elemental composition and distribution, providing an important basis for the mechanistic study of gallbladder stones. PMID:24124459

  14. Our Modern Stone Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, W. D.

    Unlike most books dealing with industrial minerals and rocks, Our Modern Stone Age is a pleasure to read. Within a matter of several hours, one can get an excellent introduction to nonmetallic mineral resources and industries exclusive o f the mineral fuels. The book is very well written and well illustrated with photographs and drawings; although pitched for the intelligent layman, it is in no way dull reading for even a well-versed economic geologist. Nearly every geologist, mining engineer, mineral economist, planner, and politician will find points of interest in this book.

  15. Scottish Short Stone Rows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Short stone rows received a good deal of attention during the 1980s and 1990s, at a time when archaeoastronomy in prehistoric Britain and Ireland was moving beyond reassessments of Alexander Thom's "megalithic observatories" by identifying coherent groups of similar monuments with clear orientation trends. Many such rows are found in western Scotland, with the main concentration in Argyll and the island of Mull. Systematic analyses of their orientations produced credible evidence of an awareness of the 18.6-year lunar node cycle, within a "primary-secondary" pattern whereby isolated rows were oriented close to moonrise or moonset at the southern major standstill limit, while others oriented in this way were accompanied by a second row oriented in a declination range that could be interpreted either as lunar or solar. A detailed investigation of the landscape situation of the sites in northern Mull, accompanied by excavations at two of the sites, suggested that they were deliberately placed in locations where critical moonsets would be seen against prominent distant landscape features, but where the distant horizon in most or all other directions was hidden from view. A lack of independent archaeological evidence may help to explain why archaeoastronomical investigations at short stone rows have never progressed beyond "data-driven" studies of orientations and landscape situation. Nonetheless, the work that was done at these sites raised important general methodological issues, and pioneered techniques, that remain relevant across archaeoastronomy today.

  16. Recumbent Stone Circles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    During the 1970s and early 1980s, British archaeoastronomers were striving to bridge the interpretative gulf between the "megalithic observatories" of Alexander Thom and an archaeological mainstream that, generally speaking, was hostile to any mention of astronomy in relation to the megalithic monuments of Neolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain. The Scottish recumbent stone circles (RSCs) came to represent an example where sounder methodology could overcome many of the data selection issues that had beset earlier studies and, with due restraint, produce credible interpretations. Systematic studies of their orientations consistently concluded that the RSCs had a strong lunar connection, and it was widely envisaged that they were the setting for ceremonies associated with the appearance of the moon over the recumbent stone. Other evidence such as the presence of white quartz and the spatial distribution of cupmarks appeared to back up this conclusion. New archaeological investigations since 1999 have challenged and modified these conclusions, confirming in particular that the circles were built to enclose cairns rather than to demarcate open spaces. Yet the restricted pattern of orientations of these structures could only have been achieved by reference to the basic diurnal motions of the skies, and orientation in relation to simple observations of the midsummer moon remains the most likely reading of the alignment evidence taken as a whole. On the other hand, a consideration of the broader context, which includes the nearby Clava cairns, highlights instead the symbolic importance of the sun.

  17. Hyaluronan and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asselman, Marino

    2008-09-01

    Kidney stones cannot be formed as long as crystals are passed in the urine. However, when crystals are retained it becomes possible for them to aggregate and form a stone. Crystals are expected to be formed not earlier than the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Studies both in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals do not adhere to intact distal epithelium, but only when the epithelium is proliferating or regenerating, so that it possesses dedifferentiated cells expressing hyaluronan, osteopontin (OPN) and their mutual receptor CD44 at the apical cell membrane. The polysaccharide hyaluronan is an excellent crystal binding molecule because of its negative ionic charge. We hypothesized that the risk for crystal retention in the human kidney would be increased when tubular cells express hyaluronan at their apical cell membrane. Two different patient categories in which nephrocalcinosis frequently occurs were studied to test this hypothesis (preterm neonates and kidney transplant patients). Hyaluronan (and OPN) expression at the luminal membrane of tubular cells indeed was observed, which preceded subsequent retention of crystals in the distal tubules. Tubular nephrocalcinosis has been reported to be associated with decline of renal function and thus further studies to extend our knowledge of the mechanisms of retention and accumulation of crystals in the kidney are warranted. Ultimately, this may allow the design of new strategies for the prevention and treatment of both nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis in patients.

  18. Treatment of urinary tract stones.

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, J E

    1993-01-01

    Replacement of open surgery with minimally invasive techniques for treating stones in the renal tract has greatly reduced patients' morbidity and mortality and the period of hospitalisation and convalescence. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy does not require anaesthesia and requires little analgesia so that treatment can be given on an outpatient basis, and there is no wound to heal. Only a small puncture site is needed for percutaneous endoscopic lithotomy, and with the advent of prophylactic antibiotics there are few complications. Of renal stones, about 85% can now be successfully treated by extracorporeal lithotripsy alone, and almost all of the stones too large or hard for lithotripsy can be treated endoscopically, with ultrasonic or electrohydraulic probes being used to fragment the stone. Stones in the upper and lower thirds of the ureter can be treated by extracorporeal lithotripsy, but stones in the middle third, which cannot normally be visualised to allow focusing of the shockwaves, usually require ureteroscopy. Nearly all bladder stones can be treated by transurethral endoscopy with an electrohydraulic probe. Only the largest renal tract stones still require open surgery. Images FIG 10 p1415-a p1415-b p1416-a p1416-b p1417-a PMID:8274898

  19. The exposome for kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, David S

    2016-02-01

    The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of internal and external exposure assessment methods. Exposomics has not yet been thoroughly applied to the study of kidney stones although much is known about how diet and fluid intake affect nephrolithiasis. Some other novel exposures that may contribute to kidney stones are discussed including use of antibiotics, urbanization and migration to urban heat islands, and occupation. People whose school and jobs limit their access to fluids and adequate bathroom facilities may have higher prevalence of stones. Examples include athletes, teachers, heathcare workers, and cab drivers. Occupational kidney stones have received scant attention and may represent a neglected, and preventable, type of stone. An exposomic-oriented history would include a careful delineation of occupation and activities. PMID:26615595

  20. Bath Stone - a Possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Jurassic strata of England have several horizons of oolitic and bioclastic limestones that provide high quality dimension stone. One of the most important is found in and near the City of Bath. The Great Oolite Group (Upper Bathonian) contains the Combe Down and Bath Oolites, consisting of current bedded oolites and shelly oolites, that have been used extensively as freestones for construction nearby, for prestigious buildings through much of southern England and more widely. The stone has been used to some extent since Roman times when the city, then known as Aquae Sulis, was an important hot spa. The stone was used to a limited extent through medieval times but from the early 18th century onwards was exploited on a large scale through surface quarrying and underground mining. The City was extensively redeveloped in the 18th to early 19th century, mostly using Bath Stone, when the spas made it a fashionable resort. Buildings from that period include architectural "gems" such as the Royal Crescent and Pulteney Bridge, as well as the renovated Roman Baths. Many buildings were designed by some of the foremost British architects of the time. The consistent use of this stone gives the City an architectural integrity throughout. These features led to the designation of the City as a World Heritage Site. It is a requirement in current City planning policy documents that Bath Stone should be used for new building to preserve the appearance of the City. More widely the stone was used in major houses (e.g. Buckingham Palace and Apsley House in London; King's Pavilion in Brighton); civic buildings (e.g. Bristol Guildhall; Dartmouth Naval College in Devon); churches and cathedrals (e.g. Truro Cathedral in Cornwall); and engineered structures (e.g. the large Dundas Aqueduct on the Kennet and Avon Canal). More widely, Bath Stone has been used in Union Station in Washington DC; Toronto Bible College and the Town Hall at Cape Town, South Africa. Extraction declined in the late 20th century but several quarries and underground mines remain operational providing stone for the local market, repair and maintenance of historic buildings and for special international projects. Reserves permitted for extraction are substantial and resources are fairly extensive so the stone will be accessible in the long term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Bath Stone should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource.

  1. Mechanisms of human kidney stone formation.

    PubMed

    Evan, Andrew P; Worcester, Elaine M; Coe, Fredric L; Williams, James; Lingeman, James E

    2015-01-01

    The precise mechanisms of kidney stone formation and growth are not completely known, even though human stone disease appears to be one of the oldest diseases known to medicine. With the advent of the new digital endoscope and detailed renal physiological studies performed on well phenotyped stone formers, substantial advances have been made in our knowledge of the pathogenesis of the most common type of stone former, the idiopathic calcium oxalate stone former as well as nine other stone forming groups. The observations from our group on human stone formers and those of others on model systems have suggested four entirely different pathways for kidney stone formation. Calcium oxalate stone growth over sites of Randall's plaque appear to be the primary mode of stone formation for those patients with hypercalciuria. Overgrowths off the ends of Bellini duct plugs have been noted in most stone phenotypes, do they result in a clinical stone? Micro-lith formation does occur within the lumens of dilated inner medullary collecting ducts of cystinuric stone formers and appear to be confined to this space. Lastly, cystinuric stone formers also have numerous small, oval, smooth yellow appearing calyceal stones suggestive of formation in free solution. The scientific basis for each of these four modes of stone formation are reviewed and used to explore novel research opportunities. PMID:25108546

  2. Nutritional Management of Kidney Stones (Nephrolithiasis)

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Adam M.; Seifter, Julian L.; Dwyer, Johanna T.

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of kidney stones is common in the United States and treatments for them are very costly. This review article provides information about epidemiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and pathophysiology of kidney stone formation, and methods for the evaluation of stone risks for new and follow-up patients. Adequate evaluation and management can prevent recurrence of stones. Kidney stone prevention should be individualized in both its medical and dietary management, keeping in mind the specific risks involved for each type of stones. Recognition of these risk factors and development of long-term management strategies for dealing with them are the most effective ways to prevent recurrence of kidney stones. PMID:26251832

  3. Stone weathering in Southeast England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaynes, Suzanne M.; Cooke, R. U.

    A 2-year exposure programme of Portland stone and Monk's Park stone at 25 sites in SE England revealed significant differences in weight losses, changes in surface roughness and chemistry at each location that can be attributed to the activity of air pollutants and salts. In particular it was shown that weight loss of exposed samples can be attributed to both solution and sulphation (the latter probably contributing an average of at least 39% for Portland stone, 44% of Monk's Park stone); that salt attack of sheltered samples is evident at Bletchley (brickmaking) and coastal locations; and surface roughness changes, measured by Ra values on a Surfcom plotter, appear to be particularly sensitive to processes of surface disruption, such as salt weathering. Analysis of SO 2 data at the sites showed significantly higher concentrations at London sites. The corresponding gradient in weight loss was gentler, probably as the result of the influence of other atmospheric variables.

  4. Improved ureteral stone fragmentation catheter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Catheter includes fiber optic viewer, more reliable ultrasonic probe, and better contact sensor. It is guided by four steering wires, and irrigation fluid is supplied through lumen to remove stone fragments.

  5. Histopathology Predicts the Mechanism of Stone Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Andrew P.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life and these numbers appear to be on the rise. Despite years of scientific research into the mechanisms of stone formation and growth, limited advances have been made until recently. Randall's original observations and thoughts on the mechanisms for kidney stone formation have been validated for idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF) but not for most other stone forming groups. Our current studies on selected groups of human stone formers using intraoperative papillary biopsies has shown overwhelming evidence for the presence of Randall's plaque in ICSF and that stone formation and growth are exclusively linked to its availability to urinary ions and proteins. Intense investigation of the plaque-stone junction is needed if we are to understand the factors leading to the overgrowth process on exposed regions of plaque. Such information should allow the development of treatment strategies to block stone formation in ICSF patients. Patients who form brushite stones, or who form apatite stones because of distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), or patients with calcium oxalate stones due to obesity bypass procedures, or patients with cystinuria, get plugged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD) which leads to total destruction of the lining cells and focal sites of interstitial fibrosis. These stone formers have plaque but at levels equal to or below non-stone formers, which would suggest that they form stones by a different mechanism than do ICSF patients.

  6. Lunar stone saw

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Tom; Croker, Todd; Hines, Ken; Knight, Mike; Walton, Todd

    1988-01-01

    This project addresses the problem of cutting lunar stones into blocks to be used to construct shelters to protect personnel and equipment from harmful solar radiation. This plant will manufacture 6 in x 1 ft x 2 ft blocks and will be located near the south pole to allow it to be in the shade at all times. This design uses a computer controlled robot, a boulder handler that uses hydraulics for movement, a computer system that used 3-D vision to determine the size of boulders, a polycrystalline diamond tipped saw blade that utilizes radiation for cooling, and a solar tower to collect solar energy. Only two electric motors are used in this plant because of the heavy weight of electric motors and the problem of cooling them. These two motors will be cooled by thermoelectric cooling. All other motors and actuators are to be hydraulic. The architectural design for the building as well as the conceptual design of the machines for cutting the blocks are described.

  7. Purbeck Stone - A possible Global Heritage Stone from England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marker, Brian

    2014-05-01

    By definition, a Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR) should have international significance. The Purbeck Group of uppermost Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous age (Tithonian- Berriasian) outcrops mainly in the Purbeck area of Dorset, England. It was deposited in shallow freshwater to brackish lagoons with occasional marine incursions. Limestones, mainly biosparites, occur at 6 main levels. Differences in bed thickness, jointing and hardness make it suitable for a variety of purposes including dimension stone, monumental and ornamental stone, roofing tiles, paving, flooring and rockery stone. Near the top of the sequence is a dark gastropod biosparite, traditionally called Purbeck Marble, easily carved, which has been extensively used for decorative interior work in churches and cathedrals particularly for fonts, tombs, flooring and facings on columns for example in the medieval cathedrals of Salisbury, Exeter, Durham, York and Wells and Worcester and Westminster Abbey. The stone was extracted at least from Roman times (1st century AD) through the medieval period. Quarrying expanded from about 1700 reaching a peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries. Stone was transported first by sea but later by rail for wider use. Used in many local buildings, it gives an important element of local character. Many of the villages are designated conservation areas with a requirement for repair, maintenance and new building using local stone. Initially the stone was taken from quarries but was later mined. The number of operating companies declined from 15 to 5 over the past 40 years, with 10 active small quarries. Outputs are from few hundred tonnes to a few thousand tonnes per annum or about 9 to 12 years of permitted reserves but the Planning Authority intends to make sufficient provision for production at recent levels for their development plan period. The extraction sites are in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and close to Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site. This might be a test case for considering whether a stone with this history is significant enough to be designated as a GHSR or is, rather, of national significance.

  8. Urinary stones in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nephrolithiasis is a common problem worldwide especially in areas of the hot climate like Saudi Arabia. The aim of this analysis was to study the characteristics of urinary stones in Eastern Saudi Arabia and to report the following: Composition of urinary stones, age and gender distribution, seasonal variation of stone development, comorbid conditions associated with stone development and the incidence of urinary stones. Methods: All urinary stones that were submitted to the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare, previously Saudi Aramco Medical Services Organization for analysis from January 2011 through January 2013 were analyzed. Results: A total of 384 urinary stones were collected and submitted for analysis from 347 patients. There was a male predominance with a male: female ratio of 3.9:1. The average age was 48.5 ± 12.8 years. Weight abnormality was predominant in both genders, and especially females. Calcium-based stones constituted the great majority (84.6%) followed by uric acid stones (12.8%). The other forms of stones were rare. More stones were recovered during the hot season, May to September. The calculated annual incidence of urolithiasis was 111/100,000 individuals. Conclusion: Calcium based stones are the most common urinary stones observed in Eastern Saudi Arabia. There is a clear association between the diagnosis of urinary stones and the hot season PMID:26834393

  9. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article Body ​Kidney stones are hard ... age, even in premature infants , most occur in teens , with teen girls having the highest incidence. Types ...

  10. Keep Your Kidneys Clear: Kicking Kidney Stones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... made of the mineral calcium, combined with either oxalate or phosphate. Less common types of stones are ... drinks. For example, people prone to forming calcium oxalate stones should avoid spinach, peanuts and chocolate. People ...

  11. "Stone Age" Fun: Releasing the Animal Within.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Janet Marie

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a fifth-grade sculpture project that uses a subtractive, rather than additive, technique. Students carve an animal sculpture from a block of simulated stone compound. Explains the process and how to make the simulated stone compound. (CMK)

  12. Kidney stones - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePLUS

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in your kidney. The kidney stone may be stuck in your ureter (the tube that carries urine from your kidneys to your bladder). It also may be stuck ...

  13. Gender Distribution of Pediatric Stone Formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Thomas E.; Trock, Bruce J.; Lakshmanan, Yegappan; Gearhart, John P.; Matlaga, Brian R.

    2008-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that the gender prevalence among adult stone-formers is changing, with an increasing incidence of stone disease among women. No similar data have ever been reported for the pediatric stone-forming population. We performed a study to define the gender distribution among pediatric stone-formers using a large-scale national pediatric database. Our findings suggest that gender distribution among stone formers varies by age with male predominance in the first decade of life shifting to female predominance in the second decade. In contrast to adults, females in the pediatric population are more commonly affected by stones than are males. The incidence of pediatric stone disease appears to be increasing at a great rate in both sexes. Further studies should build on this hypothesis-generating work and define the effects of metabolic and environmental risk factors that may influence stone risk in the pediatric patient population

  14. Luserna Stone: A nomination for "Global Heritage Stone Resource"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primavori, Piero

    2015-04-01

    Luserna Stone (Pietra di Luserna) is the commercial name of a grey-greenish leucogranitic orthogneiss, probably from the Lower Permian Age, that outcrops in the Luserna-Infernotto basin (Cottian Alps, Piedmont, NW Italy) on the border between the Turin and Cuneo provinces. Geologically speaking, it pertains to the Dora-Maira Massif that represents a part of the ancient European margin annexed to the Cottian Alps during the Alpine orogenesis; from a petrographic point of view, it is the metamorphic result of a late-Ercinian leucogranitic rock transformation. Lithological features and building applications allow the recognition of two main varieties: 1) a micro-augen gneiss with very regular schistosity planes with centimetric spacing and easy split workability, known as Splittable facies; 2) a micro-Augen gneiss characterized by lower schistosity and poor split, suitable for blocks cutting machines (diamond wires, gang-saws, traditional saws), known as Massive facies. A third, rare, white variety also exists, called "Bianchetta". Luserna stone extends over an area of approximately 50 km2, where more than fifty quarries are in operation, together with a relevant number of processing plants and artisanal laboratories. The stone is quarried and processed since almost the Middle Age, and currently represents one of the three most important siliceous production cluster in Italy (together with the Ossola and Sardegna Island granites). Some characteristics of this stone - such as the relevant physical-mechanical properties, an intrinsic versatility and its peculiar splittability - have made it one of the most widely used stone materials in Italy and in the countries surrounding the North Western border of Italy. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Luserna Stone are considered to be of relevant importance for its designation as a Global Heritage Stone Resource, such as the distinctive mark on the architecture and urban landscape of many areas in NW Italy, some quite peculiar applications (for ex.: the "so-called "loze" or "lose", for the traditional roofing in alpine buildings) and the related constructive culture, the presence of an Eco-Museum, the occurrence of a local Fair (Pietra & Meccanizzazione), and many other important aspects.

  15. Optimizing Stone-free Rates With Ureteroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Thanmaya G; Assimos, Dean G

    2015-01-01

    Ureteroscopy is being increasingly utilized in the treatment and management of patients with renal and ureteral stones. Improving stone-free rates with ureteroscopy decreases the need for ancillary procedures and improves patient outcomes and satisfaction. This article reviews contemporary literature regarding the efficacy of a wide range of currently available techniques for improving stone-free rates with this procedure. PMID:26543430

  16. Developing disease resistant stone fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stone fruit (Prunus spp.) (peach, nectarine, plum, apricot, cherry) and almonds are susceptible to a number of pathogens. These pathogens can cause extensive losses in the field, during transport and storage, and in the market. Breeding for disease resistance requires an extensive knowledge of the...

  17. Endoscopic management of upper urinary tract stones.

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, D. A.; Buist, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    In a two year period from March 1983, 157 patients with upper urinary tract stones were managed primarily by endoscopy. Of 90 patients with renal stones, extraction was achieved in 91% of patients with complete extraction in 76%. Of the remaining patients with ureteric stones, successful extraction was achieved in 75%. Ten patients required open surgery which was for failed extraction in 9. Morbidity is low with a mean hospital stay of 4.7 days for patients with kidney stones, and of 3.7 days for patients undergoing extraction of ureteric stones. Images Fig. 2 PMID:3954313

  18. Treatment Outcomes of Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery for Renal Stones and Predictive Factors of Stone-Free

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Soo Hyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) for the treatment of renal stones and to analyze the predictive factors for stone-free. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent RIRS for renal stones from January 2000 to July 2009. We identified 66 RIRSs (63 patients with 3 bilateral renal stones) and collected data. Stone-free and success were respectively defined as no visible stones and clinically insignificant residual stones less than 3 mm on postoperative imaging; predictive factors for stone-free were evaluated. Results Of the 66 renal stones, 18 stones (27.3%) were located in the upper pole or midpole or renal pelvis and 48 (72.7%) in the lower pole with or without others, respectively. The mean cumulative stone burden was 168.9392.5 mm2. The immediate postoperative stone-free rate was 69.7%, and it increased to 72.7% at 1 month after surgery. The success rate was 80.3% both immediately after the operation and 1 month later. In the multivariate analysis, stone location except at the lower pole (p=0.049) and small cumulative stone burden (p=0.002) were significantly favorable predictive factors for the immediate postoperative stone-free rate. The overall complication rate was 6%. Conclusions RIRS is a safe and effective treatment for renal stones. The stone-free rate of RIRS was particularly high for renal stones with a small burden, except for those located in the lower pole. RIRS could be considered in selective patients with renal stones. PMID:21165199

  19. Systemic implications of urinary stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Kovshilovskaya, Bogdana; Miller, Joe; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    Urinary stone disease is the third most common condition affecting the urinary tract. It contributes to a great deal of morbidity for both men and women, and cost the United States (US) over 5.3 billion dollars in 2000 alone. Moreover, it is associated with systemic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Reciprocally, these systemic diseases may be contributing to the rising incidence in urinary stone disease. Previously described mechanisms of stone formation attribute stone development and growth to the urinary milieu. While this may partly influence the process, it cannot account for the associations between systemic diseases and stones observed in large community-based studies. Here we present a review of the evidence demonstrating a link between urinary stone disease and components of the metabolic syndrome. We believe a vascular etiology for the initiation of urinary stones may tie these processes together. PMID:26816692

  20. Functional dissection of a eukaryotic dicistronic gene: transgenic stonedB, but not stonedA, restores normal synaptic properties to Drosophila stoned mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Patricia S; Jackson, Taryn C; Stimson, Daniel T; Sanyal, Subhabrata; Kelly, Leonard E; Ramaswami, Mani

    2003-01-01

    The dicistronic Drosophila stoned mRNA produces two proteins, stonedA and stonedB, that are localized at nerve terminals. While the stoned locus is required for synaptic-vesicle cycling in neurons, distinct or overlapping synaptic functions of stonedA and stonedB have not been clearly identified. Potential functions of stoned products in nonneuronal cells remain entirely unexplored in vivo. Transgene-based analyses presented here demonstrate that exclusively neuronal expression of a dicistronic stoned cDNA is sufficient for rescue of defects observed in lethal and viable stoned mutants. Significantly, expression of a monocistronic stonedB trangene is sufficient for rescuing various phenotypic deficits of stoned mutants, including those in organismal viability, evoked transmitter release, and synaptotagmin retrieval from the plasma membrane. In contrast, a stonedA transgene does not alleviate any stoned mutant phenotype. Novel phenotypic analyses demonstrate that, in addition to regulation of presynaptic function, stoned is required for regulating normal growth and morphology of the motor terminal; however, this developmental function is also provided by a stonedB transgene. Our data, although most consistent with a hypothesis in which stonedA is a dispensable protein, are limited by the absence of a true null allele for stoned due to partial restoration of presynaptic stonedA by transgenically provided stonedB. Careful analysis of the effects of the monocistronic transgenes together and in isolation clearly reveals that the presence of presynaptic stonedA is dependent on stonedB. Together, our findings improve understanding of the functional relationship between stonedA and stonedB and elaborate significantly on the in vivo functions of stonins, recently discovered phylogenetically conserved stonedB homologs that represent a new family of "orphan" medium (mu) chains of adaptor complexes involved in vesicle formation. Data presented here also provide new insight into potential mechanisms that underlie translation and evolution of the dicistronic stoned mRNA. PMID:14504226

  1. Intrahepatic biliary stones in children.

    PubMed

    Enriquez, G; Lucaya, J; Allende, E; Garcia-Pea, P

    1992-01-01

    Intrahepatic biliary stones in seven non-Oriental patients were studied in all by sonography, in four patients by computed tomography and in four patients by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. For patients had extrahepatic biliary atresia treated with portoenterostomies, one patient had undergone partial liver transplantation and of the remaining two, one had cystic fibrosis and the other immunodeficiency syndrome. All sonograms were abnormal and showed echogenic foci within the liver, with or without associated signs of biliary tract dilatation. CT confirmed the biliary tract dilatation yet calculi were identified in one patient only. PTC was particularly helpful in the patient with immunodeficiency in whom features typical of sclerosing cholangitis were found. This report emphasizes the variable radiological appearance of bile stones which to our knowledge have rarely been described in children with entities other than Oriental cholangitis. PMID:1523054

  2. Bariatric Surgery and Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieske, John C.; Kumar, Rajiv

    2008-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment strategy for patients with morbid obesity that can result in effective weight loss, resolution of diabetes mellitus and other weight related complications, and even improved mortality. However, it also appears that hyperoxaluria is common after modern bariatric surgery, perhaps occurring in up to 50% of patients after Rouxen-Y gastric bypass. Although increasing numbers of patients are being seen with calcium oxalate kidney stones after bariatric surgery, and even a few with oxalosis and renal failure, the true risk of these outcomes remains unknown. The mechanisms that contribute to this enteric hyperoxaluria are also incompletely defined, although fat malabsorption may be an important component. Since increasing numbers of these procedures are likely to be performed in the coming years, further study regarding the prevalence and mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and kidney stones after bariatric surgery is needed to devise effective methods of treatment in order to prevent such complications.

  3. The Matariki Stone of Rapanui

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, T. A.

    2005-12-01

    Anthropological studies of Rapanui (Easter Island) are valuable insofar as the island's remoteness allowed its culture to develop independently until western contact. Of special importance to cultural astronomers is the indigenous inhabitants' expressed interest in the sky, through lore, monumental architecture, and rock art. 1 The Matariki Stone is a unique basaltic boulder found on Rapanui; my analysis of it is the result of in situ investigation (2000). The boulder is 1 m x 1.5 m x 2 m in approximate size and weighs in excess of 10,000 kg. According to local informants, at least six cupules, averaging 6 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth, were placed in it prior to western contact with the island and prior to transport to the boulder's present location. Information about the Matariki Stone's original setting, orientation, and context is lost. "Matariki" means "Pleiades" (or, more generally, a group of stars). However, the pattern of the Matariki Stone cupules strongly resembles another familiar asterism of third-magnitude stars. 2 These zodiac stars were placed significantly in the Rapanui sky of 1500 CE. Yet no local ethnographic evidence mentions these stars, nor is association with these stars and other regional cultures (e. g., Australian aboriginal and Mayan) compelling. 3 Moreover, there is no Polynesian tradition of constellation depiction in rock art at all, whereas the Pleiades figure prominently in that culture's oral tradition. 4 Thus, the Matariki Stone remains a conundrum. 1 Liller, William. The Ancient Solar Observatories of Rapanui: The Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island. (1993) 2 Hockey, Thomas and Hoffman, Alice. "An Archaeoastronomical Investigation: Does A Constellation Pattern Appear in Rapanui Rock Art?" Rapa Nui Journal. 14, no. 3. (2000) 3 For example, Kelly, David H. and Milone, Eugene F. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy. (2005) 4 For example, Makemson, Maude. The Morning Star Rises. (1941)

  4. Greco-Roman Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.; Ruzhansky, Katherine

    2008-09-01

    Greek and Roman thought had a profound influence upon Western medical practice. From the fall of the Greek civilization to the fall of the Roman, remarkable progress of our understanding of human anatomy and physiology occurred. Here we review the attempts of Greek and Roman thinkers to develop the first understanding of the pathophysiology of urolithiasis, its epidemiology, differential diagnosis of renal versus bladder stones, medications for both colic and prevention, the role of familial syndromes, and dietary management.

  5. Epidemiologic insights into pediatric kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Matlaga, Brian R; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Novak, Thomas E; Trock, Bruce J

    2010-12-01

    The epidemiology of pediatric kidney stone has not yet been as rigorously defined as that of adult kidney stone disease. Herein, we review our recent epidemiologic works characterizing pediatric stone disease using the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). Specifically we investigated the age and gender distribution of pediatric kidney stone disease, changes in disease prevalence over time, and medical comorbidities associated with this disorder. We identified patients by International Classification of Disease 9th Edition (ICD-9) codes for renal and ureteral calculi as the primary diagnosis. Medical comorbidities were identified using specific comorbidity software. Statistical comparisons between children with and without stone disease were performed. In the first decade of life, stone disease was more prevalent among males than females; however, in the second decade of life females were more commonly affected. Of note, there was a significant increase in treated stone disease across both genders between 1997 and 2003. We also found that the risk of kidney stone diagnosis in children younger than 6 years of age was significantly associated with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The gender distribution among pediatric stone formers varies significantly by age, although overall females have a greater prevalence than males. There is also a strong association of stone disease and both diabetes and hypertension, although this was only observed in children less than 6 years of age. Taken all together, these findings suggest that urolithiasis in the young child is a complex systemic disease process. PMID:20967433

  6. Focused ultrasound guided relocation of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    Abrol, Nitin; Kekre, Nitin S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Complete removal of all fragments is the goal of any intervention for urinary stones. This is more important in lower pole stones where gravity and spatial orientation of lower pole infundibulum may hinder spontaneous passage of fragments. Various adjuvant therapies (inversion, diuresis, percussion, oral citrate, etc.) are described to enhance stone-free rate but are not widely accepted. Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of fragments is a recently described technique aimed at improving results of intervention for stone disease. Purpose of this review is to discuss development of this technology and its potential clinical applications. Materials and Methods: Pubmed search was made using key words Focused ultrasound and kidney stone. All English language articles were reviewed by title. Relevant studies describing development and application of focused ultrasound in renal stones were selected for review. Results: Focused ultrasound has proven its efficacy in successfully relocating up to 8 mm stone fragments in vitro and in pigs. Relocation is independent of stone composition. The latest model allows imaging and therapy with a single handheld probe facilitating its use by single operator. The acoustic energy delivered by the new prototype is even less than that used for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Therapeutic exposure has not caused thermal injury in pig kidneys. Conclusion: Focused ultrasound-guided relocation of stones is feasible. Though it is safe in application in pigs, technology is awaiting approval for clinical testing in human beings. This technology has many potential clinical applications in the management of stone disease. PMID:25624572

  7. Management of stone disease in infants.

    PubMed

    Azili, Mujdem Nur; Ozturk, Fatma; Inozu, Mihriban; ayci, Fatma ?emsa; Acar, Banu; Ozmert, Sengul; Tiryaki, Tugrul

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating and treating renal stone disease in infants are technically challenging. In this study, we evaluated the surgical treatment of renal stones in children under 1 year of age. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients under 1 year old who were treated with ESWL, endourological or open surgical procedures for renal stone disease between January, 2009 and December, 2012. The patients' age, gender, stone size, stone location and number, complications, stone-free status, and postoperative complications were recorded. 19 of 121 infants with a mean age of 10.2 3.07 months were treated with surgical procedures. Six (75%) of eight cystinuria patients required a surgical intervention. Retrograde endoscopic management was performed in thirteen patients (63.4%) as an initial surgical approach. There were three major (15.7%) complications. The rate of open surgical procedures was 31.6% (6 of 19 infants). The cutoff value of stone size for open surgery was 10 mm. There was a significant relationship between the conversion to open procedures and stone size, stone location, and symptom presentation especially the presence of obstruction (p < 0.05). After repeated treatments, the stone clearance rate of RIRS reached 84.6%. Retrograde intrarenal surgery is an effective and safe treatment method for renal stones in infants and can be used as a first-line therapy in most patients under 1 year old. This is especially important if an associated ureteral stone or lower pole stone that requires treatment is present and for patients with cystinuria, which does not respond favorably to ESWL. PMID:26036325

  8. Diet and renal stone formation.

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, A

    2013-02-01

    The relationship between diet and the formation of renal stones is demonstrated, but restrictive diets do not take into account the complexity of metabolism and the complex mechanisms that regulate the saturation and crystallization processes in the urine. The restriction of dietary calcium can reduce the urinary excretion of calcium but severe dietary restriction of calcium causes hyperoxaluria and a progressive loss of bone mineral component. Furthermore urinary calcium excretion is influenced by other nutrients than calcium as sodium, potassium, protein and refined carbohydrates. Up to 40% of the daily excretion of oxalate in the urine is from dietary source, but oxalate absorption in the intestine depends linearly on the concomitant dietary intake of calcium and is influenced by the bacterial degradation by several bacterial species of intestinal flora. A more rational approach should be based on the cumulative effects of foods and different dietary patterns on urinary saturation rather than on the effect of single nutrients. A diet based on a adequate intake of calcium (1000-1200 mg per day) and containment of animal protein and salt can decrease significantly urinary supersaturation for calcium oxalate and reduce the relative risk of stone recurrence in hypercalciuric renal stone formers. The DASH-style diet that is high in fruits and vegetables, moderate in low-fat dairy products and low in animal proteins and salt is associated with a lower relative supersaturation for calcium oxalate and a marked decrease in risk of incident stone formation. All the diets above mentioned have as a common characteristic the reduction of the potential acid load of the diet that can be correlated with a higher risk of recurrent nephrolithiasis, because the acid load of diet is inversely related to urinary citrate excretion. The restriction of protein and salt with an adequate calcium intake seem to be advisable but should be implemented with the advice to increase the intake of vegetables that can carry a plentiful supply of alkali that counteract the acid load coming from animal protein. New prospective studies to evaluate the effectiveness of the diet for the prevention of renal stones should be oriented to simple dietary advices that should be focused on a few specific goals easily controlled by means of self-evaluation tools, such as the LAKE food screener. PMID:23392537

  9. Investigations of stone consolidants by neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, F.; Schillinger, B.; Rohatsch, A.; Zawisky, M.; Rauch, H.

    2009-06-01

    The chemical preservation and structural reintegration of natural stones applied in historical buildings is carried out by the use of different stone strengtheners. As these agents contain hydrogen, they offer good properties for neutron imaging. The main interest in the restoration process is the development of a suitable stone consolidant. In cooperation with the St. Stephans Cathedral and the geologists at Vienna University of Technology, we are investigating the penetration depth and distribution of different stone consolidants. These studies are being carried out with different stone samples, mostly porous natural building stones, limestones and sandstones. The two strengtheners used in this study are ethyl silicate ester (Wacker OH100) and dissolved polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA, Paraloid B72). Neutron radiography and neutron tomography can be used successfully to visualize the distribution of consolidants both in two and three dimensions.

  10. Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2014-10-01

    Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection. PMID:24945791

  11. 6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GRIST MILL STONES IN CENTER (VERTICAL STAND WITH HANDLE TO LEFT OF STONES ADJUSTS SPACE BETWEEN STONES, THUS CONTROLING FINENESS OF FLOUR. STONE CRANE AT RIGHT USED TO LIFT STONES FOR DRESSING). OTHER EQUIPMENT NOT IDENTIFIED. NOTE STAIRS IN LEFT REAR. - Hildebrand's Mill, Flint, Delaware County, OK

  12. Global stone heritage: larvikite, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Dahl, Rolv

    2013-04-01

    Larvikite has for more than hundred years been appreciated as one of the world's most attractive dimension-stones, and at present time its production and use is more extensive than ever. The main reason for the continuous success of the larvikite on the world market is the blue iridescence displayed on polished surfaces, which is caused by optical interference in microscopic lamellae within the ternary feldspars. The larvikite complex consists of different intrusions defining several ring-shaped structures, emplaced during a period of approximately five million years. Following this pattern, several commercial subtypes of larvikite, characterised by their colour and iridescence, have been identified. The name "larvikite" was first applied by Waldemar Brøgger, in his descriptions of the monzonitic rocks within the southern part of the Carboniferous-Permian Oslo Igneous Province. The name has its origin in the small coastal town of Larvik, situated almost right in the centre of the main plutonic complex of larvikite. From a geologist's point of view, the larvikites are important for understanding the igneous mechanisms behind the formation of the Oslo rift, representing a series of semi-circular intrusions, varying from quartz-bearing monzonites in the east (earliest phases) towards nepheline-bearing monzonites and nepheline syenite in the west (latest phases). However, most other people see larvikite as a particularly beautiful rock. Production started already in the 1880s, and at present time the export value of rough blocks of dimension-stone from the Larvik Region is close to 100 million euro, distributed on approximately 20 individual quarries. Different types of larvikite have different market value, and the customers can choose between a range of types and qualities under trade names such as "Blue Pearl", "Emerald Pearl" and "Marina Pearl". Globally, larvikite has put a significant mark on architecture around the world, and should be included in the global stone heritage.

  13. What I Need to Know about Kidney Stones

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on the type of kidney stone you had: Calcium Oxalate Stones reduce sodium reduce animal protein, such as ... Kidney stones are caused by high levels of calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus in the urine. You may have ...

  14. Changes in stone composition over two decades: evaluation of over 10,000 stone analyses.

    PubMed

    Moses, Rachel; Pais, Vernon M; Ursiny, Michal; Prien, Edwin L; Miller, Nicole; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-04-01

    To examine the changes in stone composition from 1990 to 2010. A retrospective review was performed of all renal and ureteral stones submitted from the state of Massachusetts to a single laboratory (Laboratory for Stone Research, Newton, MA) for the years 1990 and 2010. Stone composition was determined by infrared spectroscopy and/or polarizing microscopy. A total of 11,099 stones were evaluated (56.7% from 1990, 43.3% from 2010). From 1990 to 2010, the percentage of stones from females (i.e., female/male ratio) increased significantly (29.8% in 1990 to 39.1% in 2010, p < 0.001). Among women, from 1990 to 2010, there was a significant increase in stones which were >50% uric acid (7.6-10.2%, p < 0.005) and a significant decrease in struvite stones (7.8-3.0%, p < 0.001). Among women with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone decreased significantly (20.0 vs. 11.7%, p < 0.001). Among men, there were no changes in stones which were majority uric acid (11.7-10.8%, p = 0.2). Among men with calcium stones, the % apatite per stone increased significantly (9.8 vs. 12.5%, p < 0.001). Males also demonstrated a significant increase in both cystine (0.1-0.6%, p < 0.001) and struvite stones (2.8-3.7%, p = 0.02). The epidemiology of stone disease continues to evolve and appears to vary according to gender. While some of these findings may be related to population changes in body mass index and obesity, the etiology of others remains unclear. PMID:25689875

  15. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  16. Calcium intake and urinary stone disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Calcium homeostasis is a complicated and incompletely understood process that is primarily regulated through an interaction between the intestines, kidneys, and bones. Intestinal calcium absorption is determined by many factors including the amount of regular calcium intake, as well as vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels. Intestinal calcium absorption is likely different between stone formers and non-stone formers, with higher levels of calcium absorption in those with a history of stones independent of their calcium intake. We no longer recommend dietary calcium restriction as this may lead to bone demineralization and an increase in stone formation. Practitioners need to continue to educate patients to maintain moderate dietary calcium intake. The effect of calcium supplementation on stone formation is currently controversial. It is likely that large doses of supplemental calcium, especially if taken separate from a meal, may lead to stone formation. When necessary, stone forming patients should be encouraged to take their calcium supplements with a meal and their stone disease should be monitored. PMID:26816771

  17. Armenian Khatchkar (Stone Cross) Carved in 1308.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacobian, Mossik

    This booklet introduces students to a unique form of stone sculpture made by Armenian artists for over twelve centuries, the khatchkar, or stone cross. The document is part of a series of seven instructional materials dealing with the history and culture of Armenian Americans. It contains a reading on khatchkars as symbols of faith for eternity, a

  18. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Killilea, David W.; Westropp, Jodi L.; Shiraki, Ryoji; Mellema, Matthew; Larsen, Jennifer; Kahn, Arnold J.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Chi, Thomas; Stoller, Marshall L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease. PMID:26066810

  19. [Asymptomatic kidney stones: active surveillance vs. treatment].

    PubMed

    Neisius, A; Thomas, C; Roos, F C; Hampel, C; Fritsche, H-M; Bach, T; Thüroff, J W; Knoll, T

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of kidney stones is increasing worldwide. Asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones are increasingly detected as an incidental finding on radiologic imaging, which has been performed more frequently over the last decades. Beside the current interventional treatment modalities such as extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), active surveillance of asymptomatic kidney stones has been a focus of discussion lately, not only for attending physicians, but even more so for patients. The current German and European guidelines recommend active surveillance for patients with asymptomatic kidney stones if no interventional therapy is mandatory because of pain or medical factors. Herein we review the current literature on risks and benefits of active surveillance of asymptomatic non-obstructing kidney stones. PMID:26378390

  20. Urine citrate and renal stone disease.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, H; Grass, L; Vogl, R; Rapoport, A; Oreopoulos, D G

    1989-01-01

    Calcium stone disease is attributable to supersaturation of the urine with calcium and other salts, the presence of substances that promote crystallization and a deficiency of inhibitors of crystallization. Citrate is a potent inhibitor of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stone formation whose excretion is diminished in some patients with stone disease owing to idiopathic causes or secondary factors such as bowel disease and use of thiazides. The pH within the proximal tubule cells is an important determinant of citrate excretion. Multivariate analysis has shown that the urine concentrations of calcium and citrate are the most important factors in stone formation. In uncontrolled studies potassium citrate, which increases urinary citrate excretion, appears to be promising as a therapeutic agent for patients with stone disease and hypocitraturia refractory to other treatment. On the other hand, there are potential drawbacks to sodium alkali therapy, such as the precipitation of calcium phosphates. PMID:2665909

  1. Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy of Primary Intrahepatic Stones

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung Hwan; Lee, Sung Koo; Min, Young Il; Lee, Mun Gyu; Sung, Kyu Bo; Cho, Kyung Sik; Lee, Sung Gyu; Min, Pyung Chul

    1992-01-01

    Extracorporeal shockwave lithothripsy (ESWL) was performed in intrahepatic stone patients (n = 18) by Dornier MPL 9,000 with ultrasound guidance. The patients had T-tube (n = 9) or percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainge tube (n = 9). Average treatment session was four and shock-wave numbers were in the range of 3,064 to 12,000 (average 6,288 shocks). Intrahepatic stones were removed completely in 16 patients over a 3 month period by ESWL and combined stone extraction maneuver such as cholangioscopic or interventional radiologic method. Extracorporeal shockwave lithothripsy was very helpful in facilitating extraction of stones in unfavorable locations or located above the severe stricture. In summary, extracorporeal Shockwave lithotripsy, followed by percutaneous stone extraction, will provide an improvement in the success rate and duration of treatment required for complete removal of primary hepatolithiasis. PMID:1477027

  2. Kidney stone risk following modern bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D; Canales, Benjamin K

    2014-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, a variety of reports have linked bariatric surgery to metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. Most of these studies were retrospective, lacked appropriate controls, or involved bariatric patients with a variety of inclusion criteria. Despite these limitations, recent clinical and experimental research has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this high-risk population. This review summarizes the urinary chemistry profiles that may be responsible for the increased kidney stone incidence seen in contemporary epidemiological bariatric studies, outlines the mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and potential therapies through a newly described experimental bariatric animal model, and provides a focused appraisal of recommendations for reducing stone risk in bariatric stone formers. PMID:24658828

  3. Protecting Space Travelers from Kidney Stones: Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Renal stones, popularly known as kidney or bladder stones, are small rock-like objects formed in the kidneys or urinary tract by deposits of calcium and other minerals. The problem arises when the stones block the drainage of the kidney, resulting in urinary obstruction and pain. Passing these stones can be one of the most painful experiences a person will endure so doctors often prescribe pain relievers to ease the experience. Drinking plenty of fluids, which help flush waste out of the body, and eating a well-balanced diet are the first steps to preventing stones. For individuals at risk, this may not be enough, and a doctor may recommend a special diet and medications. Unfortunately, approximately 60 percent of people who have had a renal stone will experience a recurrence. This is particularly true of men, who are four to five times more likely to develop stones than women. Renal stones do not discriminate based on age; even children are at risk. Astronauts are particularly at risk of developing renal stones because they lose bone and muscle mass; calcium, other minerals, and protein normally used for bone and muscle end up in the bloodstream and then in the kidneys. Without plenty of fluid to wash them away, crystals can form and then grow into stones. This factor compounds the risk for astronauts, since they also perceive that they are less thirsty in space and will drink less than normal during the mission. To minimize all of these factors, doctors must instead treat the stone-forming compounds with medication. This study will use potassium citrate to reduce the risk of stone formation. Renal stones are never convenient, but they are a particular concern for astronauts who have limited access to treatment during flight. Researchers are examining how earthbound preventions for renal stone formation work in flight, ensuring missions are not ended prematurely due to this medical condition. During STS-107, earthbound preventions and treatments become astronauts' gain.

  4. Economics of stone disease/treatment

    PubMed Central

    Strohmaier, Walter Ludwig

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Urolithiasis is a considerable economic burden for health systems, especially in industrialised countries where the incidence of stone disease has increased during the last few decades, and probably will further increase for several reasons. Methods The survey was based on investigations in collaboration with a German health insurance company and on a literature search (PubMed, and the authors collection of proceedings of urolithiasis conferences: The keywords included economics, cost, urolithiasis, nephrolithiasis, renal stone disease, metaphylaxis, recurrence) during 19992011. In all, 1221 articles were found but only those cited here were sufficient for the purpose of the study. Due to the nature of the subject it is not possible to give levels of evidence, as economic data on stone treatment cannot be obtained with randomised studies. Results The costs for the treatment and diagnosis of stones vary tremendously among different healthcare systems. Several calculation models showed that metaphylaxis is medically and economically effective when used rationally. Rational metaphylaxis is restricted to patients with a high risk of recurrence (brushite, uric acid, cystine and infected stones, patients with residual fragments after stone treatment and recurrent calcium oxalate stone formers). Conclusions For the groups identified, metaphylaxis is cost-effective in almost all healthcare systems, but the cost saved differs. The savings increase even more when adding the economic loss avoided from days off work due to treatment of recurrent stones. In most countries, stone frequency must exceed one stone per patient per year before medical therapy is more cost-effective than dietary measures. PMID:26558036

  5. Optimum nutrition for kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Heilberg, Ita P; Goldfarb, David S

    2013-03-01

    We summarize the data regarding the associations of individual dietary components with kidney stones and the effects on 24-hour urinary profiles. The therapeutic recommendations for stone prevention that result from these studies are applied where possible to stones of specific composition. Idiopathic calcium oxalate stone-formers are advised to reduce ingestion of animal protein, oxalate, and sodium while maintaining intake of 800 to 1200 mg of calcium and increasing consumption of citrate and potassium. There are few data regarding dietary therapy of calcium phosphate stones. Whether the inhibitory effect of citrate sufficiently counteracts increasing urine pH to justify more intake of potassium and citrate is not clear. Reduction of sodium intake to decrease urinary calcium excretion would also be expected to decrease calcium phosphate stone recurrence. Conversely, the most important urine variable in the causation of uric acid stones is low urine pH, linked to insulin resistance as a component of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The mainstay of therapy is weight loss and urinary alkalinization provided by a more vegetarian diet. Reduction in animal protein intake will reduce purine ingestion and uric acid excretion. For cystine stones, restriction of animal protein is associated with reduction in intake of the cystine precursor methionine as well as cystine. Reduction of urine sodium results in less urine cystine. Ingestion of vegetables high in organic anion content, such as citrate and malate, should be associated with higher urine pH and fewer stones because the amino acid cystine is soluble in more alkaline urine. Because of their infectious origin, diet has no definitive role for struvite stones except for avoiding urinary alkalinization, which may worsen their development. PMID:23439376

  6. Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

  7. Apparatus for disintegrating kidney stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The useful life of the wire probe in an ultrasonic kidney stone disintegration instrument is enhanced and prolonged by attaching the wire of the wire probe to the tip of an ultrasonic transducer by means of a clamping arrangement. Additionally, damping material is applied to the wire probe in the form of a damper tube through which the wire probe passes in the region adjacent the transducer tip. The damper tube extends outwardly from the transducer tip a predetermined distance, terminating in a resilient soft rubber joint. Also, the damper tube is supported intermediate its length by a support member. The damper system thus acts to inhibit lateral vibrations of the wire in the region of the transducer tip while providing little or no damping to the linear vibrations imparted to the wire by the transducer.

  8. Stone orientation affects the mechanism of failure in artificial kidney stones subject to shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Cauwelaert, Javier; Cleveland, Robin O.

    2003-10-01

    Micro computed tomography (CT) imaging was used to follow the progressive development of cracks in artificial kidney stones. The artificial stones were made from U30 cement with a cylindrical shape (6.5 mm diameter and 8.5 mm long). The stones were held within a polypropylene vial in one of three orientations: vertical, horizontal, and angled at 45 deg. The stones were treated with an electromagnetic lithotripter and the initiation and growth of cracks was observed using microCT. The images show that the orientation of the stones with respect to the shock changes the dominant mechanism for fragmentation. Vertical stones developed a spall-like crack near the distal surface, which propagated from the surface to the interior of the stone. Initiation of a secondary spall-like crack was observed proximal to the first crack. Little surface damage was observed. Horizontal stones presented pitting in the proximal surface and erosion in lateral faces, indicating the action of cavitation. Angled stones presented both spall-like fracture in either the leading or the distal corners and surface damage (pitting) in the proximal surface. Experiments are being performed to follow the development of cracks in human kidney stones. [Work supported by the Whitaker Foundation.

  9. How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Intracorporeal modalities are further divided into mechanical lithotripsy (ML), electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and laser lithotripsy. ESWL can break stones by focusing high-pressure shock-wave energy at a designated target point. Balloon dilation after minimal endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective for retrieving large biliary stones without the use of ML. Peroral cholangioscopy provides direct visualization of the bile duct and permits diagnostic procedures or therapeutic interventions. Biliary stenting below an impacted stone is sometimes worth considering as an alternative treatment in elderly patients. This article focuses on specialized issues such as lithotripsy rather than simple EST with stone removal in order to provide important information on state-of-the-art procedures. PMID:20559517

  10. Characterization of Technetium Speciation in Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Wang, Guohui; Westsik, Joseph H.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-11-11

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-31 Support Program (EMSP) subtask, “Production and Long-Term Performance of Low Temperature Waste Forms” to provide additional information on technetium (Tc) speciation characterization in the Cast Stone waste form. To support the use of Cast Stone as an alternative to vitrification for solidifying low-activity waste (LAW) and as the current baseline waste form for secondary waste streams at the Hanford Site, additional understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone is needed to predict the long-term Tc leachability from Cast Stone and to meet the regulatory disposal-facility performance requirements for the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Characterizations of the Tc speciation within the Cast Stone after leaching under various conditions provide insights into how the Tc is retained and released. The data generated by the laboratory tests described in this report provide both empirical and more scientific information to increase our understanding of Tc speciation in Cast Stone and its release mechanism under relevant leaching processes for the purpose of filling data gaps and to support the long-term risk and performance assessments of Cast Stone in the IDF at the Hanford Site.

