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Sample records for surgical oncology patients

  1. Quality of sleep in postoperative surgical oncologic patients.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Elizabeth; Sawada, Namie Okino; Sonobe, Helena Megumi; Zago, Márcia Maria Fontão

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate surgical-oncologic patients' quality of sleep through the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire. It is an exploratory study with transversal-observational design, in 46 postoperative head & neck and urology cancer patients. The PSQI questionnaire was used to evaluate the subjective quality of sleep and the occurrence of sleep disorders. Six PSQI components were statistically significant and 78.3% of the interviewees had impaired subjective quality of sleep. Among factors leading to sleep disorders we point out: taking too long to fall asleep; waking up in the middle of the night; getting up to go to the bathroom and napping during the day. This study is expected to sensitize the nursing team regarding the need to investigate quality of sleep and causes of its disorders in cancer survivors for an effective course of action. PMID:19820854

  2. Nutrition support in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A

    2009-01-01

    This review article, the second in a series of articles to examine the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition support in surgical oncology patients. Cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may be indicated in malnourished cancer patients undergoing surgery, depending on individual patient characteristics. As with the first article in this series, this article provides background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients, as well as discusses the role of nutrition support in the care of surgical cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the clinical guidelines as they relate to recommendations made for surgical patients, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequently published studies. PMID:19605805

  3. Decision making in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Lamb, B; Green, J S A; Vincent, C; Sevdalis, N

    2011-09-01

    Decisions in surgical oncology are increasingly being made by multi-disciplinary teams (MDTs). Although MDTs have been widely accepted as the preferred model for cancer service delivery, the process of decision making has not been well described and there is little evidence pointing to the ideal structure of an MDT. Performance in surgery has been shown to depend on non-technical skills, such as decision making, as well as patient factors and the technical skills of the healthcare team. Application of this systems approach to MDT working allows the identification of factors that affect the quality of decision making for cancer patients. In this article we review the literature on decision making in surgical oncology and by drawing from the systems approach to surgical performance we provide a framework for understanding the process of decision making in MDTs. Technical factors that affect decision making include the information about patients, robust ICT and video-conferencing equipment, a minimum dataset with expert review of radiological and pathological information, implementation and recording of the MDTs decision. Non-technical factors with an impact on decision making include attendance of team members at meetings, leadership, teamwork, open discussion, consensus on decisions and communication with patients and primary care. Optimising these factors will strengthen the decision making process and raise the quality of care for cancer patients. PMID:20719499

  4. [Surgical oncology: historical development and current status].

    PubMed

    Granados García, Martín; Beltrán Ortega, Arturo; Soto Sánchez, Beatriz Lucero; León Takahashi, Alberto Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The surgical oncology remains an essential part in the multidisciplinary management for patients with cancer, even though the current progress in field of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, systemic therapies, including therapies directed to molecular targets. Their role impact in several moments during the management of an oncological patient: prevention, diagnosis, assessment of the spread of the disease, curative treatment, management of the sequels, complications by the treatment and not less important, the palliation. The current state of the surgical oncology as a result of a constant development, inspired by skillful hands with creative and restless minds, have achieved to mark the history of the medicine in an area which currently has a great transcendence and an accelerated growth in a short period of time. Under this argument, we have decided to present an updated overview about the role of the surgical oncology, from the evolution through the history until all their applications in the different areas of the oncology. PMID:22116189

  5. Current Management of Surgical Oncologic Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Bosscher, Marianne R. F.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC). In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisciplinary discussion is often not available. In this study, the management and short term outcome of patients after surgical oncologic emergency consultation was analyzed. Method A prospective registration and follow up of adult patients with surgical oncologic emergencies between 01-11-2013 and 30-04-2014. The follow up period was 30 days. Results In total, 207 patients with surgical oncologic emergencies were included. Postoperative wound infections, malignant obstruction, and clinical deterioration due to progressive disease were the most frequent conditions for surgical oncologic emergency consultation. During the follow up period, 40% of patients underwent surgery. The median number of involved medical specialties was two. Only 30% of all patients were discussed in a MCC within 30 days after emergency consultation, and only 41% of the patients who underwent surgery were discussed in a MCC. For 79% of these patients, the surgical procedure was performed before the MCC. Mortality within 30 days was 13%. Conclusion In most cases, surgery occurred without discussing the patient in a MCC, regardless of the fact that multiple medical specialties were involved in the treatment process. There is a need for prognostic aids and acute oncology pathways with structural multidisciplinary management. These will provide in faster institution of the most appropriate personalized cancer care, and prevent unnecessary investigations or invasive therapy. PMID:25933135

  6. The Prevalence of HIV in Cancer Patients at the Surgical Oncology Unit of Donka University Hospital of Conakry (Guinea)

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Bangaly; Bah, Thierno Souleymane; Traore, Fode Amara; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Diane, Solomana; Keita, Mamady; Cisse, Mohamed; Koulibaly, Moussa; Camara, Naby Daouda

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To determine the prevalence of HIV infection among patients seen at the surgical oncology unit of Donka (Conakry, Guinea). Method. We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study of HIV infection in cancer patients from May 2007 to December 2012. Social characteristics (age, gender, marital status, and education) and immune status (HIV type, CD4 count) were reviewed. Results. Out of 2598 cancer patients, 54 (2.1%) tested positive for HIV. There were 11 (20.4%) defining AIDS and 43 (79.6%) nondefining AIDS cancers. The most frequent cancers were breast (14) (26.0%), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6) (11.1%), liver (6) (11.1%), eye and annexes (6) (11.1%), and cervical cancer (5) (9.3%). These patients were female in 34 (63.0%) and had a median age of 39 years and body mass index was 20,3 Kg/m2. They were unschooled in 40 (74.1%) and married in 35 (64.8%). CD4 count showed a median of 317 cells/mL. Antiretroviral treatment was performed in 40 (74.1%). Conclusion. HIV prevalence is higher in patients in our unit of surgical oncology. Breast cancer was the most common in this association. A national survey of a large sample is needed to determine the true prevalence and impact of HIV on cancer prognosis. PMID:26770197

  7. [Chromolymphography in the oncological surgical clinic].

    PubMed

    Remizov, A L; Bokham, Ia V; Vasil'ev, B V; Stukov, A N; Tobilevich, V P

    1978-05-01

    A new Soviet preparation for colour lymphography--chromolymphotrast--is presented in this paper. Radiopaque lymphography with the use of chromolymphotrast was carried out upon more than 50 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix and of the body of the womb. Besides, there is information concerning a successful use of the chromolymphotrast in cases of cancer of the vulva, mammary gland and rectum. Colour lymphography with the use of chromolymphotrast contributes to a more complete removal of lymphatic collectors. After a preliminary lymphography surgical interventions have acquired a radical character in 93.6% of operations on lymphatic nodes, thus adding to a decrease of the incidence rate of regional recurrences. The national medical industry has proceeded to the production of the preparation, which builds up the conditions for a broad use of colour radiopaque lymphography in oncology. PMID:664167

  8. Intraoperative OCT in Surgical Oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    South, Fredrick A.; Marjanovic, Marina; Boppart, Stephen A.

    The global incidence of cancer is rising, putting an increasingly heavy burden upon health care. The need to effectively detect and treat cancer is one of the most significant problems faced in health care today. Effective cancer treatment typically depends upon early detection and, for most solid tumors, successful removal of the cancerous tumor tissue via surgical procedures. Difficulties arise when attempting to differentiate between normal and tumor tissue during surgery. Unaided visual examination of the tissue provides only superficial, low-resolution information and often with little visual contrast. Many imaging modalities widely used for cancer screening and diagnostics are of limited use in the operating room due to low spatial resolution. OCT provides cellular resolution allowing for more precise localization of the tumor tissue. It is also relatively inexpensive and highly portable, making it well suited for intraoperative applications.

  9. Length of Stay in Ambulatory Surgical Oncology Patients at High Risk for Sleep Apnea as Predicted by STOP-BANG Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Faiz, Saadia A.; Hernandez, Mike; Bashoura, Lara; Cherian, Sujith V.; French, Katy E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The STOP-BANG questionnaire has been used to identify surgical patients at risk for undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by classifying patients as low risk (LR) if STOP-BANG score < 3 or high risk (HR) if STOP-BANG score ≥ 3. Few studies have examined whether postoperative complications are increased in HR patients and none have been described in oncologic patients. Objective. This retrospective study examined if HR patients experience increased complications evidenced by an increased length of stay (LOS) in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Methods. We retrospectively measured LOS and the frequency of oxygen desaturation (<93%) in cancer patients who were given the STOP-BANG questionnaire prior to cystoscopy for urologic disease in an ambulatory surgery center. Results. The majority of patients in our study were men (77.7%), over the age of 50 (90.1%), and had BMI < 30 kg/m2 (88.4%). STOP-BANG results were obtained on 404 patients. Cumulative incidence of the time to discharge between HR and the LR groups was plotted. By 8 hours, LR patients showed a higher cumulative probability of being discharged early (80% versus 74%, P = 0.008). Conclusions. Urologic oncology patients at HR for OSA based on the STOP-BANG questionnaire were less likely to be discharged early from the PACU compared to LR patients. PMID:27610133

  10. Length of Stay in Ambulatory Surgical Oncology Patients at High Risk for Sleep Apnea as Predicted by STOP-BANG Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Balachandran, Diwakar D; Faiz, Saadia A; Hernandez, Mike; Kowalski, Alicia M; Bashoura, Lara; Goravanchi, Farzin; Cherian, Sujith V; Rebello, Elizabeth; Kee, Spencer S; French, Katy E

    2016-01-01

    Background. The STOP-BANG questionnaire has been used to identify surgical patients at risk for undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by classifying patients as low risk (LR) if STOP-BANG score < 3 or high risk (HR) if STOP-BANG score ≥ 3. Few studies have examined whether postoperative complications are increased in HR patients and none have been described in oncologic patients. Objective. This retrospective study examined if HR patients experience increased complications evidenced by an increased length of stay (LOS) in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). Methods. We retrospectively measured LOS and the frequency of oxygen desaturation (<93%) in cancer patients who were given the STOP-BANG questionnaire prior to cystoscopy for urologic disease in an ambulatory surgery center. Results. The majority of patients in our study were men (77.7%), over the age of 50 (90.1%), and had BMI < 30 kg/m(2) (88.4%). STOP-BANG results were obtained on 404 patients. Cumulative incidence of the time to discharge between HR and the LR groups was plotted. By 8 hours, LR patients showed a higher cumulative probability of being discharged early (80% versus 74%, P = 0.008). Conclusions. Urologic oncology patients at HR for OSA based on the STOP-BANG questionnaire were less likely to be discharged early from the PACU compared to LR patients. PMID:27610133

  11. The future of trials in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Naredi, Peter; La Quaglia, Michael P

    2015-07-01

    Patients with cancer generally have better outcomes when treated as part of a clinical trial compared with patients not enrolled in a clinical trial. Unfortunately, surgical participation in, and leadership of such studies, is limited. This lack of clinical investigation is adversely affecting progress in cancer surgery research and, ultimately, hinders the treatment of patients. Some of the reasons for poor surgical participation in clinical research include: limitations on funding provision; inadequate training of junior surgeons in clinical trials methodology; and inadequate support of surgical faculty members as clinical investigators. Despite these shortcomings, numerous successful surgical studies have helped to change concepts, and improve patient care in certain clinical areas. Finally, a number of possible solutions are proposed, which might improve surgical involvement in clinical trials and result in more, and better-designed and executed clinical trials in this important area of research. PMID:25869462

  12. Patient education and pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Kramer, R F; Perin, G

    1985-03-01

    An overview is provided of important principles and content useful in planning educational programs for pediatric oncology patients and their families. Implementation considerations, such as assessment of the learner, selection of appropriate teaching methods, and problems with the selection process are addressed. PMID:2579366

  13. Fighting Global Disparities in Cancer Care: A Surgical Oncology View.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Harald J; Wobbes, Theo; Heineman, Erik; Haryono, Samuel; Aryandono, Teguh; Balch, Charles M

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally after cardiovascular disease. Long-term cancer survival has improved in the Western world due to early detection and the use of effective combined treatment modalities, as well as the development of effective immunotherapy and drug-targeted therapy. Surgery is still the mainstay for most solid tumors; however, low- and middle-income countries are facing an increasing lack of primary surgical care for easily treatable conditions, including breast, colon, and head and neck cancers. In this paper, a surgical oncology view is presented to elaborate how the Western surgical oncologist can take part in the 'surgical fight' against global disparities in cancer care, and a plea is made to strive for structural solutions, such as a partnership in surgical oncology training. The pros and cons of the use of eHealth and mHealth technologies and education programs for schools and the community are discussed as these create an opportunity to reach a large portion of the population in these countries, at low cost and with high impact. PMID:27038459

  14. [Rethinking clinical research in surgical oncology. From comic opera to quality control].

    PubMed

    Evrard, Serge

    2016-01-01

    The evidence base for the effectiveness of surgical interventions is relatively poor and data from large, randomized prospective studies are rare with often a poor quality. Many efforts have been made to increase the number of high quality randomized trials in surgery and theoretical proposals have been put forward to improve the situation, but practical implementation of these proposals is seriously lacking. The consequences of this policy are not trivial; with very few patients included in surgical oncology trials, this represents wasted opportunity for advances in cancer treatment. In this review, we cover the difficulties inherent to clinical research in surgical oncology, such as quality control, equipoise, accrual, and funding and promote alternative designs to the randomized controlled trial. Although the classic randomized controlled trial has a valid but limited place in surgical oncology, other prospective designs need to be promoted as a new deal. This new deal not only implicates surgeons but also journal editors, tender jury, as well as regulatory bodies to cover legal gaps currently surrounding surgical innovation. PMID:26610367

  15. The ON-Q pain management system in elective gynecology oncologic surgery: Management of postoperative surgical site pain compared to intravenous patient-controlled analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Dawn; Lee, Yoo Jin; Jo, Mi Hyun; Park, Hyun Jong; Lim, Ga Won; Cho, Hanbyoul; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Young Tae

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to compare postoperative surgical site pain in gynecologic cancer patients who underwent elective extended lower midline laparotomy and managed their pain with either the ON-Q pain management system (surgical incision site pain relief system, ON-Q pump) or an intravenous patient-controlled analgesia pump (IV PCA). Methods Twenty gynecologic cancer patients who underwent elective extended lower midline laparotomy were divided into two groups. One group received a 72-hour continuous wound perfusion of the local anesthetic ropivacaine (0.5%, study group) into the supraperitoneal layer of the abdominal incision through the ON-Q pump. The other group received intravenous infusion pump of patient-controlled analgesia (fentanyl citrate 20 mg/mL · kg+ondansetron hydrochloride 16 mg/8 mL+normal saline). Postoperative pain was assessed immediately and at 6, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after surgery using the visual analogue scale. Results Postoperative surgical site pain scores at 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery were lower in the ON-Q group than the IV PCA group. Pain scores at 24 hours and 48 hours after surgery were significantly different between the two groups (P=0.023, P<0.001). Overall painkiller administration was higher in the ON-Q group but this difference was not statistically significant (5.1 vs. 4.3, P=0.481). Conclusion This study revealed that the ON-Q pain management system is a more effective approach than IV PCA for acute postoperative surgical site pain relief after extended lower midline laparotomy in gynecologic cancer patients. PMID:24327987

  16. Oncological and surgical outcome of total laryngectomy in combination with neck dissection in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Teymoortash, Afshin; Bohne, Franziska; Kissing, Lena; Daniel, Hanna; Kurt, Bilgen; Wilhelm, Thomas; Halmos, Gyorgy B; Hoch, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    There are controversial data on oncological and surgical outcome after major head and neck cancer surgery in the elderly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of elderly cancer patients after total laryngectomy in combination with neck dissection. A total of 58 patients separated into two age groups (28 < 65 vs. 30 ≥ 65 years) with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer who underwent total laryngectomy and neck dissection were enrolled. Comorbidities of both age groups using the Charlson comorbidity index, hospitalization days as well as surgical complications evaluated by the Clavien-Dindo classification were examined. Overall and disease-free survivals of all patients were analyzed. The average follow-up was 2.9 years. Surgical complication rate was significantly increased in elderly (p = 0.04). However, complications could be treated without surgical intervention in most cases without significant extension of hospitalization. Locoregional and distant control did not significantly differ in both age groups. Disease-free and overall survival showed no significant differences for the two age groups by the Kaplan-Meier analysis (p = 0.66 and 0.08, respectively). Total laryngectomy in combination with neck dissection can be considered in elderly patients with satisfactory oncological and surgical outcome. PMID:26972426

  17. The impact of sarcopenia on survival and complications in surgical oncology: A review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, Savita; Nau, Peter N; Mezhir, James J

    2015-10-01

    Sarcopenia is the subclinical loss of skeletal muscle and strength and has been extensively studied in both the cancer and surgical literature. Specifically, sarcopenia has gained significant recognition as an important prognostic factor for both complications and survival in cancer patients. Herein, we review the current literature to date highlighting the specific impact of sarcopenia in patients undergoing oncologic procedures. PMID:26310812

  18. Thyroid Disorders in the Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid disease and cancer diagnoses are common conditions likely to coexist. Optimal management requires appropriate diagnostic testing and consideration of a number of factors, including overall health status and prognosis. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can lead to a number of symptoms that may affect not only quality of life but can interfere with the patient's ability to tolerate cancer treatment. Imaging studies performed for cancer staging can identify incidental structural abnormalities in the thyroid, which should be assessed with dedicated neck ultrasonography and possibly fine-needle aspiration. Incidental thyroid cancer is most often less urgent than the patient's presenting malignancy and can be addressed surgically when appropriate in the context of other treatments (i.e., chemotherapy). Providers working in an oncology setting, as well as primary care providers, should be aware of medications that are associated with hormonal abnormalities. Any patient with a history of neck or brain radiation therapy is at risk of developing hypothyroidism and possibly other endocrinopathies. Complex or very ill patients may benefit from a multidisciplinary approach that utilizes the experience of a knowledgeable endocrinologist. PMID:26649243

  19. Evaluation of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Universal Surgical Risk Calculator for a gynecologic oncology service

    PubMed Central

    Szender, J. Brian; Frederick, Peter J.; Eng, Kevin H.; Akers, Stacey N.; Lele, Shashikant B.; Odunsi, Kunle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) is aimed at preventing perioperative complications. An online calculator was recently published but the primary studies used limited gynecologic surgery data. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of the NSQIP Universal Surgical Risk Calculator (URC) on the patients of a gynecologic oncology service. Study Design We reviewed 628 consecutive surgeries performed by our gynecologic oncology service between July 2012 and June 2013. Demographic data including diagnosis and cancer stage, if applicable, were collected. Charts were reviewed to determine complication rates. Specific complications were: death, pneumonia, cardiac complications, surgical site or urinary infections (SSI, UTI), renal failure, or thromboemboli (VTE). Data were compared with modeled outcomes using Brier scores and ROC curves. Significance was declared based on p < 0.05. Results The model accurately predicated death and VTE, with Brier scores of 0.004 and 0.003, respectively. Predicted risk was 50% greater than experienced for UTI; the experienced SSI and pneumonia rates were 43% and 36% greater than predicted. For any complication, the Brier score, 0.023, indicates poor performance of the model. Conclusions In this study of gynecologic surgeries, we could not verify the predictive value of the URC for cardiac complications, SSI, and pneumonia. One disadvantage of applying a URC to multiple subspecialties is that with some categories, complications are not accurately estimated. Our data demonstrate that some predicted risks reported by the calculator need to be interpreted with reservation. PMID:25628106

  20. Robotic surgery in gynecologic oncology: evolution of a new surgical paradigm.

    PubMed

    Boggess, John F

    2007-01-01

    Robotic surgical platforms were first developed with telesurgery in mind. Conceptualized by NASA and the military to provide surgical expertise to remote locations, some telesurgical success has been documented, but progress has been held back by communication bandwidth limitations. Telepresence surgery, where the surgeon is in proximity to the patient but is provided with an ergonomic console equipped with three-dimensional vision and autonomous control of wristed laparoscopic surgical instruments and energy sources, has shown efficacy first in cardiac and then urologic cancer surgery. Interest is currently focused on the application of this technology in the field of gynecology, with techniques being described to perform simple hysterectomy, myomectomy, tubal anastomosis, and pelvic reconstruction procedures. This article will review the application of robotic- and computer-assisted surgery in the specialty of gynecologic oncology. PMID:25484936

  1. Thyroid Disorders in the Oncology Patient

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Kari

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid disease and cancer diagnoses are common conditions likely to coexist. Optimal management requires appropriate diagnostic testing and consideration of a number of factors, including overall health status and prognosis. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism can lead to a number of symptoms that may affect not only quality of life but can interfere with the patient’s ability to tolerate cancer treatment. Imaging studies performed for cancer staging can identify incidental structural abnormalities in the thyroid, which should be assessed with dedicated neck ultrasonography and possibly fine-needle aspiration. Incidental thyroid cancer is most often less urgent than the patient’s presenting malignancy and can be addressed surgically when appropriate in the context of other treatments (i.e., chemotherapy). Providers working in an oncology setting, as well as primary care providers, should be aware of medications that are associated with hormonal abnormalities. Any patient with a history of neck or brain radiation therapy is at risk of developing hypothyroidism and possibly other endocrinopathies. Complex or very ill patients may benefit from a multidisciplinary approach that utilizes the experience of a knowledgeable endocrinologist. PMID:26649243

  2. A Review of the Effectiveness of Breast Surgical Oncology Fellowship Programs Utilizing Kirkpatrick's Evaluation Model.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jory S; Scheer, A S

    2016-09-01

    It has been 10 years since the first class of Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO) fellowship trained Breast Surgical Oncologist entered practice. To date, there has been no publications examining the effectiveness of these training programs that are today throughout North America and Europe. This evaluative review examines the effectiveness of these fellowship training programs through the lens of the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model. An extensive review of the literature was performed, and articles were categorized to capture how fellows are reacting to the program, what they are learning, and how the program is effecting their career path and impacting their patients. We can conclude that there is both direct and indirect evidence to support the effectiveness of this training program, but there is a paucity of direct evidence as one progresses from a level 1 Kirkpatrick analysis to a level 4. This review sets the framework for program evaluation in surgical fellowships and should encourage stakeholders to constantly evaluate the impact their program is having on trainees and oncology patients. PMID:26058681

  3. Surgical care quality and oncologic outcome after D2 gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mrena, Johanna; Mattila, Anne; Böhm, Jan; Jantunen, Ismo; Kellokumpu, Ilmo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine the quality of surgical care and long-term oncologic outcome after D2 gastrectomy for gastric cancer. METHODS: From 1999 to 2008, a total of 109 consecutive patients underwent D2 gastrectomy without routine pancreaticosplenectomy in a multimodal setting at our institution. Oncologic outcomes together with clinical and histopathologic data were analyzed in relation to the type of surgery performed. Staging was carried out according to the Union for International Cancer Control criteria of 2002. Patients were followed-up for five years at the outpatient clinic. The primary measure of outcome was long-term survival with the quality of surgery as a secondary outcome measure. Clinical data were retrospectively collected from the patient records, and causes of death were obtained from national registries. RESULTS: A total of 109 patients (58 men) with a mean age of 67.4 ± 11.2 years underwent total gastrectomy or gastric resection with D2 lymph node dissection. The tumor stage distribution was as follows: stage I, (27/109) 24.8%; stage II, (31/109) 28.4%; stage III, (41/109) 37.6%; and stage IV, (10/109) 9.2%. Forty patients (36.7%) received chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. The five-year overall survival rate for all 109 patients was 45.0%, and was 47.1% for the 104 patients treated with curative R0 resection. The five-year disease-specific survival rates were 53.0% and 55.8%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, body mass index and tumor stage were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (both P < 0.01), whereas body mass index, tumor stage, tumor site, Lauren classification, and lymph node invasion were prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival (all P < 0.05). Postoperative 30-d mortality was 1.8% and 30-d, surgical (including three anastomotic leaks, two of which were treated conservatively), and general morbidities were 26.6%, 12.8%, and 14.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: D2 dissection is a safe surgical option for gastric

  4. Oncological and Functional Outcome after Surgical Treatment of Early Glottic Carcinoma without Anterior Commissure Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Milovanovic, Jovica; Jotic, Ana; Djukic, Vojko; Pavlovic, Bojan; Trivic, Aleksandar; Krejovic-Trivic, Sanja; Milovanovic, Andjela; Milovanovic, Aleksandar; Artiko, Vera; Banko, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Glottic carcinoma can be successfully diagnosed in its early stages and treated with high percentage of success. Organ preservation and optimal functional outcomes could be achieved with wide array of surgical techniques for early glottic cancer, including endoscopic approaches or open laryngeal preserving procedures, making surgery the preferred method of treatment of early glottic carcinoma in the last few years. Material and Methods. Prospective study was done on 59 patients treated for Tis and T1a glottic carcinoma over a one-year time period in a tertiary medical center. Patients were treated with endoscopic laser cordectomy (types II–IV cordectomies according to European Laryngological Society classification of endoscopic cordectomies) and open cordectomy through laryngofissure. Follow-up period was 60 months. Clinical and oncological results were followed postoperatively. Voice quality after the treatment was assessed using multidimensional voice analysis 12 months after the treatment. Results. There were no significant differences between oncological and functional results among two groups of patients, though complications were more frequent in patients treated with open cordectomy. Conclusion. Endoscopic laser surgery should be the first treatment of choice in treatment of early glottic carcinomas, though open approach through laryngofissure should be available for selected cases where anatomical factors present limiting adequate tumor removal. PMID:24991554

  5. EDUCATIONAL SECTION: risk analysis in surgical oncology-part I: concepts and tools.

    PubMed

    Rew, D A

    2000-09-01

    All clinical procedures invoke risk. Many interventions in cancer management carry a particularly high element of risk, expressed through morbidity and premature death. Formal risk analysis is a discipline which is fundamental to engineering, to finance, to the airline industry and many other sectors of public life. Clinical risk analysis involves risk prediction, risk management and risk avoidance. Risk analysis is rarely invoked or taught in the clinical sciences, and management appraisals on individual patients almost never include a formal estimate of risk. Clinical decisions tend to be guided by qualitative judgements, and by the personality interactions of patients and clinicians. A formal evaluation of risk on a case by case and procedural basis might reduce morbidity and cost in surgical oncology practice. This article introduces the concepts, the spectrum and history of risk analysis and the tools for risk prediction. PMID:11034813

  6. Nuclear oncology: From genotype to patient care

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Nuclear medicine is the medical specialty best suited to translate the exploding body of knowledge obtained from research in genetics and molecular biology into the care of patients. This fourth annual nuclear oncology conference will address how this can be done and how positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) can be used in the care of patients with cancer or with increased genetic risk of developing cancer. The course will include illustrative patient studies showing how PET and SPECT can help in diagnosis, staging and treatment planning and monitoring of patients with cancer.

  7. [Sophrology for patients in oncology].

    PubMed

    Barré, Chantal; Falcou, Marie-Christine; Mosseri, Véronique; Carrié, Sylvie; Dolbeault, Sylvie

    2015-11-01

    It is important to support patients with cancer during their care pathway and even beyond. They undergo long and difficult treatments, all anxiety-causing situations and sources of stress. Sophrological techniques help patients to find calm, lessen their fears and offer them the opportunity to work on themselves through simple easily reproducible exercises. This observation has been verified by a study carried out at the Institut Curie with patients undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:26567064

  8. Small renal masses in the elderly: Contemporary treatment approaches and comparative oncological outcomes of nonsurgical and surgical strategies

    PubMed Central

    Vetterlein, Malte W.; Jindal, Tarun; Becker, Andreas; Regier, Marc; Kluth, Luis A.; Tilki, Derya

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, there has been a significant stage migration in renal cell carcinoma and especially older patients are getting diagnosed more frequently with low stage disease, such as small renal masses ≤4 cm of size. Considering the particular risk profile of an older population, often presenting with a nonnegligible comorbidity profile and progressive renal dysfunction, treatment approaches beyond aggressive radical surgical procedures have come to the fore. We sought to give a contemporary overview of the available different treatment strategies for incidental small renal masses in an elderly population with the focus on comparative oncological outcomes of nonsurgical and surgical modalities. PMID:27437532

  9. The oncological patient in the palliative situation.

    PubMed

    Eychmueller, Steffen; Zwahlen, Diana; Fliedner, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Palliative care approaches the patient and his or her suffering with a biopsychosocial-spiritual model. Thus, it is the strength of palliative care to complement the diagnosis driven approach of medical cancer care by a problem and resources-based assessment, participatory care plan, and patient-directed interventions. Interventions need to reflect timely prognosis, target population (the patient, the family carer, the professional), and level of trust and remaining energy. In palliative care the relevance of psycho-oncological aspects in the care of the terminally ill is considerable in the understanding of the overall suffering of patients approaching death and their loved ones and in their care and support. There is little evidence to date in terms of clinical benefit of specific psycho-oncological interventions in the last months or weeks of life, but there is evidence on effects of stress reduction and reduced anxiety if locus of control can stay within the patient as long as possible. One major difficulty in psychosocial research at the end-of-life, however, is defining patient relevant outcomes. PMID:24305769

  10. Free microvascular tissue transfer for the reconstruction of midfacial defects in oncological patients.

    PubMed

    Archontaki, Maria; Stavrianos, Spyros D; Rapidis, Alexander D

    2010-09-01

    This study reviews our experience with free microvascular tissue transfer for the repair of midfacial defects in surgical oncology. From 2000 to 2008, eight patients with maxillectomy defects were immediately reconstructed using free flaps. Their clinical charts were retrospectively reviewed to record demographic data, ablative and reconstructive procedures, complications and outcome. Free tissue transfer was successful in all patients, giving an overall success rate of 100%. The mean follow-up time was 4 to 101 months (mr: 43.8). Three patients died from the disease giving a patient mortality of 30%, while five patients are alive, free of disease and back to their normal daily activities. The restoration of function and improvement of patients' quality of life was a common feature in all our reconstructions. The development of free tissue transfer has made surgical treatment of oncological patients with maxillectomy defects previously considered inoperable possible, improving at the same time their quality of life. PMID:20173711

  11. Addressing value in surgical oncology: Why and how.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    Value, or outcome per cost, is increasingly emphasized in the current health care climate. With more sophisticated and expensive therapies available, treating a population with growing longevity, sustainability of current trends in health care spending is a significant challenge. And all too often, our devices and therapies are implemented without understanding the value that they offer; policy solutions for these issues are lagging. Certainly, cancer patients, in particular, are at the center of these value conundrums. A majority of patients with malignancy are elderly, with accumulated co-morbidities, and are disproportionately costly. To address these contemporary issues, we must first identify opportunities to maximize value through improved outcomes and/or decreased costs. Doing so in the setting of evolving delivery and payment models will provide providers, health systems and insurers an opportunity to flourish with demonstration of high quality, low cost care. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:263-267. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27040903

  12. Percentage of Surgical Patients Receiving Recommended Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommended Care Percentage of Surgical Patients Receiving Recommended Care This is a composite measure based on individual ... Age Group Percentage of Surgical Patients Receiving Recommended Care by Age Group uzrc-9bvr Download these data » ...

  13. Safety in Numbers: Progressive Implementation of a Robotics Program in an Academic Surgical Oncology Practice.

    PubMed

    King, Jonathan C; Zeh, Herbert J; Zureikat, Amer H; Celebrezze, James; Holtzman, Matthew P; Stang, Michael L; Tsung, Allan; Bartlett, David L; Hogg, Melissa E

    2016-08-01

    Background Robotic-assisted surgery has potential benefits over laparoscopy yet little has been published on the integration of this platform into complex surgical oncology. We describe the outcomes associated with integration of robotics into a large surgical oncology program, focusing on metrics of safety and efficiency. Methods A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of robotic procedures from July 2009 to October 2014 identifying trends in volume, operative time, complications, conversion to open, and 90-day mortality. Results Fourteen surgeons performed 1236 cases during the study period: thyroid (246), pancreas/duodenum (458), liver (157), stomach (56), colorectal (129), adrenal (38), cholecystectomy (102), and other (48). There were 38 conversions to open (3.1%), 230 complications (18.6%), and 13 mortalities (1.1%). From 2009 to 2014, operative volume increased (7 cases/month vs 24 cases/month; P < .001) and procedure time decreased (471 ± 166 vs 211 ± 140 minutes; P < .001) with statistically significant decreases for all years except 2014 when volume and time plateaued. Conversion to open decreased (12.1% vs 1.7%; P = .009) and complications decreased (48.5% vs 12.3%; P < .001) despite increasing complexity of cases performed. There were 13 deaths within 90 days (5/13 30-day mortality) and 2 (15.4%) were from palliative surgeries. Conclusions Implementation of a diverse robotic surgical oncology program utilizing multiple surgeons is safe and feasible. As operative volume increased, operative time, complications, and conversions to open decreased and plateaued at approximately 3 years. No unanticipated adverse events attributable to the introduction of this platform were observed. PMID:27130645

  14. [Oncologic after-care--a patient-oriented concept. Basic diagnostic plan for pediatric oncology patients].

    PubMed

    Duffner, U; Sauter, S; Bergsträsser, E; Brandis, M; Niemeyer, C

    1995-01-01

    With intensive treatment many children and young adults with cancer can be cured of their disease. Therefore, the recognition of late effects of therapy will become increasingly important. Future concepts of follow-up care in pediatric oncology will have to serve two purposes: First, to determine the status of the malignant disease with early diagnosis of relapse and second, to recognize relevant side effects of treatment. We present a comprehensive approach of follow-up care which is primarily based on the definition of risk criteria for the development of relevant organ toxicity after different treatment modalities. For each patient a standardized summary of therapy delivered is documented. According to the definition of the risk criteria an individualized schedule for follow-up is decided upon. We hope that this structured concept will result in appropriate patient care while keeping the diagnostic efforts and costs limited. PMID:7564151

  15. Oncological and functional results of open, robot-assisted and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: does surgical approach and surgical experience matter?

    PubMed

    Herrmann, T R; Rabenalt, R; Stolzenburg, J U; Liatsikos, E N; Imkamp, F; Tezval, H; Gross, A J; Jonas, U; Burchardt, M

    2007-04-01

    The treatment of prostate cancer has undergone a fundamental change in the last decade. New surgical and nonsurgical minimal invasive methods have evolved. As the methodology of the different treatments is commonly known to urologists, this article focuses on oncological and functional outcome of open retropubic (ORP), trans- or extraperitoneal endoscopical (LRP), and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RALP), based on personal experience and review of the literature. A MEDLINE search was performed to review the literature on LRP and RALP between 1982 and 2007 with special emphasis on oncological and functional results, technical considerations, comparison of LRP and RALP to ORP, laparoscopic training, historical aspects, and cost-efficiency of the techniques. Based on diligent training and proctoring programs, a continuous dissemination of laparoscopic techniques takes place. There is a trend towards the extraperitoneal access in most of the minimal invasive programs at least in the European community. Mid-term outcomes of LRP and short-term outcomes of RALP achieved equivalence to open surgery with regards to complications, oncologic and functional results. Distinct advantages of LRP include less postoperative pain, lower transfusion rates, shorter convalescence, and better cosmetics. In contrast to RALP, LRP reaches cost-equivalence with open surgery in selected centers. LRP and RALP reproduce the short-term results of open surgery while providing the advantages of a minimal access. Video-assisted teaching improves the transfer of anatomical knowledge and technical knowhow, but the discussion about the longer learning curve for laparoscopy handling remains. The future will show if European centers adopt the use of robots comparable to the United States. PMID:17354014

  16. Outcomes of Patients With Surgically and Pathologically Staged IIIA-IVB Pure Endometrioid-type Endometrial Cancer: A Taiwanese Gynecology Oncology Group (TGOG-2005) Retrospective Cohort Study (A STROBE-Compliant Article).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Ruei; Chang, Ting-Chang; Fu, Hung-Chun; Lau, Hei-Yu; Chen, I-Hui; Ke, Yu-Min; Liang, Yu-Ling; Chiang, An-Jen; Huang, Chia-Yen; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Hong, Mun-Kun; Wang, Yu-Chi; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Wang, Peng-Hui

    2016-04-01

    In the management of patients with advanced-stage pure endometrioid-type endometrial cancer (E-EC), such as positive lymph nodes (stage III) or stage IV, treatment options are severely limited. This article aims to investigate the outcome of women with FIGO III-IV E-EC (based on FIGO 2009 system). The retrospective cohort study, based on the Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (TGOG-2005), enrolled patients undergoing staging surgery to have a pathologically confirmed FIGO III-IV E-EC from 22-member hospitals between 1991 and 2010. This cohort included 541 patients (stage III, n = 464; stage IV, n = 77). Five-year overall survival (OS) was 70.4%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 43 months (range 0-258 months) and median OS was 52 months (range 1-258 months). Multivariate analysis showed that FIGO stage, >1/2 myometrial invasion (hazard ratio [HR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.09; P = 0.007), histological grade 3 (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.47-2.75; P < 0.001), and metastases of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes (PLN and PALN) (HR 2.75, 95% CI 1.13-6.72; P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for PFS. FIGO stage, >1/2 myometrial invasion (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.34-2.64; P < 0.001), and histological grade 3 (HR 2.42, 95% CI 1.75-3.35; P < 0.001) influenced OS. Complete dissection of PLN and PALN (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.16-0.45; P < 0.001, and HR 0.14, 95% CI 0.08-0.26; P < 0.001) and the following paclitaxel-based therapy (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.79-0.92; P = 0.017, and HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.31-0.75; P = 0.001) provided the better PFS and OS, respectively. In management of women with FIGO III-V E-EC, combination of complete staging surgery (complete dissection of PLN and PALN is included) and the following paclitaxel-based therapy could provide the better chance to survive. Patients with tumor >1/2 myometrial invasion and histological grade 3 are risky for disease-related mortality. PMID:27082583

  17. The learning curve for surgical margins after open radical prostatectomy: implications for the use of margin status as an oncologic endpoint

    PubMed Central

    AJ, Vickers; FJ, Bianco; AM, Cronin; JA, Eastham; EA, Klein; MW, Kattan; PT, Scardino

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Surgical margin status is commonly used as an endpoint for surgical learning. In this study, we examine the learning curve for surgical margins and investigate whether surgical margins are good marker for oncologic outcome. Materials and Methods The study cohort included 7765 prostate cancer patients who were treated with radical prostatectomy by one of 72 surgeons at four major U.S. academic medical centers. We calculated the learning curve for surgical margins and a concordance probability between the surgeon's rates of positive surgical margins and 5-year biochemical recurrence. Results A positive surgical margin was identified in 2059 patients (27%). On multivariable analysis, surgeon experience was strongly associated with surgical margin status (p=0.017). The probability of a positive surgical margin was 40% for a surgeon with 10 prior cases, and decreased to 25% for a surgeon with 250 prior cases (absolute difference 15%, 95% CI 11% to 18%). Learning curves differed dramatically between surgeons. For pairs of surgeons, the surgeon with the superior positive surgical margin rate also had the better biochemical recurrence rate only 58% of the time. Conclusions We have demonstrated a learning curve for surgical margins after open radical prostatectomy. The poor concordance between a surgeon's margin and recurrence rates suggests that, while margins clearly matter, and efforts should be made to reduce positive margin rates, surgical margin status is not a strong surrogate for cancer control. These results have implications for the use of margin rates to evaluate changes in surgical technique and as feedback for surgeons. PMID:20171687

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF NEUROPATHIC CHRONIC PAIN IN ONCOLOGY PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Zhumaliyeva, V; Cialkowska-Rysz, A; Sirota, V; Kulishov, V; Omarova, I

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the primary prevalence of chronic neuropathic pain syndrome in oncology patients of Karaganda (Kazakhstan), to estimate the structure of pain syndrome in randomly chosen patients, to assess the effectiveness of analgesic therapy in oncology patients. All the patients with confirmed cancer admitted to hospital in Karaganda regional oncologic dispensary were studied. The study period was limited to 60 consecutive days. The results were statistically processed using 6.0 «STATISTICA» program. In 11,2±1,6% of the cases, oncology patients that got combined modality treatment suffered from the chronic neuropathic pain syndrome; 66,7±7,3% patients of them had the III cancer stage. 2. While studying the chronic neuropathic pain structure it was revealed that: 52,4±7,7% of the patients suffered from a mild pain, from average - 38,1±7,5% of the patients, from severe pain - 9,5±4,5%. Neuropathic pain syndrome in the form of numbness occurred in 47,6±7,7% of the respondents, tingling - in 38,1±7,5% of the patients and 14,3±5,4% of the respondents described it as «electric shock». 52,4±7,7% of the patients described temperature changes of the skin, 28,6±7,0% of them told about allodynia. The given pain can be correctly diagnosed on rare occasions. It brings about the low efficiency of currently prescribed standard pain treatment. It was 20%-effective only for ¼ of the patients. In sum, it can be brought into focus that each 10th oncology patient of the II clinical group in Kazakhstan may potentially suffer from the chronic neuropathic pain syndrome. The given syndrome in cancer patients requires selective differential diagnostics and constant management of the pain treatment regimen because of occurrence of standard regimens incapacity, progression of tolerance to the actual pain treatment and significant deterioration of oncology patients' life quality. PMID:27348160

  19. The importance of pharmacist providing patient education in oncology.

    PubMed

    Avery, Mia; Williams, Felecia

    2015-02-01

    The world's increasing diversity requires health care professionals to adjust delivery methods of teaching to accommodate different cultural values and beliefs. The ability to communicate effectively across languages and various cultural practices directly affects patient education outcomes. Pharmacist should be aware of varying modalities and considerations when counseling a patient diagnosed with cancer and undergoing chemotherapy. In more recent years, the medical profession has seen an increase in patient outcomes due to using the multidisciplinary team approach and has benefited by implementing Medication Therapy Management (MTM) programs at various institutions. For the clinical pharmacist, this would mean documentation for these services should be precise and accurate based on the specific patients needs. There are several factors involved in the care and therapy of the patient with cancer. Clinical oncology pharmacist should be aware of the ever-changing role in oncology and be able to implement new practices at their facility for better patient outcomes. PMID:25540194

  20. The impact of physician posture during oncology patient encounters.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arjun; Harris, Samar; Naina, Harris V

    2015-06-01

    Non-verbal communication is an important component of the physician-patient interaction. Oncology patients face specific emotional and psychological issues requiring additional physician emotional support. Multiple studies in oncology patients have revealed that patients perceive physicians seated during the medical interview to be more compassionate, caring, and likely to spend more time with the patients. These are all associated with improved patient outcomes. Barriers to sitting may be due to those imposed by time, space, and reduced perceived benefit of sitting by the physician. Although a sitting posture alone is unlikely to compensate for poor communication skills, assessing patient preference to physician posture, and following their preference, can be a simple way of improving communication, and thus patient outcomes, especially in oncology patients. The widespread introduction of the electronic medical record (EMR) system over the last decade has added a "third wheel" to the original dyadic physician-patient relationship. Physician posture and eye gaze towards to the EMR and its components has a deleterious effect on communication. Appropriate training and sensitization in this regard should be provided for physicians. PMID:25757904

  1. Possibly Impossible Patients: Management of Difficult Behavior in Oncology Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Peteet, John R.; Meyer, Fremonta L.; Miovic, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Angry, threatening, or otherwise disruptive behavior by patients can interfere with necessary oncologic treatment, sometimes to the point of rendering continued care impossible. We offer oncology clinicians guidance in dealing with difficult outpatients by discussing the differential diagnosis and multidisciplinary management of treatment-disrupting behavior in the ambulatory oncology setting. We review the existing literature on dealing with difficult patients and present clinical experience at a comprehensive cancer center where a formalized, institutional process for responding to disruptive outpatients has been developed. A structured, multidisciplinary approach to deal with difficult behavior in oncology outpatients can improve care and staff morale. Staff using this approach can identify causes of treatment-disrupting behavior, develop and implement appropriate behavior plans, facilitate communication, address mental health issues, and ensure that decisions to terminate a relationship with a patient are ethical, clinically justified, and supported by due process. In the future, clinical recommendations and institutional guidelines for dealing with difficult patients should be evaluated with more structured, quantitative research. PMID:22043189

  2. Preoperative Evaluation of the Surgical Patient.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Frederick T

    2016-01-01

    Primary care physicians and specialists are frequently involved in the care of surgical patients. Changes in reimbursement have prompted re-examination of preoperative testing and health care expenditures. Physicians have additional incentives to improve health care delivery and reduce costs. The perioperative surgical home concept involves coordinating all aspects of patient care, including behavioral modifications, during the perioperative period. Evidence-based guidelines on preoperative evaluation are available to assist practitioners in managing cardiovascular disease, and communicating surgical risks. Shared decision making in the preoperative period can improve surgical outcomes and patient satisfaction. PMID:27443045

  3. Surgical treatment of breast lesions at a Day Centre: Experience of the European Institute of Oncology.

    PubMed

    Ballardini, Bettina; Cavalli, Marta; Manfredi, Giovanni Francesco; Sangalli, Claudia; Galimberti, Viviana; Intra, Mattia; Rossi, Elisabetta Maria Cristina; Seco, Javiera; Campanelli, Giampiero; Veronesi, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in women worldwide. The reduced aggressiveness of breast cancer surgery has made it possible treat patients in the day surgery setting. The European Institute of Oncology, Milan, opened its new Day Center in May 2010. From May 2010 to December 2014, 17,087 patients with breast conditions were treated by the Institute's Division of Senology, 4132 (24.2%) of these in the day surgery setting, including malignant and benign conditions; 204 (4.9%) were not discharged on the day of surgery, being converted to inpatients; five (0.1%) patients returned to hospital for persistent hematoma. Our experience of performing breast cancer surgery in the day surgery setting is in line that of the literature. It is safe, but requires a well-organized unit and multidisciplinary medical team to function smoothly, with much attention paid to patient comfort and education, so as to ensure maximum patient acceptance and satisfaction. PMID:27123957

  4. [A computerized database for managing otorhinolaryngologic oncology patients].

    PubMed

    Mira, E; Lanza, L; Castelli, A; Benazzo, M; Tinelli, C

    1998-06-01

    In recent years the management and interdisciplinary treatment of oncological patients has become extremely complex due to the progress made in diagnosis and therapy. As a result, the knowledge required to treat patients can no longer be simply memorized or manually filed. Computer technology provides the ideal instrument for organizing, saving and analyzing data from head and neck tumor patients. The authors have prepared a computerized database to meet the following needs: ease of use, even for non computer savvy users; minimal ambiguity for data entry; use for both clinical and scientific purposes; possibility to create a network with similar database at other Centers; possibility to expand to include image management. The archive is based on a personal computer with an INTEL 80486 microprocessor, 40 Mb RAM, DOS 6.0. and Windows 3.1. The software includes four main routines: a) formulation and management of tables where oncological data are gathered; b) entry and management of patient-related clinical data; c) statistical processing for epidemiological and oncological research and; d) management of basic computer services. In clinical practice the database allows the following: a) preparation of a monthly chart of check-ups, b) rapid tracking of patients lost to followup, c) printout of a summary of the clinical history of each patient at the time of check-up and rapid updating at the end of the examination, d) automatic production of forms such as discharge letters and reports to be shared with related services (i.e. medical oncology, radiotherapy). In addition, the database is a powerful, versatile research tool which can promptly provide all sorts of oncological data and can automatically prepare tables, diagrams, correlations, survival curves. The system was developed from 1993 to 1995 and has been operative, with a few minor modifications and updates, since 1995. Today the database contains more than 1200 oncological cases and the system is used daily by

  5. Proximal femoral reconstruction with a constrained acetabulum in oncologic patients.

    PubMed

    Jawad, Muhammad Umar; Brien, Earl W

    2014-02-01

    Metallic endoprostheses are used for oncological reconstruction around the proximal femur and hip joint. Common modes of failure with hemiarthroplasty or standard hip arthroplasty after proximal femoral replacement include dislocation, late hip pain, and infection. The authors reviewed hospital records to identify patients undergoing constrained tripolar hip arthroplasty for oncological reasons between 2002 and 2012. Inclusion criterion was at least 12-cm proximal femoral resection, including patients with total femur reconstruction. A total of 33 patients were reviewed. Information regarding demographics, length of follow-up, treatment characteristics, and patient outcomes was extracted. Average follow-up for all patients was 912.33 days (30.4 months). Average follow-up was 1396.1 days for living patients and 428.6 days for deceased patients. Average estimated blood loss was 462.12 cc: an average of 1080 cc for patients undergoing total femoral resection and replacement and 315.8 cc for patients undergoing proximal femoral resection and replacement. Average operative time was 137.7 minutes: an average of 205 minutes for patients undergoing total femoral resection and replacement and 119.1 minutes for patients undergoing proximal femoral resection and replacement. Average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score was 21.7. There were no dislocations in the cohort. A constrained tripolar device can be safely used for oncological proximal femoral reconstructions while minimizing the risk of dislocation. Positioning of the acetabular implant in neutral anatomic version in conjunction with a neutral-placed femoral component provides the greatest range of motion, reduction of liner impingement, and improved hip stability. PMID:24679207

  6. [Patient information duties in radiation oncology].

    PubMed

    Pourel, N; Py, B; Safran, D

    2014-10-01

    Patient information duties are a basic task of radiation oncologists in their daily practice. This article is essentially a factsheet on legal obligations, the value of written informed consent and information documents that ought to be given to patient. PMID:25201635

  7. Drug repurposing in oncology--patient and health systems opportunities.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Francesco; Sukhatme, Vikas P; Bouche, Gauthier

    2015-12-01

    In most countries, healthcare service budgets are not likely to support the current explosion in the cost of new oncology drugs. Repurposing the large arsenal of approved, non-anticancer drugs is an attractive strategy to offer more-effective options to patients with cancer, and has the substantial advantages of cheaper, faster and safer preclinical and clinical validation protocols. The potential benefits are so relevant that funding of academically and/or independently driven preclinical and clinical research programmes should be considered at both national and international levels. To date, successes in oncology drug repurposing have been limited, despite strong evidence supporting the use of many different drugs. A lack of financial incentives for drug developers and limited drug development experience within the non-profit sector are key reasons for this lack of success. We discuss these issues and offer solutions to finally seize this opportunity in the interest of patients and societies, globally. PMID:26483297

  8. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care. PMID:25643971

  9. Cutaneous oncologic and cosmetic surgery in geriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah; Yu, Thomas; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Gordon, Marsha; Silapunt, Sirunya; Norman, Robert A; Alam, Murad

    2004-01-01

    A wide array of surgical procedures is available to geriatric patients. These interventions can enhance the appearance of patients and facilitate the removal of skin cancers. Pre-existing medical conditions of geriatric patients must be considered comprehensively when selecting and performing cutaneous surgical procedures. Many older patients suffer from a variety of diseases and take a variety of medications and herbal supplements to ameliorate the consequences of such diseases. In general, skin surgery can be performed safely on even very old patients, provided precautions are followed. The biopsychosocial well-being and essence of patients must also be addressed when performing dermatologic surgery. If patients are treated holistically and comprehensively, their surgical experience can be enhanced and their health and appearance improved. PMID:15018014

  10. Doctor–patient relationship in oncologic radiology

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, L; Leclère, J; Dolbeault, S; Neuenschwander, S

    2005-01-01

    Progress in medicine and changes in our society have led to an increasing number of patients with cancer and a change in the doctor–patient relationship. Patients rights are now defined in several countries by laws. The course of cancer involves numerous imaging examinations in which the radiologist is primarily involved. It is often the radiologist who discovers abnormalities and who must break the news to the patient. This task is made all the more difficult by the radiologist’s lack of specific training in the management of difficult situations such as announcing bad news. There is a high risk of inappropriate responses that can have a seriously damaging effect on the patient’s state of mind. Even with the best intentions, it can be very profitable to review and improve our relational modalities and to more effectively meet the patient’s increasing demand for information. The radiologist’s technical know-how is not sufficient, as he must also be able to give just the right amount of information based on his clinical competence, and his relationship with patients while respecting their wishes and their rights. PMID:16361141

  11. Oncology nurse honors pediatric caregivers and patients.

    PubMed

    Arcuri, Lauren

    2016-07-01

    Dunbar, a registered nurse at Presbyterian Hospital in Albuquerque, N.M., knows firsthand the struggles patients and their families endure during cancer treatment. Her son underwent a bone marrow transplant at age 22. In 2011, Dunbar organized an annual race to raise funds for families who have children with cancer. PMID:27526505

  12. Radiographic Characteristics of Adrenal Masses in Oncologic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun Ky; Hong, A Ram; Roh, Eun; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jung Hee; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to assess the usefulness of pre-contrast Hounsfield unit (HU) and mass size on computed tomography to differentiate adrenal mass found incidentally in oncologic patients. Methods From 2000 to 2012, 131 oncologic patients with adrenal incidentaloma were reviewed retrospectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were applied to determine the optimal cut-off value of the mean HU and size for detecting adrenal metastasis. Results The median age was 18 years, and 80 patients were male. The initial mass size was 18 mm, and 71 (54.2%) of these were on the left side. A bilateral adrenal mass was found in 11 patients (8.4%). Biochemically functional masses were observed in 9.2% of patients. Thirty-six out of 119 patients with nonfunctional masses underwent adrenalectomy, which revealed metastasis in 13. The primary cancers were lung cancer (n=4), renal cell carcinoma (n=2), lymphoma (n=2), hepatocellular carcinoma (n=2), breast cancer (n=1), and others (n=2). The area under the curve for the size and HU for clinically suspicious metastasis were 0.839 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.761 to 0.900; P<0.001) and 0.959 (95% CI, 0.898 to 0.988; P<0.001), respectively. The cut-off value to distinguish between metastasis and benign masses were 22 mm for size and 20 for HU. Conclusion ROC curve results suggest that pre-contrast HU >20 can be used as a diagnostic reference to suggest metastasis in oncologic patients with adrenal masses. PMID:26676336

  13. Non-surgical oncology – Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition, Chapter 19

    PubMed Central

    Arends, J.; Zuercher, G.; Dossett, A.; Fietkau, R.; Hug, M.; Schmid, I.; Shang, E.; Zander, A.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced nutritional state is associated with unfavourable outcomes and a lower quality of life in patients with malignancies. Patients with active tumour disease frequently have insufficient food intake. The resting energy expenditure in cancer patients can be increased, decreased, or remain unchanged compared to predicted values. Tumours may result in varying degrees of systemic pro-inflammatory processes with secondary effects on all significant metabolic pathways. Therapeutic objectives are to stabilise nutritional state with oral/enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition (PN) and thus to prevent or reduce progressive weight loss. The maintenance or improvement of quality of life, and the increase in the effectiveness and a reduction in the side-effects of antitumor therapy are further objectives. Indications for PN in tumour patients are essentially identical to those in patients with benign illnesses, with preference given to oral or enteral nutrition when feasible. A combined nutritional concept is preferred if oral or enteral nutrition are possible but not sufficient. There are generally no accepted standards for ideal energy and nutrient intakes in oncological patients, particularly when exclusive artificial nutrition is administered. The use of PN as a general accompaniment to radiotherapy or chemotherapy is not indicated, but PN is indicated in chronic severe radiogenic enteritis or after allogenic transplantation with pronounced mucositis or GvH-related gastrointestinal damage for prolonged periods, with particular attention to increased risk of bleeding and infection. No PN is necessary in the terminal phase. PMID:20049066

  14. Clinical Pharmacology in the Adolescent Oncology Patient

    PubMed Central

    Veal, Gareth J.; Hartford, Christine M.; Stewart, Clinton F.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented that adolescents and young adults (AYAs) experience a significant cancer burden as well as significant cancer mortality compared with other age groups. The reasons for the disparate outcomes of AYAs and other age groups are not completely understood and are likely to be multifactorial, including a range of sociodemographic issues unique to these individuals as well as differences between adolescents, younger pediatric patients, and adults in the pharmacology of anticancer agents. Because adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to early adulthood, numerous physical, physiologic, cognitive, and behavioral changes occur during this time. In this review, we provide an overview of the unique developmental physiology of the adolescent and explain how these factors and the behavioral characteristics of adolescents may affect the pharmacology of anticancer agents in this patient population. Finally, we describe examples of studies that have assessed the relation between drug disposition and age, focusing on the AYA age group. PMID:20439647

  15. Robotic surgery in urological oncology: patient care or market share?

    PubMed

    Kaye, Deborah R; Mullins, Jeffrey K; Carter, H Ballentine; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2015-01-01

    Surgical robotic use has grown exponentially in spite of limited or uncertain benefits and large costs. In certain situations, adoption of robotic technology provides value to patients and society. In other cases, however, the robot provides little or no increase in surgical quality, with increased expense, and, therefore, does not add value to health care. The surgical robot is expensive to purchase, maintain and operate, and can contribute to increased consumerism in relation to surgical procedures, and increased reliance on the technology, thus driving future increases in health-care expenditure. Given the current need for budget constraints, the cost-effectiveness of specific procedures must be evaluated. The surgical robot should be used when cost-effective, but traditional open and laparoscopic techniques also need to be continually fostered. PMID:25535000

  16. Dermatological Findings in Turkish Paediatric Haematology-Oncology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Uksal, Umit; Ozturk, Pinar; Colgecen, Emine; Taslidere, Nazan; Patiroglu, Turkan; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Torun, Yasemin Altuner; Borlu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diagnoses of skin, mucosae, hair and nail manifestations in malignant diseases are often challenging because of life-threatening drug reactions, opportunistic infections or skin involvement of primary processes. Description of morphology, configuration and distribution of lesions is important in order to differentiate the self-healing eruptions from serious side effects of chemotherapy. There are case reports from Turkey including dermatological manifestations of malignancies and case series in adult patients but there are no published large group studies assessing all manifestations in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological features of dermatological findings in children with haemato-oncological diseases. Materials and Methods: The study was performed at the Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Clinic, Turkey. Three dermatologists daily consulted all patients admitted to the clinic during a one-year period. Results: The study group comprised of 157 children (79 female/78 male) aged 1–16 years (mean 7.19±4.63). Detailed dermatological examinations were performed, including oral-genital mucosae, hair and nails. Thorough skin examination revealed that 70% of the patients exhibited at least one dermatological finding. Generalized xerosis and hyperpigmentation were the most common findings among patients undergoing chemotherapy (24.19%). Multiple nevi on at least 10 covered areas were very frequent among patients undergoing long-term chemotherapy (18.47%). Three were identified as dysplastic nevus, but malignant transformation was not observed during the one-year study period. Conclusion: Regular dermatological consultation may help resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic problems in paediatric haemato-oncology clinics. PMID:27551173

  17. Ethics and genomic medicine, how to navigate decisions in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Devon, Karen M; Lerner-Ellis, Jordan P; Ganai, Sabha; Angelos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Using genetic information to make medical decisions and tailor treatments to individuals will likely provide major benefits and become an important part of health care. Surgical oncologists must ethically apply scientific genetic information in a complex and evolving environment to the benefit of their patients. In this review we address ethical issues associated with: indications for genetic testing, informed consent for testing and therapy, confidentiality, targeted therapy, prophylactic surgery, and genetic testing in children. PMID:25183289

  18. The Rehabilitation of Oncological Patients Presenting Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    MICU, ELENA CLAUDIA; IRSAY, LASZLO

    2014-01-01

    The International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP 2011) defines neuropathic pain as “the pain caused by an injury or disease of the somatosensory portion of the nervous system”. The central neuropathic pain is defined as “the pain caused by an injury or disease of the central somatosensory central nervous system”, whereas the peripheral neuropathic pain is defined as “the pain caused by an injury or disease of the peripheral somatosensory nervous system” [1]. The peripheral neuropathy describes any affection of the peripheral nervous system. The etiology is vast, there being a number of over 100 possible causes, which causes the global morbidity rate to reach approximately 2.4%. The chronic nature of the pain superposes the everyday routine and leads to the high intake of medication for pain alleviation. The number of cases of neuroplasia has always increased today. This disturbing diagnosis which can potentiate the signs and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy as well as reduce and limit the treatment options associated with neuropathies. The treatment presupposes a multidisciplinary approach, while the solution to prevent complications involves the control of risk factors and pathophysiological treatment. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CPIN) is a significant disabling symptom that is tightly connected to the administration of neurotoxic cytostatic agents used for the treatment of neoplasia. CPIN compromises the quality of life and produces pain or discomfort [2]. I have sought to produce a presentation of the medicated and physical-kinetic treatment options that have proved their effectiveness during clinical studies or random trials and can be applied to cancer patients presenting with symptoms associated with peripheral neuropathy, namely with neuropathic pain, and support it with arguments. PMID:26528000

  19. [Surgical treatment for patients with hyperparathyroidism].

    PubMed

    Noda, Satoru; Onoda, Naoyoshi

    2016-06-01

    Although parathyroid surgery is not a complicated surgical procedure, enough knowledge of the surgical anatomy and accurate information for localization of involved gland are required from the fact of the variation in the number and the location of the parathyroid gland. Surgical treatment for patients with hyperparathyroidism has been in the transition state from the era of both sides exploration to minimally invasive surgery. In addition, intraoperative radio guide method, intraoperative iPTH measurement, and intraoperative neuromonitoring have been introduced for the safe and reliable operation. PMID:27230845

  20. Follow-up of patients after resection for colorectal cancer: a position paper of the Canadian Society of Surgical Oncology and the Canadian Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Carole S.; McLeod, Robin S.