  11. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and renal stones

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, Rajendra; Jali, Mallikarjuna; Guntaka, Ajay Kumar; Patne, Pravin; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Murigendra Basayya

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of urinary stone disease has shown a steep rise in recent decades along with marked modifications in dietary habits and life- style. There has been an increased prevalence of urinary stone disease in patients with diabetes. We took up this study to determine the association of diabetes mellitus with kidney stones in patients undergoing surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with renal stones for surgical management formed the study group. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by noting the weight and height of the patient. The extracted stone/stone fragments were analyzed to determine the chemical composition. Urinary pH was similarly noted in all. Results: The mean BMI among the diabetics was 26.35 ± 5.20 (range 17.75-35.60), whereas the mean BMI among the non-diabetics was 23.41 ± 2.85 (range 17.71-31.62) (P < 0.0004). The incidence of uric acid calculi in the diabetics was significantly high (P < 0.03). The mean urinary pH among the diabetics was 5.61 ± 0.36 and among the non-diabetics was 6.87 ± 0.32, which was significantly lower (P < 0.000044). Conclusions: There is a strong association between type 2 diabetes and uric acid stone formation. There is also a strong association between diabetes mellitus, BMI, and also with lower urinary pH. PMID:26605219

  12. Glucose metabolism in renal stone patients.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, M; Umekawa, T; Takamura, C; Sugihara, I; Nakamura, K; Kohri, K; Kurita, T

    1993-01-01

    The calciuric response and the changes of plasma glucose and insulin produced by a 75-gram oral glucose tolerance test were determined in 27 male patients with idiopathic calcium renal stones (6 with dietary hypercalciuria, 5 with nondietary hypercalciuria and 16 with normocalciuria) and 22 healthy male subjects. The subjects were classified as obese (> or = 120% ideal weight) and nonobese. The incidence of an abnormal response to glucose loading was similar in the stone patients and the healthy subjects. In addition, the plasma glucose and insulin levels after oral glucose load did not differ between the stone patients and control subjects and were affected by the individual degree of obesity. Urinary calcium excretion increased significantly after glucose ingestion in both the stone patients and the control subjects. Urinary calcium excretion was greater in the stone patients than in the control subjects due to the presence of patients with nondietary hypercalciuria, and the increment in urinary calcium excretion in the dietary hypercalciuric and normocalciuric stone patients was indistinguishable from that in the control subjects. The degree of obesity did not affect the increment in urinary calcium excretion. These results suggest that overconsumption of refined carbohydrates such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks, soda and cakes may be a risk factor for stone formation, especially in the patients with nondietary hypercalciuria. PMID:8266608

  13. Famous building stones of our Nation's capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2012-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital are constructed with rocks from quarries located throughout the United States and many distant lands. The earliest Government buildings, however, were constructed with stones from nearby sources because it was too difficult and expensive to move heavy materials such as stone any great distance without the aid of modern transportation methods, including large cargo ships, trains, and trucks. This fact sheet describes the source and appearance of three frequently used local stones employed in building Washington, D.C., and the geologic environment in which they were formed.

  14. Can stone density on plain radiography predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for ureteral stones?

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ki Hong; Jung, Jin-Hee; Kwon, Jae Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Bae, Jungbum; Cho, Min Chul; Lee, Kwang Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The objective was to determine whether stone density on plain radiography (kidney-ureter-bladder, KUB) could predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for ureteral stones. Materials and Methods A total of 223 patients treated by ESWL for radio-opaque ureteral stones of 5 to 20 mm were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent routine blood and urine analyses, plain radiography (KUB), and noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) before ESWL. Demographic, stone, and radiological characteristics on KUB and NCCT were analyzed. The patients were categorized into two groups: lower-density (LD) group (radiodensity less than or equal to that of the 12th rib, n=163) and higher-density (HD) group (radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib, n=60). Stone-free status was assessed by KUB every week after ESWL. A successful outcome was defined as stone free within 1 month after ESWL. Results Mean stone size in the LD group was significantly smaller than that in the HD group (7.51.4 mm compared with 9.92.9 mm, p=0.002). The overall success rates in the LD and HD groups were 82.1% and 60.0%, respectively (p=0.007). The mean duration of stone-free status and average number of SWL sessions required for success in the two groups were 21.7 compared with 39.2 days and 1.8 compared with 2.3, respectively (p<0.05). On multivariate logistic analysis, stone size and time to ESWL since colic and radiodensity of the stone on KUB were independent predictors of successful ESWL. Conclusions Our data suggest that larger stone size, longer time to ESWL, and ureteral stones with a radiodensity greater than that of the 12th rib may be at a relatively higher risk of ESWL failure 1 month after the procedure. PMID:25598937

  15. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    PubMed Central

    Cak?roglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  16. Triamterene and renal stone formation: the influence of triamterene and triamterene stones on calcium oxalate crystallization.

    PubMed

    White, D J; Nancollas, G H

    1987-02-01

    A constant composition method has been used to compare the effects of triamterene renal stone material, synthetic triamterene precipitates, and soluble triamterene on the nucleation and crystallization kinetics of calcium oxalate in aqueous solution in vitro. Crystallization studies have been carried out with the concentrations of calcium and oxalate ions maintained constant by the potentiometrically controlled addition of concentrated reagent solutions containing these ions. Triamterene renal stones were found to be much less effective than synthetic triamterene towards promoting the nucleation and crystallization of calcium oxalate from supersaturated solution. Renal stones composed of triamterene and matrix did not significantly enhance the deposition of calcium oxalate compared to nonseeded controls. The triamterene stones were also found to be ineffective in promoting calcium oxalate crystallization compared to other precipitates thought to be involved in the etiology of stone disease such as calcium hydroxyapatite. For stones of mixed triamterene/calcium oxalate composition, the enhancement of the nucleation and crystallization of calcium oxalate was directly related to the calcium oxalate content of the stone seed material. The presence of soluble triamterene or its metabolites in solution did not influence the crystallization kinetics of pure calcium oxalate seed materials. The results of this study indicate that triamterene in stones does not significantly contribute to further stone development through the enhancement of calcium oxalate crystallization processes. PMID:3105837

  17. Portugues Marbles as Stone Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luis; Martins, Ruben

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present and justify the reasons for the worldwide recognition of Portuguese Marbles as Stone Heritage. These marbles are also known as "Estremoz Marble" since was the first county were exploited. In the Estremoz Anticline marbles occupy an intermediate stratigraphic position being part of a volcano-sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age. The anticlinal structure has a Precambrian core and the younger rocks aged Devonian Period. This sequence has deformed by the Variscan Orogeny, which performed twice with different intensities both in ductile and brittle tension fields. The early Alpine Cycle also acts in the region and cause more fracturing of the marble. Practically in all the quarries is possible to perceive the spatial-temporal continuity of the deformation where one can describe a complete Wilson Cycle. Together all these geological features imprint the marbles beautiful aesthetic patterns that can be highlighted when used as dimension stone. Nowadays most of the quarries are placed in the counties of Borba and mainly in Vila Viçosa. This last city claims for itself the "Capital of the Marble" title and named the marble as "White Gold". In fact, according to the historical record, the marbles were quarried in Portuguese Alentejo's Province since the fourth century BC. Locally these geological materials are available easily accessible. Exhibit physical properties that allow the fabrication of structural and decorative elements and so were used since humans settled in the region and developed a structured Society. In the Roman period, the pieces of art made with Estremoz Marbles were exported abroad and today are represented in Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Europe and North Africa countries. The Portuguese Marbles and Limestones, transformed into altars, stairways, columns, statues and pieces of wall cladding, were carried as ballast in the holds of ships. At the destination the Portuguese People had built numerous churches which today can be found in Brazil but also along the South American and African coasts. Currently the global market of Modern Dimension Stones Industry allows Portuguese Marbles to be present in buildings, architectural pieces and works of arts all over the World. Despite almost continuous mining activity in the region it's notice that there was no depletion of raw material, in fact almost every varieties of marble have enough reserves to sustain the mining activity is several hundreds of years. The Alentejo whitewashed houses are a hallmark of the unique landscape that can only have been developed by the availability of marbles to produce quicklime. In cities and villages, the built heritage based on the marble is very rich and is always present, meanwhile the surrounding countryside is marked by intense mining activity living side by side with rural industries, namely wheatfields, groves, orchards and vineyards; therefore the region has unique characteristics allowing the development of integrated industrial tourism routes. The Portuguese Marbles are a key factor for local sustainable development and it's leading the region to new opportunities of industrial, scientific and technological culture, pointing to a successful future.

  18. Kidney Stones in Children (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stones in children (Beyond the Basics) Authors Jodi Smith, MD, MPH F Bruder Stapleton, MD Section Editor ... Deputy Editor Melanie S Kim, MD Contributor disclosures Jodi Smith, MD, MPH Nothing to disclose. F Bruder Stapleton, ...

  19. Investigation on laser induced salivary stone fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Ronald; Pongratz, Thomas; Eder, Matthias; Domes, Mona; Vogeser, Michael; Johnson, Thorsten; Siedeck, Vanessa; Schroetzlmair, Florian; Zengel, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    Objective: It was the objective of this in-vitro study to investigate photon-based techniques for identifying the composition and fragmentation of salivary stones using a Ho:YAG laser. Materials and Method: Salivary stones (n=47) extracted from patients with clinical symptoms of sialolithiasis were examined in-vitro. After extraction, the stones were kept in Ringers solution until size and volume measurements could be performed. Thereafter, dual-energy CT scans (DECT) were performed to classify the composition of the stones. Subsequently, fluorescence measurements were performed by taking images under blue light excitation as well as by fluorescence spectroscopy, measuring excitation-emission-matrixes (EEM). Further investigation to identify the exact composition of the stone was performed by Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy of stone fragments and debris. Fragmentation was performed in an aquarium set-up equipped with a mesh (hole: 1.5mm) using a Ho:YAG-laser to deliver laser pulses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5J/pulse at a frequency of 3Hz through a 200?m-fibre to the stone surface. The collected data were analyzed and fragmentation rates were calculated. Finally, correlation between stone composition and fragmentation was performed. Results: Blue light fluorescence excitation resulted in either fluorescence in the green spectral region or in a combination of green and red fluorescence emission. EEM-measurement showed the corresponding spectra. Raman spectroscopy showed a mixture of carbonate apatite and keratin. DECT results in evidence of calcium containing components. FTIR-spectroscopy results showed that carbonate apatite is the main component. Fragmentation experiment showed a dependency on the energy per pulse applied if the evaluation implies the ratio of fragmented weight to pulse, while the ratio fragmented weight to energy remains about constant for the three laser parameter used. Conclusion: The composition of salivary stones could be determined using different photonic techniques. Attempts to correlate salivary stone composition to fragmentation rates resulted in no correlation. Thus it could be concluded that each salivary stone could be easily destroyed using Ho:YAG-laser light by means of a 200?m bare fibre at lowest energy per pulse.

  20. Stone Composition as a Function of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Andrew D.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Williams, James C.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney stones are heterogeneous but often grouped together. The potential effects of patient demographics and calendar month (season) on stone composition are not widely appreciated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The first stone submitted by patients for analysis to the Mayo Clinic Metals Laboratory during 2010 was studied (n=43,545). Stones were classified in the following order: any struvite, any cystine, any uric acid, any brushite, majority (?50%) calcium oxalate, or majority (?50%) hydroxyapatite. Results Calcium oxalate (67%) was the most common followed by hydroxyapatite (16%), uric acid (8%), struvite (3%), brushite (0.9%), and cystine (0.35%). Men accounted for more stone submissions (58%) than women. However, women submitted more stones than men between the ages of 1019 (63%) and 2029 (62%) years. Women submitted the majority of hydroxyapatite (65%) and struvite (65%) stones, whereas men submitted the majority of calcium oxalate (64%) and uric acid (72%) stones (P<0.001). Although calcium oxalate stones were the most common type of stone overall, hydroxyapatite stones were the second most common before age 55 years, whereas uric acid stones were the second most common after age 55 years. More calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were submitted in the summer months (July and August; P<0.001), whereas the season did not influence other stone types. Conclusions It is well known that calcium oxalate stones are the most common stone type. However, age and sex have a marked influence on the type of stone formed. The higher number of stones submitted by women compared with men between the ages of 10 and 29 years old and the change in composition among the elderly favoring uric acid have not been widely appreciated. These data also suggest increases in stone risk during the summer, although this is restricted to calcium oxalate and uric acid stones. PMID:25278549

  1. Meridian Stones: for Form or for Function?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amory, L.; Boyce, P.; diCurcio, R.; Strelnitski, V.

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this investigation was to reveal the original intent and purpose of the creator of the ``Nantucket Meridian Stones'' - self taught astronomer and surveyor William Mitchell (the father of the first American female astronomer, Maria Mitchell). Throughout time, these two enigmatic stone obelisks in downtown Nantucket have been cloaked in controversial legends. We did not find any mention of these stones in the original diaries and journals of William Mitchell, or in the town's public documents (except for the written decision of the 1840 town meeting to allot money for the stones' erection). However, amongst several controversial articles on the stones in the local newspaper published during the 20th century, we found one (dated 1921) which gives the most plausible explanation: the meridian line defined by the stones was used by the local surveyors to keep track of the variation in the magnetic declination, the angle between the directions to the magnetic North and the true (geographical) North. This hypothesis will be compared with the existing information on the purpose and use of other historical meridian markers, both in America and Europe. This project was supported by Vassar College and the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  2. Stone formation and management after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Tarplin, Sarah; Ganesan, Vishnu; Monga, Manoj

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a significant health concern and is associated with an increased risk of nephrolithiasis, particularly in women. The underlying pathophysiology of stone formation in obese patients is thought to be related to insulin resistance, dietary factors, and a lithogenic urinary profile. Uric acid stones and calcium oxalate stones are common in these patients. Use of surgical procedures for obesity (bariatric surgery) has risen over the past two decades. Although such procedures effectively manage obesity-dependent comorbidities, several large, controlled studies have revealed that modern bariatric surgeries increase the risk of nephrolithiasis by approximately twofold. In patients who have undergone bariatric surgery, fat malabsorption leads to hyperabsorption of oxalate, which is exacerbated by an increased permeability of the gut to oxalate. Patients who have undergone bariatric surgery show characteristic 24 h urine parameters including low urine volume, low urinary pH, hypocitraturia, hyperoxaluria and hyperuricosuria. Prevention of stones with dietary limitation of oxalate and sodium and a high intake of fluids is critical, and calcium supplementation with calcium citrate is typically required. Potassium citrate is valuable for treating the common metabolic derangements as it raises urinary pH, enhances the activity of stone inhibitors, reduces the supersaturation of calcium oxalate, and corrects hypokalaemia. Both pyridoxine and probiotics have been shown in small studies to reduce hyperoxaluria, but further study is necessary to clarify their effects on stone morbidity in the bariatric surgery population. PMID:25850790

  3. Famous Stone Patients and Their Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael E.

    2007-04-01

    The fact that stone patients have endured much throughout the ages and that prior to our current era, when the ultimate horror, "being cut for the stone" was the only alternative to the repeated episodes of colic, should be recalled from time to time. Urolithiasis has affected humanity throughout the ages and has been indiscriminate to those lives it touched. A full accounting of those who have suffered and recorded their agonies is beyond the scope of this investigation; however, even a partial accounting is valuable for present day physicians who care for those with stone disease. For the present work, the historical accounts of stone disease literature were scrutinized for individual sufferers who could be cross-referenced from other sources as legitimately afflicted by stones. Only those patients that could be documented and were (or are) well known were included, because the internet is now a verdant repository of thousands of "not so well knowns." Reliable historical data was found for a variety of persons from the pre-Christian era to the present, including those remembered as philosophers and scientists, physicians, clergy, leaders and rulers, entertainers, athletes and fictitious/Hollywood-type individuals. Verified accounts of famous stone formers were chosen for this paper, and are presented in chronological order. The list of urolithiasis sufferers presented here is undoubtedly incomplete, but it is not through lack of trying that they are missing. Most often, the suffering do so silently, and that is always allowed.

  4. The role of open stone surgery

    PubMed Central

    El-Husseiny, Tamer; Buchholz, Noor

    2012-01-01

    Objective To highlight the role of open stone surgery in the management of urolithiasis in the current era of minimally invasive therapies. The introduction and continuous development of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), ureterorenoscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) over the past 30years have led to a significant change in the current management of urolithiasis, where the indications for open stone surgery have been narrowed significantly, making it a second- or third-line treatment option. Methods We reviewed the most recent guidelines published by the European Association of Urology and the American Urological Association, and reviewed reports through a MEDLINE search to identify the indications and current role of open stone surgery. Results From the MEDLINE search, it was obvious that the number of papers published on open renal stone surgery has decreased during the last three decades, soon after the introduction of ESWL and PCNL. Conclusion Although currently most patients with stones can be managed by minimally invasive therapy, we believe that open surgery still has a role, and therefore it is of great importance to recognise that a small group of patients with complex stone disease, and those with anatomical and physiological anomalies, will benefit from this treatment option. PMID:26558038

  5. Endoscopic management of bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Sivak, M V

    1989-09-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy is the procedure of choice for choledocholithiasis in patients who have had a cholecystectomy. The bile duct is cleared of stones in about 80 to 90 percent of patients. Available data, largely retrospective, suggest that surgery and endoscopic sphincterotomy are about equal with respect to removal of stones, morbidity, and mortality. Certain technical problems are discussed, including inability to insert the papillotome, the large stone, and problems relating to anatomy such as peripapillary diverticulum and prior gastrectomy. The treatment of patients with bile duct stones who have not had a cholecystectomy, with and without cholelithiasis, is controversial. Endoscopic sphincterotomy without subsequent cholecystectomy is adequate treatment for the majority of patients who are unfit for surgery, even if there are stones in the gallbladder, provided they are asymptomatic after endoscopic removal of stones from the bile ducts. Endoscopic sphincterotomy has been performed in the treatment of gallstone-induced pancreatitis, acute obstructive cholangitis, and sump syndrome. The complication rate for endoscopic sphincterotomy ranges from 6.5 to 8.7 percent, with a mortality rate of 0 to 1.3 percent. The most common serious complications are perforation, hemorrhage, acute pancreatitis, and sepsis. PMID:2672845

  6. Kidney stones are common after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lieske, John C.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Milliner, Dawn S.; Rule, Andrew D; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Sarr, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, a risk factor for kidney stones and chronic kidney disease (CKD), is effectively treated with bariatric surgery. However, it is unclear if surgery alters stone or CKD risk. To determine this we studied 762 Olmsted County, Minnesota residents who underwent bariatric surgery and matched them with equally obese control individuals who did not undergo surgery. The majority of bariatric patients underwent standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) (78%), with the remainder having more malabsorptive procedures (very long limb RYGB or biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch; 14%), or restrictive procedures (laparoscopic banding or sleeve gastrectomy; 7%). Mean age was 45 years with 80% female. The mean preoperative BMI was 46.7 kg/m2 for both cohorts. Rates of kidney stones were similar between surgery patients and controls at baseline, but new stone formation significantly increased in surgery patients (11.0%) compared to controls (4.3%) during 6.0 years of follow up. After malabsorptive and standard surgery, the comorbidity-adjusted hazard ratio of incident stones was significantly increased to 4.15 and 2.13, respectively but not significantly changed for restrictive surgery. The risk of CKD significantly increased after the malabsorptive procedures (adjusted hazard ratio of 1.96). Thus, while RYGB and malabsorptive procedures are more effective for weight loss, both are associated with increased risk of stones, while malabsorptive procedures also increase CKD risk. PMID:25354237

  7. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy for isolated calyceal stones: How important is the stone location?

    PubMed Central

    zgr, Faruk; Kktopcu, Onur; ?im?ek, Abdulmuttalip; Sar?lar, mer; Binbay, Murat; Grbz, Gkhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of percutaneous access site on the success and complication rates of isolated calyceal stones. Material and methods We retrospectively evaluated 2700 patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in our clinic between October 2002 and August 2014. We selected only the patients with isolated lower, middle or upper calyceal stones and we grouped the patients according to the location of their stones. Successful operation was defined as complete stone clearence or retention of stone fragments smaller than 4 mm which do not lead to infection, obstruction or pain requiring treatment. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also recorded. Results Totally 360 patients underwent PNL for their isolated upper, middle and lower calyceal stones. Access sites for those patients were selected based on stone location. The stones were localized in the lower (n=304), middle (n=14), and upper (n=42) calices. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to operation and scopy times. Hemoglobin drop was seen more frequently in the upper calyceal access group, without any significant intergroup difference. Thoracic complications including hemothorax, pneumothorax and pleural effusion were more common in the upper calyceal access group (11.9%; p<0.001). Complete stone clerance was accomplished in 81.9%, 92.9% and 78.6% of the patients with lower, middle and upper calyceal stones respectively without any significant intergroup difference (p=0.537). Conclusion PNL is an effective and safe treatment modality for isolated calyceal kidney stones and upper calyceal access causes thoracic complications more than other access sites. PMID:26623144

  8. Introductory Overview of Stone Heritages in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Hirokazu; Oikawa, Teruki; Fujita, Masayo; Yokoyama, Shunji

    2013-04-01

    As one contribution to 'Global Heritage Stone Resources' (GHSR), some stone heritages in Japan, which are nominated in the interim list, are briefly introduced. The geology of Japanese Islands where are the one of the most active areas in the history of the Earth, is very complicated. Therefore Japanese Islands consist of various kinds of minerals and rocks. Some of them were used to make stone implements and accessories. Japanese people also used to the best possible advantage to built tombstone, gate, pavement ,and the basement and wall of the large building such as temples, shrines, castles and modern buildings. 1. Stone Heritages of Pre-historical age: In the late Pleistocene and the early Holocene, ancient Japanese used obsidian cooled rapidly from rhyolitic magma.to make small implements and accessories. For example, Shirataki, Hokkaido (north island) is the largest place producing obsidian in Japan where Paleolithic people made arrowhead, knives and so on. Another example, Jade yielded in Itoigawa City, Japan Sea coast of central Japan, was made in the metamorphic rock about five hundred million years ago. Itoigawa area is only one place where jade is abundantly produced in Japan. Ancient people had been already collected and processed to ornaments although it is very hard and traded in wide area more than several thousand years ago. 2. Stone Heritages of Historical age: 2.1 Archaeological remains: In the Kofun (old mound) period (250 to 538 AD), stone burial chambers were used for old mounds to preserve against the putrefaction and to protect from the theft. For example, Ishibutai Kofun ("ishi" means "stone" and "butai" means "stage") in Nara old capital city, southwest Japan, is the largest known megalithic structure made of granite in Japan. 2.2 Stone walls of some typical castles Stones used is because of not only the rich reserves of rocks but also restriction of transportation. Osaka (second biggest city) castle, are composed of Cretaceous granite exceeding over 500,000 in number and the largest block is 108 ton in weight. Stoens of Hikone Castle came from Paleogene Koto Rhyolite. Edo (old Tokyo, biggest city, central Japan) castle ,Imperial Palace at present, Stones are late Quaternary andesite of Hakone Volcanic Products whose quarrying places are more than 100km far from Edo.They were transported by ships and manpower on land .

  9. Kidney stone erosion by micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation and consequent kidney stone treatment.

    PubMed

    Perk, Osman Yavuz; Şeşen, Muhsincan; Gozuacik, Devrim; Koşar, Ali

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal the potential of micro scale hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation for the use of kidney stone treatment. Hydrodynamically generated cavitating bubbles were targeted to the surfaces of 18 kidney stone samples made of calcium oxalate, and their destructive effects were exploited in order to remove kidney stones in in vitro experiments. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution was used as the working fluid under bubbly cavitating conditions in a 0.75 cm long micro probe of 147 μm inner diameter at 9790 kPa pressure. The surface of calcium oxalate type kidney stones were exposed to bubbly cavitation at room temperature for 5 to 30 min. The eroded kidney stones were visually analyzed with a high speed CCD camera and using SEM (scanning electron microscopy) techniques. The experiments showed that at a cavitation number of 0.017, hydrodynamic bubbly cavitation device could successfully erode stones with an erosion rate of 0.31 mg/min. It was also observed that the targeted application of the erosion with micro scale hydrodynamic cavitation may even cause the fracture of the kidney stones within a short time of 30 min. The proposed treatment method has proven to be an efficient instrument for destroying kidney stones. PMID:22476893

  10. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Pak, Charles Y. C.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight produces a number of metabolic and physiological changes in the crewmembers exposed to microgravity. Following launch, body fluid volumes, electrolyte levels, and bone and muscle undergo changes as the human body adapts to the weightless environment. Changes in the urinary chemical composition may lead to the potentially serious consequences of renal stone formation. Previous data collected immediately after space flight indicate changes in the urine chemistry favoring an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation (n = 323). During short term Shuttle space flights, the changes observed include increased urinary calcium and decreased urine volume, pH and citrate resulting in a greater risk for calcium oxalate and brushite stone formation (n = 6). Results from long duration Shuttle/Mir missions (n = 9) followed a similar trend and demonstrated decreased fluid intake and urine volume and increased urinary calcium resulting in a urinary environment saturated with the calcium stone-forming salts. The increased risk occurs rapidly upon exposure to microgravity, continues throughout the space flight and following landing. Dietary factors, especially fluid intake, or pharmacologic intervention can significantly influence the urinary chemical composition. Increasing fluid intake to produce a daily urine output of 2 liters/day may allow the excess salts in the urine to remain in solution, crystals formation will not occur and a renal stone will not develop. Results from long duration crewmembers (n = 2) who had urine volumes greater than 2.5 L/day minimized their risk of renal stone formation. Also, comparisons of stone-forming risk in short duration crewmembers clearly identified greater risk in those who produced less than 2 liters of urine/day. However, hydration and increased urine output does not correct the underlying calcium excretion due to bone loss and only treats the symptoms and not the cause of the increased urinary salts. Dietary modification and promising pharmacologic treatments may also be used to reduce the potential risk for renal stone formation. Potassium citrate is being used clinically to increase the urinary inhibitor levels to minimize the development of crystals and the growth of renal stones. Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs recently shown to help in patients with osteoporosis by inhibiting the loss of bones in elderly patients. This drug could potentially prevent the bone loss observed in astronauts and thereby minimize the increase in urinary calcium and reduce the risk for renal stone development. Results of NASA's renal stone risk assessment program clearly indicate that exposure to microgravity changes the urinary chemical environment such that there is an increased risk for supersaturation of stone-forming salts, including calcium oxalaie and brushite. These studies have indicated specific avenues for development of countermeasures for the increased renal stone risk observed during and following space flight. Increased hydration and implementation of pharmacologic countermeasures should largely mitigate the in-flight risk of renal stones.

  11. Management of 1-2 cm renal stones

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Aneesh; Chipde, Saurabh S

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The preferred treatment of >1cm stone is shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), while that of stone <2 cm is percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), but treatment of 1-2 cm renal stones is a controversial issue. We searched the literature to present a comprehensive review on this group. Material and Methods: Pubmed search of literature was done using the appropriate key words. We separately discussed the literature in lower polar and non lower polar stone groups. Results: For non lower polar renal stones of 1-2 cm, SWL is preferred approach, while for the lower polar stones; literature favors the use of PCNL. Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is emerging as a promising technique for these calculi. Conclusions: Treatment of renal stone disease depends on stone and patient related, as well as on renal anatomical factors. Treatment should be individualized according to site of stone and available expertise. PMID:24082440

  12. Urinary stone composition in Oman: with high incidence of cystinuria.

    PubMed

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S; Bayoumi, Riad; Al-Farsi, Yahya; Al-Hinai, Abdullhakeem; Al-Maskary, Sultan; Venkiteswaran, Krishna; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Rhman, Khalid; Sharif, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar

    2015-06-01

    Urinary stones are a common problem in Oman and their composition is unknown. The aim of this study is to analyze the components of urinary stones of Omani patients and use the obtained data for future studies of etiology, treatment, and prevention. Urinary stones of 255 consecutive patients were collected at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital. Stones were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer. The biochemical, metabolic, and radiological data relating to the patients and stones were collected. The mean age was 41 years, with M:F ratio of 3.7:1. The common comorbidities associated with stone formation were hypertension; diabetes, benign prostate hyperplasia; urinary tract infection; obesity; and atrophic kidney. The common presentation was renal colic and flank pain (96%). Stones were surgically retrieved in 70% of patients. Mean stone size was 9 ± 0.5 mm (range 1.3-80). Stone formers had a BMI ≥ 25 in 56% (P = 0.006) and positive family history of stones in 3.8%. The most common stones in Oman were as follows: Calcium Oxalates 45% (114/255); Mixed calcium phosphates & calcium oxalates 22% (55/255); Uric Acid 16% (40/255); and Cystine 4% (10/255). The most common urinary stones in Oman are Calcium Oxalates. Overweight is an important risk factor associated with stone formation. The hereditary Cystine stones are three times more common in Oman than what is reported in the literature that needs further genetic studies. PMID:25805105

  13. "Sydney sandstone": Heritage Stone from Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry; Kramar, Sabina

    2014-05-01

    Sydney is Australia's oldest city being founded in 1788. The city was fortunate to be established on an extensive and a relatively undeformed layer of lithified quartz sandstone of Triassic age that has proved to be an ideal building stone. The stone has been long identified by geologists as the Hawkesbury Sandstone. On the other hand the term "Sydney sandstone" has also been widely used over a long period, even to the extent of being utilised as the title of published books, so its formal designation as a heritage stone will immediately formalise this term. The oldest international usage is believed to be its use in the construction of the Stone Store at Kerikeri, New Zealand (1832-1836). In the late 19th century, public buildings such as hospitals, court houses as well as the prominent Sydney Town Hall, Sydney General Post Office, Art Gallery of New South Wales, State Library of New South Wales as well as numerous schools, churches, office building buildings, University, hotels, houses, retaining walls were all constructed using Sydney sandstone. Innumerable sculptures utilising the gold-coloured stone also embellished the city ranging from decorative friezes and capitals on building to significant monuments. Also in the late 19th and early 20th century, Sydney sandstone was used for major construction in most other major Australian cities especially Melbourne, Adelaide and Brisbane to the extent that complaints were expressed that suitable local stone materials were being neglected. Quarrying of Sydney sandstone continues today. In 2000 it was recorded noted that there were 33 significant operating Sydney sandstone quarries including aggregate and dimension stone operations. In addition sandstone continues to be sourced today from construction sites across the city area. Today major dimension stone producers (eg Gosford Quarries) sell Sydney sandstone not only into the Sydney market but also on national and international markets as cladding and paving products as well as block. Recent international projects by Gosford Quarries include Mishima Golf Club in Japan, Al Awadi Tower in Kuwait, New World Resort in China and a Hard Rock Café in Florida, USA. Arguably Sydney sandstone is Australia's most prominent potential Global Heritage Stone Resource and details are readily available in existing publications to make the nomination.

  14. Medical and dietary therapy for kidney stone prevention.

    PubMed

    Gul, Zeynep; Monga, Manoj

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25512810

  15. Medical and Dietary Therapy for Kidney Stone Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of kidney stone disease is increasing, and newer research is finding that stones are associated with several serious morbidities. These facts suggest that emphasis needs to be placed not only on stone treatment but also stone prevention. However, there is a relative dearth of information on dietary and medical therapies to treat and avoid nephrolithiasis. In addition, studies have shown that there are many misconceptions among both the general community and physicians about how stones should be managed. This article is meant to serve as a review of the current literature on dietary and drug therapies for stone prevention. PMID:25512810

  16. Recent variations in surface specific humidity in the warm season over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Recent variations in the warm seasonal mean of surface specific humidity ( q sfc) in Japan were studied using 34 years of data (1976-2009) from 150 meteorological observation stations of the Japan Meteorological Agency. The regional trend in the warm seasonal mean q sfc at 3 local standard time (LST) (UTC + 9 h), averaged over Japan, increased significantly with small changes in the relative humidity: the rate of increase was +1.93 g/kg per 100 years. The warm seasonal mean q sfc over Japan, calculated using four-times-daily data, increased slightly: the rate of increase was +0.95 g/kg per 100 years. About 16 % of the stations exhibited a significant increasing trend in warm seasonal mean q sfc calculated using four-times-daily data; these stations were concentrated in eastern Japan. The increasing trends at 40 % of the stations were more evident for the mean q sfc at 3 LST than at other local times. The local time at which the diurnal cycle of the mean q sfc reached a maximum was 15 LST in period 1 (1976-1992) and tended to be delayed until up to 21 LST in the interior in period 2 (1993-2009). In addition, the rate of increase in mean q sfc at nighttime was larger around the coastal and mountainous areas on days with well-developed thermally induced local circulation.

  17. Effectiveness of Flexible Ureteroscopic Stone Removal for Treating Ureteral and Ipsilateral Renal Stones: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyup; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Myung, Soon Chul; Moon, Young Tae; Kim, Kyung Do; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Jong Kyou

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of simultaneous flexible ureteroscopic removal of stones (URS) for ureteral and ipsilateral renal stones and to analyze the predictive factors for renal stone-free status. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who underwent simultaneous flexible URS of ureteral and ipsilateral renal stones from January 2010 to May 2012. All operations used a flexible ureteroscope. We identified 74 cases of retrograde intrarenal surgery and 74 ureteral stones (74 patients). Stone-free status was respectively defined as no visible stones and clinically insignificant residual stones <3 mm on a postoperative image study. Predictive factors for stone-free status were evaluated. Results The immediate postoperative renal stone-free rate was 70%, which increased to 83% at 1 month after surgery. The immediate postoperative ureteral stone-free rate was 100%. Among all renal stones, 15 (20.3%) were separately located in the renal pelvis, 11 (14.8%) in the upper calyx, 15 (20.3%) in the mid calyx, and 33 (44.6%) in the lower calyx. The mean cumulative stone burden was 92.22105.75 mm2. In a multivariate analysis, cumulative stone burden <100 mm2 was a significant predictive factor for postoperative renal stone-free status after 1 month (p<0.01). Conclusions Flexible URS can be considered simultaneously for both ureteral and renal stones in selected patients. Flexible URS is a favorable option that promises high stone-free status without significant complications for patients with a stone burden <100 mm2. PMID:23789046

  18. Treatment and prevention of kidney stones: an update.

    PubMed

    Frassetto, Lynda; Kohlstadt, Ingrid

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) is rising worldwide, especially in women and with increasing age. Kidney stones are associated with chronic kidney disease. Preventing recurrence is largely specific to the type of stone (e.g., calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, cystine, struvite [magnesium ammonium phosphate]), and uric acid stones); however, even when the stone cannot be retrieved, urine pH and 24-hour urine assessment provide information about stone-forming factors that can guide prevention. Medications, such as protease inhibitors, antibiotics, and some diuretics, increase the risk of some types of kidney stones, and patients should be counseled about the risks of using these medications. Managing diet, medication use, and nutrient intake can help prevent the formation of kidney stones. Obesity increases the risk of kidney stones. However, weight loss could undermine prevention of kidney stones if associated with a high animal protein intake, laxative abuse, rapid loss of lean tissue, or poor hydration. For prevention of calcium oxalate, cystine, and uric acid stones, urine should be alkalinized by eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables, taking supplemental or prescription citrate, or drinking alkaline mineral waters. For prevention of calcium phosphate and struvite stones, urine should be acidified; cranberry juice or betaine can lower urine pH. Antispasmodic medications, ureteroscopy, and metabolic testing are increasingly being used to augment fluid and pain medications in the acute management of kidney stones. PMID:22150656

  19. Kidney Stones 2012: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Naim M.; Sinnott, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Context: The pathogenetic mechanisms of kidney stone formation are complex and involve both metabolic and environmental risk factors. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of kidney stone disease. Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: Both original and review articles were found via PubMed search reporting on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of kidney stones. These resources were integrated with the authors' knowledge of the field. Conclusion: Nephrolithiasis remains a major economic and health burden worldwide. Nephrolithiasis is considered a systemic disorder associated with chronic kidney disease, bone loss and fractures, increased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the metabolic syndrome. Further understanding of the pathophysiological link between nephrolithiasis and these systemic disorders is necessary for the development of new therapeutic options. PMID:22466339

  20. Terahertz lens made out of natural stone.

    PubMed

    Han, Daehoon; Lee, Kanghee; Lim, Jongseok; Hong, Sei Sun; Kim, Young Kie; Ahn, Jaewook

    2013-12-20

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy probes the optical properties of naturally occurring solid aggregates of minerals, or stones, in the THz frequency range. Refractive index and extinction coefficient measurement reveals that most natural stones, including mudstone, sandstone, granite, tuff, gneiss, diorite, slate, marble, and dolomite, are fairly transparent for THz frequency waves. Dolomite in particular exhibits a nearly uniform refractive index of 2.7 over the broad frequency range from 0.1 to 1 THz. The high index of refraction allows flexibility in lens designing with a shorter accessible focal length or a thinner lens with a given focal length. Good agreement between the experiment and calculation for the THz beam profile confirms that dolomite has high homogeneity as a lens material, suggesting the possibility of using natural stones for THz optical elements. PMID:24513932

  1. Proteome of melamine urinary bladder stones and implication for stone formation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-dong; Liu, Jian-jun; Yuan, Jian-hui; Tao, Gong-hua; Wu, De-sheng; Yang, Xi-fei; Yang, Lin-qing; Huang, Hai-yan; Zhou, Li; Xu, Xin-yun; Hu, Jun-jie; Zhuang, Zhi-xiong

    2012-08-01

    Melamine can cause urinary stones related to nephropathy of the kidney and hyperplasia or carcinoma of the bladder, but the mechanism of stone formation is not well understood. In this study, male rats were administered melamine for thirteen weeks to establish melamine bladder stone models and the stones were analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and western blot, respectively, for the composition and proteome, and to explore the implication of proteins for stone formation. The results showed bladder stones were composed of predominant melamine and a few amount of proteins. The proteins had a wide range of molecular weights and 1051 proteins were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) classification of the identified proteins showed most proteins were from injured cells, involved in various metabolic processes and had binding functions. Of the identified proteins, there were a few inflammatory proteins and urinary proteins. Physicochemical characteristics of the identified proteins showed that 67.1% proteins' isoelectric points (pI) value was below 7.0, 91.1% proteins' grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY) scores were below 0 and nearly half of the proteins were stable. Our data indicated proteins might play an important role in melamine bladder stone formation. PMID:22688180

  2. Monitoring for Renal Stone Recurrence in Astronauts With History of Stone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David P.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Locke, James; Davis, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    After an initial stone episode persons are at increased risk for future stone formation. A systematic approach is required to monitor the efficacy of treatment and preventive measures, and to assess the risk of developing new stones. This is important for persons working in critical jobs or austere environments, such as astronauts. A literature review of the current standards of care for renal stone monitoring and imaging was done. Military and civil aviation standards were also reviewed, as well as the medical precedents from the space program. Additionally, a new, more effective, renal stone ultrasound protocol has been developed. Using this work, a monitoring algorithm was proposed that takes into consideration the unique mission and operational environment of spaceflight. The approach to imaging persons with history of renal stones varies widely in the literature. Imaging is often done yearly or biannually, which may be too long for mission critical personnel. In the proposed algorithm astronauts with a history of renal stone, who may be under consideration for assignment, are imaged by a detailed, physiciandriven, ultrasound protocol. Unassigned personnel are monitored by yearly ultrasound and urine studies. Any positive ultrasound study is then followed by low-dose renal computed tomography scan. Other criteria are also established. The proposed algorithm provides a balanced approach between efficacy and reduced radiation exposure for the monitoring of astronauts with a renal stone history. This may eventually allow a transition from a risk-averse, to a risk-modifying approach that can enable continued service of individuals with history of renal stone that have adequately controlled risk factors.

  3. Building stones of our Nation's Capital

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Withington, Charles F.

    1975-01-01

    The buildings of our Nation's Capital serve as an unusual geologic display, for the city has been constructed with rocks from quarries throughout the United States and many distant lands. Each building is a unique museum that not only displays the important features of various stones and the geologic environment in which they were formed, but also serves as an historic witness to the city's growth and to the development of its architecture. This booklet describes the source and appearance of the stones used in Washington, D.C.; it includes a map and a walking guide to assist the visitor in examining them.

  4. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain significance. However, a small asymptomatic MRM or stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic, and so affect launch and flight schedules, cause incapacitation during flight, and ultimately require medical evacuation. For exploration class missions, evacuation is unlikely. The new screening and management algorithm allows better management of mission risks, and will define the true incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts. This information will be used to refine future screening, countermeasures and treatment methods; and will also inform the needed capabilities to be flown on exploration-class missions.

  5. View east, stone sluice, beginning of lower standing section, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, stone sluice, beginning of lower standing section, showing third drop, stone pier in center, cement piers to right - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  6. 9. Raven's roost overlook detail of the rusticated stone retaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Raven's roost overlook detail of the rusticated stone retaining wall/railing and stone curbing. Facing west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  7. 54. View looking north on meal floor level showing stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. View looking north on meal floor level showing stone floor, mill stone vat and hurst frame. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1D-6 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  8. 15. DETAIL VIEW, AT STREET LEVEL, OF REMAINING STONE POST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL VIEW, AT STREET LEVEL, OF REMAINING STONE POST ON NORTH SIDE, STONE WALL AND METAL RAILING ON SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Lake Street Bridge, Spanning Ruddiman Creek at Lake Shore Drive, Muskegon, Muskegon County, MI

  9. 22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, VIEW TO ORANGE STREET FROM GARDNER HOUSES - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  10. 24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. August, 1970 STONE ALLEY, LOOKING TOWARD ORANGE STREET FROM HALF-WAY POINT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  11. 45. VIEW OF TWO ROOM STONE STRUCTURES BELOW ELLIS WORKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF TWO ROOM STONE STRUCTURES BELOW ELLIS WORKS TAILINGS, ALONG ACCESS ROAD TO SITE LOOKING NORTHWEST. NOTICE OTHER STONE HOUSES ALONG RIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  12. VIEW OF TWO ROOM STONE STRUCTURES BELOW ELLIS WORKS TAILINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWO ROOM STONE STRUCTURES BELOW ELLIS WORKS TAILINGS, ALONG ACCESS ROAD TO SITE LOOKING NORTHWEST. NOTICE OTHER STONE HOUSES ALONG RIDGE TO THE RIGHT. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  13. 3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST HEADWALL AND CARVED STONE UNIT IDENTIFYING THE BUILDER AND YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION, FACING NORTHEAST. - Cut Stone Bridge, Southern Pacific Railroad line spanning runoff channel at South Spruce Avenue, South San Francisco, San Mateo County, CA

  14. 1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE NORTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  15. 3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. STONE CABIN II FROM ABOVE SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  16. 2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I FROM SOUTHEAST CORNER. CAMERA POINTED WEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  17. 2. STONE CABIN II FROM MIDNORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. STONE CABIN II FROM MID-NORTHERN WALL. CAMERA POINTED SOUTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  18. 1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I AND LANDSCAPE TO THE NORTH. CAMERA POINTED NORTH. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  19. 3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EASTNORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  20. 4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CHIMNEY STONE CABIN I. CAMERA POINTED EAST-NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin I, West slope Florida Mountain, Northeast Empire Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  1. 8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FLOOR 1: TENTERING GEAR FOR SOUTH STONES, CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE, VERY SHORT STEELYARD - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  2. Prediction of calcium oxalate monohydrate stone composition during ureteroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidizedah, Reza; Melnyk, Megan; Teichman, Joel M. H.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: Prior research shows that Ho:YAG lithotripsy produces tiny dust fragments at low pulse energy (0.2J). However, calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones may not fragment at this low pulse energy setting. Stone composition is rarely known until after surgery and historically, attempts to predict stone composition on the basis of endoscopic stone appearance were unsuccessful. Current endoscopic technology permits visual details that previously were not evident. As COM appears black under ambient light, we attempt to predict COM stone composition at the time of ureteroscopy based on its endoscopic appearance. Methods: Consecutive subjects undergoing ureteroscopy for stone disease were studied. Any portion of the stone that appeared black under endoscopic vision was considered clinical evidence of COM. Predicted stone composition was correlated with post-operative calculus analysis. Results: 46 consecutive ureteroscopic stone cases were analyzed prospectively. 25 of 28 subjects (89%) with black stones had stones later proven to be COM by composition analysis, versus one of 18 patients (6%) with non-black stones that were COM (p<0.0001). A black endoscopic stone appearance had a positive predictive value for COM of 89% and a non-black endoscopic stone appearance had a negative predictive value for COM of 94% (sensitivity 96%, specificity 83%). Conclusions: COM may reasonably be predicted intra-operatively by its black endoscopic appearance. The clinical utility would be to use higher laser pulse energy settings than for non-COM compositions. This data raises the possibility that more sophisticated optical characterization of endoscopic stone appearance may prove to be a useful tool to predict stone composition.

  3. The ROKS Nomogram for Predicting a Second Symptomatic Stone Episode

    PubMed Central

    Lieske, John C.; Li, Xujian; Melton, L. Joseph; Krambeck, Amy E.; Bergstralh, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with first-time kidney stones undergo limited evaluations, and few receive preventive therapy. A prediction tool for the risk of a second kidney stone episode is needed to optimize treatment strategies. We identified adult first-time symptomatic stone formers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1984 to 2003 and manually reviewed their linked comprehensive medical records through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical characteristics in the medical record before or up to 90 days after the first stone episode were evaluated as predictors for symptomatic recurrence. A nomogram was developed from a multivariable model based on these characteristics. There were 2239 first-time adult kidney stone formers with evidence of a passed, obstructing, or infected stone causing pain or gross hematuria. Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 707 of these stone formers through 2012 (recurrence rates at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 11%, 20%, 31%, and 39%, respectively). A parsimonious model had the following risk factors for recurrence: younger age, male sex, white race, family history of stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Ten-year recurrence rates varied from 12% to 56% between the first and fifth quintiles of nomogram score. The Recurrence of Kidney Stone nomogram identifies kidney stone formers at greatest risk for a second symptomatic episode. Such individuals may benefit from medical intervention and be good candidates for prevention trials. PMID:25104803

  4. The ROKS nomogram for predicting a second symptomatic stone episode.

    PubMed

    Rule, Andrew D; Lieske, John C; Li, Xujian; Melton, L Joseph; Krambeck, Amy E; Bergstralh, Eric J

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with first-time kidney stones undergo limited evaluations, and few receive preventive therapy. A prediction tool for the risk of a second kidney stone episode is needed to optimize treatment strategies. We identified adult first-time symptomatic stone formers residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1984 to 2003 and manually reviewed their linked comprehensive medical records through the Rochester Epidemiology Project. Clinical characteristics in the medical record before or up to 90 days after the first stone episode were evaluated as predictors for symptomatic recurrence. A nomogram was developed from a multivariable model based on these characteristics. There were 2239 first-time adult kidney stone formers with evidence of a passed, obstructing, or infected stone causing pain or gross hematuria. Symptomatic recurrence occurred in 707 of these stone formers through 2012 (recurrence rates at 2, 5, 10, and 15 years were 11%, 20%, 31%, and 39%, respectively). A parsimonious model had the following risk factors for recurrence: younger age, male sex, white race, family history of stones, prior asymptomatic stone on imaging, prior suspected stone episode, gross hematuria, nonobstructing (asymptomatic) stone on imaging, symptomatic renal pelvic or lower-pole stone on imaging, no ureterovesicular junction stone on imaging, and uric acid stone composition. Ten-year recurrence rates varied from 12% to 56% between the first and fifth quintiles of nomogram score. The Recurrence of Kidney Stone nomogram identifies kidney stone formers at greatest risk for a second symptomatic episode. Such individuals may benefit from medical intervention and be good candidates for prevention trials. PMID:25104803

  5. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone, uncolored by any artificial means....

  6. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone, uncolored by any artificial means....

  7. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone, uncolored by any artificial means....

  8. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone, uncolored by any artificial means....

  9. 25 CFR 301.6 - Stone for ornamentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS 301.6 Stone for ornamentation. In addition to turquoise, the use of other local stone is permitted. Turquoise, if used, must be genuine stone, uncolored by any artificial means....

  10. 29. DETAIL OF A STONE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL OF A STONE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN, SHOWING THE MAKER'S MARK. STONE FROM THE GARFIELD COMPANY WERE USED IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF BOTH THE BEEHIVE AND RECTANGULAR OVENS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  11. 8. TENTERING GEAR OF EAST BURR STONES; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TENTERING GEAR OF EAST BURR STONES; CENTRIFUGAL GOVERNOR MOUNTED ON STONE SPINDLE; ALSO SEEN IS THE CHUTE FROM THE TUN OF THE BURR STONES; HANGING IN THE BACKGROUND ARE THE MILL SAILS. - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  12. Stone Soup: The Teacher Leader's Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambrick-Santoyo, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In the tale of "Stone Soup," a stranger vows to make soup for everyone in a village using only a stone--and convinces everyone in town to throw an ingredient into the stewpot. Schools that need to improve teacher practice quickly can also make stone soup, the author says, by harnessing the power of well-prepared teacher leaders to

  13. A Radiographic Correlation between Renal and Pulp Stones

    PubMed Central

    Ertas, E Tarim; Inci, M; Demirtas, A; Ertas, H; Yengil, E; Sisman, Y; Gokce, C

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between pulp stones and renal stones. This study also aimed to report associations between the presence of pulp stone and gender, age, tooth type, dental arches and sides. Patients and Methods: Data were collected through examination of bitewing radiographs of 116 kidney stone patients and a similar number of age-matched controls, referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Erciyes University. Two oral radiologists examined the radiographs to identify pulp stones. The Chi-squared and Mann Whitney U tests were used to investigate the correlations between the presence of pulp chamber calcification and age, gender, dental status and kidney stone. Results: Pulp chamber opacities were detected in 199 (19.3%) out of the 1031 examined teeth, and in 84 (72.4%) out of the 116 kidney stone patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the study and control group (p = 0.882). The occurrence of pulp stones was significantly higher in molars than premolars and similar prevalences were found between dental arches and sides. Conclusion: In this study, no correlation was found between the presence of pulp stones and kidney stones in the investigated group. Therefore, the presence of pulp stones does not seem to be correlated with that of kidney stones. PMID:25803378

  14. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this picture of Stone Soup trench on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Endolithic phototrophs in built and natural stone.

    PubMed

    Gaylarde, Christine C; Gaylarde, Peter M; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-08-01

    Lichens, algae and cyanobacteria have been detected growing endolithically in natural rock and in stone buildings in various countries of Australasia, Europe and Latin America. Previously these organisms had mainly been described in natural carbonaceous rocks in aquatic environments, with some reports in siliceous rocks, principally from extremophilic regions. Using various culture and microscopy methods, we have detected endoliths in siliceous stone, both natural and cut, in humid temperate and subtropical climates. Such endolithic growth leads to degradation of the stone structure, not only by mechanical means, but also by metabolites liberated by the cells. Using in vitro culture, transmission, optical and fluorescence microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy, both coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria and algae, including Cyanidiales, have been identified growing endolithically in the facades of historic buildings built from limestone, sandstone, granite, basalt and soapstone, as well as in some natural rocks. Numerically, the most abundant are small, single-celled, colonial cyanobacteria. These small phototrophs are difficult to detect by standard microscope techniques and some of these species have not been previously reported within stone. PMID:22614098

  16. [Reproduction of interocclusal relationship on stone casts].

    PubMed

    Arai, Y

    2000-12-01

    We fabricate a prosthesis by the indirect method. To fabricate a prosthesis functionally harmonized with the stomatognathic system, the interocclusal relationship must be reproduced on stone casts as accurately as possible. In this study, two subjects (one male, age 28; one female, age 31) were selected, and the occlusal contacts of complete arch stone casts made by three different impression methods were observed and compared with the true occlusal contacts in the intercuspal position in the mouth. To take the interocclusal records, we used a silicone bite checker. The following results were obtained. The occlusal contact points reproduced on the stone casts made by a conventional custom tray and a stock tray were rather low; that is, the number of occlusal contact points was less, and the size of the occlusal contact area was smaller, than in vivo. The states of the occlusal contact on the casts made by the same method differed from each other. On the bite-impression technique, the reproduction of occlusal contact was superior to that of the others. The shape, area, and number of contact regions under 60 micrometers were similar to contact regions under 30 micrometers in the mouth. There was no significant difference in reproduction between the custom tray and the stock tray. It is likely that the results were due to the distortion of the jaws and periodontal tissue during clenching at the intercuspal position, which could not be reproduced on the stone casts made by both the conventional custom and stock trays. PMID:11201196

  17. Profilometry of medieval Irish stone monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daubos, Thierry; Redfern, Michael; O Croinin, Daibh

    2005-06-01

    National monuments are at ever-increasing risk of severe and permanent damage. The 3D laser scanning of stone monuments brings a new dimension in the field of cultural heritage by providing means of preserving, visualizing, accessing and analysing some of its most invaluable artefacts. In this article, we present the results obtained with our project "Profilometry of Medieval Irish Stone Monuments" hosted at the Centre for the Study of Human Settlement and Historical Change, NUI Galway. This project aims to create a virtual archive of selected incised stones from 3D scans taken in the field. The raw scans are processed into watertight 3D models and new processing techniques have been developed to enhance the surface features of the stones. Also, textured 3D models of the artefacts have been made available online for the benefit of both the historian community and the broader public. This article focuses on the analysis we performed on the shaft of the east cross at Toureen Peacaun, Co Tipperary, which shows the longest inscription in Ireland with geometrical capitals.

  18. Environmental management of the stone cutting industry.

    PubMed

    Nasserdine, Khaled; Mimi, Ziad; Bevan, Blair; Elian, Belal

    2009-01-01

    Environmental Management of the stone cutting industry in Hebron is required to reduce the industry's adverse impact on the downstream agricultural land and the adverse impact on the drinking water aquifers. This situation requires the implementation of an industrial wastewater management strategic approach and technology, within the available technical and financial resources. Ten pilot projects at different locations were built at Hebron to reduce or eliminate the incompatible discharge of the liquid and solid waste to the environment and improve the stone cutting industry's effluent quality. A review of existing practices and jar test experiments were used to optimize the water recycling and treatment facilities. The factors reviewed included influent pumping rates and cycles, selection of the optimal coagulant type and addition methods, control of the sludge recycling process, control over flow rates, control locations of influent and effluent, and sludge depth. Based on the optimized doses and Turbidity results, it was determined that the use of Fokland polymer with an optimal dose of 1.5mg/L could achieve the target turbidity levels. The completion of the pilot projects resulted in the elimination of stone cutting waste discharges and an improvement in the recycled effluent quality of 44-99%. This in turn reduced the long term operating costs for each participating firm. A full-scale project that includes all the stone cutting firms in Hebron industrial area is required. PMID:18248874

  19. Transducer Joint for Kidney-Stone Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angulo, E. D.

    1983-01-01

    Ultrasonic therapy for kidney stones improved by new way of connecting wire-probe ultrasonic waveguide to transducer. Improved mounting allows joint to last long enough for effective treatment. Sheath and rubber dampers constrain lateral vibration of wire waveguide. Combination of V-shaped mounting groove, sheath, and rubber dampers increases life expectancy of wire 15 times or more.

  20. Kidney Stones - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... List of All Topics All Kidney Stones - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) French (français) Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) ...

  1. Honors Education and Stone-Campbell Heritage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willerton, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the Stone-Campbell tradition, which produced the North American Disciples of Christ and Churches of Christ. In this tradition he finds the distinctive combination of three emphases to promote civic virtues in an honors context: (1) the individual pursuit of truth; (2) reliance on Scripture; and (3) the drive

  2. Deep 'Stone Soup' Trenching by Phoenix (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Digging by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Aug. 23, 2008, during the 88th sol (Martian day) since landing, reached a depth about three times greater than in any trench Phoenix has excavated. The deep trench, informally called 'Stone Soup' is at the borderline between two of the polygon-shaped hummocks that characterize the arctic plain where Phoenix landed.

    Stone Soup is in the center foreground of this stereo view, which appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. The view combines left-eye and right-eye images taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 88 after the day's digging. The trench is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide and about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep.

    When digging trenches near polygon centers, Phoenix has hit a layer of icy soil, as hard as concrete, about 5 centimeters or 2 inches beneath the ground surface. In the Stone Soup trench at a polygon margin, the digging has not yet hit an icy layer like that.

    Stone Soup is toward the left, or west, end of the robotic arm's work area on the north side of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Drop impact on natural porous stones.

    PubMed

    Lee, J B; Derome, D; Carmeliet, J

    2016-05-01

    Drop impact and spreading on three natural porous stones are experimentally determined using high-speed imaging and compared with spreading over an impermeable steel surface. The dynamic non-wetting behavior during spreading and the hydrophobic contact angle >90° is attributed to the presence of an air layer between the droplet and the porous substrate. As the contact line pins at maximum spreading on the porous stone, the maximum spreading determines the liquid contact area on such substrate. The droplet gets pinned when the air layer is broken at the contact line and capillary forces develop in fines pores at the droplet edge, pinning the droplet. Maximum spreading on porous stones increases with impact velocity but does not scale with Weber number at low impact velocity. It is demonstrated that dynamic wetting plays an important role in the spreading at low velocity and that the dynamic wetting as characterized by the dynamic contact angle θD has to be taken into account for predicting the maximum spreading. Correcting the maximum spreading ratio with the dynamic wetting behavior, all data for porous stones and non-porous substrate collapse onto a single curve. PMID:26874980

  4. Effect of blind treatment on stone disease.

    PubMed

    Fazil Marickar, Y M; Salim, Abiya; Vijay, Adarsh

    2010-06-01

    Most of the drugs administered to stone patients appear to be inappropriate and doing more harm than good to the patients. The objective of this paper is to identify the prevalence of blind chemotherapy among the stone patients and find out the real indication for the drugs administered. Patients who attended the stone clinic for the first time were interviewed to find out what drugs they had been taking before the attendance at the stone clinic. 350 patients consuming specific drugs relevant to stone formation at least for a period of 15 days were selected for a detailed assessment. The type of drug consumed, the dose, the duration, the side effects, compliance rate and effect on stone disease were assessed. The biochemical profile of the patients was assessed to identify the role of the therapeutic modalities utilised. Conclusions regarding the utility of drugs in the process of stone formation were made. The values were compared with those of patients not on medication and considering laboratory standards. Of the 350 patients studied, 96 patients were consuming potassium citrate in different doses, 50 were consuming allopurinol, 44 cystone, 27 potassium citrate + magnesium, 25 calcury, 24 rowatinex, 21 ayurvedic drugs, 17 dystone, 17 homeopathic medicines and 17 other drugs. The longest duration of compliance was for cystone-2.5 years. All other drugs were stopped by the patients themselves due to recurrence of symptoms. As much as 93% of the patients did not feel that there was any significant relief of symptoms. The side effects which prompted the patients to stop medicine were gastro intestinal upset, particularly with potassium citrate, rowatinex and potassium citrate + magnesium combination. The relevant biochemical changes noted were increased urinary citrate levels in patients consuming potassium citrate alone or in combination with magnesium. Serum uric acid was within normal limits in patients consuming allopurinol. Urine uric acid levels were also lower in patients on allopurinol. It is concluded that most of the drugs administered blindly were neither indicated nor beneficial for the patients. Metabolic correction has to be based on proper metabolic assessment. PMID:19997722

  5. Stone Comminution Correlates with the Average Peak Pressure Incident on a Stone during Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, N.; Zhong, P.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (Rh = 7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P+(avg)) incident on the stone (D = 10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1,000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P+(avg) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P+(avg)) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters. PMID:22935690

  6. Pros and cons of the nonsurgical treatments for gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Thistle, J L

    1989-10-01

    Dissolution of gallbladder stones is usually possible if the cholesterol content of the stones is high. Oral treatment with chenodiol or ursodiol is least invasive, but also least effective and slow. methyl tert-butyl ether requires delivery by percutaneous transhepatic catheter, but is rapidly effective. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy enhances dissolution by oral bile acids, but is highly effective only for solitary stones less than or equal to 20 mm in diameter. Percutaneous cholecystostomy is most invasive, but effective regardless of stone composition. Stones will probably recur in 50 percent of patients with a patent cystic duct and intact gallbladder. PMID:2695446

  7. Ureteroscopy and stones: Current status and future expectations

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Anna E; Rukin, Nicholas J; Somani, Bhaskar K

    2014-01-01

    Urolithaisis is becoming an ever increasing urological, nephrological and primary care problem. With a lifetime prevalence approaching 10% and increasing morbidity due to stone disease, the role of ureteroscopy and stone removal is becoming more important. We discuss the current status of stone disease and review the ever increasing role that ureteroscopy has to play in its management. We discuss technological advances that have been made in stone management and give you an overview of when, how and why ureteroscopy is the most common treatment option for stone management. We touch on the role of robotic ureteroscopy and the future of ureteroscopy in the next 10 years. PMID:25374818

  8. Bile duct stone formation around a Prolene suture after cholangioenterostomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Tao, Liang; Wu, Xingyu; Mou, Lingjun; Sun, Xitai; Zhou, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    The iatrogenic cause of bile duct stone formation is mainly due to suture materials, especially silk sutures. In recent years, Prolene and Vicryl sutures have been widely used in biliary surgery, and bile duct stone formation related to sutures are seemingly becoming rare, as there has only been one report of bile duct stone formation caused by Prolene sutures in the literature. In the last few years we have had two cases of Prolene suture-related bile duct stone formation within our unit. We therefore suggest that Vicryl sutures should be used as the first choice in biliary surgery, in order to prevent the formation of iatrogenic bile duct stones.

  9. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  10. Metabolic syndrome: a multifaceted risk factor for kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Fernando; Serra, Adelaide

    2014-10-01

    Kidney stones and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are common conditions in industrialized countries. There is growing evidence of associations between kidney stone disease and MetS or some of its components. The link between uric acid stones and MetS is well understood, but the link with calcium oxalate (CaOx) stones, the most common kidney stone composition, is more complex, and MetS is frequently overlooked as a risk factor for calcium nephrolithiasis. The physiopathological mechanisms of kidney stone disease in MetS are reviewed in this article. Uric acid stones are a consequence of the excessively acidic urine that results from insulin resistance. The pathophysiology of CaOx stones may include: increased excretion of lithogenesis promoters and decreased excretion of inhibitors; increased risk of Randall's plaque development; and inflammatory damage to renal epithelia by oxidative stress, as a consequence of the insulin-resistant milieu that characterizes MetS. The last mechanism contributes to the adhesion of CaOx crystals to subepithelial calcium deposits working as anchor sites where stones can grow. The predominant MetS features could determine the chemical composition of the stones in each patient. Kidney stones may be a renal manifestation of MetS and features of this syndrome should be looked for in patients with idiopathic nephrolithiasis. PMID:24708398

  11. Utility and Limitation of Cumulative Stone Diameter in Predicting Urinary Stone Burden at Flexible Ureteroscopy with Holmium Laser Lithotripsy: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroki; Kawahara, Takashi; Terao, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Takehiko; Yao, Masahiro; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To retrospectively assess the clinical utility in ureteroscopy (URS) planning of cumulative stone diameter (CSD), which does not account for stone width or depth, as a predictor of URS outcome and compare it with stone volume. Materials and Methods Patients with renal stones treated at a single institute by flexible URS were retrospectively evaluated. To assess the clinical utility of CSD, relationships between stone-free (SF) status and stone burden (CSD and volume) were analyzed using the area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve. To identify stone number impact on CSD, the AUROC of CSD divided by stone number was evaluated. Correlation coefficients of CSD and stone volume were also calculated for groups by stone number. Results In cases with CSD <20.0 mm, CSD and stone volume revealed equal ability to predict SF status. In cases with CSD ?20.0 mm, stone volume showed higher predictive ability. The ROC curves for cases with ?4 stones showed that CSD was less predictive of SF status than stone volume. The correlation coefficients of CSD and stone volume by stone number were 0.922 for 1 stone, 0.900 for 23 stones, and 0.661 for ?4 stones. Conclusions In cases with CSD ?20.0 mm or ?4 stones, we should evaluate stone volume for a more predictive stone burden, and pretreatment non-contrast CT seems sufficient. In cases with CSD <20.0 mm or 13 stones, CSD was as valid a predictor of preoperative stone burden as stone volume, so preoperative kidney-ureter-bladder (KUB) films may be sufficient. PMID:23750229

  12. Kidney Stones in Primary Hyperoxaluria: New Lessons Learnt

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Dorrit E.; Grohe, Bernd; Gener, Michaela; Beck, Bodo B.; Hoppe, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    To investigate potential differences in stone composition with regard to the type of Primary Hyperoxaluria (PH), and in relation to the patients medical therapy (treatment nave patients versus those on preventive medication) we examined twelve kidney stones from ten PH I and six stones from four PH III patients. Unfortunately, no PH II stones were available for analysis. The study on this set of stones indicates a more diverse composition of PH stones than previously reported and a potential dynamic response of morphology and composition of calculi to treatment with crystallization inhibitors (citrate, magnesium) in PH I. Stones formed by PH I patients under treatment are more compact and consist predominantly of calcium-oxalate monohydrate (COM, whewellite), while calcium-oxalate dihydrate (COD, weddellite) is only rarely present. In contrast, the single stone available from a treatment nave PH I patient as well as stones from PH III patients prior to and under treatment with alkali citrate contained a wide size range of aggregated COD crystals. No significant effects of the treatment were noted in PH III stones. In disagreement with findings from previous studies, stones from patients with primary hyperoxaluria did not exclusively consist of COM. Progressive replacement of COD by small COM crystals could be caused by prolonged stone growth and residence times in the urinary tract, eventually resulting in complete replacement of calcium-oxalate dihydrate by the monohydrate form. The noted difference to the nave PH I stone may reflect a reduced growth rate in response to treatment. This pilot study highlights the importance of detailed stone diagnostics and could be of therapeutic relevance in calcium-oxalates urolithiasis, provided that the effects of treatment can be reproduced in subsequent larger studies. PMID:23940605

  13. The "Global Heritage Stone Resource": Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry

    2013-04-01

    The "Global Heritage Stone Resource" designation arose in 2007 as a suggested mechanism to enhance international recognition of famous dimension stones. There were also many aspects of dimension stone study that had no formal recognition in mainstream geology and which could be recognised in a formal geological sense via an internationally acceptable geological standard. Such a standard could also receive recognition by other professionals and the wider community. From the start, it was appreciated that active quarrying would an important aspect of the designation so a designation different to any other standard was needed. Also the project was linked to the long-established Commission C-10 Building Stone and Ornamental Rocks of the International Association of Engineering Geology and the Environment (IAEG C-10). Since 2007, the "Global Heritage Stone Resource" (GHSR) proposal has evolved in both in stature and purpose due to an increasing number of interested international correspondents that were actively sought via conference participation. The "English Stone Forum" in particular was pursuing similar aims and was quick to advise that English dimension stone types were being recognised as having international, national or regional importance. Furthermore the proposed designation was suggested as to having significant value in safeguarding designated stone types whilst also providing a potential mechanism in preventing heritage stone replacement by cheap substitutes. During development it also became apparent that stone types having practical applications such as roofing slates and millstones or even stone types utilised by prehistoric man can also be recognised by the new designation. The heritage importance of architects was also recognised. Most importantly an international network evolved, primarily including geologists, that now seems to be the largest international grouping of dimension stone professionals. This has assisted the project to affiliate with the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) in 2011 as its Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG). The future is likely to hold further surprises. There could be benefits in establishing a permanent organisation or "Commission" within IUGS. There may also be value in preparing and maintaining an "International Guide to Heritage Stone Designation" that considers, not only those stone types that have international significance, but also those of national, regional and local importance. It is now considered that all dimension stone types may be considered a "potential heritage stone". Publications of all types that describe, discuss and promote nominated stone types will be beneficial. For good administration of the designation, the current HSTG "Terms of Reference" will likely require revision. For the immediate future, the major effort should focus on preparing and approving GHSR nominations. Over time the focus will likely move onto promoting community recognition of the designation, protecting recognised GHSRs and revising the existing heritage status of designated stones.

  14. Safety and efficacy of using the stone cone and an entrapment and extraction device in ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteric stones

    PubMed Central

    Shabana, Waleed; Teleb, Mohamed; Dawod, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of using a stone cone and an entrapment and extraction device (N-Trap, Cook Urological, Bloomington, IN, USA) to avoid stone retropulsion during ureteroscopic lithotripsy for ureteric stones. Patients and methods This retrospective comparative study included 436 patients treated with ureteroscopic lithotripsy for a single ureteric stone from February 2011 to January 2014. The diagnosis of a stone was confirmed by plain spiral computed tomography in all cases. Patients were divided according to the ureteric occlusion device applied to avoid stone retropulsion during pneumatic lithotripsy into three groups; group 1 (156) had no instruments used, group 2 (140) in whom the stone cone was applied, and group 3 (140) in whom the N-Trap was used. Patient demographics, stone criteria, operative duration and complications, and success rates (complete stone disintegration with no upward migration) were reported and analysed statistically. Results The stone was in the lower ureter in >55% of patients in all groups. The mean (SD) of maximum stone length was 9.8 (2.5), 10.4 (2.8) and 9.7 (2.9) in groups 13, respectively. The use of the stone cone or N-Trap did not significantly increase the operative duration (P=0.13) or complication rates (P=0.67). There was a statistically significant difference (P<0.001) favouring groups 2 and 3 for retropulsion and success rates, being 83.3% in group 1, 97.1% in group 2 and 95.7% in group 3. Conclusion The stone cone and N-Trap gave high success rates in preventing stone retropulsion during ureteric pneumatic lithotripsy. Both devices caused no increase in operative duration or complications when used cautiously. PMID:26413324

  15. Analysis of renal stones by capillary isotachophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jarolmov, Zde?ka; Lubal, P?emysl; Kanick, Viktor

    2012-08-30

    An analytical method for the determination of the composition of renal stones by capillary isotachophoresis with conductometric detection was developed. Using different leading/terminating electrolyte systems, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic compounds (urate, xanthate, oxalate) and inorganic ions (phosphate, Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), NH(4)(+)) species commonly present in mixed renal stones in three separate steps can be carried out with limits of detection about 10 ?mol/L. The developed method was validated by the analysis of real samples and can be used for urinary calculi classification. In addition, it was verified that this method can also be employed for the determination of the above mentioned analytes in some other samples (bones, teeth) concerning apatite biominerals (fluoro-, carbonate-, chloro-apatite). PMID:22939127

  16. Surface analysis of stone and bone tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemp, W. James; Watson, Adam S.; Evans, Adrian A.

    2016-03-01

    Microwear (use-wear) analysis is a powerful method for identifying tool use that archaeologists and anthropologists employ to determine the activities undertaken by both humans and their hominin ancestors. Knowledge of tool use allows for more accurate and detailed reconstructions of past behavior, particularly in relation to subsistence practices, economic activities, conflict and ritual. It can also be used to document changes in these activities over time, in different locations, and by different members of society, in terms of gender and status, for example. Both stone and bone tools have been analyzed using a variety of techniques that focus on the observation, documentation and interpretation of wear traces. Traditionally, microwear analysis relied on the qualitative assessment of wear features using microscopes and often included comparisons between replicated tools used experimentally and the recovered artifacts, as well as functional analogies dependent upon modern implements and those used by indigenous peoples from various places around the world. Determination of tool use has also relied on the recovery and analysis of both organic and inorganic residues of past worked materials that survived in and on artifact surfaces. To determine tool use and better understand the mechanics of wear formation, particularly on stone and bone, archaeologists and anthropologists have increasingly turned to surface metrology and tribology to assist them in their research. This paper provides a history of the development of traditional microwear analysis in archaeology and anthropology and also explores the introduction and adoption of more modern methods and technologies for documenting and identifying wear on stone and bone tools, specifically those developed for the engineering sciences to study surface structures on micro- and nanoscales. The current state of microwear analysis is discussed as are the future directions in the study of microwear on stone and bone tools.

  17. Minority shareholder claims foul at Stone & Webster

    SciTech Connect

    Krizan, W.G.

    1994-05-09

    An activist minority shareholder is trying to shake up the management of one of the industry`s oldest firms, New York City-based engineering-constructor Stone & Webster Inc., The shareholder has filed a lawsuit against the 105-year-old firm, claiming that it is understanding losses from construction activities and is using the voting rights of employee-owned stock to perpetuate current management to the detriment of all shareholders.

  18. Preparation of charcoal from cherry stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durn-Valle, Carlos J.; Gmez-Corzo, Manuel; Gmez-Serrano, Vicente; Pastor-Villegas, Jos; Rojas-Cervantes, Mara L.

    2006-06-01

    Cherry stones (CS) are carbonised at 400-1000 C for 0-4 h in N 2 and the charcoals obtained are characterised to gain information about their chemical composition and porous texture, with a view to their use in the preparation of activated carbon. Depending on the heating conditions, the products obtained may possess a low ash content and a high fixed carbon content and are essentially microporous and macroporous solids.

  19. Minimally invasive surgical treatment for kidney stone disease.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez, Dayron; Sacco, Dianne E

    2015-07-01

    Minimally invasive interventions for stone disease in the United States are mainly founded on 3 surgical procedures: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopic lithotripsy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. With the advancement of technology, treatment has shifted toward less invasive strategies and away from open or laparoscopic surgery. The treatment chosen for a patient with stones is based on the stone and patient characteristics. Each of the minimally invasive techniques uses an imaging source, either fluoroscopy or ultrasound, to localize the stone and an energy source to fragment the stone. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy uses a shock wave energy source generated outside the body to fragment the stone. In contrast, with ureteroscopy, laser energy is placed directly on the stone using a ureteroscope that visualizes the stone. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy requires dilation of a tract through the back into the renal pelvis so that instruments can be inserted directly onto the stone to fragment or pulverize it. The success of the surgical intervention relies on performing the least invasive technique with the highest success of stone removal. PMID:26088070

  20. Renal stone disease in spinal-cord-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Welk, Blayne; Fuller, Andrew; Razvi, Hassan; Denstedt, John

    2012-08-01

    Renal stone disease is common among patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). They frequently have recurrent stones, staghorn calculi, and bilateral stone disease. The potential risk factors for stones in the SCI population are lesion level, bladder management strategy, specific metabolic changes, and frequent urinary tract infections. There has been a reduction in struvite stones among these patients, likely as a result of advances in their urologic care. The clinical presentation of stone disease in patients with SCI may involve frequent urinary infections or urosepsis, and at the time of presentation patients may need emergency renal drainage. The proportion of patients who have their stones treated with different modalities is largely unknown. Shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is commonly used to manage stones in patients with SCI, and there have been reports of stone-free rates of 50% to 70%. The literature suggests that the morbidity associated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy in these patients is considerable. Ureteroscopy is a common modality used in the general population to treat patients with upper tract stone disease. Traditional limitations of this procedure in patients with SCI have likely been overcome with new flexible scopes; however, the medical literature has not specifically reported on its use among patients with SCI. PMID:22356464

  1. Urinary infection stones caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum: a review.

    PubMed

    Grenabo, L; Hedelin, H; Pettersson, S

    1988-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have been performed to determine whether Ureaplasma urealyticum has an etiological role in the development of infection stones in the urinary tract. Incubation of synthetic urine in vitro with U. urealyticum caused alkalinization of the urine and crystallization of struvite and calcium phosphate. Inoculation of U. urealyticum into rat bladders resulted in the formation of struvite stones in 84% of the rats. Furthermore, infection with U. urealyticum markedly increased the adherence of urease-induced crystals to the bladder epithelium compared to normal rat bladders, probably due to elimination of the mucous coat which covers the normal urothelium. Clinically, U. urealyticum has been cultured from voided urine and from the stone in patients operated on for renal stones. U. urealyticum was cultured in voided urine in 31 of 247 patients (13%) with metabolic stones, compared to 43 of 145 patients (30%) with infection stones (p less than 0.001). In the patients where stone cultures were performed, U. urealyticum was found in 2 of 125 patients (2%) with metabolic stones, compared to 10 of 64 patients (16%) with infection stones (p less than 0.001). These observations strongly suggest that U. urealyticum is linked to the formation of infection stones in the urinary tract. PMID:3047857

  2. Weathering and weathering rates of natural stone

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, E.M. )

    1987-01-01

    Physical and chemical weathering were studied as separate processes in the past. Recent research, however, shows that most processes are physicochemical in nature. The rates at which calcite and silica weather by dissolution are dependent on the regional and local climatic environment. The weathering of silicate rocks leaves discolored margins and rinds, a function of the ricks permeability and of the climatic parameters. Salt action, the greatest disruptive factor, is complex and not yet fully understood in all its phases, but some of th causes of disruption are crystallization pressure, hydration pressure, and hygroscopic attraction of excess moisture. The decay of marble is complex, an interaction between dissolution, crack-corrosion, and the expansion-contraction cycles triggered by the release of residual stresses. Thin spalls of granites commonly found near the street level of buildings are generally caused by a combination of stress relief and salt action. To study and determine weathering rates of a variety of commercial stones, the National Bureau of Standards erected a Stone Exposure Test Wall in 1948. Of the many types of stone represented, only a few fossiliferous limestones permit a valid measurement of surface reduction in a polluted urban environment.

  3. Are stone analysis results different with repeated sampling?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Terence T. N.; Elkoushy, Mohamed A.; Andonian, Sero

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We assessed differences in results of stone analyses on subsequent sampling. Methods: A retrospective review of patients with stone analyses at a tertiary stone centre between March 2006 and July 2012 was performed. All stones were analyzed at a centralized laboratory using infrared spectroscopy. Patients were grouped according to the first predominant stone type on record, as defined by the predominant stone component of at least 60%. Stone groups included calcium oxalate (CaOx), calcium phosphate (CaP), uric acid (UA), cystine, struvite, mixed CaOx-CaP and mixed CaOx-UA. All patients had a full metabolic stone workup. Results: Of the 303 patients with stone analyses, 118 (38.9%) patients had multiple stone analyses. The mean age was 53.4 15.1 years, and 87 (73.7%) were males. Of the 118, the initial stone analysis showed 43 CaOx, 38 CaP, 21 UA, 4 CaOx-CaP, 2 CaOx-UA, 6 cystine, and 4 struvite. There was a different stone composition in 25 (21.2%) patients with a median time delay of 64.5 days. Different compositions were found in 7 CaOx (to 3 CaP, 2 CaOx-CaP, and 2 UA), 5 CaP (to 3 CaOx and 2 CaOx-CaP), 3 UA (to 3 CaOx), 4 CaOx-CaP (to 2CaOx, 1 UA and 1 CaP), 2 CaOx-UA (to 2 CaOx) and 4 struvite (to 3 CaP and 1 UA). Conclusions: Stone composition was different in 21.2% of patients on subsequent analyses. PMID:24940457

  4. Mineralogy and chemistry of urinary stones: patients from North Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Iyad Ahmed

    2008-10-01

    Urinary stone diseases are increasing in the Middle East. The majority of urinary stone cases are found in the northern part of the country. Stone samples taken from patients living in the Irbid area were collected from Princess Basma Hospital. The present study concentrates on the mineralogical and chemical composition of the urinary stones and on the effective environmental factors that assist in developing the different types of urinary stones. Using X-ray diffraction techniques, the mineralogical composition of the urinary stones was found to be as follows: oxalate, cholesten, and uric acid, with cystine stones occuring more frequently than the others. Cholesten and calcium oxalate stones are the most dominant types of stones. Calcium oxalate is the most common type of oxalate stone. Calcium oxalate is represented in: whewellite, wheddellite, and calcium carbonate oxalate hydrate minerals, in addition to other minerals such as brushite, ammonium phosphate, vaterite, valleriite, and bobierrite from other types of stones. Bobierrite (phosphate group) is a new mineral reported in urinary stones, and this has not been determined in any previous study worldwide. Apatite (calcium phosphate) is deduced using scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The SEM technique determined crystal forms and systems, shapes, morphological features, and the names of the minerals forming urine stones, while optical properties are studied by polarizing microscope. X-ray fluorescence technique determined the concentrations of major and some trace elements. It revealed that Ca is the main constituent of the urinary stones, especially those composed of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. The concentration of trace elements was Ba = 1.57, P = 3.61, Fe = 1.78, S = 2.08, Zr = 4.63, Mo = 3.92, Cu = 1.89, Co = 1.56, and F = 4.2% and was higher in the urinary stones of Jordanian patients than in foreigners in the country. Questionnaires completed by patients suggest that the most significant factors directly effecting the formation of stones are water, climate conditions, food rich in protein and rich in different chemicals. Moreover, some drugs and diseases might also help in developing other stones. PMID:18064405

  5. Efficacy of surgical techniques and factors affecting residual stone rate in the treatment of kidney stones

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Hseyin; Budak, Salih; Kumsar, ?kr; Kse, Osman; Sa?lam, Hasan Salih; Adsan, ztu?

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed to evaluate, the efficacy of surgical methods and the factors affecting the residual stone rate by scrutinizing retrospectively the patients who had undergone renal stone surgery. Material and methods: Records of 109 cases of kidney stones who had been surgically treated between January 2010, and July 2013 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups in terms of surgical treatment; open stone surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Patients history, physical examination, biochemical and radiological images and operative and postoperative data were recorded. Results: The patients had undergone PNL (n=74; 67.9%), RIRS (n=22;20.2%), and open renal surgery (n=13; 11.9%). The mean and median ages of the patients were 469, 41 (2175) and, 42 (2367) years, respectively. The mean stone burden was 2.60.7 cm2 in the PNL, 1.40.1 cm2 in the RIRS, and 3.10.9 cm2 in the open surgery groups. The mean operative times were 12624 min in the PNL group, 7212 min in the RIRS group and 8222 min in the open surgery group. The duration of hospitalisation was 3.10.2 days, 1.20.3 days and 3.41.1 days respectively. While the RIRS group did not need blood transfusion, in the PNL group blood transfusions were given in the PNL (n=18), and open surgery (n=2) groups. Residual stones were detected in the PNL (n=22), open surgery (n=2), and RIRS (n=5) groups. Conclusion: PNL and RIRS have been seen as safe and effective methods in our self application too. However, it should not be forgotten that as a basical method, open surgery may be needed in cases of necessity. PMID:26328168

  6. [A Case of Atazanavir Urolithiasis Diagnosed by Stone Analysis].

    PubMed

    Noma, Yasuhiro; Tambo, Mitsuhiro; Kitamura, Junji; Okegawa, Takatsugu; Nutahara, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-oldman was referred to our hospital for right back pain. His past history included human immunodeficiency virus infection, which had been treated with atazanavir for 7 years. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic scan showed right hydronephrosis due to a strongly suspected right ureteral radiolucent stone. He underwent indwelling of a right ureteral stent because of obstructive pyelonephritis due to the ureteral stone. After improvement of the pyelonephritis, he underwent transurethral ureterolithotripsy for the right ureteral stone. Stone analysis showed the atazanavir stone. He has been followed up for 8 months without evidence of recurrence. Herein, we report this rare case of an atazanavir stone in Japan, which was confirmedby calculus analysis, and present a review of the literature. PMID:26932333

  7. Introduction: Kidney Stone Research, Lessons From Human Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Fredric L.

    2007-04-01

    About 5% of American women and 12% of men will develop a kidney stone at some time in their life, the prevalence has been rising in both sexes. Approximately 80% of stones are composed of calcium oxalate, and calcium phosphate; 10% of struvite; 9% of uric acid; and the remaining 1% are composed of cystine or ammonium acid urate or are diagnosed as drug-related stone. Stones ultimately arise because of an unwanted phase change of these substances from liquid to solid state. In this introduction, I have outlined our current thinking of the possible mechanisms involved in stone formation based on our biopsy data collected from a series of human kidney stone formers. In addition, I have presented a set of questions as a means of focusing future research in this field.

  8. Application research of CO2 laser cutting natural stone plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lixiu; Song, Jijiang

    2009-08-01

    Now, the processing of natural stone plates is the high performance sawing machine primarily,many researchers deeply studied the processing characters in the sawing process and the strength characters during the processing. In order to realize the profiled-processing and pattern- carving of the natural stone, It lays a solid foundation for the laser cutting and the pattern-carving technology of natural stone plate. The working principle, type and characteristics of laser cutting are briefly described. The paper selects 6 kinds stone plates of natural taken as experimental sample,the experimental sample was China Shanxi Black, Old Spain Golden Yellow, New Spain Golden Yellow, Jazz White, Maple Leaf Red, Cream White respectively. Use high power CO2 laser cutting system,the stone plates cutting experiment of 6 kinds different hardness, the best working speed are obtained,The experimental results indicate that: The laser cutting speed has no correlation with the ingredient content of stone plate.

  9. 3D measurement of a soap stone brick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vienonen, Pekka

    1999-09-01

    The application is developed for measuring the dimensions and the three dimensional shape of soap stone bricks. The bricks are used as elements of stone ovens. Each brick is approximately 280 millimeters wide, 70 millimeters thick and the length varies from 140 up to 630 millimeters. The shape of a stone is measured by two images captured from known camera positions by comparing the images with the projected images of the floating 3D-model. The original images and the projected images from the model are fitted together by changing the shape and the position of 3D-model. An unknown stone can be measured by finding the optimal shape and the position of the model in relation to the original image data of that stone. In other words, the synthetic stone is moving, rotating, and reshaping between two fixed cameras, looking for the best fit to the original image data.

  10. Dietary intake and habits of Japanese renal stone patients.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, M; Umekawa, T; Ishikawa, Y; Katayama, Y; Kodama, M; Takada, M; Katoh, Y; Kataoka, K; Kohri, K; Kurita, T

    1990-06-01

    The daily consumption of various nutrients as well as the daily habits of 241 male stone patients were investigated. Hypercalciuric (300 mg. or more per day) calcium stone patients ingested much more total protein, fats, oils and calcium than normocalciuric calcium stone patients, and uric acid stone patients ingested much more total and animal protein, and carbohydrates than calcium stone patients. However, the amount of ingested calcium by the patients (470 mg.) was similar to that of age-matched healthy male subjects (476 mg.) and did not reach the level of the daily nutritive requirements (600 mg.). The patients ingested large amounts of nutrients, especially animal protein, during the evening meal. From these results it was believed that synthetic dietary management, including not only ingesting various amounts of nutrients but also changing dietary habits, is necessary for the prophylaxis of renal stones. PMID:2342165

  11. Management of lower ureteric stones: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Morsi, Gamal A.M.; Beshir, Mansour S.M.; Soliman, Sheri S.; Galal, Hussein A.; OrtizVanderdys, Cervando

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the current concepts in lower ureteric stone management. Material and methods Between October 2008 and November 2010, 190 patients of both sexes and of different age groups with lower ureteric stones, underwent in situ extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) (48 cases), ureterorenoscopy (URS) (120 cases) and open stone surgery (OSS) (22 cases). The patients clinical and radiological findings, as well as stone characteristics, were reviewed and correlated with the stonefree status. Results In the ESWL group, the operative time was 43.13 +22.5 min; the average number of sessions/patients was 1.5 sessions; the average number of SW/patients was 4500 SW/patients; the average energy was 16.5 kV; the average stone burden was 7.8/mm; the overall stonefree rate was 75% (36/48); and the average radiation exposure time was 3.5 min. In the URS group, the operative time was 49.21 +16.09 min; the average stone burden was 10.81mm; the overall stonefree rate was 97.5% (117/120); the average hospital stay was 3.99 days; and the average radiation exposure time was 0.75 min. In the OSS group, the operative time was 112.38 +37.1 min; the overall stonefree rate was 100% (22/22); and the average hospital stay was 9.74 days. Conclusion In the management of patients with lower ureteral stones, URS, SWL and OSS were considered acceptable treatment options. This recommendation was based on the stonefree results, morbidity and retreatment rates for each therapy. PMID:24757544

  12. Natural stones of historic and future importance in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Andersson, Jenny; Göransson, Mattias

    2013-04-01

    Several activities and responsibilities of the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) are related to the work of the newly formed international Heritage Stone Task Group (HSTG) for designating historically important stones. SGU is among other things a referral organization, frequently dealing with the preparation of statements in connection with the quarrying permit applications of stone producers. When preparing these statements, SGU takes into account a number of parameters, e.g. the importance for local and regional business development, historic importance, area of occurrence, quality of the geological documentation of the stone type, peculiarities of the stone types and technical properties relevant for the intended use. Traditionally, SGU has not worked with bedrock mapping looking at the potential of natural stones production but more commonly looking at the potential production of aggregates, industrial minerals and metals. The competence is, therefore, presently being built up with new databases over important natural stone types and definition of criteria for their selection etc. In this respect the criteria defined by the HSTG provide important help. This work goes hand in hand with the task of proposing stone-deposits and quarries of "national interest". The criteria for selection of a stone type, quarry etc as one of national interest are currently being revised. SGU plays an important role in this work. However, the final decision and appointment lies in the hands of the Swedish Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Boverket), an authority dealing with sustainable land use and regional development, town and country planning. Boverket supervises how the planning legislation is handled by the municipal authorities and the county administrative boards. The two latter organizations are those in charge of giving extraction permits for stone quarrying. The "Hallandia gneiss", of SW Sweden, is described as a case story and presented in this paper. Keywords: Hallandia gneiss, natural stones, historic stones, urban planning and building

  13. Epidemiologic Insights into Stone Disease as a Systemic Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curhan, Gary C.

    2007-04-01

    Examining the epidemiology of stone disease can provide insight into etiology. There is a growing body of evidence that stone disease is not simply a disorder of the kidney. In fact, nephrolithiasis is clearly a systemic disorder. Conditions associated with stone disease include the classic ones such as inflammatory bowel disease and primary hyperparathyroidism. More recent studies have demonstrated strong associations with obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension. Future studies will help uncover the underlying common pathophysiologic abnormalities.

  14. Milk of calcium stones: radiological signs and management outcome.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, M

    2015-06-01

    Milk of calcium (MOC) is a rare type of stone that was first described in 1940 by Ludin and Howald who reported MOC in renal cysts. Milk of calcium is a viscous colloidal suspension of calcium salts. Stasis, obstruction and infection are important predisposing factors. Due to a layering effect, characteristic radiological signs especially in CT can help in diagnosis to avoid unsuccessful shock wave lithotripsy. This is the largest reported case series, in which radiological signs by CT scan to predict renal MOC stones, clinical picture and management outcome are described in detail. Cases with suspected renal milk of calcium stones were studied over 7 years (2008-2015). All cases were diagnosed preoperatively by non-contrast CT. Urine cultures were performed in all patients preoperatively. Intra-operative and postoperative findings were reported. Stones retrieved were sent for chemical analysis using an infrared method. Seven cases of milk of calcium renal stones were included in this study. These stones were faint radio-opaque in two cases and radiolucent in five cases. All cases were diagnosed preoperatively with non-contrast CT. Their Hounsfield units (HU) ranged from 114 to 612. All stones were located in a dependent position (gravitational effect) in the posterior aspect of dilated calyces. Five cases exhibited the typical fluid level and two cases demonstrated semilunar (half moon) pattern in the anterior surface of the stones. All cases underwent PCNL with suction and retrieval of soft stones without the need for disintegration. When stones demonstrate a low Hounsfield unit, are arranged in dependent positions within dilated calyces and exhibit fluid level or semilunar pattern on non-contrast CT, milk of calcium stones should be considered. PCNL is an effective modality for management of renal milk of calcium stones. PMID:25820293

  15. Renal stone risk assessment during Space Shuttle flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 24-hr. urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary and dietary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. RESULTS: Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of calcium-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. Dietary and pharmacologic therapies need to be assessed to minimize the potential for renal stone formation in astronauts during/after space flight.

  16. Memorial stone (Massachusetts Voluntary Militia), level 280 Washington Monument, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Memorial stone (Massachusetts Voluntary Militia), level 280 - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Trap door and underside of cap stone of pyramid ion - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. A giant bladder struvite stone in an adolescent boy.

    PubMed

    H?zl?, Fatih; Y?lmaz, Engin

    2012-06-01

    A 14-year-old adolescent boy with a history of recurrent lower urinary tract infection presented with a complaint of lower abdominal pain. Renal ultrasonography revealed bilateral hydronephrosis and X-ray film revealed a huge pelvic mass measuring 10 8 6 cm which filled the whole bladder. Open cystolithotomy was performed and magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) stone weighing 420 g was removed. Although a bladder stone is not rare, in the present report, the composition and the huge size of the stone determined in an adolescent patient is an interesting clinical entity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest struvite stone reported in an adolescent patient. PMID:22146790

  19. Memorial stone (University of Virginia), level 270 Washington Monument, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Memorial stone (University of Virginia), level 270 - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. PERSPECTIVE, FROM NORTHWEST. NOTE HOW ARCH SPRINGS FROM STONE SKEWBACKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE, FROM NORTHWEST. NOTE HOW ARCH SPRINGS FROM STONE SKEWBACKS ON FACEWALL OF ABUTMENTS. - Barrackville Covered Bridge, Spanning Buffalo Creek on Pike Street , Barrackville, Marion County, WV

  1. "Azul Platino": another Spanish natural stone to be considered as Global Heritage Stone Resource.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Tejado, Juan; Mota, M. Isabel; Pereira, Dolores

    2014-05-01

    Several granites are quarried in Extremadura, Spain, with very good aesthetic and physic and mechanical characteristics. "Azul Platino" has a striking bluish colour and its properties make this granite a perfect option for most applications as ornamental rocks. This granite has been used for centuries, first in the architectonic heritage of the extraction surrounding area, but afterwards in many important projects in Spain, Europe and all around the world: La Guardia Airport (NYC, USA), Yokohama Bridge (Tokyo, Japan), European Parliament (Brussels, Belgium), Planetarium (Valencia, Spain), Tenerife Auditorium (Tenerife, Spain), Suntec City (Singapore), MTR Kowlonn Station (Hong Kong), O'Connel Street (Dublin, Ireland), .... One important characteristic of this natural stone is the low radon exhalation that all the varieties, including the more weathered ones, show. For being a granite, this is an important characteristic for its use, both in interior and exterior use. But "Azul Platino" accomplishes all requirements to be considered as a nominee for Global Heritage Stone Resource consideration. Together with other local natural stones, it could be part as well of a Global Heritage Stone Province nomination.

  2. Pollution-fueled `biodeterioration` threatens historic stone

    SciTech Connect

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01

    Microorganisms appear to pose as great a threat to historic buildings, monuments, and statues as does acid precipitation, according to recent research findings. Air pollution from urban and industrial growth may be fueling these microbes and speeding the deterioration of venerated artworks and cultural treasures in many parts of the world - the Taj Mahal in India; the Acropolis and the Delos Sanctuary in Greece; stone Buddhas in Japan; cathedrals in Europe; and ancient temples in Cambodia, Vietnam, and Central America. This paper reports research being done in this field. 8 refs.

  3. Renal effects of percutaneous stone removal

    SciTech Connect

    Eshghi, M.; Schiff, R.G.; Smith, A.D.

    1989-02-01

    Preoperative and postoperative renography with 99mTechnetium-diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid was performed on 33 patients who were free of renal scarring, infection, and obstruction and who underwent percutaneous renal stone removal. Although there was a transient decrease in renal function postoperatively in some patients, statistically significant reductions in renal function occurred only in 1 patient with an arteriovenous malformation that was embolized and in 1 patient who had a postoperative ureteropelvic junction stricture. The creation of more than one nephrostomy tract did not affect the results. In the absence of serious complications, percutaneous nephrostomy does not have a significant effect on renal function.

  4. Mineral resource of the month: dimension stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolley, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers information on dimension stone (DS) that are quarried as natural rock for a specific size and dimension chosen for its color, strength, durability. Varieties of metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks are used but DS rocks are mainly marble, granite and slate that can be found from Maine to Alabama in the U.S., in the Carrara District of Italy as well as in Greece, China and Brazil. It also notes the advent of steel and concrete in construction that ceased the use of DS.

  5. Treatment of patients with uric acid stones.

    PubMed

    Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2016-02-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis and unduly acidic urinary pH are both considered a renal manifestation of insulin resistance but the underlying mechanisms for the development of low urinary pH and the propensity for uric acid stone formation are not completely elucidated. Nevertheless, excessive dietary acid intake, increased endogenous acid production and/or defective NH4+ excretion play an important role, among other factors. The main principles of therapy for uric acid nephrolithiasis are aimed at urinary alkalinization through diet modification or pharmacologic agents, increase of urinary volume, and less importantly at the reduction of uric acid excretion. PMID:26645868

  6. George Chester Stone (1924-2013).

    PubMed

    Adler, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    George Chester Stone was born February 21, 1924, and died on July 13, 2013. A quiet revolutionary, George was a founder of the field of health psychology. George played critical roles conceptualizing the field of health psychology, charting its bounds and potential, promulgating guidelines for training, founding the first doctoral program in health psychology, editing influential volumes defining the new field, launching the flagship journal for the field, and establishing a home for the field within APA. He was able to accomplish all this through his talent for working collaboratively. PMID:25046719

  7. Surgical Management of Stones: New Technology

    PubMed Central

    Matlaga, Brian R.; Lingeman, James E.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the surgical treatment of kidney stone disease has undergone tremendous advances, many of which were possible only as a result of improvements in surgical technology. Rigid intracorporeal lithotrites, the mainstay of percutaneous nephrolithotomy, are now available as combination ultrasonic and ballistic devices. These combination devices have been reported to clear a stone burden with much greater efficiency than devices that operate by either ultrasonic or ballistic energy alone. The laser is the most commonly used flexible lithotrite; advances in laser lithotripsy have led to improvements in the currently utilized Holmium laser platform, as well as the development of novel laser platforms such as Thulium and Erbium devices. Our understanding of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL)has been improved over recent years as a consequence of basic science investigations. It is now recognized that there are certain maneuvers with SWL that the treating physician can do that will increase the likelihood of a successful outcome while minimizing the likelihood of adverse treatment-related events. PMID:19095207

  8. Smartphone sensors for stone lithography authentication.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Giuseppe Schirripa; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to "authenticate" non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the "not original artwork" is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  9. Smartphone Sensors for Stone Lithography Authentication

    PubMed Central

    Schirripa Spagnolo, Giuseppe; Cozzella, Lorenzo; Papalillo, Donato

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays mobile phones include quality photo and video cameras, access to wireless networks and the internet, GPS assistance and other innovative systems. These facilities open them to innovative uses, other than the classical telephonic communication one. Smartphones are a more sophisticated version of classic mobile phones, which have advanced computing power, memory and connectivity. Because fake lithographs are flooding the art market, in this work, we propose a smartphone as simple, robust and efficient sensor for lithograph authentication. When we buy an artwork object, the seller issues a certificate of authenticity, which contains specific details about the artwork itself. Unscrupulous sellers can duplicate the classic certificates of authenticity, and then use them to “authenticate” non-genuine works of art. In this way, the buyer will have a copy of an original certificate to attest that the “not original artwork” is an original one. A solution for this problem would be to insert a system that links together the certificate and the related specific artwork. To do this it is necessary, for a single artwork, to find unique, unrepeatable, and unchangeable characteristics. In this article we propose an innovative method for the authentication of stone lithographs. We use the color spots distribution captured by means of a smartphone camera as a non-cloneable texture of the specific artworks and an information management system for verifying it in mobility stone lithography. PMID:24811077

  10. Prolonged Sleep under Stone Age Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Holz, Johannes; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We report on a unique experiment designed to investigate the impact of prehistoric living conditions on sleep-wake behavior. Methods: A group of five healthy adults were assessed during life in a Stone Age-like settlement over two months. Results: The most notable finding was that nocturnal time in bed and estimated sleep time, as measured by actigraphy, markedly increased during the experimental period compared to the periods prior to and following the experiment. These increases were primarily driven by a phase-advance shift of sleep onset. Subjective assessments of health and functioning did not reveal any relevant changes across the study. Conclusions: Our observations provide further evidence for the long-held belief that the absence of modern living conditions is associated with an earlier sleep phase and prolonged sleep duration. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 723. Citation: Piosczyk H, Landmann N, Holz J, Feige B, Riemann D, Nissen C, Voderholzer U. Prolonged sleep under Stone Age conditions. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):719-722. PMID:25024647

  11. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district.

    PubMed

    Aslin Shamema, A; Thanigai Arul, K; Senthil Kumar, R; Narayana Kalkura, S

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium. PMID:25033236

  12. The role of Randall plaques on kidney stone formation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Randalls plaque is microscopically a plaque of calcium deposited in the interstitial tissue of the renal papilla. These plaques are thought to serve as a nidus for urinary stone formation. Large amounts of Randalls plaque are unique to idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. Although Randalls plaques can be found in other stone formers, only in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, the detailed mechanism of stone overgrow on plaque was thoroughly studied. Calcification is invariably located in the basement membrane of the loops of Henle and from there plaques spread through the interstitium toward urothelium. Within the basement membrane, mineral deposits are individual laminated particles in which zones of crystal and organic matrix overlay each other. In the interstitium, the particles appear to fuse on the collagen bundles to form a syncytium of crystal islands in an organic sea. By loss of integrity of urothelium, regions of plaque are exposed to urine. The exposed surface will touch and be covered by molecules of urine origin, including osteopontin, Tamm Horsfall protein, and crystals formed under urine supersaturations, resulting in a ribbon of alternating matrix and crystal. Eventually crystallization escapes from matrix modulation and crystals extend outward into the space of urine and begin to form a calcium oxalate stone proper. Randalls plaque plays an important role and is prerequisite of kidney stone formation in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. PMID:26816774

  13. Stepping Stones to Evaluating Your Own School Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Jeri; Carnahan, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Stepping Stones to Literacy is a tool for elementary school improvement teams to evaluate and strengthen their reading programs. Each Stepping Stone is a guided activity to stimulate reflection and guide systematic inquiry. It is a collaborative, active research approach to evaluation (Levesque & Hinton 2001). The goal is to eliminate the gap

  14. 259. View of the stone curbing used at the Hefner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    259. View of the stone curbing used at the Hefner Overlook. This is a common feature at all overlooks on the parkway. All stone on the parkway, except for the Linn Cove Viaduct was quarried from within fifty miles of where it was used. Looking north. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  15. 21 CFR 862.1780 - Urinary calculi (stones) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urinary calculi (stones) test system. 862.1780 Section 862.1780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1780 Urinary calculi (stones)...