    1997-01-01

    Objective To provide recommendations for postoperative follow-up of patients with colorectal carcinoma. Options Postoperative follow-up surveillance versus no surveillance. Evidence A MEDLINE search for articles published between 1966 and February 1996 with the terms “colorectal neoplasm” and “follow-up studies.” Pertinent citations from references of reviewed articles were also retrieved. Methodology With the evidence-based methodology of the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination, a thorough review of the value of postoperative follow-up for colorectal cancer patients was performed. Studies were categorized according to their study design and submitted to critical appraisal. Randomized trials, cohort studies and descriptive studies were assessed. A benefit of follow-up was defined as an overall increase in survival. Recommendation To date, there is insufficient evidence to make a recommendation on the benefit of postoperative surveillance in colorectal cancer patients. Further clinical trials are needed to clarify the role of postoperative follow-up for patients after resection for colorectal cancer. PMID:9126121

  1. Outcome of the Gynecologic Oncology Patients Surveillance Network Program.

    PubMed

    Suprasert, Prapaporn; Suwansirikul, Songkiat; Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Cheewakriangkrai, Chalong; Suwansirikul, Songkiat

    2015-01-01

    The gynecologic oncology patients surveillance network program was conducted with the collaboration of 5 provincial hospitals located in the north of Thailand (Chiang Rai, Lamphun Nan, Phayao and Phrae). The aim was to identify ways of reducing the burden and the cost to the gynecologic cancer patients who needed to travel to the tertiary care hospital for follow up. The clinical data of each patient was transferred to the provincial hospital by the internet via the website www.gogcmu.or.th. All the general gynecologists who participated in this project attended the training course set up for the program. From January 2011 to February 2014, 854 patients who were willing to have their next follow-up at the network hospitals close to their home were enrolled this project. Almost of them were residents in Chiang Rai province and the most common disease was cervical cancer. After the project had been running for 1 year, 604 of the enrolled patients and 21 health-care personnel who had participated in this project were interviewed to assess its success. Some 85.3% of the patients and 100% of the health-care personnel were satisfied with this project. However, 60 patients had withdrawn, the most common reason being the lack of confidence in the follow up at the local provincial hospital. In conclusion, it is possible to initiate a gynecologic oncology patients' surveillance network program and the initiation could reduce the problems associated with and the cost the patients incurred as they journeyed to the tertiary care hospital. PMID:26163612

  2. Oncological outcome after lung metastasis in patients presenting with localized chondrosarcoma at extremities: Tokai Musculoskeletal Oncology Consortium study

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomoki; Matsumine, Akihiko; Yamada, Satoshi; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Kawanami, Katsuhisa; Ohno, Takatoshi; Katagiri, Hirohisa; Sugiura, Hideshi; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Sudo, Akihiro; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The oncological outcome after lung metastasis in patients with chondrosarcoma of the extremities has not been reported. Between June 2000 and June 2013, 179 patients with chondrosarcoma in the extremities were treated at eleven hospitals. Twenty consecutive patients (11.2%) developed lung metastases after initial treatment of primary chondrosarcoma in the extremities. We investigated the oncological outcome of 20 chondrosarcoma patients with lung metastasis. There were 14 males and six females with a mean age of 49 years. The mean duration between primary surgery and appearance of lung metastases was 34 months. The mean follow-up period was 48 months. We excluded patients with lung metastasis at the time of presentation from this study. At the final follow-up, four of 20 patients had no evidence of disease, four were alive with disease, and twelve had died of disease. The 3- and 5-year survival rates after lung metastasis were 51.5% and 45.7%, respectively. Tumor grade, extrapulmonary metastasis, and treatment for lung metastases including metastasectomy and radiofrequency ablation were identified by univariate analysis to be significant prognostic factors for oncological analysis. In conclusion, this study evaluated the oncological outcome in patients with chondrosarcoma of the extremities with lung metastasis. Although a large-scale study might be required to confirm the results of this study, we suggest that metastasectomy and/or radiofrequency ablation should be considered to improve postmetastatic survival. PMID:27536136

  3. Electronic patient-reported outcome systems in oncology clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Antonia V; Jensen, Roxanne E; Basch, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires assess topics a patient can report about his or her own health. This includes symptoms (eg, nausea, fatigue, diarrhea, pain, or frequent urination), physical functioning (eg, difficulty climbing stairs or difficulty fastening buttons), and mental health (eg, anxiety, fear, or worry). Electronic PRO (ePRO) systems are used in oncology clinical care because of 1) their ability to enhance clinical care by flagging important symptoms and saving clinicians time; 2) the availability of standardized methods for creating and implementing PROs in clinics; and 3) the existence of user-friendly platforms for patient self-reporting like tablet computers and automated telephone surveys. Many ePRO systems can provide actionable links to clinical care such as summary reports in a patient's electronic medical record and real-time e-mail alerts to providers when patients report acute needs. This review presents 5 examples of ePRO systems currently in use in oncology practice. These systems support multiple clinical activities, including assessment of symptoms and toxicities related to chemotherapy and radiation, postoperative surveillance, and symptom management during palliative care and hospice. Patient self-reporting is possible both at clinical visits and between visits over the Internet or by telephone. The implementation of an ePRO system requires significant resources and expertise, as well as user training. ePRO systems enable regular monitoring of patient symptoms, function, and needs, and can enhance the efficiency and quality of care as well as communication with patients. PMID:22811342

  4. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use by Malaysian oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Maryam; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Abdul Shatar, Aishah Knight; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Seang, Tan Boon; Farooqui, Muhammad Aslam

    2012-05-01

    The current study sought to evaluate Malaysian oncology patients' decision making about the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for the management of their care. Patients were interviewed across three major Malaysian ethnic groups, Malay, Chinese and Indian. Thematic content analysis identified four central themes: Conceptualizing CAM, the decision making process; rationale given for selecting or rejecting CAM and barriers to CAM use. Participants generally used the term 'traditional medicine', referred to locally as 'ubat kampung', meaning medicine derived from 'local traditions'. Mixed reactions were shown concerning the effectiveness of CAM to cure cancer and the slow progression of CAM results and treatment costs were cited as major barriers to CAM use. Concerns regarding safety and efficacy of CAM in ameliorating cancer as well as potential interactions with conventional therapies highlighted the importance of patients' knowledge about cancer treatments. PMID:22500849

  5. Surgery for Li Fraumeni Syndrome: Pushing the Limits of Surgical Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Langan, Russell C.; Lagisetty, Kiran H.; Atay, Scott; Pandalai, Prakash; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Rudloff, Udo; Avital, Itzhak

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Li Fraumeni syndrome is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome due to a germline mutation in the p53 tumor suppressor gene. It results in multiple primary neoplasms in children and adults. A common question when faced with a Li Fraumeni patient who develops multiple primary cancers and/or recurrences is what is the proper treatment? Data suggests that ionizing radiation exposure increases the incidence of second malignancies in the Li Fraumeni population. Therefore, how much surgery can a cancer patient tolerate and still derive benefit from it? Methods We describe a representative case of a 54 year old female with Li Fraumeni syndrome with an enlarging adrenocortical hepatic metastasis, a new primary ampullary cancer, and an extensive surgical history. Results We performed a simultaneous pancreaticoduodenectomy and repeat partial hepatectomy. Conclusions We propose that surgery is under utilized in metastatic solid organ familial cancers in general, and argue that an aggressive surgical approach should be considered in a multidisciplinary fashion for patients with Li Fraumeni syndrome and recurrent tumors. However, because of the rarity of this familial cancer there is a paucity of evidence to support this approach therefore a review of the literature is presented. PMID:23563208

  6. Human rhinovirus C infections in pediatric hematology and oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Loria, Carolina; Domm, Jennifer A; Halasa, Natasha B; Heitman, Elizabeth; Miller, E Kathryn; Xu, Meng; Saville, Benjamin R; Frangoul, Haydar; Williams, John V

    2015-02-01

    Children with cancer and HSCT recipients are at high risk for common viral infections. We sought to define the viral etiology of ARI and identify risk factors. Nasal wash samples were collected from pediatric hematology-oncology patients and HSCT recipients with ARI during the 2003-2005 winter seasons. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to detect Flu A, influenza B, RSV, PIV 1-3, human MPV, and HRV. HRV specimens were sequenced and genotyped. Seventy-eight samples from 62 children were included. Viruses were detected in 31 of 78 samples (40%). HRV were detected most frequently, in 16 (52%) including five HRVC; followed by seven (22%) RSV, five (16%) Flu A, four (13%) MPV, and two (6%) PIV2. There was a trend toward higher risk of viral infection for children in day care. Only 8% of the study children had received influenza vaccine. HRV, including the recently discovered HRVC, are an important cause of infection in pediatric oncology and HSCT patients. Molecular testing is superior to conventional methods and should be standard of care, as HRV are not detected by conventional methods. PMID:25377237

  7. Pathogenesis of infection in surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ping; Fang, Xiangming

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Despite the application of prophylactic antimicrobial therapy and advanced technologies, infection remains one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. Understanding the pathogenesis of surgical infection would offer new insights into the development of biomarkers to predict and stratify infection in patients, and to explore specific strategies to minimize this serious postoperative complication. Recent findings The acute nonspecific inflammatory response triggered by endogenous danger signals evoked by surgical insult is beneficial, while paradoxically associated with reduced resistance to infection. There is growing evidence indicating that primed inflammation by surgical insult exaggerates the dysregulation of the immune-inflammatory response to the invasion of pathogens postoperatively. Innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), contribute to detecting both pathogen-associated molecular patterns and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns, and to further amplifying inflammatory responses to infection. Current evidence shows the fascinating role of non-TLRs in the process of infection. Non-TLRs, such as membrane-associated triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells family, cytosolic nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors and nuclear receptor nuclear family 4 subgroup A receptors, are also crucial in triggering the immune responses and mounting an effective defense against surgical insults and the second hit of infection. Summary Understanding the pivotal role of non-TLRs in sensing exogenous and endogenous molecules, and the influence of primed systemic inflammation and depressed immune status on the defense against pathogen after surgical insult, would be helpful to fully explore the relevant sophisticated phenomena of surgical infection, and to elucidate the occurrence of heterogeneous constellations of clinical signs and symptoms among this special population

  8. [Surgical treatment of bronchiectases in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Danilov, G P; Makeeva, R P; Shornikov, V A; Zil'ber, E K; Akopov, A L

    2010-01-01

    The authors present experiences with surgical treatment of 29 patients (aged 50-64 years) with bronchiectases. Early and late results were analyzed. It was shown that complex approach to the estimation of the findings of radiography, spiral computed tomography, investigation of the external respiration function, fibrobronchoscopy and bronchoscopy, if necessary, allowed operating the patients older than 50 years with local forms of bronchiectases which gave good results. PMID:21137257

  9. [Patients' Rights Act - Relevance for surgical disciplines].

    PubMed

    Haier, J

    2014-01-01

    The new Patients' Rights Act does not reflect rights of patients as professional obligations of physicians for the first time. It adopted common longtime jurisdiction, but in some respects it is going beyond. This law clearly extends the documentation requirements of physicians, especially concerning the extent of documentation. In surgical fields the requirements for enlightening physicians were more strongly worded than in previous jurisdiction. In medical facilities it is now mandatory to establish an internal quality management system. PMID:24390850

  10. Acute Kidney Injury in the Surgical Patient.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Charles; Singhania, Girish; Bihorac, Azra

    2015-10-01

    Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common, morbid, and costly surgical complication. Current efforts to understand and manage AKI in surgical patients focus on prevention, mitigation of further injury when AKI has occurred, treatment of associated conditions, and facilitation of renal recovery. Lesser severity AKI is now understood to be much more common, and more morbid, than was previously thought. The ability to detect AKI within hours of onset would be helpful in protecting the kidney and in preserving renal function, and several imaging and biomarker modalities are currently being evaluated. PMID:26410139

  11. Fungal Septicemia in Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Roberto J.; Wolff, William I.

    1974-01-01

    Opportunistic systemic fungal infections are more frequent than generally realized. Increased awareness and a high index of suspicion of fungal super-infection in the presence of sepsis is required to bring about recognition and therapy. The intravenous catheter is an important portal of entry or may act as a foreign body favoring localization of a septic process. In its presence, fungemia must be guarded against. Whenever an intravenous catheter is removed, its tip should be cultured. Removal alone may be a critical item in therapy. In febrile patients, in whom the course of fever is not established, frequent blood cultures with attention directed specifically at fungi should be obtained. Fungi are not easily isolated and identified and only by requesting special attention from the microbiologist can the diagnosis be established in the average institutional laboratory in time to permit appropriate therapy. Since available therapeutic measures are strikingly effective when instituted early, awareness and alertness on the part of the clinician constitute the key to cure. PMID:4213622

  12. Prevention of VTE in Nonorthopedic Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David A.; Wren, Sherry M.; Karanicolas, Paul J.; Arcelus, Juan I.; Heit, John A.; Samama, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: VTE is a common cause of preventable death in surgical patients. Methods: We developed recommendations for thromboprophylaxis in nonorthopedic surgical patients by using systematic methods as described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines. Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: We describe several alternatives for stratifying the risk of VTE in general and abdominal-pelvic surgical patients. When the risk for VTE is very low (< 0.5%), we recommend that no specific pharmacologic (Grade 1B) or mechanical (Grade 2C) prophylaxis be used other than early ambulation. For patients at low risk for VTE (∼1.5%), we suggest mechanical prophylaxis, preferably with intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC), over no prophylaxis (Grade 2C). For patients at moderate risk for VTE (∼3%) who are not at high risk for major bleeding complications, we suggest low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) (Grade 2B), low-dose unfractionated heparin (Grade 2B), or mechanical prophylaxis with IPC (Grade 2C) over no prophylaxis. For patients at high risk for VTE (∼6%) who are not at high risk for major bleeding complications, we recommend pharmacologic prophylaxis with LMWH (Grade 1B) or low-dose unfractionated heparin (Grade 1B) over no prophylaxis. In these patients, we suggest adding mechanical prophylaxis with elastic stockings or IPC to pharmacologic prophylaxis (Grade 2C). For patients at high risk for VTE undergoing abdominal or pelvic surgery for cancer, we recommend extended-duration, postoperative, pharmacologic prophylaxis (4 weeks) with LMWH over limited-duration prophylaxis (Grade 1B). For patients at moderate to high risk for VTE who are at high risk for major bleeding complications or those in whom the consequences of bleeding are believed to be particularly severe, we suggest

  13. Feasibility of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy for very-high risk prostate cancer: surgical and oncological outcomes in men aged ≥70 years

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Kyo Chul; Jung, Dae Chul; Lee, Seung Hwan; Choi, Young Deuk; Chung, Byung Ha; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection (RALP-PLND) is a feasible treatment option for high-risk prostate cancer (HPCa), but remains controversial for very high-risk prostate cancer (VHPCa). We aimed to assess the feasibility of RALP-PLND in men ≥70 years with VHPCa features by comparing outcomes to those of HPCa. Methods Among patients aged ≥70 years who underwent RALP-PLND between 2005 and 2012, 101 HPCa patients (31%) (PSA≥20 ng/mL or biopsy Gleason 8–10 or cT3a) and 53 VHPCa patients (16%) (≥cT3b or cN1) were identified. Perioperative, functional, and oncological outcomes were compared between groups. Results Perioperative outcomes including operative time (P=0.917), estimated blood loss (P=0.181), and complications (P=0.239) were comparable. Due to Gleason score downgrading, 19% of HPCa and 4% of VHPCa were actually of intermediate risk. VHPCa revealed higher LN involvements (P=0.002). Discrepancy between clinical and pathological nodal status was more frequent in VHPCa (36% vs. 7%, P<0.01). Nodal metastasis would have been missed in 23% patients without PLND, while 13% of cN1 patients were shown to be metastasis-free by PLND. Continence rates were lower for VHPCa (32% vs. 56%, P=0.013). Although biochemical recurrence-free survival rates were comparable (P=0.648), risk for later adjuvant treatments was higher for VHPCa patients (14% vs. 34%, P<0.01). Conclusions RALP-PLND is a feasible option for VHPCa in elderly patients with satisfactory oncologic outcomes; however, functional outcomes were not as favorable. Patients who are unable to accept the risk of adjuvant therapy and its side effects or incontinence should be deterred from surgical treatment, and other options such as radiation therapy could be an alternative. PMID:25325024

  14. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH URETERAL RUPTURES].

    PubMed

    Komjakov, B K; Guliev, B G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the causes of ureteral ruptures and the types surgical procedures used for their management. Over the period from 2006 to 2014, 7 patients with ureteral ruptures underwent surgical treatment in the Mechnikov N-WSMU clinic. All of them were males aged 50 to 71 years. In all cases, the ureter was injured during ureteroscopy and contact lithotripsy. In two patients the right ureter was cut off at the border of the upper and middle third, in four--at 3-4 cm below pyeloureteral segment, one patient diagnosed with a complete separation of the ureter from the kidney pelvis. Patients, who have suffered a detachment of the ureter in other hospitals, previously underwent surgical exploration of the retroperitoneal space, drainage of the kidney by pyelonephrostomy (5) and ureterocutaneostomy (1). In a case of a patient with an injury that occurred in our clinic, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous renal transplantation was carried out. Five patients with extended ureter defects underwent ileo-ureteroplasty. The patient with left ureterocutaneostomy underwent nephrovesical bypass. Patency of the upper urinary tract and kidney function were restored in all patients, all of them were relieved from external drains. The duration of the intestinal plastic averaged 160 minutes, laparoscopic nephrectomy with autologous transplantation--210 min and nephrovesical bypass--110 min. Blood transfusion was required only in autologous graft patient. The ureteral rupture is a serious complication of ureteral endourological procedures in upper urinary tract. It requires such complicated reconstructive operations as autologous transplantation of the kidney or intestinal ureteroplasty. PMID:26390553

  15. Hypercalcemia in critically ill surgical patients.

    PubMed Central

    Forster, J; Querusio, L; Burchard, K W; Gann, D S

    1985-01-01

    Critical surgical illness, commonly accompanied by shock, sepsis, multiple transfusions, and renal failure, is usually associated with low total calcium and/or low or normal ionized calcium. A seminal case of hypercalcemia in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) patient prompted the review of 100 patients with longer than average SICU days (greater than 12) to determine the incidence, associated factors, and possible etiologies of this condition. Ten patients had elevated measured, and five others had elevated calculated, ionized calcium (5.9 +/- 0.25 mg%), an incidence of 15%. Compared to the 85 patients who did not develop hypercalcemia, this population had a significantly higher frequency of the following: renal failure, dialysis, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) usage greater than 21 days, bacteremic days greater than 1, transfusions greater than 24 units, shock greater than 1 day, SICU days greater than 36, and antibiotics used greater than 7. In addition, this group had significantly more days of hypocalcemia early in their hospital course. There was no difference in sex, age, mortality, or incidence of respiratory failure. Two patients studied in depth had renal failure requiring dialysis and no malignancy, milk-alkali syndrome, hyperthyroidism, or hypoadrenalism. Parathormone (PTH) concentrations were high normal or elevated (N terminal 20 and 21 pg/ml; C terminal 130 microliters Eq/ml and 1009 pg/ml) at the time of elevated calcium (total 9.2 to 14.6 mg%; ionized 4.9 to 8.2 mg%). Immobilization does not increase PTH. In renal failure, PTH elevation is a consequence of hypocalcemia rather than hypercalcemia. Moreover, five patients did not have renal failure. Shock, sepsis, and multiple transfusions containing citrate may lower total and/or ionized calcium and thus stimulate PTH secretion. Whatever the mechanism, approximately 15% of critically ill surgical patients develop hypercalcemia, which may represent a new form of hyperparathyroidism. PMID:3931594

  16. The Process of Oncology Nurse Practitioner Patient Navigation: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Frances

    2016-04-01

    Oncology nurse practitioner (ONP) patient navigators may improve clinical outcomes. However, no standard measures of the process of oncology patient navigation or of related clinical outcomes exist, and research in this area is limited. The exploratory pilot study detailed in this article used grounded theory and interviews with three ONPs to define the processes employed by ONP patient navigators in caring for patients with cancer.
. PMID:26991716

  17. Understanding the Differences Between Oncology Patients and Oncology Health Professionals Concerning Spirituality/Religiosity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mayara Goulart de; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Barroso, Eliane Marçon; Carneseca, Estela Cristina; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated whether spirituality/religiosity (S/R) plays an important role in the lives of cancer patients and in the work of health professionals who provide care for these patients. The correlations between spiritual quality of life (QOL) and the other QOL domain scores of patients and health professionals were also assessed. Moreover, QOL domain scores were compared between patients and health professionals. In this cross-sectional study, 1050 participants (525 oncology patients and 525 health professionals) were interviewed. Quality of life was assessed with the World Health Organization quality of life spiritual, religious, and personal beliefs (WHOQOL-SRPB). To compare the groups with respect to the instruments' domains, a quantile regression and an analysis of covariance model were used. The WHOQOL-Bref and WHOQOL-SRPB domains were correlated by performing Pearson and partial correlation tests. It was demonstrated that 94.1% of patients considered it important that health professionals addressed their spiritual beliefs, and 99.2% of patients relied on S/R to face cancer. Approximately, 99.6% of the patients reported that S/R support is necessary during cancer treatment; 98.3% of health professionals agreed that spiritual and religious support was necessary for oncology patients. Positive correlations between spiritual QOL and the other QOL domains were observed. When compared among themselves, patients exhibited significantly higher levels of spiritual QOL. In conclusion, S/R was an important construct in the minds of cancer patients and health professionals. Both groups often use S/R resources in their daily lives, which seems to positively affect their perceptions of QOL. Further studies are needed to determine how health professionals effectively address S/R during oncology practice. PMID:26632743

  18. Positive patient experiences in an Australian integrative oncology centre

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of cancer patients’ utilising complementary and integrative therapies (CIT) within integrative oncology centres across Western Australia. Methods Across four locations 135 patients accessed CIT services whilst undergoing outpatient medical treatment for cancer. Of the 135 patients, 66 (61 ± 12 y; female n = 45; male n = 21) agreed to complete a personal accounts questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions designed to explore patients’ perceptions of CIT. All results were transcribed into nVivo (v9) and using thematic analysis, key themes were identified. Results Of the 66 participants, 100% indicated they would “recommend complementary therapies to other patients” and 92% stated “CIT would play a significant role in their future lifestyle”. A mean score of 8 ± 1 indicated an improvement in participants’ perception of wellbeing following a CIT session. Three central themes were identified: empowerment, support and relaxation. Fourteen sub-themes were identified, with all themes clustered into a framework of multifaceted views held by cancer patients in relation to wellbeing, role of significant others and control. Conclusions Exploration of patients’ experiences reveals uniformly positive results. One of the key merits of the environment created within the centres is patients are able to work through their cancer journey with an increased sense of empowerment, without placing them in opposition to conventional medical treatment. In order to effectively target integrative support services it is crucial to explore the experiences of patients in their own words and use those forms of expression to drive service delivery. PMID:24886476

  19. International Society of Geriatric Oncology Consensus on Geriatric Assessment in Older Patients With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wildiers, Hans; Heeren, Pieter; Puts, Martine; Topinkova, Eva; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L.G.; Extermann, Martine; Falandry, Claire; Artz, Andrew; Brain, Etienne; Colloca, Giuseppe; Flamaing, Johan; Karnakis, Theodora; Kenis, Cindy; Audisio, Riccardo A.; Mohile, Supriya; Repetto, Lazzaro; Van Leeuwen, Barbara; Milisen, Koen; Hurria, Arti

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To update the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) 2005 recommendations on geriatric assessment (GA) in older patients with cancer. Methods SIOG composed a panel with expertise in geriatric oncology to develop consensus statements after literature review of key evidence on the following topics: rationale for performing GA; findings from a GA performed in geriatric oncology patients; ability of GA to predict oncology treatment–related complications; association between GA findings and overall survival (OS); impact of GA findings on oncology treatment decisions; composition of a GA, including domains and tools; and methods for implementing GA in clinical care. Results GA can be valuable in oncology practice for following reasons: detection of impairment not identified in routine history or physical examination, ability to predict severe treatment-related toxicity, ability to predict OS in a variety of tumors and treatment settings, and ability to influence treatment choice and intensity. The panel recommended that the following domains be evaluated in a GA: functional status, comorbidity, cognition, mental health status, fatigue, social status and support, nutrition, and presence of geriatric syndromes. Although several combinations of tools and various models are available for implementation of GA in oncology practice, the expert panel could not endorse one over another. Conclusion There is mounting data regarding the utility of GA in oncology practice; however, additional research is needed to continue to strengthen the evidence base. PMID:25071125

  20. Safety of pull-type and introducer percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes in oncology patients: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) allows long-term tube feeding. Safety of pull-type and introducer PEG placement in oncology patients with head/neck or oesophageal malignancies is unknown. Methods Retrospective analysis of 299 patients undergoing PEG tube placement between January 2006 and December 2008 revealed 57 oncology patients. All patients with head/neck or oesophageal malignancy were treated with chemo- and radiotherapy. In case of high-grade stenosis introducer Freka® Pexact PEG tube was placed (n = 24) and in all other patients (n = 33) conventional pull-type PEG tube. Short-term complications and mortality rates were compared. Results Patients' characteristics and clinical status were comparable in both groups. Short-term complications were encountered in 11/24 (48%) introducer PEG patients as compared to only 4/33 (12%) pull-type PEG patients (P < 0.05). Accidental removal of the introducer PEG tube occurred in 4/24 (17%) with need for surgical intervention in 1 vs. 0/33 (0%, P < 0.05). Wound infection occurred in 3/24 (12%) leading to septic shock and admission to intensive care unit (ICU) in 1 vs. 3/33 (9%, NS). Finally, 3/24 gastrointestinal perforations (12%) resulted from a difficult placement procedure vs. 1/33 (3%), leading to urgent surgical intervention and admission to ICU. Two introducer PEG patients died at ICU, resulting in an overall mortality rate of 8% vs. 0% (P = 0.091). Conclusion The introducer Freka® Pexact PEG procedure for long-term tube feeding may lead to significantly higher complication and mortality rates in patients with head/neck or oesophageal malignancies treated with chemo- and radiotherapy. It is suggested to use the conventional pull-type PEG tube placement in this group of patients, if possible. PMID:21410958

  1. Oncology Nursing Minimum Data Set (ONMDS): can we hypothesize a set of prevalent Nursing Sensitive Outcomes (NSO) in cancer patients?

    PubMed Central

    Milani, A; Mauri, S; Gandini, S; Magon, G

    2013-01-01

    Background The nursing minimum data set (NMDS) was created in 1977 in the United States to collect uniform standardised data that could be comparable among different nursing areas or patients. So far, in the literature, an NMDS in an oncology setting has not yet been described. Considering an oncology nursing minimum data set (ONMDS), which data could be chosen to define this tool regarding cancer patient care? Material and methods At the European Institute of Oncology (IEO), 20 experienced oncology nurses representing surgical, medical, and critical areas participated in a nursing record working group. All nurses followed an educational course on NMDS, and they shared clinical experiences to find which data common among different areas could be useful to care. To identify these data, nurses considered three issues: what is nursing care for nurses in the IEO? What is the nurses’ responsibility in the IEO? What is the organisational nursing model in the IEO? Nurses in the IEO are autonomous in decision making and recognised by patients and by a multi-professional team; the organisational nursing model is primary nursing with patient-centred care. Nursing data must therefore show the quality and results of this care. With this in mind, the working group decided to orient the ONMDS toward nursing-sensitive outcomes (NSOs), meeting also with psychologists, physiotherapists, and dieticians. Nurses analysed Oncology Nursing Society outcomes, and through focus groups, experiential meetings, role playing, and case studies, they integrated them with other NSOs. Results The ONMDS is composed of 49 NSOs recognised as the most common and frequent oncologic outcomes regardless of the treatment that the patient undergoes. These outcomes were clustered into 15 categories. The categories are: gastrointestinal outcomes, genitourinary outcomes, respiratory outcomes, skin outcomes, fluid and electrolyte balance outcomes, neurological outcomes, security, functional status, vascular

  2. Resecting diffuse low-grade gliomas to the boundaries of brain functions: a new concept in surgical neuro-oncology.

    PubMed

    Duffau, H

    2015-12-01

    The traditional dilemma making surgery for diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGGs) challenging is underlain by the need to optimize tumor resection in order to significantly increase survival versus the risk of permanent neurological morbidity. Development of neuroimaging led neurosurgeons to achieve tumorectomy according to the oncological limits provided by preoperative or intraoperative structural and metabolic imaging. However, this principle is not coherent, neither with the infiltrative nature of DLGGs nor with the limited resolution of current neuroimaging. Indeed, despite technical advances, MRI still underestimates the actual spatial extent of gliomas, since tumoral cells are present several millimeters to centimeters beyond the area of signal abnormalities. Furthermore, cortical and subcortical structures may be still crucial for brain functions despite their invasion by this diffuse tumoral disease. Finally, the lack of reliability of functional MRI has also been demonstrated. Therefore, to talk about "maximal safe resection" based upon neuroimaging is a non-sense, because oncological MRI does not show the tumor and functional MRI does not show critical neural pathways. This review proposes an original concept in neuro-oncological surgery, i.e. to resect DLGG to the boundaries of brain functions, thanks to intraoperative electrical mapping performed in awake patients. This paradigmatic shift from image-guided resection to functional mapping-guided resection, based upon an accurate study of brain connectomics and neuroplasticity in each patient throughout tumor removal has permitted to solve the classical dilemma, by increasing both survival and quality of life in DLGG patients. With this in mind, brain surgeons should also be neuroscientists. PMID:25907410

  3. Surgical Guides (Patient-Specific Instruments) for Pediatric Tibial Bone Sarcoma Resection and Allograft Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bellanova, Laura; Paul, Laurent; Docquier, Pierre-Louis

    2013-01-01

    To achieve local control of malignant pediatric bone tumors and to provide satisfactory oncological results, adequate resection margins are mandatory. The local recurrence rate is directly related to inappropriate excision margins. The present study describes a method for decreasing the resection margin width and ensuring that the margins are adequate. This method was developed in the tibia, which is a common site for the most frequent primary bone sarcomas in children. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) were used for preoperative planning to define the cutting planes for the tumors: each tumor was segmented on MRI, and the volume of the tumor was coregistered with CT. After preoperative planning, a surgical guide (patient-specific instrument) that was fitted to a unique position on the tibia was manufactured by rapid prototyping. A second instrument was manufactured to adjust the bone allograft to fit the resection gap accurately. Pathologic evaluation of the resected specimens showed tumor-free resection margins in all four cases. The technologies described in this paper may improve the surgical accuracy and patient safety in surgical oncology. In addition, these techniques may decrease operating time and allow for reconstruction with a well-matched allograft to obtain stable osteosynthesis. PMID:23533326

  4. Managing anxiety in the elective surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Michael John

    Patients coming into hospital can suffer a great deal of anxiety--Mathews et al (1981) suggested patients who undergo surgery experience acute psychological distress in the pre-operative period. These fears manifest themselves as uncertainty, loss of control and decreased self-esteem, anticipation of postoperative pain, and fear of separation from family (Egan et al, 1992; Asilioglu and Celik, 2004). As technical advances and improved anaesthetic techniques become available to the NHS, the ability to offer day surgery to a wider patient population is increasing. In fact Bernier et al (2003) and Elliott et al (2003) have suggested that 60% of future operations will be day procedures. This means as health-care professionals, nurses will have shorter time available not only to identify patients who may be experiencing anxiety, but also to offer them the support they need to cope with the surgery. Anxiety can have a profound effect on patients--it affects them in a variety of ways, from ignoring the illness, which could have a serious impact on the patient's life, to the constant demand for attention which can take the nurse away from the care of other patients on the ward (Thomas et al, 1995). Recently, there has been increasing interest in the possible influences of properative anxiety on the course and outcome of surgical procedures and the potential benefits of anxiety-reducing interventions (Markland et al, 1993). Caumo et al (2001) suggested that pre-operative management of a patients anxiety would be improved if health-care professionals had more knowledge about the potential predictors of pre-operative anxiety. PMID:19373185

  5. Oral Health Status of Patients Undergoing Treatment for Head and Neck Oncology in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ciaran; Killough, Simon; Markey, Neill; Winning, Lewis; McKenna, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to collect data on the oral health status of patients undergoing treatment for head and neck oncology across Northern Ireland. Data were collected on all patients referred to the Northern Ireland Multidisciplinary Head and Neck Oncology Team for discussion and treatment planning. Each patient underwent pre-treatment dental assessment in the Centre for Dentistry, Queen's University Belfast, between June 2013 and November 2014. Data were collected from clinical oral examinations supplemented with intra-oral radiographs. During the course of the study 96 patients were assessed and the levels of dental disease observed in this cohort were high. On clinical examination 43% were diagnosed with caries and 46% with periodontal disease. Ten patients were completely edentate. The disease profile of this patient group presents significant challenges to dental services tasked with rendering patients dentally fit prior to undergoing oncology treatment. PMID:27424336

  6. Ethical dilemmas for pediatric surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Boudreaux, Arthur M; Tilden, Samuel J

    2002-03-01

    Anesthesiologists are confronted with interesting and sometimes difficult ethical situations in pediatric surgery. They are forced to deal with everything from "do not resuscitate" issues, heroic last-chance surgical efforts, religious and cultural conflicts, disputes among colleagues, and situations that are, at worst, uncomfortable and, at best, miscarriages of duty. It is incumbent on anesthesiologists to learn how to logically and appropriately handle these issues. The pediatric surgical patient requires special consideration in bioethics. This article discusses the principle of autonomy and its ascension in importance in bioethics. The concepts of informed parental permission, assent, and dissent are presented. The authors provide a framework for ethical problem-solving, as well as a discussion of judicial decision-making. In addition, several examples of clinical-ethical situations and the processes used for resolutions are discussed. By using a well-reasoned ethical decision-making process, any situation, from the simple conflict to the most serious resuscitation and withdrawal of care issues, may be appropriately resolved. PMID:11892507

  7. Intramedullary hemangioblastomas: surgical results in 16 patients.

    PubMed

    Joaquim, Andrei F; Ghizoni, Enrico; dos Santos, Marcos Juliano; Valadares, Marcelo Gomes C; da Silva, Felipe Soares; Tedeschi, Helder

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT Hemangioblastomas are rare, benign, highly vascularized tumors that can be found throughout the neuraxis but are mainly located in the cerebellum and in the spinal cord. Spinal hemangioblastomas can present with motor and sensory deficits, whose severity varies according to the size and location of the tumor. Resection is the best treatment option to avoid neurological deterioration. The authors report surgical results in the treatment of intramedullary hemangioblastomas and discuss the technical nuances important to achieving total resection without adding new deficits. METHODS A consecutive series of patients with intramedullary hemangioblastomas operated on between 2000 and 2014 by the senior author (H.T.) is presented. The functional scale proposed by McCormick was used to evaluate the patients' neurological status before and after surgery. RESULTS Sixteen patients were included in the study and underwent 17 surgeries. Follow-up was at least 6 months. Age at presentation varied from 13 to 58 years (mean 33.8 years). Ten patients (62.5%) were males and 6 patients (37.5%) were females. Seven (43.75%) of the 16 patients had associated von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, with hemangioblastomas also presenting in other locations. Three patients had multiple tumors in the same segment in the spinal cord, and 10 patients (62.5%) presented with cysts. According to the site of presentation, 11 tumors (68.75%) were localized at the cervical region (including the cervicomedullary junction) and 5 tumors (31.25%) at the thoracic level. Total resection was achieved in all cases, evidenced by postoperative MRI. Four patients had some functional worsening immediately after surgery. After 6 months, 1 patient had functional worsening compared with preoperative status, and 2 patients had clinical improvement. The majority of the patients remained clinically stable postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS Adequate knowledge of anatomy and the correct use of microsurgical techniques allowed

  8. [Evidence and recommendations for oncologic clinical exercise - a personalized treatment concept for cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Baumann, Freerk Theeagnus; Hallek, Michael; Meyer, Janika; Galvão, Daniel Abido; Bloch, Wilhelm; Elter, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Oncological treatments can lead to acute and chronic cancer related toxicities. In recent years, a large number of clinical studies have reported positive effects of exercise to the bio-psycho-social regeneration of cancer patients. However, very few evidence-based programs have been implemented into practice with little opportunity for cancer patients to engage in such programs. Reviews and RCT studies on exercise and cancer are showing that specific exercise programs have a positive impact on fatigue syndrome, urinary incontinence, lymphedema, polyneuropathy, arthralgia, and androgen deprivation related toxicities. With the increasing evidence for exercise oncology interventions, recommendations arising from clinical trials should be translated into clinical practice and this should be viewed as an important next step in this fast moving field of exercise oncology. For that the personalized treatment concept "Oncologic clinical exercise" (OTT) was developed. PMID:26402184

  9. [Surgical approach to posthepatitic cirrhotic patient today].

    PubMed

    Meriggi, F; Forni, E

    1996-01-01

    A posthepatitic cirrhotic patient may undergo elective or urgent abdominal operation for an extra-hepatic or hepatic disease. According to the high postoperative morbidity (61%), surgery is indicated only for symptomatic or complicated cholelithiasis. A surgical procedure for refractory ascites has been devised to create a permanent peritoneo-venous shunt by a one way pressure-sensitive valve (Leveen). The procedure is simple and brings a long lasting relief with recovery in strength and nutrition and improved kidney function. Sclerotherapy is widely used to treat acute variceal bleeding while repeated sclerotherapy is used in the long-term management to eradicate varices. When indicated, liver transplantation is the best treatment to prevent variceal bleeding recurrence. Also portosystemic shunts effectively prevent recurrent variceal bleeding. They are, however, major operations with an important morbidity and mortality, particularly in poor risk patients. The most advocated shunts today are the Warren distal splenorenal shunt and the Sarfeh portacaval shunt using a small diameter prosthetic H-graft. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPSS) is a new treatment for portal hypertension and its complications. From a haemodynamic point of view it allows balanced hepatic perfusion. Postoperative mortality is rare; further bleeding and encephalopathy are reasonably acceptable. The most relevant complications concern dislocation of the prosthesis, stenosis and thrombosis of the shunt, which can be corrected by non-invasive dilatation. Encephalopathy is the main complication of surgical portosystemic shunts. It is usually controlled by protein diet restriction, and administration of lactulose or oral antibiotics. In severe forms the patients may be treated by an oesophageal transection with oesophagogastric devascularization, and by a postoperative suppression of the portosystemic shunt using external maneuvers. Posthepatitic liver cirrhosis is

  10. Healing the mind/body split: bringing the patient back into oncology.

    PubMed

    Greer, Steven

    2003-03-01

    The effect on oncology of the doctrine of Cartesian dualism is examined. It is argued that (1) this doctrine continues to exert a baneful (though unacknowledged) influence on the practice of oncology, (2) Descartes's doctrine of a mind/body split is mistaken, and (3) mind and body (brain) are inextricably interwoven. A biopsychosocial model of disease is advocated. The role of psychooncology in healing the mind/body split by focusing research attention on the patient is outlined. PMID:12941164

  11. A comparison of preliminary oncologic outcome and postoperative complications between patients undergoing either open or robotic radical cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Cusano, Antonio; Haddock, Peter; Jackson, Max; Staff, Ilene; Wagner, Joseph; Meraney, Anoop

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare complications and outcomes in patients undergoing either open radical cystectomy (ORC) or robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RRC). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified patients that underwent ORC or RRC between 2003- 2013. We statistically compared preliminary oncologic outcomes of patients for each surgical modality. Results: 92 (43.2%) and 121 (56.8%) patients underwent ORC and RRC, respectively. While operative time was shorter for ORC patients (403 vs. 508 min; p<0.001), surgical blood loss and transfusion rates were significantly lower in RRC patients (p<0.001 and 0.006). Length of stay was not different between groups (p=0.221). There was no difference in the proportion of lymph node-positive patients between groups. However, RRC patients had a greater number of lymph nodes removed during surgery (18 vs. 11.5; p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the incidence of pre-existing comorbidities or in the Clavien distribution of complications between groups. ORC and RRC patients were followed for a median of 1.38 (0.55-2.7) and 1.40 (0.582.59) years, respectively (p=0.850). During this period, a lower proportion (22.3%) of RRC patients experienced disease recurrence vs. ORC patients (34.8%). However, there was no significant difference in time to recurrence between groups. While ORC was associated with a higher all-cause mortality rate (p=0.049), there was no significant difference in disease-free survival time between groups. Conclusions: ORC and RRC patients experience postoperative complications of similar rates and severity. However, RRC may offer indirect benefits via reduced surgical blood loss and need for transfusion. PMID:27564275

  12. Geriatric oncology: comparing health related quality of life in head and neck cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Population ageing is increasing the number of people annually diagnosed with cancer worldwide, once most types of tumours are age-dependent. High-quality healthcare in geriatric oncology requires a multimodal approach and should take into account stratified patient outcomes based on factors other than chronological age in order to develop interventions able to optimize oncology care. This study aims to evaluate the Health Related Quality of Life in head and neck cancer patients and compare the scores in geriatric and younger patients. Methods Two hundred and eighty nine head and neck cancer patients from the Oncology Portuguese Institute participated in the Health Related Quality of Life assessment. Two patient groups were considered: the geriatric (≥ 65 years old, n = 115) and the younger (45-60 years old, n= 174). The EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires were used. Results Head and neck cancer patients were mostly males, 77.4% within geriatric group and 91.4% among younger patients group. The most frequent tumour locations were similar in both groups: larynx, oral cavity and oropharynx - base of the tongue. At the time of diagnosis, most of younger male patients were at disease stage III/IV (55.9%) whereas the majority of younger female patients were at disease stage I/II (83.4%). The geriatric patient distribution was found to be similar in any of the four disease stages and no gender differences were observed. We found that age (geriatrics scored generally worse), gender (females scored generally worse), and tumour site (larynx tumours denounce more significant problems between age groups) clearly influences Health Related Quality of Life perceptions. Conclusions Geriatric oncology assessments signalize age-independent indicators that might guide oncologic geriatric care optimization. Decision-making in geriatric oncology must be based on tumour characteristics and chronological age but also on performance status evaluation, co

  13. High colonization rate and prolonged shedding of Clostridium difficile in pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Samuel R; Dolan, Susan A; West, Kelly; Dantes, Raymund B; Epson, Erin; Friedman, Deborah; Littlehorn, Cynthia A; Arms, Lesley E; Walton, Karen; Servetar, Ellen; Frank, Daniel N; Kotter, Cassandra V; Dowell, Elaine; Gould, Carolyn V; Hilden, Joanne M; Todd, James K

    2014-08-01

    Surveillance testing for Clostridium difficile among pediatric oncology patients identified stool colonization in 29% of patients without gastrointestinal symptoms and in 55% of patients with prior C. difficile infection (CDI). A high prevalence of C. difficile colonization and diarrhea complicates the diagnosis of CDI in this population. PMID:24785235

  14. The Effectiveness of a Participatory Program on Fall Prevention in Oncology Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Li-Chi; Ma, Wei-Fen; Li, Tsai-Chung; Liang, Yia-Wun; Tsai, Li-Yun; Chang, Fy-Uan

    2015-01-01

    Falls are known to be one of the most common in patient adverse events. A high incidence of falls was reported on patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of a participatory program on patient's knowledge and self-efficacy of fall prevention and fall incidence in an oncology ward. In this quasi-experimental study,…

  15. The Use of Art in the Medical Decision-Making Process of Oncology Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of written informed consent in the 1970s created expectations of shared decision making between doctors and patients that has led to decisional conflict for some patients. This study utilized a collaborative, intrinsic case study approach to the decision-making process of oncology patients who participated in an open art therapy…

  16. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in hemato-oncological patients: A case control study in 144 patients

    PubMed Central

    Fuereder, Thorsten; Koni, Danjel; Gleiss, Andreas; Kundi, Michael; Makristathis, Athanasios; Zielinski, Christoph; Steininger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hemato-oncologic patients is conflicting. We studied risk factors for CDI in a large, well-characterized cohort of hemato-oncological patients. 144 hemato-oncological patients were identified in this retrospective, single center study with a microbiologically confirmed CDI-associated diarrhea. Patients were compared with 144 age and sex matched hemato-oncologic patients with CDI negative diarrhea. Risk factors such as prior antimicrobial therapy, type of disease, chemotherapy and survival were evaluated. CDI-positive patients received more frequently any antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial combination therapy than CDI-negative patients (79% vs. 67%; OR = 2.26, p = 0.038 and OR = 2.62, p = 0.003, respectively). CDI positive patients were treated more frequently with antimicrobial agents active against C. difficile than CDI negative ones (25% vs. 13%; OR = 2.2, p = 0.039). The interval between last chemotherapy and onset of diarrhea was significantly shorter in patients without CDI (median, 17 days vs 36 days; p < 0.001). Our study demonstrates that chemotherapy is not a significant risk factor for CDI but for early onset CDI negative diarrhea. The predominant modifiable risk factor for CDI is in hemato-oncological patients antimicrobial treatment. These findings should be taken into account in the daily clinical practice to avoid CDI associated complications and excess health care costs. PMID:27510591

  17. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in hemato-oncological patients: A case control study in 144 patients.

    PubMed

    Fuereder, Thorsten; Koni, Danjel; Gleiss, Andreas; Kundi, Michael; Makristathis, Athanasios; Zielinski, Christoph; Steininger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hemato-oncologic patients is conflicting. We studied risk factors for CDI in a large, well-characterized cohort of hemato-oncological patients. 144 hemato-oncological patients were identified in this retrospective, single center study with a microbiologically confirmed CDI-associated diarrhea. Patients were compared with 144 age and sex matched hemato-oncologic patients with CDI negative diarrhea. Risk factors such as prior antimicrobial therapy, type of disease, chemotherapy and survival were evaluated. CDI-positive patients received more frequently any antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial combination therapy than CDI-negative patients (79% vs. 67%; OR = 2.26, p = 0.038 and OR = 2.62, p = 0.003, respectively). CDI positive patients were treated more frequently with antimicrobial agents active against C. difficile than CDI negative ones (25% vs. 13%; OR = 2.2, p = 0.039). The interval between last chemotherapy and onset of diarrhea was significantly shorter in patients without CDI (median, 17 days vs 36 days; p < 0.001). Our study demonstrates that chemotherapy is not a significant risk factor for CDI but for early onset CDI negative diarrhea. The predominant modifiable risk factor for CDI is in hemato-oncological patients antimicrobial treatment. These findings should be taken into account in the daily clinical practice to avoid CDI associated complications and excess health care costs. PMID:27510591

  18. Fertility Protection in Female Oncology Patients: How Should Patients Be Counseled?

    PubMed Central

    Findeklee, S.; Lotz, L.; Heusinger, K.; Hoffmann, I.; Dittrich, R.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Protecting the fertility of patients with oncologic disease is becoming more and more important, as fulfilling the wish to have children is increasingly occurring at a later stage in life and long-term survival rates after cancer are continuing to improve. A number of fertility-preserving options exist. In addition to techniques which have been around for some time such as medical ovarian suppression, ovarian transposition, and organ-preserving surgery, there are other, more recent, innovative methods which have developed over the last few years such as cryopreservation of oocytes or ovarian tissue transplantation after completing cancer therapy. As every procedure has its specific advantages and disadvantages, informed patient consent is essential. The physicianʼs aim must be to select the optimal procedure for each patient. The extent of patientsʼ information about the options to preserve fertility in women with oncologic disease remains limited. One of the main reasons for this is that clinicians are not sure how to inform patients about existing procedures and methods. The aim of this review article is to provide help in clinical practice. PMID:26726265

  19. Integrative Therapy Use for Management of Side Effects and Toxicities Experienced by Pediatric Oncology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Shana S

    2014-01-01

    Integrative Therapies (IT), otherwise known as Complementary and Alternative Medicine, are widely used among pediatric oncology patients, despite a paucity of available evidence. This review summarizes surveys that describe the prevalence of IT use by pediatric oncology patients, both during therapy and in survivorship, as well as the modalities being used. Additionally, the evidence that exists for specific treatments that appear to be efficacious in controlling specific symptoms is described. Finally, there are recommendations for practitioners on how to best counsel patients about IT use. PMID:27417488

  20. Oncology nurses’ communication challenges with patients and families: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Smita C.; Manna, Ruth; Coyle, Nessa; Shen, Megan Johnson; Pehrson, Cassandra; Zaider, Talia; Hammonds, Stacey; Krueger, Carol A.; Parker, Patricia A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of effective communication in an oncology setting are multifold and include the overall well-being of patients and health professionals, adherence to treatment regimens, psychological functioning, and improvements in quality of life. Nevertheless, there are substantial barriers and communication challenges reported by oncology nurses. This study was conducted to present a summary of communication challenges faced by oncology nurses. From November 2012 to March 2014, 121 inpatient nurses working in the oncology setting participated in an online pre-training qualitative survey that asked nurses to describe common communication challenges in communicating empathy and discussing death, dying, and end-of-life (EOL) goals of care. The results revealed six themes that describe the challenges in communicating empathically: dialectic tensions, burden of carrying bad news, lack of skills for providing empathy, perceived institutional barriers, challenging situations, and perceived dissimilarities between the nurse and the patient. The results for challenges in discussing death, dying and EOL goals of care revealed five themes: dialectic tensions, discussing specific topics related to EOL, lack of skills for providing empathy, patient/family characteristics, and perceived institutional barriers. This study emphasizes the need for institutions to provide communication skills training to their oncology nurses for navigating through challenging patient interactions. PMID:26278636

  1. Scope and limitations of minimal invasive surgery in practice of pediatric surgical oncology

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Sushmita; Sarin, Yogesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Management of Solid tumors in children needs a comprehensive multimodality protocol based treatment plan. Open surgical removal of the tumors occurring in any of the sites such as abdomen, thorax, chest wall, HFN (head, face, neck), brain and extremities, is the option which has been traditionally practiced even in the present era and in most of the centers. Nevertheless with the advances in science and technology and with ever increasing usage and expertise of laparoscopy in children, it’s application has extended to treatment of solid tumors in children. A review of the scope of such intervention as well as the limitations of minimal invasive surgery in this specialized field of pediatric surgery has been attempted in this article. PMID:21584219

  2. Group Therapy with Patients in the Waiting Room of an Oncology Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnowitz, Edward; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a therapy group for cancer patients, conducted by cotherapists in an oncology waiting room. Group members provided mutual support and shared concerns and coping methods. Medical staff members became more involved and were more able to address the affective needs of the patients and their families. (JAC)

  3. Caring for head and neck oncology patients. Does social support lead to better quality of life?

    PubMed Central

    Mathieson, C. M.; Logan-Smith, L. L.; Phillips, J.; MacPhee, M.; Attia, E. L.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether social support contributes to better quality of life and psychological state of head and neck oncology patients. DESIGN: A structured questionnaire, administered orally to patients face-to-face, with specific questions about demographic and medical information and social support and two standardized scales; a cancer-specific quality of life scale and a depression scale. SETTING: Head and Neck Oncology Clinic, an institutional referral centre providing ambulatory care at the Camp Hill Medical Centre in Halifax, NS. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five head and neck oncology patients (33 men, 12 women) who came for follow-up appointments at the clinic. One person did not complete the interview. Fifty patients were approached, but five were not included: one died before the interview, and four agreed to participate but were prevented by transportation or timing problems. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scores on the Functional Living Index-Cancer Scale and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. RESULTS: Four main factors predicted quality of life: satisfaction with family physician support, severity of cancer, sex of patient, and type of cancer. Three important predictors of psychological state were loss of appetite, family physician support, and sex of patient. CONCLUSION: Social support, particularly from family physicians, contributes greatly to better quality of life and psychological state for head and neck oncology patients. PMID:8828874

  4. Training of breast surgical oncologists.

    PubMed

    Teshome, Mediget; Kuerer, Henry M

    2016-06-01

    Breast surgical oncology is a defined sub-specialty of general surgery with focus on the surgical management of breast disease and malignancy within a multidisciplinary context. Much of the training of breast surgical oncologists in the United States exists within a fellowship training structure with oversight and approval by the Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO). Rapid continuous changes in breast oncology practice have further substantiated dedicated expertise in breast surgical oncology. Training programs are structured to develop proficiency in fellows for advanced surgical techniques and clinical decision-making as well as exposure to the multidisciplinary aspects of breast cancer management. Components of a successful program include an intense multidisciplinary curriculum, engagement in clinical research and attention to strong mentorship. National curriculum and training requirements as well as supplemental resources assist in standardizing the fellowship experience. As surgical training and the field of breast oncology continues to evolve, so do fellowship training programs to ensure high quality breast surgical oncologists equipped to deliver high quality evidence based patient care while continuing to drive future research and trainee education. PMID:27197510

  5. Management of vitiligo patients with surgical interventions.

    PubMed

    Shokeen, Divya

    2016-05-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired depigmentation disorder of unknown etiology. Medical treatments are usually reasonably effective for nonstable vitiligo patches; however, for vitiligo patches that have been stable for a substantial period of time, surgical intervention should be considered. In this article, surgical interventions for vitiligo are reviewed, including split-thickness skin grafting, suction blister grafting, miniature punch grafting, and cultured melanocyte transplantation. PMID:27274556

  6. Surgical Management of the Pediatric Cochlear Implant Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Seth M.; Haynes, David S.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the surgical management of children receiving cochlear implants. It identifies preoperative considerations to select patients likely to benefit, contraindications, some new surgical techniques, complications, special considerations (otitis media, meningitis, head growth, inner ear malformations, and cochlear obstruction).…

  7. [The experience of the "oncologic patient": (re)conceptualizing the informative act].

    PubMed

    Laranjeira, Carlos António

    2007-01-01

    The adaptation of the patient to the conditions of chronic illness makes the information given to the patient one of the most powerful strategies, capable of contributing to a change in the social representation of the patient, from that of a mere clinical case to that of a holistic being. The objective of this study was to investigate the scientific work published in periodicals indexed by the Medline and Lilacs databases between 1990 and 2006 as to the informative act and the different forms in which information is provided to oncology patients. This analysis of the literature led to the conclusion that there has been an increase in the volume of publications, underlining the role of the oncology patient as a catalyst for new strategies for psychosocial adjustment and revealing her key role through her status as a 'professional patient'. PMID:18472547

  8. Use of Psychosocial Services Increases after a Social Worker-Mediated Intervention in Gynecology Oncology Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Yuko; Shah, Nina R.; Ward, Kristy K.; McHale, Michael T.; Alvarez, Edwin A.; Saenz, Cheryl C.; Plaxe, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the introduction of psychosocial services to gynecologic oncology outpatients by a social worker increases service use. During the initial six weeks (phase I), patients were referred for psychosocial services by clinic staff. During the second six weeks (phase II), a nurse introduced available…

  9. Patients' Perspectives of Surgical Safety: Do They Feel Safe?

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Jennifer L.; Tillman, Matthew M.; Wehbe-Janek, Hania; Song, Juhee; Papaconstantinou, Harry T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased focus on reducing patient harm has led to surgical safety initiatives, including time-out, surgical safety checklists, and debriefings. The perception of the lay public of the surgical safety process is largely unknown. Methods A 20-question survey focused on perceptions of surgical safety practice was distributed to a random sample of patients following elective operations requiring hospitalization. Responses were measured by a 7-point Likert scale. Qualitative feedback was obtained through nonphysician-moderated sessions. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Results Surveys were distributed to 345 patients of whom 102 (29.5%) responded. Overall, patients felt safe as evidenced by scores for the questions “I felt safe the day of my surgery” (6.53 ± 0.72) and “Mistakes rarely happen during surgery” (5.39 ± 1.51). Patients undergoing their first surgery and patients with higher income levels were associated with a significant decrease in specific safety perceptions. Qualitative feedback sessions identified the physician-patient relationship as the most important factor positively influencing patient safety perceptions. Conclusion Current surgical safety practice is perceived positively by our patients; however, patients still identify physician-patient interactions, relationships, and trust as the most positive factors influencing their perception of the safety environment. PMID:26130976

  10. Perioperative Warming in Surgical Patients: A Comparison of Interventions.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Brenda; Kerr, Marsi; Van Poperin, Judy; Everett, Cindy; Stommel, Manfred; Lehto, Rebecca H

    2015-08-01

    The four arm study investigates how use of a preoperative forced-air warming blanket and adjustment of ambient surgical room temperature may contribute to prevention of perioperative hypothermia. Active warming interventions may prevent the drop in core temperature that occur as a result of surgical anesthesia. Core body temperatures from a convenience sample of 220 adult surgical patients were sequentially monitored in the preoperative, intraoperative, and post-anesthesia care units (PACU) while receiving: (a) routine surgical care, (b) application of preoperative forced-air warming blanket, (c) application of preoperative forced-air warming blanket with adjustment of ambient surgical room temperatures, or (d) adjustment of ambient surgical room temperature only. Sample characteristics were evenly distributed among the four groups. There were no statistical differences in PACU core body temperatures. The application of forced-air warming blankets and room temperature adjustment interventions were not more effective than current practice in preventing perioperative hypothermia. PMID:24913925

  11. Providing care for critically ill surgical patients: challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Tisherman, Samuel A; Kaplan, Lewis; Gracias, Vicente H; Beilman, Gregory J; Toevs, Christine; Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-07-01

    Providing optimal care for critically ill and injured surgical patients will become more challenging with staff shortages for surgeons and intensivists. This white paper addresses the historical issues behind the present situation, the need for all intensivists to engage in dedicated critical care per the intensivist model, and the recognition that intensivists from all specialties can provide optimal care for the critically ill surgical patient, particularly with continuing involvement by the surgeon of record. The new acute care surgery training paradigm (including trauma, surgical critical care, and emergency general surgery) has been developed to increase interest in trauma and surgical critical care, but the number of interested trainees remains too few. Recommendations are made for broadening the multidisciplinary training and practice opportunities in surgical critical care for intensivists from all base specialties and for maintaining the intensivist model within acute care surgery practice. Support from academic and administrative leadership, as well as national organizations, will be needed. PMID:23754675

  12. Inadvertant hypothermia and active warming for surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Judith

    Inadvertant hypothermia is common among surgical patients and can result in serious complications. This article describes active warming systems which can be used preoperatively and intraoperatively to prevent hypothermia and maintain normothermia (normal body temperature). PMID:22067488

  13. Evaluation of the effect of care given by nursing students on oncology patients' satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Can, Gulbeyaz; Akin, Semiha; Aydiner, Adnan; Ozdilli, Kursat; Durna, Zehra

    2008-09-01

    Patients' satisfaction with the care given by nursing students will have a say in the development of practical nursing student education and in improving the quality of clinical training. The purpose of this study was to test whether the Turkish version of "The Oncology Patients' Perceptions of the Quality of Nursing Care Scale-Short Form (OPPQNCS-SF)" is appropriate for oncology patients done by studying the tool's validity and reliability and to evaluate the effect of care given by nursing students on oncology patients' satisfaction with the care they receive. The Turkish version of OPPQNCS-SF's item-score correlation coefficients were rs=0.38-0.85 (p<0.05). The Cronbach values were 0.91 for the total scale, 0.66-0.87 for the subscales. The results show that the scale is a valid and reliable tool for Turkish patients. The mean scores for every subscale and item were high. The patients were most pleased about the respect they were shown, with the answered to their questions, with the sincere interest shown and with the knowledge of nurses about their condition. The patients' high level of satisfaction with the care nursing students gave is important to ensure that nurses, who will have primary responsibility for patient care in the future, receive a good clinical and theoretical education. PMID:18653383

  14. 2014 President's plenary international psycho-oncology society: moving toward cancer care for the whole patient.

    PubMed

    Bultz, Barry D; Travado, Luzia; Jacobsen, Paul B; Turner, Jane; Borras, Josep M; Ullrich, Andreas W H

    2015-12-01

    The International Psycho-oncology Society (IPOS) has just celebrated its 30th anniversary. The growth of psychosocial oncology has been exponential, and this relatively new field is becoming a core service that focuses on prevention, reducing the burden of cancer, and enhancing the quality of life from time of diagnosis, through treatment, survivorship, and palliative care. Looking back over the past 30 years, we see that cancer care globally has evolved to a new and higher standard. Today, 'cancer care for the whole patient' is being accomplished with an evidence-based model that addresses psychosocial needs and integrates psycho-oncology into the treatment and care of patients. The President's Plenary Session in Lisbon, Portugal, highlighted the IPOS Mission of promoting global excellence in psychosocial care of people affected by cancer through our research, public policy, advocacy, and education. The internationally endorsed IPOS Standard of Quality Cancer Care, for example, clearly states the necessity of integrating the psychosocial domain into routine care, and that distress should be measured as the sixth vital sign after temperature, blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, and pain. The plenary paper also discussed the global progress being made in Europe, North America, and Australia in providing quality cancer care for the whole patient. Collaborative partnerships between IPOS and organizations such as the European Partnership Action Against Cancer and the World Health Organization are essential in building capacity for the delivery of high-quality psycho-oncology services in the future. PMID:25963279

  15. Use of an electronic patient-reported outcome measurement system to improve distress management in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sophia K.; Rowe, Krista; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Management of patient distress is a critical task in cancer nursing and cancer practice. Here we describe two examples of how an electronic patient-reported outcome (ePRO) measurement system implemented into routine oncology care can practically aid clinical and research tasks related to distress management. Methods Tablet personal computers were used to routinely complete a standardized ePRO review of systems surveys at point of care during every encounter in the Duke Oncology outpatient clinics. Two cases of use implementation are explored: (1) triaging distressed patients for optimal care, and (2) psychosocial program evaluation research. Results Between 2009 and 2011, the ePRO system was used to collect information during 17,338 Duke Oncology patient encounters. The system was used to monitor patients for psychosocial distress employing an electronic clinical decision support algorithm, with 1,952 (11.3%) referrals generated for supportive services. The system was utilized to examine the efficacy of a psychosocial care intervention documenting statistically significant improvements in distress, despair, fatigue, and quality of life (QOL) in 50 breast cancer patients. Significance of results ePRO solutions can guide best practice management of cancer patient distress. Nurses play a key role in implementation and utilization. PMID:24128592

  16. Endoscopic laser therapy of erosive-ulcerous and inflammatory damages of patients in oncological hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, Oleg N.; Kuvshinov, Yu. P.; Poddubny, Boris K.; Kartasheva, E. O.; Ungiadze, G. V.; Ponomarev, Igor V.; Mazurov, S. T.

    1996-01-01

    The results of laser therapy present in 374 patients with erosive-ulcerous and inflammatory damages of respiratory organs and of gastro-intestinal tract after oncological operations. Two types of laser namely endoscopic laser on the basis of He-Ne and Cu laser were used as sources of radiation. It was shown high therapeutic effectiveness of laser therapy. This method may be recommended for the above-mentioned category of the patients.

  17. Complications and oncologic outcomes of pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Somintara, Ongart; Lertsithichai, Panuwat; Kongdan, Youwanush; Supsamutchai, Chairat; Sukpanich, Rupporn

    2016-01-01

    Background There are several techniques for harvesting the pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap after mastectomy in breast cancer patients. We examined the whole muscle with partial sheath sparing technique and determined factors associated with its complications and oncological outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the results of 168 TRAM flaps performed between January 2003 and December 2010, focusing on complications and oncologic outcomes. Results Among the 168 pedicled TRAM flap procedures in 158 patients, flap complications occurred in 34%. Most of the flap complications included some degree of fat necrosis. There was no total flap loss. Flap complications were associated with elderly patients and the presence of major donor site complications. Abdominal bulging and hernia occurred in 12% of patients. The bi-pedicled TRAM flap and higher body mass index (BMI) were significant factors associated with increased donor site complications. Seven patients (4%) developed loco-regional recurrence. Within a median follow-up of 27 months, distant metastasis and death occurred in 6% and 4% of patients, respectively. Conclusions The pedicled TRAM flap using the whole muscle with partial sheath sparing technique in the present study is consistent with the results from previous studies in flap complication rates and oncological outcomes. PMID:27563562

  18. Fears, Uncertainties, and Hopes: Patient-Initiated Actions and Doctors' Responses During Oncology Interviews.

    PubMed

    Beach, Wayne A; Dozier, David M

    2015-01-01

    New cancer patients frequently raise concerns about fears, uncertainties, and hopes during oncology interviews. This study sought to understand when and how patients raise their concerns, how doctors responded to these patient-initiated actions, and implications for communication satisfaction. A subsampling of video recorded and transcribed encounters was investigated involving 44 new patients and 14 oncologists. Patients completed pre/post self-report measures about fears, uncertainties, and hopes as well as postevaluations of interview satisfaction. Conversation analysis was used to initially identify pairs of patient-initiated and doctor-responsive actions. A coding scheme was subsequently developed, and two independent coding teams, comprised of two coders each, reliably identified patient-initiated and doctor-responsive social actions. Interactional findings reveal that new cancer patients initiate actions much more frequently than previous research had identified, concerns are usually raised indirectly, and with minimal emotion. Doctors tend to respond to these concerns immediately, but with even less affect, and rarely partner with patients. From pre/post results, it was determined that the higher patients' reported fears, the higher their postvisit fears and lower their satisfaction. Patients with high uncertainty were highly proactive (e.g., asked more questions), yet reported even greater uncertainties after encounters. Hopeful patients also exited interviews with high hopes. Overall, new patients were very satisfied: oncology interviews significantly decreased patients' fears and uncertainties, while increasing hopes. Discussion raises key issues for improving communication and managing quality cancer care. PMID:26134261

  19. Patient relevant endpoints in oncology: current issues in the context of early benefit assessment in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The German AMNOG healthcare reform includes a mandatory early-benefit-assessment (EBA) at launch. As per German social code, EBA is based on registration trials and includes evaluation of the patient-relevant effect of the new medicines compared to an appropriate comparator as defined by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA). Current EBA decisions released have unveiled issues regarding the acceptance of some patient-relevant endpoints as G-BA and IQWiG are grading the endpoints, focusing on overall survival as the preferred endpoint in oncology. A taskforce of experienced German outcomes research, medical, health-technology assessment and biostatistics researchers in industry was appointed. After agreement on core assumptions, a draft position was prepared. Input on iterative versions was solicited from a panel of reviewers from industry and external stakeholders. Distinctive features of registration trials in oncology need to be considered when these studies form basis for EBA, especially in cancer-indications with long post-progression survival; and with several consecutive therapeutic options available post-progression. Ethical committees, caregivers and patients often demand cross-over-designs diluting the treatment-effect on overall survival. Regulatory authorities require evaluation of morbidity-related study endpoints including survival of patients without their disease getting worse (i.e., progression-free survival). Also, progression requires treatment-changes, another strong indicator for its relevance to patients. Based on specific guidelines and clinical trial programs that were developed to be consistent with regulatory guidance, endpoints in oncology are thoroughly evaluated in terms of their patient-relevance. This extensive knowledge and experience should be fully acknowledged during EBA when assessing the patient-relevant benefit of innovative medicines in oncology. JEL codes D61; H51; I18. PMID:24460706

  20. Nationwide outcome registrations to improve quality of care in rectal surgery. An initiative of the European Society of Surgical Oncology.

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Willem; Wouters, Michel W J M; Peeters, Koen C M J; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2009-06-15

    In recent years there have been significant improvements in rectal cancer treatment. New surgical techniques as well as effective neoadjuvant treatment regimens have contributed to these improvements. Key is to spread these advances towards every rectal cancer patient and to ensure that not only patients who are treated within the framework of clinical trials may benefit from these advancements. Throughout Europe there have been interesting quality programmes that have proved to facilitate the spread of up to date knowledge and skills among medical professionals resulting in improved treatment outcome. Despite these laudable efforts there is still a wide variation in treatment outcome between countries, regions and institutions, which calls for a European audit on cancer treatment outcome. PMID:19031492

  1. Effect of Opiates, Anesthetic Techniques, and Other Perioperative Factors on Surgical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Alan David; Patel, Nayan; Bueno, Franklin Rivera; Hymel, Brad; Vadivelu, Nalini; Kodumudi, Gopal; Urman, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioid pharmacotherapy is often used to treat cancer pain. However, morphine and other opioid-like substance use in patients with cancer may have significant adverse consequences, including the suppression of both innate and acquired immune responses. Although studies have examined the possibility that regional anesthesia attenuates the immunosuppressive response of surgery, the effects of morphine and other opioid-related substances on tumor progression remain unknown. Methods This article presents an evidence-based review of the influence of opioids and anesthetic technique on the immune system in the context of cancer recurrence. The review focuses on the field of regional anesthesia and the setting of surgical oncologic procedures. The method for perioperative pain management and the technique of anesthesia chosen for patients in cancer surgery were explored. Results General anesthetics have been indicated to suppress both cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity. Evidence suggests that intravenous opioids suppress the immune system. However, the mechanisms by which anesthetics and analgesics inhibit the immune system are not understood. Compared with the alternatives, regional analgesia offers reduced blood loss and superior postoperative analgesia. Because of these advantages, the use of regional analgesia has increased in oncologic surgeries. Conclusion Immune responses from all components of the immune system, including both the humoral and cell-mediated components, appear to be suppressed by anesthetics and analgesics. The clinical anesthesiologist should consider these factors in the application of technique, especially in cancer surgery. PMID:24940132

  2. Surgical management in patient with uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Somasheila I; Pappuru, Rajeev Reddy; Latha, K Madhavi; Kamat, Sripathi; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-01-01

    Surgery in the management of uveitis can be divided based on indication: either for therapeutic or can be for diagnostic purposes or to manage complications. The commonest indications include: Visual rehabilitation: surgery for removal of cataract, band keratopathy, corneal scars, pupillary membranes, removal of dense vitreous membranes, management of complications: anti-glaucoma surgery, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment and chronic hypotony and diagnostic: aqueous tap, vitreous biopsy, tissue biopsy (iris, choroid). In this review, we shall describe the surgical technique for visual rehabilitation and for management of complications. PMID:23803480

  3. Patient-centered care in cancer treatment programs: the future of integrative oncology through psychoeducation.

    PubMed

    Garchinski, Christina M; DiBiase, Ann-Marie; Wong, Raimond K; Sagar, Stephen M

    2014-12-01

    The reciprocal relationship between the mind and body has been a neglected process for improving the psychosocial care of cancer patients. Emotions form an important link between the mind and body. They play a fundamental role in the cognitive functions of decision-making and symptom control. Recognizing this relationship is important for integrative oncology. We define psychoeducation as the teaching of self-evaluation and self-regulation of the mind-body process. A gap exists between research evidence and implementation into clinical practice. The patients' search for self-empowerment through the pursuit of complementary therapies may be a surrogate for inadequate psychoeducation. Integrative oncology programs should implement psychoeducation that helps patients to improve both emotional and cognitive intelligence, enabling them to better negotiate cancer treatment systems. PMID:25531048

  4. Frequency of and predictors for withholding patient safety concerns among oncology staff: a survey study.

    PubMed

    Schwappach, D L B; Gehring, K

    2015-05-01

    Speaking up about patient safety is vital to avoid errors reaching the patient and to improve a culture of safety. This study investigated the prevalence of non-speaking up despite concerns for safety and aimed to identify predictors for withholding voice among healthcare professionals (HCPs) in oncology. A self-administered questionnaire assessed safety concerns, speaking up beliefs and behaviours among nurses and doctors from nine oncology departments. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors for withholding safety concerns. A total of 1013 HCPs returned the completed survey (response rate 65%). Safety concerns were common among responders. Fifty-four per cent reported to recognise their colleagues making potentially harmful errors at least sometimes. A majority of responders reported at least some episodes of withholding concerns about patient safety. Thirty-seven per cent said they remained silent at least once when they had information that might have helped prevent an incident. Respondents believed that a high level of interpersonal, communication and coping skills are necessary to speak up about patient safety issues at their workplace. Higher levels of perceived advocacy for patient safety and psychological safety significantly decreased the frequency of withholding voice. Remaining silent about safety concerns is a common phenomenon in oncology. Improved strategies are needed to support staff in effective communication and make cancer care safer. PMID:25287114

  5. What Determines the Surgical Patient Experience? Exploring the Patient, Clinical Staff, and Administration Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mazurenko, Olena; Zemke, Dina; Lefforge, Noelle; Shoemaker, Stowe; Menachemi, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals are increasingly concerned with enhancing surgical patient experience given that Medicare reimbursements are now tied in part to patient satisfaction. Surgical patients' experience may be influenced by several factors (e.g., integration of care, technical aspects of care), which are ranked differently in importance by clinicians and patients. Strategies designed to improve patient experience can be informed by our research, which examines the determinants of the surgical patient experience from the perspective of multiple healthcare team members. We conducted 12 focus groups with surgical patients, family members, physicians, nurses, and hospital administrators at one acute care, for-profit hospital in a western state and analyzed the content for determinants of the overall surgical patient experience. Specifically, we analyzed the content of the conversations to determine how frequently participants discussed the determinants of the surgical patient experience and how positive, negative, or neutral the comments were. The study's findings suggest that surgical patients and members of the healthcare team have similar views regarding the most important factors in the patient experience-namely, interdisciplinary relationships, technical infrastructure, and staffing. The study results will be used to improve care in this facility and can inform the development of initiatives aimed at improving the surgical patient experience elsewhere. Our study could serve as a model for how other facilities can analyze the surgical patient experience from the perspectives of different stakeholders and improve their performance on the basis of data directly relevant to their organization. PMID:26554144

  6. Toward strategies for cost containment in surgical patients.

    PubMed Central

    Drucker, W R; Gavett, J W; Kirshner, R; Messick, W J; Ingersoll, G

    1983-01-01

    The University of Rochester, Department of Surgery, in response to an experimental community-wide limit on hospital budgets, studied high-cost general surgical patients as a potential source of leverage for containment of hospital costs. It was found that a small number of patients impact significantly on hospital costs. In 1980, 3935 patients at Strong Memorial Hospital (SMH) had at least one contact with a general surgical patient care or intensive care unit; 261 patients (6.6%) had total 1980 charges of more than $20,000 each. They contributed 32% of the total of both general surgical charges and patient days. A subset of 2021 patients was selected to represent more precisely the general surgical patient. The 85 high-cost patients (4.2%) of this subset were chosen for intensive study. These patients generated a significant and disproportionate per cent of total (2021) general surgical charges (26.8%) and hospital days (27.6%). Average total charges were more than 8 times those of the complementary general surgical subset (1936). Nineteen of the 85 patients (22.3%) died in the hospital and 42 patients (49.4%) were dead within 2 1/2 years. Forty patients (of the 85) were then further identified as "complex", based on multiple, usually unrelated, illnesses and multiple annual admissions. Tending to be elderly with poor prognoses, 60% of them had died by April 1983. The major criterion of complexity was the lack of a well-focused medical problem; the cure for one problem simply relinquished primacy to another. A parallel study of hospital ancillary procedures disclosed a similar high-cost pattern. Of approximately 4000 ancillary procedures, 100 (2.5%) had annual charges of $100,000 or over, accounting for two-thirds of total 1980 ancillary charges. Roughly 20% of a single patient's ordered procedures accounted for 80% of the patient's ancillary charges, thus allowing concentrated study of a relatively small number of charges. Means for cost containment may be

  7. Toward strategies for cost containment in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Drucker, W R; Gavett, J W; Kirshner, R; Messick, W J; Ingersoll, G

    1983-09-01

    The University of Rochester, Department of Surgery, in response to an experimental community-wide limit on hospital budgets, studied high-cost general surgical patients as a potential source of leverage for containment of hospital costs. It was found that a small number of patients impact significantly on hospital costs. In 1980, 3935 patients at Strong Memorial Hospital (SMH) had at least one contact with a general surgical patient care or intensive care unit; 261 patients (6.6%) had total 1980 charges of more than $20,000 each. They contributed 32% of the total of both general surgical charges and patient days. A subset of 2021 patients was selected to represent more precisely the general surgical patient. The 85 high-cost patients (4.2%) of this subset were chosen for intensive study. These patients generated a significant and disproportionate per cent of total (2021) general surgical charges (26.8%) and hospital days (27.6%). Average total charges were more than 8 times those of the complementary general surgical subset (1936). Nineteen of the 85 patients (22.3%) died in the hospital and 42 patients (49.4%) were dead within 2 1/2 years. Forty patients (of the 85) were then further identified as "complex", based on multiple, usually unrelated, illnesses and multiple annual admissions. Tending to be elderly with poor prognoses, 60% of them had died by April 1983. The major criterion of complexity was the lack of a well-focused medical problem; the cure for one problem simply relinquished primacy to another. A parallel study of hospital ancillary procedures disclosed a similar high-cost pattern. Of approximately 4000 ancillary procedures, 100 (2.5%) had annual charges of $100,000 or over, accounting for two-thirds of total 1980 ancillary charges. Roughly 20% of a single patient's ordered procedures accounted for 80% of the patient's ancillary charges, thus allowing concentrated study of a relatively small number of charges. Means for cost containment may be

  8. Elderly Diabetic Patient with Surgical Site Mucormycosis Extending to Bowel

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Atul K; Vora, Himanshu J; Patel, Ketan K; Patel, Bhavin

    2010-01-01

    Mucormycosis is rare in clinical practice. Most infections are acquired by inhalation; other portals of entry are traumatic implantation and ingestion in immunocompromised host. Mucormycosis is life threatening infection in immunocompromised host with variable moratlity ranging from 15-81% depending upon site of infection. General treatment principles include early diagnosis, correction of underlying immunosuppression and metabolic disturbances, adequate surgical debridement along with amphotericin therapy. We describe surgical site mucormycosis extended to involve large bowel in elderly diabetic patient. PMID:20606975

  9. Elderly diabetic patient with surgical site mucormycosis extending to bowel.

    PubMed

    Patel, Atul K; Vora, Himanshu J; Patel, Ketan K; Patel, Bhavin

    2010-05-01

    Mucormycosis is rare in clinical practice. Most infections are acquired by inhalation; other portals of entry are traumatic implantation and ingestion in immunocompromised host. Mucormycosis is life threatening infection in immunocompromised host with variable moratlity ranging from 15-81% depending upon site of infection. General treatment principles include early diagnosis, correction of underlying immunosuppression and metabolic disturbances, adequate surgical debridement along with amphotericin therapy. We describe surgical site mucormycosis extended to involve large bowel in elderly diabetic patient. PMID:20606975

  10. Advancing the Future of Patient Safety in Oncology: Implications of Patient Safety Education on Cancer Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    James, Ted A; Goedde, Michael; Bertsch, Tania; Beatty, Dennis

    2016-09-01

    Emerging challenges in health care delivery demand systems of clinical practice capable of ensuring safe and reliable patient care. Oncology in particular is recognized for its high degree of complexity and potential for adverse events. New models of student education hold promise for producing a health care workforce armed with skills in patient safety. This training may have a particular impact on risk reduction in cancer care and ultimately improve clinical performance in oncology. A 1-day student program focused on the principles of patient safety was developed for the third-year medical school class. The core curriculum consisted of an online patient safety module, root cause analyses of actual patient safety events, and simulation scenarios designed to invoke patient safety skills. The program was successfully implemented and received an average of 4.2/5 on evaluations pertaining to its importance and effectiveness. Student surveys demonstrated that 59 % of students were not previously aware of system-based approaches to improving safety, 51 % of students had witnessed or experienced a patient safety issue, while only 10 % reported these events. Students reported feeling more empowered to act on patient safety issues as a result of the program. Educational programs can provide medical students with a foundation for skill development in medical error reduction and help enhance an organization's culture of safety. This has the potential to reduce adverse events in complex patient care settings such as clinical oncology. PMID:25893923

  11. Oral-dental concerns of the pediatric oncology patient

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, K.

    1989-01-01

    One of the main concerns of all disciplines in health care today is maintaining the patient's quality of life and comfort during cancer therapy. Oral complications resulting from radiation or chemotherapy can be expected in a large percentage of patients. Conducting a dental evaluation and performing treatment before therapy can help prevent or lessen potential complications. With preventive care and fewer infections, the patient will be able to communicate with friends and family, and optimum care and comfort can be provided.

  12. The patient-centered medical home in oncology: from concept to reality.

    PubMed

    Page, Ray D; Newcomer, Lee N; Sprandio, John D; McAneny, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the cost of providing quality cancer care has been subject to an epic escalation causing concerns on the verge of a health care crisis. Innovative patient-management models in oncology based on patient-centered medical home (PCMH) principles, coupled with alternative payments to traditional fee for service (FFS), such as bundled and episodes payment are now showing evidence of effectiveness. These efforts have the potential to bend the cost curve while also improving quality of care and patient satisfaction. However, going forward with FFS alternatives, there are several performance-based payment options with an array of financial risks and rewards. Most novel payment options convey a greater financial risk and accountability on the provider. Therefore, the oncology medical home (OMH) can be a way to mitigate some financial risks by sharing savings with the payer through better global care of the patient, proactively preventing complications, emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations. However, much of the medical home infrastructure that is required to reduced total costs of cancer care comes as an added expense to the provider. As best-of-practice quality standards are being elucidated and refined, we are now at a juncture where payers, providers, policymakers, and other stakeholders should work in concert to expand and implement the OMH framework into the variety of oncology practice environments to better equip them to assimilate into the new payment reform configurations of the future. PMID:25993243

  13. Obesity and Readmission in Elderly Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reinke, Caroline E.; Kelz, Rachel R.; Zubizarreta, Jose R.; Mi, Lanyu; Saynisch, Philip; Kyle, Fabienne A.; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Fleisher, Lee A.; Silber, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Reducing readmissions has become a focus in efforts by Medicare to improve healthcare quality and reduce costs. This study aimed to determine whether causes for readmission differed between obese and non-obese patients, possibly allowing for targeted interventions. Methods A matched case-control study of Medicare patients admitted between 2002–2006 who were readmitted following hip or knee surgery, colectomy, or thoracotomy was performed. Patients were matched exactly for procedure, while also balancing on hospital, age and sex. Conditional logistic regression was used to study the odds of readmission for very obese cases (BMI > 35kg/m2) versus normal weight patients (BMI of 20–30kg/m2) after further controlling for race, transfer-in and emergency status, and comorbidities. Results Among 15,914 patient admissions we identified 1,380 readmitted patients and 2,760 controls. Risk of readmission was increased for obese vs. non-obese patients, before and after controlling for comorbidities (OR=1.35, P=0.003; OR=1.25, P=0.04). Reasons for readmission varied by procedure but were not different by BMI category. Conclusions Obese patients have an increased risk of readmission, yet reasons for readmission in obese patients appear similar to the non-obese, suggesting that improved post-discharge management for the obese cannot focus on a few specific causes of readmission, but must provide a broad range of interventions. PMID:22938896

  14. Risk of Infectious Complications in Hemato-Oncological Patients Treated with Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Reinwald, Mark; Boch, Tobias; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Buchheidt, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Infectious complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hemato-oncological diseases. Although disease-related immunosuppression represents one factor, aggressive treatment regimens, such as chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or antibody treatment, account for a large proportion of infectious side effects. With the advent of targeted therapies affecting specific kinases in malignant diseases, the outcome of patients has further improved. Nonetheless, dependent on the specific pathway targeted or off-target activity of the kinase inhibitor, therapy-associated infectious complications may occur. We review the most common and approved kinase inhibitors targeting a variety of hemato-oncological malignancies for their immunosuppressive potential and evaluate their risk of infectious side effects based on preclinical evidence and clinical data in order to raise awareness of the potential risks involved. PMID:27127405

  15. Opportunities for oncology in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kavita K; Tran, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) contains within it three significant legislative constructs: to enhance access to health care, improve quality, and decrease cost. Also known as the Triple Aim, these three simple, yet monumental, goals have been the object of actions to date as well as future implementation efforts. This article will identify sections of the legislation that would directly provide areas of opportunity to improve health and achieve the triple aim for the oncology profession. PMID:23714567

  16. Transfusion Considerations in Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Patients.

    PubMed

    Bercovitz, Rachel S; Josephson, Cassandra D

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric patients with malignancies or benign hematologic diseases are a heterogeneous group with complicated underlying pathophysiologies leading to their requirements for transfusion therapy. Common practice among pediatric hematologists, oncologists, and transplant physicians is to transfuse stable patients red cells to maintain a hemoglobin greater than 7 or 8 g/dL and transfuse platelets to maintain a count greater than 10,000 or 20,000 platelets/μL. This review compiles data from myriad studies performed in pediatric patients to give readers the knowledge needed to make an informed choice when considering different management strategies for the transfusion of red blood cells, platelets, plasma, and granulocytes. PMID:27113005

  17. Quality of life of patients surgically treated for ameloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Hammed Sikiru; Adebola, Rafel Adetokunbo; Arotiba, Juwon Tunde; Amole, Ibiyinka Olushola; Efunkoya, Akinwale Adeyemi; Omeje, Uchenna Kelvin; Amole, Taiwo Gboluwaga; Adeoye, Joshua Biodun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The surgical management of ameloblastoma can have a profound functional and psychological effect on a patient's quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to compare the pre- and post-operative QoL outcomes of patients requiring surgical treatment for ameloblastoma. Patients and Methods: A total number of 30 patients were identified as fulfilling the criteria for this study. They included 18 males and 12 females, aged between 14 and 47 years with a mean of 27.3 years (standard deviation 10.2). Each patient completed a modified version of the University of Washington QoL questionnaire version 4, a day to surgery and postoperatively on the 7th day, 3 months, and 6 months. Results: Following surgical treatment of patients for ameloblastoma, the QoL decreased immediately after surgery. It then gradually improved over time and exceeded the preoperative value at 6 months postoperatively. When analyzed with respect to location, posteriorly placed tumors had the best postoperative QoL outcome. Patients expressed concern more about their appearance preoperatively while postoperative concerns were mostly focused on their ability to chew. Conclusion: Significant improvement occurred in QoL scores following surgical management of ameloblastoma. The small sample size utilized in this study limits a definitive conclusion. A larger multicenter study is therefore recommended. PMID:27226682

  18. [The cachexia-anorexia syndrome among oncological patients].

    PubMed

    Sosa-Sánchez, Ricardo; Sánchez-Lara, Karla; Motola-Kuba, Daniel; Green-Renner, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Approximately two thirds of cancer patients at advanced stages of the disease suffer from anorexia, which leads to significant weight loss and progressive cachexia, an important factor that contributes to death. It has been observed that cancer cachexia differs from simple starvation, although the exact mechanisms associated with cancer cachexia are not well known. Several theories regarding its pathogenesis point to a complex mixture of tumor, host and treatment variables. Unfortunately, the wasting syndrome also constitutes for the patient, a progression of the cancer process, significantly affecting quality of life and social interactions. Treatable causes should be identified and treated. Knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the effects of caquexia on the patient may play a role in identifying treatment measures targetted to muscle wasting and to maintain body strength. In this article we review the main features and mechanisms of the anorexia-cachexia syndrome in patients with cancer. PMID:19043964

  19. Internal qualification and credentialing of radiation oncology physicists to perform patient special procedures.

    PubMed

    Mills, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    In the arena of radiation oncology special procedures, medical physicists are often the focus professionals for implementation and administration of advanced and complex technologies. One of the most vexing and challenging aspects of managing complexity concerns the ongoing internal qualification and credentialing of radiation oncology physicists to perform patient special procedures. To demonstrate ongoing qualification, a physicist must: (a) document initial training and successful completion of competencies to implement and perform this procedure, (b) demonstrate familiarity with all aspects of the commissioning and quality assurance process, (c) demonstrate continuing education respecting this procedure, (d) demonstrate the peer-reviewed completion of a minimum number of patient special procedures during a specified time span, and (e) demonstrate satisfactory overall progress toward maintenance of specialty board certification. In many respects, this information complement is similar to that required by an accredited residency program in therapy physics. In this investigation, we report on the design of a management tool to qualify staff radiation oncology physicists to deliver patient procedures. PMID:24427742

  20. Formative assessment of oncology trainees' communication with cancer patients about internet information

    PubMed Central

    Bylund, Carma L.; Sperka, Miryam; D'Agostino, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cancer patients and their caregivers often turn to the internet for information and support following a cancer diagnosis. Research shows a need for improvement in doctors' communication with patients about internet information. The purpose of this formative assessment was to evaluate oncology trainees' skills in talking about internet information with cancer patients. Methods Thirty-nine oncology trainees were evaluated in a baseline standardized patient assessment as part of their participation in the Comskil Training Program. As part of the assessment, standardized patients were instructed to raise the topic of internet information they had read. Transcriptions of the video-recorded assessments were coded for patient statements and trainee responses. Results Fifty-six percent of trainees used a probe to get more information before addressing the content of the internet search, while 18% addressed it immediately. Eighteen percent of trainees warned the patient about using the internet, and 8% warned and also encouraged internet use. Thirteen percent of trainees praised the patient for seeking out information on the internet. Significance of Results This formative assessment indicated that the majority of trainees addressed the content of the internet search, while a minority addressed the internet as a tool and praised patients' efforts. Research in this area should examine the effectiveness of educational interventions for trainees to improve discussions about internet information. PMID:24477052

  1. Informal Financial Assistance for Patients With a Hematological Malignancy: Implications for Oncology Social Work Practice.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Pam

    2015-01-01

    The article presents original research findings on informal financial assistance for hematological patients; that is, the gifts from family, friends, and communities that help patients cope with the financial hardship associated with cancer. The qualitative study involved interviews with 45 hematology patients that were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and then thematically analyzed. The findings examine the differing perspectives that individuals and families bring to the notion of informal financial aid, provide examples of individuals who require and receive informal financial assistance, and conclude with descriptions of those who require informal financial assistance but it is not available. The implications of the findings for oncology social work practice are explored. PMID:26671243

  2. [Selected ethical problems of oncologic patients during the terminal period].

    PubMed

    Iwaszczyszyn, J; Kwiecińska, A

    2001-01-01

    Patient suffering from terminal disease is depended on his environment more than any other one. He often suffers from nervous break down, anxiety and fear and he is usually unprotected from the environment. Fast development of medical science and its technicisation can lead towards dehumanization and lack of psychological and spiritual care, which should be based on clear ethical principles. Main lines of ethical principles of Health Service which are included in Deontological Code of Physicians and Collection of ethical principles for a qualified nurse are the main rules how to proceed as to fulfill the rule: "benefit of a patient is the superior law." According to its speciality Palliative Medicine introduces also four general ethical principles: 1. Patient will is a rule of treatment. 2. The principle of proportion--benefits from the treatment should be higher than losses and suffering from iatrogenic acting. 3. The principle of equality--stop taking a cure does not differ from not undertaking treatment. 4. The principle of relativity--life is not an absolute good, death is not an absolute evil. Holistic acts of Palliative Medicine determines also specific ethical attitudes, especially in the following: 1. Communication between a therapist and a patient and his family (interpersonal attitudes). 2. Procedures how to lessen suffering and its interpretation according to culture, tradition and religion ("nonsense and significance of suffering"). 3. Negation of euthanasia. 4. Spiritual, psychological and social care of patients. PMID:12815792

  3. Neuro-oncological patients admitted in intensive-care unit: predictive factors and functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Tabouret, E; Boucard, C; Devillier, R; Barrie, M; Boussen, S; Autran, D; Chinot, O; Bruder, N

    2016-03-01

    The prognosis of oncology patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is considered poor. Our objective was to analyze the characteristics and predictive factors of death in the ICU and functional outcome following ICU treatment for neuro-oncology patients. A retrospective study was conducted on all patients with primary brain tumor admitted to our institutional ICU for medical indications. Predictive impact on the risk of death in the ICU was analyzed as well as the functional status was evaluated prior and following ICU discharge. Seventy-one patients were admitted to the ICU. ICU admission indications were refractory seizures (41 %) and septic shock (17 %). On admission, 16 % had multi-organ failure. Ventilation was necessary for 41 % and catecholamines for 13 %. Twenty-two percent of patients died in the ICU. By multivariate analysis, predictive factors associated with an increased risk of ICU death were: non-neurological cause of admission [p = 0.045; odds ratio (OR) 5.405], multiple organ failure (p = 0.021; OR 8.027), respiratory failure (p = 0.006; OR 9.615), and hemodynamic failure (p = 0.008; OR 10.111). In contrast, tumor type (p = 0.678) and disease control status (p = 0.380) were not associated with an increased risk of ICU death. Among the 35 evaluable patients, 77 % presented with a stable or improved Karnofsky performance status following ICU hospitalization compared with the ongoing status before discharge. In patients with primary brain tumor admitted to the ICU, predictive factors of death appear to be similar to those described in non-oncology patients. ICU hospitalization is generally not associated with a subsequent decrease in the functional status. PMID:26608523

  4. Digital Audio Recording of Initial Patient Visits to an Ocular Oncology Clinic: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Seider, Michael I; Damato, Bertil E

    2015-05-01

    It is challenging for patients to receive a new diagnosis of a life-threatening ocular tumor when visiting an ocular oncology clinic for the first time. Audio recording of patient-physician interactions has been shown to be an effective memory aid and stress-reducing technique for patients with various types of nonophthalmic cancer. This study evaluated a protocol for digitally recording the initial conversation between the ocular oncologist and the patient. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study, and 13 patients (65%) returned the survey. All of the patients who returned the survey reported being "very satisfied" with the audio recording, indicating that patients with a newly diagnosed ocular tumor were highly satisfied with the audio recording of their conversations with the ocular oncologist. Although larger studies are needed to confirm this conclusion, the initial results are encouraging. PMID:26057768

  5. Oncology patients' and professional nurses' perceptions of important nurse caring behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Caring is the essence of nursing. Caring to be meaningful needs to be based on mutual agreement between nurses and patients as to what constitutes nurse caring behaviors. As a result, healthcare professional can enhance patients' satisfaction of care by providing appropriate caring behavior. However, previous research that combined multiple types of patients, nurses and institutions demonstrated disagreement in prioritizing important behaviors. This paper reports a study that aimed at determining the caring behaviors which oncology patients and oncology nurses perceive to be the most important. Methods This study is a comparative descriptive design that was conducted in an Iranian oncology centre. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 200 patients and 40 nurses to take part in the study. Data were collected over a period of 4 months in 2009 using the Caring Assessment Questionnaire, developed by Larson. Caring behaviors (n = 57) were ranked on a 5-point Likert-type scale and ordered in six subscales: "Being accessible", "Explains and facilitates", "Comforts", "Anticipates", "Trusting relationship", "Monitors and follows through". The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 13.0. The overall mean was calculated for each subscale to determine the rank distribution of the subscales. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test analysis of variables was used to compare patients' and nurses' scores on subscales. Results The results demonstrate that both groups considered the same order of importance of caring, the high ranking of "Monitors and Follows through and "Being Accessible" and the low ranking of "Comforts" and "Trusting Relationships". Also, Patients only ranked "Being accessible" (p = 0.04) and "Explains and facilitates" (p = 0.03) higher than nurses. Conclusions The oncology patients and nurses perceived highly physical aspects of caring and the results provide for nurses to be aware of the need, during their interactions with patients, to

  6. Caring for Surgical Patients With Piercings.

    PubMed

    Smith, Francis Duval

    2016-06-01

    Body piercing, a type of body modification that is practiced in many cultures, creates an unnatural tract through tissue that is then held open by artificial means. Today, professional body piercing is often performed in piercing establishments that are subject to dissimilar forms of regulation. The most frequently reported medical complication of body piercing and similar body modifications, such as dermal implantation, is infection. Patients with piercings who undergo surgery may have additional risks for infection, electrical burns, trauma, or airway obstruction. The published research literature on piercing prevalence, complications, regulations, education, and nursing care is outdated. The purpose of this article is to educate nurses on topics related to nursing care for patients with piercings and similar body modifications, including the history, prevalence, motivations for, and perceptions of body piercings as well as possible complications, devices used, locations, healing times, regulations, patient education, and other health concerns. PMID:27234793

  7. Assessment of Ondansetron-Associated Hypokalemia in Pediatric Oncology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fiedrich, Elsa; Sabhaney, Vikram; Lui, Justin; Pinsk, Maury

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Ondansetron is a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3, serotonin) receptor antagonist used as antiemetic prophylaxis preceding chemotherapy administration. Hypokalemia is a rare complication of ondansetron, which may be underreported due to confounding emesis and chemotherapy-induced tubulopathy. We performed a prospective cohort study to determine if ondansetron caused significant hypokalemia independently as a result of renal potassium wasting. Methods. Twelve patients were recruited, with ten completing the study. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after ondansetron administration in patients admitted for intravenous (IV) hydration and chemotherapy. Dietary histories and IV records were analyzed to calculate sodium and potassium balances. Results. We observed an expected drop in urine osmolality, an increase in urine sodium, but no statistically significant change in sodium or potassium balance before and after ondansetron. Conclusion. Ondansetron does not cause significant potassium wasting in appropriately hydrated and nutritionally replete patients. Careful monitoring of serum potassium is recommended in patients with chronic nutritional or volume status deficiencies receiving this medication. PMID:23050164

  8. Pain management in the pediatric surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Vance Y; Zenger, David; Steele, Scott R

    2012-06-01

    Surgeons performing painful, invasive procedures in pediatric patients must be cognizant of both the potential short- and long-term detrimental effects of inadequate analgesia. This article reviews the available tools, sedation procedures, the management of intraoperative, postoperative, and postprocedural pain, and the issues surrounding neonatal addiction. PMID:22595704

  9. Robotic, laparoscopic and open surgery for gastric cancer compared on surgical, clinical and oncological outcomes: a multi-institutional chart review. A study protocol of the International study group on Minimally Invasive surgery for GASTRIc Cancer—IMIGASTRIC

    PubMed Central

    Desiderio, Jacopo; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Nguyen, Ninh T; Zhang, Shu; Reim, Daniel; Alimoglu, Orhan; Azagra, Juan-Santiago; Yu, Pei-Wu; Coburn, Natalie G; Qi, Feng; Jackson, Patrick G; Zang, Lu; Brower, Steven T; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Facy, Olivier; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Coratti, Andrea; Annecchiarico, Mario; Bazzocchi, Francesca; Avanzolini, Andrea; Gagniere, Johan; Pezet, Denis; Cianchi, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta; Novotny, Alexander; Eren, Tunc; Leblebici, Metin; Goergen, Martine; Zhang, Ben; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Liu, Tong; Al-Refaie, Waddah; Ma, Junjun; Takiguchi, Shuji; Lequeu, Jean-Baptiste; Trastulli, Stefano; Parisi, Amilcare

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer represents a great challenge for healthcare providers and requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach in which surgery plays a major role. Minimally invasive surgery has been progressively developed, first with the advent of laparoscopy and recently with the spread of robotic surgery, but a number of issues are currently being debated, including the limitations in performing an effective extended lymph node dissection, the real advantages of robotic systems, the role of laparoscopy for Advanced Gastric Cancer, the reproducibility of a total intracorporeal technique and the oncological results achievable during long-term follow-up. Methods and analysis A multi-institutional international database will be established to evaluate the role of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches in gastric cancer, comprising of information regarding surgical, clinical and oncological features. A chart review will be conducted to enter data of participants with gastric cancer, previously treated at the participating institutions. The database is the first of its kind, through an international electronic submission system and a HIPPA protected real time data repository from high volume gastric cancer centres. Ethics and dissemination This study is conducted in compliance with ethical principles originating from the Helsinki Declaration, within the guidelines of Good Clinical Practice and relevant laws/regulations. A multicentre study with a large number of patients will permit further investigation of the safety and efficacy as well as the long-term outcomes of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches for the management of gastric cancer. Trial registration number NCT02325453; Pre-results. PMID:26482769

  10. Improving Patient Safety in Clinical Oncology: Applying Lessons From Normal Accident Theory.

    PubMed

    Chera, Bhishamjit S; Mazur, Lukasz; Buchanan, Ian; Kim, Hong Jin; Rockwell, John; Milowsky, Matthew I; Marks, Lawrence B

    2015-10-01

    Concerns for patient safety persist in clinical oncology. Within several nonmedical areas (eg, aviation, nuclear power), concepts from Normal Accident Theory (NAT), a framework for analyzing failure potential within and between systems, have been successfully applied to better understand system performance and improve system safety. Clinical oncology practice is interprofessional and interdisciplinary, and our therapies often have narrow therapeutic windows. Thus, many of our processes are, in NAT terms, interactively complex and tightly coupled within and across systems and are therefore prone to unexpected behaviors that can result in substantial patient harm. To improve safety at the University of North Carolina, we have applied the concepts of NAT to our practice to better understand our systems' behavior and adopted strategies to reduce complexity and coupling. Furthermore, recognizing that we cannot eliminate all risks, we have stressed safety mindfulness among our staff to further promote safety. Many specific examples are provided herein. The lessons from NAT are translatable to clinical oncology and may help to promote safety. PMID:26182183

  11. Surgical indications and optimization of patients for resectable esophageal malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Joshua C.; Valero, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a devastating diagnosis with very dire long-term survival rates. This is largely due to its rather insidious progression, which leads to most patients being diagnosed with advanced disease. Recently, however, a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of esophageal malignancies has afforded surgeons and oncologists with new opportunities for intervention and management. Coupled with improvements in imaging, staging, and medical therapies, surgeons have continued to enhance their knowledge of the nuances of esophageal resection, which has resulted in the development of minimally invasive approaches with similar overall oncologic outcomes. This marriage of more efficacious induction therapy and diminished morbidity after esophagectomy offers new promise to patients diagnosed with this aggressive form of cancer. The following review will highlight these most recent advances and will offer insight into our own approach to patients with resectable esophageal malignancy. PMID:24624289

  12. Obesity-related insulin resistance: implications for the surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Tewari, N; Awad, S; Macdonald, I A; Lobo, D N

    2015-11-01

    In healthy surgical patients, preoperative fasting and major surgery induce development of insulin resistance (IR). IR can be present in up to 41% of obese patients without diabetes and this can rise in the postoperative period, leading to an increased risk of postoperative complications. Inflammation is implicated in the aetiology of IR. This review examines obesity-associated IR and its implications for the surgical patient. Searches of the Medline and Science Citation Index databases were performed using various key words in combinations with the Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT. Key journals, nutrition and metabolism textbooks and the reference lists of key articles were also hand searched. Adipose tissue has been identified as an active endocrine organ and the chemokines secreted as a result of macrophage infiltration have a role in the pathogenesis of IR. Visceral adipose tissue appears to be the most metabolically active, although results across studies are not consistent. Results from animal and human studies often provide conflicting results, which has rendered the pursuit of a common mechanistic pathway challenging. Obesity-associated IR appears, in part, to be related to inflammatory changes associated with increased adiposity. Postoperatively, the surgical patient is in a proinflammatory state, so this finding has important implications for the obese surgical patient. PMID:26028059

  13. Guiding Oncology Patients Through the Maze of Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Giuse, Nunzia Bettinsoli; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Koonce, Taneya Y; Naylor, Helen M; Chen, Sheau-Chiann; Blasingame, Mallory N; Anderson, Ingrid A; Micheel, Christine M; Levy, Mia A; Ye, Fei; Lovly, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    As the role of genomics in health care grows, patients increasingly require adequate genetic literacy to fully engage in their care. This study investigated a model for delivering consumer-friendly genetic information to improve understanding of precision medicine using health literacy and learning style principles. My Cancer Genome (MCG), a freely available cancer decision support tool, was used as a testbed. MCG content on a melanoma tumor mutation, BRAF V600E, was translated to a 6th-grade reading level, incorporating multiple learning modalities. A total of 90 patients and caregivers were recruited from a melanoma clinic at an academic medical center and randomized to 3 groups. Group A (control) received an exact copy of text from MCG. Group B was given the same content with hyperlinks to videos explaining key genetic concepts, identified and labeled by the team as knowledge pearls. Group C received the translated content with the knowledge pearls embedded. Changes in knowledge were measured through pre and post questionnaires. Group C showed the greatest improvement in knowledge. The study results demonstrate that providing information based on health literacy and learning style principles can improve patients' understanding of genetic concepts, thus increasing their likelihood of taking an active role in any decision making concerning their health. PMID:27043753

  14. Surgical management of bilateral bronchiectases: results in 29 patients.

    PubMed

    Aghajanzadeh, Manucher; Sarshad, Ali; Amani, Hosin; Alavy, Ali

    2006-06-01

    Bronchiectasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Staged bilateral segmental resection of the lungs is performed in selected patients. Our experience of surgical removal of 87 bilateral bronchiectases in 29 patients during an 11-year period was reviewed retrospectively. High-resolution computed tomography was performed preoperatively in all patients to locate the anatomic sites of bronchiectasis. The mortality and morbidity of the surgical procedure, clinical symptoms, age distribution, etiology, bacteriology, and operative procedures were analyzed. There were 22 males (76%) and 7 females (24%), aged 5 to 60 years, with a mean age of 30 years. Complications developed in 11 patients (38%); atelectasia was the most common (14%). There was one hospital death. Clinical symptoms disappeared in 19 (66%) patients, improved in 5 (17%), and were unchanged in 4 (14%). Staged bilateral resection for bronchiectases can be performed at any age with acceptable morbidity and mortality. PMID:16714699

  15. Helping patients to reduce tobacco consumption in oncology: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Lucchiari, Claudio; Masiero, Marianna; Botturi, Andrea; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    The present overview focuses on evidence of smoking cessation approaches in oncology settings with the aim to provide health personnel a critical perspective on how to help their patients. This narrative review is structured in two main sections: the first one describes the psycho-cognitive variables involved in the decision to continue smoking after a cancer diagnosis and during the treatment; the second section relates methods and tools may be recommended, being evidence-based, to support smoking cessation in oncology settings. Active smoking increases not only susceptibility to common cancers in the general population, but also increases disease severity and comorbidities in cancer patients. Nowadays, scientific evidence has identified many strategies to give up smoking, but a lack of knowledge exists for treatment of nicotine dependence in the cancer population. Health personnel is often ambiguous when approaching the problem, while their contribution is essential in guiding patients towards healthier choices. We argue that smoking treatments for cancer patients deserve more attention and that clinical features, individual characteristics and needs of the patient should be assessed in order to increase the attempts success rate. Health personnel that daily work and interact with cancer patients and their caregivers have a fundamental role in the promotion of the health changing. For this reason, it is important that they have adequate knowledge and resources in order to support cancer patients to stop tobacco cigarette smoking and promoting and healthier lifestyle. PMID:27504234

  16. Patient-Reported Outcomes Are Changing the Landscape in Oncology Care: Challenges and Opportunities for Payers

    PubMed Central

    Zagadailov, Erin; Fine, Michael; Shields, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background A patient-reported outcome (PRO) is a subjective report that comes from a patient without interpretation by a clinician. Because of the increasingly significant role of PROs in the development and evaluation of new medicines, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a formal guidance to describe how PRO instruments will be reviewed and evaluated with respect to claims in approved medical product labeling. Meanwhile, PROs continue to appear in oncology clinical trials more frequently; however, it is unclear how payers and policymakers can use PRO data in the context of decision-making for cancer treatments. Objective The objective of this article is to discuss the challenges and opportunities of incorporating oncology-related PRO data into payer decision-making. Discussion Payer concerns with PRO instruments are often related to issues regarding measurement, relevance, quality, and interpretability of PROs. Payers may dismiss PROs that do not independently predict improved outcomes. The FDA guidance released in 2009 demonstrates, as evidenced by the case of ruxolitinib, how PRO questionnaires can be generated in a relevant, trustworthy, and meaningful way, which provides an opportunity for payers and policy decision makers to focus on how to use PRO data in their decision-making. This is particularly relevant in oncology, where a recent and sizable number of clinical trials include PRO measures. Conclusion As an increasing number of oncology medications enter the market with product labeling claims that contain PRO data, payers will need to better familiarize themselves with the opportunities associated with PRO questionnaires when making coverage decisions. PRO measures will continue to provide valuable information regarding the risk–benefit profile of novel agents. As such, PRO measures may provide evidence that should be considered in payers' decisions and discussions; however, the formal role of PROs and the pertinence of PROs in decision

  17. Wait Times Experienced by Lung Cancer Patients in the BC Southern Interior to Obtain Oncologic Care: Exploration of the Intervals from First Abnormal Imaging to Oncologic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Rezwan; Boyce, Andrew; Halperin, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is associated with rapid disease progression, which can significantly progress over a duration of four to eight weeks. This study examines the time interval lung cancer patients from the interior of British Columbia (BC) experience while undergoing diagnostic evaluation, biopsy, staging, and preparation for treatment. Methods: A chart review of lung cancer patients (n=231) referred to the BC Cancer Agency Centre for the Southern Interior between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 was performed. Time zero was defined as the date of the first abnormal chest imaging. Time intervals, expressed as median averages, to specialist consult, biopsy, oncologic referral, initial oncology consultation, and commencement of oncologic treatment were obtained. Results: The median time interval from first abnormal chest imaging to a specialist consultation was 18 days (interquartile range, IQR, 7-36). An additional nine days elapsed prior to biopsy in the form of bronchoscopy, CT-guided biopsy, or sputum cytology (median; IQR, 3-21); if lobectomy was required, 18 days elapsed (median; IQR, 9-28). Eight days were required for pathologic diagnosis and subsequent referral to the cancer centre (median; IQR, 3-16.5). Once referral was received, 10 days elapsed prior to consultation with either a medical or radiation oncologist (median, IQR 5-18). Finally, eight days was required for initiation of radiation and/or chemotherapy (median; IQR, 1-15). The median wait time from detection of lung cancer on imaging to oncologic treatment in the form of radiation and/or chemotherapy was 65.5 days (IQR, 41.5-104.3).  Interpretation: Patients in the BC Southern Interior experience considerable delays in accessing lung cancer care. During this time, the disease has the potential to significantly progress and it is possible that a subset of patients may lose their opportunity for curative intent treatment. PMID:26543688

  18. Patient outcomes following surgical management of multinodular goiter

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yann-Sheng; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Yu, Ming-Chin; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Chao, Tzu-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: the difference in the risk of thyroid malignancy for patients with multinodular goiter (MNG) and solitary nodular goiter (SNG) remains controversial. Although total thyroidectomy (TT) is the current preferred surgical option for MNG, permanent hypothyroidism in these patients may be a concern. Therefore, we discuss whether nontotal thyroidectomy is a reasonable alternative surgical option. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed for 1598 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid surgery for nodular goiter between January 2007 and December 2012. Numerous clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Results: We reviewed 795 patients with MNG and 803 patients with SNG. The prevalence of malignancy on final pathology was significantly higher in the patients with MNG than in the patients with SNG (15.6% vs 10.1%, P = 0.001). However, a multivariate analysis revealed that this difference was insignificant (P = 0.50). Papillary carcinoma was the predominant type in both groups, but papillary microcarcinoma was more frequently found (41.1%) in the patients with MNG. The only multifocal cancers were of the papillary carcinoma histologic type, and the incidence of multifocal papillary carcinoma was significantly higher in the patients with MNG (23.4% vs 7.4%, P = 0.005). Reoperation was not required for the patients who underwent TT for goiter recurrence or incidental carcinoma. The overall rate of recurrence following nontotal thyroidectomy was 12.2%. Among the patients who underwent reoperation for goiter recurrence, 2 (20.0%) were complicated with permanent hypoparathyroidism. Among the patients who underwent a nontotal bilateral thyroidectomy, an average of 56.5% had permanent hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Multinodularity does not increase the risk of thyroid malignancy. However, patients with MNG who develop papillary carcinoma are at an increased risk of cancer multifocality. If a patient can tolerate lifelong thyroid hormone

  19. Washed cell salvage in surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Meybohm, Patrick; Choorapoikayil, Suma; Wessels, Anke; Herrmann, Eva; Zacharowski, Kai; Spahn, Donat R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cell salvage is commonly used as part of a blood conservation strategy. However concerns among clinicians exist about the efficacy of transfusion of washed cell salvage. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in which patients, scheduled for all types of surgery, were randomized to washed cell salvage or to a control group with no cell salvage. Data were independently extracted, risk ratio (RR), and weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Data were pooled using a random effects model. The primary endpoint was the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Results: Out of 1140 search results, a total of 47 trials were included. Overall, the use of washed cell salvage reduced the rate of exposure to allogeneic RBC transfusion by a relative 39% (RR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.65; P < 0.001), resulting in an average saving of 0.20 units of allogeneic RBC per patient (weighted mean differences [WMD] = −0.20; 95% CI −0.22 to −0.18; P < 0.001), reduced risk of infection by 28% (RR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.97; P = 0.03), reduced length of hospital stay by 2.31 days (WMD = −2.31; 95% CI −2.50 to −2.11; P < 0.001), but did not significantly affect risk of mortality (RR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.34; P = 0.66). No statistical difference could be observed in the number of patients exposed to re-operation, plasma, platelets, or rate of myocardial infarction and stroke. Conclusions: Washed cell salvage is efficacious in reducing the need for allogeneic RBC transfusion and risk of infection in surgery. PMID:27495095

  20. “Il Corpo Ritrovato”: Dermocosmetological Skin Care Project for the Oncologic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Fabbrocini, G.; Romano, M. C.; Cameli, N.; Mariano, M.; Pastore, F.; Annunziata, M. C.; Mazzella, C.; De Vita, Valerio; Mauriello, Maria Chiara; Monfrecola, G.

    2011-01-01

    Neoplastic disease and its therapeutic options have a huge impact on the patient's quality of life from both the emotional and the working point of view. The project “Il Corpo Ritrovato” aims at creating an interdisciplinary network of physicians to improve the quality of life of the oncologic patient, focusing on such important aspects as dermocosmetological skin care but also on the evaluation of new therapeutic and diagnostic algorithms in order to make further progress in the field of prevention. PMID:22084736

  1. Information and communication technology (ICT) in oncology. Patients' and relatives' experiences and suggestions.

    PubMed

    Norum, Jan; Grev, Anne; Moen, Mari-Ann; Balteskard, Lise; Holthe, Kari

    2003-05-01

    Cancer patients and relatives worldwide are turning more and more to the internet to obtain health information. The goal of this survey was to clarify their experiences and suggestions on the implementation of information and communication technology (ICT) in oncology. A total of 127 patients and 60 relatives visiting the outpatient clinic at the Department of Oncology, University of North Norway (UNN), the regional office of the Norwegian Cancer Union (NCU) and the Montebello Centre were included in a questionnaire-based study. Participants were recruited during the period September 2001 to February 2002. There were 92 women and 95 men. We revealed that hospital doctors, followed by nurses and friends, were the most important informants. Two-thirds of patients and relatives had access to the internet, but fewer than one-third had searched the internet for medical information and only one-fifth had discussed information accessed with their doctor. Only one-tenth had visited a hospital website. Internet access was correlated with young age. Almost two-thirds suggested that e-mail and/or WAP (wireless application protocol) communication should be included in hospital-patient communication. Concerning hospital websites, waiting time, treatment offer and addresses were considered the top three topics of interest. In conclusion, the majority of cancer patients and relatives have access to the internet. They recommend ICT employed in patient-hospital communication and suggest waiting time, treatment offers and addresses the three most important topics on hospital websites. PMID:12690539

  2. Parents' attitudes and expectations about music's impact on pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Kathi J; McLean, Thomas W

    2008-01-01

    Clinicians often have positive attitudes about the clinical effects of music. To better understand barriers to providing music in the clinic, we describe parents' attitudes about music for pediatric oncology outpatients. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between January 2005 and October 2007 in a pediatric oncology clinic in a tertiary hospital. Eligible subjects were one parent of pediatric leukemia patients. Surveys were distributed at a routine clinic visit as part of a study on the effects of music on subjective and objective well-being. Of the 67 eligible families, 45 (67%) parents responded; 82% reported playing music for the patient at home within the previous week. The most common reasons to use music for the patient were to entertain (88%), keep the patient company (71%), help the patient feel better (76%), or provide comfort (69%); fewer used music to distract the patient from pain (16%) or nausea (11%). Parents expected that music during clinic visits would have positive effects: relaxation (64%), comfort (42%), and/or distraction (33%); none expected negative effects. Parents often play music for their children, and they hold favorable attitudes about playing it in the clinic. Parents' attitudes are not barriers to providing music in the clinic. PMID:19134446

  3. Treatment of colorectal cancer in older patients: International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) consensus recommendations 2013.

    PubMed

    Papamichael, D; Audisio, R A; Glimelius, B; de Gramont, A; Glynne-Jones, R; Haller, D; Köhne, C-H; Rostoft, S; Lemmens, V; Mitry, E; Rutten, H; Sargent, D; Sastre, J; Seymour, M; Starling, N; Van Cutsem, E; Aapro, M

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in Europe and worldwide, with the peak incidence in patients >70 years of age. However, as the treatment algorithms for the treatment of patients with CRC become ever more complex, it is clear that a significant percentage of older CRC patients (>70 years) are being less than optimally treated. This document provides a summary of an International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) task force meeting convened in Paris in 2013 to update the existing expert recommendations for the treatment of older (geriatric) CRC patients published in 2009 and includes overviews of the recent data on epidemiology, geriatric assessment as it relates to surgery and oncology, and the ability of older CRC patients to tolerate surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy, treatment of their metastatic disease including palliative chemotherapy with and without the use of the biologics, and finally the use of adjuvant and palliative radiotherapy in the treatment of older rectal cancer patients. An overview of each area was presented by one of the task force experts and comments invited from other task force members. PMID:25015334

  4. Postoperative delirium in the elderly surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Sieber, Frederick E

    2009-09-01

    Delirium is a common complication in the geriatric population following cardiac and noncardiac procedures. Postoperative delirium is a significant financial burden on the United States health care system and is independently associated with prolonged hospital stay, increased risk of early and long term mortality, increased physical dependence, and an increased rate of nursing home placement. The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is a bedside rating scale developed to assist nonpsychiatrically trained clinicians in the rapid and accurate diagnosis of delirium. The CAM has been adapted for use in ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients in the form of the CAM-ICU. The onset of delirium involves an interaction between predisposing and precipitating risk factors for delirium. The mainstay of delirium management is prevention. The approach involves control or elimination of modifiable risk factors. It is controversial whether anesthetic technique determines delirium. However, important modifiable risk factors under the anesthesiologist's control include adequate postoperative pain management, careful drug selection, and embracing and participating in a multidisciplinary care model for these complicated patients. PMID:19825486

  5. Factors Influencing Same-day Hospital Discharge and Risk Factors for Readmission After Robotic Surgery in the Gynecologic Oncology Patient Population

    PubMed Central

    Rivard, Colleen; Casserly, Kelly; Anderson, Mary; Isaksson Vogel, Rachel; Teoh, Deanna

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective To determine the factors that allow for a safe outpatient robotic-assisted minimally invasive gynecologic oncology surgery procedure. Design Retrospective chart review (Canadian Task Force classification II-1). Setting University hospital. Patients All patients (140) undergoing robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery with the gynecologic oncology service from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2013. Interventions Risk factors for unsuccessful discharge within 23 hours of surgery and same-day discharge were assessed using logistic regression models. Measurements and Main Results All patients were initially scheduled for same-day discharge. The outpatient surgery group was defined by discharge within 23 hours of the surgery end time, and a same-day surgery subgroup was defined by discharge before midnight on the day of surgery. One hundred fifteen (82.1%) were successfully discharged within 23 hours of surgery, and 90 (64.3%) were discharged the same day. The median hospital stay was 5.3 hours (range, 1–48 hours). Unsuccessful discharge within 23 hours was associated with a preoperative diagnosis of lung disease and intraoperative complications; unsuccessful same-day discharge was associated with older age and later surgery end time. Only 2 patients (1.4%) were readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of surgery. Conclusions Outpatient robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery is safe and feasible for most gynecologic oncology patients and appears to have a low readmission rate. Older age, preoperative lung disease, and later surgical end time were risk factors for prolonged hospital stay. These patients may benefit from preoperative measures to facilitate earlier discharge. PMID:25304856

  6. Targets in clinical oncology: the metabolic environment of the patient.

    PubMed

    Argilés, Josep M; Busquets, Silvia; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Figueras, Maite; Almendro, Vanessa; López-Soriano, Francisco J

    2007-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by a marked weight loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. The degree of cachexia is inversely correlated with the survival time of the patient and it always implies a poor prognosis. Lean body mass depletion is one of the main features of cachexia and it involves not only skeletal muscle but also affects cardiac protein. The cachectic state is invariably associated with the presence and growth of the tumour and leads to a malnutrition status due to the induction of anorexia or decreased food intake. In addition, the competition for nutrients between the tumour and the host leads to an accelerated starvation state which promotes severe metabolic disturbances in the host, including hypermetabolism which leads to an increased energetic inefficiency. Unfortunately, at the clinical level, cachexia is not treated until the patient suffers from a considerable weight loss and wasting. Therefore, it is of great interest to analyze possible early markers of the syndrome. In the present review both metabolic and hormonal markers are described. Although the search for the cachectic factor(s) started a long time ago, and although many scientific and economic efforts have been devoted to its discovery, we are still a long way from fully understanding the underlying basis for this syndrome. The suggested mediators (associated with both depletion of fat stores and muscular tissue) can be divided into two categories: of tumour origin (produced and released by the neoplasm) and humoural factors (mainly cytokines). One of the aims of the present review is to summarize and evaluate the different catabolic mediators (both humoural and tumoural) involved in cancer cachexia, since they may represent targets for clinical investigations. Additionally, an overview of the main therapeutic approaches for the treatment of the cachectic syndrome is presented. PMID:17485280

  7. Assessing the spiritual needs and practices of oncology patients in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dedeli, Ozden; Yildiz, Emel; Yuksel, Safak

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the oncology patients' spiritual needs and activities. Besides, the study was to provide clinical evaluation of the feasibility and usefulness of the Patients Spiritual Needs Assessment Scale. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed by using a demographic and spiritual practices questionnaire, the Turkish version of the Patients Spiritual Needs Assessment Scale. The results of our study demonstrated that the most common spiritual needs of patients with cancer were "to address issues before death and dying" (100%), "feel a sense of peace and contentment" (94.8%), and "for companionship" (93.5%). Spiritually assessing a patient with cancer requires knowledge of how spiritual needs may manifest and how to talk with a client about his or her spiritual needs. These findings can help nurses to begin this process of providing spiritual care for patients with cancer. PMID:25658933

  8. Integrative oncology for breast cancer patients: introduction of an expert-based model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malignant breast neoplasms are among the most frequent forms of cancer in the Western world. Conventional treatment of breast cancer may include surgery, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, radiation and/or immunotherapy, all of which are often accompanied by severe side effects. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments have been shown to be effective in alleviating those symptoms. Furthermore, with patient survival rates increasing, oncologists, psychologists and other therapists have to become more sensitive to the needs of cancer survivors that go beyond than the mere alleviation of symptoms. Many CAM methods are geared to treat the patient in a holistic manner and thus are also concerned with the patient’s psychological and spiritual needs. Discussion The use of certain CAM methods may become problematic when, as frequently occurs, patients use them indiscriminately and without informing their oncologists. Herbal medicines and dietary supplements, especially, may interfere with primary cancer treatments or have other detrimental effects. Thus, expertise in this highly specialized field of integrative medicine should be available to patients so that they can be advised about the benefits and negative effects of such preparations and practices. Being a beneficial combination of conventional and CAM care, integrative oncology makes possible the holistic approach to cancer care. The concept of integrative oncology for breast cancer is jointly practiced by the Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, academic teaching hospital of the University of Duisburg-Essen, and the Breast Center at Kliniken Essen-Mitte in Germany. This model is introduced here; its scope is reviewed, and its possible implications for the practice of integrative medicine are discussed. Summary Evidence-based integrative care is crucial to the field of oncology in establishing state-of-the-art care for breast cancer patients. PMID:23170989

  9. Complementary and alternative medicine use in oncology: A questionnaire survey of patients and health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients and non-cancer volunteers, and to assess the knowledge of and attitudes toward CAM use in oncology among health care professionals. Methods This is a cross-sectional questionnaire survey conducted in a single institution in Ireland. Survey was performed in outpatient and inpatient settings involving cancer patients and non-cancer volunteers. Clinicians and allied health care professionals were asked to complete a different questionnaire. Results In 676 participants including 219 cancer patients; 301 non-cancer volunteers and 156 health care professionals, the overall prevalence of CAM use was 32.5% (29.1%, 30.9% and 39.7% respectively in the three study cohorts). Female gender (p < 0.001), younger age (p = 0.004), higher educational background (p < 0.001), higher annual household income (p = 0.001), private health insurance (p = 0.001) and non-Christian (p < 0.001) were factors associated with more likely CAM use. Multivariate analysis identified female gender (p < 0.001), non-Christian (p = 0.001) and private health insurance (p = 0.015) as independent predictors of CAM use. Most health care professionals thought they did not have adequate knowledge (58.8%) nor were up to date with the best evidence (79.2%) on CAM use in oncology. Health care professionals who used CAM were more likely to recommend it to patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions This study demonstrates a similarly high prevalence of CAM use among oncology health care professionals, cancer and non cancer patients. Patients are more likely to disclose CAM usage if they are specifically asked. Health care professionals are interested to learn more about various CAM therapies and have poor evidence-based knowledge on specific oncology treatments. There is a need for further training to meet to the escalation of CAM use among patients and to raise awareness of potential

  10. Is the clinical use of cannabis by oncology patients advisable?

    PubMed

    Bar-Sela, Gil; Avisar, Adva; Batash, Ron; Schaffer, Moshe

    2014-06-01

    The use of the cannabis plant for various medical indications by cancer patients has been rising significantly in the past few years in several European countries, the US and Israel. The increase in use comes from public demand for the most part, and not due to a scientific basis. Cannabis chemistry is complex, and the isolation and extraction of the active ingredient remain difficult. The active agent in cannabis is unique among psychoactive plant materials, as it contains no nitrogen and, thus, is not an alkaloid. Alongside inconclusive evidence of increased risks of lung and head and neck cancers from prolonged smoking of the plant produce, laboratory evidence of the anti-cancer effects of plant components exists, but with no clinical research in this direction. The beneficial effects of treatment with the plant, or treatment with medicine produced from its components, are related to symptoms of the disease: pain, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight loss. The clinical evidence of the efficacy of cannabis for these indications is only partial. However, recent scientific data from studies with THC and cannabidiol combinations report the first clinical indication of cancer-related pain relief. The difficulties of performing research into products that are not medicinal, such as cannabis, have not allowed a true study of the cannabis plant extract although, from the public point of view, such studies are greatly desirable. PMID:24606496

  11. The Cardio-oncology Program: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Care of Cancer Patients With Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Parent, Sarah; Pituskin, Edith; Paterson, D Ian

    2016-07-01

    Improved cancer survivorship has resulted in a growing number of Canadians affected by cancer and cardiovascular disease. As a consequence, cardio-oncology programs are rapidly emerging to treat cancer patients with de novo and preexisting cardiovascular disease. The primary goal of a cardio-oncology program is to preserve cardiovascular health to allow the timely delivery of cancer therapy and achieve disease-free remission. Multidisciplinary programs in oncology and cardiology have been associated with enhanced patient well-being and improved clinical outcomes. Because of the complex needs of these multisystem patients, a similar model of care is gaining acceptance. The optimal composition of the cardio-oncology team will typically involve support from cardiology, oncology, and nursing. Depending on the clinical scenario, additional consultation from dietetics, pharmacy, and social services might be required. Timely access to consultation and testing is another prerequisite for cardio-oncology programs because delays in treating cardiac complications and nonadherence to prescribed cancer therapy are each associated with poor outcomes. Recommended reasons for referral to cardio-oncology programs include primary prevention for those at high risk for cardiotoxicity and the secondary treatment of new or worsening cardiovascular disease in cancer patients and survivors. Management is multifaceted and can involve lifestyle education, pharmacotherapy, enhanced cardiovascular surveillance, and support services, such as exercise training. The lack of evidence to guide clinical decisions and recommendations in cardio-oncology is a major challenge and opportunity for health care professionals. Large multicentre prospective registries are needed to adequately power risk model calculations and generate hypotheses for novel interventions. PMID:27343743

  12. Mixed fibers diet in surgical ICU septic patients.

    PubMed

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Pokawinpudisnun, Piman; Polbhakdee, Yaowalak