  16. DNA AND PROTEIN RECOVERY FROM WASHED EXPERIMENTAL STONE TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA residues may preserve on ancient stone tools used to process animals. We studied 24 stone tools recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming. Nine tools that yielded DNA included five bifaces, two side scrapers, one end scraper, and one utilized flake. The...

  17. Perioperative cultures and the role of antibiotics during stone surgery

    PubMed Central

    Motamedinia, Piruz; Korets, Ruslan; Badalato, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection and urosepsis are the most common complications associated with the procedures urologists employ to manage stone disease. Recommendations regarding antibiotic prophylaxis and utilization of perioperative urine and stone culture prior to shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) or endoscopic intervention have evolved overtime. We sought to provide readers with a comprehensive consensus regarding these most recent recommendations. PMID:26816781

  18. A Guideline for the Management of Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Johnston, Smith

    2014-01-01

    There are no specific guidelines for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Given the increased risk for bone loss, hypercalcuria, and stone formation due to microgravity, a clinical practice guideline is needed. Methods An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. This information was used to create an algorithm for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Results Guidelines are proposed based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In a usual medical setting, asymptomatic, small stones less than 7 mm are often observed over time. Given the constraints of schedule, and the risks to crew health and mission, this approach is too liberal. An upper limit of 3 mm stone diameter was adopted before requiring intervention, because this is the largest size that has a significant chance of spontaneous passage on its own. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion The spaceflight environment requires more aggressive treatment than would otherwise be found with the usual practice of medicine. A small stone can become a major problem because it may ultimately require medical evacuation from orbit. Thus renal stones are a significant mission threat and should be managed in a systematic way to mitigate risks to crew health and mission success.

  19. Diagnosis and management of bile stone disease and its complications.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Anneline; Arvanitakis, Marianna

    2016-03-01

    Bile stone disease is one of the most prevalent gastroenterological diseases with a considerable geographical and ethnic variation. Bile stones can be classified according their origin, their localization and their biochemical structure. Development and clinical expression depend on a complex interaction between congenital and acquired risk factors. Indeed, bile stones can be either asymptomatic, or cause biliary colic or complications such as acute cholecystitis, jaundice, cholangitis and acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical features, laboratory findings and imaging techniques and correct identification of symptomatic gallstone patients is essential before cholecystectomy. Transabdominal ultrasonography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of gallstones. However, endoscopic ultrasonography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and intraoperative cholangiography may also play a role in the diagnosis of bile stones. Management includes prevention measures against modifiable risk factors. Biliary colic and acute cholecystitis are common indications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, while endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and stone extraction is the gold standard for the treatment of common bile duct (CBD) stones. Timing of ERCP and cholecystectomy are of critical importance in the management. Lithotripsy modalities are generally reserved for patients with technically difficult CBD stone removal. Percutaneous access combined with lithotripsy may be helpful for complicated intrahepatic stones. PMID:26771377

  20. 26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Otter Creek Bridge #5. View of elevation of stone facing on concrete box culvert. Stone facing appears on the headwall, tail wall, wingwalls, interior abutment wall and the pier. Looking northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  1. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles grafted on stone surface.

    PubMed

    Bellissima, F; Bonini, M; Giorgi, R; Baglioni, P; Barresi, G; Mastromei, G; Perito, B

    2014-12-01

    Microbial colonization has a relevant impact on the deterioration of stone materials with consequences ranging from esthetic to physical and chemical changes. Avoiding microbial growth on cultural stones therefore represents a crucial aspect for their long-term conservation. The antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively investigated in recent years, showing that they could be successfully applied as bactericidal coatings on surfaces of different materials. In this work, we investigated the ability of AgNPs grafted to Serena stone surfaces to inhibit bacterial viability. A silane derivative, which is commonly used for stone consolidation, and Bacillus subtilis were chosen as the grafting agent and the target bacterium, respectively. Results show that functionalized AgNPs bind to stone surface exhibiting a cluster disposition that is not affected by washing treatments. The antibacterial tests on stone samples revealed a 50 to 80 % reduction in cell viability, with the most effective AgNP concentration of 6.7 ?g/cm(2). To our knowledge, this is the first report on antimicrobial activity of AgNPs applied to a stone surface. The results suggest that AgNPs could be successfully used in the inhibition of microbial colonization of stone artworks. PMID:24151026

  2. Physicochemical analysis of urinary stones from Dharmapuri district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslin Shamema, A.; Thanigai Arul, K.; Senthil Kumar, R.; Narayana Kalkura, S.

    2015-01-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a common disease caused by the multifactorial components such as geographical location, bacterial infection, low urine volume, and low intake of water. This disease induces severe metabolic abnormalities in the human body. As the prevalence of this disease was high in Dharmapuri district located in Tamil Nadu, urinary stones removed from the patients pertaining to this district were collected and to identify the toxic elements present in the stones. The presence of functional groups and phases of the stones were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The majority of stones were found to be calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and mixed stones having minor existence of struvite and uric acid. Hexagonal shaped COM crystals, needle shaped uric acid crystals and layered arrangement of struvite crystals in the core region were revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to determine the thermal stability and the hardness of the stone which was measured using Vickers hardness (HV). The presence of toxic elements in stones such as zirconium and mercury was identified using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The EDS analysis showed higher concentration of zirconium in the core region compared to the periphery. The percentage of zirconium was relatively high compared to other toxic elements in the stones. The Vickers hardness results indicated that high HV values in the core region than the periphery and this might be due to the presence of zirconium.

  3. Measuring stone weathering in cities: Surface reduction on marble monuments

    SciTech Connect

    Dragovich, D. )

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether measurements of stone weathering recorded by different observers could be aggregated into a simple data base for evaluating pollution effects on calcareous building stone. Apparent differences in recorded weathering rates on marble tombstones were here found to be partly a result of lettering size measured, measuring devices used, and individual observers.

  4. 1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ORIGINAL STONE ARCH BRIDGE OVER THE DES PLAINES RIVER AT NINTH STREET IN LOCKPORT. THE BRIDGE WAS BUILT ABOUT 1865. NOTE METAL CLAMP ON THE NEAR PIER AND THE 20TH CENTURY REINFORCED CONCRETE ADDITION. - Lockport Historic District, Stone Arch Bridge, Spanning Des Plaines River at Ninth Street, Lockport, Will County, IL

  5. 4. STONE CABIN II CLOSEUP VIEW OF DOUBLE THICK FEATURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STONE CABIN II CLOSEUP VIEW OF DOUBLE THICK FEATURE OF THE ROCK WALL. WALL PHOTOGRAPHED IS THE NORTHERNMOST WALL TAKEN FROM THE INTERIOR OF STRUCTURE. CAMERA POINTED NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Stone Cabin II, West slope Florida Mountain, East of Empire State Mine below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  6. High carbonate level of apatite in kidney stones implies infection, but is it predictive?

    PubMed

    Englert, Kate M; McAteer, James A; Lingeman, James E; Williams, James C

    2013-10-01

    The presence of infectious microorganisms in urinary stones is commonly inferred from stone composition, especially by the presence of struvite in a stone. The presence of highly carbonated apatite has also been proposed as a marker of the presence of bacteria within a stone. We retrospectively studied 368 patients who had undergone percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and who also had culture results for both stone and urine. Urine culture showed no association with stone mineral content, but stone culture was more often positive in struvite-containing stones (73% positive) and majority apatite stones (65%) than in other stone types (54%, lower than the others, P<0.02). In 51 patients in whom the carbonate content of apatite could be measured, carbonate in the apatite was weakly predictive of positive stone culture with an optimal cutoff value of 13.5% carbonate (sensitivity 0.61, specificity 0.80). In positive cultures of stones (all mineral types combined), organisms that characteristically produce urease were present in 71% of the cases, with no difference in this proportion among different types of stone. In summary, the type of mineral in the stone was predictive of positive stone culture, but this correlation is imperfect, as over half of non-struvite, non-apatite stones were found to harbor culturable organisms. We conclude that mineral type is an inadequate predictor of whether a stone contains infectious organisms, and that stone culture is more likely to provide information useful to the management of patients undergoing PCNL. PMID:23881525

  7. Use of Local Stone: Successes, Failures and Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerns, Edward; Will, Rachel

    2015-04-01

    Stone has been used in construction for thousands of years. Until relatively recently, local stone was used almost exclusively due to limited transportation options and to reduce costs. . Historically, the stone was often taken from nearby fields, known as fieldstone, without any specific quarrying operations and used to create unique assemblages of vernacular buildings. Stone, perhaps more than any other natural building material, has numerous varieties and characteristics within the broader classifications of stone: sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic. In exterior applications, stone historically has been used for foundations, localized cladding elements and in some instances entire building facades. Many of these local stones are appropriate for foundations, but not necessarily for cladding systems, particularly once the stone was quarried and modified rather than used in its natural form. These issues tended to be less significant in historic buildings when wall systems were much thicker and had more redundancies in the cladding systems Since around 1880, the use of these thinner applications of quarried stones as more traditional cladding systems (rather than cladding and structure) has resulted in challenges including unanticipated weathering characteristics, residual stresses and detrimental inclusions. These conditions can result in expensive and extensive repairs and maintenance. Often the options to address these characteristics are limited or potentially drastic depending on the scale of installation. It is important to understand the cause of the issues, understand if these issues are significant and finally how to address them appropriately. Where and how these unique local stones are installed as well as climate and weathering patterns certainly contribute to the potential unanticipated conditions. This presentation will be divided into two general parts. The first will address various stones used historically throughout regions within the United States including looking at some of the physical characteristics and problems that have been encountered with the use of the stone in various building applications. The focus will be on limestones and sandstones utilized in the Midwestern United States that have variable performances in these installations, contrasted with, the coral and shell stones of the Southern United States have performed as intended. The second part of the presentation will include a variety of case studies focusing on evaluation, distress and repair options for these local stones.

  8. Berroquea stone of Madrid (Spain). A traditional and contemporary building stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; Varas Muriel, Ma Jos

    2014-05-01

    In the Alpedrete monzogranite to granodiorite pluton (350 km2) at 45 km north of the city of Madrid, there are several quarries of Berroquea stone.This stone has been widely used as building stone in well-preserved and significant buildings of the central area of Spain, such as the Nuestra Seora de la Asuncin in Alpedrete (16th century), Royal Palace and Alcal Gate in Madrid (18th century). This building stone is used, both for new construction and restoration work, like headquarter of the Banco de Espaa in Madrid (19th century) and its restoration (20th century). Alpedrete granite is compositionally classified as monzogranite. Petrographically, it is a medium (1-5 mm) grained subidiomorphic, and equigranular. This mineralogy consists chiefly of quartz (2-3 mm and 40-50% vol.), plagioclase (1-3 mm and 25-30% vol.), K-feldspar (microcline; 2-4 mm and 10-15% vol.) and biotite (1- 2 mm and 10-15% vol.). Its accessory minerals are cordierite, apatite, zircon and monazite. This grey granite has low amount of cracks, its open porosity (accessible to water) is 0,8 % and accessible to mercury is 0,50 %, with a diameter ranging mostly from 0.01 to 0.1 m. Water absortion is 0,3%. Its bulk density is 2668 kg/m3 and its anisotropy grade (dM) is 6,5 %. its ultrasound propagation velocity (Vp) is 4626 m/s and microhardness of Knoop test 4544 Mpa. Pressure strenght ,and flexure strength 136.9 Mpa and 8.88 Mpa, respectiverly. Measurements obtained of petrophysical properties make this granite a high quality building material. Petrological and petrophysical characteristics of Berroquea stone, with which have been used for many buildings from 16th century to present, provide a good answer to the decay agents, and therefore durability, possibility of differents finishes and good cleaning. Currently widely used in restoration and paving streets, outdoor tiling and funerary art. Acknowledgments: Special thanks are given to the Geomaterials (S2009/MAT 1629) and CONSOLIDER-TCP (CSD2007-0058) Programmes, as well as the Complutense University of Madrid's research group on the alteration and conservation of heritage stone (921349) and RedLabPat (CEI-Moncloa).

  9. Semi-rigid ureteroscopy: Proximal versus distal ureteral stones

    PubMed Central

    Alameddine, Mahmoud; Azab, Mohamad M.; Nassir, Anmar A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of semi-rigid ureteroscopy in proximal and distal ureteral stones, and to compare the operative and perioperative characteristics between the two stone groups. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent semi-rigid ureteroscopy for management of ureteral stones at the International Medical Center between June 2007 and September 2012. All stones were fragmented using Holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser lithotripter. Stones located above the pelvic brim are considered proximal and below it are distal. Results: One hundred and ninety-one patients were included. One hundred and three patients (54%) underwent ureteroscopy for proximal stones and 88 (46%) for distal stones. The stone size in the proximal group was 10 mm (±5.5) versus 8.6 mm (±5) in the distal group. The initial stone-free rate for proximal and distal calculi were 89–98.2%, respectively. The perioperative complication rate was higher in the proximal group 10% compared to the distal group which is 1.5% (P = 0.06). Both groups have the same average of hospital stay 1.2 days. Conclusion: Although there is a clinical difference between proximal and distal calculi groups in terms of complication and stone-free rates, this difference remained statistically insignificant (P = 0.06). Using a smaller caliber semi-rigid ureteroscopy combined with Holmium-YAG laser can be carried out as a day care procedure and showed a slightly higher risk in patients with proximal ureteral calculi which should be explained to the patient PMID:26834409

  10. Determinants of Brushite Stone Formation: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Siener, Roswitha; Netzer, Linda; Hesse, Albrecht

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The occurrence of brushite stones has increased during recent years. However, the pathogenic factors driving the development of brushite stones remain unclear. Methods Twenty-eight brushite stone formers and 28 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. Anthropometric, clinical, 24 h urinary parameters and dietary intake from 7-day weighed food records were assessed. Results Pure brushite stones were present in 46% of patients, while calcium oxalate was the major secondary stone component. Urinary pH and oxalate excretion were significantly higher, whereas urinary citrate was lower in patients as compared to healthy controls. Despite lower dietary intake, urinary calcium excretion was significantly higher in brushite stone patients. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed pH>6.50 (OR 7.296; p?=?0.035), calcium>6.40 mmol/24 h (OR 25.213; p?=?0.001) and citrate excretion <2.600 mmol/24 h (OR 15.352; p?=?0.005) as urinary risk factors for brushite stone formation. A total of 56% of patients exhibited distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Urinary pH, calcium and citrate excretion did not significantly differ between patients with or without dRTA. Conclusions Hypercalciuria, a diminished citrate excretion and an elevated pH turned out to be the major urinary determinants of brushite stone formation. Interestingly, urinary phosphate was not associated with urolithiasis. The increased urinary oxalate excretion, possibly due to decreased calcium intake, promotes the risk of mixed stone formation with calcium oxalate. Neither dietary factors nor dRTA can account as cause for hypercalciuria, higher urinary pH and diminished citrate excretion. Further research is needed to define the role of dRTA in brushite stone formation and to evaluate the hypothesis of an acquired acidification defect. PMID:24265740

  11. Algal 'greening' and the conservation of stone heritage structures.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Viles, Heather A; Ahmad, Samin; McCabe, Stephen; Smith, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    In humid, temperate climates, green algae can make a significant contribution to the deterioration of building stone, both through unsightly staining ('greening') and, possibly, physical and chemical transformations. However, very little is known about the factors that influence the deteriorative impact and spatial distribution of green algal biofilms, hindering attempts to model the influence of climate change on building conservation. To address this problem, we surveyed four sandstone heritage structures in Belfast, UK. Our research had two aims: 1) to investigate the relationships between greening and the deterioration of stone structures and 2) to assess the impacts of environmental factors on the distribution of green biofilms. We applied an array of analytical techniques to measure stone properties indicative of deterioration status (hardness, colour and permeability) and environmental conditions related to algal growth (surface and sub-surface moisture, temperature and surface texture). Our results indicated that stone hardness was highly variable but only weakly related to levels of greening. Stone that had been exposed for many years was, on average, darker and greener than new stone of the same type, but there was no correlation between greening and darkening. Stone permeability was higher on 'old', weathered stone but not consistently related to the incidence of greening. However, there was evidence to suggest that thick algal biofilms were capable of reducing the ingress of moisture. Greening was negatively correlated with point measurements of surface temperature, but not moisture or surface texture. Our findings suggested that greening had little impact on the physical integrity of stone; indeed the influence of algae on moisture regimes in stone may have a broadly bioprotective action. Furthermore, the relationship between moisture levels and greening is not straightforward and is likely to be heavily dependent upon temporal patterns in moisture regimes and other, unmeasured, factors such as nutrient supply. PMID:23178775

  12. Tracking kidney stones with sound during shock wave lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracht, Jonathan M.

    The prevalence of kidney stones has increased significantly over the past decades. One of the primary treatments for kidney stones is shock wave lithotripsy which focuses acoustic shock waves onto the stone in order to fragment it into pieces that are small enough to pass naturally. This typically requires a few thousand shock waves delivered at a rate of about 2 Hz. Although lithotripsy is the only non-invasive treatment option for kidney stories, both acute and chronic complications have been identified which could be reduced if fewer shock waves were used. One factor that could be used to reduce the number of shock waves is accounting for the motion of the stone which causes a portion of the delivered shock waves to miss the stone, yielding no therapeutic benefit. Therefore identifying when the stone is not in focus would allow tissue to be spared without affecting fragmentation. The goal of this thesis is to investigate acoustic methods to track the stone in real-time during lithotripsy in order to minimize poorly-targeted shock waves. A relatively small number of low frequency ultrasound transducers were used in pulse-echo mode and a novel optimization routine based on time-of-flight triangulation is used to determine stone location. It was shown that the accuracy of the localization may be estimated without knowing the true stone location. This method performed well in preliminary experiments but the inclusion of tissue-like aberrating layers reduced the accuracy of the localization. Therefore a hybrid imaging technique employing DORT (Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator) and the MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm was developed. This method was able to localize kidney stories to within a few millimeters even in the presence of an aberrating layer. This would be sufficient accuracy for targeting lithotripter shock waves. The conclusion of this work is that tracking kidney stones with low frequency ultrasound should be effective clinically.

  13. Acid rain damage to carbonate stone: a quantitative assessment based on the aqueous geochemistry of rainfall runoff from stone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    An onsite experimental procedure was used to identify and quantify acid rain damage to carbonate stone, based on the change in rain runoff chemical composition. Onsite data obtained during the summer and fall of 1984 at three locations in the northeastern United States indicate that carbonate stone surface recession is related to acid deposition. -from Author

  14. CONTRASTING HISTOPATHOLOGY AND CRYSTAL DEPOSITS IN KIDNEYS OF IDIOPATHIC STONE FORMERS WHO PRODUCE HYDROXY APATITE, BRUSHITE, OR CALCIUM OXALATE STONES

    PubMed Central

    Evan, Andrew P; Lingeman, James E; Worcester, Elaine M; Sommer, Andre J; Phillips, Carrie L; Williams, James C; Coe, Fredric L

    2014-01-01

    Our previous work has shown that stone formers who form calcium phosphate (CaP) stones that contain any brushite (BRSF) have a distinctive renal histopathology and surgical anatomy when compared to idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF). Here we report on another group of idiopathic CaP stone formers, those forming stone containing primarily hydroxyapatite, in order to clarify in what ways their pathology differs from BRSF and ICSF. Eleven hydroxyapatite stone formers (HASF) (2 males, 9 females) were studied using intra-operative digital photography and biopsy of papillary and cortical regions to measure tissue changes associated with stone formation. Our main finding is that HASF and BRSF differ significantly from each other and that both differ greatly from ICSF. Both BRSF and ICSF patients have significant levels of Randalls plaque compared to HASF. Intra-tubular deposit number is greater in HASF than BRSF and non-existent in ICSF while deposit size is smaller in HASF than BRSF. Cortical pathology is distinctly greater in BRSF than HASF. Four attached stones were observed in HASF, three in 25 BRSF and 510 per ICSF patient. HASF and BRSF differ clinically in that both have higher average urine pH, supersaturation of CaP, and calcium excretion than ICSF. Our work suggests that HASF and BRSF are two distinct and separate diseases and both differ greatly from ICSF. PMID:24478243

  15. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited range of the factors in the test matrix hindered the identification of individual component effects. Future work should involve broader factor ranges to identify the roles played by each of the components in the mix via thermal analyses, analytical microscopy, and characterization of phase formation.

  16. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited range of the factors in the test matrix hindered the identification of individual component effects. Future work should involve broader factor ranges to identify the roles played by each of the components in the mix via thermal analyses, analytical microscopy, and characterization of phase formation.

  17. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited range of the factors in the test matrix hindered the identification of individual component effects. Future work should involve broader factor ranges to identify the roles played by each of the components in the mix via thermal analyses, analytical microscopy, and characterization of phase formation.

  18. Proper dimensioning of stone paving slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Bjrn; Loorents, Karl-Johan; Larsson, Jrgen; Holstad, Terje

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, dimensioning of stone paving slabs is usually made according to the European product standard EN 1341: Slabs of natural stone for external paving - Requirements and test methods. An informative annex provides guidelines for determining the slab thickness depending on the flexural strength, traffic loads and surface dimensions of the slab. The present edition of the standard has been updated with a possibility to use different safety factors depending on the type of foundation, e.g. paving over a bound construction, unbound or over a gap supported on two or four sides or four corners. In addition, the safety factors differ depending on the length of the slabs. Slabs larger than 600 mm are "punished" by larger safety factors. However, these safety factors are not uncontroversial. A project was therefore undertaken to compare the calculated thickness of paving slabs strictly according to the standard requirements and the measured breaking load of tested slabs on different foundations/supports. The standard way of determining the thickness is based on measurement of the flexural strength of test prisms according to EN 12372: Natural stone test methods - Determination of flexural strength under concentrated load, e.g. with 50x50x300 mm sized prisms. The conversion into breaking load of the final slab and its thickness is based on a standard beam theory, also given in the annex of the standard. The questions to be answered by the project were whether the beam theory is appropriate for slabs, if the safety factors for different foundations are realistic and if the difference in safety factors above and below 600 mm length is relevant. The Evja granite from the SW Sweden was used for the tests on unbound and bound paving. The Offerdal schist from NW Sweden was used for testing paving over a gap with support on four corners. A large number of granite slabs ranging from 350 x 350 x 40 mm up to 1050 x 1050 x 40 mm were tested. As regards the schist specimens, the four following, commonly used dimensions were tested: 500 x 400 x 25 mm, 500 x 400 x 30 mm, 800 x 400 x 25 mm and 800 x 400 x 30 mm. In short, the results clearly indicated that the product standard recommendations generate very conservative thicknesses, i.e. too thick slabs. The use of the recommendations in the standard's annex thus results in unnecessarily high consumption of natural resources, increased environmental loads due to heavy freights, handling and more expensive paving construction. All test results will be presented together with a reasoning about an improved dimensioning system.

  19. Injury experience in stone mining, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1989. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report. 3 figs., 46 tabs.

  20. Injury experience in stone mining, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) informational report reviews in detail the occupational injury and illness experience of stone mining in the United States for 1992. Data reported by operators of mining establishments concerning work injuries are summarized by work location, accident classification, part of body injured, nature of injury, occupation, and principal type of mineral. Related information on employment, worktime, and operating activity also is presented. Data reported by independent contractors performing certain work at mining locations are depicted separately in this report. For ease of comparison with other metal and nonmetallic mineral mining industries and with coal mining, summary reference tabulations are included at the end of both the operator and the contractor sections of this report.

  1. Submandibular swelling: tooth or salivary stone?

    PubMed

    Capaccio, Pasquale; Marciante, Giulia Anna; Gaffuri, Michele; Spadari, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Submandibular swelling is a common clinical disorder of the maxillo-facial region that may be one of the manifestation of several pathologic disorders including sialolithiasis. A 38-year-old woman experienced a recurrent painful swelling in the right submandibular region for seven years. The symptoms, not always meal-related, gradually became chronic and associated with dysphagia, odynophagia and fever. Ultrasonography of the salivary glands revealed a retained glandular structure and no ductal obstruction or dilatation, and orthopantomography showed the presence of a structure compatible with tooth, but these findings did not correlate with clinical scenario. Only CT dental scan identified the radiological image as a salivary stone. Sialolithiasis should always be considered in the diagnostic iter of painful submandibular swelling. A careful evaluation of recurrence and characteristics of signs and symptoms associated to the swelling can help in making the correct diagnosis and planning a proper therapeutic strategy. PMID:24025889

  2. Stepping stones toward global space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansdell, M.; Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C.

    2011-06-01

    Several nations are currently engaging in or planning for robotic and human space exploration programs that target the Moon, Mars and near-Earth asteroids. These ambitious plans to build new space infrastructures, transport systems and space probes will require international cooperation if they are to be sustainable and affordable. Partnerships must involve not only established space powers, but also emerging space nations and developing countries; the participation of these new space actors will provide a bottom-up support structure that will aid program continuity, generate more active members in the space community, and increase public awareness of space activities in both developed and developing countries. The integration of many stakeholders into a global space exploration program represents a crucial element securing political and programmatic stability. How can the evolving space community learn to cooperate on a truly international level while engaging emerging space nations and developing countries in a meaningful way? We propose a stepping stone approach toward a global space exploration program, featuring three major elements: (1) an international Earth-based field research program preparing for planetary exploration, (2) enhanced exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) enabling exploration and (3) a worldwide CubeSat program supporting exploration. An international Earth-based field research program can serve as a truly global exploration testbed that allows both established and new space actors to gain valuable experience by working together to prepare for future planetary exploration missions. Securing greater exploitation of the ISS is a logical step during its prolonged lifetime; ISS experiments, partnerships and legal frameworks are valuable foundations for exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Cooperation involving small, low-cost missions could be a major stride toward exciting and meaningful participation from emerging space nations and developing countries. For each of these three proposed stepping stones, recommendations for coordination mechanisms are presented.

  3. Impact of urinary stone volume on computed tomography stone attenuations measured in Hounsfield units in a large group of Austrian patients with urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Patzak, Johanna; Lutfi, Andre; Pummer, Karl; Augustin, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To investigate retrospectively the impact of urinary stone volume on computed tomography stone attenuations measured in Hounsfield units in 253 patients with urolithiasis. Material and methods CT scans were performed in 253 patients with suspected urinary stone disease from 2008 to 2010 using CTScanner Siemens, SOMATOM, Sensation 64. One experienced radiologist (A.L) who was blinded to the chemical composition of the stones retrospectively reviewed images and analyzed data to determine the composition of the stones. The results were compared with the biochemical analysis results obtained by infrared spectroscopy (100 FTIR, PerkinElmer). Results 253 consecutive patients from 2008 to 2010 were included into analysis: 189 males, and 64 females. Mean age was 51.2. According to stone volume, stones were divided into 2 groups: 126 stones with volume of 4.3 mm or more, 127 stones with volume less than 4.3 mm. There was a significant relationship between stone volume and its CT attenuation only in stones with a volume 4.3 mm or more (p <0.05). Conclusions We failed to show a significant relationship between stone volume and its attenuations in Hounsfield units. We could not distinguish uric acid stones from non uric acid stones. PMID:25247090

  4. Drropulli Stone and Gjirokastra World Heritage in Albania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serjani, Afat; Kramar, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    Ancient Gjirokastra City and Dervician stone deposit, there are located next to each other, in south of Albania, at foots of eastern slope of "Wide Mountain". Building stone it is represented by micritic limestone of white, red and blue colour, formed during Palaeocene-Eocene Period. It contains fossils of rounded forms and it is known and exploited since the ancient times. Argjirokastra, Argjiro's City, appeared since the IV-th Century BC (V.Tola, 2011). Stone City has in its centre Majestic Fortress of a big cruiser view, which is seen from long distance, from all sides of Drinos Valley. "This Majestic Monument of Albanian vigour has an astonishing elegance" has written E. Hoxha (1983). Watching Gjirokastra you will remind "Chronic in Stone", the book of Ismail Kadare, great writer, born in Gjirokastra. All buildings here are of stone. The Large Fortress and high houses as castles are built by stone, and covered by stone tiles. The walls and minarets of religious buildings are of stone. The gates of houses and yards are of engraved stone, protected by metallic nets of artistic forms. The house's walls are built by big stone, while the walls of yards are by small stone of white colour, some times intercalated with lines of red, blue stone. The combination of different colour stone is another one artistic beauty of walls. The roads are paved by black cobblestones of flysch sandstone for protection by slips, some times combined with white limestone mosaics. Steps of houses and roads are by white stone, often reworked masterfully. "Such stones, reworked by very fine skilfully, can not be found in any other place of the World, only in Anadoll" has written on 1 665 Evliya Celepi (2003). Buildings are of specific architecture and by good style. The accounts of the basis are done to keep "houses as castle". The walls have wood antiseismic layers. The architecture of houses, gates, angles, windows, with predomination of arc forms, with engraved stones and ornaments it is everywhere evident. The ceilings of houses there are with artistic works and ornaments of different times. Houses are of balconies with balustrades, and from characteristic windows are hanging down flowers. Architecture feature of Medieval period, there are symbolised in most of houses and in Qafa e Pazarit ("Bazaar Pass"), where are crossed all roads of the ancient City. From the Fortress below your foots there are different parts of stone City. If you like to be astonished, please, get up to the Keculla Point and watch the Stone City, Drinos Valley, and Lunxheria Mountains! In Gjirokastra Region there are Antigonea Archaeological Park and Sofratika Amphitheatre. Gjirokastra has a very rich geoheritage and bioheritage such as: Viroi artesian spring, Skotini Cave, Cajupi Field Landscape etc. Since 1961, Gjirokastra was proclaimed Museum City under the protection, and on 2005 was included in UNESCO World Cultural Heritage.

  5. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

  6. Recent management of urinary stone disease in a pediatric population

    PubMed Central

    Aydogdu, Ozgu; Karakose, Ayhan; Celik, Orcun; Atesci, Yusuf Ziya

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of stone disease has been increasing and the risk of recurrent stone formation is high in a pediatric population. It is crucial to use the most effective method with the primary goal of complete stone removal to prevent recurrence from residual fragments. While extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is still considered first line therapy in many clinics for urinary tract stones in children, endoscopic techniques are widely preferred due to miniaturization of instruments and evolution of surgical techniques. The standard procedures to treat urinary stone disease in children are the same as those used in an adult population. These include ESWL, ureterorenoscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (standard PCNL or mini-perc), laparoscopic and open surgery. ESWL is currently the procedure of choice for treating most upper urinary tract calculi in a pediatric population. In recent years, endourological management of pediatric urinary stone disease is preferred in many centers with increasing experience in endourological techniques and decreasing sizes of surgical equipment. The management of pediatric stone disease has evolved with improvements in the technique and a decrease in the size of surgical instruments. Recently, endoscopic methods have been safely and effectively used in children with minor complications. In this review, we aim to summarize the recent management of urolithiasis in children. PMID:25254178

  7. Residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chowbey, Pradeep; Sharma, Anil; Goswami, Amit; Afaque, Yusuf; Najma, Khoobsurat; Baijal, Manish; Soni, Vandana; Khullar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Incomplete gallbladder removal following open and laparoscopic techniques leads to residual gallbladder stones. The commonest presentation is abdominal pain, dyspepsia and jaundice. We reviewed the literature to report diagnostic modalities, management options and outcomes in patients with residual gallbladder stones after cholecystectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Google and Cochrane library between 1993 and 2013 were reviewed using search terms residual gallstones, post-cholecystectomy syndrome, retained gallbladder stones, gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and subtotal cholecystectomy. Bibliographical references from selected articles were also analyzed. The parameters that were assessed include demographics, time of detection, clinical presentation, mode of diagnosis, nature of intervention, site of stone, surgical findings, procedure performed, complete stone clearance, sequelae and follow-up. RESULTS: Out of 83 articles that were retrieved between 1993 and 2013, 22 met the inclusion criteria. In most series, primary diagnosis was established by ultrasound/computed tomography scan. Localization of calculi and delineation of biliary tract was performed using magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In few series, diagnosis was established by endoscopic ultrasound, intraoperative cholangiogram and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Laparoscopic surgery, endoscopic techniques and open surgery were the most common treatment modalities. The most common sites of residual gallstones were gallbladder remnant, cystic duct remnant and common bile duct. CONCLUSION: Residual gallbladder stones following incomplete gallbladder removal is an important sequelae after cholecystectomy. Completion cholecystectomy (open or laparoscopic) is the most common treatment modality reported in the literature for the management of residual gallbladder stones. PMID:26622110

  8. Clearance of refractory bile duct stones with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, R; Jenkins, A; Thompson, R; Ede, R

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUNDExtracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been used since the mid-1980s to fragment bile duct stones which cannot be removed endoscopically. Early machines required general anaesthesia and immersion in a waterbath.?AIMSTo investigate the effectiveness of the third generation Storz Modulith SL20 lithotriptor in fragmenting bile duct stones that could not be cleared by mechanical lithotripsy.?METHODSEighty three patients with retained bile duct stones were treated. All patients received intravenous benzodiazepine sedation and pethidine analgesia. Stones were targeted by fluoroscopy following injection of contrast via a nasobiliary drain or T tube. Residual fragments were cleared at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.?RESULTSComplete stone clearance was achieved in 69(83%) patients and in 18of 24patients (75%) who required more than one ESWL treatment. Stone clearance was achieved in all nine patients (100%) with intrahepatic stones and also in nine patients (100%) referred following surgical exploration of the bile duct. Complications included six cases of cholangitis and one perinephric haematoma which resolved spontaneously.?CONCLUSIONUsing the Storz Modulith, 83% of refractory bile duct calculi were cleared with a low rate of complications. These results confirm that ESWL is an excellent alternative to surgery in those patients in whom endoscopic techniques have failed.???Keywords: lithotripsy; bile duct calculi; extracorporeal lithotripsy PMID:11034593

  9. Recent advances in endoscopic management of difficult bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Itoi, Takao

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopic treatment is now recognized worldwide as the first-line treatment for bile duct stones. Endoscopic sphincterotomy combined with basket and/or balloon catheter is generally carried out for stone extraction. However, some stones are refractory to treatment under certain circumstances, necessitating additional/other therapeutic modalities. Large bile duct stones are typically treated by mechanical lithotripsy. However, if this fails, laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) is carried out under the guidance of conventional mother-baby cholangioscopy. More recently, direct cholangioscopy using an ultrathin gastroscope and the newly developed single-use cholangioscope system - the SpyGlass direct visualization system - are also used. In addition, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has also been used for stone fragmentation. Such fragmentation techniques are effective in cases with impacted stones, including Mirizzi syndrome. Most recently, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilationhas been introduced as an easy and effective technique for treating large and multiple stones. In cases of altered anatomy, it is often difficult to reach the papilla; in such cases, a percutaneous transhepatic approach, such as EHL or laser lithotripsy under percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy, can be a treatment option. Moreover, enteroscopy has recently been used to reach the papilla. Furthermore, an endoscopic ultrasound-guided procedure has been attempted most recently. In elderly patients and those with very poor general condition, biliary stenting only is sometimes carried out with or without giving subsequent dissolution agents. PMID:23650878

  10. Minimal surgery for parotid stones: a 7-year endoscopic experience.

    PubMed

    Karavidas, K; Nahlieli, O; Fritsch, M; McGurk, M

    2010-01-01

    The results of endoscope-assisted parotid surgery are presented as a minimally invasive alternative to parotidectomy for large parotid stones. From 1999 to 2007, 70 patients with parotid sialoliths were treated by minimally invasive surgical techniques in three specialist centres. At surgery a combination of sialoendoscopic and ultrasound examination was used to locate the stone within the duct. The calculus was released by incising the duct through a pre-auricular approach (40 patients) or by direct transcutaneous incision over the stone (27 patients). Four patients were treated using other minimally invasive procedures. Local anesthesia was used in 22 patients and general anesthesia in 48. The average follow-up was 25.5 months with two patients lost to review. In 3 patients treatment had long-term complications (persistent stone fragment; obstructive symptoms due to a fibrous stricture; a visible scar on the cheek). In one patient, endoscopy was abandoned due to stricture. 85 stones were retrieved successfully from 69 patients. The average size of the stones was 7.2 mm. There were no cases of facial nerve weakness or salivary fistula. The data suggest that endoscopic-assisted surgery is a viable alternate to adenectomy for the treatment of large or recalcitrant parotid stones. PMID:19897340

  11. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  12. Reproducing stone monument photosynthetic-based colonization under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ana Zélia; Laiz, Leonila; Gonzalez, Juan Miguel; Dionísio, Amélia; Macedo, Maria Filomena; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2008-11-01

    In order to understand the biodeterioration process occurring on stone monuments, we analyzed the microbial communities involved in these processes and studied their ability to colonize stones under controlled laboratory experiments. In this study, a natural green biofilm from a limestone monument was cultivated, inoculated on stone probes of the same lithotype and incubated in a laboratory chamber. This incubation system, which exposes stone samples to intermittently sprinkling water, allowed the development of photosynthetic biofilms similar to those occurring on stone monuments. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was used to evaluate the major microbial components of the laboratory biofilms. Cyanobacteria, green microalgae, bacteria and fungi were identified by DNA-based molecular analysis targeting the 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA genes. The natural green biofilm was mainly composed by the Chlorophyta Chlorella, Stichococcus, and Trebouxia, and by Cyanobacteria belonging to the genera Leptolyngbya and Pleurocapsa. A number of bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia were identified, as well as fungi from the Ascomycota. The laboratory colonization experiment on stone probes showed a colonization pattern similar to that occurring on stone monuments. The methodology described in this paper allowed to reproduce a colonization equivalent to the natural biodeteriorating process. PMID:18768211

  13. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  14. Epidemiology of bladder stone of children: precipitating events.

    PubMed

    Halstead, Scott B

    2016-04-01

    Urological surgery evolved from the ancient practice of removing primary bladder stones from young boys. Bladder stones, once ubiquitous, long ago disappeared from the developed world while pockets of disease still exist in developing countries. Two epidemiological studies identified as precipitating events of bladder stone formation the practice of substitutive carbohydrate feedings to newborns. In Southeast Asia, masticated rice is fed to newborns in stone-endemic villages while in England, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries pap or panada was used to hand-feed infants when breast milk was not available. Fresh milk from dairy animals was deemed preferable to pap. Lack of access to dairy cattle enhanced need for hand-feeding. In an epidemiological study, during mid-nineteenth century in England the prevalence of dairy cattle was inversely related to the prevalence of bladder stones. These epidemiological data relate stone formation to nutrition during the first few days or weeks of life. It is surmised that frequent use of or exclusive reliance on carbohydrate foods replacing milk feedings leads to a relative dietary deficiency in phosphates and the formation of insoluble urinary salts. Girls, with short, nontortuous urethras may pass much of the calculus debris without retaining nuclei in the bladder. In some males, stone nuclei are formed and retained. The growth of stones is determined thereafter by the net effect of depository and resorptive mechanisms operating over time distributing over many years the age that patients present for surgical stone removal. The role of early introduction of carbohydrate foods and reduced milk intake of neonates has not been incorporated into recommendations for feeding newborns in endemic countries nor comprehensively modeled in animals. PMID:26559057

  15. Renal Stone Risk during Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Hudson, Ed K.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Space Exploration centers on exploration class missions including the goals of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. One of NASA's objectives is to focus research on astronaut health and the development of countermeasures that will protect crewmembers during long duration voyages. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes in the urinary chemical composition favoring urinary supersaturation and an increased risk of stone formation. Nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease and development of a renal stone is significantly influenced by both dietary and environmental factors. Previous results from long duration Mir and short duration Shuttle missions have shown decreased urine volume, pH, and citrate levels and increased calcium. Citrate, an important inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, binds with urinary calcium reducing the amount of calcium available to form stones. Citrate inhibits renal stone recurrence by preventing crystal growth, aggregation, and nucleation and is one of the most common therapeutic agents used to prevent stone formation. Methods: Thirty long duration crewmembers (29 male, 1 female) participated in this study. 24-hour urines were collected and dietary monitoring was performed pre-, in-, and postflight. Crewmembers in the treatment group received two potassium citrate (KCIT) pills, 10 mEq/pill, ingested daily beginning 3 days before launch, all in-flight days and through 14 days postflight. Urinary biochemical and dietary analyses were completed. Results: KCIT treated subjects exhibited decreased urinary calcium excretion and maintained the levels of calcium oxalate supersaturation risk at their preflight levels. The increased urinary pH levels in these subjects reduced the risk of uric acid stones. Discussion: The current study investigated the use of potassium citrate as a countermeasure to minimize the risk of stone formation during ISS missions. Results suggest that supplementation with potassium citrate decreases the risk of stone formation during and immediately after spaceflight.

  16. Renal-Stone Risk Assessment During Space Shuttle Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, Peggy A.; Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1996-01-01

    The metabolic and environmental factors influencing renal stone formation before, during, and after Space Shuttle flights were assessed. We established the contributing roles of dietary factors in relationship to the urinary risk factors associated with renal stone formation. 24-hr urine samples were collected prior to, during space flight, and following landing. Urinary factors associated with renal stone formation were analyzed and the relative urinary supersaturation ratios of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate (brushite), sodium urate, struvite and uric acid were calculated. Food and fluid consumption was recorded for a 48-hr period ending with the urine collection. Urinary composition changed during flight to favor the crystallization of stone-forming salts. Factors that contributed to increased potential for stone formation during space flight were significant reductions in urinary pH and increases in urinary calcium. Urinary output and citrate, a potent inhibitor of calcium-containing stones, were slightly reduced during space flight. Dietary intakes were significantly reduced for a number of variables, including fluid, energy, protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium. This is the first in-flight characterization of the renal stone forming potential in astronauts. With the examination of urinary components and nutritional factors, it was possible to determine the factors that contributed to increased risk or protected from risk. In spite of the protective components, the negative contributions to renal stone risk predominated and resulted in a urinary environment that favored the supersaturation of stone-forming salts. The importance of the hypercalciuria was noted since renal excretion was high relative to the intake.

  17. Hanford's Simulated Low Activity Waste Cast Stone Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young

    2013-08-20

    Cast Stone is undergoing evaluation as the supplemental treatment technology for Hanford’s (Washington) high activity waste (HAW) and low activity waste (LAW). This report will only cover the LAW Cast Stone. The programs used for this simulated Cast Stone were gradient density change, compressive strength, and salt waste form phase identification. Gradient density changes show a favorable outcome by showing uniformity even though it was hypothesized differently. Compressive strength exceeded the minimum strength required by Hanford and greater compressive strength increase seen between the uses of different salt solution The salt waste form phase is still an ongoing process as this time and could not be concluded.

  18. Renal Stone Risk During Space Flight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Sams, C. F.; Jones, J. A.; Pietrzke, R. A.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M. A.; Hudson, E. K.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has focused its future on exploration class missions including the goal of returning to the moon and landing on Mars. With these objectives, humans will experience an extended exposure to the harsh environment of microgravity and the associated negative effects on all the physiological systems of the body. Exposure to microgravity affects human physiology and results in changes to the urinary chemical composition during and after space flight. These changes are associated with an increased risk of renal stone formation. The development of a renal stone would have health consequences for the crewmember and negatively impact the success of the mission. As of January 2007, 15 known symptomatic medical events consistent with urinary calculi have been experienced by 13 U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts. Previous results from both MIR and Shuttle missions have demonstrated an increased risk for renal stone formation. These data have shown decreased urine volume, urinary pH and citrate levels and increased urinary calcium. Citrate, an important urinary inhibitor of calcium-containing renal stones binds with calcium in the urine, thereby reducing the amount of calcium available to form calcium oxalate stones. Urinary citrate also prevents calcium oxalate crystals from aggregating into larger crystals and into renal stones. In addition, citrate makes the urine less acidic which inhibits the development of uric acid stones. Potassium citrate supplementation has been successfully used to treat patients who have formed renal stones. The evaluation of potassium citrate as a countermeasure has been performed during the ISS Expeditions 3-6, 8, 11-13 and is currently in progress during the ISS Expedition 14 mission. Together with the assessment of stone risk and the evaluation of a countermeasure, this investigation provides an educational opportunity to all crewmembers. Individual urinary biochemical profiles are generated and the risk of stone formation is estimated. Increasing fluid intake is recommended to all crewmembers. These results can be used to lower the risk for stone formation through lifestyle, diet changes or therapeutic administration to minimize the risk for stone development. With human presence in microgravity a continuing presence and exploration class missions being planned, maintaining the health and welfare of all crewmembers is critical to the exploration of space.

  19. Stone Columns - Determination of the soil improvement factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivar?, J.

    2011-09-01

    A stone column is one of the soil stabilizing methods that is used to increase strength, decrease the compressibility of soft and loose fine graded soils, accelerate a consolidation effect and reduce the liquefaction potential of soils. The columns consist of compacted gravel or crushed stone arranged by a vibrator. This paper deals with Priebe's theory (1976) on the design of an improvement factor, which belongs among the most used analytical methods and also describes the numerical and laboratory models of stone columns. The improvement factors calculated from numerical and laboratory models are compared with the improvement factors resulting from Priebe's theory.

  20. "Piedra Franca": the same name for many different natural stones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Dolores; Navarro, Rafael; Baltuille, Jose Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The Spanish name "Piedra Franca" refers to all the stones of sedimentary origin that have uniform coloration and easeof cutting/carving in order to obtain dimensional blocks for construction. The first references to this denomination occurred during medieval times, when builders had to choose the best materials to construct magnificent cathedrals. The largest volume of such natural stones were extracted from Caen, northern France, and historic records use the English term, "freestone", ie stone easy to cut, and to work by the masons dedicated to build cathedrals ("freemasons") in contrast to the "roughstone", hard stones worked by the hard hewers or "rough masons". The original French name referred to the limestones extracted at Caen, but over time, the original meaning expanded to include other natural stones with similar coloration and ease to carve. Notably this included many sandstones that were used in adjacent countries such as Spain. In the latter, although the most popular for its importance in architectural heritage is the Villamayor sandstone from Salamanca, other historically important natural stones are also known as "Piedra Franca" including the calcarenite from Santa Pudia (Granada), the limestone from Alava, the sandstone from Jaen and the sandstone from Cdiz. All of them were used in the construction of Spanish architectonic heritage and share similar exterior characteristics. In fact, several are known as golden stones. However when conservation and restoration of architectonic heritage is involved, the correct and original material should be used. The existence of national networks (e.g. CONSTRUROCK) and international task groups (e.g. IUGS Heritage Stone Task Group) can help to properly characterize, document, and differentiate between the varieties of "Piedra Franca" and they should be consulted by builders, architects and any other stone professsionals involved in such activities. An error in choosing the natural stone can result in significant damage to the architectonic heritage. The same issue that occurs with "Piedra Franca" also extends to other natural stones in Spain and around the world. This explains the importance of these networks and task groups. This work was sponsored by the ERASMUS Intensive Programme 2012-1-ES1-ERA10-54375 and it was done within the framework of the Heritage Stone Task Group and CONSTRUROCK activities.

  1. In-situ monitoring of biological growth on stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brechet, Eric; McStay, Daniel; Wakefield, Rachael D.; Sweet, M. A. S.; Jones, M. S.

    1996-11-01

    A Scanning Fluorescence Microscope system for quantifying and mapping biological growth on stone is described. The system uses 488 nm light from an Argon-ion laser to excite the 685 nm fluorescence from the Chlorophyll-a in the algae and uses this as the means of mapping the biological material. The measured 685 nm fluorescence is shown to increase linearly with the quantity of algae on the stone surface. Application of the system to study the effectiveness of biocide treatment for the control of algae on stone is reported.

  2. Simplified methods for the evaluation of the risk of forming renal stones and the follow-up of stone-forming propensity during the preventive treatment of stone-formation.

    PubMed

    Grases, Flix; Costa-Bauz, Antonia

    2016-02-01

    Renal lithiasis is a complex multifactorial disease in which recurrence is common. Thus, simple and reliable procedures are needed to evaluate patients with previous kidney stones to determine the risk of recurrence. In this paper we review simple biochemical procedures that can be used to determine the risk for renal stone formation when the stone is available or unavailable for analysis. Our present knowledge of renal lithiasis indicates that renal stones form due to several well-defined factors. Analysis of the renal stone itself can provide important information about clinical factors that require further investigation. When the stone is unavailable, it is necessary to perform a general evaluation of main urinary risk factors associated to renal stone formation, but this study should be complemented considering information related to direct familial antecedents, recidivant degree, radiological images, medical history, and life style habits. Finally, tools for patient follow-up of stone-forming propensity during the preventive treatment are discussed . PMID:26614111

  3. Balloon dilator versus telescopic metal dilators for tract dilatation during percutaneous nephrolithotomy for staghorn stones and calyceal stones

    PubMed Central

    El-Shazly, Mohamed; Salem, Shady; Allam, Adel; Hathout, Badawy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the results of balloon dilatation (BD) vs. telescopic metal dilators (TMDs) in establishing the tract for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in patients with calyceal stones or staghorn stones, but with no hydronephrosis. Patients and methods Data from selected patients over 4years were recorded retrospectively. Patients with complex staghorn stones, an undilated targeted calyx, or the stone filling the targeted calyx, were included in the study. In all, 97 patients were included, of 235 undergoing PCNL between March 2010 and March 2014, and were divided into two groups according to the technique of primary tract dilatation. Group A included patients who had BD and group B those treated using TMDs. Results In group A (BD, 55 patients) dilatation was successful in 34 (62%). The dilatation failed or there was a need for re-dilatation using TMD in 21 patients (38%). In one of these 21 patients the dilatation failed due to extravasation. In group B (TMD, 42 patients) dilatation was successful in 38 (90%) patients, with incomplete dilatation and a need for re-dilatation in four (10%) patients, and no failed procedures. Group A had a significantly higher failure rate than group B (P<0.001). Differences in operative duration, blood loss, stone-removal success rate and complication rate were statistically insignificant. Conclusion BD has a higher failure rate than TMD when establishing access for calyceal stones or staghorn stones that have little space around them. PMID:26413325

  4. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water jet renal stone dislodger system. 876.4650... stone dislodger system. (a) Identification. A water jet renal stone dislodger system is a device used...

  5. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones. (b... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water jet renal stone dislodger system. 876.4650... stone dislodger system. (a) Identification. A water jet renal stone dislodger system is a device used...

  6. Giant bladder stone: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Tahtal?, ?brahim Nvit; Karata?, Turgay

    2014-01-01

    Bladder stones comprise 5% of urinary tract stones. Generally, they occur in the presence of bladder neck obstruction, urinary tract infections associated with neurogenic bladder and foreign objects. They are more common among men than women. Infection stones comprise approximately 15% of urinary tract stones. A giant bladder stone is a rare finding in contemporary urological practice. The general clinical setting is recurrent urinary tract infections, hematuria and urinary retention. We performed an open cystolithotomy on a mentally impaired patient who had a giant bladder stone. The stone removed weighed 465 grams. There was no evidence of any infravesical obstruction on the cystoscopy performed before the operation or during the operation. The stone consisted of 75% carbonate apatite and 25% struvite. Given that such a stone was found in a mentally impaired patient indicates that infection stones can form without infravesical obstruction. PMID:26328176

  7. 5. VIEW NORTHWEST SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE INTERIOR STONE WORK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTHWEST SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE INTERIOR STONE WORK OF THE PARAPET WALL AND REMAINS OF 1920 TIMBER AND CONCRETE FLOORING SYSTEM. - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Conococheague Creek Aqueduct, Milepost 99.80, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  8. 15. DETAIL, MAIN FACADE, ENTRANCE PORCH, STONE BEARING ARCHITECT'S NAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL, MAIN FACADE, ENTRANCE PORCH, STONE BEARING ARCHITECT'S NAME AS SEEN THROUGH SIDE ARCHED OPENING - U.S. Soldiers Home, Scott Building, Rock Creek Church Road & Upshur Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 79. Rocky Knob Recreation area housekeeping cabin with stone chimney ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Rocky Knob Recreation area housekeeping cabin with stone chimney mimicking the log cabins of the Southern Appalachians. Looking south. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  10. 12. View of stone work on original section of Armory ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View of stone work on original section of Armory Street Pump House. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  11. Stone retaining wall with telegraph pole along canal, milepost 146 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Stone retaining wall with telegraph pole along canal, milepost 146 vicinity, looking northeast. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  12. Stone wall and ornamental iron fence extending along Gray's Ferry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Stone wall and ornamental iron fence extending along Gray's Ferry Avenue between the north and south gate lodges, looking southwest. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Stone ingestion causing obstructed inguinal hernia with perforation.