    2010-01-01

    Diarrhea commonly occurs in surgical critically ill patients, especially septic patients and fiber formulas have been reported to improve diarrhea. Most reports have used soluble or insoluble fiber exclusively, while the effects of a mixed fiber diet remain unclear. This study compares diarrhea scores between mixed-fiber and non-fiber diets in surgical septic patients receiving broad spectrum antibiotics. We conducted a prospective randomized control double blind study in a general surgical ICU. Patients who received broad spectrum antibiotics and no contraindication to enteral feeding were randomly allocated to a fiber or non-fiber diet for up to 14 days. Nutritional delivery and diarrhea scores were recorded daily. Intention to treat analysis was performed. Thirty-four patients were enrolled in the study, 17 in the fiber group and 17 in non-fiber group. These two patients groups were similar in demographics, disease severity, nutritional status, cause of sepsis and total feeding per day. The proportion of patients with diarrhea score ≥12 was higher in the non-fiber group than in the fiber group, but the difference was not statistically significant [8/17 (47.06%) vs. 4/17(23.53%); p=0.15]. However, the fiber group had a lower mean diarrhea score (fiber vs. non-fiber = 3.6 ± 2.3 vs. 6.3 ± 3.6; p=0.005), as well as a lower global diarrhea score from the generalized estimation equation model for repeated measurement [Coefficient -3.03 (95%CI= -5.03 to -0.92); p=0.005]. In summary, a mixed fiber diet formula can reduce the diarrhea score in surgical critically ill septic patients who received broad spectrum antibiotics. PMID:21147705

  13. [Surgical service for patients with purulonecrotic complications of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Malakhov, Iu S; Aver'ianov, D A; Ivanov, A V; Stepaniuk, A V; Kozovoĭ, I Ia

    2013-04-01

    The article deals with staging surgical service for patients with ulceronecrotic damages of the distal parts of lower extremities associated with diabetic foot. The authors grounded the deadlines of sanitive operations, performing after reconstructive vascular operations, on the basis of assessment of outflow tract according to Rutherford and index of TcPO2 increase. High efficiency of revascularization in order to maintenance of lower-extremity function in patients with complicated forms of diabetic foot is proved. PMID:24000608

  14. Life-Space Assessment in Urogynecology and Gynecologic Oncology Surgery Patients: A Measure of Perioperative Mobility and Function

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Chere’ M.L.; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Markland, Alayne D.; Straughn, J. Michael; Richter, Holly E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of gynecologic surgery on mobility and functional status in women ≥ 60 years of age using Life-Space Assessment (LSA). Design Observational prospective cohort study Setting Academic outpatient urogynecology and gynecologic oncology clinics Participants Women presenting for urogynecology (N=51) and gynecologic oncology (N=51) surgery. Measurements LSA scores six weeks, six months and one year after surgery. Participant demographics, preoperative diagnoses, surgical approach, and medical comorbidities were collected. Analyses utilized repeated measures. Results Mean age was 71 + 7 years. Urogynecology participants started and maintained a higher LSA (p-value=0.03) than oncology participants at all study intervals. At six weeks post-surgery, urogynecology and oncology participants’ mean decline was 13-points (95% CI 4, 21 p-value=.004) and 23-points (95% CI 13, 33 p-value < .001), respectively. At six months, the urogynecology and oncology participants’ scores increased by a mean of 9-points (95% CI 1, 17 p-value=.033), and 13-points (95% CI 5, 20 p-value=.001) points, respectively. No significant difference was found at one year from baseline within each group or between groups in LSA scores. Income, depression, Body Mass Index (BMI) and having an operative complication predicted a larger decline in life-space over time in both groups. Conclusion Gynecologic surgical interventions in older women limit physical and functional ability at six weeks postoperatively. Both the urogynecology and gynecologic oncology cohorts returned to baseline levels by six months which was sustained to one year. PMID:19874406

  15. Delivering care to oncology patients in the community: an innovative integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Hanan, Terry; Mullen, Louise; Laffoy, Marie; O'Toole, Eve; Richmond, Janice; Wynne, Mary

    2014-08-01

    A community oncology nursing programme was developed in Ireland between the hospital and community health services for patients receiving systemic cancer therapy, in response to a service need. A robust evaluation of the pilot programme was undertaken, which found that defined clinical procedures traditionally undertaken in hospitals were safely undertaken in the patient's home with no adverse effects. There was a dramatic decrease in hospital attendances for these defined clinical procedures, and hospital capacity was consequently freed up. Patients valued having aspects of their care delivered at home and reported that it improved their quality of life, including reduced hospital visits and travel time. Community nurses expanded their scope of practice and became partners with oncology day-ward nurses in caring for these patients. Community nurses developed the competence and confidence to safely deliver cancer care in the community. This initiative shows that defined elements of acute cancer care can be safely delivered in the community so long as the training and support are provided. The findings and recommendations of the evaluation resulted in university accreditation and approval for national roll-out of the programme. Integration of services between primary and secondary care is a key priority. This innovative programme is a good example of shared integrated care that benefits both patients and health-care providers. PMID:25089749

  16. Umbilical hernia in patients with liver cirrhosis: A surgical challenge

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Julio C U; Claus, Christiano M P; Campos, Antonio C L; Costa, Marco A R; Blum, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Umbilical hernia occurs in 20% of the patients with liver cirrhosis complicated with ascites. Due to the enormous intraabdominal pressure secondary to the ascites, umbilical hernia in these patients has a tendency to enlarge rapidly and to complicate. The treatment of umbilical hernia in these patients is a surgical challenge. Ascites control is the mainstay to reduce hernia recurrence and postoperative complications, such as wound infection, evisceration, ascites drainage, and peritonitis. Intermittent paracentesis, temporary peritoneal dialysis catheter or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt may be necessary to control ascites. Hernia repair is indicated in patients in whom medical treatment is effective in controlling ascites. Patients who have a good perspective to be transplanted within 3-6 mo, herniorrhaphy should be performed during transplantation. Hernia repair with mesh is associated with lower recurrence rate, but with higher surgical site infection when compared to hernia correction with conventional fascial suture. There is no consensus on the best abdominal wall layer in which the mesh should be placed: Onlay, sublay, or underlay. Many studies have demonstrated several advantages of the laparoscopic umbilical herniorrhaphy in cirrhotic patients compared with open surgical treatment. PMID:27462389

  17. Umbilical hernia in patients with liver cirrhosis: A surgical challenge.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Julio C U; Claus, Christiano M P; Campos, Antonio C L; Costa, Marco A R; Blum, Caroline

    2016-07-27

    Umbilical hernia occurs in 20% of the patients with liver cirrhosis complicated with ascites. Due to the enormous intraabdominal pressure secondary to the ascites, umbilical hernia in these patients has a tendency to enlarge rapidly and to complicate. The treatment of umbilical hernia in these patients is a surgical challenge. Ascites control is the mainstay to reduce hernia recurrence and postoperative complications, such as wound infection, evisceration, ascites drainage, and peritonitis. Intermittent paracentesis, temporary peritoneal dialysis catheter or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt may be necessary to control ascites. Hernia repair is indicated in patients in whom medical treatment is effective in controlling ascites. Patients who have a good perspective to be transplanted within 3-6 mo, herniorrhaphy should be performed during transplantation. Hernia repair with mesh is associated with lower recurrence rate, but with higher surgical site infection when compared to hernia correction with conventional fascial suture. There is no consensus on the best abdominal wall layer in which the mesh should be placed: Onlay, sublay, or underlay. Many studies have demonstrated several advantages of the laparoscopic umbilical herniorrhaphy in cirrhotic patients compared with open surgical treatment. PMID:27462389

  18. Surgical management of patients receiving haemodialysis for chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Yassin, S; Ezz, M

    1995-10-01

    This study was carried out on 22 patients seeking dental extractions of one molar tooth. The first group consisted of 12 patients suffering from chronic renal failure undergoing haemodialysis, while the other group consisted of 10 apparently healthy dental patients acting as a control group. The scope of this work is based on the proper handling and management of chronic renal failure patients receiving haemodialysis and undergoing an oral surgical procedure. Complete blood picture, screening of bleeding and coagulation and postextraction complications were monitored for the two groups. PMID:9497692

  19. Acuity-based nurse assignment and patient scheduling in oncology clinics.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bohui; Turkcan, Ayten

    2016-09-01

    The oncology clinics use different nursing care delivery models to provide chemotherapy treatment to cancer patients. Functional and primary care delivery models are the most commonly used methods in the clinics. In functional care delivery model, patients are scheduled for a chemotherapy appointment without considering availabilities of individual nurses, and nurses are assigned to patients according to patient acuities, nursing skill, and patient mix on a given day after the appointment schedule is determined. Patients might be treated by different nurses on different days of their treatment. In primary care delivery model, each patient is assigned to a primary nurse, and the patients are scheduled to be seen by the same nurse every time they come to the clinic for treatment. However, these clinics might experience high variability in daily nurse workload due to treatment protocols that should be followed strictly. In that case, part-time nurses can be utilized to share the excess workload of the primary nurses. The aim of this study is to develop optimization methods to reduce the time spent for nurse assignment and patient scheduling in oncology clinics that use different nursing care delivery models. For the functional delivery model, a multiobjective optimization model with the objectives of minimizing patient waiting times and nurse overtime is proposed to solve the nurse assignment problem. For the primary care delivery model, another multiobjective optimization model with the objectives of minimizing total overtime and total excess workload is proposed to solve the patient scheduling problem. Spreadsheet-based optimization tools are developed for easy implementation. Computational results show that the proposed models provide multiple nondominated solutions, which can be used to determine the optimal staffing levels. PMID:25595434

  20. Mind-body therapies for the pediatric oncology patient: matching the right therapy with the right patient.

    PubMed

    Ott, Mary Jane

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric oncology nurses provide care for children across a continuum from the point of diagnostic evaluation through treatments and cure or a peaceful, dignified death. Nurses provide this care in a wide variety of settings such as the home, hospital, clinics, schools, camps, and residential facilities. Mind-body therapies are being used more frequently in the care of children receiving treatment for cancer. Matching the right therapy with the right patient is an important component of care. PMID:16902078

  1. Surgical Management of Urolithiasis in Patients after Urinary Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wen; Yang, Bicheng; He, Fang; Wang, Liang; Swami, Sunil; Zeng, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Objective To present our experience in surgical management of urolithiasis in patients after urinary diversion. Patients and Methods Twenty patients with urolithiasis after urinary diversion received intervention. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy, percutaneous based antegrade ureteroscopy with semi-rigid or flexible ureteroscope, transurethral reservoir lithotripsy, percutaneous pouch lithotripsy and open operation were performed in 8, 3, 2, 6, and 1 patients, respectively. The operative finding and complications were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Results The mean stone size was 4.5±3.1 (range 1.5–11.2) cm. The mean operation time was 82.0±11.5 (range 55–120) min. Eighteen patients were rendered stone free with a clearance of 90%. Complications occurred in 3 patients (15%). Two patients (10%) had postoperative fever greater than 38.5°C, and one patient (5%) suffered urine extravasations from percutaneous tract. Conclusions The percutaneous based procedures, including percutaneous nephrolithotomy, antegrade ureteroscopy with semi-rigid ureteroscope or flexible ureteroscope from percutaneous tract, and percutaneous pouch lithotripsy, provides a direct and safe access to the target stones in patients after urinary diversion, and with high stone free rate and minor complications. The surgical management of urolithiasis in patients after urinary diversion requires comprehensive evaluation and individualized consideration depending upon the urinary diversion type, stone location, stone burden, available resource and surgeon experience. PMID:25360621

  2. The importance and provision of oral hygiene in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Ford, Samuel J

    2008-10-01

    The provision of mouth care on the general surgical ward and intensive care setting has recently gained momentum as an important aspect of patient care. Oropharyngeal morbidity can cause pain and disordered swallowing leading to reluctance in commencing or maintaining an adequate dietary intake. On the intensive care unit, aside from patient discomfort and general well-being, oral hygiene is integral to the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Chlorhexidine (0.2%) is widely used to decrease oral bacterial loading, dental bacterial plaque and gingivitis. Pineapple juice has gained favour as a salivary stimulant in those with a dry mouth or coated tongue. Tooth brushing is the ideal method of promoting oral hygiene. Brushing is feasible in the vast majority, although access is problematic in ventilated patients. Surgical patients undergoing palliative treatment are particularly prone to oral morbidity that may require specific but simple remedies. Neglect of basic aspects of patient care, typified by poor oral hygiene, can be detrimental to surgical outcome. PMID:18947816

  3. Assessing Interpersonal and Communication Skills in Radiation Oncology Residents: A Pilot Standardized Patient Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Melody; Berman, Abigail T.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; LaMarra, Denise; Baffic, Cordelia; Suneja, Gita; Vapiwala, Neha

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: There is a lack of data for the structured development and evaluation of communication skills in radiation oncology residency training programs. Effective communication skills are increasingly emphasized by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and are critical for a successful clinical practice. We present the design of a novel, pilot standardized patient (SP) program and the evaluation of communication skills among radiation oncology residents. Methods and Materials: Two case scenarios were developed to challenge residents in the delivery of “bad news” to patients: one scenario regarding treatment failure and the other regarding change in treatment plan. Eleven radiation oncology residents paired with 6 faculty participated in this pilot program. Each encounter was scored by the SPs, observing faculty, and residents themselves based on the Kalamazoo guidelines. Results: Overall resident performance ratings were “good” to “excellent,” with faculty assigning statistically significant higher scores and residents assigning lower scores. We found inconsistent inter rater agreement among faculty, residents, and SPs. SP feedback was also valuable in identifying areas of improvement, including more collaborative decision making and less use of medical jargon. Conclusions: The program was well received by residents and faculty and regarded as a valuable educational experience that could be used as an annual feedback tool. Poor inter rater agreement suggests a need for residents and faculty physicians to better calibrate their evaluations to true patient perceptions. High scores from faculty members substantiate the concern that resident evaluations are generally positive and nondiscriminating. Faculty should be encouraged to provide honest and critical feedback to hone residents' interpersonal skills.

  4. Robotic-assisted surgery in gynecologic oncology.

    PubMed

    Sinno, Abdulrahman K; Fader, Amanda N

    2014-10-01

    The quest for improved patient outcomes has been a driving force for adoption of novel surgical innovations across surgical subspecialties. Gynecologic oncology is one such surgical discipline in which minimally invasive surgery has had a robust and evolving role in defining standards of care. Robotic-assisted surgery has developed during the past two decades as a more technologically advanced form of minimally invasive surgery in an effort to mitigate the limitations of conventional laparoscopy and improved patient outcomes. Robotically assisted technology offers potential advantages that include improved three-dimensional stereoscopic vision, wristed instruments that improve surgeon dexterity, and tremor canceling software that improves surgical precision. These technological advances may allow the gynecologic oncology surgeon to perform increasingly radical oncologic surgeries in complex patients. However, the platform is not without limitations, including high cost, lack of haptic feedback, and the requirement for additional training to achieve competence. This review describes the role of robotic-assisted surgery in the management of endometrial, cervical, and ovarian cancer, with an emphasis on comparison with laparotomy and conventional laparoscopy. The literature on novel robotic innovations, special patient populations, cost effectiveness, and fellowship training is also appraised critically in this regard. PMID:25274485

  5. Precision oncology for patients with advanced cancer: the challenges of malignant snowflakes

    PubMed Central

    Kurzrock, Razelle; Giles, Francis J

    2015-01-01

    Precision oncology implies customizing treatment to the unique molecular and biologic characteristics of each individual and their cancer. Its implementation is being facilitated by remarkable technological advances in genomic sequencing, as well as the increasing availability of targeted and immunotherapeutic drugs. Yet, next generation sequencing may be a disruptive technology in that its results suggest that classic paradigms for clinical research and practice are a poor fit with the complex reality encountered in metastatic malignancies. Indeed, it is evident that advanced tumors have heterogeneous molecular landscapes that mostly differ between patients. Traditional modes of clinical research/practice are drug centered, with a strategy of finding commonalities between patients so that they can be grouped together and treated similarly. However, if each patient with metastatic cancer has a unique molecular portfolio, a new patient-centered, N-of-one approach that utilizes individually tailored treatment is needed. PMID:26030337

  6. Surgical therapy in transsexual patients: a multi-disciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Monstrey, S; Hoebeke, P; Dhont, M; De Cuypere, G; Rubens, R; Moerman, M; Hamdi, M; Van Landuyt, K; Blondeel, P

    2001-01-01

    A transsexual patient has the constant and persistent conviction that he or she belongs to the opposite sex, thus creating a deeply seated gender identity conflict. With psychotherapy being unsuccessful, it has been proven that in carefully selected patients, gender reassignment or adjusting the body to the mind (both with hormones and surgery) is the best way to normalize their lives. Optimal treatment of these patients requires the multidisciplinary approach of a gender team with the input of several specialties. Such a team consists of a nucleus of physicians who sees the patient more frequently: the psychiatrist, the endocrinologist, the plastic surgeon, the gynecologist and the urologist and a more peripheral group that sees the patients more incidentally: the psychologist, the otorhinolaryngologist, the dermatologist, the speech therapist, the lawyer, the nurse and the social worker. Between 1987 and 1999, a total of 71 male-to-female (MTF) and 54 female-to-male transsexuals have undergone gender confirming surgery in our hospital. This article gives a review and an update on the different surgical procedures as well as on the outcome in our patient population. The results in this series of patients clearly demonstrate that a close cooperation of the different surgical specialties, within our multidisciplinary gender team, is the key to success in treating transsexual patients. PMID:11758101

  7. The impact of surgical outcome after pancreaticoduodenectomy in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The elderly population has increased in many countries. Indications for cancer treatment in elderly patients have expanded, because surgical techniques and medical management have improved remarkably. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) requires high-quality techniques and perioperative management methods. If it is possible for elderly patients to withstand an aggressive surgery, age should not be considered a contraindication for PD. Appropriate preoperative evaluation of elderly patients will lead to their safer management. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the safety of PD in patients older than 75 years and to show the influence of advanced age on the morbidity and mortality associated with this operation. Patients and methods Subjects were 98 patients who underwent PD during the time period from April 2005 to April 2011. During this study, 31 patients were 75 years of age or older (group A), and the other 67 patients were less than 75 years old (group B). Preoperative demographic and clinical data, surgical procedure, pathologic diagnosis, postoperative course and complication details were collected prospectively and they were analyzed in two group. Results There was no statistical difference between patient groups in terms of gender, comorbidity, preoperative drainage, diagnosis, or laboratory data. Preoperative albumin values were lower in group A (P = 0.04). The mean surgical time in group A was 408.1 ± 73.47 min. Blood loss and blood transfusion were not significantly different between both groups. There was no statistical differences in mortality rate (P = 0.14), morbidity rate (P = 0.43), and mean length of hospital stay (P = 0.22) between both groups. Long-term survival was also no statistically significant difference between the two groups using the log-rank test (P = 0.10). Conclusion It cannot be ignored that the elderly population is getting larger. We must investigate the management of elderly patients after PD and prepare

  8. ADDUCTOR POLLICIS MUSCLE AS PREDICTOR OF MALNUTRITION IN SURGICAL PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    de MELO, Camila Yandara Sousa Vieira; da SILVA, Silvia Alves

    2014-01-01

    Background In the compromised nutritional status, there is excessive skeletal muscle loss and decreased inflammatory response, contributing to increased morbidity and mortality and length of stay. Aim To estimate the prevalence of malnutrition by measuring adductor pollicis muscle using cutoffs for surgical patients suggested in the literature. Methods Cross-sectional study with 151 patients scheduled for elective surgical procedure. Nutritional assessment was performed by classical anthropometric measurements: arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, arm muscle circumference, corrected arm muscle area, BMI and percentage of weight loss and the extent of the adductor pollicis muscle in both hands. Results The prevalence of malnutrition in patients was high. A significant association between nutritional diagnosis according to the measures of adductor pollicis muscle and arm circumference, BMI and triceps skinfold thickness but there was no association with arm muscular circumference, arm muscular area or percentage of weight loss. Conclusion The adductor pollicis muscle has proved to be a good method to diagnose muscle depletion and malnutrition in surgical patients. PMID:24676291

  9. Colorectal cancer in aged patients. Toward the routine treatment through laparoscopic surgical approach

    PubMed Central

    VECCHIO, R.; MARCHESE, S.; FAMOSO, F.; LA CORTE, F.; MARLETTA, S.; LEANZA, G.; ZANGHÌ, G.; LEANZA, V.; INTAGLIATA, E.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in general population. The incidence seems to be higher in older age. Surgery remains the treatment of choice and laparoscopic approach offers numerous benefits. We report our personal experience in elderly patients operated on for colorectal cancer with laparoscopic resection. Patients and methods From January 2003 to September 2013, out of 160 patients aged 65 years or older and operated with minimally invasive techniques, 30 cases affected by colorectal cancer and operated on with laparoscopic approach were analyzed in this study. Results Male/female ratio was 1.35 and mean age 72 years. Constipation, weight loss, anemia and rectal bleeding were the most commonly reported symptoms. Lesions involved descending-sigmoid colon in 53% of cases, rectum in 37% and ascending colon in 10%. Among laparoscopic colorectal operations laparoscopic left colectomy was the most frequently performed, followed by right colectomy, abdominoperineal resection and Hartmann procedure. Operative times ranged from 3 to 5 hours depending on surgical procedure performed. Mean hospital stay was 6 days (range 4–9). Conversion to open approach occurred only in a case of laparoscopic right colectomy (3%) for uncontrolled bleeding. A single case of mortality was reported. In two cases (7%) anastomotic leakage was observed, conservatively treated in one patient and requiring reoperation in the other one. Conclusions Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is feasible and effective for malignancies in elderly population offering several advantages including immunologic and oncologic ones. However an experienced surgical team is essential in reducing risks and complications. PMID:25827663

  10. Clinical Characteristics and Surgical Outcomes in Patients With Intermittent Exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Chen, Jingchang; Shen, Tao; Kang, Ying; Deng, Daming; Lin, Xiaoming; Wu, Heping; Chen, Qiwen; Ye, Xuelian; Li, Jianqun; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes in a large sample of patients with intermittent exotropia (IXT) as well as an analysis of risk factors associated with surgical failures are presented in this article. Data from IXT patients who received surgical management at the Eye Hospital, in the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, of Sun Yat-Sen University, China from January 2009 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Included within this analysis were data from pre- and postoperative ocular motility, primary alignment, and binocular vision. A total of 1228 patients with IXT were reviewed. Males (50.4%) and females (49.6%) were nearly equally represented in this sample. Thirty-two patients (2.6%) had a family history of strabismus. The mean age at onset was 6.77 ± 6.43 years (range 7 months –48.5 years), mean duration at presentation was 7.35 ± 6.68 years (range 6 months–47 years), and mean age at surgery was 13.7 ± 8.8 years (range 3–49 years). The mean refractive error was −0.84 ± 2.69 diopter in the right eye and −0.72 ± 2.58 diopter in the left eye. Amblyopia (4.2%), oblique muscle dysfunction (7.0%), and dissociated vertical deviation (4.7%) were also present in these patients. The most common subtype of IXT was the basic type (88.1%). Orthophoria was observed in 80.5% of patients and the ratios of surgical undercorrection and overcorrection were 14.7% and 4.8%, respectively, as determined with a mean follow-up time of 7.8 ± 3.7 months. When combining ocular alignment with binocular vision as the success criteria, the success rate decreased to 35.6%. Multivariate risk factor analysis showed that only the loss of stereoacuity (P = 0.002) was associated with a poor outcome. There were no differences in the long-term results between bilateral lateral rectus recession and unilateral lateral rectus recession with medial rectus resection. Most IXT patients displayed normal vision, with few having positive

  11. Health Care Providers' Perceptions of Nutrition Support in Pediatric Oncology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kathleen; Belongia, Meghan; Schulta, Christina; Mulberry, Mollie Haddigan; Nugent, Melodee L; Simpson, Pippa M

    2016-07-01

    One of the most common side effects of medical treatment for patients with an oncologic diagnosis is malnutrition. There is limited research that broadly assesses the perceptions of health care providers (HCPs) regarding nutrition support in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of nutrition support among pediatric oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplant HCPs. The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design using a 31-item survey. Results of the survey indicated that nurses were more likely to initiate conversations about nutrition support during the first month of diagnosis, while midlevel providers and physicians initiated discussions in response to a change in nutritional status evidenced by decreased oral intake or weight loss. Participants reported resistance by patients and families more often for enteral nutrition compared with parenteral nutrition. Findings suggest a need to develop a more unified service line-based approach for initiating discussions related to nutrition support that incorporate patient and family perceptions. PMID:26721695

  12. Quality of surgical care and readmission in elderly glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Nuño, Miriam; Ly, Diana; Mukherjee, Debraj; Ortega, Alicia; Black, Keith L.; Patil, Chirag G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Thirty-day readmissions post medical or surgical discharge have been analyzed extensively. Studies have shown that complex interactions of multiple factors are responsible for these hospitalizations. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Medicare database of newly diagnosed elderly glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients who underwent surgical resection between 1991 and 2007. Hospitals were classified into high- or low-readmission rate cohorts using a risk-adjusted methodology. Bivariate comparisons of outcomes were conducted. Multivariate analysis evaluated differences in quality of care according to hospital readmission rates. Results A total of 1,273 patients underwent surgery in 338 hospitals; 523 patients were treated in 228 high-readmission hospitals and 750 in 110 low-readmission hospitals. Patient characteristics for high-versus low-readmission hospitals were compared. In a confounder-adjusted model, patients treated in high- versus low-readmission hospitals had similar outcomes. The hazard of mortality for patients treated at high- compared to low-readmission hospitals was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.095%–1.19%). While overall complications were comparable between high- and low-readmission hospitals (16.3% vs 14.3%; P = .33), more postoperative pulmonary embolism/deep vein thrombosis complications were documented in patients treated at high-readmission hospitals (7.5% vs 4.1%; P = .01). Adverse events and levels of resection achieved during surgery were comparable at high- and low-readmission hospitals. Conclusions For patients undergoing GBM resection, quality of care provided by hospitals with the highest adjusted readmission rates was similar to the care delivered by hospitals with the lowest rates. These findings provide evidence against the preconceived notion that 30-day readmissions can be used as a metric for quality of surgical and postsurgical care. PMID:26034614

  13. Longitudinal Assessments of Quality of Life in Endometrial Cancer Patients: Effect of Surgical Approach and Adjuvant Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Tien; Menard, Chantal; Samant, Rajiv; Choan, E.; Hopkins, Laura; Faught, Wylam; Fung-Kee-Fung, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) is often considered for endometrial cancer. We studied the effect of RT and surgical treatment on patients' quality of life (QOL). Methods and Materials: All patients referred to the gynecologic oncology clinics with biopsy findings showing endometrial cancer were recruited. QOL assessments were performed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL questionnaire-C30, version 3. Assessments were obtained at study entry and at regular 3-month intervals for a maximum of 2 years. Open-ended telephone interviews were done every 6 months. Linear mixed regression models were built using QOL domain scores as dependent variables, with the predictors of surgical treatment and adjuvant RT type. Results: A total of 40 patients were recruited; 80% of the surgeries were performed by laparotomy. Significant improvements were seen in most QOL domains with increased time from treatment. Adjuvant RT resulted in significantly more severe bowel symptoms and improvement in insomnia compared with conservative follow-up. No significant adverse effect from adjuvant RT was seen on the overall QOL. Bowel symptoms were significantly increased in patients treated with laparotomy compared with laparoscopy in the patients treated with whole pelvic RT. Qualitatively, about one-half of the patients noted improvements in their overall QOL during follow-up, with easy fatigability the most prevalent. Conclusion: No significant adverse effect was seen on patients' overall QOL with adjuvant pelvic RT after the recovery period. The acute adverse effects on patients' QOL significantly improved with an increasing interval from diagnosis.

  14. Patient-reported outcomes and the evolution of adverse event reporting in oncology.

    PubMed

    Trotti, Andy; Colevas, A Dimitrios; Setser, Ann; Basch, Ethan

    2007-11-10

    Adverse event (AE) reporting in oncology has evolved from informal descriptions to a highly systematized process. The Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) is the predominant system for describing the severity of AEs commonly encountered in oncology clinical trials. CTCAE clinical descriptors have been developed empirically during more than 30 years of use. The method of data collection is clinician based. Limitations of the CTC system include potential for incomplete reporting and limited guidance on data analysis and presentation methods. The Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) is a comprehensive medical terminology system used for regulatory reporting and drug labeling. MedDRA does not provide for severity ranking of AEs. CTC-based data presentations are the primary method of AE data reporting used in scientific journals and oncology meetings. Patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs) cover the subjective domain of AEs. Exploratory work suggests PROs can be used with a high degree of patient engagement and compliance. Additional studies are needed to determine how PROs can be used to complement current AE reporting systems. Potential models for integrating PROs into AE reporting are described in this review. AE reporting methods will continue to evolve in response to changing therapies and growing interest in measuring the impact of cancer treatment on health status. Although integration of PROs into AE reporting may ultimately improve the comprehensiveness and quality of collected data, it may also increase the administrative burden and cost of conducting trials. Therefore, care must be used when developing health outcomes and safety data collection plans. PMID:17991931

  15. Efficacy of promethazine suppositories dispensed to outpatient surgical patients.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, C. D.; Jilka, J.; Gentry, W. B.

    1998-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting frequently complicate outpatient anesthesia and surgery. The duration of treatment for this complication must occasionally extend beyond discharge from the hospital. In this study, we evaluated the commonly used anti-emetic promethazine for its efficacy in the post-discharge period. Adult outpatient surgical patients who had excessive postoperative nausea and vomiting in the recovery room, or who were at risk for postoperative nausea and vomiting following discharge were given two promethazine suppositories (25 mg) for home use. All patients were contacted by our recovery room nurses on the first business day after their surgery and questioned as to their use of the suppositories and, if used, their efficacy. We found that 55 percent of patients given promethazine suppositories for home use had nausea and vomiting in the post-discharge period. Of the patients given promethazine, 89 percent used the suppositories. All of these patients reported improvement in their symptoms following use of the suppositories. None reported adverse effects from the promethazine suppositories. In conclusion, we found promethazine suppositories to be an inexpensive and efficacious treatment for nausea and vomiting in adult outpatient surgical patients following discharge from the hospital. Side-effects were minimal, and our patients voiced no complaints about this mode of therapy. We recommend this therapy for treatment of nausea and vomiting after hospital discharge following adult outpatient surgery. PMID:10527366

  16. Epidemiology and Death-Related Factors of Oncology Patients in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Mofid, Bahram; Novin, Kambiz; Roointan, Elham Sadat; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Accurate diagnosis and proper treatment of oncology patients presented to emergency department (ED) can dramatically enhance their quality of life and decrease their mortality rate. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate these patients from an epidemiologic point of view as well as identifying death-related factors. Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, all the oncology patients presented to ED during one year were evaluated using census sampling. A checklist that consisted of clinical and demographic data as well as patients’ outcome was filled for each patient. Using SPSS 21, multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis was done to identify independent death-related factors. Results: 568 patients with the mean age of 53.64 ± 18.99 years were studied (56.5% male). The most common locations of tumor were brain (32.7%) and gastrointestinal tract (27.1%). Pain (32.5%) was the most frequent chief complaint on ED arrival. The overall mortality rate of studied patients was 154 (27.1%), 25 (16.2%) of them in ED. Among the evaluated factors, marital status, visiting on a weekday, arrival to ED via ambulance, type of cancer, stage of cancer, presence of metastasis, being under treatment with chemo-radiotherapy, chief complaint on arrival, tumor location, and admission to intensive care unit (ICU) correlated significantly with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion: The most common type of cancer in the studied patients was solid, located in the brain or gastrointestinal tract, in stage III and IV, metastatic, and under chemo-radiotherapy. Independent death-related factors included ICU admission, presentation with loss of consciousness or bleeding, arrival via ambulance, cancer stage > II, neuroendocrine and genitourinary location of cancer, and being under chemo-radiotherapy. PMID:27299144

  17. Quality of life in patients with ulcerative colitis treated surgically

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowska, Katarzyna A.; Krokowicz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ulcerative colitis belongs to the group of inflammatory bowel diseases. The specific symptoms and chronic nature of the disease significantly affect the quality of patients’ lives. Quality-of-life assessment helps to define its determining factors as well as the efficiency of surgical procedures. Aim Quality-of-life evaluation of patients with ulcerative colitis treated surgically. Material and methods A retrospective review was carried out on 35 patients with ulcerative colitis, who were treated surgically in the Clinic of General and Colorectal Surgery, University of Medical Sciences in Poznan. The research tools used to assess the quality of life consisted of: the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, a Polish version of the Short Form Health Survey-36, and a questionnaire. Results The mean of the IBDQ scale was 152.51, and the median was 161. In this scale, a higher score indicates better quality of life. The situation in the subjective SF-36 scale is reversed: a lower score indicates better quality of life. The mean of the SF-36 was 115.94, and the median was 58. Many discrepancies in the field (e.g. the influence of determining factors) create a niche for further studies. Conclusions Moreover, quality-of-life evaluation may lead to better patient care, understanding their problems or treatment modifications, and finally may become a kind of therapy efficiency parameter. PMID:25276253

  18. Impact of non-oncological factors on tumor recurrence after liver transplantation in hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiang-Qian; Zheng, Wei-Ping; Teng, Da-Hong; Sun, Ji-San; Zheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary neoplasm of the liver and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Liver transplantation (LT) has become one of the best curative therapeutic options for patients with HCC, although tumor recurrence after LT is a major and unaddressed cause of mortality. Furthermore, the factors that are associated with recurrence are not fully understood, and most previous studies have focused on the biological properties of HCC, such as the number and size of the HCC nodules, the degree of differentiation, the presence of hepatic vascular invasion, elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, and the tumor stage outside of the Milan criteria. Thus, little attention has been given to factors that are not directly related to HCC (i.e., “non-oncological factors”), which have emerged as predictors of tumor recurrence. This review was performed to assess the effects of non-oncological factors on tumor recurrence after LT. The identification of these factors may provide new research directions and clinical strategies for the prophylaxis and surveillance of tumor recurrence after LT, which can help reduce recurrence and improve patient survival. PMID:26973413

  19. Readability of American Online Patient Education Materials in Urologic Oncology: a Need for Simple Communication

    PubMed Central

    Pruthi, Amanda; Nielsen, Matthew E.; Raynor, Mathew C.; Woods, Michael E.; Wallen, Eric M.; Smith, Angela B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine readability levels of reputable cancer and urologic websites addressing bladder, prostate, kidney and testicular cancers. Methods Online patient education materials (PEMs) for bladder, prostate, kidney and testicular malignancies were evaluated from the American Cancer Society, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), National Cancer Institute (NCI), Urology Care Foundation (AUA-UCF), Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN), Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF), Kidney Cancer Association (KCA), and Testicular Cancer Resource Center (TCRC). Grade level was determined using several readability indices, and analyses were performed based on cancer type, website, and content area (general, causes, risk factors and prevention, diagnosis and staging, treatment, and post-treatment). Results Estimated grade level of online PEMs ranged from 9.2 to 14.2 with an overall mean of 11.7. Websites for kidney cancer had the least difficult readability (11.3) and prostate cancer had the most difficult readability (12.1). Among specific websites, the most difficult readability levels were noted for the AUA-UCF website for bladder and prostate cancer and the KCA and TCRC for kidney and testes cancer. Readability levels within content areas varied based on disease and website. Conclusion Online PEMs in urologic oncology are written at a level above the average American reader. Simplification of these resources are necessary to improve patient understanding of urologic malignancy. PMID:25623686

  20. Generating patient-specific pulmonary vascular models for surgical planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murff, Daniel; Co-Vu, Jennifer; O'Dell, Walter G.

    2015-03-01

    Each year in the U.S., 7.4 million surgical procedures involving the major vessels are performed. Many of our patients require multiple surgeries, and many of the procedures include "surgical exploration". Procedures of this kind come with a significant amount of risk, carrying up to a 17.4% predicted mortality rate. This is especially concerning for our target population of pediatric patients with congenital abnormalities of the heart and major pulmonary vessels. This paper offers a novel approach to surgical planning which includes studying virtual and physical models of pulmonary vasculature of an individual patient before operation obtained from conventional 3D X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest. These models would provide clinicians with a non-invasive, intricately detailed representation of patient anatomy, and could reduce the need for invasive planning procedures such as exploratory surgery. Researchers involved in the AirPROM project have already demonstrated the utility of virtual and physical models in treatment planning of the airways of the chest. Clinicians have acknowledged the potential benefit from such a technology. A method for creating patient-derived physical models is demonstrated on pulmonary vasculature extracted from a CT scan with contrast of an adult human. Using a modified version of the NIH ImageJ program, a series of image processing functions are used to extract and mathematically reconstruct the vasculature tree structures of interest. An auto-generated STL file is sent to a 3D printer to create a physical model of the major pulmonary vasculature generated from 3D CT scans of patients.

  1. Can cancer patients influence the pain agenda in oncology outpatient consultations?

    PubMed

    Rogers, Margaret S; Todd, Chris

    2010-02-01

    Pain in cancer patients is common, yet it is often inadequately managed. Although poor assessment has been implicated, how patients contribute to this process has not been explicated. This study aims to uncover patients' contributions to discussions about pain during oncology outpatient consultations. Seventy-four medical encounters were observed and audiotaped. Verbatim transcriptions of pain talk were examined using conversational analysis. Thirty-nine of 74 patients talked about pain with 15 different doctors during consultations for follow-up or active treatment. Patients' talk about pain varied consistently according to how pain talk was initiated. In 20 consultations where pain was put on the agenda by patients, they used communication tactics that emphasized their pain experiences, seemingly to attract and maintain their doctors' attention. These tactics appear necessary, as the cancer treatment agenda restricts opportunities for patients to have supportive care needs addressed. On the other hand, in 19 consultations where doctors elicited information about pain, patients used communication tactics that minimized their pain experiences, seemingly to conceal potential disease progression or recurrence, the very focus of these specialist consultations. Where cancer was implicated as the source of pain, chemotherapy or radiotherapy was offered, and where cancer was suspected, referrals for investigations were made. Two of the 20 patients appeared to influence the treatment-focused agenda and were given referrals to pain clinic rather than further cancer therapy as initially recommended. PMID:19963336

  2. Physician Recruitment of Patients to Non-Therapeutic Oncology Clinical Trials: Ethics Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Black, Lee; Batist, Gerald; Avard, Denise; Rousseau, Caroline; Diaz, Zuanel; Knoppers, Bartha Maria

    2013-01-01

    Tailoring medical treatment to individual patients requires a strong foundation in research to provide the data necessary to understand the relationship between the disease, the patient, and the type of treatment advocated for. Non-therapeutic oncology clinical trials studying therapeutic resistance require the participation of patients, yet only a small percentage enroll. Treating physicians are often relied on to recruit patients, but they have a number of ethical obligations that might be perceived as barriers to recruiting. Concepts such as voluntariness of consent and conflicts of interest can have an impact on whether physicians will discuss clinical trials with their patients and how patients perceive the information. However, these ethical obligations should not be prohibitive to physician recruitment of patients – precautions can be taken to ensure that patients’ consent to research participation is fully voluntary and devoid of conflict, such as the use of other members of the research team than the treating physician to discuss the trial and obtain consent, and better communication between researchers, clinicians, and patients. These can ensure that research benefits are maximized for the good of patients and society. PMID:23483771

  3. Managing Opioid-Tolerant Patients in the Perioperative Surgical Home.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, John T; Schwenk, Eric S; Baratta, Jaime L; Viscusi, Eugene R

    2016-06-01

    Management of acute postoperative pain is important to decrease perioperative morbidity and improve patient satisfaction. Opioids are associated with potential adverse events that may lead to significant risk. Uncontrolled pain is a risk factor in the transformation of acute pain to chronic pain. Balancing these issues can be especially challenging in opioid-tolerant patients undergoing surgery, for whom rapidly escalating opioid doses in an effort to control pain can be associated with increased complications. In the perioperative surgical home model, anesthesiologists are positioned to coordinate a comprehensive perioperative analgesic plan that begins with the preoperative assessment and continues through discharge. PMID:27208711

  4. Thoracic wall defects: surgical management of 205 consecutive patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pairolero, P.C.; Arnold, P.G.

    1986-07-01

    In this article, we review our experience during the past 9 years with 205 consecutive thoracic wall reconstructions. The 100 female and 105 male patients ranged in age from 12 to 85 years (mean, 53.4 years). One hundred fourteen patients had thoracic wall tumors, 56 had radiation necrosis, 56 had infected median sternotomy wounds, and 8 had costochondritis. Twenty-nine of these patients had combinations of the aforementioned conditions. One hundred seventy-eight patients underwent skeletal resection. A mean of 5.4 ribs were resected in 142 patients. Total or partial sternectomies were performed in 60. Skeletal defects were closed with prosthetic material in 66 patients and with autogenous ribs in 12. One hundred sixty-eight patients underwent 244 muscle flap procedures: 149 pectoralis major, 56 latissimus dorsi, 14 rectus abdominis, 13 serratus anterior, 8 external oblique, 2 trapezius, and 2 advancement of diaphragm. The omentum was transposed in 20 patients. The mean number of operations per patient was 1.9 (range, 1 to 8). The mean duration of hospitalization was 16.5 days. One perioperative death occurred (at 29 days). Four patients required tracheostomy. During a mean follow-up of 32.4 months, there were 49 late deaths, predominantly due to malignant disease. All 204 patients who were alive 30 days after operation had excellent surgical results at last follow-up examination or at the time of death due to causes unrelated to the reconstructive procedure.

  5. Implementation of a Central Line Maintenance Care Bundle in Hospitalized Pediatric Oncology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Allen R.; Bundy, David G.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Fratino, Lisa; Drucis, Kim M.; Panton, Stephanie Y.; Kokoszka, Michelle; Budd, Alicia P.; Milstone, Aaron M.; Miller, Marlene R.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a multidisciplinary, best-practice central line maintenance care bundle reduces central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) rates in hospitalized pediatric oncology patients and to further delineate the epidemiology of CLABSIs in this population. METHODS: We performed a prospective, interrupted time series study of a best-practice bundle addressing all areas of central line care: reduction of entries, aseptic entries, and aseptic procedures when changing components. Based on a continuous quality improvement model, targeted interventions were instituted to improve compliance with each of the bundle elements. CLABSI rates and epidemiological data were collected for 10 months before and 24 months after implementation of the bundle and compared in a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: CLABSI rates decreased from 2.25 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days at baseline to 1.79 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days during the intervention period (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.80, P = .58). Secondary analyses indicated CLABSI rates were reduced to 0.81 CLABSIs per 1000 central line days in the second 12 months of the intervention (IRR: 0.36, P = .091). Fifty-nine percent of infections resulted from Gram-positive pathogens, 37% of patients with a CLABSI required central line removal, and patients with Hickman catheters were more likely to have a CLABSI than patients with Infusaports (IRR: 4.62, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: A best-practice central line maintenance care bundle can be implemented in hospitalized pediatric oncology patients, although long ramp-up times may be necessary to reap maximal benefits. Further research is needed to determine if this CLABSI rate reduction can be sustained and spread. PMID:22945408

  6. Bacterial bloodstream infections and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in pediatric hematology/oncology patients after anticancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mulla, Naima A; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; El Shafie, Sittana; Janahi, Mohammed; Al-Nasser, Abdullah A; Chandra, Prem

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bloodstream infections in pediatric hematology and oncology represent a major problem worldwide, but this has not been studied in Qatar. In this study, we investigated the burden of infection and the resistance pattern in the bacterial etiology, in the only tertiary pediatric hematology and oncology center in Qatar. Methods All pediatric cancer patients (n=185) were evaluated retrospectively during the period 2004–2011; a total of 70 (38%) patients were diagnosed with bloodstream infections. Bacterial etiology was determined, along with their susceptibility patterns. Neutropenia, duration of neutropenia, fever, duration of fever, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated throughout the study. Results A total of 70 patients (38%) were diagnosed with acute leukemias, lymphomas, solid tumors, or brain tumors; those patients experienced 111 episodes of bacteremia. The most common Gram-positive (n=64 [55%]) isolates were Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=26), Staphylococcus hominis (n=9), and Staphylococcus haemolyticus (n=7), and the common Gram-negative (n=52 [45%]) isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=14), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=10), and Escherichia coli (n=7). There was a significant association observed between fever with positive blood culture and different types of cancer (P=0.035). The majority of bacteremia (n=68 [61.3%]) occurred in nonneutropenic episodes. Elevated values of CRP (≥5 mg/L) were detected in 82 (95.3%) episodes and were negatively correlated with absolute neutrophil count (ANC) (r=−0.18; P=0.248) among all cases. However, the infection-related fatality rate was 2.2% (n=4), with three caused by Gram-negative pathogens. Multidrug resistant organisms were implicated in 33 (28.4%) cases and caused three of the mortality cases. Conclusion Multidrug resistant organisms cause mortality in pediatric cancer patients. Investigation of antimicrobial susceptibility of these organisms may guide successful antimicrobial therapy and improve

  7. Successful surgical management of ruptured umbilical hernias in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Bradley, J Andrew; Harper, Simon; Butler, Andrew; Jah, Asif; Huguet, Emmanuel; Praseedom, Raaj K; Allison, Michael; Gibbs, Paul

    2015-03-14

    Acute umbilical hernia rupture in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and ascites is an unusual, but potentially life-threatening complication, with postoperative morbidity about 70% and mortality between 60%-80% after supportive care and 6%-20% after urgent surgical repair. Management options include primary surgical repair with or without concomitant portal venous system decompression for the control of the ascites. We present a retrospective analysis of our centre's experience over the last 6 years. Our cohort consisted of 11 consecutive patients (median age: 53 years, range: 36-63 years) with advanced hepatic cirrhosis and refractory ascites. Appropriate patient resuscitation and optimisation with intravenous fluids, prophylactic antibiotics and local measures was instituted. One failed attempt for conservative management was followed by a successful primary repair. In all cases, with one exception, a primary repair with non-absorbable Nylon, interrupted sutures, without mesh, was performed. The perioperative complication rate was 25% and the recurrence rate 8.3%. No mortality was recorded. Median length of hospital stay was 14 d (range: 4-31 d). Based on our experience, the management of ruptured umbilical hernias in patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis and refractory ascites is feasible without the use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt routinely in the preoperative period, provided that meticulous patient optimisation is performed. PMID:25780312

  8. The critically-ill pediatric hemato-oncology patient: epidemiology, management, and strategy of transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in children. In the past decades, there has been a marked increase in overall survival of children with cancer. However, children whose treatment includes hematopoietic stem cell transplantation still represent a subpopulation with a higher risk of mortality. These improvements in mortality are accompanied by an increase in complications, such as respiratory and cardiovascular insufficiencies as well as neurological problems that may require an admission to the pediatric intensive care unit where most supportive therapies can be provided. It has been shown that ventilatory and cardiovascular support along with renal replacement therapy can benefit pediatric hemato-oncology patients if promptly established. Even if admissions of these patients are not considered futile anymore, they still raise sensitive questions, including ethical issues. To support the discussion and potentially facilitate the decision-making process, we propose an algorithm that takes into account the reason for admission (surgical versus medical) and the hemato-oncological prognosis. The algorithm then leads to different types of admission: full-support admission, “pediatric intensive care unit trial” admission, intensive care with adapted level of support, and palliative intensive care. Throughout the process, maintaining a dialogue between the treating physicians, the paramedical staff, the child, and his parents is of paramount importance to optimize the care of these children with complex disease and evolving medical status. PMID:22691690

  9. Long-term prognosis of patients with surgical wound infections.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, K B; Gottschau, A

    1997-10-01

    This study examined if surgical wound infections (SWI) result in a severe prognosis regarding general health and increase the consumption of social resources. A group of 1301 patients were interviewed by self-administered questionnaires during 1993-1994, while operated during hospitalization in seven Danish hospitals. These patients were followed up at least once by similar questionnaires at a median time of 5.5 and 10.0 months postoperatively. The consequences of surgically diagnosed SWI were analyzed in a hospital cohort of 58 infected patients and 648 controls. Postdischarge infections were analyzed in a patient cohort of 263 cases and 767 controls. Changes in health was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, Activities of Daily Living index, and self-assessed health. Consumption of resources were estimated by reliance on assistance from family and friends, use of home services, and contacts to doctors. It was found that the long-term prognosis of general health was unaffected by SWIs. However significantly increased social dependence was found for patients with SWIs compared to uninfected patients. Almost one-fourth of the operations were complicated by an SWI. Most of the infections were recognized only after discharge and were thought to be of minor importance, which may explain why no chronic impairment of the health was found for patients with an SWI. A bias toward no-effect may have been introduced if patients with severe SWIs abstained from participation. The societal cost of care for patients with minor infections seems to be large. The causal relation between outcome and SWI needs to be further investigated. PMID:9327669

  10. Results of Surgical Therapy in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vlad, Mihaela; Zosin, Ioana; Timar, Bogdan; Lazar, Fulger; Vlad, Adrian; Timar, Romulus; Cornianu, Marioara

    2016-08-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare form of malignancy, having an intermediate prognosis. Controversies exist regarding the best surgical approach. The aim of the study was to analyze the outcome in a group of patients with MTC, diagnosed and followed up in a single care center. We performed a retrospective analysis of all the patients diagnosed with MTC in the Department of Endocrinology from the County Emergency Hospital Timisoara between 1992 and 2012. The study group included 19 patients, 6 men (31.6 %), mean age 41.2 ± 12.5 years (20-72 years). The preoperative diagnosis was based on the protocol for nodular thyroid disease. Total or near-total thyroidectomy was performed in 10 out of 16 patients who could be operated. Postoperative follow-up included repeated measurements of serum calcitonin and imaging investigations. Nine out of the total of 19 (47.3 %) patients had hereditary forms of MTC. Most of the cases (84.2 %) were submitted to surgery. The median duration of follow-up was 84 months. The pTNM staging indicated that the majority of the patients with hereditary MTC were diagnosed in an earlier stage. Disease remission was achieved in 7 cases (43.8 %). Four patients, all with sporadic forms, died. Survival rates at 1, 5 and 10 years were significantly higher (p = 0.048) in patients with hereditary MTC. An early diagnosis of MTC allows a better surgical approach and an improved survival rate. We support the general recommendation that modified radical neck dissection is not necessary for all the patients with MTC. PMID:27574350

  11. Pediatric oncology nurses' attitudes related to discussing fertility preservation with pediatric cancer patients and their families.

    PubMed

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Clayton, Heather; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; King, Lindsey M; Nieder, Michael; Wilson, Crystal

    2007-01-01

    This study explores nurses' attitudes toward the discussion of fertility preservation (FP) with pediatric cancer patients and their families. A cross-sectional survey was administered to attendees of a pediatric oncology conference. Of the 115 nurses who responded and comprised the study sample, most reported discussing risks of infertility or FP patients' families, that boys younger than 18 years should not be given erotic materials during semen collection, and difficulty locating FP facilities. The 3 patient factors most likely to encourage the discussion of FP are the patient being recently married or engaged, the patient asking about FP, and availability of patient education materials. While the results indicate that nurses do not regularly discuss FP with their patients, nurses perceive such discussion as being within their scope of practice. Therefore, with appropriate intervention, nurses may play a key role in facilitating discussions regarding FP with patients and families. PMID:17827491

  12. Surgical patents and patients--the ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Tołłoczko, Tadeusz

    2005-01-01

    It is obvious that every inventor should be rewarded for the intellectual effort, and at the same time be encouraged to successively improve his or her discovery and to work on subsequent innovations. Patents also ensure that patent owners are officially protected against intellectual piracy, but protection of intellectual property may be difficult to accomplish. Nevertheless, it all comes down to this basic question: Does a contradiction exist between medical ethics and the "Medical and Surgical Procedure Patents" system? It may well turn out that medical-procedure patents can have a negative influence on the standard of medical care. Medical-method patents may also interfere with the physician-patient relationship. At present, physicians do not question the usefulness of patent protection for medicines, biotechnology, equipment and devices, but they strongly oppose it for surgical procedures. PMID:15727000

  13. Sedation and Anesthesia Options for Pediatric Patients in the Radiation Oncology Suite

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    External beam radiation therapy (XRT) has become one of the cornerstones in the management of pediatric oncology cases. While the procedure itself is painless, the anxiety it causes may necessitate the provision of sedation or anesthesia for the patient. This review paper will briefly review the XRT procedure itself so that the anesthesia provider has an understanding of what is occurring during the simulation and treatment phases. We will then examine several currently used regimens for the provision of pediatric sedation in the XRT suite as well as a discussion of when and how general anesthesia should be performed if deemed necessary. Standards of care with respect to patient monitoring will be addressed. We will conclude with a survey of the developing field of radiation-based therapy administered outside of the XRT suite. PMID:20490268

  14. Will designated patient navigators fix the problem? Oncology nursing in transition.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Sally; Truant, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    With increasing concern for equity and access across the cancer care system, we have seen expanding enthusiasm for various forms of designated patient "navigators" to facilitate coordination. While the intention is laudable, many of the popular implementation strategies risk accentuating strain upon the system and further complicating the coordination problem. These authors claim the motivation underlying the navigator movement can be reframed as an emerging recognition of the value of nursing work when it is optimally positioned to support patients, as they experience the cancer care system. This paper calls on Canadian oncology nurses to critically challenge navigation strategies, and adopt only those consistent with the significant reforms required to ensure a cancer care system so effective that external navigators are no longer necessary. PMID:20812603

  15. Surgical and prosthetic reconsiderations in patients with maxillectomy.

    PubMed

    Lethaus, B; Lie, N; de Beer, F; Kessler, P; de Baat, C; Verdonck, H W

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish and evaluate new possibilities for rehabilitation of patients with obturator prosthesis who had undergone partial or total maxillectomy because of tumour ablation surgery. Eleven patients with maxillary defects were reconstructed with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing designed prosthesis. Missing retention was gained by inserting implants in the remaining bone, so that an expansion of the surgical defect to gain further retention could be avoided. All patients were treated successfully according to the previously described treatment plan. The Obturator Functioning Scale (OFS) of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre was applied to evaluate the functional quality of the obturator prosthesis and patient's satisfaction. It showed good results in all fields of functional outcome and social acceptance. PMID:20002530

  16. Violent Behavior among hospitalized medical and surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Ochitill, H N; Krieger, M

    1982-02-01

    To characterize violent behavior in hospitalized medical and surgical patients, we reviewed documented violent incidents at the San Francisco General Hospital during a two-year period. Twenty-nine incidents of verbal and physical violence occurred. One patient was gravely ill and three were delirious. All the incidents were associated with increased levels of tension and loss of impulse control. In most cases, contention with the staff regarding pain medication or ward regulations was a precipitating event. Of the 28 patients with mental disorders, 19 were substance abusers, six had organic brain syndrome, tw had neurosis, and one had schizophrenia. The findings suggest that physicians should be more sensitive to patient characteristics and to the situational characteristics of the violent incident. Explicit measures that anticipate and reduce violent behavior are reviewed. PMID:7058353

  17. Selected surgical managements in snoring and obstructive sleep apnea patients

    PubMed Central

    Olszewska, Ewa; Rutkowska, Justyna; Czajkowska, Aneta; Rogowski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The diagnostic process and the surgical procedures in patients with snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are crucial. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of surgical treatment in snoring and OSAS patients. Material/Methods A precise laryngological examination and screening polysomnography (Poly-Mesam) were performed in all patients with mild, moderate and severe OSAS before and 6 months after surgery. The patients completed questionnaires concerning their complaints. We included patients qualified to septoplasty, laser-assisted uvulopalatoplasty (LAUP), uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) and radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of the tongue base (RITT). Outcome evaluation of surgery was performed on the basis of data received from follow-up laryngological examinations, selected parameters obtained from the Poly-Mesam test and follow-up questionnaires. Results In most cases we observed improvement, defined as decreasing some sleep parameters, such as a respiratory disturbance index (RDI), by more than 50%, decreasing the loudness of snoring, decreasing the number of hypopneas, and obtaining better blood saturation values. After UPPP we noticed changes in retropalatal space, soft palate dimensions and uvula-posterior pharyngeal wall distance. In the postoperative period we did not observe severe complications. In some cases we found short-lived palatal deficiency after UPPP. Patients after RITT experienced discomfort and throat pain lasting from 2 to 4 days. In 2 patients we observed swelling of the tongue base, which decreased after few days. Conclusions Surgery in OSAS contributes to normalization of some sleep parameters. The majority of patients experienced improvement after surgery. PMID:22207114

  18. Accuracy of the oncology patients information system in a regional cancer centre.

    PubMed

    Yau, Jonathan C; Chan, Arlene; Eapen, Tamina; Oirourke, Keith; Eapen, Libni

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy of the Oncology Patient Information Systems (OPIS) database for patients with breast cancer and lymphoma. We conducted a detailed individual patient chart review of patients with lymphoma or breast cancer who were seen in consultation by an oncologist between July 1991 and June 1995. Information extracted directly from the patients' clinic charts was compared with information captured in the OPIS database with respect to demographics, staging, histological diagnosis, treatment, relapse status, date of relapse and survival. OPIS database failed to capture 14.4% and 23.4% of lymphoma and breast cancer patients seen over the four-year period. When compared to the clinic charts there were differences in staging in 31.5% and 8.1%, relapse status in 27.6% and 7.2%, and date of relapse in 56.4% and 14.7% of lymphoma and breast cancer patients respectively. The deficiencies and inaccuracies in the OPIS database emphasize the need for caution in basing administrative, policy, or practice decisions on this database. PMID:11748476

  19. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: what every provider of gynecologic oncology care should know.

    PubMed

    Duska, Linda R; Engelhard, Carolyn L

    2013-06-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was signed into law by President Barack Obama in 2010. While initial implementation of the law began shortly thereafter, the full implementation will take place over the next few years. With respect to cancer care, the act was intended to make care more accessible, affordable, and comprehensive across different parts of the country. For our cancer patients and our practices, the ACA has implications that are both positive and negative. The Medicaid expansion and access to insurance exchanges are intended to increase the number of insured patients and thus improve access to care, but many states have decided to opt out of the Medicaid program and in these states access problems will persist. Screening programs will be put in place for insured patients but may supplant federally funded programs that are currently in place for uninsured patients and may not follow current screening guidelines. Both hospice and home health providers will be asked to provide more services with less funding, and quality measures, including readmission rates, will factor into reimbursement. Insured patients will have access to all phases of clinical trial research. There is a need for us as providers of Gynecologic Oncology care to be active in the implementation of the ACA in order to ensure that our patients and our practices can survive and benefit from the changes in health care reimbursement, with the ultimate goals of improving access to care and quality while reducing unsustainable costs. PMID:23500090

  20. Patient-Physician Communication About Complementary and Alternative Medicine in a Radiation Oncology Setting

    SciTech Connect

    Ge Jin; Fishman, Jessica; Vapiwala, Neha; Li, Susan Q.; Desai, Krupali; Xie, Sharon X.; Mao, Jun J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the extensive use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among cancer patients, patient-physician communication regarding CAM therapies remains limited. This study quantified the extent of patient-physician communication about CAM and identified factors associated with its discussion in radiation therapy (RT) settings. Methods and Materials: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 305 RT patients at an urban academic cancer center. Patients with different cancer types were recruited in their last week of RT. Participants self-reported their demographic characteristics, health status, CAM use, patient-physician communication regarding CAM, and rationale for/against discussing CAM therapies with physicians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify relationships between demographic/clinical variables and patients' discussion of CAM with radiation oncologists. Results: Among the 305 participants, 133 (43.6%) reported using CAM, and only 37 (12.1%) reported discussing CAM therapies with their radiation oncologists. In multivariate analyses, female patients (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-0.98) and patients with full-time employment (AOR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.81) were less likely to discuss CAM with their radiation oncologists. CAM users (AOR 4.28, 95% CI 1.93-9.53) were more likely to discuss CAM with their radiation oncologists than were non-CAM users. Conclusions: Despite the common use of CAM among oncology patients, discussions regarding these treatments occur rarely in the RT setting, particularly among female and full-time employed patients. Clinicians and patients should incorporate discussions of CAM to guide its appropriate use and to maximize possible benefit while minimizing potential harm.

  1. Bariatric surgery: three surgical techniques, patient care, risks, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Carrie A; Wool, Daniel B

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States is a serious health concern. Bariatric surgery is a recognized and accepted approach for addressing weight loss and health conditions that occur as a result of morbid or severe obesity. Lifestyle changes, dietary modifications, and regular exercise are required for optimal and lasting surgical weight loss. Perioperative care of bariatric patients requires the use of interventions that differ from those used for nonobese patients, including bariatric-specific equipment, intraoperative monitoring of blood glucose, and postoperative monitoring for respiratory compromise. This articles outlines the risks and typical outcomes associated with three common bariatric procedures-laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass-to help perioperative nurses and other health care providers successfully advise patients and monitor their care for optimal outcomes. PMID:26227518

  2. Global radiation oncology waybill

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Garzón, Victor; Rovirosa, Ángeles; Ramos, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Radiation oncology covers many different fields of knowledge and skills. Indeed, this medical specialty links physics, biology, research, and formation as well as surgical and clinical procedures and even rehabilitation and aesthetics. The current socio-economic situation and professional competences affect the development and future or this specialty. The aim of this article was to analyze and highlight the underlying pillars and foundations of radiation oncology, indicating the steps implicated in the future developments or competences of each. Methods This study has collected data from the literature and includes highlights from discussions carried out during the XVII Congress of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR) held in Vigo in June, 2013. Most of the aspects and domains of radiation oncology were analyzed, achieving recommendations for the many skills and knowledge related to physics, biology, research, and formation as well as surgical and clinical procedures and even supportive care and management. Results Considering the data from the literature and the discussions of the XVII SEOR Meeting, the “waybill” for the forthcoming years has been described in this article including all the aspects related to the needs of radiation oncology. Conclusions Professional competences affect the development and future of this specialty. All the types of radio-modulation are competences of radiation oncologists. On the other hand, the pillars of Radiation Oncology are based on experience and research in every area of Radiation Oncology. PMID:24416572

  3. Attitudes of Oncologists, Oncology Nurses, and Patients from a Women's Clinic Regarding Medical Decision Making for Older and Younger Breast Cancer Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisecker, Analee E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Administered Beisecker Locus of Authority in Decision Making: Breast Cancer survey to 67 oncologists, 94 oncology nurses, and 288 patients from women's clinic. All groups believed that physicians should have dominant role in decision making. Nurses felt that patients should have more input than patients or physicians felt they should. Physicians…

  4. Neural network adapted to wound cell analysis in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Viljanto, Jouko; Koski, Antti

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of the real state of wound healing of closed surgical wounds is uncertain both clinically and from conventional laboratory tests. Therefore, a novel approach based on early analysis of exactly timed wound cells, computerized further with an artificial neural network, was developed. At the end of routine surgery performed on 481 children under 18 years of age, a specific wound drain Cellstick™ was inserted subcutaneously between the wound edges to harvest wound cells. The Cellsticks™ were removed from 1 to 50 hours, mainly at hour 3 or 24 postsurgery. Immediately, the cellular contents were washed out using a pump constructed for the purpose. After cytocentrifugation, the cells were stained and counted differentially. Based on their relative proportions at selected time intervals, an artificial self-organizing neural map was developed. This was further transformed to a unidirectional linear graph where each node represents one set of relative cell quantities. As early as 3 hours, but more precisely 24 hours after surgery, the location of the nodes on this graph showed individually the patients' initial speed of wound inflammatory cell response. Similarly, timed Cellstick™ specimens from new surgical patients could be analyzed, computerized, and compared with these node values to assess their initial speed in wound inflammatory cell response. Location of the node on the graph does not express the time lapse after surgery but the speed of wound inflammatory cell response in relation to that of other patients. PMID:21362082

  5. Orthodontic and surgical treatment of a patient with hemifacial microsomia.

    PubMed

    Zanardi, Gustavo; Parente, Eduardo Varela; Esteves, Lucas Senhorinho; Louro, Rafael Seabra; Capelli, Jonas

    2012-04-01

    This article describes the surgical and orthodontic treatment of a 12-year-old boy with a significant deformity and functional involvement caused by hemifacial microsomia. The left mandibular ramus and condyle were hypoplastic and abnormal in form and location. The lower third of the face was increased, with mandibular retrusion and significant facial asymmetry. He had difficulties in speaking and chewing and problems related to his facial appearance, which caused severe psychosocial disturbances. The patient received orthodontic treatment and temporomandibular joint reconstruction with a costochondral graft on the left side while he was still growing. Three-year follow-up records are presented. PMID:22449593

  6. Surgical management of cleft lip in pedo-patients.

    PubMed

    Taware, C P; Kulkarni, S R

    1991-01-01

    The Present article describes in short etiology of cleft lip and cleft palate. With this in-born defect, patient develops crucial problems with feeding, phonation, overall growth and development of affected and allied soft and hard tissue structures. This in turn results in deformity and asymmetry which is going to affect functional requirements as well as aesthetic outlook. Hence it really becomes mandatory to correct this defect surgically as early as possible, at stipulated timings so as to avoid present and future anticipated problems. PMID:1820390

  7. Functional changes of intestinal mucosal barrier in surgically critical patients

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuan-yuan; Liu, Mu-lin; He, Xian-di; Jiang, Cong-qiao; Liu, Rui-lin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The gut is capable of inducing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). In the diagnosis and treatment of critical ill patients, doctors should pay particular attention to the protection or recovery of intestinal barrier function. However, no reliable diagnostic criteria are available clinically. This study aimed to assess the changes of intestinal mucosal barrier function in surgically critical ill patients as well as their significance. METHODS: Thirty-eight surgically critical ill patients were enrolled as a study group (APACHE II>8 scores), and 15 non-critical ill patients without intestinal dysfunction were selected as a control group (APACHE II<6). General information, symptoms, physical signs, and APACHE II scores of the patients were recorded. The patients in the study group were subdivided into an intestinal dysfunction group (n=26) and a non-intestinal dysfunction group (n=12). Three ml venous blood was collected from the control group on admission and the same volume of plasma was collected from the study group both on admission and in the period of recovery. The plasma concentrations of endotoxin, diamine oxidase (DAO), D-lactate, and intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (iFABP) were detected respectively. The data collected were analyzed by the SPSS 17.0 software for Windows. RESULTS: The levels of variables were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (P<0.01). They were higher in the intestinal dysfunction group than in the non-intestinal dysfunction group (DAO P<0.05, endotoxin, D-lactate, iFABP P<0.01). In the non-intestinal dysfunction group compared with the control group, the level of endotoxin was not significant (P>0.05), but the levels of DAO, D-lactate and iFABP were statistically significant (P<0.05). The levels of variables in acute stage were higher than those in recovery stage (P<0.01). The death group showed higher levels of variables than the survival group (endotoxin and D-lactate P<0.01, DAO

  8. Surgical strategy: matching the patient with the procedure.

    PubMed

    Hentz, Vincent R

    2002-08-01

    The general indications, timing, and choice of procedure can be determined by asking and answering the following questions appropriately: 1. Has the patient achieved neurologic, emotional, and social stability? 2. What is the patient's current level of motor and sensory resources and function? The number and strength of muscles remaining under good voluntary control are the most important variables. 3. Are the patient's expectations realistic? 4. Does the patient possess the necessary intelligence and motivation? Some procedures, such as arthrodesis of a specific joint, require little motivation to succeed; however, a complex set of muscle-tendon transfers requires a great deal of motor reeducation for the patient to achieve an optimal result. 5. Does the patient have the necessary time to invest in achieving a good result? The patient must be able to set aside the time necessary for postoperative immobilization in a cast or splint and for therapy and reeducation. 6. Are the necessary support services and personnel available and committed? 7. Have all preoperative obstacles to success been considered and has a plan developed to overcome any remaining obstacles? 8. Does the patient understand the potential complications and benefits? 9. Can the patient and professional team tolerate a complication, failure, or suboptimal result? Both the medical staff and the patient must be prepared for complications that may lead to a suboptimal outcome or frank failure. 10. Are the patient's current health and well-being ideal? 11. Is the surgical plan consistent with the patient's physical resources, goals, and expectations? 12. Does an alternate plan exist? 13. Does the surgeon understand the scope of the complications and how to salvage an acceptable result should a complication occur? PMID:12474600

  9. [Understanding positon emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-FDG in clinical oncology. Informations dedicated to patients and relatives].

    PubMed

    Bourguet, Patrick; Brusco, Sylvie; Corone, Corinne; Devillers, Anne; Foehrenbach, Hervé; Lumbroso, Jean-Daniel; Maszelin, Philippe; Montravers, Françoise; Moretti, Jean-Luc; Rain, Jean-Didier; Talbot, Jean-Noël; Carretier, Julien; Leichtnam-Dugarin, Line; Delavigne, Valérie; Philip, Thierry; Fervers, Béatrice

    2005-07-01

    In response to the evolution of the information-seeking behaviour of patients and concerns from health professionals regarding cancer patient information, the French National Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNCLCC) introduced, in 1998, an information and education program dedicated to patients and relatives, the SOR SAVOIR PATIENT program (SSP). The methodology of this program adheres to established quality criteria regarding the elaboration of patient information. Cancer patient information, developed in this program, is based on clinical practice guidelines produced by the FNCLCC and the twenty French regional cancer centres, the National League against Cancer, the French Hospital Federation, the National Oncology Federation of Regional and University Hospitals, the French Oncology Federation of General Hospitals, many learned societies, as well as an active participation of patients, former patients and caregivers. The guidelines, "Standards, Options: Recommendations" (SOR) are used as primary information sources. The handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-FDG in clinical oncology, integrally published in this issue of the Bulletin du Cancer, is an adapted version of the clinical practice guidelines (CPG) Standards, Options and Recommendations for positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-FDG in clinical oncology. The main objectives of this article are to allow persons affected by cancer and their close relatives to better understand this medical imaging technique and its implementation. This document also offers health professionals a synthetic evidence-based patient information source that should help them communicate that information during the physician-patient encounter. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a scintigraphy technique using a radiotracer, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (abbreviated [18F]-FDG), administered intravenously into the patient's arm. This tracer, similar to glucose (sugar

  10. Effects of Video Games on the Adverse Corollaries of Chemotherapy in Pediatric Oncology Patients: A Single-Case Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Rickard-Figueroa, Jorge L.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed effects of video games on adverse corollaries of chemotherapy in three pediatric oncology patients. Results indicated that access to video games resulted in reduction in the number of anticipatory symptoms experienced and observed, as well as a diminution in the aversiveness of chemotherapy side effects. (Author/NRB)

  11. Evaluation of Nosocomial Infection in Patients at hematology-oncology ward of Dr. Sheikh children’s hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, A; Farhangi, H; Badiee, Z; Banihashem, A; Mosaddegh, MR

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections in critical care unit are high, and they are serious hospital problems. Infections acquired during the hospital stay are generally called nosocomial infections, initially known as infections arising after 48 h of hospital admission. The mostfrequent nosocomial infections (urinary, respiratory, gastroenteritis and blood stream infection) were common in patients at hospital.The aim was to study, the current status of nosocomial infection, rate of infection among hospitalized children at hematology-oncology ward of Dr. Sheikh children’s hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods Data were collected from 200 patient's records presented with symptoms of nosocomial infection at hematology-oncology ward of Dr. Sheikh children’s hospital from March 2014 to September 2014. Descriptive statistics using percentage was calculated. Results Incidence of nosocomial infections inpatients athematology-oncology ward was 31% (62/200). Of which 69.35% (43/62) blood stream infection being the most frequent; followed by 30.64% (19/62) was urinary tract infection (UTI), and the most common blood culture isolate was been Staphylococcus epidermidis 18 (41.86%), andour study showed that large numbers ofnosocomial UTIs causing by Gram‑negative bacteria. Conclusion This study showed blood stream infection and UTI are the common nosocomial infections among patients athematology-oncology ward. Early recognition of infections and short term use of invasive devices along with proper infection control procedures can significantly decrease the incidence of nosocomial infections in patients. PMID:26985350

  12. Factors Influencing Communication Between the Patients with Cancer and their Nurses in Oncology Wards

    PubMed Central

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Rassouli, Maryam; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Nikanfar, Alireza; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Ghahramanian, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the factors influencing nurse-patient communication in cancer care in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative conventional content analysis approach in oncology wards of hospitals in Tabriz. Data was collected through purposive sampling by semi-structured deep interviews with nine patients, three family members and five nurses and analyzed simultaneously. Robustness of data analysis was evaluated by the participants and external control. Results: The main theme of the research emerged as “three-factor effects” that demonstrates all the factors related to the patient, nurse, and the organization and includes three categories of “Patient as the center of communication”, “Nurse as a human factor”, and “Organizational structures”. The first category consists of two sub-categories of “Imposed changes by the disease” and the “patient's particular characteristics”. The second category includes sub-categories of “sense of vulnerability” and “perception of professional self: Pre-requisite of patient-centered communication”. The third category consists of the sub-categories of “workload and time imbalance”, “lack of supervision”, and “impose duties in context of neglecting nurse and patient needs”. Characteristics of the patients, nurses, and care environment seemed to be the influential factors on the communication. Conclusions: In order to communicate with cancer patients effectively, changes in philosophy and culture of the care environment are essential. Nurses must receive proper trainings which meet their needs and which focus on holistic and patient-centered approach. PMID:24600177

  13. Integration of Early Specialist Palliative Care in Cancer Care: Survey of Oncologists, Oncology Nurses, and Patients

    PubMed Central

    Salins, Naveen; Patra, Lipika; Usha Rani, MR; Lohitashva, SO; Rao, Raghavendra; Ramanjulu, Raghavendra; Vallath, Nandini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Palliative care is usually delivered late in the course of illness trajectory. This precludes patients on active disease modifying treatment from receiving the benefit of palliative care intervention. A survey was conducted to know the opinion of oncologists, oncology nurses, and patients about the role of early specialist palliative care in cancer. Methods: A nonrandomized descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary cancer care center in India. Thirty oncologists, sixty oncology nurses, and sixty patients were surveyed. Results: Improvement in symptom control was appreciated by oncologists, oncology nurses, and patients with respect to pain (Z = −4.10, P = 0.001), (Z = −5.84, P = 0.001), (Z = −6.20, P = 0.001); nausea and vomiting (Z = −3.75, P = 0.001), (Z = −5.3, P = 0.001), (Z = −5.1, P = 0.001); constipation (Z = −3.29, P = 0.001), (Z = −4.96, P = 0.001), (Z = −4.49, P = 0.001); breathlessness (Z = −3.57, P = 0.001), (Z = −5.03, P = 0.001), (Z = −4.99, P = 0.001); and restlessness (Z = −3.68, P = 0.001), (Z = −5.23, P = 0.001), (Z = −3.22, P = 0.001). Improvement in end-of-life care management was appreciated by oncologists and oncology nurses with respect to communication of prognosis (Z = −4.04, P = 0.001), (Z = −5.20, P = 0.001); discussion on limitation of life-sustaining treatment (Z = −3.68, P = 0.001), (Z = −4.53, P = 0.001); end-of-life symptom management (Z = −4.17, P = 0.001), (Z = −4.59, P = 0.001); perimortem care (Z = −3.86, P = 0.001), (Z = −4.80, P = 0.001); and bereavement support (Z = −3-80, P = 0.001), (Z = −4.95, P = 0.001). Improvement in health-related communication was appreciated by oncologists, oncology nurses, and patients with respect to communicating health related information in a sensitive manner (Z = −3.74, P = 0.001), (Z = −5.47, P = 0.001), (Z = −6.12, P = 0.001); conducting family meeting (Z = −3.12, P = 0.002), (Z = −4.60, P = 0

  14. A Neuro-Oncology Workstation for Structuring, Modeling, and Visualizing Patient Records

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, William; Arnold, Corey W.; Taira, Ricky K.

    2016-01-01

    The patient medical record contains a wealth of information consisting of prior observations, interpretations, and interventions that need to be interpreted and applied towards decisions regarding current patient care. Given the time constraints and the large—often extraneous—amount of data available, clinicians are tasked with the challenge of performing a comprehensive review of how a disease progresses in individual patients. To facilitate this process, we demonstrate a neuro-oncology workstation that assists in structuring and visualizing medical data to promote an evidence-based approach for understanding a patient’s record. The workstation consists of three components: 1) a structuring tool that incorporates natural language processing to assist with the extraction of problems, findings, and attributes for structuring observations, events, and inferences stated within medical reports; 2) a data modeling tool that provides a comprehensive and consistent representation of concepts for the disease-specific domain; and 3) a visual workbench for visualizing, navigating, and querying the structured data to enable retrieval of relevant portions of the patient record. We discuss this workstation in the context of reviewing cases of glioblastoma multiforme patients.

  15. Psychosocial and legal aspects of oncological treatment in patients with cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kuśnierkiewicz, Maria; Kędziora, Justyna; Jaroszyk-Pawlukiewicz, Joanna; Nowak-Jaroszyk, Monika

    2013-01-01

    With society getting older and affected by many diseases, more and more people suffer from severe cognitive disorders. As practice shows, the legal situations of such people is often problematic. This is due to a number of factors, such as short time since the deterioration of patient's condition, initial symptoms ignored, social prejudice towards the idea of incapacitation or taking decisions for a patient, complicated procedures and, sometimes, insufficient knowledge of legal regulations. Cognitive disorders also occur in patients treated for cancer. To be effective, oncological treatment needs to be started as early as possible. This, however, does not meet the criteria of sudden threat to life. The present article relates to both the psychosocial and legal aspects of care of people suffering from intense disorders of memory, attention, problem solving, executive functions, and other. Surely, physicians know how to handle patients with the above dysfunctions. However, legal procedures aimed to protect patients’ rights are often unclear and time consuming. In practice, this often amounts to a dilemma whether to treat or follow the applicable law. Certainly, solutions in this regard should be clearer and better adapted to the needs arising from specific treatment needs of particular groups of patients. PMID:24936334

  16. [Patient guidelines in oncology: objectives, procedures and first experiences with this format].

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Corinna; Zowalla, Richard; Wiesner, Martin; Siegert, Svenja; Bothe, Lydia; Follmann, Markus

    2015-01-01

    For several years patient versions of guidelines have become mandatory in the German Guidelines Program in Oncology (GGPO). Based on the methodology that has been developed for the German National Disease Management Guidelines Program, patient versions of guidelines translate the recommendations of clinical practice guideline into plain language and provide information about the harms and benefits of the interventions being addressed in the guideline. They are developed by a group of guideline authors (experts as well as patients), they are consensus-based and aim to create transparency in recommendations for physicians and their rationales. An automated analysis of readability shows that patient versions of guidelines are specific to the target group of educated lay people. Moreover, the responses to a reader feedback questionnaire indicate that comprehensibility, level of detail and depth of information are considered highly relevant and positive by users. Thus, patient versions of guidelines meet the needs of a specific target group. Nevertheless, the development of other formats for readers with low levels of health literacy or cognitive competencies is desirable. Currently it remains unclear if these simplified formats are able to reflect the complexity of high quality clinical practice guidelines. PMID:26474649

  17. The outcome of surgical fixation of mid shaft clavicle fractures; looking at patient satisfaction and comparing surgical approaches

    PubMed Central

    Alshameeri, Zeiad A.; Katam, Krishnaiah; Alsamaq, Mohammed; Sonsale, Paresh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Clavicle fractures represent 2.5% of fractures in adults and almost 44% of shoulder injuries. The treatment is usually non-surgical with good results; however, significantly displaced fractures can be associated with high non-union rate and therefore many would advocate surgical fixation. This is traditionally carried out by direct approach over the clavicle but an infraclavicular approach has also been used for clavicular fixation. The aim of this study was to identify the main indications for surgical intervention at our unit and patient satisfaction following surgery. We also wanted to compare the direct and the infraclavicular surgical approaches in relation to the outcome of surgical intervention. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study looking at all the clavicle fractures managed surgically over 5 years at our department. Information relating to surgical indication, surgical approach, complications, outcome, patient satisfaction, and oxford shoulder score were collected. Results: A total of 35 patients were identified, the majority were males (n = 25) and most (n = 29) were working at the time of injury. The commonest indication for surgery was displacement with shortening (n = 16). The infraclavicular approach was used in the majority of patients (n = 21), the rest (n = 14) had direct incision. Evidence of radiological and union was achieved in all patients after an average of 13 (8-24) weeks. There were no major complications but minor complications were reported in 28% and 19% of cases with direct and infraclavicular approaches, respectively. Plates were removed from six symptomatic patients; infraclavicular (n = 2) and direct approach (n = 4). Four asymptomatic plates were removed on patients’ requests. All patients returned to work (after an average 2.6 months), had good oxford shoulder score between 12-20, regardless of the surgical approach used. All patients except one would recommend it to a friend. Conclusion: Our study showed

  18. A national system approach to oncology patient population management across the continuum of care: how we standardized navigation.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Britta

    2014-01-01

    The increasing complexity of cancer care has the potential to result in care fragmentation and suboptimal coordination and timeliness to care. In managing the oncology patient population, navigators have the opportunity to provide patient-centered care throughout the cancer care trajectory and to positively impact patient's outcomes. The role of the navigator benefits both the patient and the cancer care team by fostering continuity of care and improved communication. As cancer programs find themselves struggling with the global challenges that surround the evolution of patient's navigation and seeking to provide evidence-based care, Catholic Health Initiatives' National Oncology Service Line developed a system-wide approach to identifying and deploying best practices for navigation across their cancer programs. PMID:24569760

  19. RECQ1 A159C Polymorphism Is Associated With Overall Survival of Patients With Resected Pancreatic Cancer: A Replication Study in NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9704

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui; Moughan, Jennifer; Crane, Christopher; Hoffman, John P.; Regine, William F.; Abrams, Ross A.; Safran, Howard; Liu, Chang; Chang, Ping; Freedman, Gary M.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Guha, Chandan; Abbruzzese, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To confirm whether a previously observed association between RECQ1 A159C variant and clinical outcome of resectable pancreatic cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation is reproducible in another patient population prospectively treated with postoperative chemoradiation. Methods and Materials Patients were selected, according to tissue availability, from eligible patients with resected pancreatic cancer who were enrolled on the NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9704 trial of 5-fluorouacil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation preceded and followed by 5-FU or gemcitabine. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue sections, and genotype was determined using the Taqman method. The correlation between genotype and overall survival was analyzed using a Kaplan-Meier plot, log-rank test, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results In the 154 of the study’s 451 eligible patients with evaluable tissue, genotype distribution followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (ie, 37% had genotype AA, 43% AC, and 20% CC). The RECQ1 variant AC/CC genotype carriers were associated with being node positive compared with the AA carrier (P = .03). The median survival times (95% confidence interval [CI]) for AA, AC, and CC carriers were 20.6 (16.3–26.1), 18.8 (14.2–21.6), and 14.2 (10.3–21.0) months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, patients with the AC/CC genotypes were associated with worse survival than patients with the AA genotype (hazard ratio [HR] 1.54, 95% CI 1.07–2.23, P =.022). This result seemed slightly stronger for patients on the 5-FU arm (n = 82) (HR 1.64, 95% CI 0.99–2.70, P =.055) than for patients on the gemcitabine arm (n = 72, HR 1.46, 95% CI 0.81–2.63, P =.21). Conclusions Results of this study suggest that the RECQ1 A159C genotype may be a prognostic or predictive factor for resectable pancreatic cancer patients who are treated with adjuvant 5-FU before and after 5-FU-based chemoradiation

  20. Oncologic aspects of long-term followed incidental prostate cancer detected by cystoprostatectomy in Korean patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, In-Chang; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Sung Han; Joung, Jae Young; Seo, Ho Kyung; Chung, Jinsoo; Park, Weon Seo; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence and clinical features of incidentally discovered prostate adenocarcinoma in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy (CPT) for bladder cancer. Methods Ninety-six consecutive patients scheduled to undergo CPT were prospectively enrolled. The prostates were excised completely during CPT. The CPT specimens were examined, and the clinicopathologic characteristics of incidental prostate cancer studied. Complete transverse sections of the prostate were taken from the apex to the base at 4-mm intervals and all prostates were examined by a single pathologist. Results The mean patient age and prostate-specific antigen level were 66.1 ± 10.0 years and 2.8 ± 5.0 ng/mL, respectively. Of the 96 patients, 35 (36.5%) had prostate cancer (PCa). Of these incidental PCas, 57.1% (20.8% of all patients undergoing CPT) were clinically significant. None of the patients who were age ≤50 years had incidental PCa. However, the incidences of PCa in the 51–60 years, 61–70 years, and ≥71 years age groups were 27.8% (5/18), 48.7% (19/39), and 35.5% (15/31), respectively, and the difference according to the age subgroup was significant (P = 0.048). During the median follow-up of 49 months, 29.2% (28/96) of patients died. There were no PCa-specific deaths, and two patients (2.1%) showed biochemical recurrences. Conclusion Incidental PCas were diagnosed in ∼40% of CPT specimens, and ∼50% of incidental PCas were clinically significant. During radical CPT in patients aged ≥60 years, the possibility of the presence of PCa and the potential oncologic risk of partial prostatectomy during CPT should be remembered. PMID:26157769

  1. Can the referring surgeon enhance accrual of breast cancer patients to medical and radiation oncology trials? The ENHANCE study

    PubMed Central

    Arnaout, A.; Kuchuk, I.; Bouganim, N.; Pond, G.; Verma, S.; Segal, R.; Dent, S.; Gertler, S.; Song, X.; Kanji, F.; Clemons, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The accrual rate to clinical trials in oncology remains low. In this exploratory pilot study, we prospectively assessed the role that engaging a referring surgeon plays in enhancing nonsurgical oncologic clinical trial accrual. Methods Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were seen by a surgeon who actively introduced specific patient-and physician-centred strategies to increase clinical trial accrual. Patient-centred strategies included providing patients, before their oncology appointment, with information about specific clinical trials for which they might be eligible, as evaluated by the surgeon. The attitudes of the patients about clinical trials and the interventions used to improve accrual were assessed at the end of the study. The primary outcome was the clinical trial accrual rate during the study period. Results Overall clinical trial enrolment during the study period among the 34 participating patients was 15% (5 of 34), which is greater than the institution’s historical average of 7%. All patients found the information delivered by the surgeon before the oncology appointment to be very helpful. Almost three quarters of the patients (73%) were informed about clinical trials by their oncologist. The top reasons for nonparticipation reported by the patients who did not participate in clinical trials included lack of interest (35%), failure of the oncologist to mention clinical trials (33%), and inconvenience (19%). Conclusions Accrual of patients to clinical trials is a complex multistep process with multiple potential barriers. The findings of this exploratory pilot study demonstrate a potential role for the referring surgeon in enhancing nonsurgical clinical trial accrual. PMID:27330365

  2. Large-field, external beam irradiation as a surgical adjuvant for node-positive colon carcinoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Pilot Study (PA285).

    PubMed

    Merrick, H W; Turner, S S; Dobelbower, R R; Bennett, J M; Haller, D

    2000-08-01

    The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) PA-285 study was designed as a pilot study to evaluate the effect of large-field, external beam abdominal irradiation as an adjuvant treatment for resectable stage C1 to C2 colon cancer. Eligible patients received 45 Gy directed to the tumor bed and periaortic lymph nodes, as well as 30 Gy to the liver. Patients were followed up for time to recurrence and for survival. Fourteen patients were enrolled. One elected not to have radiation after surgery; one died of acute hepatic radiation toxicity after a major deviation from protocol. Of the 12 remaining patients, seven survived longer than 10 years for a survival rate of 58%. Other than the fatal hepatic toxicity, side effects from radiation were moderate and of short duration. One patient failed to complete therapy because of ascites, had two episodes of partial bowel obstruction (successfully treated conservatively), and subsequently survived more than 10 years. Two of three patients with stage C1 tumors, four of eight with C2 tumors, and one with a C3 tumor were long-term survivors. This study demonstrates the feasibility and acceptable toxicity of this adjuvant regimen. The numbers are too limited to evaluate survival, but all seven survivors have lived more than 10 years. PMID:10955858

  3. Patient Participation in Surgical Treatment Decision Making from the Patients' Perspective: Validation of an Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Heggland, Liv-Helen; Øgaard, Torvald; Mikkelsen, Aslaug; Hausken, Kjell

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a new, brief, easy-to-administer self-reported instrument designed to assess patient participation in decision making in surgical treatment. We describe item generation, psychometric testing, and validity of the instrument. The final scale consisted of four factors: information dissemination (5 items), formulation of options (4 items), integration of information (4 items), and control (3 items). The analysis demonstrated a reasonable level of construct validity and reliability. The instrument applies to patients in surgical wards and can be used to identify the health services that are being provided and the areas that could strengthen patient participation. PMID:22830010

  4. Implications of a two-step procedure in surgical management of patients with early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bleu, Géraldine; Merlot, Benjamin; Boulanger, Loïc; Vinatier, Denis; Kerdraon, Olivier; Collinet, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Objective Since European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) recommendations and French guidelines, pelvic lymphadenectomy should not be systematically performed for women with early-stage endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) preoperatively assessed at presumed low- or intermediate-risk. The aim of our study was to evaluate the change of our surgical practices after ESMO recommendations, and to evaluate the rate and morbidity of second surgical procedure in case of understaging after the first surgery. Methods This retrospective single-center study included women with EEC preoperatively assessed at presumed low- or intermediate-risk who had surgery between 2006 and 2013. Two periods were defined the times before and after ESMO recommendations. Demographics characteristics, surgical management, operative morbidity, and rate of understaging were compared. The rate of second surgical procedure required for lymph node resection during the second period and its morbidity were also studied. Results Sixty-one and sixty-two patients were operated for EEC preoperatively assessed at presumed low-or intermediate-risk before and after ESMO recommendations, respectively. Although immediate pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed more frequently during the first period than the second period (88.5% vs. 19.4%; p<0.001), the rate of postoperative risk-elevating or upstaging were comparable between the two periods (31.1% vs. 27.4%; p=0.71). Among the patients requiring second surgical procedure during the second period (21.0%), 30.8% did not undergo the second surgery due to their comorbidity or old age. For the patients who underwent second surgical procedure, mean operative time of the second procedure was 246.1±117.8 minutes. Third operation was required in 33.3% of them because of postoperative complications. Conclusion Since ESMO recommendations, second surgical procedure for lymph node resection is often required for women with EEC presumed at low- or intermediate-risk. This

  5. Memantine before Mastectomy Prevents Post-Surgery Pain: A Randomized, Blinded Clinical Trial in Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Véronique; Joly, Dominique; Villatte, Christine; Dubray, Claude; Durando, Xavier; Daulhac, Laurence; Coudert, Catherine; Roux, Delphine; Pereira, Bruno; Pickering, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuropathic pain following surgical treatment for breast cancer with or without chemotherapy is a clinical burden and patients frequently report cognitive, emotional and quality of life impairment. A preclinical study recently showed that memantine administered before surgery may prevent neuropathic pain development and cognitive dysfunction. With a translational approach, a clinical trial has been carried out to evaluate whether memantine administered before and after mastectomy could prevent the development of neuropathic pain, the impairment of cognition and quality of life. Method A randomized, pilot clinical trial included 40 women undergoing mastectomy in the Oncology Department, University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Memantine (5 to 20 mg/day; n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) was administered for four weeks starting two weeks before surgery. The primary endpoint was pain intensity measured on a (0–10) numerical rating scale at three months post-mastectomy. Results Data analyses were performed using mixed models and the tests were two-sided, with a type I error set at α = 0.05. Compared with placebo, patients receiving memantine showed at three months a significant difference in post-mastectomy pain intensity, less rescue analgesia and a better emotional state. An improvement of pain symptoms induced by cancer chemotherapy was also reported. Conclusions This study shows for the first time the beneficial effect of memantine to prevent post-mastectomy pain development and to diminish chemotherapy-induced pain symptoms. The lesser analgesic consumption and better well-being of patients for at least six months after treatment suggests that memantine could be an interesting therapeutic option to diminish the burden of breast cancer therapy. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01536314 PMID:27050431

  6. Evaluation and Management of Patients With Heart Disease and Cancer: Cardio-Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Joerg; Lerman, Amir; Sandhu, Nicole P.; Villarraga, Hector R.; Mulvagh, Sharon L.; Kohli, Manish

    2014-01-01

    The care for patients with cancer has advanced greatly over the past decades. A combination of earlier cancer diagnosis and greater use of traditional and novel systemic treatments has decreased cancer-related mortality. Effective cancer therapies, however, can result in short- and long-term co-morbidities that can decrease the net clinical gain by impacting quality of life and survival. In particular, cardiovascular complications of cancer treatments can have a profound impact on the health of cancer patients and are more common among those with recognized or unrecognized underlying cardiovascular diseases. A new discipline termed “cardio-oncology” has thus evolved to address the cardiovascular needs of cancer patients and optimize their care in a multidisciplinary approach. This review provides a brief introduction and background on this emerging field and then focuses on its practical aspects including: cardiovascular risk assessment and prevention before cancer treatment, cardiovascular surveillance and therapy during cancer treatment, and cardiovascular monitoring and management after cancer therapy. The content of this review is based on a literature search of PubMed between January 1, 1960, and February 1, 2014 using the search terms cancer, cardiomyopathy, cardiotoxicity, cardio-oncology, chemotherapy, heart failure, and radiation. PMID:25192616

  7. Surgical transposition of the ovaries: Imaging findings in 14 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Kier, R.; Chambers, S.K. )

    1989-11-01

    Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications.

  8. Non-surgical management of early breast cancer in the United Kingdom: follow-up. Clinical Audit Sub-committee of the Faculty of Clinical Oncology, Royal College of Radiologists, and the Joint Council for Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Maher, E J

    1995-01-01

    Follow-up of operable breast cancer patients takes up a significant proportion of British oncologists' time, with 90% seeing 5-50 patients each week. Procedures vary greatly, but, in patients treated by surgery and radiotherapy, care is usually shared, with alternating visits to see each team. Currently, the general practitioner has sole responsibility for follow-up in less than 3% of patients. They tend to be followed up in general, rather than specialist, clinics. There is almost universal agreement that routine blood tests, radiographs and scans are not indicated as part of routine follow-up, but the role of mammography in evaluating an irradiated breast remains a source of debate. Just over a half of the oncologists surveyed order baseline mammography of both treated and contralateral breasts, usually between 6 and 12 months after local excision and radiotherapy, with further follow-up 1-3-yearly thereafter. Ten per cent of the participating oncologists never suggest follow-up mammography. Patients tend to be followed in oncology clinics at 3-4-monthly intervals for the first 2 years, 6-monthly in the third and fourth years and, thereafter, yearly. Fifteen per cent of oncologists discharge patients at 5 years, with the discharge rate rising to 43% at 10 years; around one-third modify follow-up according to the age of the patient. The aims of follow-up were seen to include detection of curable disease, but other goals were perceived as equally important (e.g. detection of iatrogenic problems, audit, counselling, education and the provision of early palliation of incurable and metastatic disease. Breast cancer is no longer seen as an absolute contraindication to either pregnancy or the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT); however, oncologists are uncertain about the appropriate use of HRT, either alone or with tamoxifen. This audit highlights a number of research areas: the identification of the appropriate site and skill-mix for follow-up of patients

  9. Futility and the care of surgical patients: ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Grant, Scott B; Modi, Parth K; Singer, Eric A

    2014-07-01

    Futility has been a contentious topic in medicine for several decades. Surgery in critical or end-of-life situations often raises difficult questions about futility. In this article, we discuss the definition of futility, methods for resolving futility disputes, and some ways to reframe the futility debate to a more fruitful discussion about the goals of care, better communication between surgeon and patient/surrogate, and palliative surgical care. Many definitions of futile therapy have been discussed. The most controversial of these is "qualitative futility" which describes a situation in which the treatment provided is likely to result in an unacceptable quality of life. This is an area of continued controversy because it has been impossible to identify universally held beliefs about acceptable quality of life. Many authors have described methods for resolving futility disputes, including community standards and legalistic multi-step due process protocols. Others, however, have abandoned the concept of futility altogether as an unhelpful term. Reframing the issue of futility as one of inadequate physician-patient communication, these authors have advocated for methods of improving communication and strengthening the patient-physician relationship. Finally, we discuss the utilization of consultants who may be of use in resolving futility disputes: ethics committees, palliative care specialists, pastoral care teams, and dedicated patient advocates. Involving these specialists in a futility conflict can help improve communication and provide invaluable assistance in arriving at the appropriate treatment decision. PMID:24849199

  10. Escalation of Oncologic Services at the End of Life Among Patients With Gynecologic Cancer at an Urban, Public Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Eijean; Rogers, Anna; Ji, Lingyun; Sposto, Richard; Church, Terry; Roman, Lynda; Tripathy, Debu; Lin, Yvonne G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Use of oncology-related services is increasingly scrutinized, yet precisely which services are actually rendered to patients, particularly at the end of life, is unknown. This study characterizes the end-of-life use of medical services by patients with gynecologic cancer at a safety-net hospital. Methods: Oncologic history and metrics of medical use (eg, hospitalizations, chemotherapy infusions, procedures) for patients with gynecologic oncology who died between December 2006 and February 2012 were evaluated. Mixed-effect regression models were used to test time effects and construct usage summaries. Results: Among 116 subjects, cervical cancer accounted for the most deaths (42%). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years; 63% were Hispanic, and 65% had advanced disease. Only 34% died in hospice care. The median times from do not resuscitate/do not intubate documentation and from last therapeutic intervention to death were 9 days and 55 days, respectively. Significant time effects for all services (eg, hospitalizations, diagnostics, procedures, treatments, clinic appointments) were detected during the patient's final year (P < .001), with the most dramatic changes occurring during the last 2 months. Patients with longer duration of continuity of care used significantly fewer resources toward the end of life. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report enumerating medical services obtained by patients with gynecologic cancer in a large, public hospital during the end of life. Marked changes in interventions in the patient's final 2 months highlight the need for cost-effective, evidence-based metrics for delivering cancer care. Our data emphasize continuity of care as a significant determinant of oncologic resource use during this critical period. PMID:25604595

  11. Surgical Management in a Patient With Complex Uveitic Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Uveitic glaucoma (UG) is secondary glaucoma, present as a clinical challenge in both diagnosis and management. We report a case of complex UG, which initially presented as pupillary block and rupture of the anterior lens capsule. We performed cataract extraction with preservation of posterior capsule. Then, the case turned to aphakic malignant glaucoma. We performed anterior vitrectomy with posterior capsule resection in this case. After the second operation, the patient had a satisfactory recovery. Specifically, ultrasonographic biomicroscopy was useful during the diagnosis process and follow-up period in this case. UG presenting as pupillary block, rupture of the anterior lens capsule, and aqueous misdirection seldom presents in clinical practice. Earlier and more active surgical intervention may be necessary for effective preservation of visual function in complex cases of UG. PMID:26252285

  12. Video consultation for trauma and emergency surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Bellal; Hadeed, George; Sadoun, Moutamn; Rhee, Peter M; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2012-01-01

    The saying goes that a picture is worth a thousand words, but what then is the value of video? For the care of trauma and emergency surgical patients, the use of video consultation between medical providers may be worth its weight in gold. Telemedicine has become an important tool in reducing the disparity among the haves and the have not's, in this case facilities with a trauma service and those without. This article presents the use of live video for trauma consultations between the only level 1 trauma center in Southern Arizona and several smaller rural hospitals. We also expand on what we believe the future and direction of telesurgery in the fields of critical care and trauma surgery. PMID:22948367

  13. Perioperative Hemoglobin Trajectory in Adult Cardiac Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David A.; Tung, Hon-Ming Andrew; Slater, Reuben

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Preoperative anemia and nadir hemoglobin (Hb) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have been identified as significant risk factors for blood transfusion during cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to confirm the association between preoperative anemia, perioperative fluid management, and blood transfusion. In addition, the proportion of elective cardiac surgery patients presenting for surgery with anemia was identified to examine whether the opportunity exists for timely diagnosis and intervention. Data from referral until hospital discharge were comprehensively reviewed over a 12-month period for all nonemergency cardiac surgical patients operated on in our institution. Of the 342 patients identified, elective cases were referred a median of 35 days before preoperative clinic and operated on a median of 14 days subsequently. Subacute cases had a median of 3 days from referral to surgery. As per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for anemia, 24.2% of elective and 29.6% of subacute patients were anemic. Blood transfusion was administered to 46.2% of patients during their admission. Transfusion was more likely in patients who were female (odds ratio [OR]: 2.45, 95%confidence interval [CI]: 1.28–4.70), had a low body mass index (BMI) (OR: .89, 95% CI: .84–.94), preoperative anemia (OR: 5.15, 95% CI: 2.59–10.24), or renal impairment (OR: 5.44, 95% CI: 2.42–12.22). Hemodilution minimization strategies reduced the Hb fall during CPB, but not transfusion rates. This study identifies a high prevalence of preoperative anemia with sufficient time for elective referrals to undergo appropriate diagnosis and interventions. It also confirms that low red cell mass (anemia and low BMI) and renal impairment are predictors of perioperative blood transfusion. Perfusion strategies to reduce hemodilution are effective at minimizing the intraoperative fall in Hb concentration but did not influence transfusion rate. PMID:26543251

  14. Clinical Predictors of Survival for Patients with Stage IV Cancer Referred to Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Johnny; Gold, Kenneth D.; Zarrili, Gina; Copel, Emily; Silverman, Andrew J.; Ramsaran, Shanata S.; Yens, David; Ryu, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for a robust, clinically useful predictive model for survival in a heterogeneous group of patients with metastatic cancer referred to radiation oncology. Methods From May 2012 to August 2013, 143 consecutive patients with stage IV cancer were prospectively evaluated by a single radiation oncologist. We retrospectively analyzed the effect of 29 patient, laboratory and tumor-related prognostic factors on overall survival using univariate analysis. Variables that were statistically significant on univariate analysis were entered into a multivariable Cox regression to identify independent predictors of overall survival. Results The median overall survival was 5.5 months. Four prognostic factors significantly predicted survival on multivariable analysis including ECOG performance status (0–1 vs. 2 vs. 3–4), number of active tumors (1 to 5 vs. ≥6), albumin levels (≥3.4 vs. 2.4 to 3.3 vs. <2.4 and primary tumor site (Breast, Kidney or Prostate vs. Other). Risk group stratification was performed by assigning points for adverse prognostic factors resulting in very low, low, intermediate and high risk groups. The median survival was >31.4 months for very low risk patients compared to 14.5 months for low risk, 4.1 months for intermediate risk and 1.2 months for high risk (p<0.001). Conclusions These data suggest that a model that considers performance status, extent of disease, primary tumor site and serum albumin represents a simple model to accurately predict survival for patients with stage IV cancer who are potential candidates for radiation therapy. PMID:25894552

  15. Outbreak of Tsukamurella spp. Bloodstream Infections among Patients of an Oncology Clinic—West Virginia, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    See, Isaac; Nguyen, Duc B.; Chatterjee, Somu; Shwe, Thein; Scott, Melissa; Ibrahim, Sherif; Moulton-Meissner, Heather; McNulty, Steven; Noble-Wang, Judith; Price, Cindy; Schramm, Kim; Bixler, Danae; Guh, Alice Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the source and identify control measures of an outbreak of Tsukamurella species bloodstream infections at an outpatient oncology facility. Design Epidemiologic investigation of the outbreak with a case control study. Methods A case was an infection in which Tsukamurella spp. was isolated from a blood or catheter tip culture during January 2011–June 2012 from a patient of the oncology clinic. Laboratory records of area hospitals and patient charts were reviewed. A case-control study was conducted among clinic patients to identify risk factors for Tsukamurella spp. bloodstream infection. Clinic staff were interviewed and infection control practices were assessed. Results Fifteen cases of Tsukamurella (T. pulmonis or T. tyrosinosolvens) bloodstream infection were identified, all in patients with underlying malignancy and indwelling central lines. Median age of case-patients was 68 years; 47% were male. The only significant risk factor for infection was receipt of saline flush from the clinic during September–October 2011 (P=0.03), when the clinic had been preparing saline flush from a common-source bag of saline. Other infection control deficiencies that were identified at the clinic included suboptimal procedures for central line access and preparation of chemotherapy. Conclusion Although multiple infection control lapses were identified, the outbreak was likely caused by improper preparation of saline flush syringes by the clinic. The outbreak demonstrates that bloodstream infections among oncology patients can result from improper infection control practices and highlights the critical need for increased attention to and oversight of infection control in outpatient oncology settings. PMID:24521597

  16. Experiences of Pediatric Oncology Patients and Their Parents at End of Life: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kathleen; Sawin, Kathleen J; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in pediatric palliative and end-of-life care has been identified as an ongoing research priority. The child and parent experience provides valuable information to guide how health care professionals can improve the transition to end of life and the care provided to children and families during the vulnerable period. The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the experience of pediatric oncology patients and their parents during end of life, and identify gaps to be addressed with interventions. A literature search was completed using multiple databases, including CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycInfo. A total of 43 articles were included in the review. The analysis of the evidence revealed 5 themes: symptom prevalence and symptom management, parent and child perspectives of care, patterns of care, decision making, and parent and child outcomes of care. Guidelines for quality end-of-life care are needed. More research is needed to address methodological gaps that include the pediatric patient and their sibling's experience. PMID:26219300

  17. War and peace? The oncologic and the palliative care perspective on personalized cancer treatment in a patient with advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Masel, Eva K; Schur, Sophie; Posch, Doris; Weixler, Dietmar; Meran, Johannes G; Schmidinger, Manuela; Watzke, Herbert H

    2015-08-01

    Personalized cancer treatment utilizing targeted therapies in a tailored approach is based on tumor and/or patient-specific molecular profiles. Recent clinical trials continue to look for new potential targets in heavily pretreated patients or rare disease entities. Careful selection of patients who may derive benefit from such therapies constitutes a challenge. This case report presents an experimental personalized cancer treatment in an advanced cancer patient and provides a list of issues for discussion: How can we combine treatment goals and simultaneously meet the individual needs in advanced cancer reconciling both perspectives: oncology and palliative care? PMID:25986998

  18. Measurement of Cardiac Index by Transpulmonary Thermodilution Using an Implanted Central Venous Access Port: A Prospective Study in Patients Scheduled for Oncologic High-Risk Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Suria, Stéphanie; Wyniecki, Anne; Eghiaian, Alexandre; Monnet, Xavier; Weil, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Background Transpulmonary thermodilution allows the measurement of cardiac index for high risk surgical patients. Oncologic patients often have a central venous access (port-a-catheter) for chronic treatment. The validity of the measurement by a port-a-catheter of the absolute cardiac index and the detection of changes in cardiac index induced by fluid challenge are unknown. Methods We conducted a monocentric prospective study. 27 patients were enrolled. 250 ml colloid volume expansions for fluid challenge were performed during ovarian cytoreductive surgery. The volume expansion-induced changes in cardiac index measured by transpulmonary thermodilution by a central venous access (CIcvc) and by a port-a-catheter (CIport) were recorded. Results 23 patients were analyzed with 123 pairs of measurements. Using a Bland and Altman for repeated measurements, the bias (lower and upper limits of agreement) between CIport and CIcvc was 0.14 (−0.59 to 0.88) L/min/m2. The percentage error was 22%. The concordance between the changes in CIport and CIcvc observed during volume expansion was 92% with an r = 0.7 (with exclusion zone). No complications (included sepsis) were observed during the follow up period. Conclusions The transpulmonary thermodilution by a port-a-catheter is reliable for absolute values estimation of cardiac index and for measurement of the variation after fluid challenge. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02063009 PMID:25136951

  19. Review of current best practice and priorities for research in radiation oncology for elderly patients with cancer: the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) task force.

    PubMed

    Kunkler, I H; Audisio, R; Belkacemi, Y; Betz, M; Gore, E; Hoffe, S; Kirova, Y; Koper, P; Lagrange, J-L; Markouizou, A; Pfeffer, R; Villa, S

    2014-11-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is a key component of the management of older cancer patients. Level I evidence in older patients is limited. The International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) established a task force to make recommendations for curative RT in older patients and to identify future research priorities. Evidence-based guidelines are provided for breast, lung, endometrial, prostate, rectal, pancreatic, oesophageal, head and neck, central nervous system malignancies and lymphomas. Patient selection should include comorbidity and geriatric evaluation. Advances in radiation planning and delivery improve target coverage, reduce toxicity and widen eligibility for treatment. Shorter courses of hypofractionated whole breast RT are safe and effective. Conformal RT and involved-field techniques without elective nodal irradiation have improved outcomes in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without increasing toxicity. Where comorbidities preclude surgery, stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an option for early-stage NSCLC and pancreatic cancer. Modern involved-field RT for lymphoma based on pre-treatment positron emission tomography data has reduced toxicity. Significant comorbidity is a relative contraindication to aggressive treatment in low-risk prostate cancer (PC). For intermediate-risk disease, 4-6 months of hormones are combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). For high-risk PC, combined modality therapy (CMT) is advised. For high-intermediate risk, endometrial cancer vaginal brachytherapy is recommended. Short-course EBRT is an alternative to CMT in older patients with rectal cancer without significant comorbidities. Endorectal RT may be an option for early disease. For primary brain tumours, shorter courses of postoperative RT following maximal debulking provide equivalent survival to longer schedules. MGMT methylation status may help select older patients for temozolomide alone. Stereotactic RT provides an alternative to whole-brain RT in patients

  20. Reproductive health in the adolescent and young adult cancer patient: an innovative training program for oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Vadaparampil, Susan T; Hutchins, Nicole M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2013-03-01

    In 2008, approximately 69,200 adolescents and young adults (AYAs) were diagnosed with cancer, second only to heart disease for males in this age group. Despite recent guidelines from professional organizations and clinical research that AYA oncology patients want information about reproductive health topics and physician support for nurses to address these issues with patients, existing research finds few oncology nurses discuss this topic with patients due to barriers such as lack of training. This article describes an innovative eLearning training program, entitled Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare. The threefold purpose of this article is to: (1) highlight major reproductive health concerns relevant to cancer patients, (2) describe the current status of reproductive health and oncology communication and the target audience for the training, and (3) present a systematic approach to curriculum development, including the content analysis and design stages as well as the utilization of feedback from a panel of experts. The resulting 10-week curriculum contains a broad-based approach to reproductive health communication aimed at creating individual- and practice-level change. PMID:23225072

  1. Reproductive Health in the Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Patient: An Innovative Training Program for Oncology Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Hutchins, Nicole M.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, approximately 69,200 AYAs were diagnosed with cancer, second only to heart disease for males in this age group. Despite recent guidelines from professional organizations and clinical research that AYA oncology patients want information about reproductive health topics and physician support for nurses to address these issues with patients, existing research finds few oncology nurses discuss this topic with patients due to barriers such as lack of training. This article describes an innovative eLearning training program, entitled Educating Nurses about Reproductive Issues in Cancer Healthcare (ENRICH). The threefold purpose of this article is to: (1) highlight major reproductive health concerns relevant to cancer patients, (2) describe the current status of reproductive health and oncology communication and the target audience for the training, and (3) present a systematic approach to curriculum development, including the content analysis and design stages as well as the utilization of feedback from a panel of experts. The resulting 10-week curriculum contains a broad-based approach to reproductive health communication aimed at creating individual- and practice-level change. PMID:23225072

  2. Patient-reported outcomes for US oncology labeling: review and discussion of score interpretation and analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Shields, Alan; Coon, Cheryl; Hao, Yanni; Krohe, Meaghan; Yaworsky, Andrew; Mazar, Iyar; Foley, Catherine; Globe, Denise

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes ways to approach the conceptual and practical challenges associated with interpreting the clinical meaning of scores produced by patient reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires, particularly when used to inform efficacy decisions for regulatory approval for oncology products. Score interpretation estimates are not inherent to PRO questionnaires per se, instead, vary dependent upon sample and study design characteristics. Scores from PRO measures can be interpreted at the individual and group level, and each carries its own set of statistics for evaluating differences. Oncology researchers have a variety of methods and data analytic strategies available to support their score interpretation needs, which should be considered in the context of their a priori knowledge of the target patient population, the hypothesized effects of treatment, the study design and assessment schedule, and the inferences and decisions to be made from the PRO data. PMID:26594897

  3. Improving Care in Pediatric Neuro-oncology Patients: An Overview of the Unique Needs of Children With Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Cheryl; Petriccione, Mary; Donzelli, Maria; Pottenger, Elaine

    2016-03-01

    Brain tumors represent the most common solid tumors in childhood, accounting for almost 25% of all childhood cancer, second only to leukemia. Pediatric central nervous system tumors encompass a wide variety of diagnoses, from benign to malignant. Any brain tumor can be associated with significant morbidity, even when low grade, and mortality from pediatric central nervous system tumors is disproportionately high compared to other childhood malignancies. Management of children with central nervous system tumors requires knowledge of the unique aspects of care associated with this particular patient population, beyond general oncology care. Pediatric brain tumor patients have unique needs during treatment, as cancer survivors, and at end of life. A multidisciplinary team approach, including advanced practice nurses with a specialty in neuro-oncology, allows for better supportive care. Knowledge of the unique aspects of care for children with brain tumors, and the appropriate interventions required, allows for improved quality of life. PMID:26245798

  4. An mHealth system for toxicity monitoring of paediatric oncological patients using Near Field Communication technology.

    PubMed

    Duregger, Katharina; Hayn, Dieter; Morak, Jürgen; Ladenstein, Ruth; Schreier, Gunter

    2015-08-01

    Home-based monitoring might be useful to reduce the burden of long-lasting oncological treatment for children. Current telemonitoring applications focus on chronic diseases or elderly people. Based on the workflow for different stakeholders and the identification of parameters important in paediatric oncology, we developed a prototype of a smartphone-based telehealth system using Near Field Communication technology for monitoring paediatric neuroblastoma patients at home. The parameters blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, body weight, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, wellbeing, pain level, nausea level and skin alterations could be monitored using a smartphone, a designated app, point-of-care measurement devices and a smart-poster containing RFID tags. The system has been designed to increase the quality of life for paediatric cancer patients. As a future step, a clinical trial is currently being planned to evaluate the system in clinical setting. PMID:26737866

  5. Surgical vs. non-surgical treatment in women with pelvic floor dysfunction: Patient-centered goals at one year

    PubMed Central

    Hullfish, Kathie L.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Gurka, Matthew J.; Steers, William D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective In women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD), we assessed the degree to which treatment (surgical vs. non-surgical) was associated with achievement of patient-centered goals, satisfaction with care, and quality of life. Study design Prospective cohort. Between September 2003 and December 2004 we recruited women during their first referral visit for PFD treatment at our outpatient Urogynecology Clinic. At the first visit, women enumerated up to five personal treatment goals, and “anchored” each goal by anticipating best and worst possible outcomes. At 12 month follow-up, women were asked to indicate their level of goal attainment (−2, worst outcome; +2, best outcome). At baseline and follow-up, women completed short forms of the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) (range 0–100, high scores indicating greater impact or distress). Patients indicated level of treatment satisfaction on a 4 level ordinal scale. Results Of the 127 study participants with complete data, 46 (36.2 %) were managed surgically and 81 (63.8%) non surgically. There were no major demographic differences between the two groups in terms of age, race, weight, prior PFD surgery, and vaginal parity. The surgical group was more likely to have received baseline diagnosis of pelvic organ prolapse (80 % vs 60 %, p = 0.0259), and be post-menopausal (89 % vs 72 %, p = 0.0261). There were no significant differences in the distribution of goal type (symptom relief, activity, self image, general health) by treatment status (p = 0.1074). Using logistic regression to adjust for age and baseline diagnosis, surgically managed patients at one year were significantly more likely to report complete primary goal attainment (odds ratio (OR) = 4.42; p = 0.0154) and complete treatment satisfaction (OR = 6.12; p = 0.0109). For all participants, one-year IIQ-7 and UDI-6 scores were significantly correlated with primary goal attainment scores. Conclusions In

  6. 3-D Storybook: Effects on Surgical Knowledge and Anxiety Among Four- to Six-Year-Old Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Macindo, John Rey B; Macabuag, Katherine R; Macadangdang, Carlo Miguel P; Macaranas, Margaux Valerie S; Macarilay, Marianne Jezelle Jem T; Madriñan, Natasha Nikki M; Villarama, Rouena S

    2015-07-01

    Inadequate surgical knowledge potentiates anxiety; however, no methodology simultaneously addresses anxiety and surgical knowledge. Our quasi-experimental study determined the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3-D) storybook in increasing surgical knowledge and decreasing anxiety among young children scheduled for planned or required major surgeries. We studied 20 randomly assigned participants who received either the 3-D storybook or traditional health teaching. A presurgical knowledge questionnaire and modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale assessed surgical knowledge and anxiety. Data were analyzed with one-way and repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance. Results showed that both groups had higher knowledge scores (F = 8.94; P = .008) and lower anxiety scores (F = 5.13; P = .036) after the intervention. The children who received information from the 3-D storybook exhibited a significantly higher posttest knowledge score (F = 11.71; P = .003) and lower anxiety score (F = 10.05; P = .005) than the traditionally educated group of children. The 3-D storybook effectively increased surgical knowledge and decreased anxiety and could be used as an alternative method to prepare pediatric surgical patients. PMID:26119618

  7. Radical radiotherapy for early glottic cancer: Results in a series of 1087 patients from two Italian radiation oncology centers. I. The case of T1N0 disease

    SciTech Connect

    Cellai, Enrico; Frata, Paolo; Magrini, Stefano M. . E-mail: magrini@med.unibs.it; Paiar, Fabiola; Barca, Raffaella; Fondelli, Simona; Polli, Caterina; Livi, Lorenzo; Bonetti, Bartolomea; Vitali, Elisabetta; De Stefani, Agostina; Buglione, Michela; Biti, Gianpaolo

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate local control rates, late damage incidence, functional results, and second tumor occurrence according to the different patient, tumor, and treatment features in a large bi-institutional series of T1 glottic cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 831 T1 glottic cancer cases treated consecutively with radical intent at the Florence University Radiation Oncology Department (FLO) and at the Radiation Oncology Department of University of Brescia-Istituto del Radio 'O. Alberti' (BS) were studied. Actuarial cumulative local control probability (LC), disease-specific (DSS), and overall survival (OS) rates have been calculated and compared in the different clinical and therapeutic subgroups with both univariate and multivariate analysis. Types of relapse and their surgical salvage have been evaluated, along with the functional results of treatment. Late damage incidence and second tumor cumulative probability (STP) have been also calculated. Results: In the entire series, 3-, 5-, and 10-year OS was equal to 86%, 77%, and 57%, respectively. Corresponding values for LC were 86%, 84%, and 83% and for DSS 96%, 95%, and 93%, taking into account surgical salvage of relapsed cases. Eighty-seven percent of the patients were cured with function preserved. Main determinants of a worse LC at univariate analysis were: male gender, earlier treatment period, larger tumor extent, anterior commissure involvement, and the use of Cobalt 60. At multivariate analysis, only gender, tumor extent, anterior commissure involvement, and beam type retained statistical significance. Higher total doses and larger field sizes are significantly related (logistic regression) with a higher late damage incidence. Scatterplot analysis of various combinations of field dimensions and total dose showed that field dimensions >35 and <49 cm{sup 2}, together with doses of >65 Gy, offer the best local control results together with an acceptably low late damage incidence

  8. Radical radiotherapy for early glottic cancer: Results in a series of 1087 patients from two Italian radiation oncology centers. II. The case of T2N0 disease

    SciTech Connect

    Frata, Paolo; Cellai, Enrico; Magrini, Stefano M. . E-mail: magrini@med.unibs.it; Bonetti, Bartolomea; Vitali, Elisabetta; Tonoli, Sandro; Buglione, Michela; Paiar, Fabiola; Barca, Raffaella; Fondelli, Simona; Polli, Caterina; Livi, Lorenzo; Biti, Gianpaolo

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate local control rates, late damage incidence, functional results, and second-tumor occurrence according to the different patient, tumor, and treatment features in a large bi-institutional series of T2 glottic cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 256 T2 glottic cancer cases treated consecutively with radical intent at the Florence University Radiation Oncology Department (FLO) and at the Radiation Oncology Department of University of Brescia, Istituto del Radio 'O. Alberti' (BS) were studied. Cumulative probability of local control (LC), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) rates were calculated and compared in the different clinical and therapeutic subgroups by both univariate and multivariate analysis. Types of relapse and their surgical salvage were evaluated, along with the functional results of treatment. Late-damage incidence and second-tumor cumulative probability (STP) were also calculated. Results: In the entire series, 3-year, 5-year, and 10-year OS rates were, respectively, 73%, 59%, and 37%. Corresponding values for cumulative LC probability were 73%, 73%, and 70% and for DSS, 89%, 86%, and 85%, taking into account surgical salvage of relapsed cases. Seventy-three percent of the patients were cured with function preserved. Main determinants of a worse LC at univariate analysis were larger tumor extent and impaired cord mobility. At multivariate analysis, the same factors retained statistical significance. Twenty-year STP was 23%, with second-tumor deaths less frequent than larynx cancer deaths (20 of 256 vs. 30 of 256). Incidence of late damage was higher in the first decade of accrual (22%) than in the last decade (10%, p = 0.03); the same was true for severe late damage (9% vs. 1.8%). Conclusion: Present-day radical radiotherapy can be considered a standard treatment for T2 glottic cancer. Better results are obtained in patients with less extended disease. Late damage is relatively

  9. Oncology clinicians' defenses and adherence to communication skills training with simulated patients: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Mathieu; de Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Stiefel, Friedrich

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to assess the impact of clinicians' defense mechanisms-defined as self-protective psychological mechanisms triggered by the affective load of the encounter with the patient-on adherence to a communication skills training (CST). The population consisted of oncology clinicians (N=31) who participated in a CST. An interview with simulated cancer patients was recorded prior and 6 months after CST. Defenses were measured before and after CST and correlated with a prototype of an ideally conducted interview based on the criteria of CST-teachers. Clinicians who used more adaptive defense mechanisms showed better adherence to communication skills after CST than clinicians with less adaptive defenses (F(1, 29) =5.26, p=0.03, d=0.42). Improvement in communication skills after CST seems to depend on the initial levels of defenses of the clinician prior to CST. Implications for practice and training are discussed. Communication has been recognized as a central element of cancer care [1]. Ineffective communication may contribute to patients' confusion, uncertainty, and increased difficulty in asking questions, expressing feelings, and understanding information [2, 3], and may also contribute to clinicians' lack of job satisfaction and emotional burnout [4]. Therefore, communication skills trainings (CST) for oncology clinicians have been widely developed over the last decade. These trainings should increase the skills of clinicians to respond to the patient's needs, and enhance an adequate encounter with the patient with efficient exchange of information [5]. While CSTs show a great diversity with regard to their pedagogic approaches [6, 7], the main elements of CST consist of (1) role play between participants, (2) analysis of videotaped interviews with simulated patients, and (3) interactive case discussion provided by participants. As recently stated in a consensus paper [8], CSTs need to be taught in small groups (up to 10

  10. Analysis of non-clonal chromosome abnormalities observed in hematologic malignancies among Southwest Oncology Group patients

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, T.S.; Dobin, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    From 1987-1994, the Southwest Oncology Group Cytogenetics Committee reviewed 1571 studies in 590 adult patient cases with ALL, AML, CML or CLL. These were analyzed for the presence of clinically important non-clonal abnormalities (NCA). Abnormalities were defined as non-clonal if one metaphase had a structural abnormality or an extra chromosome. Chromosome loss was not analyzed due to the possibility of random loss. In 72 cases (12%) comprising 136 studies, at least one NCA was observed. In 21 of these cases (29%), NCAs consisted of obvious clonal evolution or instability, and thus were not included in the analysis. At least one structural NCA was observed in which the abnormality differed from the mainline in 36 (50%) patients. Seventeen of the 36 cases had a normal mode. Nineteen of the 36 patients had an abnormal or normal/abnormal mode. At least one numerical NCA was found in 15 cases (21%). Fifteen cases (21%) contained at least one marker chromosome. Several cases involved NCA in more than one of the above divisions. NCAs could be classified into several categories: (1){open_quotes}the clone to come{close_quotes}, (2) evolving clones which then disappeared, (3) NCAs with putative clinical importance that never became clonal, (4) NCAs during remission identical to the preceding clonal abnormality, (5) NCAs which indicated clonal evolution or instability. Examples include one metaphase with t(9;22) or del(20q) or inv(16) or +8 which either preceded or followed clonal findings of the same aberration. Such findings should be communicated to the clinician.