    PubMed

    Sookpotarom, Paiboon; Ariyawatkul, Kansuda; Paramagul, Py; Sakulisariyaporn, Chanin; Stimanont, Thaniya; Vejchapipat, Paisarn

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of obstructed right inguinal hernia caused by ingested stones. A 2 year-old boy from Northern Thailand was transferred to our hospital with low-grade fever, vomiting, and acute painful swelling at his right hemiscrotum for one day. The physical examination revealed marked enlargement with inflammation in his right hemiscrotum. The radiological findings showed huge number of stones in the right hemiscrotum. At surgery, the content of hernia sac was ascending colon, which was full of hard masses. With the help of additional lower transverse abdominal incision, the obstructed segment was successfully reduced and revealed a perforation. Most of the stones were removed through the perforation. The colonic wound was primarily repaired and both incisions were primarily closed. Although he developed post-operative wound infection, the boy had uneventfully recovered. The psychological exploration in this "stone pica" revealed no other psychological disorders. PMID:24841026

  14. 16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNINGSTRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNING-STRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP HOUSE Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Northern approach stone arch permits access to park in panther ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northern approach stone arch permits access to park in panther hollow below. - Schenley Park Bridge over Panther Hollow, Spanning Panther Hollow at Panther Hollow Road, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. Gall bladder sludge and stones in multitransfused Egyptian thalassaemic patients.

    PubMed

    el-Nawawy, A; Kassem, A S; Eissa, M; Abdel-Fattah, M; Safwat, M

    2001-01-01

    One hundred Egyptian beta-thalassaemic patients on a long-term transfusion/chelation programme were evaluated for the prevalence of gall bladder sludge and stones and the associated risk factors. Fifty healthy individuals served as controls. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed that 14% of the thalassaemic patients had gall bladder sludge or stones (6% stones and 8% sludge). The thalassaemic patients with this complication were older, had a higher prevalence of gall bladder symptoms, higher levels of pretransfusion haemoglobin, larger amounts of transfused red cells, and more were regularly transfused. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence that gall bladder symptoms and the amount of transfused red cells were the only significant predictors of the occurrence of gall bladder sludge or stones. PMID:15332759

  17. 14. Detail, typical approach span fixed bearing atop stone masonry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail, typical approach span fixed bearing atop stone masonry pier, view to northwest, 210mm lens. - Southern Pacific Railroad Shasta Route, Bridge No. 210.52, Milepost 210.52, Tehama, Tehama County, CA

  18. 3. DETAIL OF END CONDITION, SHOWING TRUSS BEARING ON STONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF END CONDITION, SHOWING TRUSS BEARING ON STONE ENDPOSTS AND ENDPOSTS BEARING ON ABUTMENTS - Fosnaugh Truss Leg Bedstead Bridge, Spanning Scippo Creek at Township Route 128, Stoutsville, Fairfield County, OH

  19. 9. STONE SLAB CULVERT UNDER CARRIAGE ROAD AT HORSESHOE CURVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. STONE SLAB CULVERT UNDER CARRIAGE ROAD AT HORSESHOE CURVE NEAR GIANT SLIDE TRAIL MARKER ON AROUND-THE-MOUNTAIN LOOP. - Rockefeller Carriage Roads, Mount Desert Island, Bar Harbor, Hancock County, ME

  20. TOOL CRIB FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING ALUMINUM DOORS, STONE PIER, GYPSUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOOL CRIB FROM NORTHWEST, SHOWING ALUMINUM DOORS, STONE PIER, GYPSUM BOARD-FACED PARTITION AND ORIGINAL TIMBER STRUCTURE - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stable, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  1. 1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE STONE END, PAINTED DOOR AND WINDOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. NOTE STONE END, PAINTED DOOR AND WINDOW 'HEADS', HEX SIGNS (BLACK AND WHITE COLORS) AND PAINTED SCALLOP PATTERN (ON BOTTOM OF OVERHANG) - Decorated Red Barn, Alburtis, Lehigh County, PA

  2. Weathering of Stone Monuments in Cities: A Student Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragovich, D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a college-level geography project for students limited to urban areas. Students investigate the rock-weathering process through library resources, then observe, collect, and analyze data about stone monuments. An individually written report concludes the project. (KC)

  3. John's Stone: A Possible Fragment of the Tunguska Meteorite 1908

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfinogenov, J.; Budaeva, L.; Kuznetsov, D.; Anfinogenova, Y.

    2014-09-01

    Authors report recovery of candidate Tunguska meteorite 1908 and discuss it in the context of recent planetological discoveries. Exotic boulder known as John's Stone may be a fragment of the Tunguska meteorite representing a new type of meteorites.

  4. 5. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STONE PLAQUE INSCRIBED 'USRA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING STONE PLAQUE INSCRIBED 'USRA, 1936' LOCATED IN EAST ELEVATION (tHIS PHOTOGRAPH IS FOGGED) - Spring Lake Bridge, Spanning Bob Barnes Branch at County Road No. 36D, Belleville, Yell County, AR

  5. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF STONE WORK RAILING AT SCENIC OVERLOOK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF STONE WORK RAILING AT SCENIC OVERLOOK AT PETER SKENE OGDEN MEMORIAL PARK - Crooked River High Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge at Dalles-California Highway, Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  6. Kidney stones and crushed bones secondary to hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sreejith, G. Nair; Pranab, K. Prabhakaran

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a 65-year-old woman with multiple brown tumors and renal stones secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism. This case highlights the need for early recognition of parathyroid hyperactivity. PMID:26722166

  7. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF STONE MASONRY, WING WALL AND WHAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF STONE MASONRY, WING WALL AND WHAT REMAINS OF ORIGINAL WALKWAY RAILING. - Main Street Parker Pony Truss Bridge, Main Street (Route 170) spanning Yellow Creek, Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  8. 19. WILEY CITY LINE STONE TROLLEY WAITING STATION ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WILEY CITY LINE - STONE TROLLEY WAITING STATION ON CONGDON ORCHARD PROPERTY - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  9. "Cheese" room in halfcellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "Cheese" room in half-cellar showing stone trough, later fireplace supports, stairs inserted in original relieving arch. - Scheetz Farm, House, 7161 Camp Hill Road, Fort Washington, Montgomery County, PA

  10. 4. VIEW OF EMPIRE, STONE CABIN AND TIP TOP MINES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF EMPIRE, STONE CABIN AND TIP TOP MINES. EMPIRE TAILING PILE IS VISIBLE IN LOWER CENTER (SLOPE WITH ORE CHUTE IS HIDDEN BY TREES ABOVE TAILINGS), TIP TOP IS VISIBLE IN RIGHT THIRD AND SLIGHTLY UPHILL IN ELEVATION FROM UPPER EMPIRE TAILINGS,(TO LOCATE, FIND THE V-SHAPED SPOT OF SNOW JUST BELOW THE RIDGE LINE ON FAR RIGHT OF IMAGE. TIP TOP BUILDING IS VISIBLE IN THE LIGHT AREA BELOW AND SLIGHTLY LEFT OF V-SHAPED SNOW SPOT), AND STONE CABIN II IS ALSO VISIBLE, (TO LOCATE, USE A STRAIGHT EDGE AND ALIGN WITH EMPIRE TAILINGS. THIS WILL DIRECT ONE THROUGH THE EDGE OF STONE CABIN II, WHICH IS THE DARK SPOT JUST BELOW THE POINT WHERE THE RIDGE LINE TREES STOP). STONE CABIN I IS LOCATED IN GENERAL VICINITY OF THE LONE TREE ON FAR LEFT RIDGE LINE. ... - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  11. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlaga, Brian R.; Williams, James C.; Evan, Andrew P.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-04-01

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny.

  12. 10. FLOOR 1; CENTER POST AND POSTS UNDER STONE BEAMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. FLOOR 1; CENTER POST AND POSTS UNDER STONE BEAMS WHICH SUPPORT BRIDGE BEAMS FOR BRIDGE TREES; WEDGES FOR ADJUSTING HEIGHT OF BRIDGE TREE CAN BE SEEN - Shelter Island Windmill, Manwaring Road, Shelter Island, Suffolk County, NY

  13. Calcium Oxalate Stones Are Frequently Found Attached to Randall's Plaque

    SciTech Connect

    Matlaga, Brian R.

    2007-04-05

    The exact mechanisms of the crystallization processes that occur during the formation of calcium oxalate calculi are controversial. Over six decades ago, Alexander Randall reported on a series of cadaveric renal units in which he observed calcium salt deposits on the tips of the renal papilla. Randall hypothesized that these deposits, eponymously termed Randall's plaque, would be the ideal site for stone formation, and indeed in a number of specimens he noted small stones attached to the papillae. With the recent advent of digital endoscopic imaging and micro computerized tomography (CT) technology, it is now possible to inspect the renal papilla of living, human stone formers and to study the attached stone with greater scrutiny.

  14. 54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE CONSTRUCTION TO LEFT (SOUTHWEST); ENTRANCE TO A MAGAZINE TO THE RIGHT. VIEW IS NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  15. 26. LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BEND DUE NORTH OF STONE MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. LOOKING NORTHWEST AT BEND DUE NORTH OF STONE MILL Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 29. VIEW OF STONE BUILDING, ABOUT ONE MILE DOWNSTREAM OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW OF STONE BUILDING, ABOUT ONE MILE DOWNSTREAM OF DAM, USED TO STORE EXPLOSIVES DURING THE CONSTRUCTION OF HORSE MESA - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. Building D interior, looking south showing same stone wall as ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building D interior, looking south showing same stone wall as it attaches to the east wall of Building D - Hinckley Knitting Mills, Building D, 21-35 East Wister Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Lock 6 Detail of hinge stone with iron straps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 6 - Detail of hinge stone with iron straps and carved completion date (1830) located on ground at southeast corner of lock - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  19. 7. Elevation of single arch stone bridge on Laurel Creek ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Elevation of single arch stone bridge on Laurel Creek Road looking N. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Cades Cove Road & Laurel Creek Road, From Townsend Wye to Cades Cove, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  20. Topological Anisotropy of Stone-Wales Waves in Graphenic Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Ori, Ottorino; Cataldo, Franco; Putz, Mihai V.

    2011-01-01

    Stone-Wales operators interchange four adjacent hexagons with two pentagon-heptagon 5|7 pairs that, graphically, may be iteratively propagated in the graphene layer, originating a new interesting structural defect called here Stone-Wales wave. By minimization, the Wiener index topological invariant evidences a marked anisotropy of the Stone-Wales defects that, topologically, are in fact preferably generated and propagated along the diagonal of the graphenic fragments, including carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. This peculiar edge-effect is shown in this paper having a predominant topological origin, leaving to future experimental investigations the task of verifying the occurrence in nature of wave-like defects similar to the ones proposed here. Graph-theoretical tools used in this paper for the generation and the propagation of the Stone-Wales defects waves are applicable to investigate isomeric modifications of chemical structures with various dimensionality like fullerenes, nanotubes, graphenic layers, schwarzites, zeolites. PMID:22174641

  1. Topological anisotropy of stone-wales waves in graphenic fragments.

    PubMed

    Ori, Ottorino; Cataldo, Franco; Putz, Mihai V

    2011-01-01

    Stone-Wales operators interchange four adjacent hexagons with two pentagon-heptagon 5|7 pairs that, graphically, may be iteratively propagated in the graphene layer, originating a new interesting structural defect called here Stone-Wales wave. By minimization, the Wiener index topological invariant evidences a marked anisotropy of the Stone-Wales defects that, topologically, are in fact preferably generated and propagated along the diagonal of the graphenic fragments, including carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. This peculiar edge-effect is shown in this paper having a predominant topological origin, leaving to future experimental investigations the task of verifying the occurrence in nature of wave-like defects similar to the ones proposed here. Graph-theoretical tools used in this paper for the generation and the propagation of the Stone-Wales defects waves are applicable to investigate isomeric modifications of chemical structures with various dimensionality like fullerenes, nanotubes, graphenic layers, schwarzites, zeolites. PMID:22174641

  2. Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective of Bright Angel stone vault, view south, with HAER field team measuring (Michael Lee and Dominic Duran foreground, Christopher Marston rear). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  3. Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation pump, Jennings vacuum heating pump, and misc. pipes and valves. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  4. Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bright Angel stone vault, with HAER field team members Dominic Duran, Christopher Marston, and Michael Lee (l to r). - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  5. View of works progress administration (WPA) built stone retaining wall; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of works progress administration (WPA) built stone retaining wall; Riverfront Park gazebo at left, boat ramp at right. - Borough of Elizabeth Riverfront Park, Market Street at Monongahela River, Elizabeth, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 4. STONE BUILDER'S PLATE CANAL GATES, AND DIVERSION SPILLWAYS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STONE BUILDER'S PLATE CANAL GATES, AND DIVERSION SPILLWAYS. - Canal Road Bridge, Canal Road spanning Delaware Canal Diversion, Locks 22 & 23 in Delaware Canal State Park in Williams Township, Raubsville, Northampton County, PA

  7. Detail view of date stone marking the founding of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of date stone marking the founding of the Emmanuel Christian Community Church congregation - Reformed Episcopal Church of the Rock of Ages, 1210 West Lanvale Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  8. Olive stone an attractive source of bioactive and valuable compounds.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez, Guillermo; Lama, Antonio; Rodrguez, Roco; Jimnez, Ana; Guilln, Rafael; Fernndez-Bolaos, Juan

    2008-09-01

    The olive stone and seed are an important byproduct generated in the olive oil extraction and pitted table olive industries. As a lignocellulosic material, the hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin are the main components of olive stone as wells as protein, fat, phenols, free sugars and poliols composition. The main use of this biomass is as combustion to produce electric energy or heat. Other uses such as activated carbon, furfural production, plastic filled, abrasive and cosmetic or other potential uses such as biosorbent, animal feed or resin formation have been cited. In this article, an overview of the characterization and main uses of olive stone and seed are described for the first time. Also, this review discusses the potential use of this material based on each component. In this way, a new approach to the olive stone and seed by pretreating with a steam explosion followed by chemical fractionation is described. PMID:18160280

  9. Gene expression profiling of peach fruit during stone development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of seedless grapes and watermelons has energized these fruit markets and resulted in increased consumption. Seedless stone fruits including peaches, plums, and cherries would undoubtedly have similar positive impacts on these industries. However, this would require the elimination...

  10. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CUT STONE ABUTMENT FROM SOUTHWEST. Cataract ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF NORTHEAST CUT STONE ABUTMENT FROM SOUTHWEST. - Cataract Falls Bridge, Spanning Mill Creek, bypassed section of CR 279 (Cataract Falls Unit of Leiber State Recreation Area), Cataract, Owen County, IN

  11. Renal Stone Risk During Spaceflight: Assessment and Countermeasure Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pietrzyk, Robert A.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Jones, Jeffery A.; Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the risks of renal stone formation in manned space flight. The contents include: 1) Risk; 2) Evidence; 3) Nephrolithiasis -A Multifactorial Disease; 4) Symptoms/signs; 5) Urolithiasis and Stone Passage; 6) Study Objectives; 7) Subjects; 8) Methods; 9) Investigation Results; 10) Potassium Citrate; 11) Calcium Balance; 12) Case Study; 13) Significant Findings; 14) Risk Mitigation Strategies and Recommended Actions; and 15) Future Potential.

  12. 25. Otter Creek Bridge #2. View of the stone facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Otter Creek Bridge #2. View of the stone facing common on nearly all concrete box culverts. The stone faced arch mimics rigid frame structures. Culverts were used for a variety of purposes from small stream crossings to grade separation structures for farmers whose land was split by the parkway. Looking northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  13. 12. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR SHOWING GRINDING STONES COVERED WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW, FIRST FLOOR SHOWING GRINDING STONES COVERED WITH VATS (RIGHT STONE RUN BY 35' LEFFAL VERTICAL TURBINE; LEFT BY 23' 1EFFAL VERTICAL TURBINE). THE HOPPER ON THE VAT TO THE LEFT FUNNELS THE GRAIN IN. THE CHUTE AT THE BOTTOM OF THE CENTER VAT SENDS GROUND GRAIN TO THE CONVEYOR BELOW. - Schech's Mill, Beaver Creek State Park, La Crescent, Houston County, MN

  14. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Jung, H. B.; Wang, Guohui

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  15. Release of nitric oxide from building stones into the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgrtner, M.; Remde, A.; Bock, E.; Conrad, R.

    Stone material from the corroding surface of buildings generally released nitric oxide with rates of 0.42-4.2 ng NO?N h -1 g -1 d.w. despite their large range of moisture, pH and content of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate. The net release rates of NO were independent of the NO mixing ratio of the atmosphere up to 1 ppmv NO. Whereas NO 2 was taken up by all stones tested, uptake of NO was only observed in one out of five types of stone. NO release rates were highest at the stone surface and rapidly decreased in depth lower than 1 cm. NO release persisted for up to >3 months after the stone sample was removed from the building. NO was mainly produced during the biogenic oxidation of ammonium to nitrate at the stone surface which was probably due to endolithic nitrifying bacteria. Chemical decomposition of nitrite to NO and NO 2 was only observed under acidic conditions.

  16. The evolution of the endourologic management of pediatric stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Smaldone, Marc C.; Gayed, Bishoy A.; Ost, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    In the 1980s, the advent of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) revolutionized pediatric stone management and is currently the procedure of choice in treating most upper tract calculi <1.5 cm in children. However, with miniaturization of instruments and refinement of surgical technique the management of pediatric stone disease has undergone a dramatic evolution over the past twenty years. In a growing number of centers, ureteroscopy (URS) is now being performed in cases that previously would have been treated with SWL or percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). PCNL has replaced open surgical techniques for the treatment of large stone burdens >2 cm with efficacy and complication rates similar to the adult population. Recent results of retrospective reviews of large single institution series demonstrate stone free and complication rates with URS comparable to PCNL and SWL but concerns remain with these techniques regarding renal development and damage to the pediatric urinary tract. Randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of SWL and URS for upper tract stone burden are needed to reach consensus regarding the most effective primary treatment modality in children. This report provides a comprehensive review of the literature evaluating the indications, techniques, complications, and efficacy of endourologic stone management in children. PMID:19881120

  17. The History of Urinary Stones: In Parallel with Civilization

    PubMed Central

    Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin

    2013-01-01

    The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of “perineal lithotomy” were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as “litholopaxy”). Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929). With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to “cut” our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives. PMID:24348156

  18. Renal struvite stones--pathogenesis, microbiology, and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Flannigan, Ryan; Choy, Wai Ho; Chew, Ben; Lange, Dirk

    2014-06-01

    Infection stones-which account for 10-15% of all urinary calculi-are thought to form in the presence of urease-producing bacteria. These calculi can cause significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated or treated inadequately; optimal treatment involves complete stone eradication in conjunction with antibiotic therapy. The three key principles of treating struvite stones are: removal of all stone fragments, the use of antibiotics to treat the infection, and prevention of recurrence. Several methods to remove stone fragments have been described in the literature, including the use of urease inhibitors, acidification therapy, dissolution therapy, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and anatrophic nephrolithotomy. PCNL is considered to be the gold-standard approach to treating struvite calculi, but adjuncts might be used when deemed necessary. When selecting antibiotics to treat infection, it is necessary to acquire a stone culture or, at the very least, urine culture from the renal pelvis at time of surgery, as midstream urine cultures do not always reflect the causative organism. PMID:24818849

  19. The history of urinary stones: in parallel with civilization.

    PubMed

    Tefekli, Ahmet; Cezayirli, Fatin

    2013-01-01

    The roots of modern science and history of urinary stone disease go back to the Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamia. Hippocrates defined the symptoms of bladder stones. The first recorded details of "perineal lithotomy" were those of Cornelius Celsus. Ancient Arabic medicine was based mainly on classical Greco-Roman works. Interestingly, the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215 forbade physicians from performing surgical procedures, as contact with blood or body fluids was viewed as contaminating to men. With Renaissance new procedures could be tried on criminals. The first recorded suprapubic lithotomy was carried out by Pierre Franco in 1561. In 1874, Bigelow developed a lithotrite, which was introduced into the bladder under anaesthesia (called as "litholopaxy"). Young was the first to report ureteroscopy (1929). With advances in intracorporeal lithotripsy techniques, ureteroscopy became the treatment of choice for ureteric stones. In 1976, Fernstrom and Johannson established percutaneous access to remove a renal stone. However, with the introduction of the first extracorporeal shock wave machine in 1980, a dramatic change in stone management was observed. Civilization in parallel with scientific developments has brought us to a point where we try not to "cut" our patients for stone disease, as Hippocrates admonishes, but rather manage them with minimal invasive alternatives. PMID:24348156

  20. Analysis of urinary stone composition in Eastern India by X-ray diffraction crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Tarun; Mandal, Soumendra Nath; Sonar, Pankaj; Kamal, Mir Reza; Ghosh, Nabankur; Karmakar, Dilip

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stones in the urinary system are common in our country. This study was done to assess the composition of the urinary stones in eastern part of India. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done over a period of thirty months. A total of 90 stones were analyzed in this time period by using X-ray diffraction crystallography. Results: Of the 90 stones analyzed, 77 were renal stones, 12 were ureteric stones and one was a bladder stone. Six stones (all renal) did not have properties to be represented by X-ray diffraction crystallography. The overall prevalence of the oxalate containing stones was 85.7% with calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) being the major constituent. Calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) was the next most common constituent. Struvite stones constituted 9.5% of the stones analyzed. Pure calcium phosphate stones were found in 4.7% of the cases. Conclusion: Our study reveals that the stone composition in the eastern part of India is different from that in other parts of the country. We have a comparatively lower prevalence of oxalate stones while a higher prevalence of phosphate and struvite stones. PMID:25337533

  1. Urinary stone analysis on 12,846 patients: a report from a single center in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenqi; Yang, Bicheng; Ou, Lili; Liang, Yeping; Wan, Shawpong; Li, Shujue; Zeng, Guohua

    2014-02-01

    We reported a retrospective review of the urinary stone compositions in 12,846 patients. Data on urinary stone compositions analyzed between January 2003 and December 2012 in our center were collected. Infrared spectroscopy was used for stone analysis. Predominant stone component was recorded. Patients were divided into four age groups: 0-18, 19-40, 41-60, and 61-92, and five categories by components. In order to determine the change of stone characteristics with respect to time, data were also divided into two periods, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012. A total of 12,846 stones were included in this study. The age of the patients ranged from 1 to 92 years with 7,736 males and 5,110 females. Stone made of single component was rare, 2.61%. Calcium oxalate stone was the most common component at 82.56%. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were more common in male than in female. The incidence of calcium phosphate stones and uric acid stones had increased during the past 5 years, while calcium oxalate stones decreased. We found the highest incidence of stone disease in the 41-60 years old group and the lowest in the 1-18 years old for both genders. Calcium oxalate was the dominant component in every group but was more prevalent in 19-40 years group. The percentage of magnesium ammonium phosphate stone and uric acid stone increased with age. PMID:24362574

  2. STONE 6: Sedimentary meteors from Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.; Demets, R.; Brandstetter, F.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Cockell, C. S.; Parnell, J.; Foucher, F.; Kurat, G.; Brack, A.

    2008-09-01

    STONE 6 is a space experiment to test the potential for survival of sedimentary meteors from Mars surviving entry into the Earth's atmosphere. Two sediments and a basalt (as the control) were embedded close to the ablation point of the heat shield of a FOTON M3 capsule for atmospheric entry from lower Earth orbit in September 2007. The sediments included (1) an ~3.5 billion year (Ga) old volcanic sand containing carbonaceous microfossils and (2) an ~370 million year (Ma) old lacustrine rock containing chemical biomarkers. The backs of the samples were smeared with a living endolithic microorganism, Chroococcidiopsis. The sediments survived reentry, as did some of the chemical biomarkers in the lacustrine sediment and the carbonaceous microfossils in the 3.5 Ga-old sediment survived (away from the fusion crust). An increase in the crystallinity of the carbon in both sediments was noted. The Chroococcidiopsis did not survive but their carbonised remains did. Thus sedimentary meteorites from Mars could reach the surface of the Earth and, if they contain traces of fossil life, these traces could be preserved. However, living organisms may need more than 2cm of rock protection.

  3. Lunar Tractive Forces and Renal Stone Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Arampatzis, Spyridon; Thalmann, George N.; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Several factors are implicated in renal stone formation and peak incidence of renal colic admissions to emergency departments (ED). Little is known about the influence of potential environmental triggers such as lunar gravitational forces. We conducted a retrospective study to test the hypothesis that the incidence of symptomatic renal colics increases at the time of the full and new moon because of increased lunar gravitational forces. Methods. We analysed 1500 patients who attended our ED between 2000 and 2010 because of nephrolithiasis-induced renal colic. The lunar phases were defined as full moon 1 day, new moon 1 day, and the days in-between as normal days. Results. During this 11-year period, 156 cases of acute nephrolithiasis were diagnosed at the time of a full moon and 146 at the time of a new moon (mean of 0.4 per day for both). 1198 cases were diagnosed on normal days (mean 0.4 per day). The incidence of nephrolithiasis in peak and other lunar gravitational phases, the circannual variation and the gender-specific analysis showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion. In this adequate powered longitudinal study, changes in tractive force during the different lunar phases did not influence the incidence of renal colic admissions in emergency department. PMID:22046548

  4. Lunar tractive forces and renal stone incidence.

    PubMed

    Arampatzis, Spyridon; Thalmann, George N; Zimmermann, Heinz; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2011-01-01

    Background. Several factors are implicated in renal stone formation and peak incidence of renal colic admissions to emergency departments (ED). Little is known about the influence of potential environmental triggers such as lunar gravitational forces. We conducted a retrospective study to test the hypothesis that the incidence of symptomatic renal colics increases at the time of the full and new moon because of increased lunar gravitational forces. Methods. We analysed 1500 patients who attended our ED between 2000 and 2010 because of nephrolithiasis-induced renal colic. The lunar phases were defined as full moon ± 1 day, new moon ± 1 day, and the days in-between as "normal" days. Results. During this 11-year period, 156 cases of acute nephrolithiasis were diagnosed at the time of a full moon and 146 at the time of a new moon (mean of 0.4 per day for both). 1198 cases were diagnosed on "normal" days (mean 0.4 per day). The incidence of nephrolithiasis in peak and other lunar gravitational phases, the circannual variation and the gender-specific analysis showed no statistically significant differences. Conclusion. In this adequate powered longitudinal study, changes in tractive force during the different lunar phases did not influence the incidence of renal colic admissions in emergency department. PMID:22046548

  5. Lunar base - A stepping stone to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B.; Mendell, W. W.; Roberts, B. B.

    1985-01-01

    Basic elements of technology and programmatic development are identified that appear relevant to the Case for Mars, starting from a base on the moon. The moon is a logical stepping stone toward human exploration of Mars because a lunar base can provide the first test of human ability to use the resources of another planetary body to provide basic materials for life support. A lunar base can provide the first long-term test of human capability to work and live in a reduced (but not zero) gravity field. A lunar base requires creation of the elements of a space transportation system that will be necessary to deliver large payloads to Mars and the space operations capability and experience necessary to carry out a Mars habitation program efficiently and with high reliability. A lunar base is feasible for the first decade of the 21st Century. Scenarios have been studied that provide advanced capability by 2015 within budget levels that are less than historical U.S. space expenditures (Apollo). Early return on the investment in terms of knowledge, practical experience and lunar products are important in gaining momentum for an expanded human exploration of the solar system and the eventual colonization of Mars.

  6. Aesthetic thresholds and blackening of stone buildings.

    PubMed

    Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M

    2005-10-15

    This work investigates public perception of the blackening of light coloured stone historic buildings in some European countries. It used on-site questionnaires to explore the perceived lightness of the façades in terms of opinions that the building is dirty or needs cleaning. There was a clear relation between opinions about the dirtiness of a building and views that it should be cleaned. Visitors to buildings found the assignment of colour or a grey scale value to buildings relatively easy despite the fact that they are typically made up of many shades. There was a strong relationship between the perceived lightness of a building and the opinion that it was dirty. This relationship was used to establish potential levels of blackening that may be publicly acceptable and propose some aesthetic thresholds. Such thresholds suggest approaches to setting limit values for elemental carbon in the air, such that significant buildings do not become unacceptably discoloured. Developments of this kind contribute to the regulation of non health aspects of air pollution and aid decision making in the management of significant buildings. PMID:16198679

  7. Star-Paths, Stones and Horizon Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Bernadette

    2015-05-01

    Archaeoastronomers tend to approach ancient monuments focusing on the landscape and the horizon calendar events of sun and moon and, due to problems with precession, generally ignore the movement of the stars. However, locating the position of solar calendar points on the horizon can have other uses apart from calendar and/or cosmological purposes. This paper firstly suggests that the stars do not need to be ignored. By considering the evidence of the Phaenomena, a sky poem by Aratus of Soli, a third century BC Greek poet, and his use of second millennium BC star lore fragments, this paper argues that the stars were a part of the knowledge of horizon astronomy. Aratus' poem implied that the horizon astronomy of the late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods included knowledge of star-paths or 'linear constellations' that were defined by particular horizon calendar events and other azimuths. Knowledge of such star-paths would have enabled navigation and orientation, and by using permanent markers, constructed or natural, to define these paths, they were immune to precession as the stones could redefine a star-path for a future generation. Finally the paper presents other possible intentions behind the diverse orientation of passage tombs and some megalithic sites.

  8. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of additional LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with waste acceptance criteria for the IDF disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long term performance of the waste form in the IDF disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF. A testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in some detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW (Westsik et al. 2012). Included within Westsik et al. (2012) is a section on the near-term needs to address Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-062-40ZZ. The objectives of the testing program to be conducted in FY 2013 and FY 2014 are to: • Determine an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form. • Evaluate sources of dry materials for preparing the LAW Cast Stone. • Demonstrate the robustness of the Cast Stone waste form for a range of LAW compositions. • Demonstrate the robustness of the formulation for variability in the Cast Stone process. • Provide Cast Stone contaminant release data for PA and risk assessment evaluations. The first step in determining an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form is to conduct screening tests to examine expected ranges in pretreated LAW composition, waste stream concentrations, dry-materials sources, and mix ratios of waste feed to dry blend. A statistically designed test matrix will be used to evaluate the effects of these key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. The second phase of testing will focus on selection of a baseline Cast Stone formulation for LAW and demonstrating that Cast Stone can meet expected waste form requirements for disposal in the IDF. It is expected that this testing will use the results of the screening tests to define a smaller suite of tests to refine the composition of the baseline Cast Stone formulation (e.g. waste concentration, water to dry mix ratio, waste loading).

  9. Stone Polygons: Self-Organization Assisted by Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, M.; Hager, B. H.

    2002-12-01

    Polygonal patterns formed by sorted gravel are commonly found on flat surfaces where water drainage is poor because of underlying permafrost. The similarity in pattern of these stone polygons with Rayleigh-Benard thermal convection cells is intriguing. There is even a suggestion that stone polygons are formed by Rayleigh-Benard convection of water through the underlying porous soil (Kranz et al, 1983). Recent developments in understanding the microphysical mechanisms of frost heaving (e.g. Wettlaufer, 1999; Zhu et al 2000) reinforce the conventional view that the freeze-thawing cycle of ice is the primary natural agent for this pattern formation. Mathematically, a large body of solutions to problems in pattern formation can be attributed to the reaction-diffusion system. There is a subtle difference, however, between systems like Rayleigh-Benard convection cells and stone polygons: The latter are formed in a noisy natural environment, the former in a highly controlled laboratory environment. In other words, the effects of large sources of noise must be accounted for explicitly in understanding the pattern formation of stone polygons. A distribution of stone polygons formed cooperatively results from sorting among water, soil, and stones controlled by weather changes. We propose a nonlinear reaction-diffusion type of model for this coupled process. We consider the incremental population density of stones (positive or negative relative to the initial uniform distribution). The positive feedback between freeze-thaw cycles and the local stone accumulation (positive or negative) is modeled by a linear production term, while the gravitational reconfiguration gives rise to a cubic nonlinear saturation term. Noise due to fluctuations of the environment is represented by the diffusion term. Similar systems have emerged in wide ranges of physical and chemical problems, yet most of the investigations in the other fields are on stability fields associated with varying control parameters. Our interest here is on pattern formation, especially the role played by the nonlinear effects. We use the difference equation to represent inaccuracy in the physical model and the discreteness of the stones. Preliminary calculations at steady state demonstrate that the cubic nonlinear term has a strong influence, and mostly favors the formation of hexagonal patterns. Formation of stone stripes can be accounted for by adding a gradient term along the downhill direction.

  10. Effect of Cystone on Urinary Composition and Stone Formation Over a One Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, S. B.; Vrtiska, T. J.; Lieske, J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Kidney stones are a common problem for which inadequate prevention exists. We recruited ten recurrent kidney stone formers with documented calcium oxalate stones into a two phased study to assess safety and effectiveness of Cystone, an herbal treatment for prevention of kidney stones. The first phase was a randomized double-blinded 12 week cross over study assessing the effect of Cystone vs. placebo on urinary supersaturation. The second phase was an open label one year study of Cystone to determine if renal stone burden decreased, as assessed by quantitative and subjective assessment of CT. Results revealed no statistically significant effect of Cystone on urinary composition short (6 weeks) or long (52 weeks) term. Average renal stone burden increased rather than decreased on Cystone. Therefore, this study does not support the efficacy of Cystone to treat calcium oxalate stone formers. Future studies will be needed to assess effects on stone passage, or on other stone types. PMID:21419609

  11. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is a reliable method for urinary stone analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Nazım; Çiftçi, Seyfettin; Gülecen, Turgay; Öztoprak, Belgin Genç; Demir, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Objective We compared laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with the traditionally used and recommended X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) for urinary stone analysis. Material and methods In total, 65 patients with urinary calculi were enrolled in this prospective study. Stones were obtained after surgical or extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy procedures. All stones were divided into two equal pieces. One sample was analyzed by XRD and the other by LIBS. The results were compared by the kappa (κ) and Spearman’s correlation coefficient (rho) tests. Results Using LIBS, 95 components were identified from 65 stones, while XRD identified 88 components. LIBS identified 40 stones with a single pure component, 20 stones with two different components, and 5 stones with three components. XRD demonstrated 42 stones with a single component, 22 stones with two different components, and only 1 stone with three different components. There was a strong relationship in the detection of stone types between LIBS and XRD for stones components (Spearman rho, 0.866; p<0.001). There was excellent agreement between the two techniques among 38 patients with pure stones (κ index, 0.910; Spearman rho, 0.916; p<0.001). Conclusion Our study indicates that LIBS is a valid and reliable technique for determining urinary stone composition. Moreover, it is a simple, low-cost, and nondestructive technique. LIBS can be safely used in routine daily practice if our results are supported by studies with larger numbers of patients. PMID:27011877

  12. Appropriate kidney stone size for ureteroscopic lithotripsy: When to switch to a percutaneous approach

    PubMed Central

    Takazawa, Ryoji; Kitayama, Sachi; Tsujii, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Flexible ureteroscopy (fURS) has become a more effective and safer treatment for whole upper urinary tract stones. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) is currently the first-line recommended treatment for large kidney stones ? 20 mm and it has an excellent stone-free rate for large kidney stones. However, its invasiveness is not negligible considering its major complication rates. Staged fURS is a practical treatment for such large kidney stones because fURS has a minimal blood transfusion risk, short hospitalization and few restrictions on daily routines. However, as the stone size becomes larger, the stone-free rate decreases, and the number of operations required increases. Therefore, in our opinion, staged fURS is a practical option for kidney stones 20 to 40 mm. Miniaturized PNL combined with fURS should be considered to be a preferred option for stones larger than 40 mm. Moreover, URS is an effective treatment for multiple upper urinary tract stones. Especially for patients with a stone burden < 20 mm, URS is a favorable option that promises a high stone-free rate after a single session either unilaterally or bilaterally. However, for patients with a stone burden ? 20 mm, a staged operation should be considered to achieve stone-free status. PMID:25664253

  13. Stone formation and calcification by nanobacteria in the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Bjorklund, Michael; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The formation of discrete and organized inorganic crystalline structures within macromolecular extracellular matrices is a widespread biological phenomenon generally referred to as biomineralization. Recently, bacteria have been implicated as factors in biogeochemical cycles for formation of many minerals in aqueous sediments. We have found nanobacterial culture systems that allow for reproducible production of apatite calcification in vitro. Depending on the culture conditions, tiny nanocolloid-sized particles covered with apatite, forming various size of aggregates and stones were observed. In this study, we detected the presence of nanobacteria in demineralized trilobit fossil, geode, apatite, and calcite stones by immunofluorescence staining. Amethyst and other quartz stones, and chalk gave negative results. Microorganisms are capable of depositing apatite outside the thermodynamic equilibrium in sea water. We bring now evidence that this occurs in the human body as well. Previously, only struvite kidney stones composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate and small amounts of apatite have been regarded as bacteria related. 90 percent of demineralized human kidney stones now screened, contained nanobacteria. At least three different distribution patterns of nanobacteria were conditions, and human kidney stones that are formed from small apatite units. Prerequisites for the formation of kidney stones are the supersaturation of urine and presence of nidi for crystallization. Nanobacteria are important nidi and their presence might be of special interest in space flights where supersaturation of urine is present due to the loss of bone. Furthermore, we bring evidence that nanobacteria may act as crystallization nidi for the formation of biogenic apatite structures in tissue calcification found in e.g., atherosclerotic plaques, extensive metastatic and tumoral calcification, acute periarthritis, malacoplakia, and malignant diseases. In nanaobacteria-infected fibroblasts, electron microscopy revealed intra- and extra-cellular needle-like crystal deposits, which were stainable with von Kossa stain and resemble calcospherules found in pathological calcification. Thus bacteria-mediated apatite formation takes place in aqueous environments, in humans and in geological sediments.

  14. Visceral obesity: A new risk factor for stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Akarken, Ilker; Tarhan, Hüseyin; Ekin, Rahmi Gökhan; Çakmak, Özgür; Koç, Gökan; İlbey, Yusuf Özlem; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We examined the relationship between stone disease and the amount of visceral adipose tissue measured with unenhanced computed tomography (CT). Methods: We included 149 patients with complaints of flank pain and kidney stones detected by CT, from August 2012 to April 2013. In addition, as the control group we included 139 healthy individuals, with flank pain within the same time period, with no previous history of urological disease and no current kidney stones identified by CT. Patients were analyzed for age, gender, body mass index, amount of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and serum level of low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride. Results: There were no differences between groups in terms of gender and age (p = 0.27 and 0.06, respectively). Respective measurements for the stone and control groups for body mass index were 29.1 and 27.6 kg/m2; for visceral fat measurement 186.0 and 120.2 cm2; and for subcutaneous fat measurements 275.9 and 261.9 cm2 (p = 0.01; 0.01 and 0.36, respectively). Using multivariate analysis, the following factors were identified as increasing the risk of kidney stone formation: hyperlipidemia (p = 0.003), hypertension (p = 0.001), and ratio of visceral fat tissue to subcutaneous fat tissue (p = 0.01). Our study has its limitations, including its retrospective nature, its small sample size, possible selection bias, and missing data. The lack of stone composition data is another major limitation of our study. Conclusion: The ratio of visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue, in addition to obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, was identified as an emerging factor in the formation of kidney stones. PMID:26600887

  15. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reti, Jay S

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool procurement by utilizing high-cost materials more efficiently than is expected and low-cost materials in an inefficient manner. PMID:26808429

  16. The fragmented character of Middle Palaeolithic stone tool technology.

    PubMed

    Turq, Alain; Roebroeks, Wil; Bourguignon, Laurence; Faivre, Jean-Philippe

    2013-11-01

    The importance of the transport of stone artefacts in structuring Neandertal lithic assemblages has often been addressed, but the degree to which this led to fragmentation of lithic reduction over Middle Palaeolithic landscapes has not been explicitly studied thus far. Large-scale excavations of Middle Palaeolithic open-air sites and refitting studies of the retrieved assemblages have yielded new, high-resolution data on the mobile aspects of Neandertal stone tool technology. In this paper, we integrate lithic technology and raw material data from recent studies of Middle Palaeolithic open-air and rock shelter sites in Western Europe. We demonstrate that the results of a variety of typological, technological (especially refitting), and lithological studies have important consequences for our knowledge of the acquisition of raw materials and subsequent production, usage and discard of stone artefacts in the Middle Palaeolithic. Neandertal production and use of stone tools was fragmented in three domains: the spatial, the temporal and the social domain. We show that this versatile segmentation of stone artefact handling strategies is a main determinant of the character of the Neandertal archaeological record. Our data testify to ubiquitous and continuous transport of stone artefacts of a wide variety of forms, picked by Neandertals using selection criteria that were sometimes far removed from what archaeologists have traditionally considered, and to some degree still consider, to be desired end products of knapping activities. The data presented here testify to the variability and versatility of Middle Palaeolithic stone tool technology, whose fragmented character created very heterogeneous archaeological assemblages, usually the product of a wide variety of independent import, use, discard and/or subsequent transport events. PMID:24074611

  17. Quantifying Oldowan Stone Tool Production at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Reti, Jay S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that variation exists among and between Oldowan stone tool assemblages. Oldowan variation might represent differential constraints on raw materials used to produce these stone implements. Alternatively, variation among Oldowan assemblages could represent different methods that Oldowan producing hominins utilized to produce these lithic implements. Identifying differential patterns of stone tool production within the Oldowan has implications for assessing how stone tool technology evolved, how traditions of lithic production might have been culturally transmitted, and for defining the timing and scope of these evolutionary events. At present there is no null model to predict what morphological variation in the Oldowan should look like. Without such a model, quantifying whether Oldowan assemblages vary due to raw material constraints or whether they vary due to differences in production technique is not possible. This research establishes a null model for Oldowan lithic artifact morphological variation. To establish these expectations this research 1) models the expected range of variation through large scale reduction experiments, 2) develops an algorithm to categorize archaeological flakes based on how they are produced, and 3) statistically assesses the methods of production behavior used by Oldowan producing hominins at the site of DK from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania via the experimental model. Results indicate that a subset of quartzite flakes deviate from the null expectations in a manner that demonstrates efficiency in flake manufacture, while some basalt flakes deviate from null expectations in a manner that demonstrates inefficiency in flake manufacture. The simultaneous presence of efficiency in stone tool production for one raw material (quartzite) and inefficiency in stone tool production for another raw material (basalt) suggests that Oldowan producing hominins at DK were able to mediate the economic costs associated with stone tool procurement by utilizing high-cost materials more efficiently than is expected and low-cost materials in an inefficient manner. PMID:26808429

  18. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  19. Stone runs in the Falkland Islands: Periglacial or tropical?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andr, Marie-Franoise; Hall, Kevin; Bertran, Pascal; Arocena, Joselito

    2008-03-01

    "Stone runs" is the Falklands vernacular term for openwork boulder accumulations, which include extensive blockstreams like the famous Darwin "stone-river" and associated features such as stone stripes. Since the early 20th century, they have been interpreted as the product of a suite of periglacial processes, including frost-wedging, gelifluction, frost heave, frost-sorting and snowmelt runoff. Following a literature review, the results of recent field investigations of the valley-floor blockstreams of East Falkland are presented. Access to the internal structure of these forms provides evidence for the existence of a three-fold profile, with clear vertical size gradation presenting striking similarities with an inverted weathering profile. Micromorphological analyses, SEM, XRD, thin sections and grain-size analyses lead to the hypothesis of an alternative model of stone run formation. It is suggested that the material forming the stone run profile lato sensu (including the superficial pavement) is not of periglacial origin, but derives directly from the stripping and accumulation downslope of a regolith, possibly Tertiary in age and formed under subtropical or temperate conditions. The valley-floor stone runs should, therefore, be considered as complex polygenetic landforms that may have formed according to a six-stage scenario, including in situ chemical weathering, regolith stripping by mass movements, soil formation, further regolith stripping, downslope accumulation and matrix washing-out (all phases possibly achieved by the Early Quaternary). Periglacial reworking of the stone run material would have operated at a "final" stage, i.e. during Quaternary cold stages, with boulder bioweathering and limonite-staining operating during the temperate intervals including the present one. The suggested antiquity of the Falklands blockstreams is in accordance with Caine's pioneer interpretation of Tasmania blockfields and with recent analyses and cosmogenic datings of blockfields from Scandinavia and North America.

  20. Salt-Induced Physical Weathering of Stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiro, M.; Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Rodriguez-Navarro, C.

    2010-12-01

    Salt weathering is recognized as an important mechanism that contributes to the modeling and shaping of the earths surface, in a range of environments spanning from the Sahara desert to Antarctica. It also contributes to the degradation and loss of cultural heritage, particularly carved stone and historic buildings. Soluble salts have recently been suggested to contribute to the shaping of rock outcrops on Mars and are being identified in other planetary bodies such as the moons of Jupiter (Europa and IO)1. Soluble salts such as sulfates, nitrates, chlorides and carbonates of alkali and alkali earth metals can crystallize within the porous system of rocks and building stones, exerting sufficient pressure against the pore walls to fracture the substrate. This physical damage results in increased porosity, thus providing a higher surface area for salt-enhanced chemical weathering. To better understand how salt-induced physical weathering occurs, we have studied the crystallization of the particularly damaging salt, sodium sulfate2, in a model system (a sintered porous glass of controlled porosity and pore size). For this elusive task of studying sub-surface crystallization in pores, we combined a variety of instruments to identify which phases crystallized during evaporation and calculated the supersaturation and associated crystallization pressure that caused damage. The heat of crystallization was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), providing the timing of crystallization events and phase transitions3, while the evaporation rate was recorded using thermal gravimetry (TG). These methods enabled calculation of the sodium sulfate concentration in solution at every point during evaporation. Two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (2D-XRD) performs synchrotron-like experiments in a normal lab by using a Molybdenum X-ray source (more than 5 times more penetrative than conventional Copper source). Using this method, we determined that the first phase to form within our porous system was the metastable heptahydrate (NaSO4?7H2O)4, followed by mirabilite (NaSO4?10H2O), and finally thenardite (NaSO4). Combining this sequence with data from TG/DSC, we calculated the supersaturation of the solution with respect to each crystallizing phase as well as the associated crystallization pressure5. In situ environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) complemented 2D-XRD data by giving high magnification images of crystallization and phase transitions during dissolution/precipitation cycles. These results give us a clear understanding of sodium sulfate behavior during evaporative crystallization. Further studies will examine different salts and different substrates. This research will help us to better understand the crystallization of salts and associated weathering in cultural heritage, natural environments and possibly, in other planetary bodies. [1] Rodriguez-Navarro, C. (1998) Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 3249-3252. [2] Rodriguez-Navarro, C., et al. (2000), Cement Concrete Res., 30, 1527-1534. [3] Espinosa, R., Scherer, G., (2008), Environ. Geol., 56, 605-621. [4] Hamilton, A., Hall, C., (2008), J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom., 23, 840-844. [5] Steiger, M., Asmussen, S., (2008), Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 72, 4291-4306.

  1. Search for fullerenes in stone meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oester, M. Y.; Kuechl, D.; Sipiera, P. P.; Welch, C. J.

    1994-07-01

    The possibility of identifying fullerenes in stony meteorites became apparent from a paper given by Radicati de Brozolo. In this paper it was reported that fullerenes were present in the debris resulting from a collision between a micrometeoroid and an orbiting satellite. This fact generated sufficient curiosity to initiate a search for the presence of fullerenes in various stone meteorites. In the present study seven ordinary chondrites (al-Ghanim L6 (find), Dimmitt H4 (find), Lazbuddie LL5 (find), New Concord H5 (fall), Silverton H4 (find), Springlake L6 (find), and Umbarger L3/6 (find)). Four carbonaceous chondrites (ALH 83100 C2 (find), ALH 83108 C30 (find), Allende CV3 (fall), and Murchison CM2 (fall), and one achondrite (Monticello How (find)) were analyzed for the presence of fullerenes. The analytical procedure employed was as follows: 100 mg of meteorite was ground up with a mortar and pestle; 10 mL of toluene was then added and the mixture was refluxed for 90 min; this mixture was then filtered through a short column of silica; a 50 microliter sample was then analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Buckyclutcher I column with a mobile phase consisting of equal volumes of toluene and hexane at a flow rate of 1.00 mg per minute, with detection at 330 and 600 nm. Three of the meteorites, Allende, Murchison, and al-Ghanim, gave HPLC traces containing peaks with similar retention times to the HPLC trace of an authentic fullerene C60. However, further analysis using an HPLC instrument equipped with a diode-array detector failed to confirm any of the substances detected in the three meteorites as C60. Additional analyses will be conducted to identify what the HPLC traces actually represent.