  11. Surgical innovation-enhanced quality and the processes that assure patient/provider safety: A surgical conundrum.

    PubMed

    Bruny, Jennifer; Ziegler, Moritz

    2015-12-01

    Innovation is a crucial part of surgical history that has led to enhancements in the quality of surgical care. This comprises both changes which are incremental and those which are frankly disruptive in nature. There are situations where innovation is absolutely required in order to achieve quality improvement or process improvement. Alternatively, there are innovations that do not necessarily arise from some need, but simply are a new idea that might be better. All change must assure a significant commitment to patient safety and beneficence. Innovation would ideally enhance patient care quality and disease outcomes, as well stimulate and facilitate further innovation. The tensions between innovative advancement and patient safety, risk and reward, and demonstrated effectiveness versus speculative added value have created a contemporary "surgical conundrum" that must be resolved by a delicate balance assuring optimal patient/provider outcomes. This article will explore this delicate balance and the rules that govern it. Recommendations are made to facilitate surgical innovation through clinical research. In addition, we propose options that investigators and institutions may use to address competing priorities. PMID:26653169

  12. Poor oncologic outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with intra-abdominal infection after hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Dan-Yun; Lin, Ze-Xiao; Li, Yang; Jiang, Nan; Li, Xing; Wu, Dong-Hao; Wang, Tian-Tian; Chen, Jie; Lin, Qu; Wu, Xiang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    -to-lymphocyte ratio change (> 1.643) clearly exhibited poorer recurrence-free survival than those who did not (P = 0.009), although no significant correlation was observed between overall survival and the change in the postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Based on multivariate analysis, hepatitis B surface antigen positivity, Child-Turcotte-Pugh class B, an elevated postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio change and intra-abdominal infection were significant predictors of poor recurrence-free survival. Hepatic cirrhosis, the maximal tumor diameter and intra-abdominal infection were significant predictors of overall survival. CONCLUSION: Postoperative intra-abdominal infection adversely affected oncologic outcomes, and the change in postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was a good indicator of tumor recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma patients after curative hepatectomy. PMID:25987785

  13. Surgical complications associated with primary closure in patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    García-Morales, Esther; Lázaro-Martínez, José Luis; Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Cecilia-Matilla, Almudena; García-Álvarez, Yolanda; Beneit-Montesinos, Juan Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of complications associated with primary closure in surgical procedures performed for diabetic foot osteomyelitis compared to those healed by secondary intention. In addition, further evaluation of the surgical digital debridement for osteomyelitis with primary closure as an alternative to patients with digital amputation was also examined in our study. Methods Comparative study that included 46 patients with diabetic foot ulcerations. Surgical debridement of the infected bone was performed on all patients. Depending on the surgical technique used, primary surgical closure was performed on 34 patients (73.9%, Group 1) while the rest of the 12 patients were allowed to heal by secondary intention (26.1%, Group 2). During surgical intervention, bone samples were collected for both microbiological and histopathological analyses. Post-surgical complications were recorded in both groups during the recovery period. Results The average healing time was 9.9±SD 8.4 weeks in Group 1 and 19.1±SD 16.9 weeks in Group 2 (p=0.008). The percentage of complications was 61.8% in Group 1 and 58.3% in Group 2 (p=0.834). In all patients with digital ulcerations that were necessary for an amputation, a primary surgical closure was performed with successful outcomes. Discussion Primary surgical closure was not associated with a greater number of complications. Patients who received primary surgical closure had faster healing rates and experienced a lower percentage of exudation (p=0.05), edema (p<0.001) and reinfection, factors that determine the delay in wound healing and affect the prognosis of the surgical outcome. Further research with a greater number of patients is required to better define the cases for which primary surgical closure may be indicated at different levels of the diabetic foot. PMID:23050062

  14. Reversible Valproate Induced Pisa Syndrome and Parkinsonism in a Neuro-Oncology Patient with Depression and Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Botturi, Andrea; Silvani, Antonio; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Paoli, Riccardo Augusto; Lucchiari, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Neurological and psychiatric conditions frequently overlap in neuro-oncology. This overlapping negatively affects patients' quality of life and decreases the ability of providers to manage specific symptoms by therapy modulation, especially when psychopharmacotherapy needs to be prescribed. We describe here a patient with recurrent brain tumor, symptomatic epilepsy and depression who developed Pisa syndrome and parkinsonism after several months of valproic acid use. An accurate recognition of symptoms and treatment side effect allowed an appropriate clinical approach so as to rapidly improve both movement disorder and depression without increasing the risk of developing seizure. This has improved the autonomy and quality of life in a patient with poor prognosis. PMID:27462241

  15. Predictive Score Card in Lumbar Disc Herniation: Is It Reflective of Patient Surgical Success after Discectomy?

    PubMed

    Azimi, Parisa; Benzel, Edward C; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Does the Finneson-Cooper score reflect the true value of predicting surgical success before discectomy? The aim of this study was to identify reliable predictors for surgical success two year after surgery for patients with LDH. Prospective analysis of 154 patients with LDH who underwent single-level lumbar discectomy was performed. Pre- and post-surgical success was assessed by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) over a 2-year period. The Finneson-Cooper score also was used for evaluation of the clinical results. Using the ODI, surgical success was defined as a 30% (or more) improvement on the ODI score from the baseline. The ODI was considered the gold standard in this study. Finally, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive power of the Finneson-Cooper score in predicting surgical success were calculated. The mean age of the patients was 49.6 (SD = 9.3) years and 47.4% were male. Significant improvement from the pre- to post-operative ODI scores was observed (P < 0.001). Post-surgical success was 76.0% (n = 117). The patients' rating on surgical success assessments by the ODI discriminated well between sub-groups of patients who differed with respect to the Finneson-Cooper score. Regarding patients' surgical success, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the Finneson-Cooper ratings correlated with success rate. The findings indicated that the Finneson-Cooper score was reflective of surgical success before discectomy. PMID:27100287

  16. Oncologic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, D.G.; Rubin, P.; Youker, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear medicine. Topics considered include the classification of cancers, oncologic diagnosis, brain and spinal cord neoplasms, lymph node metastases, the larynx and hypopharynx, thyroid cancer, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, bladder cancer, tumors of the skeletal system, pediatric oncology, computed tomography and radiation therapy treatment planning, and the impact of future technology on oncologic diagnosis.

  17. [Specificity of the psychological undertaking of a patient in thoracic oncology].

    PubMed

    Pujol, J-L

    2013-04-01

    The question raised by the title calls for a balanced answer. As a matter of fact, like in many clinical situations in which an illness threatens the patient's survival, the singularity of each case makes any attempt of generalization simplistic. Writing about the speficity of the psychological undertaking in thoracic oncology has to avoid two pitfalls: denying any psychosociological specificity of thoracic cancerology, and thus not providing the reader's understanding with anything which could help them read the most frequent problematics. And secondly turn clinical qualitative data into generalities stuck on each case, and rejecting the singularity of the sick person as a subject. As we attempt to avoid both traps, the three next points will be tackled: the announcement of cancer is prototypical of a trauma, and calls up an intense affect of anguish. This affect can be read through social representations, which intervene within the exchange doctor - sick person. The subjectivation of this relation cannot be understood without taking the environment into account, and especially what the affected person knows about cancer owing to their belonging to a socius. In the traumatic atmosphere thus created, the rereading of the phenomenons - cropping up between a somatic symptom experienced by the patient and a traumatic language revolving around the compulsory term "cancer" - is achieved according recurrent thematic lines. As we do not wish to reach the exhaustiveness of the significant unities, neither their reassembly, we will limit ourselves to the development of one main line: that of the relation to time, to temporality, and to presentism. PMID:23664288

  18. Fertility-preserving surgical procedures, techniques.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Alejandra; Poilblanc, Mathieu; Ferron, Gwenael; De Cuypere, Mariolene; Jouve, Eva; Querleu, Denis

    2012-06-01

    As a result of the trend toward late childbearing, fertility preservation has become a major issue in young women with gynaecological cancer. Fertility-sparing treatments have been successfully attempted in selected cases of cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer, and gynaecologists should be familiar with fertility-preserving options in women with gynaecological malignancies. Options to preserve fertility include shielding to reduce radiation damage, fertility preservation when undergoing cytotoxic treatments, cryopreservation, assisted reproduction techniques, and fertility-sparing surgical procedures. Radical vaginal trachelectomy with laparoscopic lymphadenectomy is an oncologically safe, fertility-preserving procedure. It has been accepted worldwide as a surgical treatment of small early stage cervical cancers. Selected cases of early stage ovarian cancer can be treated by unilateral salpingo-ophorectomy and surgical staging. Hysteroscopic resection and progesterone treatment are used in young women who have endometrial cancer to maintain fertility and avoid surgical menopause. Appropriate patient selection, and careful oncologic, psychologic, reproductive and obstetric counselling, is mandatory. PMID:22503435

  19. [Surgical revascularization in patients with acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Beyersdorf, F; Sarai, K; Mitrev, Z; Eckel, L; Maul, F D; Wendt, T; Satter, P

    1993-01-01

    blood (score 1.5 +/- 0.3; p < 0.05). Enzyme release and ECG-changes were similar in both groups postoperatively. While only 2 of 39 patients died in the controlled reperfusion group (5.1%), mortality increased to 11.1% (4/36) if normal blood is used as the primary reperfusate. Our data show, that the surgical revascularization during acute myocardial infarction can be performed with acceptable mortality and morbidity rates. Further improvement of the results can be obtained if controlled regional reperfusion for the previously ischemic area is used. PMID:8493826

  20. The Dual Rounding Model: Forging Therapeutic Alliances 
in Oncology and Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Baxley, Carey E

    2016-04-01

    Inpatients with solid tumors at Duke University Hospital in Durham, NC, are cared for in a dynamic integrated care model that incorporates medical oncology and palliative care. This has profound implications for patients, their loved ones, medical and surgical staff, and oncology nurses. As a nurse with less than three years of experience, my participation in a setting that uses the Dual Rounding Model has accelerated my professional and personal development. During a typical shift, I am an oncology nurse, a palliative care nurse, and a hospice nurse.
. PMID:26991719

  1. [Surgical correction of dislipodemia in patients with obesity].

    PubMed

    Fishman, M B; Mirchuk, K K; Chie, Ma; Muzhikov, S P

    2014-01-01

    The results of surgical treatment of 139 patients with metabolic syndrome, obesity and dislipodemia were analyzed. Modern bariatric operations (4 types) were performed by using laparoscopic method. There were regulated bandages of the stomach (RBS), lengthwise gastric resections (LGR), biliopancreatic and stomach bypass surgeries (BBS, SBS). Results of five-year follow-up indicated that restrictive operations on the stomach (RBS, LGR) aimed to correct overweight and dislipodemia had some limitations to application in a varying degree. The RBS operation should be appropriate to use for women of the young age group, when an initial body-weight index wasn't more than 43 kg/m2. The LGR operation was effective for men of the young age group and women in case of moderately expressed dislipodemia and in case when the initial body-weight index didn't exceed more than 45 kg/m2. Combined bariatric operations (BBS, SBS) were most likely effective on body weight and dislipodemia. PMID:25823310

  2. Building Bridges From Hospital to Home: Understanding the Transition Experience for the Newly Diagnosed Pediatric Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Branowicki, Patricia A; Vessey, Judith A; Temple, Kendal L Jackson; Lulloff, Amanda J

    2016-09-01

    Caregivers of pediatric oncology patients are expected to understand and adhere to a complex medical plan of care while at home; yet little is known about how to assess and evaluate the caregivers' abilities to adequately meet these demands. The purpose of this study was to describe the issues and daily challenges faced by caregivers as they transition from hospital to home after their child's cancer diagnosis. Patients and caregivers received a home visit by an expert pediatric oncology nurse within 72 hours postdischarge after initial diagnosis. The nursing narrative notes from these visits were analyzed using content analysis. Four explanatory themes emerged: (1) "We're doing okay," (2) "This isn't going so well," (3) "I could use a little help with this," and (4) "An RN in the house makes you feel safe and know what is correct." These analyses revealed many caregivers achieved mastery of caring for the child at home; however, an overwhelming majority of caregivers expressed questions or concerns to the nurse during the home visit, even those achieving mastery of care. A home visit by an expert pediatric oncology nurse assisted the caregiver in transitioning to caring for the child at home. Such programs should be considered when planning transition programs from hospital to home. PMID:26668212

  3. Using Baldrige Performance Excellence Program Approaches in the Pursuit of Radiation Oncology Quality Care, Patient Satisfaction, and Workforce Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Sternick, Edward S.

    2011-01-01

    The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Improvement Act was signed into law in 1987 to advance US business competitiveness and economic growth. Administered by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Act created the Baldrige National Quality Program, recently renamed the Baldrige Performance Excellence Program. The comprehensive analytical approaches referred to as the Baldrige Healthcare Criteria, are very well-suited for the evaluation and sustainable improvement of radiation oncology management and operations. A multidisciplinary self-assessment approach is used for radiotherapy program evaluation and development in order to generate a fact-based, knowledge-driven system for improving quality of care, increasing patient satisfaction, enhancing leadership effectiveness, building employee engagement, and boosting organizational innovation. This methodology also provides a valuable framework for benchmarking an individual radiation oncology practice's operations and results against guidelines defined by accreditation and professional organizations and regulatory agencies. PMID:22655229

  4. Multiscale modeling and surgical planning for single ventricle heart patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Alison

    2011-11-01

    Single ventricle heart patients are among the most challenging for pediatric cardiologists to treat, and typically undergo a palliative course of three open-heart surgeries starting immediately after birth. We will present recent tools for modeling blood flow in single ventricle heart patients using a multiscale approach that couples a 3D Navier-Stokes domain to a 0D closed loop lumped parameter network comprised of circuit elements. This coupling allows us to capture the effect of changes in local geometry, such as shunt sizes, on global circulatory dynamics, such as cardiac output. A semi-implicit numerical method is formulated to solve the coupled system in which flow and pressure information is passed between the two domains at the inlets and outlets of the model. A finite element method with outflow stabilization is applied in the 3D Navier-Stokes domain, and the LPN system of ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using a Runge-Kutta method. These tools are coupled via automated scripts to a derivative-free optimization method. Optimization is used to systematically explore surgical designs using clinically relevant cost functions for two stages of single ventricle repair. First, we will present results from optimization of the first stage Blalock Taussig Shunt. Second, we will present results from optimization of a new Y-graft design for the third stage of single ventricle repair called the Fontan surgery. The Y-graft is shown, in simulations, to successfully improve hepatic flow distribution, a known clinical problem. Preliminary clinical experience with the Y-graft will be discussed.

  5. Measured dose rate constant from oncology patients administered 18F for positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Brian; Holahan, Brian; Aime, Jean; Humm, John; St Germain, Jean; Dauer, Lawrence T.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Patient exposure rate measurements verify published patient dose rate data and characterize dose rates near 2-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) patients. A specific dose rate constant based on patient exposure rate measurements is a convenient quantity that can be applied to the desired distance, injection activity, and time postinjection to obtain an accurate calculation of cumulative external radiation dose. This study reports exposure rates measured at various locations near positron emission tomography (PET) {sup 18}F-FDG patients prior to PET scanning. These measurements are normalized for the amount of administered activity, measurement distance, and time postinjection and are compared with other published data. Methods: Exposure rates were measured using a calibrated ionization chamber at various body locations from 152 adult oncology patients postvoid after a mean uptake time of 76 min following injection with a mean activity of 490 MBq {sup 18}F-FDG. Data were obtained at nine measurement locations for each patient: three near the head, four near the chest, and two near the feet. Results: On contact with, 30 cm superior to and 30 cm lateral to the head, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.482 (0.511), 0.135 (0.155), and 0.193 (0.223) {mu}Sv/MBq h, respectively. On contact with, 30 cm anterior to, 30 cm lateral to and 1 m anterior to the chest, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.623 (0.709), 0.254 (0.283), 0.190 (0.218), and 0.067 (0.081) {mu}Sv/MBq h respectively. 30 cm inferior and 30 cm lateral to the feet, the mean (75th percentile) dose rates per unit injected activity at 60 min postinjection were 0.024 (0.022) and 0.039 (0.044) {mu}Sv/MBq h, respectively. Conclusions: The measurements for this study support the use of 0.092 {mu}Sv m{sup 2}/MBq h as a reasonable representation of the dose rate anterior from the chest of

  6. Surgical Approaches to the Oral Cavity Primary and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Jatin P.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: A variety of surgical approaches used to treat primary oral cavity tumors are described to delineate the technique and rationale behind each treatment choice. Methods and Materials: Size, location, proximity to bone, lymph node status, histology, and prior treatment considerations are employed to determine the most appropriate surgical approach for primary oral cavity tumors. Results: Oncologic outcomes and physical function show the best results from surgical treatment of many primary oral cavity, but necessitates careful selection of surgical approach. Conclusion: Each surgical approach must be selected based upon relevant tumor, patient and physician factors.

  7. Preoperative telemedicine evaluation of surgical mission patients: should we use it routinely?

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat; Mora, Francisco; Bekteshi, Flamur; Rivera, Renato

    2014-01-01

    Low-cost telemedicine is a viable and secure tool for preoperative evaluation of surgical mission patients. It increases efficiency and optimizes the use of existing resources. More specifically, it helps ensure an accurate assessment of patients before the surgical team arrives, reduces on-site prescreening time, and decreases the number of surgical candidates on the waiting list. Routine use of telemedicine in surgical missions most likely would reduce preoperative times and the number of operations canceled at the last minute. Moreover, it may be effectively used for long-term follow-up care, including the management of any postoperative complications. PMID:24552027

  8. Vision 20/20: Molecular-guided surgical oncology based upon tumor metabolism or immunologic phenotype: Technological pathways for point of care imaging and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Keith D.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Strong, Theresa V.; Draney, Daniel R.; Feldwisch, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Surgical guidance with fluorescence has been demonstrated in individual clinical trials for decades, but the scientific and commercial conditions exist today for a dramatic increase in clinical value. In the past decade, increased use of indocyanine green based visualization of vascular flow, biliary function, and tissue perfusion has spawned a robust growth in commercial systems that have near-infrared emission imaging and video display capabilities. This recent history combined with major preclinical innovations in fluorescent-labeled molecular probes, has the potential for a shift in surgical practice toward resection guidance based upon molecular information in addition to conventional visual and palpable cues. Most surgical subspecialties already have treatment management decisions partially based upon the immunohistochemical phenotype of the cancer, as assessed from molecular pathology of the biopsy tissue. This phenotyping can inform the surgical resection process by spatial mapping of these features. Further integration of the diagnostic and therapeutic value of tumor metabolism sensing molecules or immune binding agents directly into the surgical process can help this field mature. Maximal value to the patient would come from identifying the spatial patterns of molecular expression in vivo that are well known to exist. However, as each molecular agent is advanced into trials, the performance of the imaging system can have a critical impact on the success. For example, use of pre-existing commercial imaging systems are not well suited to image receptor targeted fluorophores because of the lower concentrations expected, requiring orders of magnitude more sensitivity. Additionally the imaging system needs the appropriate dynamic range and image processing features to view molecular probes or therapeutics that may have nonspecific uptake or pharmacokinetic issues which lead to limitations in contrast. Imaging systems need to be chosen based upon objective

  9. Vision 20/20: Molecular-guided surgical oncology based upon tumor metabolism or immunologic phenotype: Technological pathways for point of care imaging and intervention.

    PubMed

    Pogue, Brian W; Paulsen, Keith D; Samkoe, Kimberley S; Elliott, Jonathan T; Hasan, Tayyaba; Strong, Theresa V; Draney, Daniel R; Feldwisch, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Surgical guidance with fluorescence has been demonstrated in individual clinical trials for decades, but the scientific and commercial conditions exist today for a dramatic increase in clinical value. In the past decade, increased use of indocyanine green based visualization of vascular flow, biliary function, and tissue perfusion has spawned a robust growth in commercial systems that have near-infrared emission imaging and video display capabilities. This recent history combined with major preclinical innovations in fluorescent-labeled molecular probes, has the potential for a shift in surgical practice toward resection guidance based upon molecular information in addition to conventional visual and palpable cues. Most surgical subspecialties already have treatment management decisions partially based upon the immunohistochemical phenotype of the cancer, as assessed from molecular pathology of the biopsy tissue. This phenotyping can inform the surgical resection process by spatial mapping of these features. Further integration of the diagnostic and therapeutic value of tumor metabolism sensing molecules or immune binding agents directly into the surgical process can help this field mature. Maximal value to the patient would come from identifying the spatial patterns of molecular expression in vivo that are well known to exist. However, as each molecular agent is advanced into trials, the performance of the imaging system can have a critical impact on the success. For example, use of pre-existing commercial imaging systems are not well suited to image receptor targeted fluorophores because of the lower concentrations expected, requiring orders of magnitude more sensitivity. Additionally the imaging system needs the appropriate dynamic range and image processing features to view molecular probes or therapeutics that may have nonspecific uptake or pharmacokinetic issues which lead to limitations in contrast. Imaging systems need to be chosen based upon objective

  10. Reversible Valproate Induced Pisa Syndrome and Parkinsonism in a Neuro-Oncology Patient with Depression and Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Botturi, Andrea; Silvani, Antonio; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Paoli, Riccardo Augusto; Lucchiari, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Neurological and psychiatric conditions frequently overlap in neuro-oncology. This overlapping negatively affects patients’ quality of life and decreases the ability of providers to manage specific symptoms by therapy modulation, especially when psychopharmacotherapy needs to be prescribed. We describe here a patient with recurrent brain tumor, symptomatic epilepsy and depression who developed Pisa syndrome and parkinsonism after several months of valproic acid use. An accurate recognition of symptoms and treatment side effect allowed an appropriate clinical approach so as to rapidly improve both movement disorder and depression without increasing the risk of developing seizure. This has improved the autonomy and quality of life in a patient with poor prognosis. PMID:27462241

  11. Predictive Score Card in Lumbar Disc Herniation: Is It Reflective of Patient Surgical Success after Discectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Parisa; Benzel, Edward C.; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Does the Finneson–Cooper score reflect the true value of predicting surgical success before discectomy? The aim of this study was to identify reliable predictors for surgical success two year after surgery for patients with LDH. Prospective analysis of 154 patients with LDH who underwent single-level lumbar discectomy was performed. Pre- and post-surgical success was assessed by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) over a 2-year period. The Finneson-Cooper score also was used for evaluation of the clinical results. Using the ODI, surgical success was defined as a 30% (or more) improvement on the ODI score from the baseline. The ODI was considered the gold standard in this study. Finally, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive power of the Finneson–Cooper score in predicting surgical success were calculated. The mean age of the patients was 49.6 (SD = 9.3) years and 47.4% were male. Significant improvement from the pre- to post-operative ODI scores was observed (P < 0.001). Post-surgical success was 76.0% (n = 117). The patients’ rating on surgical success assessments by the ODI discriminated well between sub-groups of patients who differed with respect to the Finneson–Cooper score. Regarding patients’ surgical success, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the Finneson-Cooper ratings correlated with success rate. The findings indicated that the Finneson–Cooper score was reflective of surgical success before discectomy. PMID:27100287

  12. SU-F-18C-06: Prospective Patient Evaluation of Iterative Reconstruction in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R; Vance, S; Cattaneo, R; Schultz, L; Elshaikh, M; Chetty, I; Glide-Hurst, C

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: This work incorporates iterative reconstruction (IR) into a dose reduction study to characterize image quality metrics, delineation, and dosimetric assessment, with the goal of reducing imaging dose in Radiation Oncology. Methods: Three-dimensional noise power spectrum (NPS) analysis characterized noise magnitude/texture (120 kVp, 50–200 mAs, IR levels 1–6 yielding noise reduction of 0.89–0.55 compared to filtered backprojection (FBP)). Task-specific Modulation Transfer Functions (MTFtask) were characterized across varied subject contrasts. A prospective dose reduction study (500 to 150 mAs) was conducted for 12 patients (43 inter-fraction CTs) for high-dose rate brachytherapy. Three physicians performed qualitative image assessment between full-dose FBP (FD-FBP, 500 mAs), low-dose FBP (LD-FBP, 150–250 mAs), and low-dose IRL5-6 (LD-IR) scans for image noise, cuff/bladder interface detectability, spatial resolution, texture, and segmentation confidence. Comparisons between LD-FBP and LD-IR were conducted for the following metrics: delineation (bladder and rectum evaluated via overlap indices (OI) and Dice similarity coefficients (DSC)), noise, boundary changes, dose calculation, and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Results: NPS showed ∼50% reduction in noise magnitude and ∼0.1 1/mm spatial frequency shift with IRL6. The largest MTFtask decrease between FBP and IR was 0.08 A.U. Qualitative patient image evaluation revealed LD-IR was equivalent or slightly worse than FD-FBP, and superior to LD-FBP for all metrics except low contrast interface and texture. The largest CT number discrepancy from FBP occurred at a bone/tissue interface using IRL6 (−1.2 ± 4.9 HU (range: −17.6 – 12.5 HU)). No significant contour differences (OIs and DSCs = 0.85 – 0.95) and dose calculation discrepancy (<0.02%) were observed. DRRs preserved anatomical detail and demonstrated <2% difference in intensity between LD-FBP and LD-IRL6. Conclusion: While

  13. Identifying oncological emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guddati, Achuta K; Kumar, Nilay; Segon, Ankur; Joy, Parijat S; Marak, Creticus P; Kumar, Gagan

    2013-01-01

    Prompt identification and treatment of life-threatening oncological conditions is of utmost importance and should always be included in the differential diagnosis. Oncological emergencies can have a myriad of presentations ranging from mechanical obstruction due to tumor growth to metabolic conditions due to abnormal secretions from the tumor. Notably, hematologic and infectious conditions may complicate the presentation of oncological emergencies. Advanced testing and imaging is generally required to recognize these serious presentations of common malignancies. Early diagnosis and treatment of these conditions can significantly affect the patient's clinical outcome. PMID:23873016

  14. EARLY ORAL RE-FEEDING ON ONCOLOGY PATIENTS SUBMITTED TO GASTRECTOMY FOR GASTRIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    LAFFITTE, Andressa Madalozo; POLAKOWSKI, Camila Brandão; KATO, Massakazu

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is no advantage in maintaining patients on oral fasting after gastrointestinal elective resection. The early feeding up to 48 h can be beneficial, because it reduces infectious complications and hospital stay. Aim: Evaluate the evolution and tolerance of early oral diet in postoperative period after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Methods: Anthropometric assessment was performed on the day of surgery, weight, height, body mass index and weight loss were measured. Acceptance of diet was evaluated as food intake (amount accepted) and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distension, postoperative complications and hospital stay. Results: The sample consisted of 23 patients, 17 with partial gastrectomy and six with total gastrectomy. In the assessment of nutritional status 9% were malnourished, 54.5% normal weight, 9% overweight and 27.2% obese, but 54% had weight loss. There was good acceptance of the diet in 96,9% of the sample. Nausea and abdominal distension were present in 4,3% and 65.2% constipation. Surgical complications according to the Clavien scalle, 13% had grade V, 4.3% grade IIIA, 8.7% grade I and 73% did not have complications. The length of hospital stay was 5±2.2 days. Conclusion: Early postoperative re-feeding in total and partial gastrectomy was well tolerated by patients. PMID:26537147

  15. Internet-Based Survey Evaluating Use of Pain Medications and Attitudes of Radiation Oncology Patients Toward Pain Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Simone, Charles B. Vapiwala, Neha; Hampshire, Margaret K.; Metz, James M.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: Pain is a common symptom among cancer patients, yet many patients do not receive adequate pain management. Few data exist quantifying analgesic use by radiation oncology patients. This study evaluated the causes of pain in cancer patients and investigated the reasons patients fail to receive optimal analgesic therapy. Methods and Materials: An institutional review board-approved, Internet-based questionnaire assessing analgesic use and pain control was posted on the OncoLink (available at (www.oncolink.org)) Website. Between November 2005 and April 2006, 243 patients responded. They were predominantly women (73%), white (71%), and educated beyond high school (67%) and had breast (38%), lung (6%), or ovarian (6%) cancer. This analysis evaluated the 106 patients (44%) who underwent radiotherapy. Results: Of the 106 patients, 58% reported pain from their cancer treatment, and 46% reported pain directly from their cancer. The pain was chronic in 51% and intermittent in 33%. Most (80%) did not use medication to manage their pain. Analgesic use was significantly less in patients with greater education levels (11% vs. 36%, p = 0.002), with a trend toward lower use by whites (16% vs. 32%, p 0.082) and women (17% vs. 29%, p = 0.178). The reasons for not taking analgesics included healthcare provider not recommending medication (87%), fear of addiction or dependence (79%), and inability to pay (79%). Participants experiencing pain, but not taking analgesics, pursued alternative therapies for relief. Conclusions: Many radiation oncology patients experience pain from their disease and cancer treatment. Most study participants did not use analgesics because of concerns of addiction, cost, or failure of the radiation oncologist to recommend medication. Healthcare providers should have open discussions with their patients regarding pain symptoms and treatment.

  16. [Bone metastases or an insufficiency fracture? Oncology patients reporting pain or showing bone abnormalities on a scan].

    PubMed

    Meerveld-Eggink, Aafke; Bollen, Thomas L; Wijrdeman, Harm K; Los, Maartje

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old patient reported pain in the left hip 14 months after treatment with radiotherapy for a ypT3N1M0 rectal carcinoma, and a 61-year-old patient reported pain in the lower back with radiation to the buttocks 8 months after radiotherapy for a ypT3N2M0 rectal carcinoma. In both patients the initial diagnosis considered was bone metastasis. After MRI and nuclear bone scans, however, diagnoses of insufficiency fractures of the acetabulum and sacroiliac (SI) joints, respectively, were made. Insufficiency fractures of the SI joints or acetabula are a frequent complication of radiotherapy and should be considered in all oncology patients who present with sudden onset of back pain or lower back pain after radiotherapy. A MRI scan is the initial investigation of choice. Treatment is conservative, with analgesia and physiotherapy. Prognosis is good; symptoms disappear within 1 year in almost all patients. PMID:23841929

  17. Management of prostate cancer in older patients: updated recommendations of a working group of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology.

    PubMed

    Droz, Jean-Pierre; Aapro, Matti; Balducci, Lodovico; Boyle, Helen; Van den Broeck, Thomas; Cathcart, Paul; Dickinson, Louise; Efstathiou, Eleni; Emberton, Mark; Fitzpatrick, John M; Heidenreich, Axel; Hughes, Simon; Joniau, Steven; Kattan, Michael; Mottet, Nicolas; Oudard, Stéphane; Payne, Heather; Saad, Fred; Sugihara, Toru

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) developed treatment guidelines for men with prostate cancer who are older than 70 years old. In 2013, a new multidisciplinary SIOG working group was formed to update these recommendations. The consensus of the task force is that older men with prostate cancer should be managed according to their individual health status, not according to age. On the basis of a validated rapid health status screening instrument and simple assessment, the task force recommends that patients are classed into three groups for treatment: healthy or fit patients who should have the same treatment options as younger patients; vulnerable patients with reversible impairment who should receive standard treatment after medical intervention; and frail patients with non-reversible impairment who should receive adapted treatment. PMID:25079103

  18. 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection in Pediatric Oncology and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cost, Carrye; Brock, Evangeline; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Siegel, Jane D.; Ardura, Monica I.

    2010-01-01

    Background Pediatric oncology and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients are at high risk for influenza infection and its associated complications. Little is known about infection with novel 2009 influenza A (H1N1) in this population. Procedure Prospective laboratory surveillance identified all children with positive influenza test results from 4/27/09-12/5/09. 2009 H1N1 infection was confirmed by PCR subtyping; cases in which subtyping was not performed were considered probable. Medical records of all pediatric oncology and HSCT cases were reviewed. Results Thirty children with cancer or HSCT had laboratory-confirmed influenza A. Patients with ALL (18), CNS tumors (4), CML (1), Ewing sarcoma (1), Hodgkin lymphoma (1), LCH (1), severe aplastic anemia (1), and HSCT (3), had confirmed (5) and probable (25) H1N1 by rapid (22; 73%), DFA (4; 13%), or RVP (4; 13%) assays. Most frequent presenting signs and symptoms were fever (93%; median 38.6°C), cough (97%), and rhinorrhea (83%). Ten patients required hospitalization for a median of 5 days, most commonly for fever and neutropenia (8). Imaging demonstrated lower respiratory tract involvement in 3 patients. There were no concomitant bacteremias; one patient had rhinovirus co-infection. Three patients required ICU care; 1 developed ARDS, multi-organ failure, and died after 5 days. Chemotherapy was delayed in 5 patients. Oseltamivir was administered to 28 patients; 1 patient developed an oseltamivir-resistant strain and was treated with zanamivir. Conclusions 2009 influenza A H1N1 infection in children with cancer and HSCT is mild in most patients, but can lead to serious complications. PMID:20973099

  19. Patient Selection and Surgical Management of High-Risk Patients with Morbid Obesity.

    PubMed

    Daniel Guerron, A; Portenier, Dana D

    2016-08-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective way to improve comorbidities related to obesity. Since the introduction of minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery in the bariatric surgery techniques, the number of procedures has increased substantially; advances in techniques and the transition from open to minimally invasive procedures have decreased morbidity and mortality. Multidisciplinary teams in charge of the operative planning, surgical act, and postoperative recovery are determinant in the success of the management of high-risk bariatric patients; careful identification and preoperative management of these higher-risk patients is crucial in decreasing complications after weight loss surgery. PMID:27473799

  20. Effect of oncological treatment on serum adipocytokine levels in patients with stage II–III breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    COSKUN, TEOMAN; KOSOVA, FUNDA; ARI, ZEKI; SAKARYA, ASLAN; KAYA, YAVUZ

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived hormones (adipocytokines), such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin, and the pancreatic hormone insulin, have been suggested to play a role in carcinogenesis. we therefore hypothesized that the oncological treatment of breast cancer may alter the serum levels of these adipocytokines and insulin. In this study, we aimed to compare the serum levels of adipocytokines and insulin between the pre- and post-treatment period in patients with breast cancer. In this prospective study, 20 consecutive patients with stage II and III breast cancer underwent breast-conserving surgery or total mastectomy and/or axillary dissection. The patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, if necessary. Blood samples were obtained during the preoperative period and postoperatively after completion of the adjuvant therapy. There was no statistically significant difference between the pre- and post-treatment levels of visfatin, adiponectin and leptin. However, the serum insulin and resistin levels and insulin resistance were found to be statistically significantly increased following treatment (P<0.05). Post-treatment resistin levels were positively correlated with insulin resistance (r=0.45, P<0.05). Therefore, oncological treatment of stage II and III breast cancer did not affect visfatin, adiponectin and leptin levels, but statistically significantly increased resistin levels and insulin resistance. In addition, the post-treatment resistin levels were positively correlated with insulin resistance, suggesting that resistin may be involved in the development of insulin resistance in breast cancer patients following treatment. PMID:27123303

  1. Red Blood Cell Antibodies in Hematology/Oncology Patients: Interpretation of Immunohematologic Tests and Clinical Significance of Detected Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Tormey, Christopher A

    2016-06-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a cornerstone of the management of patients with hematology/oncology disorders. However, a potentially deleterious consequence of transfusion is the development of alloantibodies against blood group antigens present on RBCs. Such alloantibodies can be an obstacle in providing compatible units for transfusion. Providers in this arena must fully understand the testing performed by blood banks, as well as the consequences of detected antibodies. This article reviews immunohematologic tests, describes how autoimmune hemolytic anemia is classified by autoantibodies; outlines RBC alloimmunization rates, and presents strategies to prevent/mitigate the impact of RBC alloimmunization. PMID:27113001

  2. Updated recommendations from the Spanish Oncology Genitourinary Group for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Climent, Miguel Ángel; León-Mateos, Luis; González Del Alba, Aránzazu; Pérez-Valderrama, Begoña; Méndez-Vidal, M José; Mellado, Begoña; Arranz, José Ángel; Sánchez-Hernández, Alfredo; Cassinello, Javier; Olmos, David; Carles, Joan

    2015-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent male urogenital malignancy. Approximately 30% of patients with prostate cancer will develop advanced disease. Androgen deprivation therapy achieves disease control in about 90% of these patients, but the majority of them will eventually develop progressive disease, a status called castration-resistant prostate carcinoma (CRPC). However, in recent years, several new therapy strategies, such as immunotherapy, hormonal manipulations, chemotherapy agents and some bone-targeted therapies, have demonstrated an improvement in terms of overall survival in controlled trials. In 2012, the Spanish Oncology Genitourinary Group (SOGUG) published its recommendations for the treatment of patients with CRPC. Due to the recent appearance of important new data and the complexity of decision-making in this field, SOGUG herein provides updated recommendations for the treatment of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:26100652

  3. Computed Tomography Imaging in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Lisa J

    2016-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging has become the mainstay of oncology, providing accurate tumor staging and follow-up imaging to monitor treatment response. Presurgical evaluation of tumors is becoming commonplace and guides surgeons as to the extent and whether complete tumor resection is possible. CT imaging plays a crucial role in radiotherapy treatment planning. CT imaging in oncology has become ubiquitous in veterinary medicine because of increased availability of this imaging modality. This article focuses on CT cancer staging in veterinary oncology, CT imaging for surgical planning, and advances in CT simulation for radiation therapy planning. PMID:26851976

  4. Surgical strategy for intracranial dermoid and epidermoid tumors: An experience with 33 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Jose Carlos; Aversa, Antônio; Pereira, Celestino; Nogueira, Jânio; Gonçalves, Mariangela; Lopes, Hélio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this paper is to report on our surgical strategy and technique and to identify the best management for intracranial dermoids and epidermoids tumors (IDETs). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 33 consecutive patients (14 males and 19 females; mean age at surgery, 37.9 years) with pathologically confirmed IDETs who underwent surgical resection, with mean follow-up of 7.2 years. Results: Gross total tumor removal was achieved in 24 cases (72.7%) with zero surgical mortality and a recurrence rate of 9%. Conclusions: The surgical strategies used in this group of patients enabled total removal of most tumors without surgical mortality and with low morbidity and recurrence rates, proving to be safe and effective. PMID:25558422

  5. TextWithSurgeryPatients - A Research Hypothesis in Enhancing Education and Physical Assessment for Abdominal Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Medical surgical nurses may not have the time or resources to provide effective pre- and post-operative instructions for patients in today's healthcare system. And, making timely physical assessments following discharge from the hospital is not always straightforward. Therefore, the risk for readmission associated with post-surgical complications is a concern. At present, mobile healthcare technologies and patient care are precipitously evolving and may serve as a resource to enhance communication between the healthcare provider and patient. A mobile telephone text message (short message service [SMS]) intervention for abdominal surgical patients may foster effective education (communication) and timely self-reported physical assessment in the home environment hence preventing deleterious outcomes. The aim of this research proposal is to identify the feasibility of using a SMS intervention via smart phones to improve health outcomes via timely communication, reach large numbers of at-risk surgical patients and, establish and sustain uniform protocols in a cost-efficient manner. PMID:27332251

  6. Financial Quality Control of In-Patient Chemotherapy in Germany: Are Additional Payments Cost-Covering for Pharmaco-Oncological Expenses?

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Volker R.; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Cost-covering in-patient care is increasingly important for hospital providers in Germany, especially with regard to expensive oncological pharmaceuticals. Additional payments (Zusatzentgelte; ZE) on top of flat rate diagnose-related group (DRG) reimbursement can be claimed by hospitals for in-patient use of selected medications. To verify cost coverage of in-patient chemotherapies, the costs of medication were compared to their revenues. Method From January to June 2010, a retrospective cost-revenue study was performed at a German obstetrics/gynecology university clinic. The hospital's pharmacy list of inpatient oncological therapies for breast and gynecological cancer was checked for accuracy and compared with the documented ZEs and the costs and revenues for each oncological application. Results N = 45 in-patient oncological therapies were identified in n = 18 patients, as well as n = 7 bisphosphonate applications; n = 11 ZEs were documented. Costs for oncological medication were € 33,752. The corresponding ZE revenues amounted to only € 13,980, resulting in a loss of € 19,772. All in-patient oncological therapies performed were not cost-covering. Data discrepancy, incorrect documentation and cost attribution, and process aborts were identified. Conclusions Routine financial quality control at the medicine-pharmacy administration interface is implemented, with monthly comparison of costs and revenues, as well as admission status. Non-cost-covering therapies for in-patients should be converted to out-patient therapies. Necessary adjustments of clinic processes are made according to these results, to avoid future losses. PMID:21673822

  7. Development of an Integrated Subspecialist Multidisciplinary Neuro-oncology Service.

    PubMed

    Price, Stephen J; Guilfoyle, Mathew; J Jefferies, Sarah; Harris, Fiona; Oberg, Ingela; G Burnet, Neil; Santarius, Thomas; Watts, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the poor outcome for patients with malignant brain tumours led to therapeutic nihilism. In turn, this resulted in lack of interest in neurosurgical oncology subspecialisation, and less than ideal patient pathways. One problem of concern was the low rate of tumour resection. Between 1997 and 2006, 685 treated glioblastomas were identified. In the first four years only 40% of patients underwent tumour resection, rising to 55% in the last four years. Before revision of the pathway, the median length of hospital stay was 8 days, and 35% of patients received the results of their histology outside of a clinic setting. A pathway of care was established, in which all patients were discussed pre-operatively in an MDT meeting and then directed into a new surgical neuro-oncology clinic providing first point of contact. This limited the number of surgeons operating on adult glioma patients and aided recruitment into research studies. Now, three consultant neurosurgeons run this service, easily fulfilling IOG requirement to spend >50% of programmed activities in neuro-oncology. Nursing support has been critical to provide an integrated service. This model has allowed increased recruitment to clinical trials. The introduction of this service led to an increase in patients discussed pre-operatively in an MDT (66% rising to 87%; P=0.027), an increase in the rate of surgical resection (from 40% to 80%) and more patients being admitted electively (from 25% to 80%; P<0.001). There was a reduction in the median length of stay (8 days reduced to 4.5 days; P<0.001). For the cohort of GBM patients that went on to have chemoradiotherapy we improved median survival to 18 months, with 35% of patients alive at two years, comparable to international outcomes. Implementing a specialist neurosurgical oncology service begins with understanding the patient care pathway. Our patients have benefitted from the culture of subspecialisation and the excellent inter-disciplinary working

  8. Should oncological cases of upper urinary system be excluded at the beginning of the laparoscopic learning curve?

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Özgür Haki; Ötünçtemur, Alper; Özbek, Emin; Uruç, Fatih; Verit, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The place of oncological cases of upper urinary system in the laparoscopic learning curve was investigated. Materials and Methods: A total of 139 patients from two different centers underwent laparoscopic operations and were included in this retrospective study. Results: Mean operative times for oncological, and non-oncological cases were 101.3 (range 60-450), and 102.7 (45-490) minutes respectively. Fourty-two (31.3 %) patients were oncological cases. In 4 oncological cases, the surgeons switched to open surgery because of massive bleeding and six (14.2 %) oncological cases required blood transfusions during peri/postoperative periods. Pulmonary embolism was observed in one oncological case. In one non-oncological case, the surgeon switched to open surgery because of intestinal perforation and 10 (9.7 %) non-oncological cases needed blood transfusions during peri/postoperative periods. In addition, some complications such as intestinal perforation (n=1), mechanical ileus (n=1), and pulmonary embolism (n=1) were observed during postoperative period. Intestinal perforation was repaired using laparoscopic (n=1) method. Mechanical ileus was approached with open surgical technique. Mean hospital stay of the patients in the oncological and non-oncological series were 4.5 (3-23) and 4.5 (3-30) days respectively. Conclusion: We think that renal oncological cases should be included in the spectrum of laparoscopic indications even at the beginning of the learning curve. Certainly, we still share the opinion that cancer cases which require highly challenging surgeries like radical cystectomy, and prostatectomy should be postponed till to gaining of higher level of experience. PMID:26401863

  9. [Psychology of patient management: evaluation and quality assurance of psychosocial management in pediatric oncology].

    PubMed

    Kusch, M; Labouvie, H; Jäger, R S; Bode, U

    1997-02-01

    Since the introduction of health-care reform in Germany, quality assurance of inpatient care is required. In paediatric oncology this also includes quality assurance measures of psycho-social care. Care Psychology deals with the development, testing and continual improvement of high-quality psycho-social care. Based on clinical experience, scientific knowledge and ascertained requirements a handbook and manual of service delivery of psycho-social care is formulated and tested in everyday practice. Service performance analyses are carried out, and verified improvements are re-tested in practice. This, as well as additional attempts, should lead to total quality management (TQM) of psycho-social care in paediatric oncology according to the criteria of the European Foundation of Quality Management (EFQM). PMID:9156631

  10. Basic Principles in Oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Thomas J.

    The evolving field of interventional oncology can only be considered as a small integrative part in the complex area of oncology. The new field of interventional oncology needs a standardization of the procedures, the terminology, and criteria to facilitate the effective communication of ideas and appropriate comparison between treatments and new integrative technology. In principle, ablative therapy is a part of locoregional oncological therapy and is defined either as chemical ablation using ethanol or acetic acid, or thermotherapies such as radiofrequency, laser, microwave, and cryoablation. All these new evolving therapies have to be exactly evaluated and an adequate terminology has to be used to define imaging findings and pathology. All the different technologies and evaluated therapies have to be compared, and the results have to be analyzed in order to improve the patient outcome.

  11. [Lipid peroxidation and its interrelation with the personality characteristics of surgical patients].

    PubMed

    Man'kov, Iu U; Sharapov, G N; Khyshov, V B; Pal'chikov, V P; Alekseenko, G M

    1991-04-01

    The article deals with the exam results of 42 pre- and postoperative surgical patients. The reactivity of peroxide oxidation of lipids plays an important role in regulation of adaptive process of surgical patients. The authors emphasize the role of anxiety state as one of the most intimate and obligate mechanisms of psychologic stress. The anxiety rising process influences upon the formation of typical psychophysiological correlations that lead to the intensification of lipid oxidation. PMID:1887607

  12. WSES guidelines for management of Clostridium difficile infection in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Malangoni, Mark A; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Griffiths, Ewen A; Di Bella, Stefano; McFarland, Lynne V; Eltringham, Ian; Shelat, Vishal G; Velmahos, George C; Kelly, Ciarán P; Khanna, Sahil; Abdelsattar, Zaid M; Alrahmani, Layan; Ansaloni, Luca; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Barbut, Frédéric; Ben-Ishay, Offir; Bhangu, Aneel; Biffl, Walter L; Brecher, Stephen M; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Caínzos, Miguel A; Canterbury, Laura A; Catena, Fausto; Chan, Shirley; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Clanton, Jesse; Coccolini, Federico; Cocuz, Maria Elena; Coimbra, Raul; Cook, Charles H; Cui, Yunfeng; Czepiel, Jacek; Das, Koray; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Di Saverio, Salomone; Dumitru, Irina Magdalena; Eckert, Catherine; Eckmann, Christian; Eiland, Edward H; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Faro, Mario; Ferrada, Paula; Forrester, Joseph Derek; Fraga, Gustavo P; Frossard, Jean Louis; Galeiras, Rita; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gorrepati, Venkata; Ahmed, Mohamed Hassan; Herzog, Torsten; Humphrey, Felicia; Kim, Jae Il; Isik, Arda; Ivatury, Rao; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Juang, Paul; Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kim, Peter K; Kluger, Yoram; Ko, Wen Chien; LaBarbera, Francis D; Lee, Jae Gil; Leppaniemi, Ari; Lohsiriwat, Varut; Marwah, Sanjay; Mazuski, John E; Metan, Gokhan; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Frederick Alan; Nord, Carl Erik; Ordoñez, Carlos A; Júnior, Gerson Alves Pereira; Petrosillo, Nicola; Portela, Francisco; Puri, Basant K; Ray, Arnab; Raza, Mansoor; Rems, Miran; Sakakushev, Boris E; Sganga, Gabriele; Spigaglia, Patrizia; Stewart, David B; Tattevin, Pierre; Timsit, Jean Francois; To, Kathleen B; Tranà, Cristian; Uhl, Waldemar; Urbánek, Libor; van Goor, Harry; Vassallo, Angela; Zahar, Jean Ralph; Caproli, Emanuele; Viale, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades there have been dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), with increases in incidence and severity of disease in many countries worldwide. The incidence of CDI has also increased in surgical patients. Optimization of management of C difficile, has therefore become increasingly urgent. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts prepared evidenced-based World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for management of CDI in surgical patients. PMID:26300956

  13. [Surgical treatment of patients with cancer of the larynx with lesions of the anterior commissure].

    PubMed

    Bariliak, Iu R

    1990-01-01

    Eighty two patients with glottic tumors extending to the anterior commissure underwent surgical treatment: 11 patients for cordectomy in its classic form, 11 patients for fronto-lateral cordectomy, 59 patients for extended cordectomy, and 1 patient for hemilaryngectomy according to Otan. Analysis of the postoperative clinical state of the patients suggests that surgery for vocal cord carcinoma involving the anterior commissure should not necessarily include tracheostomy and laryngeal tamponade. PMID:2316118

  14. Do Physical Symptoms Predict the Outcome of Surgical Fusion in Patients with Discogenic Low Back Pain?

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Miyagi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To determine whether symptoms predict surgical outcomes for patients with discogenic low back pain (DLBP). Overview of Literature Specific diagnosis of DLBP remains difficult. Worsening of pain on flexion is a reported symptom of DLBP. This study sought to determine whether symptoms predict surgical outcomes for patients with DLBP. Methods We investigated 127 patients with low back pain (LBP) and no dominant radicular pain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to select patients with disc degeneration at only one level. If pain was provoked during discography, we performed fusion surgery (87 patients). Visual analogue scale score and responses to a questionnaire regarding symptoms including worsening of pain on flexion or extension were assessed. Symptom sites before surgery were categorized into LBP alone, or LBP plus referred inguinal or leg pain. We followed 77 patients (average 3.0 years) and compared symptoms before surgery with surgical outcome. Results Sixty-three patients with a good outcome showed postsurgical pain relief (≥60% pain relief) and 14 patients with a poor outcome did not (<60% pain relief). In patients with good outcomes, worsening of LBP was evident in 65% of cases on flexion and in 35% on extension. However, these findings were not significantly different from those in patients with poor outcomes. The percentage of patients with LBP alone was significantly lower and the percentage of patients with LBP plus referred inguinal or leg pain was significantly higher in the group with good surgical outcome compared with patients in the group with poor surgical outcome (p<0.05). Conclusions Worsening of pain on extension may be a symptom of DLBP. Surgical outcomes were superior in patients with both LBP and either referred inguinal or leg pain compared with those having LBP alone. PMID:27340531

  15. Differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics and quality of life outcomes among oncology patients with different types of pain.

    PubMed

    Posternak, Victoria; Dunn, Laura B; Dhruva, Anand; Paul, Steven M; Luce, Judith; Mastick, Judy; Levine, Jon D; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Hammer, Marylin; Wright, Fay; Miaskowski, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The purposes of this study, in oncology outpatients receiving chemotherapy (n = 926), were to: describe the occurrence of different types of pain (ie, no pain, only noncancer pain [NCP], only cancer pain [CP], or both CP and NCP) and evaluate for differences in demographic, clinical, and symptom characteristics, and quality of life (QOL) among the 4 groups. Patients completed self-report questionnaires on demographic and symptom characteristics and QOL. Patients who had pain were asked to indicate if it was or was not related to their cancer or its treatment. Medical records were reviewed for information on cancer and its treatments. In this study, 72.5% of the patients reported pain. Of the 671 who reported pain, 21.5% reported only NCP, 37.0% only CP, and 41.5% both CP and NCP. Across the 3 pain groups, worst pain scores were in the moderate to severe range. Compared with the no pain group, patients with both CP and NCP were significantly younger, more likely to be female, have a higher level of comorbidity, and a poorer functional status. In addition, these patients reported: higher levels of depression, anxiety, fatigue, and sleep disturbance; lower levels of energy and attentional function; and poorer QOL. Patients with only NCP were significantly older than the other 3 groups. The most common comorbidities in the NCP group were back pain, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and depression. Unrelieved CP and NCP continue to be significant problems. Oncology outpatients need to be assessed for both CP and NCP conditions. PMID:26683234

  16. Pediatric Intensive Care Unit admission criteria for haemato-oncological patients: a basis for clinical guidelines implementation.

    PubMed

    Piastra, Marco; Fognani, Giuliana; Franceschi, Alessia

    2011-06-16

    Recent advances in supportive care and progress in the development and use of chemotherapy have considerably improved the prognosis of many children with malignancy, thus the need for intensive care admission and management is increasing, reaching about 40% of patients throughout the disease course. Cancer remains a major death cause in children, though outcomes have considerably improved over the past decades. Prediction of outcome for children with cancer in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) obviously requires clinical guidelines, and these are not well defined, as well as admission criteria. Major determinants of negative outcomes remain severe sepsis/septic shock association and respiratory failure, deserving specific approach in children with cancer, particularly those receiving a bone marrow transplantation. A nationwide consensus should be achieved among pediatric intensivists and oncologists regarding the threshold clinical conditions requiring Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission as well as specific critical care protocols. As demonstrated for the critically ill non-oncologic child, it appears unreasonable that pediatric patients with malignancy can be admitted to an adult Intensive Care Unit ICU. On a national basis a pool of refecence institutions should be identified and early referral to an oncologic PICU is warranted. PMID:21772950

  17. Pediatric Intensive Care Unit admission criteria for haemato-oncological patients: a basis for clinical guidelines implementation

    PubMed Central

    Piastra, Marco; Fognani, Giuliana; Franceschi, Alessia

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in supportive care and progress in the development and use of chemotherapy have considerably improved the prognosis of many children with malignancy, thus the need for intensive care admission and management is increasing, reaching about 40% of patients throughout the disease course. Cancer remains a major death cause in children, though outcomes have considerably improved over the past decades. Prediction of outcome for children with cancer in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) obviously requires clinical guidelines, and these are not well defined, as well as admission criteria. Major determinants of negative outcomes remain severe sepsis/septic shock association and respiratory failure, deserving specific approach in children with cancer, particularly those receiving a bone marrow transplantation. A nationwide consensus should be achieved among pediatric intensivists and oncologists regarding the threshold clinical conditions requiring Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission as well as specific critical care protocols. As demonstrated for the critically ill non-oncologic child, it appears unreasonable that pediatric patients with malignancy can be admitted to an adult Intensive Care Unit ICU. On a national basis a pool of refecence institutions should be identified and early referral to an oncologic PICU is warranted. PMID:21772950

  18. Could Harmonic Scalpel (Ultracision®) be considered the best device in surgical treatment of vulvar cancer of patients with implanted pace-maker? Proposal and rationale

    PubMed Central

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ancona, Emanuele; Quaranta, Michela; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Noventa, Marco; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Ambrosini, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Vulvar cancer (VC) represents about 4% of gynecologic malignancies, its incidence increases with age and peak incidence is found between 70-79 years. In cases of locally advanced disease surgery is often required and radical vulvectomy, with or without mono-bilateral inguino-femoral lymphadenectomy, is standard management. Various devices have been implemented in gynecological surgery in an attempt to minimize or avoid frequent intra/postoperative complications linked to energy use, unfortunately the majority of these devices require monopolar or bipolar energy. Ultracision® represents a unique surgical device capable of performing both cutting and coagulation at different intensities without use of electric energy. The use of Ultracision® in the radical treatment of VC has advantages both in terms of intraoperative and postoperative complications responsible for the reduction of surgical time and blood loss, complete tissue removal according to oncological criteria, diminished desensitization of peripheral areas and reduction of wound complications. These advantages have been widely demonstrated and contribute to making Ultracision® a cost-effective option in the routine treatment of patients affected by vulvar cancer especially when considering its safety in cardiopathic patients with implanted pacemaker. If the impressive results achieved in radical vulvar surgery will be confirmed, scalpel use could be proposed as routine for surgery of the routinely in surgical approach of vulvar and perineal area, in both benign and malignant disease. PMID:26309660

  19. Different Clinical Utility of Oropharyngeal Bacterial Screening prior to Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in Oncological and Neurological Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dastych, Milan; Senkyrik, Michal; Pavlik, Tomas; Prokesova, Jitka; Jecmenova, Marketa; Dolina, Jiri; Hep, Ales

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to monitor oropharyngeal bacterial colonization in patients indicated for percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy (PEG). Methods. Oropharyngeal swabs were obtained from patients prior to PEG placement. A development of peristomal infection was evaluated. The analysis of oropharyngeal and peristomal site pathogens was done. Results. Consecutive 274 patients referred for PEG due to neurological disorder or cancer completed the study. Oropharyngeal colonization with pathogens was observed in 69% (190/274), dominantly in the neurologic subgroup of patients (P < 0.001). Peristomal infection occurred in 30 (10.9%) of patients and in 57% of them the correlation between oropharyngeal and peristomal agents was present. The presence of oropharyngeal pathogens was assessed as an important risk factor for the development of peristomal infection only in oncological patients (OR = 8.33, 95% CI: 1.66–41.76). Despite a high prevalence of pathogens in neurological patients, it did not influence the risk of peristomal infection with the exception for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers (OR 4.5, 95% CI: 1.08–18.76). Conclusion. During oropharyngeal microbial screening prior to the PEG insertion, the detection of pathogens may be a marker of the increased risk of peristomal infection in cancer patients only. In neurological patients the benefit of the screening is limited to the detection of MRSA carriers. PMID:25243153

  20. Barriers and Facilitators Associated with Non-Surgical Treatment Use for Osteoarthritis Patients in Orthopaedic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Hofstede, Stefanie N.; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J.; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P. M.; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction International evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommend to start with (a combination of) non-surgical treatments, and using surgical intervention only if a patient does not respond sufficiently to non-surgical treatment options. Despite these recommendations, there are strong indications that non-surgical treatments are not optimally used in orthopaedic practice. To improve the adoption of non-surgical treatments, more insight is needed into barriers and facilitators of these treatments. Therefore, this study assessed which barriers and facilitators are associated with the use and prescription of different non-surgical treatments before hip and knee OA in orthopaedic practice among patients and orthopaedic surgeons in the Netherlands. Materials and Methods We performed two internet-based surveys among 172 orthopaedic surgeons and 174 OA patients. Univariate association and multivariable regression techniques are used to identify barriers and facilitators associated with the use of non-surgical treatments. Results Most barriers and facilitators among patients were associated with the use of physical therapy, lifestyle advice and dietary therapy. Among orthopaedic surgeons, most were associated with prescription of acetaminophen, dietary therapy and physical therapy. Examples of barriers and facilitators among patients included “People in my environment had positive experiences with a surgery” (facilitator for education about OA), and “Advice of people in my environment to keep on moving” (facilitator for lifestyle and dietary advice). For orthopaedic surgeons, examples were “Lack of knowledge about guideline” (barrier for lifestyle advice), “Agreements/ deliberations with primary care” and “Easy communication with a dietician” (facilitators for dietary therapy). Also the belief in the efficacy of these treatments was associated with increased prescription. Conclusions

  1. Case management in oncology rehabilitation (CAMON): The effect of case management on the quality of life in patients with cancer after one year of ambulant rehabilitation. A study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial in oncology rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer diseases and their therapies have negative effects on the quality of life. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of case management in a sample of oncological outpatients with the intent of rehabilitation after cancer treatment. Case management wants to support the complex information needs of the patients in addition to the segmented structure of the health care system. Emphasis is put on support for self-management in order to enhance health - conscious behaviour, learning to deal with the burden of the illness and providing the opportunity for regular contacts with care providers. We present a study protocol to investigate the efficacy of a case management in patients following oncology rehabilitation after cancer treatment. Methods The trial is a multicentre, two-arm randomised controlled study. Patients are randomised parallel in either 'usual care' plus case management or 'usual care' alone. Patients with all types of cancer can be included in the study, if they have completed the therapy with chemo- and/or radiotherapy/surgery with curative intention and are expected to have a survival time >1 year. To determine the health-related quality of life the general questionnaire FACT G is used. The direct correlation between self-management and perceived self-efficacy is measured with the Jerusalem & Schwarzer questionnaire. Patients satisfaction with the care received is measured using the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care 5 As (PACIC-5A). Data are collected at the beginning of the trial and after 3, 6 and 12 months. The power analysis revealed a sample size of 102 patients. The recruitment of the centres began in 2009. The inclusion of patients began in May 2010. Discussion Case management has proved to be effective regarding quality of life of patients with chronic diseases. When it comes to oncology, case management is mainly used in cancer treatment, but it is not yet common in the rehabilitation of cancer patients

  2. Use of Disinfection Cap to Reduce Central-Line–Associated Bloodstream Infection and Blood Culture Contamination Among Hematology–Oncology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kamboj, Mini; Blair, Rachel; Bell, Natalie; Son, Crystal; Huang, Yao-Ting; Dowling, Mary; Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Eagan, Janet; Sepkowitz, Kent

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In this study, we examined the impact of routine use of a passive disinfection cap for catheter hub decontamination in hematology–oncology patients. SETTING A tertiary care cancer center in New York City METHODS In this multiphase prospective study, we used 2 preintervention phases (P1 and P2) to establish surveillance and baseline rates followed by sequential introduction of disinfection caps on high-risk units (HRUs: hematologic malignancy wards, hematopoietic stem cell transplant units and intensive care units) (P3) and general oncology units (P4). Unit-specific and hospital-wide hospital-acquired central-line–associated bloodstream infection (HA-CLABSI) rates and blood culture contamination (BCC) with coagulase negative staphylococci (CONS) were measured. RESULTS Implementation of a passive disinfection cap resulted in a 34% decrease in hospital-wide HA-CLABSI rates (combined P1 and P2 baseline rate of 2.66–1.75 per 1,000 catheter days at the end of the study period). This reduction occurred only among high-risk patients and not among general oncology patients. In addition, the use of the passive disinfection cap resulted in decreases of 63% (HRUs) and 51% (general oncology units) in blood culture contamination, with an estimated reduction of 242 BCCs with CONS. The reductions in HA-CLABSI and BCC correspond to an estimated annual savings of $3.2 million in direct medical costs. CONCLUSION Routine use of disinfection caps is associated with decreased HA-CLABSI rates among high-risk hematology oncology patients and a reduction in blood culture contamination among all oncology patients. PMID:26394849

  3. Surgical management of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in patients with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Atul F; McGraw, Michael H; Israelite, Craig L

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a known risk factor for osteonecrosis of the hip. Necrosis within the femoral head may cause severe pain, functional limitations, and compromise quality of life in this patient population. Early stages of avascular necrosis of the hip may be managed surgically with core decompression with or without autologous bone grafting. Total hip arthroplasty is the mainstay of treatment of advanced stages of the disease in patients who have intractable pain and are medically fit to undergo the procedure. The management of hip pathology in sickle cell disease presents numerous medical and surgical challenges, and the careful perioperative management of patients is mandatory. Although there is an increased risk of medical and surgical complications in patients with sickle cell disease, total hip arthroplasty can provide substantial relief of pain and improvement of function in the appropriately selected patient. PMID:26601059

  4. Surgical management of osteonecrosis of the femoral head in patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Atul F; McGraw, Michael H; Israelite, Craig L

    2015-11-18

    Sickle cell disease is a known risk factor for osteonecrosis of the hip. Necrosis within the femoral head may cause severe pain, functional limitations, and compromise quality of life in this patient population. Early stages of avascular necrosis of the hip may be managed surgically with core decompression with or without autologous bone grafting. Total hip arthroplasty is the mainstay of treatment of advanced stages of the disease in patients who have intractable pain and are medically fit to undergo the procedure. The management of hip pathology in sickle cell disease presents numerous medical and surgical challenges, and the careful perioperative management of patients is mandatory. Although there is an increased risk of medical and surgical complications in patients with sickle cell disease, total hip arthroplasty can provide substantial relief of pain and improvement of function in the appropriately selected patient. PMID:26601059

  5. Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program for Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilan, Barbara A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences is described, along with student reactions to the program. The summer elective program involves cancer lectures (one week) and clinical exposure (nine weeks) in medical, surgical, and pediatric oncology services, as well as self-directed learning…

  6. Patients Having Bariatric Surgery: Surgical Options in Morbidly Obese Patients with Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Braghetto, I; Csendes, A

    2016-07-01

    This article summarizes the currently knowledge and results observed in patients with obesity and Barrett's esophagus which were presented and discussed during the IFSO 2014 held in Montreal. In this meeting, the surgical options for the management after bariatric surgery were discussed. For this purpose, a complete revision of the available literature was done including Pubmed, Medline, Scielo database, own experience, and experts opinion. A total of 49 publications were reviewed and included in the present paper. The majority of authors agree that gastric bypass is the procedure of choice. Sleeve gastrectomy is not an absolute contraindication. Up to now, gastric bypass appears to be the best procedure for treatment of obese patients with Barrett's esophagus. Future investigations should give the definitive consensus. PMID:27167837

  7. Impact of the difference in surgical site on the physique in gastrointestinal tract cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akira; Kogure, Eisuke; Ishii, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to observe physical function, physique (only BMI), and nutrition status (evaluated by serum albumin levels) from before surgery to after discharge among perioperative patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer and to examine the effect of difference in surgical site (i.e., stomach, colon, and rectum) in these patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 70 patients who underwent surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer [36 males and 34 females, aged 59.3 ± 11.4 years (mean ± SD)]. The subjects were classified into three levels according to surgical site (stomach, colon, and rectum). We evaluated patients’ physical function, physique, and nutrition status in the three points: before surgery, after surgery, and after discharge. The 6-minute walk distance was measured for physical function. Body mass index was measured for physique. The serum albumin level was measured for nutrition status. [Results] Significant declines in 6-minute walk distance, body mass index, and serum albumin were observed after surgery among the study subjects. In addition, a significant decline in body mass index was observed after discharge compared with before surgery. Regarding body mass index, a significant interaction between surgical site and evaluation times was observed for ANOVA. [Conclusion] These results suggest that BMI after discharge is significantly less than that before surgery and that body mass index changes from before surgery to after surgery are efficacy the difference of surgical site in patients who undergo surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer. PMID:26957730

  8. DISPARITIES IN PEDIATRIC ONCOLOGY PATIENT EDUCATION AND LINGUISTIC RESOURCES: RESULTS OF A NATIONAL SURVEY OF PEDIATRIC ONCOLOGISTS

    PubMed Central

    Slone, Jeremy S; Self, Elizabeth; Friedman, Debra; Heiman, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Background Extensive patient and family education is required at the time of a new diagnosis of pediatric cancer yet ittle data exist regarding the availability and linguistic competency of new cancer diagnosis education provided by pediatric oncology institutions. Procedure Using the American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology (ASPHO) membership list, a web-based survey was conducted among a cohort of pediatric oncologists to determine pediatric oncologists’ assessment of institutional resources for new cancer diagnosis education and the availability of linguistically appropriate education. Results Of 1,294 ASPHO members sent email survey invitations, 573 (44.3%) responded with 429 meeting eligibility criteria. Oncologists at academic institutions reported their institutions had more availability of resources for new diagnosis education compared with those from non-academic institutions (Mean 78.6 vs. 74.3; 0 [not at all] – 100 [well equipped]; p=0.05). The mean score increased with volume of new cancer diagnoses/year: small (<75) = 73.4; medium (75 – 149) = 76.7; large (≥ 150) = 84.5 (p <0.001). Oncologists at large volume institutions reported more availability of an established patient education protocol (50.8% vs. 38.1%, p <0.001) and increased use of dedicated non-physician staff (79.9% vs. 66.1%, p=0.02), but less use of websites for patient education (17.2% vs. 33.3%, p=0.001). Availability of linguistically appropriate education improved with increasing institution size: small (76.4), medium (82.3) and large (84.0) patient volume (p <0.011). Conclusion According to pediatric oncologists, a disparity in educational and linguistic resources for new pediatric cancer diagnosis education exists depending on institution type and size. PMID:24167088

  9. Impact of total activity variation in 18F-FDG injected with the overall PET image quality in oncology patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hishar, H.; Fathinul Fikri, A. S.; Salasiah, M.; Noramaliza, M. N.; Abdul Jalil, N.

    2013-05-01

    The preliminary study aims to investigate whether variation on dose activity 18F-FDG will influence the overall PET image quality in oncology patients. This is a retrospective analysis of 10 oncology patients who were injected with an average of 337.40 ± 38.43 MBq of 18F-FDG for PET/CT whole body examination. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on total activity of 18F-FDG injected: less than 333 MBq (302.96±12.65 MBq) (group 1) and more than 333 MBq (371.85±14.00 MBq) (group 2). Multiple Image Projection (MIP) PET images were scored visually by two qualified nuclear radiologists using a two-point scoring scale (poor and excellent). The agreement between radiologists was analysed using kappa measure of agreement (K). The prediction on poor-to-excellent PET image by the total activity of 18F-FDG injected was analysed using a Chi-squared test (x2). A p value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Agreement on PET image scoring was substantial, with a kappa value of 0.737. However, the prediction of the PET image quality by the total activity injected has been found to be insignificant (p > 0.05). Therefore, there is no strong evidence suggest that the dose injected will influence the PET image quality. Hence, it is recommended to use low-dosed of 18F-FDG technique as it also potentially yields a comparable PET image and reduces radiation burden to the patients.

  10. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Apte, Sachin M.; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  11. Payment Reform: Unprecedented and Evolving Impact on Gynecologic Oncology.

    PubMed

    Apte, Sachin M; Patel, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    With the signing of the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act in April 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) is now positioned to drive the development and implementation of sweeping changes to how physicians and hospitals are paid for the provision of oncology-related services. These changes will have a long-lasting impact on the sub-specialty of gynecologic oncology, regardless of practice structure, physician employment and compensation model, or local insurance market. Recently, commercial payers have piloted various models of payment reform via oncology-specific clinical pathways, oncology medical homes, episode payment arrangements, and accountable care organizations. Despite the positive results of some pilot programs, adoption remains limited. The goals are to eliminate unnecessary variation in cancer treatment, provide coordinated patient-centered care, while controlling costs. Yet, meaningful payment reform in oncology remains elusive. As the largest payer for oncology services in the United States, CMS has the leverage to make cancer services more value based. Thus far, the focus has been around pricing of physician-administered drugs with recent work in the area of the Oncology Medical Home. Gynecologic oncology is a unique sub-specialty that blends surgical and medical oncology, with treatment that often involves radiation therapy. This forward-thinking, multidisciplinary model works to keep the patient at the center of the care continuum and emphasizes care coordination. Because of the breadth and depth of gynecologic oncology, this sub-specialty has both the potential to be disrupted by payment reform as well as potentially benefit from the aspects of reform that can align incentives appropriately to improve coordination. Although the precise future payment models are unknown at this time, focused engagement of gynecologic oncologists and the full care team is imperative to assure that the practice remains patient centered

  12. Two surgical methods used in 90 patients with intracranial subdural empyema.

    PubMed

    Mat Nayan, S A; Mohd Haspani, M S; Abd Latiff, A Z; Abdullah, J M; Abdullah, S

    2009-12-01

    We studied the efficacy of two surgical methods used for the treatment of intracranial subdural empyema (ISDE) at our centre. A cross-sectional study (1999-2005) of 90 patients with non-traumatic supratentorial ISDE revealed that the two surgical methods used for empyema removal were burr hole/s and drainage (50 patients, 55.6%) and a cranial bone opening procedure (CBOP) (40 patients, 44.4%). Patients in the CBOP group had a better result in terms of clinical improvement (chi-squared analysis, p=0.006) and clearance of empyema on brain CT scan (chi-squared analysis, p<0.001). Reoperation was more frequent among patients who had undergone burr hole surgery (multiple logistic regression, p<0.001). The outcome and morbidity of ISDE survivors were not related to the surgical method used (p>0.05). The only factor that significantly affected the morbidity of ISDE was level of consciousness at the time of surgery (multiple logistic regression, p<0.001). We conclude that CBOP and evacuation of the empyema is a better surgical method for ISDE than burr hole/s and drainage. Wide cranial opening and empyema evacuation improves neurological status, gives better clearance of the empyema and reduces the need for reoperation. Level of consciousness at the time of presentation is a predictor of the morbidity of ISDE. Thus, aggressive surgical treatment should occur as early as possible, before the patient deteriorates. PMID:19793660

  13. Patterns of Care in Elderly Head-and-Neck Cancer Radiation Oncology Patients: A Single-Center Cohort Study

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shaohui; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John; Lockwood, Gina; Bayley, Andrew; Kim, John; Cummings, Bernard; Dawson, Laura A.; Hope, Andrew; Cho, John; Witterick, Ian; Chen, Eric X.; Ringash, Jolie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the patterns of care for elderly head-and-neck cancer patients with those of younger patients. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of all new mucosal head-and-neck cancer referrals to radiation oncology between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2007 at our institution. The clinical characteristics, treatment pattern, tolerance, and outcomes were compared between the elderly (aged {>=}75 years) and younger (aged <75 years) cohorts. Results: A total of 2,312 patients, including 452 (20%) elderly and 1,860 (80%) younger patients, were studied. The elderly patients were more likely to be women (36% vs. 27%, p <.01) and to have other malignancies (23% vs. 13%, p <.01), Stage I or II disease (38% vs. 32%, p <.01), and N0 status (56% vs. 42%, p <.01). Treatment was less often curative in intent (79% vs. 93%, p <.01). For the 1,487 patients who received definitive radiotherapy (RT), no differences were found between the elderly (n = 238) and younger (n = 1,249) patients in treatment interruption, completion, or treatment-related death. Within the subset of 760 patients who received intensified treatment (concurrent chemoradiotherapy or hyperfractionated accelerated RT), no difference was seen between the elderly (n = 46) and younger (n = 714) patients in treatment interruption, completion, or treatment-related death. After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the 2-year cause-specific survival rate after definitive RT was 72% (range, 65-78%) for the elderly vs. 86% (range, 84-88%) for the younger patients (p <.01). Conclusion: Elderly head-and-neck cancer patients exhibited different clinical characteristics and experienced different patterns of care from younger patients. Although age itself was an adverse predictor of cause-specific survival, its effect was modest. Elderly patients selected for definitive RT or intensified RT showed no evidence of impaired treatment tolerance.

  14. Surgical approaches towards fertility preservation in young patients with early invasive cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mandic, A; Novakovic, P; Nincic, D

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer still remains one of the major problems in developing countries. The last decade of 20th century has seen a trend towards more conservative surgical approaches in the treatment of early-stage disease in young patients. The trend of delaying childbearing, nowadays, increases preservation of fertility, and reproductive function is a major concern when counseling these young women with regard to the effects of treatment for cervical cancer. Radical trachelectomy, either with abdominal or vaginal surgical approach, showed promise as treatment option in young patients with early cervical cancer. The basic principle of such a surgical approach is an operation aiming at preserving the uterine body and removing the cervix, parametrium, with bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy, and creating a utero-vaginal anastomosis, either laparoscopically or by laparotomy. Both surgical approaches are evaluated after a search of the relevant literature in Pub Med or Medline. PMID:20148446

  15. Surgical Face Masks Worn by Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mphahlele, Matsie; Stoltz, Anton; Venter, Kobus; Mathebula, Rirhandzu; Masotla, Thabiso; Lubbe, Willem; Pagano, Marcello; First, Melvin; Jensen, Paul A.; van der Walt, Martie; Nardell, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Drug-resistant tuberculosis transmission in hospitals threatens staff and patient health. Surgical face masks used by patients with tuberculosis (TB) are believed to reduce transmission but have not been rigorously tested. Objectives: We sought to quantify the efficacy of surgical face masks when worn by patients with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Methods: Over 3 months, 17 patients with pulmonary MDR-TB occupied an MDR-TB ward in South Africa and wore face masks on alternate days. Ward air was exhausted to two identical chambers, each housing 90 pathogen-free guinea pigs that breathed ward air either when patients wore surgical face masks (intervention group) or when patients did not wear masks (control group). Efficacy was based on differences in guinea pig infections in each chamber. Measurements and Main Results: Sixty-nine of 90 control guinea pigs (76.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 68–85%) became infected, compared with 36 of 90 intervention guinea pigs (40%; 95% CI, 31–51%), representing a 56% (95% CI, 33–70.5%) decreased risk of TB transmission when patients used masks. Conclusions: Surgical face masks on patients with MDR-TB significantly reduced transmission and offer an adjunct measure for reducing TB transmission from infectious patients. PMID:22323300

  16. Lymphedema surgery: Patient selection and an overview of surgical techniques.

    PubMed

    Allen, Robert J; Cheng, Ming-Huei

    2016-06-01

    Evaluation of the lymphedema patients with appropriate staging is fundamental for further treatment. Treatment includes compressive decongestive therapy for stage 0 and 1 patients, lymphovenous anastomosis for stage 1 and 2 patients, vascularized lymph node transfer for stage 2 and above patients. Wedge resection, liposuction, and the Charles procedure are alternatives or additions to physiological procedures. The selection of donor lymph node flap and recipient site depends on the patient's lymphedema status and surgeon's expertise. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:923-931. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26846615

  17. Knowledge expectations of surgical orthopaedic patients: a European survey.

    PubMed

    Valkeapää, Kirsi; Klemetti, Seija; Cabrera, Esther; Cano, Sara; Charalambous, Andreas; Copanitsanou, Panagiota; Ingadottir, Brynja; Istomina, Natalja; Johansson Stark, Åsa; Katajisto, Jouko; Lemonidou, Chryssoula; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Sigurdardottir, Arun K; Sourtzi, Panayota; Unosson, Mitra; Zabalegui, Adelaida; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2014-12-01

    Ageing population entails a growing international problem of osteoarthritis. Best practices for education of these patients are lacking. This study focused on empowering education in Northern (Finland, Iceland, Lithuania and Sweden) and Southern Europe (Cyprus, Greece and Spain). The aim was to analyse associations between expected knowledge and background factors. The data were collected from European arthroplasty patients with the Knowledge Expectations of hospital patients- scale, (KE(hp) - scale), including bio-physiological, functional, experiential, ethical, social and financial dimensions. Patients had essential bio-physiological and functional knowledge expectations. Women expected more than men, employed less than retired, unemployed or who worked at home. Generally, patients in Northern countries expected more than in Southern countries. However, highest expectations were found in Sweden and Greece, lowest in Spain and Cyprus. There are differences in knowledge expectations based on patients' backgrounds. Development of common standards in European patient education needs further research. PMID:24118436

  18. [A rare case of surgical management of a patient with thoracic aortic aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Kospanov, N A; Mierbekov, E M; Eshmuratov, T Sh; Kodasbaev, A T; Kirgizbaev, S Zh

    2012-01-01

    Described in the article is a clinical case of successful surgical management of a male patient diagnosed with a syphilitic-origin aneurysm of the thoracic aorta isthmus, complicated by an aortopulmonary fistula. Also presented herein are the clinical pattern, findings of examination, and treatment policy. This is followed by a detailed description of both the course of the surgical intervention and outcomes obtained. PMID:22929686

  19. Jordanian surgical nurses' experiences in caring for patients with postoperative pain.

    PubMed

    Abdalrahim, Maysoon S; Majali, Sawsan A; Bergbom, Ingegerd

    2010-08-01

    This qualitative study aimed to describe surgical nurses' experiences in caring for patients with postoperative pain. Twelve expert Jordanian surgical nurses participated to provide data for this study. Texts were analyzed using Kvale's guidelines for analyzing qualitative data. Five themes emerged from the texts: being faced with patients' suffering, being caught between ideals and work conditions, facing neglect and misconceptions, being confronted with families' concerns and hostility, and facing the feelings of the necessity to change. Results suggested that health care organizations need to understand and empower nurses so that effective quality care can be delivered to patients. PMID:20643327

  20. Responding empathically to patients: Development, implementation, and evaluation of a communication skills training module for oncology nurses

    PubMed Central

    Pehrson, Cassandra; Banerjee, Smita C.; Manna, Ruth; Shen, Megan Johnson; Hammonds, Stacey; Coyle, Nessa; Krueger, Carol A.; Maloney, Erin; Zaider, Talia; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to report on the development, implementation, and evaluation of a Communication Skills Training (CST) module for inpatient oncology nurses on how to respond empathically to patients. Methods 248 nurses from a USA cancer center participated in a CST module on responding empathically to patients. Nurses completed pre- and post-training Standardized Patient Assessments (SPAs), a survey on their confidence in and intent to utilize skills taught, and a six-month post-training survey of self-reported use of skills. Results Results indicate that nurses were satisfied with the module, reporting that agreement or strong agreement to 5 out of 6 items assessing satisfaction 96.7%–98.0% of the time. Nurses’ self-efficacy in responding empathically significantly increased pre- to post-training. Additionally, nurses showed empathy skill improvement in the post-SPAs. Finally, 88.2% of nurses reported feeling confident in using the skills they learned post-training and reported an increase of 42–63% in the use of specific empathic skills. Conclusions A CST module for nurses in responding empathically to patients showed feasibility, acceptability, and improvement in self-efficacy as well as skill uptake. Practice implications This CST module provides an easily targeted intervention for improving nurse–patient communication and patient-centered care. PMID:26686992

  1. Unique concerns of the pediatric surgical patient: pre-, intra-, and postoperatively.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Dolly

    2006-06-01

    This article focuses on the unique concerns of pediatric surgical patients and emphasizes preparation of the family as an integrated unit. The statement from older standards of the American Nurses' Association that "children have the right to be treated with dignity and respect" remains a valid challenge for nurses caring for these patients. PMID:16698342

  2. [Bladder drainage in patients undergoing the Pereyra surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Colorado, S; Villagrán, R; Escobar-Del Barco, L; Villalobos-Acosta, S; Kunhardt-Rasch, J; Delgado-Urdapilleta, J

    1996-07-01

    Postoperative acute urinary retention was evaluated in the patients who underwent Pereyra procedure. Comparison of suprapubic and urethral catheterization. Between January 1994 and July 1995, fifty two patients with urinary stress incontinence underwent Pereyra procedure, 31 female patient with suprapubic drainage (cistofix Ch 15) and 17 urethral catherization with a latex foley catheter. Sponatneous micturition and urinary retention was evaluated until the catheter was removed. Mean age was 43.8 years (32 a 66), the duration of suprapubic vesical drainage with suprapubic catheter were 3 days in 58.6% of the patients, and more than 3 days in 41.29%. Recatheterizacion in the patients with urethral drainage was more frequent. Urinary retention after 7 days was present in 23.99% with suprapubic vesical drainage and 28.5% with urethral catheter. Recatheterization is more frequent in patients with urethral catheter. PMID:8756195

  3. Patients' perspective in the surgical decision-making process.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Barriers can arise if surgeons are unable to effectively convey information on benefits and risks or are unwilling to offer management choices based on patients' preferences. Facilitating shared decision making, allowing patients to carefully think and consider the alternatives, and empowering them to share in the decision-making process improve patient satisfaction and treatment adherence and represent the hallmark of an excellent clinician. PMID:23084617

  4. Touch. The beneficial effects for the surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Tovar, M K; Cassmeyer, V L

    1989-05-01

    Touch can cause positive or negative neurophysiological responses. In the OR, nurses do a great deal of touching, and they need to be aware of the appropriateness of their touch. Touch can be an alternative mode of conveying empathy and caring for certain patients when it is difficult for the nurse to communicate verbal empathy. Touch assessments and interventions need to be included in perioperative nursing care plans to promote the patient's comfort and avoid unwanted physiological responses from the patient. PMID:2729967

  5. Nursing Practice Environment and Outcomes for Oncology Nursing

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jingjing; Friese, Christopher R.; Wu, Evan; Aiken, Linda H.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is commonly assumed that oncology nurses experience high job-related burnout and high turnover because their work involves inherent stressors such as caring for patients with serious and often life-threatening illness. Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine the differences in outcomes such as job dissatisfaction and burnout between oncology nurses and medical-surgical nurses, and to identify factors that affect oncology nurse outcomes. Methods A secondary analysis of nurse survey data collected in 2006 including 4047 nurses from 282 hospitals in 3 states was performed; t test and χ2 test compared differences between oncology nurses and medical-surgical nurses in nurse outcomes and their assessments of nurse practice environment, as measured by the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index. Logistic regression models estimated the effect of nurse practice environment on 4 nurse-reported outcomes: burnout, job dissatisfaction, intention to leave the current position, and perceived quality of care. Results Oncology nurses reported favorable practice environments and better outcomes than did medical-surgical nurses. All 4 subscales of the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index studied were significantly associated with outcomes. Specifically, nurses who reported favorable nursing foundations for quality of care (eg, active in-service or preceptorship programs) were less likely to report burnout and leave their current position. Conclusions Better practice environments, including nurse foundations for quality care, can help to achieve optimal nurse outcomes. Implications for Practice Improving hospital practice environments holds significant potential to improve nurse well-being, retention, and quality of care. Specifically, hospitals should consider preceptor programs and continuing education and increase nurses’ participation in hospital decision making. PMID:22751101

  6. Patient views on financial relationships between surgeons and surgical device manufacturers

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Mark W.; Gross, Allan E.; McKneally, Martin F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, revelations of inappropriate financial relationships between surgeons and surgical device manufacturers have challenged the presumption that surgeons can collaborate with surgical device manufacturers without damaging public trust in the surgical profession. We explored postoperative Canadian patients’ knowledge and opinions about financial relationships between surgeons and surgical device manufacturers. Methods This complex issue was explored using qualitative methods. We conducted semistructured face-to-face interviews with postoperative patients in follow-up arthroplasty clinics at an academic hospital in Toronto, Canada. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed. Patient-derived concepts and themes were uncovered. Results We interviewed 33 patients. Five major themes emerged: 1) many patients are unaware of the existence of financial relationships between surgeons and surgical device manufacturers; 2) patients approve of financial relationships that support innovation and research but are opposed to relationships that involve financial incentives that benefit only the surgeon and the manufacturer; 3) patients do not support disclosure of financial relationships during the consent process as it may shift focus away from the more important risks; 4) patients support oversight at the professional level but reject the idea of government involvement in oversight; and 5) patients entrust their surgeons to make appropriate patient-centred choices. Conclusion This qualitative study deepens our understanding of financial relationships between surgeons and industry. Patients support relationships with industry that provide potential benefit to current or future patients. They trust our ability to self-regulate. Disclosure combined with appropriate oversight will strengthen public trust in professional collaboration with industry. PMID:26384147

  7. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis and Treatment in Patients With Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update 2014

    PubMed Central

    Lyman, Gary H.; Bohlke, Kari; Khorana, Alok A.; Kuderer, Nicole M.; Lee, Agnes Y.; Arcelus, Juan Ignacio; Balaban, Edward P.; Clarke, Jeffrey M.; Flowers, Christopher R.; Francis, Charles W.; Gates, Leigh E.; Kakkar, Ajay K.; Key, Nigel S.; Levine, Mark N.; Liebman, Howard A.; Tempero, Margaret A.; Wong, Sandra L.; Somerfield, Mark R.; Falanga, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To provide current recommendations about the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer. Methods PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical practice guidelines from November 2012 through July 2014. An update committee reviewed the identified abstracts. Results Of the 53 publications identified and reviewed, none prompted a change in the 2013 recommendations. Recommendations Most hospitalized patients with active cancer require thromboprophylaxis throughout hospitalization. Routine thromboprophylaxis is not recommended for patients with cancer in the outpatient setting. It may be considered for selected high-risk patients. Patients with multiple myeloma receiving antiangiogenesis agents with chemotherapy and/or dexamethasone should receive prophylaxis with either low–molecular weight heparin (LMWH) or low-dose aspirin. Patients undergoing major surgery should receive prophylaxis starting before surgery and continuing for at least 7 to 10 days. Extending prophylaxis up to 4 weeks should be considered in those undergoing major abdominal or pelvic surgery with high-risk features. LMWH is recommended for the initial 5 to 10 days of treatment for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism as well as for long-term secondary prophylaxis (at least 6 months). Use of novel oral anticoagulants is not currently recommended for patients with malignancy and VTE because of limited data in patients with cancer. Anticoagulation should not be used to extend survival of patients with cancer in the absence of other indications. Patients with cancer should be periodically assessed for VTE risk. Oncology professionals should educate patients about the signs and symptoms of VTE. PMID:25605844

  8. Rapid prototyping for patient-specific surgical orthopaedics guides: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Diana; Laptoiu, Dan

    2016-06-01

    There has been a lot of hype surrounding the advantages to be gained from rapid prototyping processes in a number of fields, including medicine. Our literature review aims objectively to assess how effective patient-specific surgical guides manufactured using rapid prototyping are in a number of orthopaedic surgical applications. To this end, we carried out a systematic review to identify and analyse clinical and experimental literature studies in which rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical guides are used, focusing especially on those that entail quantifiable outcomes and, at the same time, providing details on the guides' design and type of manufacturing process. Here, it should be mentioned that in this field there are not yet medium- or long-term data, and no information on revisions. In the reviewed studies, the reported positive opinions on the use of rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical guides relate to the following main advantages: reduction in operating times, low costs and improvements in the accuracy of surgical interventions thanks to guides' personalisation. However, disadvantages and sources of errors which can cause patient-specific surgical guide failures are as well discussed by authors. Stereolithography is the main rapid prototyping process employed in these applications although fused deposition modelling or selective laser sintering processes can also satisfy the requirements of these applications in terms of material properties, manufacturing accuracy and construction time. Another of our findings was that individualised drill guides for spinal surgery are currently the favourite candidates for manufacture using rapid prototyping. Other emerging applications relate to complex orthopaedic surgery of the extremities: the forearm and foot. Several procedures such as osteotomies for radius malunions or tarsal coalition could become standard, thanks to the significant assistance provided by rapid prototyping patient-specific surgical

  9. [Low-flow xenon anesthesia in surgical patients with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Rashchupkin, A B; Burov, N E

    2011-01-01

    A comparative study of central hemodynamics in 60 patients with essential hypertension during low flow anesthesia with xenon and nitrous oxide is carried out. The main group consisted of 30 patients, 22 male and 8 female, in the median age of 45.9 +/- 23 years. 22 patients out of those had 2nd stage essential hypertension, while the other 8 had 3rd stage. The control group consisted of 30 patients, 20 male and 10 female, in the median age of 45.1 + 1.3 years. 4 patients had 3rd stage essential hypertension, 26 patients had 2nd stage. The both groups were clinically comparable by the character and severity of the main disease, the carried out surgery (open cholecystectomy) and the qualification of surgeons. Results of the research showed, that low flow monoanesthesia with xenon abruptly eradicated the unfavourable consequences of induction of anesthesia (3-5 mg/kg of sodium thiopental or 2-2.5 mg/kg of propofol) and had a positive effect on the parameters of central hemodynamics of patients with essential hypertension. Xenon anesthesia, compared to nitrous oxide, rapidly stabilized the parameters of blood pressure and heart rate and can be recommended as a method of choice in patients with essential hypertension and compromised myocarium. Nitrous oxide with bolus of regular fentanyl doses doesn't reliable anesthesiological protection during open cholecystectomy and shows signs of toxicity. PMID:21692217

  10. Surgical considerations for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Adibi, Mehrad; Thomas, Arun Z; Borregales, Leonardo D; Matin, Surena F; Wood, Christopher G; Karam, Jose A

    2015-12-01

    Among patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 25-30% present with metastatic disease at the time of initial diagnosis. Despite the ever-increasing array of treatment options available for these patients, surgery remains one of the cornerstones of therapy. Proper patient selection for cytoreductive surgery is paramount to its effective use in the management of patients with metastatic RCC despite the decrease in reported morbidity rates. We explore the evolving role cytoreductive surgery in metastatic RCC spanning the immunotherapy era to the targeted therapy era. Despite significant advances in the management of patients with metastatic RCC, further evidence on the definitive role of cytoreductive surgery in the targeted therapy era is awaited through large randomized trials. PMID:26546481

  11. Surgical Outcomes in Patients with High Spinal Instability Neoplasm Score Secondary to Spinal Giant Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Benjamin D.; Sankey, Eric W.; Goodwin, C. Rory; Kosztowski, Thomas A.; Lo, Sheng-Fu L.; Bydon, Ali; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Witham, Timothy F.; Sciubba, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review. Objective To describe the surgical outcomes in patients with high preoperative Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) secondary to spinal giant cell tumors (GCT) and evaluate the impact of en bloc versus intralesional resection and preoperative embolization on postoperative outcomes. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 14 patients with GCTs of the spine who underwent surgical treatment prior to the use of denosumab. A univariate analysis was performed comparing the patient demographics, perioperative characteristics, and surgical outcomes between patients who underwent en bloc marginal (n = 6) compared with those who had intralesional (n = 8) resection. Results Six patients underwent en bloc resections and eight underwent intralesional resection. Preoperative embolization was performed in eight patients. All patients were alive at last follow-up, with a mean follow-up length of 43 months. Patients who underwent en bloc resection had longer average operative times (p = 0.0251), higher rates of early (p = 0.0182) and late (p = 0.0389) complications, and a higher rate of surgical revision (p = 0.0120). There was a 25% (2/8 patients) local recurrence rate for intralesional resection and a 0% (0/6 patients) local recurrence rate for en bloc resection (p = 0.0929). Conclusions Surgical excision of spinal GCTs causing significant instability, assessed by SINS, is associated with high intraoperative blood loss despite embolization and independent of resection method. En bloc resection requires a longer operative duration and is associated with a higher risk of complications when compared with intralesional resection. However, the increased morbidity associated with en bloc resection may be justified as it may minimize the risk of local recurrence. PMID:26835198

  12. A web-based system for clinical decision support and knowledge maintenance for deterioration monitoring of hemato-oncological patients.

    PubMed

    Wicht, Andreas; Wetter, Thomas; Klein, Ulrike

    2013-07-01

    We introduce a web-based clinical decision support system (CDSS) and knowledge maintenance based on rules and a set covering method focusing on the problem of detecting serious comorbidities in hemato-oncological patients who are at high risk of developing serious infections and life threatening complications. We experienced that diagnostic problems which are characterized by fuzzy, uncertain knowledge and overlapping signs, still reveal some kind of patterns that can be transferred into a computer-based decision model. We applied a multi-stage evaluation process to assess the system's diagnostic performance. Depending on how system behavior was compared to presumably correct judgment of a case the correctness rate for closed cases with all data available varied between 58% and 71%, the overall rate after critical review was 84%. However, the real time behavior of our approach which data becoming available as time passes still has to be evaluated and observational studies need to be conducted. PMID:23522434

  13. Prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in non-surgical patients at hospital admission.

    PubMed

    Lawall, Holger; Hoffmanns, Wibke; Hoffmanns, Phillip; Rapp, Uli; Ames, Michael; Pira, Alessandro; Paar, W Dieter; Bramlage, Peter; Diehm, Curt

    2007-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is known as a common complication in surgical and non-surgical patients. We hypothesized that according to the underlying risk factors and the acute illness, the prevalence ofVTE in non-surgical patients admitted to hospital is widely underestimated. For three months each patient admitted to the department of internal medicine with an acute illness, but without known deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was investigated by ultrasound compression sonography. Patients' history, risk factors and extent of immobilisation were documented. In patients with newly detected DVT D-dimer and fibrinogen were measured as well as computer tomography scans performed. Follow-up investigations of the DVT population were performed at four weeks and three months. Six hundred seventeen patients (49.3% men) were included. In 16 patients (men = 7) a previously unknown thrombosis (2.6%) was detected, mainly in patients with acute cardio-pulmonary disease (56%) and the elderly (mean age 75.6 years). Eight patients had femoro-popliteal (50.0%), four a femoral (25.0%), and four a popliteal vein thrombosis (25.0%). Five had pulmonary embolism (31.3%). In patients with DVT D-dimer was 875 +/- 1,228 mg/l, fibrinogen 568 +/- 215 mg/dl and C-reactive-protein 58.54 +/- 73.65 mg/dl. One patient died from sepsis during hospitalisation, one died from sudden cardiac death at home. None of the other 14 surviving patients relapsed. The study shows a 2.6% risk for DVT in outpatients with acute illness admitted to the department of internal medicine. These data demonstrate the high risk of DVT is in non-surgical patients. Early prophylaxis has to be considered in internal medicine patients especially in the elderly. PMID:17938799

  14. Facial Nerve Paralysis in Patients With Chronic Ear Infections: Surgical Outcomes and Radiologic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Woong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features, radiologic findings, and treatment outcomes in patients of facial nerve paralysis with chronic ear infections. And we also aimed to evaluate for radiologic sensitivities on facial canal, labyrinth and cranial fossa dehiscences in middle ear cholesteatomas. Methods A total of 13 patients were enrolled in this study. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for clinical features, radiologic findings, surgical findings, and recovery course. In addition, retrospective review of temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and operative records in 254 middle ear cholesteatoma patients were also performed. Results Of the 13 patients, eight had cholesteatomas in the middle ear, while two patients exhibited external auditory canal cholesteatomas. Chronic suppurative otitis media, petrous apex cholesteatoma and tuberculous otitis media were also observed in some patients. The prevalence of facial paralysis in middle ear cholesteatoma patients was 3.5%. The most common involved site of the facial nerve was the tympanic segment. Labyrinthine fistulas and destruction of cranial bases were more frequently observed in facial paralysis patients than nonfacial paralysis patients. The radiologic sensitivity for facial canal dehiscence was 91%. The surgical outcomes for facial paralysis were relatively satisfactory in all patients except in two patients who had petrous apex cholesteatoma and requiring conservative management. Conclusion Facial paralyses associated with chronic ear infections were observed in more advanced lesions and the surgical outcomes for facial paralysis were relatively satisfactory. Facial canal dehiscences can be anticipated preoperatively with high resolution CTs. PMID:26330915

  15. External Dacryocystorhinostomy: Characteristics and Surgical Outcomes in Patients with and without Previous Dacryocystitis.

    PubMed

    Rabina, Gilad; Golan, Shani; Neudorfer, Meira; Leibovitch, Igal

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare pre- and postoperative characteristics and surgical success rates of patients with and without previous episodes of dacryocystitis, who underwent external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) for nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). Methods. The medical files of all patients who underwent external DCR between 2006 and 2011 in our institution were reviewed. The retrieved data of patients with and without previous episodes of dacryocystitis were compared. Surgical success was determined by postoperative followup of at least 6 months. Results. A total of 185 patients with NLDO underwent external DCR of whom 152 (100 females and 52 males, mean age 67 ± 15 years) met the inclusion criteria. Sixty had previous episodes of dacryocystitis and 92 did not. Left-side obstruction was more common than right-side obstruction among patients with previous episodes of dacryocystitis (48.3% versus 31.7%, resp., P = 0.031). Glaucoma patients were significantly more likely to develop dacryocystitis than patients without glaucoma (P = 0.002). The success rate of external DCR was 94.4% for patients with previous episodes of dacryocystitis and 86.7% for patients without (P = 0.337). Conclusions. The surgical outcomes of external DCR in patients with or without a previous episode of dacryocystitis were similar. Patients with glaucoma and NLDO had a significantly higher risk of developing dacryocystitis. PMID:24455195

  16. External Dacryocystorhinostomy: Characteristics and Surgical Outcomes in Patients with and without Previous Dacryocystitis

    PubMed Central

    Rabina, Gilad; Golan, Shani; Neudorfer, Meira; Leibovitch, Igal

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare pre- and postoperative characteristics and surgical success rates of patients with and without previous episodes of dacryocystitis, who underwent external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) for nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). Methods. The medical files of all patients who underwent external DCR between 2006 and 2011 in our institution were reviewed. The retrieved data of patients with and without previous episodes of dacryocystitis were compared. Surgical success was determined by postoperative followup of at least 6 months. Results. A total of 185 patients with NLDO underwent external DCR of whom 152 (100 females and 52 males, mean age 67 ± 15 years) met the inclusion criteria. Sixty had previous episodes of dacryocystitis and 92 did not. Left-side obstruction was more common than right-side obstruction among patients with previous episodes of dacryocystitis (48.3% versus 31.7%, resp., P = 0.031). Glaucoma patients were significantly more likely to develop dacryocystitis than patients without glaucoma (P = 0.002). The success rate of external DCR was 94.4% for patients with previous episodes of dacryocystitis and 86.7% for patients without (P = 0.337). Conclusions. The surgical outcomes of external DCR in patients with or without a previous episode of dacryocystitis were similar. Patients with glaucoma and NLDO had a significantly higher risk of developing dacryocystitis. PMID:24455195

  17. The impact of conventional or hypofractionated radiotherapy on voice quality and oncological outcome in patients with early glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Nicola, L; Gravina, G L; Marampon, F; Bonfili, P; Buonopane, S; Di Staso, M; Festuccia, C; Franzese, P; Tombolini, M; Tombolini, V

    2010-11-01

    The hypothesis being tested in this study is that hypofractionated radiotherapy is well tolerated and not lower in terms of oncological outcome than conventional radiotherapy. Forty patients with histologically proven glottic cancer were included in the analysis. Twenty-two were treated by hypofractionated radiotherapy (3D-HFRT) (25 fractions of 2.4 Gy delivered daily to a total dose of 60 Gy). This group was retrospectively compared to 18 subjects who met the same inclusion criteria and who were treated with conventional radiotherapy (3D-CRT) (33 fractions of 2 Gy delivered daily to a total dose of 66 Gy). One year after RT treatment in 10 patients (5 in the arm-1 and 5 in the arm-2) mild dysphonia persisted. The other patients achieved a complete recovery of the overall quality of voice with no significant difference documented between the two groups. At 3 years the local control rate was 100% for the patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy and 96% for the patients treated with conventional regimen. The statistical analysis did not show any significant difference in local control between the two groups (p=0.45). No significant acute and late toxicity was documented in both groups. Subjects with early glottic cancer seem to experience comparable levels of morbidity irrespective whether they were treated by hypofractionated or conventional conformal therapy without any worsening of the tumor local control. Thus, we provide clinical evidence to justify trends already emerging toward hypofractionated regimens in early glottic cancer. PMID:20878134

  18. Cultural differences in spiritual care: findings of an Israeli oncologic questionnaire examining patient interest in spiritual care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background As professional spiritual care (chaplaincy) is introduced to new cultures worldwide, it bears examining which elements of screening and care are universal and, for those elements showing cultural difference, to study them in each culture. No quantitative spiritual care patient study had previously been done in Israel. Our objectives were twofold: 1) to examine who wants spiritual care in Israel, including demographic and clinical variables, and to compare against other results worldwide to further develop universal screening protocols 2) to see what patients want from spiritual care specifically in the Israeli setting. Methods Self-administered patient questionnaire examining spirituality/religiosity, interest in spiritual care (subdivided by type of care), and key demographic, social, and clinical data. The study setting was an Israeli oncology center at which spiritual care had been recently introduced. Results Data from 364 oncology patient questionnaires found 41% interest in spiritual care, as compared to 35%-54% in American studies. Having previously been visited by a spiritual caregiver predicted patient interest in further spiritual care (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.6), suggesting that the new service is being well-received. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis identified additional predictors of openness to receiving spiritual care: self-describing as somewhat/very spiritual vs. not spiritual (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.9 and 6.3, 95% CI 1.8-8.6 and 2.6-15.1) or traditional/religious vs. secular (AOR 2.2 and 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.6 and 1.1-4.0); and receiving one visit a week or less from family and friends (AOR 5.6, 95% CI 2.1-15.1). These findings are in line with previous American studies, suggesting universality across cultures that could be utilized in screening. Differences in demographic data and medical condition were not significant predictors of patient interest, suggesting a cultural difference, where age and education were

  19. Surgical outcome and prognostic factors in patients with gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Eun Kyung; Kim, Kun Kuk; Lee, Jung Nam; Lee, Woon Kee; Chung, Min; Kim, Yeon Suk

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Gallbladder carcinoma is usually associated with an unfavorable prognosis, and the clinical outcome has not improved much. This study was conducted to evaluate outcomes with gallbladder carcinoma according to the type of surgery performed, and the prognostic factors for survival. Methods One hundred and six patients with gallbladder carcinoma, who underwent surgery for the purpose of curative resection between January 1999 and June 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Results Out of 106 patients, curative resection was achieved in 75 (70.8%). The cumulative 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rates of the gallbladder carcinoma patients were 93.4%, 80.9% and 63.0%, respectively. Radical resections, including extended cholecystectomy, were more beneficial for long term survival of patients. The 5-year survival rate in patients who underwent curative resection (56.9%) was significantly higher than in those who underwent palliative resection (0%, p=0.000). Multivariate analysis revealed that curative resection, preoperative CA19-9, T-stage, N-stage and differentiation of histology were independently significant prognostic factors. Conclusions Curative resection and early detection of patients with gallbladder carcinoma were the most important factors for long term survival. Radical resection improves survival for patients with localized gallbladder carcinoma and can help to access exact prognosis and treatments. PMID:26155265

  20. [Late deficiency states in patients with a surgically treated stomach].

    PubMed

    Popova, D; Daskalov, M; Kostadinova, I

    1988-01-01

    37 patients with partial stomach resection because of peptic ulcer, performed 5 to 28 years before, were studied. In 29 patients the serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. In 19 patients several hematologic indices--hemoglobin, serum iron, erythrocyte morphology, proteinogram--were determined, too. The mean serum vit. B12 level was significantly lower than that of the control group of healthy persons. In 1/3 of these patients the low serum vit. B12 level was accompanied by manifested neurologic complications-myelopathy and polyneuropathy. The mean folic acid level was also low but statistically insignificantly and in patients the value was subnormal. In half of the patients a low degree hypochromic anemia was found. The role of vit. B12 deficiency in the pathogenesis of the neurologic manifestations is discussed and the determination of vit. B12 and folic acid levels is recommended in patients who had undergone gastric resection, especially after 5 years following the resection. PMID:3414095

  1. Clinical-surgical treatment of temporomandibular joint disorder in a psoriatic arthritis patient

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Condylotomy is a surgical procedure that has been used as an option to treat temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. This technique has the advantage of avoiding intra-capsular alterations that might be found involving other surgical procedures. Its use, even when unilateral, has positive effect on treatment of both joints. Methods In order to better evaluate the benefits of a clinical-surgical treatment for TMD, the present report describes the case of a psoriatic arthritis patient. The case was clinically characterized by dental malloclusion, and imaging exams showed joint degeneration of the right mandibular condyle. The patient was treated by condylotomy technique after a prosthetic oral rehabilitation. Results No clinical-radiological signs or symptoms of progression of articular disease were observed within a period of 16 months after surgery. Furthermore, there was functional stability of the temporomandibular joint, total absence of local pain and improvement of mouth opening. Conclusion The present study suggests that condylotomy can be considered as a valid option for the management of TMD, since it has low surgical morbidity and favorable clinical outcomes. In this case, the patient had a medical diagnosis of systemic disease presenting general pain and pain at the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), in addition of causal agent of TMD (dental malloclusion). The difficulty of finding a single etiology (malocclusion vs. systemic disease) did not exclude the indication of a clinical-surgical treatment to re-establish the balance of TMJ. PMID:23556553

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between frailty and outcome in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Oakland, K; Nadler, R; Cresswell, L; Jackson, D; Coughlin, P A

    2016-02-01

    Introduction Frailty is becoming increasingly prevalent in the elderly population although a lack of consensus regarding a clinical definition hampers comparison of clinical studies. More elderly patients are being assessed for surgical intervention but the effect of frailty on surgical related outcomes is still not clear. Methods A systematic literature search for studies prospectively reporting frailty and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing surgical intervention was performed with data collated from a total of 12 studies. Random effects meta-analysis modelling was undertaken to estimate the association between frailty and mortality rates (in-hospital and one-year), length of hospital stay and the need for step-down care for further rehabilitation/nursing home placement. Results Frailty was associated with a higher in-hospital mortality rate (pooled odds ratio [OR]: 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.62-4.73), a higher one-year mortality rate (pooled OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.49-2.66), a longer hospital stay (pooled mean difference: 1.05 days, 95% CI: 0.02-2.07 days) and a higher discharge rate to further rehabilitation/step-down care (pooled OR: 5.71, 95% CI: 3.41-9.55). Conclusions The presence of frailty in patients undergoing surgical intervention is associated with poorer outcomes with regard to mortality and return to independence. Further in-depth studies are required to identify factors that can be optimised to reduce the burden of frailty in surgical patients. PMID:26741674

  3. Muscle chemistry of critically ill surgical patients and the effects of a course of intravenous nutrition.

    PubMed

    King, R F; Collins, J P; Morgan, D B; Hill, G L

    1978-07-01

    The water, electrolyte and nitrogen contents of muscle were measured in 15 critically ill surgical patients before and after a course (approximately 2 weeks) of intravenous nutrition and in 8 normal individuals. The muscle from the surgical patients contained a significantly increased ratio of water to fat-free dry weight (P less than 0.01) due to an increase in the proportion of extracellular to intracellular water, and this was not corrected by intravenous nutrition. These changes could be due to an accumulation of extracellular fluid alone or to a loss of cell cytoplasm or a loss of whole muscle fibres. Intracellular chemistry was normal in the ill surgical patients and was not changed by intravenous nutrition. PMID:96905

  4. Interventional catheterization in surgically treated patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Friedli, B; Oberhänsli, I; Faidutti, B

    2000-12-01

    Interventional catheterization is an alternative to surgery for some congenital heart defects. For other malformations, the surgeon and the interventionist will join in an effort to obtain an optimal result: the typical example is pulmonary atresia with VSD and aortopulmonary collaterals. In other cases, the cardiologist may be called upon to intervene with catheter techniques to correct sequelae or residual lesions after surgical correction, avoiding redo surgery. Most often, the task consists of opening stenoses by balloon dilatation and/or stenting the main targets being pulmonary artery branch stenoses, venous obstructions after Mustard procedure, and recoarctations. Whereas simple balloon dilatation of recoarctation often brings good results, stents are often needed to obtain optimal results in pulmonary branch stenoses. Stenting of pulmonary veins has been disappointing. Closing unwanted vessels and defects is another task for the interventional cardiologist after cardiac surgery. Here, the most frequent procedure is closing aortopulmonary collaterals in pulmonary atresia and VSD after corrective surgery. Advantages and limitations of these procedures are discussed. PMID:11145397

  5. Psychological modulation in patients surgically intervened for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Lara, F J Pérez; Carranque, G; Oehling, H; Hernández, J M; Oliva, H

    2014-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been related with certain psychological dimensions. The influence of mood, emotional intelligence, and perceived quality of life on clinical symptoms and outcome of antireflux surgery was evaluated in GERD patients with and without hiatal hernia. The study included 61 patients who were diagnosed with GERD between 2003 and 2008: 16 of them without hiatal hernia (group A) and 45 of them with hiatal hernia (group B). All of these patients had undergone laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Patients were clinically examined and evaluated with the following instruments: Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey, Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale, and Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS)-24. Proportions were compared by using the chi-squared test; averages were compared by using the Student's t-test (with Bonferroni's correction). In general, our patients intervened for GERD showed results lower than normal or close to the lower limit of normal in the administered tests. Patients in the group without hernia were younger (P < 0.001) and with lower American Society of Anaesthesiologists risk. They showed higher scores in the SF-36 dimensions: Physical Functioning, Physical Role and Emotional Role, and lower scores in the Social Role (P < 0.001). They showed lower scores in the Emotional dimension of Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (P = 0.0068) and worse results in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression subscales of Anxiety (P < 0.001) and Depression (not significant). Men in the group without hernia showed higher scores than men in the group with hernia in the TMMS subscales corresponding to Emotional Clarity and Emotional Repair (P < 0.001). Women in the group with hernia showed higher scores than women in the group without hernia regarding Emotional Clarity (P = 0.0012). GERD patients showed poor results in all the tests, and patients without hiatal hernia compared with patients with hernia showed

  6. Surgical treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in "Krokodil" drug addicted patients.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, Yuri M; Hakobyan, Koryun A; Poghosyan, Anna Yu; Avetisyan, Eduard K

    2014-12-01

    Retrospective study of jaw osteonecrosis treatment in patients using the "Krokodil" drug from 2009 to 2013. On the territory of the former USSR countries there is widespread use of a self-produced drug called "Krokodil". Codeine containing analgesics ("Sedalgin", "Pentalgin" etc), red phosphorus (from match boxes) and other easily acquired chemical components are used for synthesis of this drug, which used intravenously. Jaw osteonecrosis develops as a complication in patients who use "Krokodil". The main feature of this disease is jawbone exposure in the oral cavity. Surgery is the main method for the treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in patients using "Krokodil". 40 "Krokodil" drug addict patients with jaw osteonecrosis were treated. Involvement of maxilla was found in 11 patients (27.5%), mandible in 21 (52.5%), both jaws in 8 (20%) patients. 35 Lesions were found in 29 mandibles and 21 lesions in 19 maxillas. Main factors of treatment success are: cessation of "Krokodil" use in the pre- (minimum 1 month) and postoperative period and osteonecrosis area resection of a minimum of 0.5 cm beyond the visible borders of osteonecrosis towards the healthy tissues. Surgery was not delayed until sequestrum formation. In the mandible marginal or segmental resection (with or without TMJ exarticulation) was performed. After surgery recurrence of disease was seen in 8 (23%) cases in the mandible, with no cases of recurrence in the maxilla. According to our experience in this case series, surgery is the main method for the treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in patients using "Krokodil". Cessation of drug use and jaw resection minimize the rate of recurrences in such patients. PMID:24969764

  7. Surgical treatment of labyrinthine fistula in patients with cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Y; Kurita, T; Matsuda, Y; Ito, S; Nakashima, T

    2009-01-01

    Labyrinthine fistula is one of the most common complications of chronic otitis media associated with cholesteatoma. The optimal management of labyrinthine fistula, however, remains controversial. Between 1995 and 2005, labyrinthine fistulae were detected in 31 (6 per cent) patients in our institution. The canal wall down technique was used in 27 (87 per cent) patients. The cholesteatoma matrix was completely removed in the first stage in all patients. Bone dust and/or temporalis fascia was inserted to seal the fistula in 29 (94 per cent) patients. A post-operative hearing test was undertaken in 27 patients; seven (26 per cent) patients showed improved hearing, 17 (63 per cent) showed no change and three (11 per cent) showed a deterioration. The study findings indicate that there are various treatment strategies available for cholesteatoma, and that the treatment choice should be based on such criteria as auditory and vestibular function, the surgeon's ability and experience, and the location and size of the fistula. PMID:19460207

  8. [Assessment of surgical risk in patients with lower limb chronic critical ischaemia].

    PubMed

    Kazakov, Iu I; Lukin, I B; Sokolova, N Iu; Strakhov, M A

    2016-01-01

    Analysed herein are both immediate and remote results of surgical treatment of 93 patients presenting with chronic atherosclerotic occlusion of the femoral-popliteal-tibial segment in the stage of critical ischaemia. The patients were subjected to autovenous femoropopliteal bypass grafting to the isolated arterial segment or balloon angioplasty with stenting of the superficial femoral artery. While choosing the method of arterial reconstruction we assessed concomitant diseases, primarily lesions of the coronary and cerebral circulation. In order to objectively evaluate the patient state, we worked out a scale for assessing surgical risk. Survival rate without amputation after three years in patients with low risk amounted to 71.4%, in those with moderate risk to 60.0%, and in high-risk patients to 43.3%. Patients with initially high risk were found to have a high incidence rate of cardiac and cerebrovascular complications, exceeding 40%. It was shown that the worked out system of assessing the level of surgical risk objectively reflects the prognosis of patient survival following a reconstructive operation. This system of assessment may be appropriate while choosing an optimal method of arterial reconstruction (bypassing operation or endovascular intervention) in patients with atherosclerotic lesions of arteries of the femoropopliteal-tibial segment and critical ischaemia accompanied by severe concomitant pathology. Patients with high surgical risk should preferably be subjected to endovascular reconstruction, while those with low surgical risk should better undergo open shunting bypassing operation, and for those with moderate risk it is acceptable to perform both methods of arterial reconstruction. PMID:27626262

  9. Conservative Surgical Treatment of Infected Ulceration of the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint With Osteomyelitis in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Dalla Paola, Luca; Carone, Anna; Morisi, Claudio; Cardillo, Sara; Pattavina, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Ulceration of the plantar aspect of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is a common localization in the diabetic foot. Conservative treatment of this lesion is a challenging problem, performed through the soft tissues and osseous debridement. The present study included a cohort of 28 patients affected by diabetes mellitus and a first ray lesion penetrating the bone. After surgical debridement with removal of the infected bone, we positioned antibiotic-loaded bone cement and stabilized the treated area with an external fixator. All patients with critical limb ischemia had their vascular disease treated before the procedure. The mean follow-up was 12.2 ± 6.9 months. Four patients developed a relapse of the ulceration after the procedure. In the postoperative period, 1 patient (3.57%) developed dehiscence of the surgical site and underwent a second procedure. In the follow-up period, 2 patients (7.14%) experienced bone cement dislocation. In 1 of these patients, a new ulceration was observed dorsally to the surgical site. The approach was surgical revision with bone cement replacement and stabilization with a new external fixator. In the other patient, given the absence of ulcerations, the cement was removed, and arthrodesis with internal stabilization using 2 cannulated screws was performed. One patient (3.57%), who had developed a relapse of ulceration after recurrent critical ischemia, underwent a percutaneous revascularization procedure and transmetatarsal amputation. During the follow-up period, no ulceration recurrences, transfer ulcerations, shoe fit problems, or gait abnormalities were detected in the other 24 patients. Our study presents the results of a technique requiring a 1-stage surgical approach to a relatively common problem, which is often difficult to solve. PMID:25249400

  10. Access to Cancer Services for Rural Colorectal Cancer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Laura-Mae; Cai, Yong; Larson, Eric H.; Dobie, Sharon A.; Wright, George E.; Goodman, David C.; Matthews, Barbara; Hart, L. Gary

    2008-01-01

    Context: Cancer care requires specialty surgical and medical resources that are less likely to be found in rural areas. Purpose: To examine the travel patterns and distances of rural and urban colorectal cancer (CRC) patients to 3 types of specialty cancer care services--surgery, medical oncology consultation, and radiation oncology consultation.…

  11. Assessment of Patient Satisfaction of the Quality of Health Care Provided by Outpatient Services of an Oncology Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Pini, Anastasia; Sarafis, Pavlos; Malliarou, Maria; Tsounis, Andreas; Igoumenidis, Michael; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Niakas, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    doctor. Administration should increase its efforts to upgrade the quality of health care provided to oncology patients by taking all the necessary measures. PMID:25169006

  12. Pretreatment Quality of Life Predicts for Locoregional Control in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Pajak, Thomas F.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Konski, Andre A.; Coyne, James C.; Gwede, Clement K.; Garden, Adam S.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prospectively collected health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data from patients enrolled in two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group randomized Phase III head and neck cancer trials (90-03 and 91-11) to assess their value as an independent prognostic factor for locoregional control (LRC) and/or overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: HRQOL questionnaires, using a validated instrument, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-H and N), version 2, were completed by patients before the start of treatment. OS and LRC were the outcome measures analyzed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Baseline FACT-H and N data were available for 1,093 patients and missing for 417 patients. No significant difference in outcome was found between the patients with and without baseline FACT-H and N data (p = 0.58). The median follow-up time was 27.2 months for all patients and 49 months for surviving patients. Multivariate analyses were performed for both OS and LRC. Beyond tumor and nodal stage, Karnofsky performance status, primary site, cigarette use, use of concurrent chemotherapy, and altered fractionation schedules, the FACT-H and N score was independently predictive of LRC (but not OS), with p = 0.0038. The functional well-being component of the FACT-H and N predicted most significantly for LRC (p = 0.0004). Conclusions: This study represents, to our knowledge, the largest analysis of HRQOL as a prognostic factor in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients. The results of this study have demonstrated the importance of baseline HRQOL as a significant and independent predictor of LRC in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer.

  13. Preventable Adverse Events in Surgical Care in Sweden: A Nationwide Review of Patient Notes.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Lena; Risberg, Madeleine Borgstedt; Montgomery, Agneta; Sjödahl, Rune; Schildmeijer, Kristina; Rutberg, Hans

    2016-03-01

    Adverse events (AEs) occur in health care and may result in harm to patients especially in the field of surgery. Our objective was to analyze AEs in surgical patient care from a nationwide perspective and to analyze the frequency of AEs that may be preventable.In total 19,141 randomly selected admissions in 63 Swedish hospitals were reviewed each month during 2013 using a 2-stage record review method based on the identification of predefined triggers. The subgroup of 3301 surgical admissions was analyzed. All AEs were categorized according to site, type, level of severity, and degree of preventability.We reviewed 3301 patients' records and 507 (15.4%) were associated with AEs. A total of 62.5% of the AEs were considered probably preventable, over half contributed to prolonged hospital care or readmission, and 4.7% to permanent harm or death. Healthcare acquired infections composed of more than one third of AEs. The majority of the most serious AEs composed of healthcare acquired infections and surgical or other invasive AEs. The incidence of AEs was 13% in patients 18 to 64 years old and 17% in ≥65 years. Pressure sores and drug-related AEs were more common in patients being ≥65 years. Urinary retention and pressure sores showed the highest degree of preventability. Patients with probably preventable AEs had in median 7.1 days longer hospital stay.We conclude that AEs are common in surgical care and the majority are probably preventable. PMID:26986126

  14. Cardiac Papillary Fibroelastoma: Single-Institution Experience with 14 Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Abu Saleh, Walid K; Al Jabbari, Odeaa; Ramlawi, Basel; Reardon, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    In general, treatment for symptomatic and asymptomatic cardiac papillary fibroelastoma is surgical resection-particularly of left-sided lesions, because of the risk of systemic embolization. However, few institutions have enough experience with these tumors to validate this approach. We present our institutional experience with papillary fibroelastoma and discuss our current approach. We searched our institution's cardiac tumor database, identified all patients diagnosed with cardiac papillary fibroelastoma from 1992 through 2014, and recorded the clinical and pathologic characteristics of each case. We found 14 patients (mean age, 60.5 ± 12.3 yr) who had 18 lesions. Eleven patients (79%) were symptomatic; however, we could not always definitively associate their symptoms with a cardiac tumor. Most lesions were solitary and ≤1.5 cm in diameter; half involved the left side of the heart. All 18 lesions were surgically excised. There were no operative or 30-day deaths, and no patient needed valve replacement postoperatively. There was one late death; at one year, another 3 patients were lost to follow-up, and the others were alive without tumor recurrence. Because of the embolic risk inherent to intracardiac masses and our relatively good postoperative outcomes, we recommend the surgical resection of all left-sided papillary fibroelastomas in surgical candidates, and we discuss with patients the advisability of resecting right-sided lesions. PMID:27127431

  15. A systematic review of individual patient data meta-analyses on surgical interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compared to subgroup analyses in a single study or in a traditional meta-analysis, an individual patient data meta-analysis (IPDMA) offers important potential advantages. We studied how many IPDMAs report on surgical interventions, how many of those surgical IPDMAs perform subgroup analyses, and whether these subgroup analyses have changed decision-making in clinical practice. Methods Surgical IPDMAs were identified using a comprehensive literature search. The last search was conducted on 24 April 2012. For each IPDMA included, we obtained information using a standardized data extraction form, and the quality of reporting was assessed. We also checked whether results were implemented in clinical guidelines. Results Of all 583 identified IPDMAs, 22 (4%) reported on a surgical intervention. Eighteen (82%) of these IPDMAs presented subgroup analyses. Subgroups were mainly based on patient and disease characteristics. The median number of reported subgroup analyses was 3.5 (IQR 1.25-6.5). Statistical methods for subgroup analyses were mentioned in 11 (61%) surgical IPDMAs. Eleven (61%) of the 18 IPDMAs performing subgroup analyses reported a significant overall effect estimate, whereas six (33%) reported a non-significant one. Of the IPDMAs that reported non-significant overall results, three IPDMAs (50%) reported significant results in one or more subgroup analyses. Results remained significant in one or more subgroups in eight of the IPDMAs (73%) that reported a significant overall result. Eight (44%) of the 18 significant subgroups appeared to be implemented in clinical guidelines. The quality of reporting among surgical IPDMAs varied from low to high quality. Conclusion Many of the surgical IPDMAs performed subgroup analyses, but overall treatment effects were more often emphasized than subgroup effects. Although, most surgical IPDMAs included in the present study have only recently been published, about half of the significant subgroups were already

  16. Patient Satisfaction of Surgical Treatment of Clitoral Phimosis and Labial Adhesions Caused by Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    King, Michelle; Rieff, Mollie; Krapf, Jill; Goldstein, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis, usually affecting the anogenital skin in women. This chronic inflammation can cause scarring of genitalia including narrowing of the introitus and phimosis of the clitoris. These architectural changes can lead to recurrent tearing during intercourse (vulvar granuloma fissuratum) and decreased clitoral sensation. Surgical correction of vulvar granuloma fissuratum (VGF) and clitoral phimosis can be performed, but there is little data on the patient satisfaction and complications following these surgical procedures. Aim To evaluate patient experience and outcomes in women undergoing surgical correction of scarring caused by anogenital LS. Methods A retrospective chart review of patients at a vulvar disorders clinic was performed to identify women who had undergone surgical correction of clitoral phimosis or lysis of vulvar adhesions for VGF due to LS. Twenty‐eight women were contacted via telephone between 4 and 130 months postoperatively. An eight‐question survey was used to determine patient experience and outcomes. Main Outcome Measures All participants completed an eight‐question survey to evaluate patient satisfaction with the surgery, effects on clitoral sensation, orgasm and pain with intercourse, postoperative symptoms or complications, and the presence of recurrent vulvar scarring. Results Participants reported that they were either very satisfied (44%) or satisfied (40%) with the procedure. Of the women who experienced decreased clitoral sensation prior to surgery, 75% endorsed increased clitoral sensitivity postoperatively. Of the women who had dyspareunia prior to surgery, the majority of women reported having pain‐free sex (33%) or improved but not completely pain‐free sex (58%) after surgery. There were no complications or symptoms made worse by the surgical procedures. Conclusions This study shows high patient satisfaction and low complication risk associated

  17. [Results of surgical treatment of pelvic fractures in polytraumatized patients].

    PubMed

    Roder, J D; Stübinger, B; Gmeinwieser, J; Müller, E; Claudi, B F

    1988-06-01

    High-speed accidents involving automobiles and two-wheeled vehicles with resultant entrapment and crush injuries have led to an ever-increasing incidence of pelvic fracture within the realm of multiple trauma. Between the years 1982 and 1986 ninety-eight cases of pelvic fracture were operatively stabilised by the Department of Surgery and the Outpatient Department of the Technical University, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Munich, West Germany. This paper is a report on fifty-five of these patients who were discovered to have suffered additional multitrauma. Independent from those patients found to have sustained multitraumatisation, twenty-four cases of isolated acetabulum fracture as well as four instances of pelvic ring fracture and one fracture of the pelvic brim were also documented. Combinations of the above mentioned fractures were uncovered in twenty-six patients. With fifty-four of the fracture injuries, osteosynthesis was carried out while in one case primary alloarthroplasty was deemed necessary. Following a mean post-treatment period of twenty-six months forty-five of the patients were objectively evaluated for results of treatment according to the methodology of Merle d'Aubigne. 70% of those patients assessed were rated with a "good" result. At the time of follow-up thirty-five (78%) of the forty-five reexamined individuals reported to be once again employed. Early operative treatment along with internal stabilisation and prompt initiation of physiotherapy have proved decisive in obtaining a favourable postoperative result. PMID:2900595

  18. Surgical Management for Early-Stage Bilateral Breast Cancer Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jing-yan; Quan, Chen-lian; Tan, Yu-long; Liu, Guang-yu; Shao, Zhi-min; Wu, Jiong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the current surgical management strategy for bilateral breast cancer (BBC) patients and to assess the changes in this strategy in China. Methods This is a retrospective review of all patients with early-stage BBC who underwent surgical treatment at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center between June 2007 and June 2014. Results A total of 15,337 patients with primary breast cancer were identified. Of these patients, 218 (1.5%) suffered from synchronous bilateral breast cancer (sBBC), and 296 (2.0%) suffered from metachronous bilateral breast cancer (mBBC). Patients with a lobular carcinoma component, those with estrogen receptor-positive cancer, and those with an accompanying sclerosing adenosis in the affected breast tended to develop BBC. The rates of bilateral mastectomy, breast conserving therapy, reconstruction, and combined surgeries were 86.2%, 6.4%, 3.7%, and 3.7%, respectively, for patients with sBBC and 81.1%, 4.4%, 3.0%, and 11.5%, respectively, for patients with mBBC. The interval between bilateral cancers, age at first diagnosis of breast cancer, histopathological type, and stage have significant impacts on the choice of surgery for patients with BBC. Conclusions Bilateral mastectomy was the dominant surgical management for patients with BBC in China, despite the increased application of breast reconstruction surgery observed in recent years. Bilateral prosthetic breast reconstruction was the ideal choice for patients with sBBC. Chinese surgeons should take responsibility for patient education and inform their patients about their surgical options. PMID:25874699

  19. Breast cancer patients' narrative experiences about communication during the oncology care process: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Abt Sacks, A; Perestelo-Perez, L; Rodriguez-Martin, B; Cuellar-Pompa, L; Algara López, M; González Hernández, N; Serrano-Aguilar, P

    2016-09-01

    To analyse the perception about the information and communication received to evaluate oncologic care of breast cancer patients in Spain. Qualitative study based on conducting in-depth interviews. An inductive thematic analysis of the illness narratives was performed. Intentional theoretical sampling of 41 people diagnosed with breast cancer. The information provided during care process is assessed as appropriate, as it includes personalised skills focused on communication and considers organisational and contextual issues. In some cases, the information was considered partial, heterogeneous and at times contradictory, which revealed a lack of continuity. To provide and adequately cover information needs from the patient perspective, it is necessary to ensure access, both in its physical (material) and intellectual (comprehension) dimension, keeping in mind elements of social capital (social networks) and cultural capital (values, beliefs, non-verbal language) that facilitate or hinder access. The current state of transition to a horizontal model in the doctor-patient relationship, could account for the difficulties, deficits and contradictions in communication and information that breast cancer patients perceive in many contexts. PMID:26412025

  20. Surgical options for the young patient with glenohumeral arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Jonathan D.; Abboud, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Young patients with glenohumeral arthritis are an ongoing treatment challenge. They typically have high demands of their shoulders, require long-term durability due to their young age, and often have altered local anatomy, through their disease process (instability arthropathy, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, etc.) or from previous surgery (capsulorraphy arthropathy, chondrolysis, etc.). Workup to evaluate underlying causes of early arthritis, and to exclude infectious causes are necessary. When nonoperative management fails, arthroscopic debridement, hemiarthroplasty (isolated, with glenoid reaming, or with biological interposition), and total shoulder arthroplasty are treatment options available to the treating surgeon. Debridement or hemiarthroplasty can provide pain relief for a subset of patients, but results have not been reproducible across the literature and have not been durable over time. Total shoulder arthroplasty provides the most reliable pain relief, but long-term glenoid loosening and wear continue to lead to high revision rates in this patient population. PMID:26980987

  1. Oncologic Outcomes of Stage IVB or Persistent or Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma Patients Treated With Chemotherapy at Siriraj Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ruengkhachorn, Irene; Leelaphatanadit, Chairat; Therasakvichya, Suwanit; Hunnangkul, Saowalak

    2016-01-01

    , median PFS, and median OS of cervical cancer patients treated by chemotherapy in our center were rather high when compared with those of previous gynecologic oncology group studies. PMID:27051060

  2. SURgical interventions with FEIBA (SURF): international registry of surgery in haemophilia patients with inhibitory antibodies.