  2. Obituary: Ronald Cecil Stone, 1946-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monet, Alice Kay Babcock

    2006-12-01

    Ronald C. Stone, an astronomer at the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, passed away on 10 September 2005 in Downer's Grove, IL, following a valiant struggle with cancer. He was fifty-nine years old. Ron was born on 9 June 1946 in Seattle, Washington, to Helen (Vocelka) and Cecil Stone. His father was a World War II veteran who attended college on the GI Bill and became a mechanical engineer. He and his wife raised three sons: Dwight, Ronald, and Gavin. They lived in a number of locations across the U.S. before settling at last in Downer's Grove when Ron was in the fourth grade. Ron's interest in astronomy began when he was given a toy planetarium projector while still in grade school, and later a small telescope. In high school, he also built his own telescope, grinding the 6-inch mirror by hand. He completed grade school and high school in Downer's Grove and did his undergraduate studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, majoring in astronomy and physics and graduating cum laude in 1968. The following year, he was drafted into the U.S. Army and served for two years, including a stint in Vietnam. Although his primary assignment was auditing, he was also involved in the defense of the Long Binh base in Vietnam. He was honorably discharged from the service in 1971 and enrolled that fall at the University of Chicago. While a graduate student working with Bill van Altena, Ron developed his life long interest in the field of astrometry. Van Altena recalls him as "a quiet and cheerful student who wanted to learn, and [who] worked hard to understand the intricacies of astrometry... deriving the most precise proper motions from the 40-inch [Yerkes] refractor plates." Working at Yerkes Observatory in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, he completed a thesis entitled, "Mean Secular Parallax at Low Galactic Latitude." While living in Wisconsin, Ron also became engaged to Ellen Mickel, and the two were married at his parents' home in Downer's Grove. After earning his Ph.D. in 1978 from Chicago, Ron held a number of research and postdoctoral positions. These included a few months at the Venezuelan National Observatory in Merida, where he helped to set up an astrometric program. This work was unfortunately cut short because of difficulties obtaining the requisite work visa. He also had a two year postdoc at Northwestern University, where he did spectroscopy of massive stars and studied various open clusters. Ron and Ellen's first child, Heather, was born on 9 June 1981 in Evanston, IL. Ron and Ellen moved to Washington, DC, in 1981, where Ron joined the staff of the U.S. Naval Observatory Transit Circle Division. Their son, Geoffrey, was born on 10 May 1983. The marriage ended in divorce in 2001. During the three years that he spent at the USNO headquarters, Ron received training in observing and data reduction with the 6-inch transit circle. When in 1984 the observatory opened the Black Birch Station in New Zealand for surveying the southern sky with the 7-inch transit circle, Ron joined the first group of astronomers to transfer. There he became involved in developing software for the 7-inch, particularly with the image dissector and the acquisition and reduction of planetary observations. Together with Ellis Holdenreid, he worked on some aspects of the real time control software for the 7-inch. He also continued to work on his earlier interest in runaway OB stars. When Ron's tour at the Black Birch Station was coming to an end, he requested a transfer to the USNO Flagstaff Station in northern Arizona. There was a transit circle at the Flagstaff Station being fitted with a CCD camera, and Ron's experience with transit circles in Washington and Black Birch made him well-qualified to help with the modernization of this instrument. Ron worked with David and Alice Monet to automate the 8-inch and develop astrometric software for reducing and analyzing its observations. This telescope came to be known as the FASTT, for Flagstaff Astrometric Scanning Transit Telescope. It was used from 1992 onward to obtain highly accurate astrometric positions of various Solar System bodies that were targets of several NASA space missions. In addition, Ron observed astrometric calibration regions for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. He collaborated in projects to predict and observe stellar and planetary occultations, determine the masses of certain asteroids, and improve the orbits of numerous planetary satellites. In his letter recalling Ron Stone's career, Bill van Altena wrote, "I also knew and respected Ron as a scientist who worked to do the very best that he could with the FASTT system and produced an outstanding set of data that will be remembered as setting the standards for the best that could be done with drift scanning astrometry." Ron used FASTT observations of radio stars and the brightest quasars to confirm the tie between the optical and radio reference frames. He developed extensive software for automated reduction of FASTT observations. During his last year of life, he took on the additional responsibility of bringing another new telescope, the 1.3-meter, into operation, and was making good progress in this effort until his illness forced him to relinquish the task. Besides his professional interests, Ron was a avid outdoorsman. During his years in Williams Bay, he rode a motorcycle and enjoyed SCUBA diving. He is one of the few people to have gone diving in Lake Geneva. He liked nothing better than hiking and exploring wilderness areas. As his brother, Dwight, recalled, "If he saw a mountain, he had to climb it!"

  3. Using Helical CT to Predict Stone Fragility in Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL)

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, James C. Jr.; Zarse, Chad A.; Jackson, Molly E.; McAteer, James A.; Lingeman, James E.

    2007-04-05

    Great variability exists in the response of urinary stones to SWL, and this is true even for stones composed of the same mineral. Efforts have been made to predict stone fragility to shock waves using computed tomography (CT) patient images, but most work to date has focused on the use of stone CT number (i.e., Hounsfield units). This is an easy number to measure on a patient stone, but its value depends on a number of factors, including the relationship of the size of the stone to me resolution (i.e., the slicewidth) of the CT scan. Studies that have shown a relationship between stone CT number and failure in SWL are reviewed, and all are shown to suffer from error due to stone size, which was not accounted for in the use of Hounsfield unit values. Preliminary data are then presented for a study of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones, in which stone structure-rather than simple CT number values-is shown to correlate with fragility to shock waves. COM stones that were observed to have structure by micro CT (e.g., voids, apatite regions, unusual shapes) broke to completion in about half the number of shock waves required for COM stones that were observed to be homogeneous in structure by CT. This result suggests another direction for the use of CT in predicting success of SWL: the use of CT to view stone structure, rather than simply measuring stone CT number. Viewing stone structure by CT requires the use of different viewing windows than those typically used for examining patient scans, but much research to date indicates that stone structure can be observed in the clinical setting. Future clinical studies will need to be done to verify the relationship between stone structure observed by CT and stone fragility in SWL.

  4. Using Helical CT to Predict Stone Fragility in Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James C.; Zarse, Chad A.; Jackson, Molly E.; Lingeman, James E.; McAteer, James A.

    2007-04-01

    Great variability exists in the response of urinary stones to SWL, and this is true even for stones composed of the same mineral. Efforts have been made to predict stone fragility to shock waves using computed tomography (CT) patient images, but most work to date has focused on the use of stone CT number (i.e., Hounsfield units). This is an easy number to measure on a patient stone, but its value depends on a number of factors, including the relationship of the size of the stone to me resolution (i.e., the slicewidth) of the CT scan. Studies that have shown a relationship between stone CT number and failure in SWL are reviewed, and all are shown to suffer from error due to stone size, which was not accounted for in the use of Hounsfield unit values. Preliminary data are then presented for a study of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones, in which stone structurerather than simple CT number valuesis shown to correlate with fragility to shock waves. COM stones that were observed to have structure by micro CT (e.g., voids, apatite regions, unusual shapes) broke to completion in about half the number of shock waves required for COM stones that were observed to be homogeneous in structure by CT. This result suggests another direction for the use of CT in predicting success of SWL: the use of CT to view stone structure, rather than simply measuring stone CT number. Viewing stone structure by CT requires the use of different viewing windows than those typically used for examining patient scans, but much research to date indicates that stone structure can be observed in the clinical setting. Future clinical studies will need to be done to verify the relationship between stone structure observed by CT and stone fragility in SWL.

  5. Dual-energy computed tomography for the differentiation of uric acid stones: ex vivo performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stolzmann, Paul; Scheffel, Hans; Rentsch, Katharina; Schertler, Thomas; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Leschka, Sebastian; Sulser, Tullio; Marincek, Borut; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2008-08-01

    We assessed the potential of dual-energy computed tomography (CT) for the differentiation between uric acid (UA)-containing and non-UA-containing urinary stones. Forty urinary stones of 16 different compositions in two sizes (or=5 mm) were examined in an ex vivo model. Thirty stones consisted of pure calcium oxalate (whewellite or wheddellite), calcium phosphate (apatite, brushite, or vaterite), ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite), UA, ammonium acid urate, ammonium phosphate, sodium hydrogen urate, or cystine, and ten stones were of mixed composition (UA-sodium hydrogen urate, whewellite-urate, wheddellite-urate, whewellite-brushite, or whewellite-brushite-struvite). Scans were performed using dual-source CT in a dual-energy mode with the tubes simultaneously operating at 80 and 140 kV. Two readers analysed the data with respect to stone attenuation at each energy level. The stones were classified as UA- or non-UA-containing using manual attenuation measurements and software analysis results. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were calculated using crystallographic stone analysis as the gold standard. Twenty-six out of 40 stones (65%) contained no UA; 14 stones (35%) contained UA. When compared with UA-containing stones, the differences in attenuation values at 80 and 140 kV were significantly (P<0.001) higher in stones containing no UA. The software automatically mapped 39/40 stones (98%). Only one (2%) 2 mm UA-stone was missed. The software correctly classified all detected stones as UA- or non-UA-containing. The attenuation values of the missed stone were manually plotted into the analysis sheet which allowed for the correct classification of the stone (containing UA). Therefore, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for the detection of UA-containing stones was 100%. Ex vivo experience indicates that differentiation between UA- and non-UA-containing stones can be accurately performed using dual-source dual-energy CT. PMID:18545993

  6. Ornamental Stones and Gemstones: The limits of heritage stone designation: The case for and against Australian Precious Opal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Barry

    2015-04-01

    When the international designation of natural stone types was first mooted in 2007, stones that were utilised in building and construction were the primary focus of attention. However following public discussion it soon became apparent that sculptural stones, stone used for utilitarian purposes such as millstones, as well as archaeological materials including stones used by early man could all be positively assessed as a potential Global Heritage Stone Resource (GHSR). Over the past 2 years it has been realised there is also a range of ornamental and semi-precious stones that may also be considered in the same international context. Examples in this respect include Imperial Porphyry sourced from Egypt that was much prized in the ancient world and "Derbyshire Blue John" a variety of fluorspar from central England that was used for vases, chalices, urns, candle sticks, jars, bowls door, jewellery and fire-place surrounds, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is at this point that rock materials, sometimes used as gemstones, impinge on the domain of typical heritage stones. In Australia, the gemstone most identifiable with the country is precious opal formed by sedimentary processes in the Great Artesian Basin. In this paper the question is asked whether "Australian Precious Opal" could be or should be considered as a heritage stone of international significance. Immediately Australian Precious Opal satisfies several GHSR criteria including historic use for more than 50 years and wide-ranging utilisation for prestige jewellery around the world. It is also recognised as a cultural icon including association with national identity in Australia as it is legally defined as Australia's "National Gemstone" as well as being the "Gemstone Emblem" for the State of South Australia. Opal continues to be mined. Designation of Australian Precious Opal as a Global Heritage Stone Resource would likely involve formal international recognition of Australian opal in the geological arena for the first time. Arguments against the international designation of opal may be that the GHSR designation was meant primarily for building stone, not gemstones, even if it is possible to purchase tiles with embedded opal material. It may be argued that opal is also a mineral not a stone or rock however the precious quality of opal results from mineral impurities/ crystal irregularities and specimens of boulder Opal are best regarded as rock. The decision on this matter is best based on whether designating precious opal will beneficially facilitate increased professional, community, national and international awareness of opal especially through scientific investigation, whilst also assisting marketing of opal as a commercial commodity. In addition, the real benefit of grouping opal in a designation that includes building stone needs to be considered? It is likely that not all gemstones could beneficially be designated a heritage stone because the level of manufacturing or processing may be so great that most natural qualities of the material are lost. In addition, Australian opal should most likely be beneficially recognised in an "Australian Precious Opal Province" given the extent of regional opal variation in Australia coupled with the unusual sedimentary aspect of most occurrences.

  7. The Swedish Bohus granite - a stone with a fascinating history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouenborg, Björn; Eliasson, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    One of the most well-known and well spread Swedish stone types used as building stones is the Bonus granite. It outcrops in an area north of Gothenburgh (SW Sweden), along the coastline, approximately 35 km wide and 85 km long. The granite continues into Norway as the Iddefjord granite. The Bohus granite is one of Sweden's youngest granites. Isotopic dating shows that the magma cooled at about 920 M years ago and thus marking the end of the Sveconorwegian orogoney. It is a composite granite massif area with several granitic intrusions but with rather homogeneous mineralogy. However, colour and texture varies quite a lot and the colour ranges from red to reddish grey although some pure grey varieties occur sparsely. The grain size ranges from medium grained to coarse grained and even with some porphyric parts. Quarrying in an industrial scale started 1842. The merchant A C Kullgren opened the first quarry and produced stones for the construction of the 86 km long Trollhättan channel connecting lake Vänern and the Atlantic ocean in the SW Sweden The stone was used for constructing harbors and wharves along the channel. Several quarries opened in the late 1800 around 1870 - 1890 and the export increased steadily with deliveries to Germany, Denmark, Holland, England and even to South America. The stone industries in Bohuslän (Bohus county), at its peak in 1929, engaged around 7 000 employees. During the depression in 1930 almost all of them became unemployed. However, as a curiosity, production and export continued to Germany for construction of Germania, the future World capital city ("Welthauptstadt Germania"), planned by Adolf Hitler and Albert Speer. About 500 stone workers were kept employed for this project during the late thirties. Today several varieties are still produced: Evja/Ävja, Tossene, Brastad, Näsinge, Broberg, Nolby, Allemarken and Skarstad. However, the number of stone workers is far from that of the early 1900. The Swedish production is mainly blocks but also paving products like sets, slabs and kerb stones are still manufactured in Sweden. Blocks are generally further processed in other countries like Italy and China to reach the European market as semi-finished products like slabs or finished products for any kind of application. The granite is very durable and suitable for all types of natural stone products.

  8. Changing imperatives of architecture affecting dimension stone use in world commerce

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mcdonald, W.H.; Darr, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The use of stone in building construction predates written history. From the time that stone was first used, builders have constructed stone buildings predominately from local or regional materials. However, since World War II, the stone business has become increasingly global. For example, French limestone is now sold to builders in the United States, and American granite is shipped to Japan. The internationalization of architectural and construction firms has encouraged this trend. Differences among nations in trade practices, environmental demands and the level of knowledge of dimension-stone characteristics make international trading in stone a risky and potentially disastrous business for unwary participants.

  9. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urinary stone disease: clinical experience with the electromagnetic lithotriptor 'Lithostar'.

    PubMed

    Simon, J; Corbusier, A; Mendes Leal, A; Van den Bossche, M; Wespes, E; Van Regemorter, G; Schulman, C C

    1989-01-01

    400 urinary stone patients were treated with the electromagnetic lithotriptor Siemens 'Lithostar': 66.3% had renal stones and 33.7% had ureteral stones. Ninety percent of the treatments were performed under intravenous sedation only: 14.5% of the patients had more than one session. After 3 months more than 80% of the patients with a single stone smaller than 1.5 cm and 46% of the patients with stones larger than 2.5 cm were 'stone-free'. PMID:2714323

  10. Thulium fiber laser damage to Nitinol stone baskets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Christopher R.; Hardy, Luke A.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2015-02-01

    Our laboratory is studying the experimental Thulium fiber laser (TFL) as an alternative lithotripter to clinical gold standard Holmium:YAG laser. Safety studies characterizing undesirable Holmium laser-induced damage to Nitinol stone baskets have been previously reported. Similarly, this study characterizes TFL induced stone basket damage. A TFL beam with pulse energy of 35 mJ, pulse duration of 500 ?s, and pulse rates of 50-500 Hz was delivered through 100-?m-core optical fibers, to a standard 1.9-Fr Nitinol stone basket wire. Stone basket damage was graded as a function of pulse rate, number of pulses, and working distance. Nitinol wire damage decreased with working distance and was non-existent at distances greater than 1.0 mm. In contact mode, 500 pulses delivered at pulse rates >= 200 Hz (<= 2.5 s) were sufficient to cut Nitinol wires. The Thulium fiber laser, operated in low pulse energy and high pulse rate mode, may provide a greater safety margin than standard Holmium laser for lithotripsy, as evidenced by shorter non-contact working distances for stone basket damage than previously reported with Holmium laser.

  11. Organized Stone Stripes in the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    Polygonally-patterned ground at scales of meters to tens of meters is nearly ubiquitous in the northern plains of Mars. Collections of cobble to boulder-sized clasts are commonly found superimposed on polygonal terrain in a regular pattern that resembles the surface of a basketball [Mellon et al., 2008; Malin and Edgett, 2001]. Here we describe a variation of this basketball terrain, dubbed "stone stripes," in which piles of clastic debris are arranged into a series of parallel to subparallel ridges spaced at intervals of ~40 m. Stone stripes appear to be continuous or nearly continuous over areas of tens to hundreds of square kilometers. This type of landform is most prevalent poleward of ~70N latitude, at the northern margin of Utopia Planitia . We hypothesize that the orientation of stone stripes is controlled by regional structures, such as wrinkle ridges. First results from a survey of THEMIS VIS images within the area from 60N-80N and from 70E-130E show no obvious correlation between wrinkle ridge orientation and the orientation of stone stripes. Work is ongoing to further characterize the orientation of stone stripes in relation to regional structures and local and regional topographic slopes. Mellon et al., (2008), Periglacial landforms at the Phoenix landing site and the northern plains of Mars, Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1029/2007JE003039, in press. Malin and Edgett, (2001), Mars global surveyor mars orbiter camera: Interplanetary cruise through primary mission, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 23429-23570.

  12. Molecular mechanisms of pancreatic stone formation in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Shigeru B H; Azuma, Sakiko; Yoshikawa, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Akiko; Kyokane, Kazuhiro; Ko, Minoru S H; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive inflammatory disease in which the pancreatic secretory parenchyma is destroyed and replaced by fibrosis. The presence of intraductal pancreatic stone(s) is important for the diagnosis of CP; however, the precise molecular mechanisms of pancreatic stone formation in CP were left largely unknown. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel expressed in the apical plasma membrane of pancreatic duct cells and plays a central role in [Formula: see text] secretion. In previous studies, we have found that CFTR is largely mislocalized to the cytoplasm of pancreatic duct cells in all forms of CP and corticosteroids normalizes the localization of CFTR to the proper apical membrane at least in autoimmune pancreatitis. From these observations, we could conclude that the mislocalization of CFTR is a cause of protein plug formation in CP, subsequently resulting in pancreatic stone formation. Considering our observation that the mislocalization of CFTR also occurs in alcoholic or idiopathic CP, it is very likely that these pathological conditions can also be treated by corticosteroids, thereby preventing pancreatic stone formation in these patients. Further studies are definitely required to clarify these fundamental issues. PMID:23133422

  13. Alterations in renal stone risk factors after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitson, P. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Pak, C. Y.; Cintron, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity environment of space produces a number of physiological changes of metabolic and environmental origin that could increase the potential for renal stone formation. Metabolic, environmental and physicochemical factors that influence renal stone risk potential were examined in 24-hour urine samples from astronauts 10 days before launch and on landing day to provide an immediate postflight assessment of these factors. In addition, comparisons were made between male and female crewmembers, and between crewmembers on missions of less than 6 days and those on 6 to 10-day missions. Results suggest that immediately after space flight the risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation is increased as a result of metabolic (hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, pH) and environmental (lower urine volume) derangements, some of which could reflect residual effects of having been exposed to microgravity.

  14. Alterations in renal stone risk factors after space flight.

    PubMed

    Whitson, P A; Pietrzyk, R A; Pak, C Y; Cintrn, N M

    1993-09-01

    Exposure to the microgravity environment of space produces a number of physiological changes of metabolic and environmental origin that could increase the potential for renal stone formation. Metabolic, environmental and physicochemical factors that influence renal stone risk potential were examined in 24-hour urine samples from astronauts 10 days before launch and on landing day to provide an immediate postflight assessment of these factors. In addition, comparisons were made between male and female crewmembers, and between crewmembers on missions of less than 6 days and those on 6 to 10-day missions. Results suggest that immediately after space flight the risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation is increased as a result of metabolic (hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, pH) and environmental (lower urine volume) derangements, some of which could reflect residual effects of having been exposed to microgravity. PMID:8345588

  15. The training of a ‘stone doctor’

    PubMed Central

    Talati, Jamsheer J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To propose alternative models of training for doctors treating patients with stones, and to identify their relative value, as such doctors are trained through urology programmes which sometimes cannot be expanded to meet the need, are short of teachers, too comprehensive and lengthy. This review explores new pathways for training to provide competence in the care of patients with stones. Methods Previous reports were identified and existing training models collectively categorised as Model 1. Three alternative models were constructed and compared in the context of advantages, acceptability, feasibility, educational impact and applicability in different geosocio-political contexts. Results In Model 2, urological and stone training diverge as options after common basic courses and experience. In Model 3, individuals access training through a common educational matrix (EM) for nurses, physicians, etc., according to the match between their capacities, entry requirements, personal desires and willingness for further responsibility. Stone doctors with no urological background cannot fulfil other service and educational commitments, and might create unwelcome dependence on other colleagues for complex situations. Programmes involving a common EM affect professional boundaries and are not easily acceptable. There is a lack of clarity on methods for medical certification and re-certification. However, the lack of technically competent stone experts in developing worlds requires an exploration of alternative models of training and practice. Conclusions The ability to provide exemplary care after abbreviated training makes alternative models attractive. Worldwide debate, further exploration and pilot implementation are required, perhaps first in the developing world, in which much of the ‘stone belt’ exists. PMID:26558030

  16. Current approach for urinary system stone disease in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Celik, Orcun; Trk, Hakan; Cakmak, Ozgur; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Keskin, Mehmet Zeynel; Yildiz, Guner; Ilbey, Yusuf Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman. PMID:26766798

  17. Massive stone burden in an ileocecal pouch: A preventable condition?

    PubMed Central

    Valiquette, Anne Sophie; Barrieras, Diego; McCormack, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The challenges of transition from the pediatric to the adult setting have been reported. We describe a case of massive stone burden in the ileocecal pouch of a patient lost to follow-up after his transfer from a pediatric to an adult institution. Although we successfully managed the patient and retrieved the pouch stones without any complications, several surgical complications may occur in a patient with a history of extensive abdominal surgery and bladder exstrophy. This patients late complication might have been prevented with a more efficient transfer from a pediatric to an adult institution. PMID:24940465

  18. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dislodge stones from renal calyces (recesses of the pelvis of the kidney) by means of a pressurized stream of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones....

  19. 21 CFR 876.4650 - Water jet renal stone dislodger system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dislodge stones from renal calyces (recesses of the pelvis of the kidney) by means of a pressurized stream of water through a conduit. The device is used in the surgical removal of kidney stones....

  20. Effective atomic number accuracy for kidney stone characterization using spectral CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, M.; Langan, D. A.; Sahani, D. S.; Kambadakone, A.; Aluri, S.; Procknow, K.; Wu, X.; Bhotika, R.; Okerlund, D.; Kulkarni, N.; Xu, D.

    2010-04-01

    The clinical application of Gemstone Spectral ImagingTM, a fast kV switching dual energy acquisition, is explored in the context of noninvasive kidney stone characterization. Utilizing projection-based material decomposition, effective atomic number and monochromatic images are generated for kidney stone characterization. Analytical and experimental measurements are reported and contrasted. Phantoms were constructed using stone specimens extracted from patients. This allowed for imaging of the different stone types under similar conditions. The stone specimens comprised of Uric Acid, Cystine, Struvite and Calcium-based compositions. Collectively, these stone types span an effective atomic number range of approximately 7 to 14. While Uric Acid and Calcium based stones are generally distinguishable in conventional CT, stone compositions like Cystine and Struvite are difficult to distinguish resulting in treatment uncertainty. Experimental phantom measurements, made under increasingly complex imaging conditions, illustrate the impact of various factors on measurement accuracy. Preliminary clinical studies are reported.

  1. Rapid vaporization of kidney stones, ex vivo, using a Thulium fiber laser at pulse rates up to 500 Hz with a stone basket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Luke A.; Wilson, Christopher R.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2014-03-01

    The Holmium:YAG laser (? = 2120 nm) is currently the preferred laser for fragmenting kidney stones in the clinic. However, this laser has some limitations, including operation at low pulse rates and a multimode spatial beam profile which prohibits its use with smaller, more flexible optical fibers. Our laboratory is studying the Thulium fiber laser (? = 1908 nm) as an alternative lithotripter. The TFL has several advantages, including lower stone ablation thresholds, use with smaller and more flexible fibers, and operation at arbitrary pulse lengths and pulse rates. Previous studies have reported increased stone ablation rates with TFL operation at higher pulse rates, however, stone retropulsion remains an obstacle to even more efficient stone ablation. This study explores TFL operation at high pulse rates in combination with a stone stabilization device (e.g. stone basket) for improved efficiency. A TFL beam with pulse energy of 35 mJ, pulse duration of 500-?s, and pulse rates of 10-500 Hz was coupled into 100-?m-core, low-OH, silica fibers, in contact mode with uric acid and calcium oxalate monohydrate stones, ex vivo. TFL operation at 500 Hz produced UA and COM stone ablation rates up to 5.0 mg/s and 1.3 mg/s, respectively. High TFL pulse rates produced increased stone ablation rates sufficient for use in the clinic.

  2. Potential etiologic role of brushite in the formation of calcium (renal) stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Charles Y. C.

    1981-05-01

    Brushite may play an important regulatory role in the formation of calcium -containing renal stones. The urinary environment from patients with hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis is typically supersaturated and shows an increased propensity for the spontaneous nucleation of brushite. Brushite has been identified in "stone-forming" urine and in stones. This crystalline phase may undergo phase transformation to hydroxyapatite or cause heterogeneous nucleation or epitaxial growth of calcium oxalate. Thus, brushite may also participate in the formation of stones of hydroxypatite or calcium oxalate.

  3. Silicified Granites (Bleeding Stone and Ochre Granite) as Global Heritage Stones Resources from Avila (Central of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Talegon, Jacinta; Iñigo, Adolfo C.; Vicente-Tavera, Santiago; Molina-Ballesteros, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    Silicified Granites have been widely used to build the main Romanesque monuments in the 12 th century of Avila city that was designated a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 1985. The stone was used in the Cathedral (12 th century); churches located interior and exterior of the Walls (e.g. Saint Vincent; Saint Peter). During the Renaissance and Gothic period, 15 th century Silicified Granites have been used mainly to buid ribbed vaults in Avila city (e.g. Royal Palace of the Catholic Monarchs, and Chapel of Mosén Rubí). Silicified Granites are related to an intermediate and upper parts of a complex palaeoweathering mantle developed on the Iberian Hercynian Basement (the greatest part of the western Iberian Peninsula and its oldest geological entity). In the Mesozoic the basement underwent tropical weathering processes. The weathered mantle were truncated by the Alpine tectonic movements during the Tertiary, and Its remnants were unconformably covered by more recent sediments and are located in the west and south part of the Duero Basin and in the north edge of the Ambles Valley graben. For the weathering profiles developed on the Hercynian Basement is possible to define three levels from bottom to top: 1) Lower level (biotitic granodiorite/porphyry and aplite dykes); 2) Intermediate level (ochre granite); 3) Upper level (red/white granite). The lower level has been much used as a source of ornamental stone, Avila Grey granite. The porphyry and applite dykes are mainly used to built the Walls of the City. The intermediate level is called Ochre granite or Caleño and was formed from the previous level through a tropical weathering process that, apart from variations in the petrophysical characteristics of the stone, has been accompanied by important mineralogical changes (2:1 and 1:1 phyllosilicates) and decreases in the contents of the most mobile cations. The upper level has received several names, Bleeding stone, Red and White granite or Silcrete and was formed through a silicification process by CT opal, kaolinization and remobilisation of iron oxyhydroxides. The historically and protected quarry is located in a village called La Colilla, about 5 km from the city of Avila. Currently, only this stone is exploited for restorations performed in the city e.g. The Walls (the best example of a military Romanesque Spanish architecture), the church of San Peter. Resources are limited and depleting so the stone will be scarce in the short term. Taking such points into account, it is suggested that Silicified Granite (Bleeding Stone and Ochre Granite) should be recognised as a Global Heritage Stone Resource

  4. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada... § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada. Stone and quarry products from areas in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United...

  5. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada... § 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada. Stone and quarry products from areas in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United...

  6. 50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654.24... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the management area...

  7. 75 FR 1591 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Performance in the Commercial Stone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Performance in the Commercial Stone Crab and Lobster Fisheries in Florida AGENCY: National Oceanic and... to continue its collection of socio-economic data from commercial fishermen in Florida's stone crab... commercial stone crab and lobster fishermen who do not live in the Florida Keys. A stratified random...

  8. 50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Management Measures 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the management area...

  9. Use of a calcium tracer to detect stone increments in a rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model

    PubMed Central

    WANG, SHUO; XU, QINGQUAN; HUANG, XIAOBO; LIN, JINGXING; WANG, JINXING; WANG, XIAOFENG

    2013-01-01

    The majority of urinary stones have been observed to grow by circular increments in the clinic and in animal studies. However, the mechanism of stone formation has not yet been elucidated. Marking the stone at specific time-points during the growth of the stone is likely to enable the clarification of the mechanisms behind lithogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role and efficacy of calcium-tracing fluorescence in the labeling of stone lamination in a rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model. In the rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model, human renal stone particles, extracted by percutaneous nephrolithotomy, were xenoplanted into the bladders of Wistar rats in a sterile manner. The rats received 1% ethylene glycol in their drinking water, starting from the day following the stone xenoplantation. Two weeks subsequent to this, three calcium-tracing fluorochromes, alizarin complexone, calcein and xylenol orange were administered by intraperitoneal injection. The newly-formed bladder stones were cut into slices and examined using light and fluorescence microscopy. The newly-formed bladder stones had a large variance in size, and circular increments were observed in the sections of the stones. The stones were successfully labeled with calcein and alizarin complexone, although calcein labeling provided superior results. However, the use of xylenol orange did not result in clear labeling. The calcium-tracing fluorochromes, calcein and alizarin complexone may be effectively used to label stone lamination in rat models. PMID:24137297

  10. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone... Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement from regulated areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone, quarry products,...

  11. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone... Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement from regulated areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone, quarry products,...

  12. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone... Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement from regulated areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone, quarry products,...

  13. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone... Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement from regulated areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone, quarry products,...

  14. 7 CFR 330.302 - Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone... Products § 330.302 Domestic movements of earth (including soil), stone, etc. The interstate movement from regulated areas in the Continental United States of earth (including soil), stone, quarry products,...

  15. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada... 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada. Stone and quarry products from areas in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United...

  16. 7 CFR 330.301 - Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada... 330.301 Stone and quarry products from certain areas in Canada. Stone and quarry products from areas in Canada infested with the gypsy moth may be moved from Canada into or through the United...

  17. Ultrasound Based Method and Apparatus for Stone Detection and to Facilitate Clearance Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Michael (Inventor); Kucewicz, John (Inventor); Lu, Wei (Inventor); Sapozhnikov, Oleg (Inventor); Illian, Paul (Inventor); Shah, Anup (Inventor); Dunmire, Barbrina (Inventor); Owen, Neil (Inventor); Cunitz, Bryan (Inventor); Kaczkowski, Peter (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Described herein are methods and apparatus for detecting stones by ultrasound, in which the ultrasound reflections from a stone are preferentially selected and accentuated relative to the ultrasound reflections from blood or tissue. Also described herein are methods and apparatus for applying pushing ultrasound to in vivo stones or other objects, to facilitate the removal of such in vivo objects.

  18. KIDNEY STONES: AN UPDATE ON CURRENT PHARMACOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongshi; Zisman, Anna L.; Coe, Fredric L.; Worcester, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Kidney stones are a common problem worldwide with substantial morbidities and economic costs. Medical therapy reduces stone recurrence significantly. Much progress has been made in the last several decades in improving therapy of stone disease. Areas covered 1) effect of medical expulsive therapy on spontaneous stone passage, 2) pharmacotherapy in the prevention of stone recurrence, 3) future directions in the treatment of kidney stone disease. Expert Opinion fluid intake to promote urine volume of at least 2.5L each day is essential to prevent stone formation. Dietary recommendations should be adjusted based on individual metabolic abnormalities. Properly dosed thiazide treatment is the standard therapy for calcium stone formers with idiopathic hypercalciuria. Potassium alkali therapy is considered for hypocitraturia, but caution should be taken to prevent potential risk of calcium phosphate stone formation. For absorptive hyperoxaluria, low oxalate diet and increased dietary calcium intake are recommended. Pyridoxine has been shown effective in some cases of primary hyperoxaluria type I. Allopurinol is used in calcium oxalate stone formers with hyperuricosuria. Treatment of cystine stones remains challenging. Tiopronin can be used if urinary alkalinization and adequate fluid intake are insufficient. For struvite stones, complete surgical removal coupled with appropriate antibiotic therapy is necessary. PMID:23438422

  19. 32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644.505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Gravel, Sand and Stone 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering...

  20. 32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644.505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Gravel, Sand and Stone 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering...

  1. 32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644.505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Gravel, Sand and Stone 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering...

  2. 32 CFR 644.505 - Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. 644.505 Section 644.505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Gravel, Sand and Stone 644.505 Disposal plan for embedded gravel, sand or stone. Prior to offering...

  3. Use of a calcium tracer to detect stone increments in a rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Xu, Qingquan; Huang, Xiaobo; Lin, Jingxing; Wang, Jinxing; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2013-10-01

    The majority of urinary stones have been observed to grow by circular increments in the clinic and in animal studies. However, the mechanism of stone formation has not yet been elucidated. Marking the stone at specific time-points during the growth of the stone is likely to enable the clarification of the mechanisms behind lithogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role and efficacy of calcium-tracing fluorescence in the labeling of stone lamination in a rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model. In the rat calcium oxalate xenoplantation model, human renal stone particles, extracted by percutaneous nephrolithotomy, were xenoplanted into the bladders of Wistar rats in a sterile manner. The rats received 1% ethylene glycol in their drinking water, starting from the day following the stone xenoplantation. Two weeks subsequent to this, three calcium-tracing fluorochromes, alizarin complexone, calcein and xylenol orange were administered by intraperitoneal injection. The newly-formed bladder stones were cut into slices and examined using light and fluorescence microscopy. The newly-formed bladder stones had a large variance in size, and circular increments were observed in the sections of the stones. The stones were successfully labeled with calcein and alizarin complexone, although calcein labeling provided superior results. However, the use of xylenol orange did not result in clear labeling. The calcium-tracing fluorochromes, calcein and alizarin complexone may be effectively used to label stone lamination in rat models. PMID:24137297

  4. Sedimentary rocks in our mouth: dental pulp stones made by nanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciftcioglu, Neva; Ciftcioglu, Vefa; Vali, Hojatollah; Turcott, Eduardo; Kajander, E. Olavi

    1998-07-01

    The mechanisms of dental pulp stone formation are still largely unknown. Pulp stones are mainly composed of carbonate apatite. Only few experimental reports have elucidated the potential of some selected bacteria to produce apatite under in vitro conditions using special calcification media. The tested stone forming bacteria were, in fact, often better known for their cariogenic potential. Our preliminary work with 18 dental pulp stones from Turkey, selected only by severity of the stone formation, indicated the presence of nanobacterial antigens in the demineralized stones. Furthermore, high incidence of kidney stones and gall stones in the patient group and in their parents was found. This raises the implication that nanobacteria may enter the body also via oral route, in addition to the parenteral and transplacental routes. The role of nanobacteria in dental pulp stone formation was further studied by following nanobacterial colonization and mineral formation on human tooth in vitro. Two molar teeth, one having pulp stone and one without, were vertically cut into two pieces, sterilized by autoclaving and incubated with or without nanobacteria in DMEM. Electron microscopic observations indicate that nanobacteria can cause apatite stone formation on tooth surface. The sever from of dental pulp stone formation might be associated with nanobacteria. This form of dental disease results in loss of teeth due to osteolytic processes. This addresses the necessity for a study on unconventional mineral-forming bacteria as a cause for human diseases.

  5. DNA FROM ANCIENT STONE TOOLS AND BONES EXCAVATED AT BUGAS-HOLDING, WYOMING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traces of DNA may preserve on ancient stone tools. We examined 24 chipped stone artifacts recovered from the Bugas-Holding site in northwestern Wyoming for the presence of DNA residues, and we compared DNA preservation in bones and stone tools from the same stratigraphic context...

  6. 7. View of cut stone apron sitting at edge of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of cut stone apron sitting at edge of concrete apron. Photograph taken from east side of lower dam. VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Lower Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  7. 7. Detail of stone wall along south side of Rockland ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of stone wall along south side of Rockland Road, north side of dairy barn in background - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  8. INTERIOR VIEW, MLT'S STONE AND WATER MIXED HERE TO MAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, MLT'S STONE AND WATER MIXED HERE TO MAKE MILK OF LIME (CALCIUM HYDROXIDE). MLT BUILDING IS ATTACHED TO AND WEST OF LIME KILNS. - Solvay Process Company, Milk of Lime Towers Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  9. 85. INCLINED PLANE 7 EAST. FLUME AND STONE POWER HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. INCLINED PLANE 7 EAST. FLUME AND STONE POWER HOUSE ARE ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH. NOTE THE CABLE LEAVING THE POWER HOUSE. THIS CABLE IS ATTATCHED TO A DRUM ON THE INSIDE THE POWER HOUSE WHICH IS TURNED BY MEANS OF A WATER POWERED TURBINE. - Morris Canal, Phillipsburg, Warren County, NJ

  10. Middle Stone Age starch acquisition in the Niassa Rift, Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercader, Julio; Bennett, Tim; Raja, Mussa

    2008-09-01

    The quest for direct lines of evidence for Paleolithic plant consumption during the African Middle Stone Age has led scientists to study residues and use-wear on flaked stone tools. Past work has established lithic function through multiple lines of evidence and the spatial breakdown of use-wear and microscopic traces on tool surfaces. This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of starch assemblages and the botanical identification of grains from flake and core tools to learn about human ecology of carbohydrate use around the Niassa woodlands, in the Mozambican Rift. The processing of starchy plant parts is deduced from the occurrence of starch assemblages that presumably got attached to stone tool surfaces by actions associated with extractive or culinary activities. Specifically, we investigate starch grains from stone tools recently excavated in northern Mozambique at the site of Mikuyu; which presumably spans the middle to late Pleistocene and represents similar sites found along the Malawi/Niassa corridor that links East, Southern, and Central Africa. Starch was extracted and processed with a diverse tool kit consisting of scrapers, cores, points, flakes, and other kinds of tools. The microbotanical data suggests consumption of seeds, legumes, caryopses, piths, underground storage organs, nuts, and mesocarps from more than a dozen families. Our data suggest a great antiquity for starch use in Africa as well as an expanded diet and intensification.

  11. 4. 'Ring Stones & Tunnel Sections, Tunnel #33,' Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. 'Ring Stones & Tunnel Sections, Tunnel #33,' Southern Pacific Standard Double-Track Tunnel, ca. 1913. Compare to photos in documentation sets for Tunnel 18 (HAER No. CA-197), Tunnel 34 (HAER No. CA-206), and Tunnel 1 (HAER No. CA-207). - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Sacramento to Nevada state line, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. A Time, and a Place, to Gather Stones Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Lenka Clayton, a British artist and documentary filmmaker, did not leave London and cross the Atlantic Ocean intending to paint tiny, precise numbers on 7,000 loose stones--that idea didn't come to her until later. By the time she began numbering, she had already started a class of freshmen at Alfred University mapping hard-to-map things (like

  13. View southeast, stone sluice, top of lower standing section, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast, stone sluice, top of lower standing section, showing row of cement piers in center, retaining wall to left, barge canal sluice to right - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  14. View southeast, stone sluice, top of upper standing section, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast, stone sluice, top of upper standing section, showing cement piers over arch in foreground, foot of break at third drop in center, retaining wall to left, barge canal sluice to right - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  15. Weathering Grade Classification of Granite Stone Monument Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, C.; Roh, T.; Choi, M.; Park, H.

    2009-05-01

    Stone monument has been placed in field and exposed to rain and wind. This outdoor environment and air pollution induced weathering of stone monument. Weathering grade classification is necessary to manage and conserve stone monuments. Visual interpretation by geologist and laboratory experiments using specimens fallen off from the monument to avoid damage on the monument have been applied to classify weathering grade conventionally. Rocks and minerals absorb some particular wavelength ranges of electromagnetic energy by electronic process and vibrational process of composing elements and these phenomena produce intrinsic diagnostic spectral reflectance curve. Non-destructive technique for weathering degree assessment measures those diagnostic absorption features of weathering products and converts the depths of features related to abundance of the materials to relative weathering degree. We selected granite outcrop to apply conventional six folded weathering grade classification method using Schmidt hammer rebound teste. The correlations between Schmidt hammer rebound values and absorption depths of iron oxides such as ferric oxide in the vicinity of 0.9 micrometer wavelength and clay minerals such as illite and kaolinite in the vicinity of 2.2 micrometer wavelength, representative weathering products of granite, were analyzed. The Schmidt hammer rebound value decreased according to increase of absorption depths induced from those weathering products. Weathering grade classification on the granite stone monument was conducted by using absorption depths of weathering products This research is supported from National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage and we appreciate for this.

  16. Patio Stone Project Gives Students a Concrete Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an overview of concrete as a building material and as an example of a particle composite, and discusses the origins of concrete in ancient Rome. He then describes an activity in which students can cast a concrete patio stone. Students can apply the technological design process, as well as the elements of

  17. 131. Great Wall of China. This is a large stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. Great Wall of China. This is a large stone retaining wall built to support the parkway around rough ridge on Grandfather Mountain. Linn Cove viaduct visible in the distance. Looking west-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  18. "The Sorcerer's Stone": A Touchstone for Readers of All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Susan Nelson; Quackenbush, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Presents results from an informal survey of 50 individuals of all ages about the Harry Potter phenomenon. Offers four suggestions for the English language arts classroom about a place "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" might have in a school's curriculum, dealing with transforming text, understanding genre, responding to texts with personal…

  19. 7. Humpback Gap Overlook. View of stone railandrider fences built ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Humpback Gap Overlook. View of stone rail-and-rider fences built in 1943 with the curvilinear alignment of the parkway in the background. View facing southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  20. 156. Humpback Mountain Viaduct. View shows the stone faced abutment. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    156. Humpback Mountain Viaduct. View shows the stone faced abutment. Due to the skew of the abutment, it doubles as a foundation for one of the piers. Looking south. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  1. 18. Rocky Mountain Viaduct. This view shows the stone faced ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Rocky Mountain Viaduct. This view shows the stone faced arched piers. It is the only structure on the parkway with this feature. View is facing east. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. A Time, and a Place, to Gather Stones Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biemiller, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Lenka Clayton, a British artist and documentary filmmaker, did not leave London and cross the Atlantic Ocean intending to paint tiny, precise numbers on 7,000 loose stones--that idea didn't come to her until later. By the time she began numbering, she had already started a class of freshmen at Alfred University mapping hard-to-map things (like…

  3. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF KIDNEY STONES IN WHITE MALE ADULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large survey of patients hospitalized for kidney stones in the Carolinas and the Rocky Mountains states yielded information that can be translated into conservative estimates of cost of this disease. Hospital costs were estimated by considering number of surgeries, the approxim...

  4. DETAIL OF GATE CRIBS FROM ABOVE, SHOWING TIMBER CRIBBING, STONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GATE CRIBS FROM ABOVE, SHOWING TIMBER CRIBBING, STONE BALLAST AND LOG PILES IN FOREBAY. VIEW TO EAST - Kachess Dam, 1904 Cascade Canal Company Crib Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  5. Patio Stone Project Gives Students a Concrete Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an overview of concrete as a building material and as an example of a particle composite, and discusses the origins of concrete in ancient Rome. He then describes an activity in which students can cast a concrete patio stone. Students can apply the technological design process, as well as the elements of…

  6. Impact of Residual Fragments following Endourological Treatments in Renal Stones

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Cenk; Cal, Cag

    2012-01-01

    Today, shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), and flexible ureterorenoscopy (URS) are the most widely used modalities for the management of renal stones. In earlier series, treatment success of renal calculi assessed with KUB radiography, ultrasound, or intravenous pyelography which are less sensitive than CT that leads to be diversity of study results in reporting outcome. Residual fragments (RFs) after interventional therapies may cause pain, infection, or obstruction. The size and location of RFs following SWL and PCNL are the major predictors for clinical significant symptoms and stone events requiring intervention. There is no consensus regarding schedule for followup of SWL, PCNL, and flexible URS. Active monitoring can be recommended when the stones become symptomatic, increase in size, or need intervention. RFs <4?mm after SWL and <2?mm after PCNL and flexible URS could be actively monitored on an annual basis with CT. Early repeat SWL and second-look endoscopy are recommended after primary SWL and PCNL, respectively. There is insufficient data for flexible URS, but RFs can be easily treated with repeat URS. Finally, medical therapy should be tailored based on the stone analysis and metabolic workup that may be helpful to prevent regrowth of the RFs. PMID:22829812

  7. Androgens Involvement in the Pathogenesis of Renal Stones Formation

    PubMed Central

    Naghii, Mohammad Reza; Babaei, Mnasour; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The potential role for the gonadal steroids in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis, higher mean of plasma oxalate concentration and kidney calcium oxalate deposition influenced by androgens in men has been proposed. In this study, the serum levels of steroid hormones as a pathogenesis of this condition in male patients with active renal stone disease compared with controls was investigated. Methods Forty patients diagnosed with renal stones and hospitalized for further clinical treatments or referred to our office after ultrasonographic evaluations participated in the study. Forty six healthy subjects served as controls. Steroid sex hormones in the plasma samples including testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin were analyzed. Results A significant difference was observed between patients and the control subjects regarding serum testosterone, free testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone binding globulin. Conclusions Based on the results, a higher androgens level was diagnosed in renal stone patients, indicating a possibility of a substantial pathogenic role of testosterone, free testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone involvement in the pathogenesis of renal stones formation. Therefore, data presentation and further investigation on the relation between male steroids and urolithiasis is of importance and should be considered in evaluation of the etiology of the disease. PMID:24695421

  8. Building Stone and Its Use in Rock Weathering Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragovich, Deirdre

    1979-01-01

    Building stone provides opportunities for geological study of weathering of different rocks in a particular environment and similar rocks in different environment. The principle studied can be applied on a large scale from the observation of small-scale weathering. Examples of weathering are drawn mainly from the Sydney region of Australia. (RE)

  9. The Development of Kidney Stone Dietary Plans for Patient Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Darwin; Mayo, M. Leah; Abraham, Victor E.

    2011-01-01

    Currently patient education programs and urology practices provide individuals with "lists of foods to avoid" for dietary management of kidney stones. However, "planned diets" that include daily meal plans and recipes provide structure and specificity for diet management and are preferred by many individuals. This article describes the development…

  10. DETAIL SHOWING STONE ABUTMENT AND END OF ARCH, BOLTED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL SHOWING STONE ABUTMENT AND END OF ARCH, BOLTED TO LOWER CHORD. NY-330-10 BELOW DECK VIEW. NOTE ABUTMENTS REST ON POURED CONCRETE FOOTINGS. - Hyde Hall Bridge, Spanning Shadow Brook, former East Lake Road, East Springfield, Otsego County, NY

  11. Silicosis among Stone- Cutter Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Naserbakht, Ali; Naserbakht, Morteza; Attari, Ghavamedin

    2012-01-01

    Background Production process of most factory-made products is harmful to our health and environment. Silica is the most important stone used in stone cutting factories. Numerous researches have reported respiratory diseases due to the inhalation of these particles in various occupations. Silicosis is a disease with typical radiographic pattern caused as the result of inhalation of silica particles. According to the intensity of exposures and onset of initiation of clinical symptoms silicosis is classified into three groups of acute, chronic and accelerated forms. The present study evaluated silicosis among stone cutter workers. Materials and Methods This cross sectional study was performed on stone cutter workers in Malayer city (Azandarian) between 2008 and 2009. Respiratory data of our study participants were collected with a respiratory questionnaire and performing spirometry tests and chest radiography. Results Among our participants, 16 silicosis cases were diagnosed by radiographic changes. Among them, 10 workers had exposure for more than three years and 6 workers were smokers. Eleven workers had an abnormal radiographic pattern on their chest x-rays. Seven workers had obstructive and 4 workers had restrictive spirometric patterns. Conclusion Prevalence of silicosis was high among our understudy workers and preventive strategies are required to control it. PMID:25191413

  12. HoneySweet: a hope for stone-fruit growers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prunus species are among the important domesticated fruit crops, and they have been spread worldwide. Since its identification in the early 1900s, Plum pox virus (PPV), one of the most damaging pathogens of stone fruit trees, has also been spreading worldwide, and the pace of its movement has acce...

  13. Dancing with Stones: Critical Creativity as Methodology for Human Flourishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titchen, Angie; McCormack, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Critical creativity is a paradigmatic synthesis linking critical social science with creative and ancient traditions. Our haiku summarises the essence of this three part paper. "Heavy feet of stone" describes the rationale for our creation of critical creativity. "Seeking transformation" sets out the background and methodology for our inductive,

  14. Secondary Waste Simulant Development for Cast Stone Formulation Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Swanberg, David J.; Mahoney, J.

    2015-04-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) funded Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a waste form testing program to implement aspects of the Secondary Liquid Waste Treatment Cast Stone Technology Development Plan (Ashley 2012) and the Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap (PNNL 2009) related to the development and qualification of Cast Stone as a potential waste form for the solidification of aqueous wastes from the Hanford Site after the aqueous wastes are treated at the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The current baseline is that the resultant Cast Stone (or grout) solid waste forms would be disposed at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Data and results of this testing program will be used in the upcoming performance assessment of the IDF and in the design and operation of a solidification treatment unit planned to be added to the ETF. The purpose of the work described in this report is to 1) develop simulants for the waste streams that are currently being fed and future WTP secondary waste streams also to be fed into the ETF and 2) prepare simulants to use for preparation of grout or Cast Stone solid waste forms for testing.

  15. "The Sorcerer's Stone": A Touchstone for Readers of All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Susan Nelson; Quackenbush, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Presents results from an informal survey of 50 individuals of all ages about the Harry Potter phenomenon. Offers four suggestions for the English language arts classroom about a place "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" might have in a school's curriculum, dealing with transforming text, understanding genre, responding to texts with personal

  16. 4. Detail view north of stone wall opening between Five ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail view north of stone wall opening between Five Acre Lot (foreground) and Ten Acre Lot (background) with Joseph Fry Farm complex beyond - Joseph Fry Farm Landscape, 2153 South County Trail Road (U.S. Route 2), East Greenwich, Kent County, RI

  17. 2. Detail view, east carved stone post. The pair of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Detail view, east carved stone post. The pair of posts on either side of the gate were put in place as part of the extensive work done to the house and grounds in the 1920's and 1930's. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND STONE WALL EAST SIDE OF PIEDMONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND STONE WALL EAST SIDE OF PIEDMONT AVENUE ADJACENT TO OAK GROVE AND FOOTBALL STADIUM. LOOKING NNW. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  19. DETAIL VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND STONE WALL EAST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF SIDEWALK AND STONE WALL EAST SIDE OF PIEDMONT AVENUE ADJACENT TO OAK GROVE AND FOOTBALL STADIUM. NOTE STEPS TO STADIUM. LOOKING NORTH. Photograph by Brian Grogan, July 8, 2007 - Piedmont Way & the Berkeley Property Tract, East of College Avenue between Dwight Way & U.C. Memorial Stadium, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  20. Biochemical diagnosis in 3040 kidney stone formers in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Spivacow, Francisco Rodolfo; del Valle, Elisa Elena; Negri, Armando Luis; Fradinger, Erich; Abib, Anabella; Rey, Paula

    2015-08-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a frequent condition in urology that has an important recurrence and high impact in health economy. Knowing the biochemical abnormalities implicated in its pathogenesis is mandatory to establish therapeutic aims. Our objectives are to present the results in 3040 kidney stone formers in Argentina. All patients were selected after completing an ambulatory metabolic protocol with diagnostic purposes. There were 1717 men, (56.48%), with a mean age of 45±12 years, and 1323 women, (43.52%), mean age 44±12 years. 2781 patients had biochemical abnormalities, (91.49%), and were arbitrarily divided in two groups: those who had only one (single) biochemical abnormality (n=2156) and those who had associated abnormalities (n=625). No biochemical abnormalities were found in 259 patients (8.51%). The abnormalities present, single and associated, in order of frequency, were idiopathic hypercalciuria, (56.88%), hyperuricosuria (21.08%), unduly acidic urine (10.95%), hypocitraturia (10.55%), hypomagnesuria (7.9%), primary hyperparathyroidism (3.01%), hyperoxaluria (2.6%), and cystinuria (0.32%). We performed in 484 patient's stone composition and found calcium oxalate stones related to idiopathic hypercalciuria predominantly while uric acid stones to unduly acidic urine. In conclusion, the biochemical abnormalities described are similar to those found in a previous series of our own and to those reported in the literature. Its diagnosis is important to therapeutic purposes to avoid eventual recurrence. PMID:25958053

  1. 40. Peaks of Otter Visitor Center. The stone faced visitor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Peaks of Otter Visitor Center. The stone faced visitor was completed in 1957 with a comfort station added in the mid-1960's. View is to the northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. A model for damage of microheterogeneous kidney stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeri, Andrew J.; Zohdi, Tarek I.; Blake, John R.

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, a theoretical framework is developed for the mechanics of kidney stones with an isotropic, random microstructure-such as those comprised of cystine or struvite. The approach is based on a micromechanical description of kidney stones comprised of crystals in a binding matrix. Stress concentration functions are developed to determine load sharing of the particle phase and the binding matrix phase. As an illustration of the theory, the fatigue of kidney stones subject to shock wave lithotripsy is considered. Stress concentration functions are used to construct fatigue life estimates for each phase, as a function of the volume fraction and of the mechanical properties of the constituents, as well as the loading from SWL. The failure of the binding matrix is determined explicitly in a model for the accumulation of distributed damage. Also considered is the amount of material damaged in a representative non-spherical collapse of a cavitation bubble near the stone surface. The theory can be used to assess the importance of microscale heterogeneity on the comminution of renal calculi and to estimate the number of cycles to failure in terms of measurable material properties.

  3. 4. DETAIL OF STONE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION AND IRON HARDWARE (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF STONE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION AND IRON HARDWARE (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  4. Stepping Stones to Literacy. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Stepping Stones to Literacy (SSL) is a supplemental curriculum designed to promote listening, print conventions, phonological awareness, phonemic awareness, and serial processing/rapid naming (quickly naming familiar visual symbols and stimuli such as letters or colors). The program targets kindergarten and older preschool students considered to

  5. 30. Otter Lake Dam. View shows rustic stone facade of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Otter Lake Dam. View shows rustic stone facade of the dam. The stepped face of the dam gives the illusion of a natural cascade. Facing southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  6. Tripping over Boundary-Stones: Reflections on Engaged Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzullo, Phaedra C.

    2010-01-01

    Erected around 500 BCE, Aeschines and Demosthenes referred to boundary-stones in speeches, noting that they were to serve as a warning to men who avoided military service, acted cowardly, mistreated their parents, or had dirty hands. Of course, women, slaves, and non-citizens also were forbidden from this significant political and commercial

  7. Size characteristics of stones ingested by common loons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hansen, S.P.; Pokras, M.A.; Miconi, R.

    2001-01-01

    Common Loon (Gavia immer) carcasses recovered in New England had more stones of greater combined mass in their stomachs than loons from the southeastern United States. Stones retained in sieves with mesh sizes between 4.75 and 8.00 mm accounted for the greatest percentage (by mass) of grit in loon stomachs. The median longest dimension of the largest single stone in each stomach was 12.5 mm in loons from New England and 10.7 mm in loons from the southeast (maximum = 23.1 mm and 16.8 mm, respectively). A recent national proposal to restrict the use of certain fishing weights in the United States called for a ban on lead fishing sinkers of 25.4 mm or less in any dimension. Our findings suggest it is unlikely that Common Loons would ingest lead fishing weights greater than 25.4 mm in any dimension, if such ingestion was solely the result of their search for replacement stones for their stomachs. However, this does not preclude the possibility that loons may ingest larger fishing weights under other circumstances, such as the consumption of fish with attached sinkers.

  8. Size characteristics of stones ingested by Common Loons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hansen, S.P.; Pokras, M.A.; Miconi, R.

    2001-01-01

    Common Loon (Gavia immer) carcasses recovered in New England had more stones of greater combined mass in their stomachs than loons from the southeastern United States. Stones retained in sieves with mesh sizes between 4.75 and 8.00 mm accounted for the greatest percentage (by mass) of grit in loon stomachs. The median longest dimension of the largest single stone in each stomach was 12.5 mm in loons from New England and 10.7 mm in loons from the southeast (maximum = 23.1 mm and 16.8 mm, respectively). A recent national proposal to restrict the use of certain fishing weights in the United States called for a ban on lead fishing sinkers of 25.4 mm or less in any dimension. Our findings suggest it is unlikely that Common Loons would ingest lead fishing weights greater than 25.4 mm in any dimension, if such ingestion was solely the result of their search for replacement stones for their stomachs. However, this does not preclude the possibility that loons may ingest larger fishing weights under other circumstances, such as the consumption of fish with attached sinkers.

  9. Carrara Marble: a nomination for Global Heritage Stone Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    primavori, piero

    2014-05-01

    In the collective memory, in ordinary people, or in any technical office not devoted expressly to stone, marble is automatically associated with the word Carrara (Italy). Indisputably, for decades and decades, there has been this word association: marble means Carrara and Carrara means marble. In few other commodity sectors is a word so automatically associated with a name, engendering an identification process that, despite the inexorable onslaught of globalization, continues to exist. Carrara Marble, probably one of the most famous dimension stone in the world, has been recently designated as a suitable "Global Heritage Stone Resource". The additional designation of "Global Ornamental Stone" has also been proposed. Quarried since pre-Roman times, this marble is the testimonial of an area/industry that was able - for a variety of reasons not easily repeatable in future stone history - from the dawn of the stone sector to trigger a flywheel-effect on a global scale. The term Carrara Marble, geographically referable to the marbles extracted in the sorroundings of Carrara town, is in reality a general one, erroneously used since long time to define a multitude of different marbles (more than two hundred commercial varieties) extracted in the whole Apuane Alps region, Nortwestern Tuscany, Italy. The district of Carrara Marble is part of a wider territory where five important extractive areas can be recognized: Lunigiana, Garfagnana, Versilia, Massa and the Carrara area sensu stricto. This region is approximately 30 km long and 12 km wide, with marble outcrops, useful for commercial purposes, covering over 75 km2. The Carrara Marble is currently excavated in more than 100 quarries, at a rate of about 1.500.000 tons per year, is processed almost everywhere, and sold all over the world. The most important commercial designations are the following: 1) "Marmo Bianco"/"Marmo Ordinario" (Carrara White marble/Ordinary marble); 2) "Marmo Venato" (Veined marble); 3) "Marmo Bardiglio" (Bardiglio marble); 4) "Marmo Nuvolato" (Cloud-like marble); 5) "Marmo Arabescato" (Arabesque-like marble); 6) "Marmo Statuario"/"Statuario Venato" (Statuary marble/Veined statuary); 7) "Marmo Calacata" (Calacata marble). These seven main varieties can be subdivided into many other types due to slight chromatic variations which are often characteristics of a very restricted area, or just one quarry, or even one limited period of time. Apart from its intrinsic geological, petrographic, commercial and technical properties, several issues related to the Carrara Marble are considered to be of relevant importance for its designation as a Global Ornamental Stone", among which the Marble Museum, the Fine Arts Academy, the Artistic Marble Consortium, the Sculpture Museum, the historical commemoration of the "lizzatura" and the remnants of the marble railway stand out.

  10. Archaeomagnetic studies of Maori Hangi Stones from New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinger, R.; Turner, G. M.; McFadgen, B.

    2014-12-01

    Global palaeosecular variation models still suffer from a paucity of high quality data from the SW Pacific region. Over the past two years we have worked to fill this gap with archaeomagnetic data - directions and palaeointensities - by studying the thermoremanent magnetization of Maori hangi cooking stones. Used as heat retainers, these stones are heated, frequently above the Curie temperatures of constituent magnetic minerals, before being buried in earth ovens. After removal of the food, hangi sites are often abandoned with the stones still in situ, carrying a record of the magnetic field in which they were last cooled. We have sampled a range of archaeological hangi sites throughout New Zealand, dating to early prehistoric times (ca 700 BP). The stones vary in lithology from andesites, originating from the central North Island volcanoes, favoured by Maori for their durability and with NRM intensities up to 30 A/m, to greywackes and schists from the main axial ranges, with NRMs as weak as 10-4A/m. In all cases, we have independently oriented and retrieved several stones, and we have made several specimens from each stone, either by drilling (standard cylindrical specimens) or sawing (pseudo-cubes) in the laboratory. We have calculated site mean palaeomagnetic directions from principal component analysis of thermal demagnetization data, discarding the data of stones that show evidence of disturbance. We have carried out palaeointensity experiments using a Coe/Thellier method with pTRM and tail checks, and with selection criteria modified to the situation. Rock magnetic experiments contribute to our understanding of the mineralogy, domain state and blocking temperature spectra. The palaeodirections fall between declinations of 348o and 24.5o, and inclinations of -46.4o and -72.4o, with palaeointensities between 43.71.4 and 81.36.1 mT. Most fall within the expected range of secular variation for New Zealand. However the palaeointensity of 81.346.08mT, from an archaeological site at Opihi in the south of the South Island, dated at 38220 BP, is unexpectedly high. We present our data against model records for New Zealand calculated using the ARCH3k model of Korte et al (2009), and suggest that the addition of our new data will improve the model for the most recent period of time.

  11. Probabilistic seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of stone masonry structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo El Ezz, Ahmad

    Earthquakes represent major natural hazards that regularly impact the built environment in seismic prone areas worldwide and cause considerable social and economic losses. The high losses incurred following the past destructive earthquakes promoted the need for assessment of the seismic vulnerability and risk of the existing buildings. Many historic buildings in the old urban centers in Eastern Canada such as Old Quebec City are built of stone masonry and represent un-measurable architectural and cultural heritage. These buildings were built to resist gravity loads only and generally offer poor resistance to lateral seismic loads. Seismic vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings is therefore the first necessary step in developing seismic retrofitting and pre-disaster mitigation plans. The objective of this study is to develop a set of probability-based analytical tools for efficient seismic vulnerability and uncertainty analysis of stone masonry buildings. A simplified probabilistic analytical methodology for vulnerability modelling of stone masonry building with systematic treatment of uncertainties throughout the modelling process is developed in the first part of this study. Building capacity curves are developed using a simplified mechanical model. A displacement based procedure is used to develop damage state fragility functions in terms of spectral displacement response based on drift thresholds of stone masonry walls. A simplified probabilistic seismic demand analysis is proposed to capture the combined uncertainty in capacity and demand on fragility functions. In the second part, a robust analytical procedure for the development of seismic hazard compatible fragility and vulnerability functions is proposed. The results are given by sets of seismic hazard compatible vulnerability functions in terms of structure-independent intensity measure (e.g. spectral acceleration) that can be used for seismic risk analysis. The procedure is very efficient for conducting rapid vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings. With modification of input structural parameters, it can be adapted and applied to any other building class. A sensitivity analysis of the seismic vulnerability modelling is conducted to quantify the uncertainties associated with each of the input parameters. The proposed methodology was validated for a scenario-based seismic risk assessment of existing buildings in Old Quebec City. The procedure for hazard compatible vulnerability modelling was used to develop seismic fragility functions in terms of spectral acceleration representative of the inventoried buildings. A total of 1220 buildings were considered. The assessment was performed for a scenario event of magnitude 6.2 at distance 15km with a probability of exceedance of 2% in 50 years. The study showed that most of the expected damage is concentrated in the old brick and stone masonry buildings.

  12. The Meteoritical Quincentennial: The Stone of Ensisheim 1492-1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, U. B.

    1992-07-01

    This year marks the 500th anniversary of the fall of a meteorite at Ensisheim in Alsace. In at least two respects this event is unique in the history of meteoritics. First, this was the earliest witnessed meteorite fall in the West from which pieces are preserved. Second, it is the only meteorite of which a continuous five-century public record exists in manuscripts and books. Beginning with newsheets printed in 1492, writings about this event illuminate the evolution of ideas from a 15th century belief that stones from the sky were of miraculous origin, to an 18th century conviction that stones do not fall from the sky, to our present view that they fall in abundance, originating in interplanetary space (Marvin, 1992). This paper will highlight certain previously unexamined aspects of the story and address problems inherent in historical analysis. Unusable Maps. The fall of the stone was heralded by an explosion which, according to Sebastian Brant (1492), was heard along the valleys of the Danube, Neckar, Aare, Ill, and Rhine and in the alpine cantons of Schwyz and Uri. Contemporary maps, such as that published in The Nuremberg Chronicle of 1493, so distorted the regional geography that a fireball trajectory cannot be reconstructed on them. On modern maps, however, the areas Brant listed stretch about 150 km to the southeast of Ensisheim, a distance well within the range of sounds reported from other exploding fireballs. Newton (1891) and Marvin (1992) worked out possible trajectories that could account for the sound being heard in all named localities. This suggests that, far from exaggerating distances for dramatic effect, Brant's description may well have been accurate. If so, he compiled his information from word-of-mouth reports without reference to the rudimentary maps available in his time. The Language of Wonder. A document mounted beside the stone in the Ensisheim church stated that learned men did not know what it was: it must be supernatural, a wonder of God, because never before had such a thing been heard, or seen, or written about. Von der Muhll (1961) and others have asked how such statements could be made when Pliny the Elder wrote of fallen stones as early as the 1st century A.D., and Heynlin de Lapide, at nearby Basel, was translating Pliny's works at the time of the fall. However, expressions such as "never before heard, seen, or written about," spiced the reports of Medieval travelers struggling to describe the marvels of far-off lands. In this instance, the phrases described a marvel that burst upon the people of the upper Rhineland in the course of their daily routines. In truth, nothing ever written could have prepared them for the incandescent fireball, resounding explosion, and the black stone that plunged to Earth at Ensisheim. Unimaginative Eyewitnesses. A boy saw the stone fall and a crowd dug it out of a wheat field. In 1800, the chemist, Charles Barthold, rejected the eyewitness story and concluded that the stone was a common type of rock that could have washed down from a mountainside. In 1803, after meteorites, including the Ensisheim stone, had become accepted as authentic natural phenomena, Joseph Izarn wrote that the boy's testimony should be believed because ignorant persons like him have no imagination and could not possible invent tales about stones from the sky. Izarn's opinion was not eccentric; numerous writings show that it reflected a centuries-old tradition of placing special value on observations by unschooled witnesses. References: Brant S. (1492) Flugblatt, J. von Ople, Basel, 1 p. Izarn J. (1803) Lithologie Atmospherique, Delalain Fils, Paris, 422 pp. Marvin U. B. (1992) Meteoritics 27, 28-72. Newton H. A. (1891) Comptes Rendus Acad. Sci. 113, 234. Muhll Th. von der (1975) Donnerstein von Ensisheim, Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, 42 pp. Schedel H. (1493) Nuremberg Chronicle, A. Korberger, Nuremberg, 299 pp.

  13. Probabilistic Modeling of the Renal Stone Formation Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Lauren M.; Myers, Jerry G.; Goodenow, Debra A.; McRae, Michael P.; Jackson, Travis C.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic tool, used in mission planning decision making and medical systems risk assessments. The IMM project maintains a database of over 80 medical conditions that could occur during a spaceflight, documenting an incidence rate and end case scenarios for each. In some cases, where observational data are insufficient to adequately define the inflight medical risk, the IMM utilizes external probabilistic modules to model and estimate the event likelihoods. One such medical event of interest is an unpassed renal stone. Due to a high salt diet and high concentrations of calcium in the blood (due to bone depletion caused by unloading in the microgravity environment) astronauts are at a considerable elevated risk for developing renal calculi (nephrolithiasis) while in space. Lack of observed incidences of nephrolithiasis has led HRP to initiate the development of the Renal Stone Formation Module (RSFM) to create a probabilistic simulator capable of estimating the likelihood of symptomatic renal stone presentation in astronauts on exploration missions. The model consists of two major parts. The first is the probabilistic component, which utilizes probability distributions to assess the range of urine electrolyte parameters and a multivariate regression to transform estimated crystal density and size distributions to the likelihood of the presentation of nephrolithiasis symptoms. The second is a deterministic physical and chemical model of renal stone growth in the kidney developed by Kassemi et al. The probabilistic component of the renal stone model couples the input probability distributions describing the urine chemistry, astronaut physiology, and system parameters with the physical and chemical outputs and inputs to the deterministic stone growth model. These two parts of the model are necessary to capture the uncertainty in the likelihood estimate. The model will be driven by Monte Carlo simulations, continuously randomly sampling the probability distributions of the electrolyte concentrations and system parameters that are inputs into the deterministic model. The total urine chemistry concentrations are used to determine the urine chemistry activity using the Joint Expert Speciation System (JESS), a biochemistry model. Information used from JESS is then fed into the deterministic growth model. Outputs from JESS and the deterministic model are passed back to the probabilistic model where a multivariate regression is used to assess the likelihood of a stone forming and the likelihood of a stone requiring clinical intervention. The parameters used to determine to quantify these risks include: relative supersaturation (RS) of calcium oxalate, citrate/calcium ratio, crystal number density, total urine volume, pH, magnesium excretion, maximum stone width, and ureteral location. Methods and Validation: The RSFM is designed to perform a Monte Carlo simulation to generate probability distributions of clinically significant renal stones, as well as provide an associated uncertainty in the estimate. Initially, early versions will be used to test integration of the components and assess component validation and verification (V&V), with later versions used to address questions regarding design reference mission scenarios. Once integrated with the deterministic component, the credibility assessment of the integrated model will follow NASA STD 7009 requirements.

  14. Monitoring Artificial Tracer Stones at the Danube East of Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedermann, Marcel; Gerstl, Margit; Trithart, Michael; Habersack, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    The Integrated River Engineering Project on the Danube to the East of Vienna aims to implement innovative measures to stop riverbed incision on one of the last free flowing sections of the Austrian Danube River. In order to reduce erosion processes, it is planned to add larger gravel sizes within the natural grain size spectrum (granulometric bed improvement). It is planned to superimpose a layer of 25 cm thickness to reduce sediment discharge to a minimum of 10 to 15% of the current amount, but not to stop it entirely. Additionally seven huge sidearm systems will be reconnected, about 30% of the bank protection will be removed and low flow regulation structures will be improved in order to enhance the ecological situation. Within the scope of this Project a comprehensive sediment monitoring program is implemented. Besides bedload transport measurements using a basket sampler and sediment transport modelling applying a newly designed numerical model, artificial stones were added and monitored in order to observe transport velocities and initiation of motion. For the monitoring performed at the three kilometer long test reach near Hainburg, 40 artificial stones of three different sizes (intermediate b-axis: 23 mm, 40 mm, 70 mm) were produced and a coded radio acoustic transmitter was attached to each gravel. The stones were lowered to the river bed at six different locations at the beginning of the test reach, at a gravel bar and in a groyne field within the stretch. The positions of the stones have been observed about once a week, depending on hydrology, over a whole year including a HQ15 flood event. The positions of the stones have been determined by radio tracking from a boat. Hence transport paths and velocities as well as the initiation of bedload transport could be monitored. The paper gives an overview on the methodology and presents results of the monitoring program. The observed stones showed a size selective behaviour in transport. At all discharges, small stones were transported more frequently, faster and further than medium and large stones. Independent of gravel size, the tracers generally covered short travel distances, long travel distances were observed less frequently. With increasing discharge, a higher quantity of stones was transported and travel distances increased. A relationship was found between river morphology and the positions of tracers where no transport occurred. Areas of no transport were more likely to have deeper water levels, less flow velocity and lower shear stress values than areas where tracerstones were moved. More than half of all stones passed the three kilometer long reach with a mean travel velocity of about 10 m per day and a mean transport length of about 200 m. The initiation of motion of the large gravel was detected at lower discharges than predicted by uniform bedload transport formulae.

  15. Caffeine intake and the risk of kidney stones123

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Eric N; Gambaro, Giovanni; Curhan, Gary C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although caffeine intake may increase urine calcium excretion, caffeine-containing beverages have been associated with a lower risk of nephrolithiasis. Objective: We sought to determine the association between caffeine intake and the risk of incident kidney stones in 3 large prospective cohorts. Design: We prospectively analyzed the association between intake of caffeine and incidence of kidney stones in 3 large ongoing cohort studies, the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) and the Nurses Health Studies (NHS) I and II. Information on the consumption of caffeine and the incidence of kidney stones was collected by validated questionnaires. Results: The analysis included 217,883 participants; over a median follow-up of >8 y, 4982 incident cases occurred. After multivariate adjustment for age, BMI, fluid intake, and other factors, participants in the highest quintile of caffeine intake had a 26% (95% CI: 12%, 38%) lower risk of developing stones in the HPFS cohort, a 29% lower risk (95% CI: 15%, 41%) in the NHS I cohort, and a 31% lower risk (95% CI: 18%, 42%) in the NHS II cohort (P-trend < 0.001 for all cohorts). The association remained significant in the subgroup of participants with a low or no intake of caffeinated coffee in the HPFS cohort. Among 6033 participants with 24-h urine data, the intake of caffeine was associated with higher urine volume, calcium, and potassium and with lower urine oxalate and supersaturation for calcium oxalate and uric acid. Conclusion: Caffeine intake is independently associated with a lower risk of incident kidney stones. PMID:25411295

  16. Stone 6: Mars-analogue artificial sedimentary meteorites in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, Frances; Demets, Rene; Brandstaetter, Franz; Edwards, Howell; Cockell, Charles; Parnell, John; Pillinger, Judith; Kurat, Gero; Brack, André

    Of the 34 meteorites from Mars, none are sedimentary although sediments exist in abundance on the planet. The STONE experiments aim at testing the survivability of different types of analogue martian sediments during entry into the Earth's atmosphere. The rocks are fixed into the heat shield of a FOTON re-entry vehicle around the ablation point and undergo entry speeds of about 7.6 km/s (meteorite entry speeds are slightly higher, at 12-15 km/s). Previous STONE experiments have proven the survivability of dolomite and sandstone through atmospheric passage (STONE 1 and STONE 5). The STONE 6 experiment included an Early Archaean chert (3.446 Ga) from the Pilbara containing cryptic traces of fossil life (microfossils, C isotopes) (N.B. this sample is a good sedimentary Noachian Mars analogue], a Devonian laminite (mudstone) from the Orkneys (Fig 1e), and an Eocene basalt from Austria. A culture of a modern endolithic microorganism, Chroococcidiopsis, was smeared on the back side and on the flanges of each of the rocks before flight. Despite 2 cm thickness of rock, the latter did not survive although their carbonized remains did. The two sedimentary rocks had severely ablated surfaces and have been affected by heat and shock metamorphism (devolatilisation). The 3.446 Ga-old microfossils appear to have survived in the part of the rock furthest from the ablated edge. Thermal maturation of the carbon in both sediments occurred. It is clear that sedimentary martian rocks similar to those we used could survive atmospheric entry. We conclude that traces of martian life in Noachian sediments could reach Earth. Equally, traces of life in terrestrial meteorites, especially from the pre 3.5 Ga period for which we have no terrestrial record, could eventually be found on Mars.

  17. "What Do These Stones Mean?" Inscriptions on Stone from an Ancient Monastery in Ireland that Address Jewish-Christian Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, V. George

    2013-01-01

    Etched on a stone from a monastery from the Middle Ages at a small village in County Roscommon in Ireland is a combination of Jewish and Christian symbols. The Menorah sits atop a cross. At the base of the cross and at both ends of the crossbar are three small extensions. The image is one of religious integration. Augustine, whose argument for the

  18. Luminescence dating of anthropogenic features of the San Luis Valley, Colorado: from stone huts to stone walls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahan, Shannon; Donlan, Rebecca A.; Kardos, Barbara Maat

    2015-01-01

    The Snake Nest Wall site and the Crestone Stone Huts are in the northern San Luis Valley, Colorado, and provide a unique opportunity to date high-altitude archeological sites of unknown age and origin using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). We sampled sediment underlying foundation stones of these structures to establish a chronological framework for each site's construction. OSL dating of the quartz grains directly under the Snake Nest Wall suggest that the stones and, therefore, the structure was most recently emplaced between 1855 and 1890 A.D. Dating of the sediment beneath the Crestone Stone Huts suggests the construction time of these huts is between 1860 and 1890 A.D. Analysis of the equivalent dose (DE) dispersion of the OSL samples at Snake Nest Wall and the Crestone Huts shows that the majority of sediments were fully bleached prior to deposition and the low scatter suggests that short-term or shallow alluvial processes were the dominant transport for sediments. In both cases, the OSL ages show that the construction was during very recent historical times, although it is likely that the Snake Nest Wall was rebuilt in the late 19th century. Further study is warranted at the Snake Nest Wall since it shows signs of greater antiquity and a continued presence of human use. The Crestone Huts are shown to be a product of railroad building during the boomtown days of Lucky and Crestone.

  19. Calcium Stone Growth in Urine from Cystic Fibrosis Patients and Healthy Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSorley, Anita; Jones, Andrew M.; Webb, A. Kevin; Rao, P. Nagaraj; Kavanagh, John P.

    2007-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis patients have an increased risk of renal stone disease. There is some evidence that this may be related to a different excretory pattern of stone risk factors, but an alternative hypothesis, that the urine of cystic fibrosis patients is deficient in urinary inhibitors of crystallization and stone formation has not been tested. Here we have grown calcium stones, in vitro, in the presence of urine from healthy controls and compared this with growth in the presence of urine from cystic fibrosis patients. A stone farm was used to grow twelve calcium stones simultaneously, firstly in artificial urine for about 200 hours and then in 90% whole human urine for another 500 hours. Six of the stones received urine from healthy controls and six received urine from adult cystic fibrosis patients. There were no significant differences in stone mass at any of the key time points or in the overall growth pattern (p>0.05) between stones destined for, or treated with, urine from CF patients and the controls. Human urine greatly inhibited stone growth in vitro but there was no difference in the growth rate in urine from healthy controls and CF patients. This refutes the hypothesis that a tendency for a higher prevalence of urinary stones in CF patients is related to a deficiency in inhibitory activity.

  20. Progression of crack formation in artificial kidney stones subject to shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cauwelaert, Javier; Cleveland, Robin

    2002-11-01

    We used micro computed tomography (CT) imaging to follow the progressive development of cracks in artificial kidney stones. The artificial stones were made from U30 cement with a cylindrical shape (6.5 mm diameter and 7.5 mm long). The stones were held within a polypropylene vial in one of three different orientations: vertical, horizontal, and angled at 45 deg. The stones were treated with an electromagnetic lithotripter using between 50 and 150 shock waves. The initiation and growth of cracks was observed using microCT. We found that crack formation in the U30 stones was influenced by the orientation of the stone with respect to the shock wave (SW) propagation direction. Vertical stones developed a spall-like crack near the distal surface; horizontal stones had little internal damage for the number of shock waves applied; and angled stones were damaged primarily in the vicinity of the leading corner. The position of the cracks were in qualitative agreement with the numerical solutions of the pressure field inside the stones. The elastic properties of the U30 stones are being measured which will alow a quantitative analysis of crack growth to be performed and compared to the experimental data. [Work supported by the Whitaker Foundation.

  1. Buried stone lines in deserts - What can they tell us about landscape evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, M.; Kleber, A.

    2009-04-01

    Stone pavements are typical features of climate-sensitive arid environments. They allow formation of cumulic soils, protected from erosion, which may be used as archives that recorded past geomorphologic and pedologic processes. Stone lines within the soil column resulted from buried stone pavements. These stone lines, situated between compound soil horizons were affected by postdepositional processes that may be attributed to specific palaeoenvironmental conditions. From Cima Volcanic Field, eastern Mojave Desert, California, we present detailed alignment measurements of buried stone stratae. Soils in the study area were developed on basalt flows of middle Pleistocene age and consist mainly of aeolian dust which was overprinted by several phases of soil formation and stone pavement development. Stones that were arranged in specific depth intervals between compound soil horizons showed prominent orientation patterns that may be attributed to geomorphic processes that created, distorted or reworked at least two ancient stone pavements, now covered by sediment and the modern pavement. We suggest fluvial (re-)orientation of surficial stones prior to burial. Furthermore, a lateral displacement of clasts within the sediment matrix is recorded. The stratigraphic position of realigned stone lines within soil horizons presumably formed, both, under humid and arid environmental conditions allows the description of geomorphic processes for discrete climatic frameworks. Buried stone pavements are thus a unique opportunity for investigating past landscape dynamics, not recorded in other archives.

  2. Predicting stone composition before treatment – can it really drive clinical decisions?

    PubMed Central

    Bres–Niewada, Ewa; Radziszewski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Determination of stone composition is considered to be crucial for the choice of an optimal treatment algorithm. It is especially important for uric acid stones, which can be dissolved by oral chemolysis and for renal stones smaller than 2 cm, which can be treated with extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL). Material and methods This short review identifies the latest papers on radiological assessment of stone composition and presents a comprehensive evaluation of current scientific findings. Results Stone chemical composition is difficult to predict using standard CT imaging, however, attenuation index measured in Hounsfield units (HU) is related to ESWL outcome. Stone density >1000 HU can be considered predictive for ESWL failure. It seems that stone composition is meaningless in determining the outcome of ureterolithotripsy and percutaneous surgery. Alternative imaging techniques such as Dual–Energy CT or analysis of shape, density and homogeneity of stones on plain X–rays are used as promising methods of predicting stone composition and ESWL outcome. Conclusions New imaging techniques facilitate the identification of uric acid stones and ESWL–resistant stones. Therefore, they may help in selecting the best therapeutic option. PMID:25667761

  3. Effectiveness of Flexible Ureterorenoscopy and Laser Lithotripsy for Multiple Unilateral Intrarenal Stones Smaller Than 2?cm

    PubMed Central

    Alkan, Erdal; Ozkanli, Oguz; Avci, Egemen; Turan, Mirac; Ba?ar, M. Murad; Acar, Oguz; Balbay, M. Derya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of RIRS for the treatment of multiple unilateral intrarenal stones smaller than 20?mm. Methods. Between March 2007 and April 2013, patients with multiple intrarenal stones smaller than 20?mm were treated with RIRS and evaluated retrospectively. Each patient was evaluated for stone number, stone burden (cumulative stone length), operative time, SFRs, and complications. Results. 173 intrarenal stones in 48 patients were included. Mean age, mean number of stones per patient, mean stone burden, and mean operative time were 40.2 10.9 years (2363), 3.6 3.0 (218), 22.2 8.4?mm (1245), and 60.3 22.0 minutes (30130), respectively. The overall SFR was 91.7%. SFRs for patients with a stone burden less and greater than 20?mm were 100% (23/23) and 84% (21/25), respectively (?2 = 26.022, P < 0.001). Complications occurred in six (12.5%6/48) patients, including urinary tract infection or high-grade fever >38.5C in three cases, prolonged hematuria in two cases, and ureteral perforation in one case, all of whom were treated conservatively. No major complications occurred. Conclusions. RIRS is an effective treatment option in patients with multiple unilateral intrarenal stones especially when the total stone burden is less than 20?mm. PMID:25024702

  4. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy vs. percutaneous nephrolithotomy vs. flexible ureterorenoscopy for lower-pole stones

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Thomas; Buchholz, Noor; Wendt-Nordahl, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To review previous reports and discuss current trends in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) and ureterorenoscopy (URS). ESWL was recommended as the first-line treatment for small and intermediate-sized stones in the lower pole, while it is the standard treatment for large stones. However, the stone clearance rate after ESWL seems to be lower than that of stones in other locations. This seems to result from a lower rate of fragment passage, due to anatomical factors. Methods Reports on urinary stone disease were reviewed, assessing only publications in peer-reviewed, Medline-listed journals in the English language (publication years 19902011). Results Recent experience with flexible URS (fURS) for intrarenal stones showed that excellent stone-free rates can be achieved. With increasing experience and technically improved equipment, fURS has become an alternative to ESWL for small and intermediate-sized renal stones. Furthermore, several authors reported successful retrograde treatment for large renal stones, proposing fURS as an alternative to PCNL. However, the major drawbacks are long operating times and commonly, staged procedures, which is why PCNL remains the method of choice for such stones. Conclusions Considering the currents trends and evidence, the 2012 update of the European Association of Urology Guidelines on Urolithiasis has upgraded the endourological treatment of kidney stones. Individual factors such as body habitus, renal anatomy, costs and patient preference must be considered. PMID:26558046

  5. Nephrolithiasis: Molecular Mechanism of Renal Stone Formation and the Critical Role Played by Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Kanu Priya; Narula, Shifa; Kakkar, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Urinary stone disease is an ailment that has afflicted human kind for many centuries. Nephrolithiasis is a significant clinical problem in everyday practice with a subsequent burden for the health system. Nephrolithiasis remains a chronic disease and our fundamental understanding of the pathogenesis of stones as well as their prevention and cure still remains rudimentary. Regardless of the fact that supersaturation of stone-forming salts in urine is essential, abundance of these salts by itself will not always result in stone formation. The pathogenesis of calcium oxalate stone formation is a multistep process and essentially includes nucleation, crystal growth, crystal aggregation, and crystal retention. Various substances in the body have an effect on one or more of the above stone-forming processes, thereby influencing a person's ability to promote or prevent stone formation. Promoters facilitate the stone formation while inhibitors prevent it. Besides low urine volume and low urine pH, high calcium, sodium, oxalate and urate are also known to promote calcium oxalate stone formation. Many inorganic (citrate, magnesium) and organic substances (nephrocalcin, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, osteopontin) are known to inhibit stone formation. This review presents a comprehensive account of the mechanism of renal stone formation and the role of inhibitors/promoters in calcium oxalate crystallisation. PMID:24151593

  6. Low-dose unenhanced computed tomography for diagnosing stone disease in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Abou El-Ghar, Mohamed E.; Shokeir, Ahmed A.; Refaie, Huda F.; El-Nahas, Ahmed R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the detectability, size, location and density of urinary stones with unenhanced computed tomography (CT), using the half-radiation (low) dose (LDCT) technique, compared with the standard-dose CT (SDCT), in obese patients. Patients and methods The study included 50 patients with a body mass index of >30kg/m2 and bilateral renal stones diagnosed with SDCT, and managed on one side. All the patients had LDCT during the follow-up and SDCT was used as a reference for comparison. Results Of the 50 patients, the right side was affected in 27 and the left side in 23. In all, 35 patients had a single stone while the remaining 15 had multiple stones. With SDCT, 95 stones were detected; there were 45 of ?5mm, 46 of 615mm and only four of >15mm. LDCT barely detected three stones of <3mm, compared with SDCT, while larger stones had the same appearance at both scans. The site of stone in the kidney or the ureter did not affect its detection on LDCT vs. SDCT. The mean stone diameter was identical in both techniques. At LDCT, all stones were detected with no difference in their number, location or density vs. SDCT. However, the tube current and radiation dose were significantly lower with LDCT. Conclusions In obese patients with stone disease, LDCT is as accurate as SDCT, while avoiding exposure of the patient to high-dose radiation. PMID:26558037

  7. The Astronomical Significance of 'Nilurallu', the Megalithic Stone Alignment at Murardoddi in Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. Kameswara; Thakur, Priya; Mallinathpur, Yogesh

    2011-11-01

    The stone alignment 'Nilurallu' at Murardoddi is a megalithic monument containing standing stones of 12 to 16 feet high that are arranged somewhat in a squarish pattern. This is one of the stone alignments listed by Allchin (1956) as a non-sepulchal array that might have some astronomical connotations. This impressive stone alignment seems to be similar to that at Vibhuthihalli, that was studied earlier, but constructed with much larger stones. The observations conducted by us show that the rows of stones are aligned to the directions of sunrise (and sunset) on calendrically-important events, like equinoxes and solstices. In contrast to Vibhuthihalli, the shadows of stones provide a means of measuring shorter intervals of time

  8. Stones in cats and dogs: What can be learnt from them?

    PubMed Central

    Syme, Harriet M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the clinical features of stone disease in dogs and cats for a non-veterinary audience. Methods Relevant peer-reviewed scientific reports were reviewed. Results Lower urinary tract stones are more common in dogs and cats than they are in humans. In addition to struvite stones, calcium oxalate, urate and cystine stones are all commonly found in the bladder and the urethra. The genetic basis for stone disease in some breeds of dog has been elucidated. The small size of cats creates technical challenges when managing ureterolithiasis. Conclusions Naturally occurring stone disease in companion animals is a valuable area for further study. The structure of the canine genome might facilitate the identification of novel disease loci in breeds of dog predisposed to stone formation. PMID:26558031

  9. Focused Ultrasonic Propulsion of Kidney Stones: Review and Update of Preclinical Technology

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Michael R.; Hsi, Ryan S.; Cunitz, Bryan W.; Simon, Julianna C.; Wang, Yak-Nam; Dunmire, Barbrina L.; Paun, Marla; Starr, Frank; Lu, Wei; Evan, Andrew P.; Harper, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction A noninvasive tool to reposition kidney stones could have significant impact in the management of stone disease. Our research group has developed a noninvasive transcutaneous ultrasound device. A review and update of the current status of this technology is provided. Discussion of Technology Stone propulsion is achieved through short bursts of focused, ultrasonic pulses. The initial system consisted of an eight-element annular array transducer, computer, and separate ultrasound imager. In the current generation, imaging and therapy are completed with one ultrasound system and a commercial probe. This generation allows real-time ultrasound imaging, targeting, and propulsion. Safety and effectiveness for the relocation of calyceal stones have been demonstrated in the porcine model. Role in Endourology This technology may have applications in repositioning stones as an adjunct to lithotripsy, facilitating clearance of residual fragments after lithotripsy, expelling de novo stones, and potentially repositioning obstructing stones. Human trials are in preparation. PMID:23883117

  10. Association of staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection with recurrence of renal staghorn stone

    PubMed Central

    Shahandeh, Zahra; Shafi, Hamid; Sadighian, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stphylococcus cohnii is an organism of coagulase negative species which is considered as normal flora. However, it has been isolated from urinary tract infections and surgical prostheses but its relation with staghorn stones has not been reported, yet. Case Presentation: A 50-years-old woman presented with left renal staghorn stone in June 2014. She had bilateral staghorn stones 7 years ago. Staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum were detected from a removed stone. After 7 years, recurrence staghorn stone in her left kidney was diagnosed and patient underwent another surgery. The patient had several attacks of cystitis during these 7 years. The results of stone and urine cultures revealed staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum. Conclusion: This case report emphasizes a possible association between staphylococcus cohnii subspecies urealyticum infection and recurrence renal staghhorn stone. PMID:26221496

  11. The comparative survey of Hounsfield units of stone composition in urolithiasis patients

    PubMed Central

    Shahnani, Parisa Sotoodeh; Karami, Mehdi; Astane, Bahman; Janghorbani, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) is the diagnostic choice for renal stone disease. Knowing the composition of a stone before passage can help to choose a better management. We sought to determine whether the Hounsfield unit (HU) measured by NCCT can predict the composition. Materials and Methods: 180 urinary stones from patients seen at Shariati, Kashani and Alzahra CT centers, were submitted to stone analysis, 2012. All scans had been interpreted for HU. Primitive statistical findings showed an effect of size on the HU. To avoid confounding bias, Hounsfield Density (HD: HU/largest transverse diameter) was calculated. Statistical comparisons were performed between composition with HU and HD. Results: Calcium stones had specific ranges for HD and HU. No non-calcium stone had HU more than 448 and HD greater than 50 HU/mm. Conclusion: NCCT can differentiate just Calcium from non-calcium stones. PMID:25364366

  12. Treatment of renal calcium stone disease with the synthetic glycosaminoglycan pentosan polysulphate.

    PubMed

    Fellstrm, B; Backman, U; Danielson, B; Wikstrm, B

    1994-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are potent inhibitors of calcium oxalate growth and aggregation. The synthetic GAG pentosan polysulphate (PPS) was used in the treatment of patients with renal calcium stone disease. Altogether, 121 patients were included in an open trial over a 3-year-period. The average stone episode rate and the stone operation rate were no different during treatment and in the pretreatment period. Altogether 48% of the patients were entirely stone-free during follow-up, whereas 29/56 patients who continued to form stones reported smaller stones that were more easily passed. It is concluded that there may be a role for PPS in the treatment of recurrent renal calcium stone disease, but a controlled study may be needed. PMID:7516780

  13. Zarzalejo granite (Spain). A nomination for 'Global Heritage Stone Resource'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; José Varas-Muriel, María

    2015-04-01

    Zarzalejo granite is quarried in the Sierra de Guadarrama (Spanish Central System) foothills, in and around Zarzalejo village, in the province of Madrid, Spain. It is an inequigranular monzogranite medium-to-coarse grained, with a slight porphyritic texture (feldspar phenocrysts) and mafic micro-grained enclaves. In this abstract the candidacy of Zarzalejo granite as a "Global Heritage Resource Stone" (GHSR) is presented. This stone ideally fits the newly proposed designation as it has been used in many heritage buildings and its good petrophysical properties and durability have allowed well preserved constructions such as a Roman road, San Pedro Church in Zarzalejo (1492), Descalzas Reales Monastery in Madrid (1559-1564) and the San Lorenzo del Escorial Royal Monastery (1563-1584), to be declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. This level of construction has been a landmark in the extraction and proliferation of historic quarries created due to the high demand that such colossal monuments and buildings with granite, have required for their construction. In the mid-20th century, More, Zarzalejo granite has also been used in restoration works including the Royal Palace and the Reina Sofía Museum (2001-2005), both buildings in Madrid, Spain. Extraction of granite ashlars from tors has been a very frequent activity in the Zarzalejo neighbourhood until mid-twentieth century. So there is also a need to preserve these historic quarries. This type of stone has created a landscape that has been preserved as an open-air museum today where you can see the marks left in the granite due to historic quarry operations. The granite industry has been one of the main pillars of the Zarzalejo regional economy. For centuries, the local community have been engaged in quarrying and have created a cultural landscape based on its building stone. A quarryman monument has been erected in Zarzalejo in honor of this traditional craft as well as an architecture museum at San Lorenzo del Escorial Monastery, which shows the building material used during its construction. There is currently an active quarry of this dimension stone which continues to be sold under the commercial name of "Gris Escorial". Zarzalejo granite is mainly exported to Turkey, Italy and Saudi Arabia. Today this stone is used primarily in flooring. Other uses include cobblestones, funeral art, and building and monument restoration and rehabilitation. Sculptures have also built in recent years, notably the great monoliths in Salvador Dalí Square (1989) in Madrid. There are also small historic family-run quarries intermittently continuing this dimension stone carving tradition. Given its characteristics, Zarzalejo granite meets the requisites proposed to be nominated as a GHSR. This nomination will contribute to raising awareness and disseminate key aspects for conservation and thus ensure its use as a replacement stone in restoring heritage buildings where it was used as a building stone. Acknowledgements This study was funded by the Community of Madrid under the GEOMATERIALS 2 project (S2013/MIT-2914). The authors are members of the Complutense University of Madrid's Research Group: "Alteración y Conservación de los Materiales Pétreos del Patrimonio" (ref. 921349).

  14. Cholecystectomy for Prevention of Recurrence after Endoscopic Clearance of Bile Duct Stones in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Song, Myung Eun; Lee, Dong-Jun; Oh, Tak Geun; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Chung, Jae Bock

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cholecystectomy in patients with an intact gallbladder after endoscopic removal of stones from the common bile duct (CBD) remains controversial. We conducted a case-control study to determine the risk of recurrent CBD stones and the benefit of cholecystectomy for prevention of recurrence after endoscopic removal of stones from the CBD in Korean patients. Materials and Methods A total of 317 patients who underwent endoscopic CBD stone extraction between 2006 and 2012 were included. Possible risk factors for the recurrence of CBD stones including previous cholecystectomy history, bile duct diameter, stone size, number of stones, stone composition, and the presence of a periampullary diverticulum were analyzed. Results The mean duration of follow-up after CBD stone extraction was 25.422.0 months. A CBD diameter of 15 mm or larger [odds ratio (OR), 1.930; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.098 to 3.391; p=0.022] and the presence of a periampullary diverticulum (OR, 1.859; 95% CI, 1.014 to 3.408; p=0.045) were independent predictive factors for CBD stone recurrence. Seventeen patients (26.6%) in the recurrence group underwent elective cholecystectomy soon after endoscopic extraction of CBD stones, compared to 88 (34.8%) in the non-recurrence group; the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.212). Conclusion A CBD diameter of 15 mm or larger and the presence of a periampullary diverticulum were found to be potential predictive factors for recurrence after endoscopic extraction of CBD stones. Elective cholecystectomy after clearance of CBD stones did not reduce the incidence of recurrent CBD stones in Korean patients. PMID:26632393

  15. Influence of Ureteral Stone Components on the Outcomes of Electrohydraulic Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyeong Cheol; Jung, Ha Bum; Lee, Yong Seong; Lee, Young Goo; Kim, Ki Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the influence of urinary stone components on the outcomes of ureteroscopic removal of stones (URS) by electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) in patients with distal ureteral stones. Materials and Methods Patients with a single distal ureteral stone with a stone size of 0.5 to 2.0 cm that was completely removed by use of EHL were included in the study. Operating time was defined as the time interval between ureteroscope insertion and complete removal of ureteral stones. Ureteral stones were classified into 5 categories on the basis of their main component (that accounting for 50% or more of the stone content) as follows: calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), calcium oxalate dihydrate, carbonate apatite (CAP), uric acid (UA), and struvite (ST). Results A total of 193 patients (131 males and 62 females) underwent EHL. The mean operating time was 25.18.2 minutes and the mean stone size was 1.150.44 cm. Calcium oxalate stones accounted for 64.8% of all ureteral stones, followed by UA (19.7%), CAP (8.3%), and ST (7.2%) stones. The mean operating time was significantly longer in the UA group (28.68.3 minutes) than in the COM group (24.07.8 minutes, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the stone size was negatively associated with the odds ratio (OR) for successful fragmentation. UA as a main component (OR, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.89; p=0.023) was also found to be significantly important as a negative predictive factor of successful fragmentation after adjustment for stone size. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that successful fragmentation by URS with EHL could be associated with the proportion of the UA component. PMID:23301129

  16. Predictive Factors of the Outcome of Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy for Ureteral Stones

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ji Woong; Song, Phil Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) has shown successful outcomes for ureteral stones. We investigated predictive factors for failure of ESWL for treating ureteral stones. Materials and Methods A total of 153 patients who underwent ESWL between July 2006 and July 2009 for ureteral stones diagnosed by non-enhanced spiral computed tomography were divided into two groups: (group A, stone size ?10 mm; and group B, stone size >10 mm). The failure was defined as remnant stones >4 mm. We assessed age, sex, body mass index, stone size, laterality, location, skin-to-stone distance (SSD), Hounsfield unit, and the presence of secondary signs (hydronephrosis, renal enlargement, perinephric fat stranding, and tissue rim sign). We analyzed predictive factors by using logistic regression in each group. Results The success rates were 90.2% and 68.6% in group A and B, respectively. In the univariate analysis of each group, stone size, SSD, and all secondary signs showed statistically significant differences in terms of the outcome of ESWL (p<0.05). In the multivariate logistic regression, stone size (odds ratio [OR], 50.005; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.207 to 402.852) was an independent predictive factor in group A. The presence of perinephric fat standing (OR, 77.634; 95% CI, 1.349 to 446.558) and stone size (OR, 19.718; 95% CI, 1.600 to 243.005) were independent predictive factors in group B. Conclusions Stone size is an independent predictive factor influencing failure of ESWL for treating ureteral stones. In larger ureteral stones (>10 mm), the presence of perinephric fat stranding is also an independent predictive factor. PMID:22741053

  17. Value of preoperative stone scoring systems in predicting the results of percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Hseyin; Halis, Fikret; Kse, Osman; Gke, Ahmet; Adsan, Oztug

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Guy's Stone Score and S.T.O.N.E. Nephrolithometry nomograms have been introduced for systematic and quantitative assessment of kidney stones. The aim of this study was to reveal the value of two scorings systems, Guy and S.T.O.N.E, most frequently used for predicting postoperative stone-free status prior to Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL), in the prediction of postoperative results of PCNL. Material and methods We retrospectively examined patients who underwent PCNL. Preoperative abdominopelvic computerized tomography images of these patients were reviewed and scored according to the Guy and S.T.O.N.E. systems. The relationship between the Guy and S.T.O.N.E. scores, and their postoperative stone-free status, complications based on Clavien system, operation time, fluoroscopy time and period of hospitalization was compared. Results We identified a total of 102 patients who underwent PCNL between 2010 and 2014, having met the inclusion criteria. The relationships between the total S.T.O.N.E score and Clavien score (p <0.001); time of operation (p = 0.012) and stone-free status (p <0.001); Guy stone score and Clavien score (p <0.001); and period of hospitalization (p <0.001) and time of operation (p <0.001) were found to be statistically significant. There was no statistically significant relationship between Guy score and stone-free status and no statistically significant relationship was found between fluoroscopy time and both stone scoring systems. Conclusions Guy and S.T.O.N.E. scoring systems may be used as effective instruments particularly for predicting postoperative complications. PMID:26568881

  18. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation

    PubMed Central

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects, which are often neglected in fad diets, are a normal intake of milk and dairy products and salt restriction. All these nutritional aspects should be greatly taken into account when patients who are willing to undergo fad or commercial diets ask for dietary advice. PMID:26816783

  19. [Investigation of typical melamine urinary stones using infrared spectra].

    PubMed

    Si, Min-Zhen; Li, Qing-Yun; Liu, Ren-Ming; Kang, Yi-Pu; Wang, Kun-Hua; Zhang, Zhi-Guo

    2010-02-01

    A typical melamine kidney stone confirmed by some medicine expert was collected from the first people's hospital of Yunnan. The kidney stone was adequately determined by PE corporation spectra 100(with resolution of 1 cm(-1)). The stone samples for FTIR analysis were prepared using the KBr pellet technique, where 2 mg of the pretreated stone powder was mixed with 200 mg of analytical grade KBr using an agate pestle and mortar. The digital spectrum was then scanned in the mid-infrared region from 4 000 to 400 cm(-1) at room temperature. The appearing bands between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 487, 3 325, 3 162 and 2 788 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 694, 1 555, 1 383, 1 340, 1 189 and 1 122 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 782, 748, 709, 624, 585, 565 and 476 cm(-1). It was found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with cat kidney stone, which was from cats that died after consuming the contaminated food, and confirmed that these deposits were primarily composed of melamine and cyanuric acid compared to the IR spectra of calculi in literature. It was also found that the main constituent of calculi showed few comparability with popular kidney stone by comparison with the IR spectra of calculi in literature. The spectrum of calculi was 50% respectively similar with melamine and uric acid as compared with the IR spectrum. It was found that the main constituent of calculi was melamine itself and uric acid as compared with the IR spectra of calculi and melamine: (1 : 1), because the spectrum of calculi was 83. 3% similar to melamine and uric acid (1 : 1). The appearing bands of melamine and uric acid (1 : 1) between 4 000 and 2 000 cm(-1) were 3 469, 3 419, 3 333, 3 132, 3 026, 2 827 cm(-1), those between 1 700 and 1 000 cm(-1) were 1 696, 1 656, 1 555, 1 489, 1 439, 1 350, 1 311, 1 198, 1 124 and 1 028 cm(-1), and those between 1 000 and 400 cm(-1) were 993, 878, 814, 784, 745, 708, 619, 577 and 475 cm(-1). PMID:20384125

  20. Fad diets and their effect on urinary stone formation.

    PubMed

    Nouvenne, Antonio; Ticinesi, Andrea; Morelli, Ilaria; Guida, Loredana; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-09-01

    The influence of unhealthy dietary habits on urinary stone formation has been widely recognized in literature. Dietary advice is indeed the cornerstone prescription for prevention of nephrolithiasis as well. However, only a small amount of medical literature has addressed the influence of popular or fad diets, often self-prescribed for the management of obesity and overweight or for cultural beliefs, on the risk of kidney stones. Thereby in this paper we analyze the current knowledge on the effects of some popular diets on overall lithogenic risk. High-protein diets, like Dukan diet, raise some concerns, since animal proteins are able to increase urinary calcium and to decrease urinary citrate excretion, thus leading to a high overall lithogenic risk. Low-carbohydrate diets, like Atkins diet or zone diet, may have a protective role against kidney stone formation, but there are also evidences stating that this dietary approach may rise calciuria and decrease citraturia, since it is generally associated to a relatively high intake of animal proteins. Vegan diet can be harmful for urinary stone disease, especially for the risk of hyperuricemia and micronutrient deficiencies, even if only few studies have addressed this specific matter. On the other side, the benefits of a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet on kidney stone prevention have been largely emphasized, provided that the intake of calcium and oxalate is balanced. Traditional Mediterranean diet should exert a protective effect on nephrolithiasis as well, even if specific studies have not been carried out yet. High phytate and antioxidant content of this diet have however demonstrated to be beneficial in preventing the formation of new or recurrent calculi. Anyway, at the current state of knowledge, the most effective dietary approach to prevent kidney stone disease is a mild animal protein restriction, a balanced intake of carbohydrates and fats and a high intake of fruit and vegetables. Other fundamental aspects, which are often neglected in fad diets, are a normal intake of milk and dairy products and salt restriction. All these nutritional aspects should be greatly taken into account when patients who are willing to undergo fad or commercial diets ask for dietary advice. PMID:26816783

  1. Geomorphology's role in the study of weathering of cultural stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Gregory A.; Meierding, Thomas C.; Paradise, Thomas R.

    2002-10-01

    Great monumental placesPetra, Giza, Angkor, Stonehenge, Tikal, Macchu Picchu, Rapa Nui, to name a feware links to our cultural past. They evoke a sense of wonderment for their aesthetic fascination if not for their seeming permanence over both cultural and physical landscapes. However, as with natural landforms, human constructs are subject to weathering and erosion. Indeed, many of our cultural resources suffer from serious deterioration, some natural, some enhanced by human impact. Groups from the United Nations to local civic and tourism assemblies are deeply interested in maintaining and preserving such cultural resources, from simple rock art to great temples. Geomorphologists trained in interacting systems, process and response to thresholds, rates of change over time, and spatial variation of weathering processes and effects are able to offer insight into how deterioration occurs and what can be done to ameliorate the impact. Review of recent literature and case studies presented here demonstrate methodological and theoretical advances that have resulted from the study of cultural stone weathering. Because the stone was carved at a known date to a "baseline" or zero-datum level, some of the simplest methods (e.g., assessing surface weathering features or measuring surface recession in the field) provide useful data on weathering rates and processes. Such data are difficult or impossible to obtain in "natural" settings. Cultural stone weathering studies demonstrate the importance of biotic and saline weathering agents and the significance of weathering factors such as exposure (microclimate) and human impact. More sophisticated methods confirm these observations, but also reveal discrepancies between field and laboratory studies. This brings up two important caveats for conservators and geomorphologists. For the conservator, are laboratory and natural setting studies really analogous and useful for assessing stone damage? For the geomorphologist, does cultural stone data have any real relevance to the natural environment? These are questions for future research and debate. In any event, cultural stone weathering studies have been productive for both geomorphologists and conservators. Continued collaboration and communication between the geomorphic, historic preservation, archaeological, and engineering research communities are encouraged.

  2. Desert Stone Mantles: Quantification and Significance of Self-Organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgitt, David; Rosser, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Desert stone mantles exhibit sorting patterns which are evidence of self-organisation. Previous investigations of stone mantles developed on Late Tertiary and Quaternary basalts in arid northeastern Jordan, revealed distinct variations in the nature of stone cover both downslope and between lithologies of different age. However, manual field measurements of clast size and shape did not preserve information about the spatial configuration of the stone surface. Improved digital image capture and analysis techniques, including using a kite-based platform for vertical photography of the surface, has permitted the nature of stone mantles to be examined and modelled in greater detail. Image analysis has been assisted by the strong contrast in colour between the basalt clasts and the underlying surface enabling a binary classification of images, from which data on size, shape and position of clasts can be readily acquired. Quantification of self-organisation through a box-counting technique for measuring fractal dimension and a procedure using Thiessen polygons to determine locking structures' indicates a general increase in organisation of the stone mantle downslope. Recognition of emergent behaviour requires an explanation in terms of positive feedback between controlling process and the influence of surface form. A series of rainfall simulation and infiltration experiments have been undertaken on plots to assess the variation in surface hydrology as a response to variations in ground surface and slope profile form. The relative contribution of runoff events of varying size and the degree to which the ground surface configuration accelerates or restricts modification of the surface influences the overall evolution of slope profiles via the erosion, transfer and deposition of both surface clasts and the underlying fine grained sediments. Critical to this modification is the interplay between the surface configuration, rainfall and runoff. The experiments presented here are also the first attempt to quantify the influence of clast surface coverage on rainfall partitioning and sediment mobilisation. Results suggest that a close synergy exists between surface character, whole slope form and hydrological response to rainfall. Characteristics resulting from self-regulating behaviour, including emergent spatial structures, non-linear spatial variations in surface character and negative feedbacks between form and process action are evident. Runoff response is damped at slope positions where clast patterning is most developed. Questions arise with regard to the degree to which processes of surface modification represent a self-regulating system through time.

  3. Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engidasew, Tesfaye Asresahagne; Barbieri, Giulio

    2014-11-01

    The geology of the central part of Ethiopia exhibits a variety of rock types that can potentially be developed for construction stone production, of which the most wide spread and important one is the Termaber basalt. Even though some preliminary work is done on these rocks towards construction material application, it remains largely that this resource is untouched and needs further scientific characterization for the use in large scale industrial application. Basaltic rocks have been widely used in many parts of the world as concrete aggregate and dimension stone for various civil structures. The present research study was carried out for Geo-engineering evaluation of Termaber basalt rock mass for crushed stone aggregate and building stone from Central Ethiopia (around Debre Birhan). The main objective of the present research study was to assess the general suitability of the Termaber basalt to be used as coarse aggregate for concrete mix and/or to utilize it as cut stone at industrial level. Only choice made with full knowledge of the basic characteristics of the material, of its performance and durability against the foreseen solicitations will ensure the necessary quality of the stone work and thereby a possibility to reach its intended service life. In order to meet out the objective of the present study, data from both field and laboratory were collected and analyzed. The field data included geological investigations based on different methods and sample collection while the laboratory work included, uniaxial compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, dynamic elasticity modulus, bulk density, water absorption, specific gravity, open porosity, aggregate impact value, petrographic examination and XRF, aggregate crushing value, Los Angeles abrasion value, sodium sulfate soundness, X-ray diffraction and alkali silica reactivity tests. The field and laboratory data were compiled and compared together to reveal the engineering performance of the rock mass in terms of cut stone and coarse aggregates. The basaltic rock shows a variety of textural and mineralogical characteristics which could affect their physical and mechanical properties as well as their use as construction material. The compressive strength of the basaltic rock ranges from 130 MPa to 350 MPa, ultrasonic pulse velocity from 4000 m/s to 7000 m/s, open porosity from 0.33% to 3.08%, bulk density from 2.6 g/cm3 to 3.1 g/cm3, dynamic elasticity modulus from 64 GPa to 129 GPa, etc. The petrographic examination also indicated some deleterious constituents within the middle basaltic flow layers however; there are distinct flow layers which could be used as dimension stone and coarse aggregate for concrete and asphalt mix. The field investigation as well as the laboratory tests conducted indicated the high potential of the Termaber basalt formation to be used as construction material with further refining works. The study presented in this paper was carried out on basalts that are widespread in the central highland of Ethiopia and that comprise the major source of local crushed rock aggregates and building stone.

  4. Orientations of linear stone arrangements in New South Wales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Fuller, Robert S.; Norris, Ray P.

    2012-12-01

    We test the hypothesis that Aboriginal linear stone arrangements in New South Wales (NSW) are oriented to cardinal directions. We accomplish this by measuring the azimuths of stone arrangements described in site cards from the NSW Aboriginal Heritage Information Management System. We then survey a subset of these sites to test the accuracy of information recorded on the site cards. We find a preference recorded in the site cards for cardinal orientations among azimuths. The field surveys show that the site cards are reasonably accurate, but the surveyors probably did not correct for magnetic declinations. Using Monte Carlo statistics, we show that these preferred orientations did not occur by chance and that Aboriginal people deliberately aligned these arrangements to the approximate cardinal directions. We briefly explore possible reasons for these preferred orientations and highlight the need for future work.

  5. Epoxy-silica hybrids as stone restoration materials.

    PubMed

    Cardiano, Paola

    2003-11-01

    Hybrid organic-inorganic systems based on two epoxy-resins, the aromatic DGEBA and the aliphatic Eurostac 2101, and the amine ATS were developed for stone conservation. Their efficacy, explored through some preliminary tests such as water absorption, mercury porosimetry and appearance, was evaluated on two selected lithic typologies, Mistretta quartzite (MIS) and Comiso calcarenite (COM). The experiments carried out on MIS showed that none of the employed mixtures is able to significantly affect its porosimetric properties, while only DGEBA/ATS solutions reduce its water absorption, but cause not negligible alterations in appearance. The treatment of COM with DGEBA/ATS solutions does not alter significantly the porosimetric features while preventing the water migration inside the stone. On the contrary EP/ATS mixtures perform better in porosimetric terms, while water absorption tests are not promising. PMID:14703864

  6. Hereditary Causes of Kidney Stones and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Edvardsson, Vidar O.; Goldfarb, David S.; Lieske, John C.; Beara-Lasic, Lada; Anglani, Franca; Milliner, Dawn S.; Palsson, Runolfur

    2013-01-01

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) and primary hyperoxaluria (PH) are rare but important causes of severe kidney stone disease and/or chronic kidney disease in children. Recurrent kidney stone disease and nephrocalcinosis, particularly in pre-pubertal children, should alert the physician to the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism as the underlying cause. Unfortunately, the lack of recognition and knowledge of the five disorders has frequently resulted in an unacceptable delay in diagnosis and treatment, sometimes with grave consequences. A high index of suspicion coupled with early diagnosis may reduce or even prevent the serious long-term complications of these diseases. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of patients with APRT deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, FHHNC and PH with emphasis on childhood manifestations. PMID:23334384

  7. Manual praxis in stone tool manufacture: implications for language evolution.

    PubMed

    Ruck, Lana

    2014-12-01

    Alternative functions of the left-hemisphere dominant Broca's region have induced hypotheses regarding the evolutionary parallels between manual praxis and language in humans. Many recent studies on Broca's area reveal several assumptions about the cognitive mechanisms that underlie both functions, including: (1) an accurate, finely controlled body schema, (2) increasing syntactical abilities, particularly for goal-oriented actions, and (3) bilaterality and fronto-parietal connectivity. Although these characteristics are supported by experimental paradigms, many researchers have failed to acknowledge a major line of evidence for the evolutionary development of these traits: stone tools. The neuroscience of stone tool manufacture is a viable proxy for understanding evolutionary aspects of manual praxis and language, and may provide key information for evaluating competing hypotheses on the co-evolution of these cognitive domains in our species. PMID:25463818

  8. Green stone beads at the dawn of agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bar-Yosef Mayer, Daniella E; Porat, Naomi

    2008-06-24

    The use of beads and other personal ornaments is a trait of modern human behavior. During the Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods, beads were made out of shell, bone, ivory, egg shell, and occasionally of minerals. During the transition to agriculture in the Near East, stone, in particular green stone, was used for the first time to make beads and pendants. We observed that a large variety of minerals of green colors were sought, including apatite, several copper-bearing minerals, amazonite and serpentinite. There seems to be an increase with time of distance from which the green minerals were sought. Because beads in white, red, yellow, brown, and black colors had been used previously, we suggest that the occurrence of green beads is directly related to the onset of agriculture. Green beads and bead blanks were used as amulets to ward off the evil eye and as fertility charms. PMID:18559861

  9. An overview of treatment options for urinary stones

    PubMed Central

    Shafi, Hamid; Moazzami, Bobak; Pourghasem, Mohsen; Kasaeian, Aliakbar

    2016-01-01

    Urolithiasis has become a worldwide problem with the prevalence of the disease increasing over the past few decades. While various treatment modalities have evolved over the years, discrepancies exist regarding the clinical indications and the efficacy of each of these treatment options. In the present review, we aim to review the current treatment modalities for urinary tract stones to provide a better understanding on the therapeutic approaches as well as their clinical indications. PMID:26958325

  10. 52. Photocopied August 1978. LAYING THE CORNER STONE (FIRST PREMOULDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopied August 1978. LAYING THE CORNER STONE (FIRST PRE-MOULDED CONCRETE BLOCK) OF THE POWER HOUSE, SEPTEMBER 10, 1900. THE BLOCK IS BEING PLACED ON ONE OF THE MONOLITHIC TAIL RACE (TAIL PIT) BASES. VON SCHON MAY BE THE THIRD PERSON FROM THE RIGHT IN THE CENTER OF THE PICTURE (IN THE GRAY SUIT). - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  11. Association Between Kidney Stones and Risk of Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chang, Yen-Jung; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Wang, I-Kuan; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nephrolithiasis is highly prevalent and has been associated with vascular diseases such as cardiovascular events. Few studies have comprehensively associated renal stones with stroke. This study explored whether patients with renal stones were at a higher stroke risk than those without renal stones. A national insurance claim dataset of 22 million enrollees in Taiwan was used to identify 53,659 patients with renal stones, and 214,107 were selected as age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched controls for a 13-year follow-up. The relative stroke risk for the RS cohort was 1.06-fold higher than that for the non-RS group (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–1.11). Age-specific analysis revealed that the adjusted stroke risk for the RS cohort increased as age decreased, with the highest risk of 1.47-fold (95% CI = 1.10–1.96) in patients aged 20 to 34 years, followed by a 1.12-fold risk (95% CI = 1.00–1.25) in patients aged 35 to 50 years. Sex-specific analysis clarified that women in the RS group had a 1.12-fold stroke risk compared with women in the non-RS group (95% CI = 1.03–1.21). Patients who had undergone >4 surgeries had up to 42.5-fold higher risk of stroke (95% CI = 33.8–53.4). The study utilized the national database and demonstrated that patients, particularly women and the younger population, with nephrolithiasis have an increased risk of ischemic stroke development. Patients treated with medication or through surgery for RSs showed steady and higher risks of stroke than those without surgical or medical intervention. PMID:26937915

  12. John's Stone: A possible fragment of the 1908 Tunguska meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfinogenov, John; Budaeva, Larisa; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Anfinogenova, Yana

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to discover remnants of the 1908 Tunguska meteorite. Field studies identified exotic rocks, furrows, and penetration funnels reported by the first eyewitnesses. Main methods included decoding of aerial survey photographs, systematic survey of epicenter area of the Tunguska explosion, exploratory excavations, reconstruction studies of the exotic rocks, mineralogical and spectral analysis of specimens, and experimental attempt of plasma-induced reproduction of fusion crust. The authors report the discovery of funnel-like structures and of an exotic boulder known as John's Stone (JS) in the epicentral area. The article provides detailed description of JS, fresh furrows in the permafrost, multiple shear-fractured splinters, splinters with glassy coatings, evidence of high-speed impact of JS in the ground, and clear consistency in the geometry of spacial arrangements of all splinters, furrows, and cleaved pebbles. Pattern of permafrost destruction suggested about high-speed entry and lateral ricochet of JS in the ground with further deceleration and breakage. Calculated landing velocity of JS was at least 547 m/s. John's Stone is composed of highly silicified gravelite sandstone (98.5% SiO2) with grain size of 0.5-1.5 cm. Outer surface of several splinters showed continuous glassy coating similar to shiny fusion crust reminiscent of freshly applied enamel. Plasma-induced heating of John's Stone specimen led to its explosive disintegration; residue presented with light-colored semi-transparent pumice-like grains and irregularly shaped fused particles. Overall, our data suggest that John's Stone may be a fragment of the 1908 Tunguska meteorite and may represent a new type of meteorite.

  13. Diode laser potential in laser cleaning of stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimbeni, Renzo; Pini, Roberto; Siano, Salvatore; Bachmann, Friedrich G.; Meyer, Frank

    2001-10-01

    In this work we investigated for the first time the laser cleaning process of encrusted stones by employing a high power diode laser system. The test have been carried out using a Rofin-Sinar mod. DL025S emitting up to 2.5 kW CW power to clean various samples representing natural encrustation by pollution exposition and graffiti, typically encountered on historical monuments and buildings in urban environment.

  14. Pattern of ocular injuries in stone pelters in Kashmir valley?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shabana; Maqbool, Akifa; Abdullah, Nowsheen; Keng, Manzoor Q.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To describe the pattern and types of ocular injuries in stone pelters in Kashmir valley during recent turmoil. Design Cross sectional study. Methods Sixty patients with different types of eye injuries were assessed between JuneSeptember 2010 and initial visual acuity was recorded. The injuries were classified according to Systems for Classifying Ocular Injuries (OTCS) and Ocular Trauma Score (OTS) was calculated in order to estimate the probability of follow-up visual acuity range. Results Most of the victims (75%) were young boys between 1626years with a mean age of 20.95, 95% of cases were males. The main cause of injury was stones (48.3%) and pellets (30%) besides rubber bullets, sling shots and tear gas shells. Most of the open-globe injuries due to stones were of Type B and A, Grade E, Zone II and III with Afferent Pupillary Defect (APD) in 30% of the cases. Closed-globe injuries were mostly of Type A, Grade C and D and Zone II and III. Most of the open-globe injuries due to pellets were of Type D, Grade D, Zone II and APD in 33.3%. Pellets Intra Ocular Foreign Body (IOFB) was in 41.6%. Most of the closed-globe injuries were of Type A, Grade D and E and of Zone III. Overall OTS of 1 was calculated in 16.6% and 3 in 53.3% of the cases. Conclusion In stone pelting demonstrations eye injuries can result in visually significant trauma. Injuries due to pellets are mostly perforating and pellet IOFB, and both tend to have a very poor prognosis. OTS can be used to estimate visual prognosis. PMID:23961014

  15. 6. Humpback Gap Overlook. View of stone railandrider fences, commonly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Humpback Gap Overlook. View of stone rail-and-rider fences, commonly referred to as hog fences. There were built by civilian public service employees in 1943. An original wall crossed the mountain just south of Humpback Gap just south of Humpback Gap, but the new section was provided to be more visible to visitors. View faces west-northwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  16. Seismic fragility assessment of low-rise stone masonry buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abo-El-Ezz, Ahmad; Nollet, Marie-Jos; Nastev, Miroslav

    2013-03-01

    Many historic buildings in old urban centers in Eastern Canada are made of stone masonry reputed to be highly vulnerable to seismic loads. Seismic risk assessment of stone masonry buildings is therefore the first step in the risk mitigation process to provide adequate planning for retrofit and preservation of historical urban centers. This paper focuses on development of analytical displacement-based fragility curves reflecting the characteristics of existing stone masonry buildings in Eastern Canada. The old historic center of Quebec City has been selected as a typical study area. The standard fragility analysis combines the inelastic spectral displacement, a structure-dependent earthquake intensity measure, and the building damage state correlated to the induced building displacement. The proposed procedure consists of a three-step development process: (1) mechanics-based capacity model, (2) displacement-based damage model and (3) seismic demand model. The damage estimation for a uniform hazard scenario of 2% in 50 years probability of exceedance indicates that slight to moderate damage is the most probable damage experienced by these stone masonry buildings. Comparison is also made with fragility curves implicit in the seismic risk assessment tools Hazus and ELER. Hazus shows the highest probability of the occurrence of no to slight damage, whereas the highest probability of extensive and complete damage is predicted with ELER. This comparison shows the importance of the development of fragility curves specific to the generic construction characteristics in the study area and emphasizes the need for critical use of regional risk assessment tools and generated results.

  17. Evaluation of stone-free rate using Guy's Stone Score and assessment of complications using modified Clavien grading system for percutaneous nephro-lithotomy.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajan Kumar; Mukherjee, Subhabrata; Jindal, Tarun; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Saha, Barun; Mitra, Nilanjan; Kumar, Jay; Mukhopadhyay, Chandranath; Ghosh, Nabankur; Kamal, Mir Reza; Mandal, Soumendra Nath; Karmakar, Dilip

    2015-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate the ability of Guy's Stone Score (GSS) in predicting stone clearance rate and complication rate (by modified Clavien grade) for renal stones treated by percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). From January 2013 to June 2014, a total of 142 patients undergoing PNL were evaluated prospectively. Patients with co-morbidities like hypertension, diabetes, renal failure were excluded from the study. All patients were classified according to GSS based on the findings of pre-operative intravenous urography (IVU) and per-operative retrograde pyelography (RGP). All PNL procedures were done by standard technique in prone position and success was defined as no residual stone visible on X-ray KUB done on the third postoperative day. Complications were classified according to modified Clavien grading system. The initial stone clearance rate was 71.1% and overall final stone clearance rate was 90.14%. The complication rate according to Clavien grading system was 40.1%. The final stone clearance rates were 93.9, 85.71, 90.47, and 77.77% in GSS I, II, III, and IV, respectively (p<0.001, <0.05, <0.05 and >0.05, respectively). The Clavien complication rates were 23, 61, 52, and 77.7% in GSS I, II, III, and IV, respectively (p<0.001). The GSS is a simple and easily reproducible system to preoperatively predict stone-free rate and perioperative complication rate. It helps in better patient counseling preoperatively. PMID:25850962

  18. Pathophysiology of kidney, gallbladder and urinary stones treatment with herbal and allopathic medicine: A review

    PubMed Central

    Alok, Shashi; Jain, Sanjay Kumar; Verma, Amita; Kumar, Mayank; Sabharwal, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been known for millennia and are highly esteemed all over the world as a rich source of therapeutic agents for the prevention of various ailments. Today large number of population suffers from kidney stone, gall stone and urinary calculi. Stone disease has gained increasing significance due to changes in living conditions i.e. industrialization and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence and incidence, the occurrence of stone types and stone location, and the manner of stone removal are explained. Medicinal plants are used from centuries due to its safety, efficacy, cultural acceptability and lesser side effects as compared to synthetic drugs. The present article deals with measures to be adopted for the potential of medicinal plants in stone dissolving activity. The problem of urinary stones or calculi is a very ancient one and many remedies have been employed during the ages these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, the kidney, the ureters and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. In the present article, an attempt has been made to emphasis on herbal option for urinary stone.

  19. X-ray microanalysis of urinary stones, a comparison with other methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.M.; Alpaugh, H.B.; Johnson, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    A previous study of urinary stones by a combined electron microscopy demonstrated the potential of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray analysis as an analytic tool for urinary stones. Electron diffraction was chosen for the final confirmation of crystals in the study. Although electron diffraction is highly accurate for this purpose, it is desirable to establish the sensitivity of X-ray analysis for the identification of stone components relative to the more commonly used methods. Eighty six consecutive urinary stones were analyzed by X-ray analysis and the findings were compared with those of X-ray diffraction, infrared spectrometry and chemical analysis. The results indicate that X-ray analysis exceeds X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy in its sensitivity for the identification of stone components several fold. This was largely due to the inability of the latter methods to detect apatite in more than half of the apatite containing stones. The findings in X-ray analysis had the best correlation with chemical analysis, which was applied mainly to the detection of apatite. X-ray analysis is particularly suited for the detection of rare and minor inorganic components of urinary stones such as silica and gypsum, and is obviously one of the most powerful tools for the analysis of urinary stones. Further application of X-ray analysis to urinary stone is likely to discern rare inorganic components of urinary stones overlooked by other methods. 42 references.

  20. Economic Outcomes of Treatment for Ureteral and Renal Stones: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Matlaga, Brian R.; Jansen, Jeroen P.; Meckley, Lisa M.; Byrne, Thomas W.; Lingeman, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of ureteral/renal stone treatment by comparing ureteroscopy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Materials and Methods We performed a systematic literature search to identify studies of treatment for adults with ureteral and renal stones that were published between 1995 and 2010. For inclusion in analysis studies had to provide the stone-free rate and the cost of at least 2 therapies. Results Ten studies were identified, including 8 with an observational design and 2 that synthesized data using decision modeling techniques. Five of 6 studies, including 1 of 2 from the United States, compared ureteroscopy vs shock wave lithotripsy for proximal stones and showed a higher stone-free rate and lower cost for ureteroscopy. Four of the 5 studies, including the only American study, compared ureteroscopy vs shock wave lithotripsy for distal ureteral stones and also showed such an economically dominant result. Studies of shock wave lithotripsy vs percutaneous nephrolithotomy and ureteroscopy vs percutaneous nephrolithotomy for renal stones demonstrated higher cost and a higher stone-free rate for percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Conclusions Despite the great heterogeneity and limited quality of available cost-effectiveness evaluations most studies demonstrated that ureteroscopy was more favorable than shock wave lithotripsy for ureteral stones in stone-free rate and cost. PMID:22698623

  1. Data Package for Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection—Cast Stone

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-05

    Available literature on Cast Stone and Saltstone was reviewed with an emphasis on determining how Cast Stone and related grout waste forms performed in relationship to various criteria that will be used to decide whether a specific type of waste form meets acceptance criteria for disposal in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at Hanford. After the critical review of the Cast Stone/Saltstone literature, we conclude that Cast Stone is a good candidate waste form for further consideration. Cast stone meets the target IDF acceptance criteria for compressive strength, no free liquids, TCLP leachate are below the UTS permissible concentrations and leach rates for Na and Tc-99 are suiteably low. The cost of starting ingredients and equipment necessary to generate Cast Stone waste forms with secondary waste streams are low and the Cast Stone dry blend formulation can be tailored to accommodate variations in liquid waste stream compositions. The database for Cast Stone short-term performance is quite extensive compared to the other three candidate waste solidification processes. The solidification of liquid wastes in Cast Stone is a mature process in comparison to the other three candidates. Successful production of Cast Stone or Saltstone has been demonstrated from lab-scale monoliths with volumes of cm3 through m3 sized blocks to 210-liter sized drums all the way to the large pours into vaults at Savannah River. To date over 9 million gallons of low activity liquid waste has been solidified and disposed in concrete vaults at Savannah River.

  2. Can a dual-energy computed tomography predict unsuitable stone components for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy?

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung Hoon; Oh, Tae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the potential of dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) to identify urinary stone components, particularly uric acid and calcium oxalate monohydrate, which are unsuitable for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Materials and Methods This clinical study included 246 patients who underwent removal of urinary stones and an analysis of stone components between November 2009 and August 2013. All patients received preoperative DECT using two energy values (80 kVp and 140 kVp). Hounsfield units (HU) were measured and matched to the stone component. Results Significant differences in HU values were observed between uric acid and nonuric acid stones at the 80 and 140 kVp energy values (p<0.001). All uric acid stones were red on color-coded DECT images, whereas 96.3% of the nonuric acid stones were blue. Patients with calcium oxalate stones were divided into two groups according to the amount of monohydrate (calcium oxalate monohydrate group: monohydrate?90%, calcium oxalate dihydrate group: monohydrate<90%). Significant differences in HU values were detected between the two groups at both energy values (p<0.001). Conclusions DECT improved the characterization of urinary stone components and was a useful method for identifying uric acid and calcium oxalate monohydrate stones, which are unsuitable for ESWL. PMID:26366277

  3. Surgical Management of Stone Disease in Patient with Primary Hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Alonso; Granberg, Candace F.; Gettman, Matthew T.; Milliner, Dawn S.; Krambeck, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To present our experience with surgical management of nephrolithiasis in patients with primary hyperoxaluria (PH). Methods A retrospective chart review from 19942012 was perform to identify patients with diagnosis of PH. Results A total of 14 patients with PH were identified with median follow-up of 18.6 years (range: 0.951). Median age at initial symptom and subsequent diagnosis were 6.7 years (range: 1.135.5) and 0.42 years (range: 033.25), respectively. Patients underwent a total of 54 procedures at our institution including: ureteroscopy 27 (50%), percutaneous nephrolithotomy 15 (28%), shock wave lithotripsy 8 (15%), and combined procedures 4 (7%). Overall non-intraparenchymal stone free rate after first, second, and third procedure(s) were 59%, 76%, and 78%, respectively. On average 1.6 procedures (range: 14) were required to rid patients of symptomatic stones, which subsequently afforded them a mean of 3.62 years (range: 0.2521.5) without the need of additional intervention. There were 6 Clavien grade ? III complications in 4 patients, including immediate postoperative ESRD in 3. Conclusions Despite optimal medical and surgical management, patients experience recurrent acute stone events requiring multiple urologic interventions. Significant complications such as ESRD can occur secondary to surgical intervention. PMID:25733260

  4. Absorption of impinging water droplet in porous stones.

    PubMed

    Lee, J B; Radu, A I; Vontobel, P; Derome, D; Carmeliet, J

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation and numerical analysis of the absorption of water droplets impacting porous stones. The absorption process of an impinging droplet is here fully characterized from spreading to evaporation in terms of absorbed mass during droplet depletion and moisture content distribution in a time-resolved manner for three different natural stones. High-speed imaging and neutron radiography are used to quantify moisture absorption in porous stones of varying moisture properties from deposition until depletion. During impact and spreading, the droplet exhibits a dynamic non-wetting behavior. At maximum spreading, the droplet undergoes pinning, resulting into the contact radius remaining constant until droplet depletion. Absorption undergoes two phases: initially, absorption is hindered due a contact resistance attributed to entrapped air; afterwards, a more perfect capillary contact occurs and absorption goes on until depletion, concurrently with evaporation and further redistribution. A finite-element numerical model for isothermal unsaturated moisture transport in porous media captures the phases of mass absorption in good agreement with the experimental data. Droplet spreading and absorption are highly determined by the impact velocity of the droplet, while moisture content redistribution after depletion is much less dependent on impact conditions. PMID:26975034

  5. Accuracy of stone casts obtained by different impression materials.

    PubMed

    Faria, Adriana Cludia Lapria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira; Macedo, Ana Paula; Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello de; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria

    2008-01-01

    Several impression materials are available in the Brazilian marketplace to be used in oral rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of different impression materials used for fixed partial dentures following the manufacturers' instructions. A master model representing a partially edentulous mandibular right hemi-arch segment whose teeth were prepared to receive full crowns was used. Custom trays were prepared with auto-polymerizing acrylic resin and impressions were performed with a dental surveyor, standardizing the path of insertion and removal of the tray. Alginate and elastomeric materials were used and stone casts were obtained after the impressions. For the silicones, impression techniques were also compared. To determine the impression materials' accuracy, digital photographs of the master model and of the stone casts were taken and the discrepancies between them were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and Duncan's complementary test. Polyether and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were statistically different from alginate, condensation silicone and addition silicone following the double-mix technique (p < or = .05), presenting smaller discrepancies. However, condensation silicone was similar (p > or = .05) to alginate and addition silicone following the double-mix technique, but different from polysulfide. The results led to the conclusion that different impression materials and techniques influenced the stone casts' accuracy in a way that polyether, polysulfide and addition silicone following the single-phase technique were more accurate than the other materials. PMID:19148382

  6. Efficacy of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy using Dornier SII in different levels of ureteral stones

    PubMed Central

    Elkholy, Mohamed M.; Ismail, Hassan; Abdelkhalek, Mohamed A.; Badr, Mohamad M.; Elfeky, Mohamed M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Dornier lithotripter S II system in the treatment of ureteral calculi. Patients and Methods: A total of 97 cases which consists of 54 males and 43 females with ureteral stones were treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Mean age was 42.6 years. Inclusion criteria were solitary radiopaque ureteral stones of radiological stone size of ?1 cm. The stones were not impacted, with normal kidney functions. Procedure time, number of shocks, energy used, number of sessions and complications were reported. The outcome of ESWL was also recorded. Results: Stones were in the abdominal (upper ureter) in 50% of patients, in pelvic (middle ureter) in 47% of patients. All patients had unilateral stones and the mean stone size in maximum length was) 10 mm). Good dye excretion passing the stone was noted in all patients. Mild hydronephrosis was found in 85% of cases. A total of 49 cases were treated by a single session, while in 35% of cases two sessions were enough and 16% received three sessions. The average number of shocks per session was 3125. The average number of shocks per patient was 5962.5 shocks and average energy was 204.3 Joules. The overall stone-free rate 3 months after lithotripsy was 94%. After a single session of lithotripsy, 49 patients (49%) became stone-free. Stone free rates after ESWL for upper, middle ureteral stones were 94%, 95.7% respectively. Additional procedures were needed in only 6 cases (6%) to render patients stone-free after lithotripsy. No serious complications occurred. Conclusion: The Dornier lithotripter S II is very effective in the treatment of ureteral calculi with no major complications. PMID:25371614

  7. Predictive parameters for medical expulsive therapy in ureteral stones: a critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Cahit; Eryildirim, Bilal; Kafkasli, Alper; Coskun, Alper; Tarhan, Fatih; Faydaci, Gokhan; Sarica, Kemal

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of some certain radiological as well as stone-related parameters for medical expulsive therapy (MET) success with an alpha blocker in ureteral stones. A total 129 patients receiving MET for 5 to 10 mm ureteral stones were evaluated. Patients were divided into two subgroups where MET was successful in 64 cases (49.61%) and unsuccessful in 65 cases (50.39%). Prior to management, stone size, location, position in the ureter, degree of hydronephrosis, diameter of ureteral lumen proximal to the stone, ureteral wall thickness along with patient's demographics including body mass index (BMI) values were evaluated and recorded. The possible predictive values of these parameters for stone expulsion (and stone expulsion time) were evaluated in a comparative manner between two groups. The overall mean patient age and stone size values were 38.02 ± 0.94 years and 40.31 ± 1.13 mm(2), respectively. Regarding the predictive values of these parameters for MET-success, while stone size and localization, degree of hydronephrosis, proximal ureteral diameter and ureteral wall thickness were found to be highly predictive for MET-success, patients age, BMI values and stone density had no predictive value on this aspect. Our findings indicated that some stone and anatomical factors may be used to predict the success of MET in an effective manner. With this approach unnecessary use of these drugs that may cause a delay for stone removal will be avoided and the possible adverse effects of obstruction as well as stone-related clinical symptoms could be minimized. PMID:25820291

  8. Results of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of gall bladder stones in 693 patients: a plea for restriction to solitary radiolucent stones.

    PubMed Central

    Elewaut, A; Crape, A; Afschrift, M; Pauwels, W; De Vos, M; Barbier, F

    1993-01-01

    During a period of 24 months 693 consecutive patients with symptomatic gall bladder stones (526 males, 167 females; mean age 51 years, range 18-89) were treated by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy with a Piezolith 2300. The procedure was carried out on an out-patient basis without analgesics or sedatives. Concomitant chemolitholytic treatment (ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acid 7.5 mg/kg/day each) was administered until three months after total fragment clearance for a maximum therapy period of 1.5 years. In 601 patients with radiolucent stones complete clearance of all fragments was obtained after three, six, 12, and 18 months in respectively 20, 41, 64, and 78%. Actuarial analysis of the subgroups according to the stone mass (size and number) selected an ideal patient population with solitary stones less than 20 mm diameter (84% stone free after one year). The results are significantly less good when the greater the number of stones or their maximal diameter increases. Treatment was interrupted in 3.6% of the patients. In 90 sludge or fragments remain present. Twenty five patients were lost to follow up for non-biliary reasons. Stone recurrence was 5.7% at one year and was observed both in patients with solitary and multiple stones. A cost effectiveness analysis suggests that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most effective and economic solution, although extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for solitary radiolucent stones less than 2 cm is cheaper than conventional cholecystectomy. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for multiple stones is the most expensive and least effective option. PMID:8432485

  9. Colorado Yule Marble; building stone of the Lincoln Memorial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, Elaine S.

    1999-01-01

    The Colorado Yule marble, quarried in Marble, Colo., is a very pure white marble, and it has been widely acclaimed for its quality and purity. This marble has been used for many prominent buildings; one of the most notable is the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., built nearly 80 years ago. Although most of the marble in the memorial appears to be in very good condition, some of the stones have developed pronounced surficial roughness and show a significant loss of carved details and rounded edges compared with adjacent stones. Because adjacent blocks of marble receive nearly identical exposure to weathering agents that cause deterioration of the marble, it seems very likely that this pronounced difference in durability of adjacent stones arises from some inherent characteristic of the marble. The Colorado Yule marble is a nearly pure calcite marble with minor inclusions of mica, quartz, and feldspar. Compositions of the calcite and the inclusion phases in the marble are typical for those phases. The calcite grains that compose the marble are irregularly shaped and range from 100 to 600 micrometers in diameter. The texture of the marble is even, with a slight preferred directional elongation that is visible when the marble is cut in certain directions. Physical tests of the marble show that its strength is comparable to that of other marbles typically used in buildings. Variations in the durability of the marble, like those seen at the Lincoln Memorial, are not related to variations in calcite composition or to the presence of inclusions in the marble. Most likely, the variations arise from differences in the calcite grain boundaries and the degree to which the grains interlock with one another. Weak grain boundaries that permit water or solutions to penetrate into the marble and dissolve the calcite grains at their edges cause the marble to disaggregate or ?sugar.? Subtle differences in texture that occur in the marble from various parts of the quarry probably cause some stones to be more susceptible to this form of deterioration. These differences may not be readily visible when the stone is freshly quarried.

  10. Monitoring of sediment transport processes using tracer stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redtenbacher, Matthias; Harb, Gabriele; Barbas, Teresa; Schneider, Josef

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades the vulnerability of our civilization to geomorphological damaging events like debris flows and exceptional floods increased. The reasons are, on one side, that the global hydrological cycle became more intense during the recent past and on the other side that the material assets of the population increased. Risk prevention, risk analysis and forecast methods thus became more important. Geomorphological processes are often not easy to analyse. To get information about the probability and the consequences of these increasing events, it is necessary to analyse the availability of sediments in the catchment area, the erosion processes of the sediment and the transport of the sediments along torrents. The project ClimCatch, which started in April 2012, investigates the torrential sediment transport processes in a non-glaciated Alpine valley in Austria and the related natural hazards under the viewpoint of the on-going climate change. Due to an extreme precipitation event in 2011 debris flow-similar discharges occurred in this catchment and since that the sediment sources are highly erodible there. The aims of the project are to derive a quantitative sediment budget model, including geomorphic process domains, determining sediment transport in the river system and the measurement of bed load output, besides others. To quantify river sediment dynamics several different methodologies are applied within the project. Discharge and sediment transport measurement as well as hydrological stations are installed in the catchment area. Aggradation and erosion are analysed by means of laser scanning technology in the sediment storage basin which is located at the outlet of the catchment. The observation and measurement of the sediment transport is performed by the application of radio telemetry stones and colour tracer stones. Line pebble counting, automated grain size determination using photographs and sieving on-site is performed to get qualitative sediment information. This contribution focuses on the application of the radio telemetry and colour tracer stones. More than 100 tracer stones have been released in two tributaries of the catchment. Tracer stones up to a grain diameter of 28 cm have been moved due to higher discharges at rainfall events. Their movement has been monitored and related to the measured discharge data.

  11. Granodiorite - one of the most significant Slovenian natural stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramar, Sabina; Trajanova, Mirka; Rogan-Šmuc, Nastja; Gutman, Maja; Bedjanič, Mojca; Mladenovič, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The paper provides a description of the petrographic and mechanical characteristics of granodiorite from the Pohorje Mountains (NE Slovenia) and of its use as a natural stone. This stone, which is a calc-alkaline igneous rock of Miocene age (18.7 Ma), is characterised by its grey colour and by its thick white aplite-pegmatite veins. It mainly consists of plagioclase, quartz, and K-feldspar, which are light coloured constituents, with biotite and a small amount of hornblende as dark coloured minerals. Some other minerals are found in traces, among which pyrite is considered to be the most problematic. However, due to the presence of a small amount of arsenic, the pyrite is quite stable and not prone to alteration. In Slovenia currently two quarries are located in granodiorite, both protected as valuable natural geological features; an active quarry at Cezlak which is the largest quarry in magmatic rocks in Slovenia and the abandoned quarry in Josipdol. Granodiorite is considered the highest quality natural stone in Slovenia. It is characterised by high density, low water absorption, and low open porosity, so that it exhibits high frost and salt resistance, as well as a high compressive strength and an extremely high flexural strength, which is due to its pronounced oriented structure. It is widely recognized throughout Slovenia by its durability and its decorative white veins, and is currently the most frequently used natural stone in Slovenia. It is mainly used as paving and cladding material for residential buildings, churches, and other structures, as well as for squares, thus giving a special character to many of Slovenia's largest towns and cities. Several important buildings are decorated by means of this stone, such as the Slovenian Parliament, the Republic Square business complex, the Maximarket department store, and the Faculty of Law of the University of Ljubljana, all of which are located in Ljubljana, some of them having been declared as cultural monuments of national importance. Since 1940 granodiorite has also been widely used by sculptors for various monuments and fountains. An unusual type of degradation of cladding panels, in the form of bowing, was detected on the façades of the above-mentioned Maximarket, which was constructed in 1971. This phenomenon is one among the very few documented cases of the bowing of magmatic rocks.

  12. Noncontrast computed tomography can predict the outcome of shockwave lithotripsy via accurate stone measurement and abdominal fat distribution determination.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jiun-Hung; Tu, Hung-Pin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Jang, Mei-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jen; Li, Ching-Chia; Chou, Yii-Her; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease of the urinary system. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) has become one of the standard treatments for renal and ureteral stones; however, the success rates range widely and failure of stone disintegration may cause additional outlay, alternative procedures, and even complications. We used the data available from noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCCT) to evaluate the impact of stone parameters and abdominal fat distribution on calculus-free rates following SWL. We retrospectively reviewed 328 patients who had urinary stones and had undergone SWL from August 2012 to August 2013. All of them received pre-SWL NCCT; 1 month after SWL, radiography was arranged to evaluate the condition of the fragments. These patients were classified into stone-free group and residual stone group. Unenhanced computed tomography variables, including stone attenuation, abdominal fat area, and skin-to-stone distance (SSD) were analyzed. In all, 197 (60%) were classified as stone-free and 132 (40%) as having residual stone. The mean ages were 49.3513.22 years and 55.3213.52 years, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, stone size, stone surface area, stone attenuation, SSD, total fat area (TFA), abdominal circumference, serum creatinine, and the severity of hydronephrosis revealed statistical significance between these two groups. From multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent parameters impacting SWL outcomes were stone size, stone attenuation, TFA, and serum creatinine. [Adjusted odds ratios and (95% confidence intervals): 9.49 (3.72-24.20), 2.25 (1.22-4.14), 2.20 (1.10-4.40), and 2.89 (1.35-6.21) respectively, all p<0.05]. In the present study, stone size, stone attenuation, TFA and serum creatinine were four independent predictors for stone-free rates after SWL. These findings suggest that pretreatment NCCT may predict the outcomes after SWL. Consequently, we can use these predictors for selecting the optimal treatment for patients with urinary stones. PMID:25600918

  13. Bacteriological study and structural composition of staghorn stones removed by the anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedure.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Hamid; Shahandeh, Zahra; Heidari, Behzad; Sedigiani, Farahnaz; Ramaji, Arsalan Ali; Pasha, Yousef Reza Yousefnia; Kassaeian, Ali Akbar; Pasha, Abazar Akbarzadeh; Mir, Mir Muhammad Reza Aghajani

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the composition of staghorn stones and to assess the proportion of infected stones as well as the correlation between infection in the stones and bacteria grown in urine. Samples of 45 consecutive stones removed through anatrophic nephrolithotomic procedures were taken from the operation site and samples of urine were obtained by simultaneous bladder catheterization. The frequency of infection in the stones and correlation between infection of stone and urine samples were determined with respect to the composition of the stones. Twenty-two males and 23 females, with respective mean ages of 48.3 15.6 years and 51 7.4 years, were studied. The stone and urine cultures yielded positive results in ten and 16 patients, respectively, of a total of 45 patients (22.2% and 35.5%, respectively). Calcium oxalate was the main constituent of staghorn stones, seen in 31 patients (68.8%), uric acid in 12 patients (26.6%) and struvite and/or calcium phosphate in 11 patients (24.4%). In seven of ten stones with bacterial growth, bacteria were isolated from urine cultures as well, which accounted for a concordance rate of 70%. The bacteria grown in the stone were the cause of urinary tract infection (UTI) in 43.5% of the cases. Stone infection was significantly associated with UTI (OR = 6.47; 95% CI 1.43-31.7, P = 0.021) and presence of phosphate in the stones (OR = 18, 95% CI 3.28-99.6, P = 0.0006). E. coli was the most common bacteria grown from the stones, and was isolated in 50% of the cases; Ureaplasma urealyticum was the most common organism causing UTI, grown in 62.5% of the urine samples. There was a high concordance rate between bacteria in the stones and urine. These findings indicate that the urine culture can provide information for selection of an appropriate anti-microbial agent for stone sterilization. In addition, preventing re-growth or recurrence of stones and treatment of post-surgical infections would be facilitated based on the results of the urine culture. PMID:23538378

  14. [Studies on urolithiasis. The histochemistry of the kidney tissues and stones from patients with urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Tsai, S

    1986-01-01

    In this study, 17 kidney tissue specimens and 29 renal stones were obtained from patients with urolithiasis. Control kidney specimens were dissected from 7 individuals not suffering from urolithiasis. The tissue specimens were fixed with 1% cetylpiridinium chloride (CPC) in 10% formalin (for 24 hours at room temperature). Then the kidney tissue specimens were embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin for general observation as well as histochemically for demonstration of complex carbohydrates. Also, stone specimens were embedded in epon and thin sections made by the mineral polishing specimen preparation, and stained along with the kidney tissues. For identifying individual acidic and neutral carbohydrates, the enzyme digestion was performed for some tissue sections prior to histochemical staining. The stone-forming kidney tissues, normal kidney tissues and urinary stones (calcium oxalate, mixed, struvite) contained some glycosaminoglycans and neutral glycoproteins, but uric acid stones and cystine stones did not. The results of digestion with enzymes indicated that calcium oxalate stone-forming kidney tissue contains heparitin (heparan) sulfate; mixed stone-forming tissue contains sialic acid, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate A, B, C and heparitin (heparan) sulfate; struvite stone-forming tissue contains sialic acid, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate A, C and heparitin (heparan) sulfate; and cystine stone-forming tissue contains sialic acid, chondroitin sulfate A, C and heparitin (heparan) sulfate. The stone organic matrix is classified into the amorphous and stratiform types. The amorphous type matrix contains chondroitin sulfate A, B, C and heparitin (heparan) sulfate, and the stratiform type matrix also contains sialic acid and hyaluronic acid. The stone-forming kidney tissues, normal kidney tissues and stones (calcium oxalate, mixed, struvite) contain an appreciable amount of alpha-D-glucose, alpha-D-mannose and beta-D-galactose, but the uric acid stones and cystine stones do not contain sugar residues. Since the specific glycosaminoglycan composition differed for kidneys of different mineral content and stones of different morphological type, we believe that some glycosaminoglycans in kidneys and amorphous type matrix might play the role of a nucleating agent, and that a stratiform type matrix encourages stone enlargement. PMID:2938457

  15. Kidney stone risk following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Ricardo D.

    2014-01-01

    Since the first report in 2005, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery has been linked to a variety of metabolic changes that alter kidney stone risk. The studies with the highest level of evidence, performed in non-stone forming patients before and after RYGB, cite a number of kidney stone risk factors, including a 25% increase in urinary oxalate, a 30% decrease in urinary citrate, and reduction in urine volume by half a liter. In addition to these, recent clinical and experimental studies have contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of stone disease in this unique population. This review summarizes the current RYGB urinary chemistry profiles and epidemiological studies, outlines known and theoretical mechanisms of hyperoxaluria and hypocitrituria, and provides some standard recommendations for reducing stone risk in RYGB stone formers as well as some novel ones, including correction of metabolic acidosis and use of probiotics. PMID:25473624

  16. Numerical analysis of soft clay performance reinforced by geosynthetics encased stone columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Nabil M.

    2013-10-01

    To improve the behavior of stone columns, the Geosynthetics is used for encasing the stone column as reinforcement material. The Geosynthetics Encased Stone Column (GESC) system has been developed to increase the confinement effect of the ordinary stone columns, and consequently to improve the load carrying capacity of stone columns. In this paper, finite element based numerical study has been carried out using ABAQUS program to study the performance of the GESC systems under different conditions. The influences of some effective parameters were studied to show the improvement in soil bearing and settlement decrease for the stone column-soil system. These include the column dimensions, the encasement stiffness and shear strength of the foundation soil.

  17. [Kidney stone formation during space flight and long-term bed rest].

    PubMed

    Okada, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Jun; Tozawa, Keiichi

    2011-10-01

    Microgravity environment like space flight or a condition requiring long-term bed-rest increase bone resorption and decrease bone formation, inducing the rapid decrease of bone minerals to osteoporosis. Bone mineral loss increases urinary calcium excretion and the risk of urinary stone formation. To clarify the influence of the conditions on renal stone formation, a 90-day bed rest test was performed to analyze the mechanism of microgravity or bed rest-induced stone formation and prevention by bisphosphonate medication and bed-rest exercise. As the results, renal stone formation was observed in control and exercise groups and no stone was seen in the medication group. In the medication group, urinary calcium excretion and relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate were lower than in the control group throughout the bed-rest and recovery period. Bisphosphonate is useful for the prevention of renal stone formation during space flight and long-term bed-rest. PMID:21960236

  18. Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worcester, Elaine M.

    2007-04-01

    Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

  19. EVALUATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC FORCE ON SOLIDLY CONNECTED NATURAL STONE AND PROPOSAL OF ITS DESIGN METHOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaseguma, Kimiko; Maeno, Shiro; Tamagawa, Katsuya; Yamamura, Akira

    In recent years, it has become necessary to develop suitable methods for restoring natural rivers. The authors have examined more nature-friendly hydraulic structures made of connected natural stones. Although such structures are excellent in environmental aspects, design standards for such structures have not been established yet because the structures comprise natural stones with various shapes. Furthermore, the design flow velocity is not clarified when the proposed connected natural stones were used as a groin and other hydraulic structures. At present, 1.2-1.5 times large velocity of the representative mean velocity is used as the design velocity. Therefore, in this study, the hydrodynamic force for solidly connected natural stones, and the velocity field around such structures were examined experimentally. Experimental results clarified not only the hydraulic characteristics of the flow around the groin, but also the drag and lift coefficients of the connected stone. An efficient design method for the solidly connected stone was proposed.

  20. Nonoperative options for management of residual stones after cholecystostomy in high-risk patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, David M.; Daye, S. S.; Lincer, R. M.

    1993-05-01

    Cholecystostomy is frequently performed to obtain control of sepsis in high risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Retained stones in the gallbladder may cause future clinical problems. We present two patients with cholecystostomy tubes managed non-operatively. A review of other reported methods for stone extraction or destruction is also presented. Knowledge of safe and effective techniques for removal of these stones, using minimally invasive techniques is useful to the general surgeon.