    PubMed

    Négrier, C; Lienhart, A; Numerof, R; Stephens, D; Wong, W Y; Baghaei, F; Yee, T T

    2013-05-01

    Factor VIII Inhibitor Bypassing Activity (FEIBA) can effectively achieve haemostasis in haemophilia patients with inhibitors. Further evaluation of FEIBA in surgical settings is of significant interest considering the relatively limited prospective data published to date. The aim of the study is to evaluate the perioperative efficacy and safety of FEIBA in haemophilia patients with inhibitors. Haemophilia patients with inhibitors who underwent surgical procedures and received FEIBA for perioperative haemostatic control were prospectively enrolled in an open-label, noninterventional, postauthorization study [SURgical interventions with FEIBA (SURF)]. Outcome measures included haemostatic efficacy, safety, FEIBA exposure and blood loss associated with the perioperative use of FEIBA. Thirty-five surgical procedures were performed at 19 centres worldwide in patients with congenital haemophilia A, congenital haemophilia B, or acquired haemophilia A. Haemorrhagic risk was severe in 37.1% (13 of 35) of the procedures, moderate in 25.7% (9 of 35) and mild in 37.1% (13 of 35). One moderate risk surgery was excluded from the efficacy analyses because it did not meet all protocol requirements. Haemostasis was judged to be 'good' or 'excellent' in 91.2% (31 of 34) of surgical procedures and 'fair' in 8.8% (3 of 34). Among the 12 adverse events, three were serious adverse events (SAEs), two of which were unrelated to FEIBA therapy; one SAE, a clot in an arteriovenous fistula, was deemed to be possibly related to therapy. This prospective investigation confirms that FEIBA can be safely and effectively used when performing surgical procedures in haemophilia patients with inhibitors. PMID:23282031

  3. Experiences of patients with cancer and their nurses on the conditions of spiritual care and spiritual interventions in oncology units

    PubMed Central

    Rassouli, Maryam; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Ghahramanian, Akram; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Alavi-Majd, Hamid; Nikanfar, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although nurses acknowledge that spiritual care is part of their role, in reality, it is performed to a lesser extent. The purpose of the present study was to explore nurses’ and patients’ experiences about the conditions of spiritual care and spiritual interventions in the oncology units of Tabriz. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative conventional content analysis approach in the oncology units of hospitals in Tabriz. Data were collected through purposive sampling by conducting unstructured interviews with 10 patients and 7 nurses and analyzed simultaneously. Robustness of data analysis was evaluated by the participants and external control. Results: Three categories emerged from the study: (1) “perceived barriers for providing spiritual care” including “lack of preparation for spiritual care,” “time and space constraints,” “unprofessional view,” and “lack of support”; (2) “communication: A way for Strengthening spirituality despite the limitations” including “manifestation of spirituality in the appearances and communicative behaviors of nurses” and “communication: Transmission of spiritual energy”; and (3) “religion-related spiritual experiences” including “life events as divine will and divine exam,” “death as reincarnation,” “trust in God,” “prayer/recourse to Holy Imams,” and “acceptance of divine providence.” Although nurses had little skills in assessing and responding to the patients’ spiritual needs and did not have the organizational and clergymen's support in dealing with the spiritual distress of patients, they were the source of energy, joy, hope, and power for patients by showing empathy and compassion. The patients and nurses were using religious beliefs mentioned in Islam to strengthen the patients’ spiritual dimension. Conclusions: According to the results, integration of spiritual care in the curriculum of nursing is recommended. Patients and

  4. Surgical Management of the Patient with an Implanted Cardiac Device

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, John D.; Choudhri, Asim F.; Chen, Jonathan; Spotnitz, Henry M.; Oz, Mehmet C.; Edwards, Niloo

    1999-01-01

    Objective To identify the sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) that may alter the performance of implanted cardiac devices and develop strategies to minimize their effects on patient hemodynamic status. Summary Background Data Since the development of the sensing demand pacemaker, EMI in the clinical setting has concerned physicians treating patients with such devices. Implanted cardiovertor defibrillators (ICDs) and ventricular assist devices (VADs) can also be affected by EMI. Methods All known sources of interference to pacemakers, ICDs, and VADs were evaluated and preventative strategies were devised. Results All devices should be thoroughly evaluated before and after surgery to make sure that its function has not been permanently damaged or changed. If electrocautery is to be used, pacemakers should be placed in a triggered or asynchronous mode; ICDs should have arrhythmia detection suspended before surgery. If defibrillation is to be used, the current flow between the paddles should be kept as far away from and perpendicular to the lead system as possible. Both pacemakers and ICDs should be properly shielded if magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, or radiation therapy is to be used. The effect of EMI on VADs depends on the model. Magnetic resonance imaging adversely affects all VADs except the Abiomed VAD, and therefore its use should be avoided in this population of patients. Conclusions The patient with an implanted cardiac device can safely undergo surgery as long as certain precautions are taken. PMID:10561087

  5. Triaging early-stage lung cancer patients into non-surgical pathways: who, when, and what?

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Feng-Ming (Spring)

    2015-01-01

    More lung cancer patients are being diagnosed at an earlier stage due to improved diagnostic imaging techniques, a trend that is expected to accelerate with the dissemination of lung cancer screening. Surgical resection has always been considered the standard treatment for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, non-surgical treatment options for patients with early-stage NSCLC have evolved significantly over the past decade with many new and exciting alternative treatments now available. These alternative treatments include radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), percutaneous cryoablation therapy (PCT), photodynamic therapy (PDT) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), including stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy. We describe the established alternatives to surgical resection, their advantages and disadvantages, potential complications and efficacy. We then describe the optimal treatment approach for patients with early-stage NSCLC based on tumor operability, size and location. Finally, we discuss future directions and whether any alternative therapies will challenge surgical resection as the treatment of choice for patients with operable early-stage lung cancer. PMID:26380185

  6. Triaging early-stage lung cancer patients into non-surgical pathways: who, when, and what?

    PubMed

    Sroufe, Rameses; Kong, Feng-Ming Spring

    2015-08-01

    More lung cancer patients are being diagnosed at an earlier stage due to improved diagnostic imaging techniques, a trend that is expected to accelerate with the dissemination of lung cancer screening. Surgical resection has always been considered the standard treatment for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, non-surgical treatment options for patients with early-stage NSCLC have evolved significantly over the past decade with many new and exciting alternative treatments now available. These alternative treatments include radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), percutaneous cryoablation therapy (PCT), photodynamic therapy (PDT) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), including stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy. We describe the established alternatives to surgical resection, their advantages and disadvantages, potential complications and efficacy. We then describe the optimal treatment approach for patients with early-stage NSCLC based on tumor operability, size and location. Finally, we discuss future directions and whether any alternative therapies will challenge surgical resection as the treatment of choice for patients with operable early-stage lung cancer. PMID:26380185

  7. Perceived roles of oncology nursing.

    PubMed

    Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Association of Nurses in Oncology (CANO) Standards of Care (2001) provides a framework that delineates oncology nursing roles and responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to explore how oncology nurses perceive their roles and responsibilities compared to the CANO Standards of Care. Six focus groups were conducted and 21 registered nurses (RNs) from a community-based hospital participated in this study. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Three themes were identified: (1) Oncology nurses perceive a gap between their defined roles and the reality of daily practice, as cancer care becomes more complex and as they provide advanced oncology care to more patients while there is no parallel adaptation to the health care system to support them, such as safe staffing; (2) Oncology nursing, as a specialty, requires sustained professional development and leadership roles; and (3) Oncology nurses are committed to providing continuous care as a reference point in the health care team by fostering interdisciplinary collaboration andfacilitating patient's navigation through the system. Organizational support through commitment to appropriate staffing and matching scope ofpractice to patient needs may lead to maximize the health and well-being of nurses, quality of patient care and organizational performance. PMID:26897865

  8. A comprehensive approach to the prevention of central venous catheter complications: results of 10-year prospective surveillance in pediatric hematology-oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Cesaro, Simone; Cavaliere, Mara; Pegoraro, Anna; Gamba, Piergiorgio; Zadra, Nicola; Tridello, Gloria

    2016-04-01

    We report our decennial experience with 1161 newly-placed long-term central venous catheters inserted in 919 hematology-oncology patients for a total of 413,901 CVC-days of observation. Most of the CVCs were partially-implanted, open-ended, Broviac-Hickman type of CVC (95 %). One thousand and twenty-four complications were recorded equal to 2.47 per 1000 CVC-days. The frequency of complications per CVC, the rate of episodes per 1000 CVC-days, and removal rate were malfunction/occlusion 42 %, 1.18/1000, and 2.3 %; mechanical (dislodgement/rupture/kinking) 18.3 %, 0.51/1000, and 77.4 %; bacteremia 14.8 %, 0.42/1000, and 18.6 %; exit-site/tunnel infection 11.5 %, 0.32/1000, and 9.7 %; thrombosis 0.86 %, 0.02/1000, and 30 %; pneumothorax 0.52 %, 0.01/1000, and 0. In multivariate analysis, the risk factors were for mechanical complications, a younger age <6.1 years at CVC insertion (HR 1.8, p = 0.0006); for bacteremia, a double lumen CVC (HR 3.1, p < 0.0001) and the surgical modality of CVC insertion (HR 1.5, p = 0.03); for exit-site/tunnel infection, a double lumen CVC (HR 2.1, p = 0.0003) and a diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma (HR 1.8, p = 0.01); for malfunction/occlusion, an age <6.1 years (HR 1.6, p = 0.0003), the diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma (HR 1.9, p < 0.0001) and double lumen CVC (HR 1.33, p = 0.023). The cumulative incidence of premature CVC removal was 29.2 % and the risk factors associated with this event were the surgical modality of CVC insertion (HR 1.4, p = 0.0153) and an age at CVC positioning less than 6.1 years (HR 1.6, p = 0.0025). We conclude that a best-practice set of rules resulted in reduced CVC complications. PMID:26961934

  9. Conservative and surgical semen retrieval in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Löchner-Ernst, D; Mandalka, B; Kramer, G; Stöhrer, M

    1997-07-01

    Assisted semen retrieval was applied in 219 men with spinal cord injury (212 supranuclear, seven infranuclear lesions). Vibrostimulation in supranuclear lesions was successful in 133, and in five more after physostigmine injection. Electroejaculation was successful in all seven infranuclear lesions and in four supranuclear patients failing with vibrostimulation. Eight more supranuclear patients responded to electroejaculation and physostigmine. Surgical retrieval was applied in 27 patients. Nine Wagenknecht spermatoceles showed only one success, from all 18 implanted Brindley reservoirs semen could be collected. Three patients, in whom no pregnancy could be induced after Brindley reservoir implantation, had testicular sperm aspirated. In 109 patients who wanted to have offspring, 73 pregnancies could be induced in 46 couples, leading to 54 births (four twins), 16 abortions and three pregnancies. Conservative semen retrieval was possible in 82 of these men (63 pregnancies in 37 couples) and surgical methods were used in 27 (10 pregnancies in nine couples). PMID:9232752

  10. Surgical checklist application and its impact on patient safety in pediatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Oak, SN; Dave, NM; Garasia, MB; Parelkar, SV

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical care is an essential component of health care of children worldwide. Incidences of congenital anomalies, trauma, cancers and acquired diseases continue to rise and along with that the impact of surgical intervention on public health system also increases. It then becomes essential that the surgical teams make the procedures safe and error proof. The World Health Organization (WHO) has instituted the surgical checklist as a global initiative to improve surgical safety. Aims: To assess the acceptance, application and adherence to the WHO Safe Surgery Checklist in Pediatric Surgery Practice at a university teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, spanning 2 years, the checklist was implemented for all patients who underwent operative procedures under general anesthesia. The checklist identified three phases of an operation, each corresponding to a specific period in the normal flow of work: Before the induction of anesthesia (“sign in”), before the skin incision (“time out”) and before the patient leaves the operating room (“sign out”). In each phase, an anesthesiologist,-“checklist coordinator”, confirmed that the anesthesia, surgery and nursing teams have completed the listed tasks before proceeding with the operation and exit. The checklist was used for 3000 consecutive patients. Results: No major perioperative errors were noted. In 54 (1.8%) patients, children had the same names and identical surgical procedure posted on the same operation list. The patient identification tag was missing in four (0.1%) patients. Mention of the side of procedures was missing in 108 (3.6%) cases. In 0.1% (3) of patients there was mix up of the mention of side of operation in the case papers and consent forms. In 78 (2.6%) patients, the consent form was not signed by parents/guardians or the side of the procedure was not quoted. Antibiotic orders were missing in five (0.2%) patients. In 12 (0.4%) cases, immobilization of

  11. Bridging Protocol for Surgical Patients: One Clinic's Experience Facilitating a Safe Anticoagulation Intervention.

    PubMed

    Thiessen, Lorena; Grabowski, Dean; Siragusa, Lanette; Young, R Shawn

    2015-12-01

    Surgical candidates often present with complex medical histories that necessitate an individualized approach to care to minimize surgical and anesthetic risk. Patients on warfarin require exceptionally careful clinical assessment, consideration, and consistency to reduce the risk of perioperative thromboembolism and bleeding complications. In response to this need, Victoria General Hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada developed a bridging protocol based on evidence-based guidelines and a checklist tool to incorporate and communicate the necessary tasks among the interprofessional team. The purpose of this initiative was to create a patient-focused process to assist those at risk for a thromboembolic event to navigate through a clear, consistent, and collaborative surgical experience whenever cessation and resumption of warfarin administration was required. PMID:26596383

  12. Relevance of Imaging Examinations in the Surgical Planning of Patients with Bowel Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Trippia, Carlos H.; Zomer, Monica T.; Terazaki, Carlos R.T.; Martin, Rafael L.S.; Ribeiro, Reitan; Kondo, William

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disease characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The complexity of the disease results from its multiple clinical presentations, the multifocal pattern of distribution of the lesions, the presence of extra pelvic sites of the disease (mainly affecting the urinary and the intestinal tracts), and the difficulty in the preoperative diagnosis (by means of imaging studies) and in the surgical treatment. The preoperative mapping of the lesions, either by ultrasound or by magnetic resonance imaging, allows for an adequate surgical planning and a better preoperative patient counseling, especially in those women with deep infiltrating endometriosis affecting the bowel. Also, the choice of the surgical team that is going to perform the procedure may be based on the preoperative workup. In this paper, we highlight the important findings that should be described in the imaging examination reports for the preoperative workup of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis of the intestine. PMID:26917983

  13. Relevance of Imaging Examinations in the Surgical Planning of Patients with Bowel Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Trippia, Carlos H; Zomer, Monica T; Terazaki, Carlos R T; Martin, Rafael L S; Ribeiro, Reitan; Kondo, William

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disease characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The complexity of the disease results from its multiple clinical presentations, the multifocal pattern of distribution of the lesions, the presence of extra pelvic sites of the disease (mainly affecting the urinary and the intestinal tracts), and the difficulty in the preoperative diagnosis (by means of imaging studies) and in the surgical treatment. The preoperative mapping of the lesions, either by ultrasound or by magnetic resonance imaging, allows for an adequate surgical planning and a better preoperative patient counseling, especially in those women with deep infiltrating endometriosis affecting the bowel. Also, the choice of the surgical team that is going to perform the procedure may be based on the preoperative workup. In this paper, we highlight the important findings that should be described in the imaging examination reports for the preoperative workup of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis of the intestine. PMID:26917983

  14. Improving pain management in orthopedic surgical patients with opioid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kathleen; Shimoda, Rosanne; Gibbons, Gregory

    2014-09-01

    As increasing numbers of the baby boomer generation seek health care, nursing staff educated in the evidence-based practice process can make significant contributions to successful patient outcomes. Health care providers who anticipate the approaching perfect storm in health care and thoughtfully plan, collaborate, and incorporate evidence-based practice methods will be well prepared to improve the quality of care, realize cost savings, and meet the challenges ahead. PMID:25155539

  15. Surgical Treatment Alone of Cerebral Aspergillosis in Immunocompetent Patient.

    PubMed

    Beraldo, Daniel; Guerra, Ramon; Alvarenga, Vinícius; Crepaldi, Letícia

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillosis is a disease that predominantly affects immunocompromised patients. The incidence in immunocompetents is rare, and manifestation is generally pulmonary. Few reports in the literature refer to isolated cerebral aspergillosis in individuals with no chronic comorbidities. We describe a case of a 59-year-old rural worker without previous pathologies who had a partial convulsive crisis in a subtle form, with self-limiting and nonrecurrent secondary generalization. Diagnostic investigation demonstrated a subcortical tumorlike lesion in the right precentral gyrus by nuclear magnetic resonance that allowed en bloc microsurgical resection, with histopathologic findings indicating cerebral aspergillosis. Because of the delay in obtaining the result of the biopsy due to technical difficulties with analysis, the diagnosis was delayed. The patient was clinically stable, with imaging without modifications and with negative serologic tests, so it was decided to follow the patient without antifungal therapy, which was successful. This was a case of isolated cerebral aspergillosis in an immunocompetent individual who was successfully treated by complete resection of the lesion alone, without combined antifungal therapy. PMID:26238939

  16. Fate of patients with fixed subaortic stenosis after surgical removal.

    PubMed Central

    Somerville, J; Stone, S; Ross, D

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-nine consecutive patients, aged 5 to 57 years, were followed for two to 15 years with serial haemodynamic studies after removal of fixed subaortic stenosis, which was never a "membrane". Two late deaths occurred, one sudden and one in congestive failure. Of 37 survivors, 25 were asymptomatic and could be classified as good or excellent if judged by well-being. Seven were symptomatic, two having had reoperation for fixed subaortic stenosis, and four needed long-term pacing. Evaluation, including the effect of isoprenaline, showed important dynamic obstruction in 17, five of whom redeveloped fixed obstruction. Seven had congestive features without outflow gradients, and 14 had neither congestion nor outflow obstruction. Complete assessment therefore confirmed that only 14 (36%) were haemodynamically satisfactory; two of them had permanent pacing, and four had had aortic valve surgery. Fixed subaortic stenosis should be removed early, when diagnosed, and completely before secondary myocardial changes occur. Patients however "well" need regular supervision and early haemodynamic assessment. The aortic valve, whether repaired, replaced, or untouched, remains a site for infective endocarditis for life. The fixed subaortic stenosis removed at operation may not be present in that form at birth, but acquired secondary to other congenital abnormalities which remain in the patient. Images PMID:7191709

  17. Charcot Neuroarthropathy in Patients With Diabetes: An Updated Systematic Review of Surgical Management.

    PubMed

    Schneekloth, Brian J; Lowery, Nicholas J; Wukich, Dane K

    2016-01-01

    Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) of the foot and ankle is a demanding clinical dilemma, and surgical management can be very complicated. Historically, the evidence guiding surgical management of CN has been small retrospective case series and expert opinions. The purpose of the present report was to provide a systematic review of studies published from 2009 to 2014 and to review the indications for surgery. A Medline search was performed, and a systematic review of studies discussing the surgical management of CN was undertaken. Thirty reports fit the inclusion criteria for our study, including 860 patients who had undergone a surgical procedure for the treatment of CN. The surgical procedures included amputation, arthrodesis, debridement of ulcers, drainage of infections, and exostectomy. The midfoot was addressed in 26.9% of cases, the hindfoot in 41.6%, and the ankle in 38.4%. Of the 30 studies, 24 were retrospective case series (level 4), 4 were controlled retrospective studies (level 3), and 2 were level II studies. The overall amputation rate was 8.9%. The quality of the published data on the surgical management of CN has improved during the past several years. Evidence concerning the timing of treatment and the use of different fixation methods remains inconclusive. PMID:26810129

  18. Factors influencing patients seeking oral health care in the oncology dental support clinic at an urban university dental school setting.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Dale M; Walker, Mary P; Liu, Ying; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors and/or factors associated with medically compromised patients seeking dental care in the oncology dental support clinic (ODSC) at the University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) School of Dentistry. An 18-item survey was mailed to 2,541 patients who were new patients to the clinic from 2006 to 2011. The response rate was approximately 18% (n = 450). Analyses included descriptive statistics of percentages/frequencies as well as predictors based on correlations. Fifty percent of participants, 100 females and 119 males, identified their primary medical diagnosis as cancer. Total household income (p < .001) and the importance of receiving dental care (p < .001) were significant factors in relation to self-rated dental health. Perceived overall health (p < .001) also had a significant association with cancer status and the need for organ transplants. This study provided the ODSC at UMKC and other specialty clinics with vital information that can contribute to future planning efforts. PMID:24712504

  19. Associations between catecholaminergic, GABAergic, and serotonergic genes and self-reported attentional function in oncology patients and their family caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Merriman, John D.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.; Cataldo, Janine K.; Dunn, Laura B.; Kober, Kord; Langford, Dale J.; West, Claudia; Cooper, Bruce A.; Paul, Steven M.; Miaskowski, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the research Evaluate for associations between variations in genes involved in catecholaminergic, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic, and serotonergic mechanisms of neurotransmission and attentional function latent classes. Patients and methods This descriptive, longitudinal study was conducted at two radiation therapy departments. The sample included three latent classes of individuals with distinct trajectories of self-reported attentional function during radiation therapy, who were previously identified using growth mixture modeling among 167 oncology patients and 85 of their family caregivers. Multivariable models were used to evaluate for genotypic associations of neurotransmission genes with attentional function latent class membership, after controlling for covariates. Results Variations in catecholaminergic (i.e., ADRA1D rs4815675, SLC6A3 rs37022), GABAergic (i.e., SLC6A1 rs2697138), and serotonergic (i.e., HTR2A rs2296972, rs9534496) neurotransmission genes were significant predictors of latent class membership in multivariable models. Conclusions Findings suggest that variations in genes that encode for three distinct but related neurotransmission systems are involved in alterations in attentional function. Knowledge of both phenotypic and genetic markers associated with alterations in attentional function can be used by clinicians to identify patients and family caregivers who are at higher risk for this symptom. Increased understanding of the genetic markers associated with alterations in attentional function may provide insights into the underlying mechanisms for this significant clinical problem. PMID:25524657

  20. Traumeel S in preventing and treating mucositis in young patients undergoing SCT: a report of the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Sencer, S F; Zhou, T; Freedman, L S; Ives, J A; Chen, Z; Wall, D; Nieder, M L; Grupp, S A; Yu, L C; Sahdev, I; Jonas, W B; Wallace, J D; Oberbaum, M

    2012-11-01

    Mucositis can be a serious complication of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). A previous phase II trial in 32 children undergoing HSCT reported a beneficial effect of the homeopathic remedy Traumeel S. The Children's Oncology Group sought to replicate the results in a multi-institutional trial. The study was an international multi-center, double-blind, randomized trial comparing Traumeel with placebo in patients aged 3-25 years undergoing myeloablative HSCT. Traumeel/placebo was started on Day -1 as a five-time daily mouth rinse. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed using the modified Walsh scale for mucositis, scored daily from Day -1 to 20 days after HCST. The main outcome was the sum of Walsh scale scores (area-under-the-curve (AUC)) over this period. Other outcomes included narcotic use, days of total parenteral feeding, days of nasogastric feeding and adverse events. In 181 evaluable patients, there was no statistical difference in mucositis (AUC) in the Traumeel group (76.7) compared with placebo (67.3) (P=0.13). There was a trend towards less narcotic usage in the Traumeel patients. No statistically beneficial effect from Traumeel was demonstrated for mucositis. We could not confirm that Traumeel is an effective treatment for mucositis in children undergoing HSCT. PMID:22504933

  1. Oral Health Status of Chinese Paediatric and Adolescent Oncology Patients with Chemotherapy in Hong Kong: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kung, A.Y.H; Zhang, S; Zheng, L.W; Wong, G.H.M; Chu, C.H

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the oral health status of Chinese children and adolescents undergoing chemotherapy in Hong Kong. Method: All Chinese children and adolescent oncology patients aged 18 or below attending the Children's Centre for Cancer and Blood Disease at a hospital for chemotherapy were invited and parental consent was sought before they were accepted into the study. The study comprised of 1) a parental questionnaire, 2) the collection of medical history and 3) a clinical examination for tooth decay (caries) and mucosal status. Results: A total of 69 patients were invited, and they all participated in this study. Their mean age was 9.2±5.0 and 44 (64%) were males. Twenty-six patients (38%) had no caries experience (DMFT and/or dmft = 0). Higher caries experience was detected in participants that were not born in Hong Kong, had completed active chemotherapy, participated in school dental care service and whose parents had low educational levels. There were 41 patients with active chemotherapy, 24 of whom were diagnosed with acute leukaemia, 5 with haematological malignancies other than leukaemia and 11 with solid tumours. Antimetabolites, cytotoxic antibiotics, alkylating agents and plant alkaloids were administered in 49%, 32%, 24% and 22% of them, respectively. Twenty-six (63%) patients showed no mucosal complications. The most common oral complication was oral mucositis (24%) followed by petechiae (10%). Conclusion: About two-thirds of paediatric and adolescent cancer patients had caries experience, which was more common among those who had completed chemotherapy. Oral mucositis followed by petechiae were the two most common complications of receiving chemotherapy. PMID:25674168

  2. [Optimising the stay of patients with a mental disorder in general medical or surgical units].

    PubMed

    Brignon, Béatrice; Brusseau, Pascale; Dollet, Denise; Giordana, Jean-Yves; Roelandt, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    The action research undertaken by health manager students at the Nice health manager training institution has helped to optimise the stay of patients with a mental disorder in general medical and surgical units. Based on the assessment of the training needs of caregivers working in these units, it enables the students to anticipate their future function. PMID:27389433

  3. Does surgical sympathectomy improve clinical outcomes in patients with refractory angina pectoris?

    PubMed

    Holland, Luke C; Navaratnarajah, Manoraj; Taggart, David P

    2016-04-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: In patients with angina pectoris refractory to medical therapy, does surgical sympathectomy improve clinical outcomes? A total of 528 papers were identified using the search protocol described, of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. There were 5 case series and 1 prospective cohort study. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. All 5 of the case series demonstrated an improvement in symptoms, exercise tolerance or quality of life in patients undergoing surgical sympathectomy. An early case series investigating an open approach had a high morbidity and mortality rate, but the 4 other series used a minimally invasive technique and had low morbidity and zero perioperative mortality rates. The cohort study compared surgical sympathectomy with transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) and concluded TMR to be superior. However, this study looked only at unilateral sympathectomy, whereas all 5 case series focused on bilateral surgery. We conclude that the best currently available evidence does suggest that patients report an improvement in their symptoms and quality of life following surgical sympathectomy, but the low level of this evidence does not allow for a statistically proved recommendation. PMID:26787727

  4. Establishing the surgical nurse liaison role to improve patient and family member communication.

    PubMed

    Herd, Hope A; Rieben, Melissa A

    2014-05-01

    Having clear personal communication with a surgical patient's family members decreases the anxiety and increases patient and family member satisfaction. Perioperative team members at one East Coast community hospital implemented a new approach to communication in the perioperative area to address patient satisfaction after patient survey scores declined in the areas of communication and calming fears. An additional consideration was the facility's plan to move to a new facility in which the surgical department would be split across two floors. A literature review revealed that adding a surgical nurse liaison can increase patient, family member, and staff member satisfaction. The administration approved creation of the position, with duties that included managing the waiting area, facilitating interaction between physicians and patients' family members, and assisting with family visits to the perianesthesia unit. After implementation of this position, results of surveys showed increases in patient satisfaction. One year after the position was established, staff members reported they were happy with the position as well. PMID:24766921

  5. Identifying medical-surgical nursing staff perceptions of the drug-abusing patient.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Stacy L; Stone, Wendy L; Burleson, Stephanie L

    2013-01-01

    Nurses report a negative, stereotypical, and moralistic view of substance-abusing patients. Unaddressed bias may impede delivery of quality care. There is limited research of the needs specific to medical-surgical nursing staff interacting with substance-abusing patients. Nursing therapeutic commitment refers to the degree the nurse feels prepared with an adequate knowledge base, professional support, and personal ownership of a patient condition. Low therapeutic commitment correlates with job dissatisfaction. The Drug and Drug Problems Perceptions Questionnaire assesses healthcare provider attitude and therapeutic commitment to patients using or abusing medication or illicit substances. This therapeutic commitment survey serves as a staff needs assessment for a targeted educational innovation. The results show that the medical and surgical nursing staff has a constructive attitude and a moderately high degree of therapeutic commitment to the drug-abusing patient population, similar to more specialized multidisciplinary, mental healthcare workers. This study showed that medical-surgical nurses feel professionally responsible and clinically supported with patients with primary or comorbid drug abuse. Consistent with established results, focused and ongoing education on the risk factors, outcomes, and physical and psychological effects of illicit substances is necessary to improve therapeutic commitment to drug-dependent patients. PMID:24621546

  6. Surgonomics as a health care financing policy for hospitalized surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, E; Goldstein, J; Benacquista, T; Mulloy, K; Wise, L

    1989-05-01

    The Medicare system of prospective payment to hospitals based on diagnostic related groups (DRG) has been severely criticized at a number of levels. Many states are using DRG prospective "All Payor Systems" for reimbursement to hospitals with the federal DRG system as a model. In All Payor Systems, Medicare, Medicaid, Blue Cross and other commercial insurers pay by the DRG mode; the state of New York has been All Payor since 1 January 1988. This study simulated DRG All Payor methods on a large sample (N = 17,560) of surgical patients for a two year period, using both federal and New York DRG reimbursement methods currently in effect. Both Medicare and Medicaid patients had, on average, a longer length of stay in the hospital and higher total cost of hospitalization compared with patients from Blue Cross and other commercial payors. Medicare and Medicaid patients also had a greater severity of illness compared with patients from Blue Cross or other payors. All except commercial insurors (that is, Medicaid, Blue Cross and Medicare) had greater financial risk under the DRG All Payor scheme. Results from our study suggest that federal, state and private payors may not be adequately reimbursing health care providers for the care of the hospitalized surgical patient under the DRG prospective scheme of hospital payment. It appears that the financing policy for health care, especially at the federal and state level, could limit both the access and quality of care for surgical patients. PMID:2496483

  7. Oncology nurse navigator.

    PubMed

    Case, Mary Ann B

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to explore the presence of the oncology nurse as navigator on measurable patient outcomes. Eighteen primary nursing research studies were found using combinations of the following key words: advocate, cancer, case manager, coach, certification, guide, navigator, nurse, oncology, patient navigator, pivot nurse, and continuity of care. Nurse researchers identified nursing-sensitive patient outcomes related to the time to diagnosis and appropriate treatment, effect on mood states, satisfaction, support, continuity of care, and cost outcomes. Navigator roles are expanding globally, and nurses should continue to embrace opportunities to ensure the safe passage of patients with cancer along the entire trajectory of illness and to evaluate the implications for educational preparation, research, and practice of navigators of all kinds. PMID:21278039

  8. Wernicke's encephalopathy in a malnourished surgical patient: clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Nolli, M; Barbieri, A; Pinna, C; Pasetto, A; Nicosia, F

    2005-11-01

    We report a clinical and neuroradiological description of a severe case of Wernicke's encephalopathy in a surgical patient. After colonic surgery for neoplasm, he was treated for a long time with high glucose concentration total parenteral nutrition. In the early post-operative period, the patient showed severe encephalopathy with ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and consciousness disorders. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the clinical suspicion of Wernicke's encephalopathy. The radiological feature showed hyperintense lesions which were symmetrically distributed along the bulbo-pontine tegmentum, the tectum of the mid-brain, the periacqueductal grey substance, the hypothalamus and the medial periventricular parts of the thalamus. This progressed to typical Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome with ataxia and memory and cognitive defects. Thiamine deficiency is a re-emerging problem in non-alcoholic patients and it may develop in surgical patients with risk factors such as malnutrition, prolonged vomiting and long-term high glucose concentration parenteral nutrition. PMID:16223408

  9. Coordinating perioperative care for the 'high risk' general surgical patient using risk prediction scoring.

    PubMed

    Hafiz, Shaziz; Lees, Nicholas Peter

    2016-01-01

    Identifying 'high risk' (> 5% mortality score) emergency general surgical patients early, allows appropriate perioperative care to be allocated by securing critical care beds and ensuring the presence of senior surgeons and senior anesthetists intraoperatively. Scoring systems can be used to predict perioperative risk and coordinate resources perioperatively. Currently it is unclear which estimate of risk correlates with current resource deployment. A retrospective study was undertaken assessing the relationship between deployment of perioperative resources: senior surgeon, senior anesthetist and critical care bed. The study concluded that almost all high risk patients with high POSSUM mortality and morbidity scores had a consultant senior surgeon present intraoperatively. Critically unwell patients with higher operative severity and perioperative morbidity scores received higher care (HDU/ICU) beds postoperatively, ensuring that they received appropriate care if their condition deteriorated. Therefore POSSUM scoring should be used perioperatively in emergency cases to coordinate appropriate perioperative care for high risk general surgical patients. PMID:26901929

  10. Triple pathological findings in a surgically amenable patient with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy☆

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fumin; Jewells, Valerie; Trembath, Dimitri G.; Hadar, Eldad; Shin, Hae Won

    2015-01-01

    Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) is a well-recognized cause of intractable epilepsy; however, coexistence with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is less common. Middle fossa epidermoid cysts are rare and may involve the temporal lobe. Most epidermoids are clinically silent, slow-growing, and seldom associated with overt symptomatology, including seizures. We describe a patient with multiple comorbidities including left MTS and a large epidermoid cyst involving the left quadrigeminal plate cistern compressing upon the cerebellar vermis and tail of the left hippocampus, resulting in refractory left temporal lobe epilepsy. The patient underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy. The surgical pathology demonstrated a third pathological finding of left temporal FCD type Ia. The patient has been seizure-free since the surgery. This case provides additional information with regard to the understanding of epileptogenicity and surgical planning in patients with MTS and epidermoid cysts. PMID:26288757

  11. Quality of life in patients submitted to surgical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, João Bernardo Sancio Rocha; Saleme, Nathália Ambrozim Santos; Batista, José Lucas; Cardoso, Igor Machado; Jacob, Charbel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To evaluate quality of life, using the SF-36, in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) who un-derwent surgery for deformity correction, comparing the results in the pre-and post-operative period. METHODS : We evaluated 29 patients, 24 female, mean age 14.5 years, all patients had measurement of Cobb angle greater than 50º, and responded to the SF-36 questionnaire preope-ratively and on average two years after surgery. RESULTS : There was improvement in all eight domains studied by the SF-36 after surgical treatment, with statistically significant improvement of the domains functional capacity physical aspects, pain and general state. Vitality and mental heal-th were those with the lowest percentage of improvement postoperatively. CONCLUSION : Surgical treatment of defor-mity in all AIS improved the functional aspects assessed by the SF-36, representing, in practice, better quality of life for these patients. Evidence Level II, Prospective Study. PMID:27057138

  12. Palliative Surgical Approach to Rehabilitate Spinal Injury Patient in Indian Rural Setup

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pradeep K; Sakale, Harshal; Shrivastva, Sandeep; Dulani, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of conventional spinal surgery as palliative procedure to rehabilitate dorsolumbar injuries in a rural setup. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three patients with dorsolumbar spine injury with complete paraplegia were assessed on the clinical and social rehabilitation parameters after surgical stabilization at Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital Sawangi, Wardha, India. The study group comprised 21 male and 2 female patients. The dorsolumbar spine injury was fixed by conventional posterior instrumentation using short-segment pedicle screw system and Harrington rod system with or without fusion. Functional and neurologic outcome was recorded in the follow-up period by using Functional Independence Measure and Frankel grade, respectively. Correlation and analysis of results was established statistically. Results: Functional outcome showed statistically significant improvement. Social cognition was found intact in a significant number of patients. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the usefulness of conventional instrumentation as palliative surgical approach to stabilize and rehabilitate patients from deprived sector of rural India. PMID:21218006

  13. Using a screening tool to improve timely referral of patients from acute oncology-haematology to palliative care services.

    PubMed

    Begum, Akhtari

    2013-01-01

    This project was done at specialist cancer hospital in Qatar. At a haematology-oncology inpatient department most patients were not getting access to palliative care unless they were at the very end stages of life. Data collected from 2008-2011 showed significant numbers of patients were dying within one month of their transfer to palliative care. There was no standard measure to identify the prospective palliative care patients. A multidisciplinary team developed a Palliative care referral screening tool based on the National Cancer Care Network guideline. Retrospective medical record review done from January to April 2012 showed a mean of 68% of patients who scored more than five were not consulted, 32% of patients who scored more than seven were not transferred to palliative care and seven percent died without any referral. The team used various kinds of quality planning, analysis and improvement tools in the form of process mapping, value analysis, Fish Bone diagrams, stakeholders' analysis and communication, physician survey, "Pareto's principal" (80 / 20 rule, the law of vital few) and other data collection tools. The palliative care referral process was standardised by preparing and implementing an objective scoring tool based on international best practice. It changed the referral culture and helped manage the psychological barriers of patients, families and caregivers. Extensive orientation and education of all key stakeholders was implemented. Monthly auditing of patient records was carried out. The aim has been achieved, exceeded and sustained, and we reduced the percentage of patients who scored more than five without palliative consultation from a mean of 68% to 16% and those who scored more than seven without palliative care transfer from a mean of thirty two percent to three percent, after four months of the project's implementation. Standardising the referral process and creating an objective referral tool is needed to facilitate safe, collaborative

  14. Advancing medical-surgical nursing practice: improving management of the changing patient condition.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Heidi; Plylar, Peggy; Krugman, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Higher patient acuities and more novice nurses on medical-surgical units have Educators focused on achieving positive outcomes with changes in patient condition. An educational program was developed to enhance nurses' knowledge, skill, and confidence in assessing hemodynamics, recognizing early signs of instability, and administering vasoactive medications. The program was successful with significant knowledge improvement as well as an increased use of the Medical Emergency Team while maintaining a low number of code calls. PMID:25407973

  15. STUDY ON THE APPLICABILITY OF THE MODIFIED TOKUHASHI SCORE IN PATIENTS WITH SURGICALLY TREATED VERTEBRAL METASTASIS

    PubMed Central

    Mattana, Jeferson Luis; Freitas, Rosyane Rena de; Mello, Glauco José Pauka; Neto, Mário Armani; Freitas Filho, Geraldo de; Ferreira, Carolina Bega; Novaes, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    To present the results obtained from surgical treatment of patients with vertebral metastases, comparing them with the modified Tokuhashi score in order to validate the applicability of this score for prognostic predictions and for choosing surgical treatments. Methods: This was a retrospective study on 157 patients treated surgically for spinal metastasis in Erastus Gaertner Hospital in Curitiba. The Tokuhashi score was applied retrospectively to all the patients. The patients' actual survival time was compared with the expected survival time using the Tokuhashi score. Results: There were 82 females and 75 males. The most frequent location of the primary tumor was the breast. The thoracic region was involved in 66.2%, lumbar region in 65.6%, cervical region in 15.9% and sacral region in 12.7%. All the patients underwent surgical treatment. The most frequent indication for treatment was intractable pain (89.2%). There was partial or complete improvement in a majority of the cases (52.2%). Out of 157 cases studied, 86.6% died. The maximum survival time was 13.6 years, the minimum was 3 days and the mean was 13.2 months. The following frequencies of Tokuhashi scores were found among the operated cases: up to 8 points, 111 cases; 9-11 points, 43 cases; and 12-15 points, three cases. The mean survival time in months for all 157 patients according to the Tokuhashi score was: 0-8 points, 15.4 months; 9-11 points, 11.4 months; and 12-15 points, 12 months. Conclusion: Unlike the nonsurgical approach recommended by Tokuhashi for patients with lower scores, this group in our study was sent for surgery, with better results than those of non-operated patients reported by Tokuhashi. PMID:27027033

  16. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) tumour at the surgical scar site in a patient of carcinoma breast.

    PubMed

    Abrari, Andleeb

    2011-01-01

    A patient on follow-up post surgery for carcinoma breast, presented with a nodule under the surgical scar. The sinister eventuality of recurrent carcinoma was clinically considered first. The lesion was biopsied and the histopathology was diagnostic of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia tumour. The nodule was excised and the patient's clinical denouement has been uneventful in the 4 months which have elapsed after this event. PMID:22688488

  17. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-09-01

    Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively

  18. Conflicting Priorities in Social Legislation and Medicine: Gynaeco-oncology Patients and their Right to Participate in Society

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, E.; Graf, J.; Wallwiener, D.; Brucker, S.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the declining mortality rates, malignant diseases have gained a chronic character for many gynaeco-oncology patients. The patients can expect to participate in social life and to an increasing extent in professional life for longer lengths of time. Promotion of rehabilitation and participation is an issue of the German 9th Social Security Code that explicitly places a focus on women. This is mainly of relevance for tumour patients with regard to assessment of the degree of severe disability, to compensate for disease-induced impairments and the possibilities for improving the participation of the afflicted subjects, especially by means of protective rights in professional life. Indeed, tumour patients do sometimes find themselves confronted with conflicting priorities between the entitlements guaranteed by social legislation and the compensation conferred by the health-care services, which can then be avoided when the facts are sufficiently known. For this purpose, the physician must be fully aware of the legal situation. The present article provides an overview of the procedures and reference points for appraisals. Patients need partners among their responsible physicians to help in the assertion of their claims. From the physicianʼs side it is necessary to classify the reported complaints within the ever increasing knowledge about the direct side effects and the long-term side effects of cancer therapies. Against the background of an often life-long mental stress and the uncertain risk of recurrence, it should also be considered whether the concept of healing probation is in support of the targets of long-term disease management and social reintegration, also in the interest of society in general. PMID:26556909

  19. Daily baseline skin care in the prevention, treatment, and supportive care of skin toxicity in oncology patients: recommendations from a multinational expert panel

    PubMed Central

    Bensadoun, René-Jean; Humbert, Phillipe; Krutman, Jean; Luger, Thomas; Triller, Raoul; Rougier, André; Seite, Sophie; Dreno, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Skin reactions due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy are a significant problem for an important number of cancer patients. While effective for treating cancer, they disturb cutaneous barrier function, causing a reaction soon after initiation of treatment that impacts patient quality of life. Managing these symptoms with cosmetics and nonpharmaceutical skin care products for camouflage or personal hygiene may be important for increasing patient self-esteem. However, inappropriate product choice or use could worsen side effects. Although recommendations exist for the pharmaceutical treatment of skin reactions, there are no recommendations for the choice or use of dermatologic skin care products for oncology patients. The present guidelines were developed by a board of European experts in dermatology and oncology to provide cancer care professionals with guidance for the appropriate use of non-pharmaceutical, dermocosmetic skin care management of cutaneous toxicities associated with radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, including epidermal growth factor inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. The experts hope that these recommendations will improve the management of cutaneous side effects and hence quality of life for oncology patients. PMID:24353440

  20. Daily baseline skin care in the prevention, treatment, and supportive care of skin toxicity in oncology patients: recommendations from a multinational expert panel.

    PubMed

    Bensadoun, René-Jean; Humbert, Phillipe; Krutman, Jean; Luger, Thomas; Triller, Raoul; Rougier, André; Seite, Sophie; Dreno, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Skin reactions due to radiotherapy and chemotherapy are a significant problem for an important number of cancer patients. While effective for treating cancer, they disturb cutaneous barrier function, causing a reaction soon after initiation of treatment that impacts patient quality of life. Managing these symptoms with cosmetics and nonpharmaceutical skin care products for camouflage or personal hygiene may be important for increasing patient self-esteem. However, inappropriate product choice or use could worsen side effects. Although recommendations exist for the pharmaceutical treatment of skin reactions, there are no recommendations for the choice or use of dermatologic skin care products for oncology patients. The present guidelines were developed by a board of European experts in dermatology and oncology to provide cancer care professionals with guidance for the appropriate use of non-pharmaceutical, dermocosmetic skin care management of cutaneous toxicities associated with radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy, including epidermal growth factor inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. The experts hope that these recommendations will improve the management of cutaneous side effects and hence quality of life for oncology patients. PMID:24353440

  1. Selection of Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma for Surgical Resection

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Norman W.

    1985-01-01

    Cancer of the lung is rapidly increasing in incidence in both sexes and soon will overtake breast cancer as the most deadly cancer in women. Selection of patients with non-small-cell carcinoma for surgical resection is largely based on preoperative clinical staging, using the American Joint Committee on Cancer's TNM-based group staging protocol. Determining the presence or absence of mediastinal nodal metastasis is paramount and is currently best achieved by computed tomographic scanning of the chest and biopsy of enlarged nodes via mediastinoscopy. Certain types of stage III lesions, previously excluded from surgical treatment, are now recognized as operable. PMID:3909642

  2. Surgical Delay Facilitates Pedicled Nipple-sparing Mastectomy and Reconstruction in the Ptotic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Skowronksi, Piotr P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Significant ptosis is a relative contraindication for nipple-sparing mastectomy and reconstruction. Repositioning of the nipple on the reconstructed breast is best accomplished using a pedicled approach that is risky in the immediate setting. We utilized a surgical delay before reconstruction that allowed for repositioning of the nipple-areola complex on an inferior pedicle. This also allows for resizing of the nipple-areola complex, reliable complete coverage of the prosthesis with viable tissue, and creation of an ideal skin envelope in patients with skin excess. Here, we present the first description of a surgical delay to facilitate pedicled nipple-sparing mastectomy and reconstruction. PMID:27482483

  3. Surgical Delay Facilitates Pedicled Nipple-sparing Mastectomy and Reconstruction in the Ptotic Patient.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jean-Claude D; Skowronksi, Piotr P

    2016-06-01

    Significant ptosis is a relative contraindication for nipple-sparing mastectomy and reconstruction. Repositioning of the nipple on the reconstructed breast is best accomplished using a pedicled approach that is risky in the immediate setting. We utilized a surgical delay before reconstruction that allowed for repositioning of the nipple-areola complex on an inferior pedicle. This also allows for resizing of the nipple-areola complex, reliable complete coverage of the prosthesis with viable tissue, and creation of an ideal skin envelope in patients with skin excess. Here, we present the first description of a surgical delay to facilitate pedicled nipple-sparing mastectomy and reconstruction. PMID:27482483

  4. Early Benefit Assessments in Oncology in Germany: How Can a Clinically Relevant Endpoint Not Be Relevant to Patients?

    PubMed

    Ruof, Jörg; Flückiger, Olivier; Andre, Niko

    2015-09-01

    After 4 years of early benefit assessment (EBA) in Germany, it is becoming evident that the Federal Joint Committee (FJC) frequently considers well-established clinical endpoints as not being relevant to patients. Focusing on assessments of oncology medicines, we analysed the FJC's view on primary endpoints and compared it with the approach used by regulatory authorities. Mortality data were accepted by both stakeholders. Whereas regulatory authorities accepted primary morbidity endpoints such as progression-free survival and response rates, the FJC mostly excluded these from its assessments. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data have been poorly reflected in the approval process; for EBAs, those data have rarely impacted on benefit ratings. We argue that agreement between regulatory authorities and the FJC is required regarding primary study endpoints that are relevant to patients, and that clarification of acceptable endpoints by the FJC, especially in the morbidity domain, has to be provided. Moreover, in order to fully acknowledge the benefit of a new medicinal product, mortality, morbidity and HRQoL should be weighted differentially, according to the condition. PMID:26286202

  5. [Using arts therapies in psycho-oncology: evaluation of an exploratory study implemented in an out-patient setting].

    PubMed

    Schiltz, L; Zimoch, A

    2013-01-01

    According to the state-of-the-art in health psychology and psycho-oncology, a cancerous disease, as well as the accompanying medical treatments, is a source ofintense emotional stress. As feelings of insecurity and anxiety are likely to induce negative effects on immune defences, those effects may overlap with the cancerous disease and complicate its evolution. As arts therapies tend to favour the imaginary and symbolic elaboration of the tensions of daily life, as well as the re appropriation of one's body and personal history, different artistic mediations may occupy an important function in the psychological follow-up of the patient. Following an exploratory study in a hospital, we carried out an action-research in an out-patient setting during six moths. The arts therapeutic treatment comprehended alternatively drawing and writing sessions while listening to music, opening tracks for a thorough verbal elaboration. The evaluation was based on psychometric scales (HADS and MDBF), rating scales for the pictorial and literary production and a semi-structured interview. According to the results of the quantitative analyses, based on non parametric statistical procedures for small groups and non metric data, as well as to the qualitative content analyses, arts therapies could become a valuable treating measure within a multidisciplinary bio-psycho-social approach. PMID:23808110

  6. Utilitarian prioritization of radiation oncology patients based on maximization of population tumour control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, M. A.; Li, W.; Jennings, L.; Kearvell, R.; Bydder, S.

    2013-06-01

    An objective method for establishing patient prioritization in the context of a radiotherapy waiting list is investigated. This is based on a utilitarian objective, being the greatest probability of local tumour control in the population of patients. A numerical simulation is developed and a clinical patient case-mix is used to determine the influence of the characteristics of the patient population on resulting optimal patient scheduling. With the utilitarian objective, large gains in tumour control probability (TCP) can be achieved for individuals or cohorts by prioritizing patients for that fraction of the patient population with relatively small sacrifices in TCP for a smaller fraction of the population. For a waiting list in steady state with five patients per day commencing treatment and leaving the list (and so with five patients per day entering the list), and a mean wait time of 35 days and a maximum of 90 days, optimized wait times ranged from a mean of one day for patients with tumour types with short effective doubling times to a mean of 66.9 days for prostate cancer patients. It is found that, when seeking the optimal daily order of patients on the waiting list in a constrained simulation, the relative rather than absolute value of TCP is the determinant of the resulting optimal waiting times. An increase in the mean waiting time mostly influences (increases) the optimal waiting times of patients with fast-growing tumours. The proportional representation of groups (separated by tumour type) in the patient population has an influence on the resulting distribution of optimal waiting times for patients in those groups, though has only a minor influence on the optimal mean waiting time for each group.

  7. Management of chronic empyema with unexpandable lung in poor surgical risk patients using an empyema tube

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Abhishek; Jantz, Michael A; Penley, Andrea M; Mehta, Hiren J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: High preoperative risk precludes decortication and other surgical interventions in some patients with chronic empyema. We manage such patients by converting the chest tube into an “empyema tube,” cutting the tube near the skin and securing the end with a sterile clip to allow for open pleural drainage. The patient is followed serially, and the tube gradually withdrawn based on radiological resolution and amount of drainage. Methods: Between 2010 and 2014, patients with chronic empyema and unexpandable lung, deemed high-risk surgical candidates, had staged chest tube removal, and were included for the study. The volume of fluid drained, culture results, duration of drainage, functional status, and comorbidities were recorded. Measurements and Results: Eight patients qualified. All had resolution of infection. The tube was removed after an average of 73.6 ± 49.73 (95% confidence interval [CI]) days. The mean duration of antibiotic treatment was 5.37 ± 1.04 (95% CI) weeks. None required surgery or experienced complications from an empyema tube. Conclusion: A strategy of empyema tube drainage with staged removal is an option in appropriately selected patients with chronic empyema, unexpandable lung, and poor surgical candidacy. PMID:27185989

  8. Lived experiences and challenges of older surgical patients during hospitalization for cancer: an ethnographic fieldwork.

    PubMed

    Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Høybye, Mette Terp

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the lived experiences of older surgical patients' (aged 74 years and older) experienced challenges during a brief admission to hospital. Age, gender, polypharmacy, and the severity of illness are also factors known to affect the hospitalization process. For an ethnographic study using participant observation and interviews, surgical cancer patients (n = 9, aged 74 years and older) were recruited during admission to a Danish teaching hospital. Using ethnographic strategies of participant observation and interviews, each patient was followed through the course of 1 day during their stay at the hospital. Interviews were carried out with all patients during this time. Three areas of concern were identified as prominent in the patients' experiences and challenges during their short hospital stay: teeth and oral cavity, eating in a hospital setting, and medication during hospitalization. Short-term hospitalization requires focused collaboration between staff and patient concerning individual challenges from their teeth and oral cavity as support of nutritional needs during surgical treatment for cancer. PMID:24559546

  9. Thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle in nutritional assessment of surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Katarina Papera; Silva, Naira Marceli Fraga; Faioli, Amanda Barcelos; Barreto, Marina Abelha; de Moraes, Rafael Araújo Guedes; Guandalini, Valdete Regina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the correlation between thickness of the muscle adductor pollicis and anthropometric measurements, body mass index and Subjective Global Assessment in the nutritional assessment of surgical patients. Methods The study population comprised patients admitted to the general and reconstructive surgery unit of a university hospital in the city of Vitória (ES), Brazil. The inclusion criteria were patients evaluated in the first 48 hours of admission, aged ≥20 years, hemodynamically stable, with no edema or ascites. Data analysis was performed using the software Statistical Package for Social Science 21.0, significance level of 5%. Results The sample consisted of 150 patients that were candidates to surgery, mean age of 42.7±12.0 years. The most common reasons for hospitalization were surgical procedures, gastrintestinal diseases and neoplasm. Significant association was observed between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and Subjective Global Assessment (p=0.021) and body mass index (p=0.008) for nutritional risk. Significant correlation was found between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and arm muscle circumference, corrected arm muscle area, calf circumference and body mass index. There were no significant correlations between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and triceps skinfold and age. Conclusion The use of thickness of adductor pollicis muscle proved to be an efficient method to detect malnutrition in surgical patients and it should be added to the screening process of hospitalized patients, since it is easy to perform, inexpensive and noninvasive. PMID:27074229

  10. Interprofessional patient-centred practice in oncology teams: utopia or reality?

    PubMed

    Bilodeau, Karine; Dubois, Sylvie; Pepin, Jacinthe

    2015-03-01

    Studies on interprofessional practice usually report professionals' viewpoints and document organizational, procedural and relational factors influencing that practice. Considering the importance of interprofessional patient-centred (IPPC) practice, it seems necessary to describe it in detail in an actual context of care, from the perspective of patients, their families and health-care professionals. The goal of this study was to describe IPPC practice throughout the continuum of cancer care. A qualitative multiple case study was completed with two interprofessional teams from a Canadian teaching hospital. Interviews were conducted with patients, their families and professionals, and observation was carried out. Three themes were illustrated by current team practice: welcoming the person as a unique individual, but still requiring the patient to comply; the paradoxical coexistence of patient-centred discourse and professional-centred practice; and triggering team collaboration with the culmination of the patient's situation. Several influential factors were described, including the way the team works; the physical environment; professionals' and patients'/family members' stance on the collaboration; professionals' stance on patients and their families; and patients' stance on professionals. Finally, themes describing the desired IPPC practice reflect the wish of most participants to be more involved. They were: providing support in line with the patient's experience and involvement; respecting patients by not imposing professionals' values and goals; and consistency and regularity in the collaboration of all members. PMID:25070427

  11. Considerations for surgical treatment of patients with upper lumbar disc herniations.

    PubMed

    Ido, K; Shimizu, K; Tada, H; Matsuda, Y; Shikata, J; Nakamura, T

    1998-02-01

    Nine patients treated by surgery for upper lumbar disc herniations were reviewed. Of nine patients with upper lumbar disc herniations at the L1-L2 or L2-L3 level, five were treated by anterior procedures, whereas four underwent posterior procedures. Four of the five patients on whom anterior procedures were performed underwent additional spinal instrumentation using the Kaneda device and Z-plate system. Clinical symptoms improved in all nine patients. Confirmation of the type and level of disc herniation and increased thoracolumbar kyphosis must be taken into consideration when the optimal surgical procedure and spinal instrumentation method are selected. PMID:9493774

  12. Surgical errors and risks – the head and neck cancer patient

    PubMed Central

    Harréus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck surgery is one of the basic principles of head and neck cancer therapy. Surgical errors and malpractice can have fatal consequences for the treated patients. It can lead to functional impairment and has impact in future chances for disease related survival. There are many risks for head and neck surgeons that can cause errors and malpractice. To avoid surgical mistakes, thorough preoperative management of patients is mandatory. As there are ensuring operability, cautious evaluation of preoperative diagnostics and operative planning. Moreover knowledge of anatomical structures of the head and neck, of the medical studies and data as well as qualification in modern surgical techniques and the surgeons ability for critical self assessment are basic and important prerequisites for head and neck surgeons in order to make out risks and to prevent from mistakes. Additionally it is important to have profound knowledge in nutrition management of cancer patients, wound healing and to realize and to be able to deal with complications, when they occur. Despite all precaution and surgical care, errors and mistakes cannot always be avoided. For that it is important to be able to deal with mistakes and to establish an appropriate and clear communication and management for such events. The manuscript comments on recognition and prevention of risks and mistakes in the preoperative, operative and postoperative phase of head and neck cancer surgery. PMID:24403972

  13. Prognosis elements in surgical treatment of complicated umbilical hernia in patients with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Banu, P; Popa, F; Constantin, VD; Bălălău, C; Nistor, M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The surgical treatment of umbilical hernia in cirrhosis patients raises special management challenges. The attitude upon the repair of these hernias varies from expectancy or elective treatment in early stages of the disease to the surgical treatment only if complications occur. Material and Method: We have assessed 22 consecutive cases of cirrhosis patients treated for complicated umbilical hernia in the Surgical Department of “Sf. Pantelimon" Emergency Hospital in Bucharest between January 2008 and December 2012. The patients’ stratification was done in stages of liver disease based upon Child-Pugh classification. Complications that required emergency repair were the following: strangulation, incarceration and hernia rupture. The postoperative complications were ordered in five grades of severity based upon Clavien classification. Results: The severity of the complications was higher in advanced stages of liver cirrhosis, Child B and C. There were 5 deaths representing 22,7%, four of them in patients with Child C disease stage. Conclusion: The incidence of morbidity and mortality after umbilical hernia repair in emergencies increases in advanced stages of liver cirrhosis. It is advisable to prevent complications occurrence and perform surgical repair of umbilical hernia in elective condition. PMID:24155783

  14. Clinical review: Immunodepression in the surgical patient and increased susceptibility to infection

    PubMed Central

    Angele, Martin K; Faist, Eugen

    2002-01-01

    Several studies indicate that organ failure is the leading cause of death in surgical patients. An excessive inflammatory response followed by a dramatic paralysis of cell-mediated immunity following major surgery appears to be responsible for the increased susceptibility to subsequent sepsis. In view of this, most of the scientific and medical research has been directed towards measuring the progression and inter-relationship of mediators following major surgery. Furthermore, the effect of those mediators on cell-mediated immune responses has been studied. This article will focus on the effect of blood loss and surgical injury on cell-mediated immune responses in experimental studies utilizing models of trauma and hemorrhagic shock, which have defined effects on the immunoinflammatory response. Subsequently these findings will be correlated with data generated from surgical patients. The results of these studies may generate new approaches for the treatment of immunodepression following major surgery, thus reducing the susceptibility to infection and increasing the survival rate of the critical ill surgical patient. PMID:12225603

  15. Clinical effect of a positive surgical margin after hepatectomy on survival of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsieh, Feng-Jen; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Chen, Jen-Shi; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Jan, Yi-Yin; Chen, Miin-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Background Several unfavorable prognostic factors have been proposed for peripheral cholangiocarcinoma (PCC) in patients undergoing hepatectomy, including gross type of tumor, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, a high carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level, and a positive resection margin. However, the clinical effect of a positive surgical margin on the survival of patients with PCC after hepatectomy still needs to be clarified due to conflicting results. Methods A total of 224 PCC patients who underwent hepatic resection with curative intent between 1977 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Eighty-nine patients had a positive resection margin, with 62 having a microscopically positive margin and 27 a grossly positive margin (R2). The clinicopathological features, outcomes, and recurrence pattern were compared with patients with curative hepatectomy. Results PCC patients with hepatolithiasis, periductal infiltrative or periductal infiltrative mixed with mass-forming growth, higher T stage, and more advanced stage tended to have higher positive resection margin rates after hepatectomy. PCC patients who underwent curative hepatectomy had a significantly higher survival rate than did those with a positive surgical margin. When PCC patients underwent hepatectomy with a positive resection margin, the histological grade of the tumor, nodal positivity, and chemotherapy significantly affected overall survival. Locoregional recurrence was the most common pattern of recurrence. Conclusion A positive resection margin had an unfavorable effect on overall survival in PCC patients undergoing hepatectomy. In these patients, the prognosis was determined by the biology of the tumor, including differentiation and nodal positivity, and chemotherapy increased overall survival. PMID:25552905

  16. Prevention of bleeding and hemorrhagic complications in surgical patients with inherited factor VII deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wiszniewski, Adam; Szczepanik, Andrzej; Misiak, Andrzej; Bykowska, Ksenia; Szopiński, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Inherited factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive hemorrhagic disorder. The major clinical symptoms include: bleeding from the oral cavity, epistaxis, menorrhagia, spontaneous hemarthros, bleeding to the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system, and perioperative bleeding. The aim of this study was to present our experience in preventing bleeding and hemorrhagic disorders in surgical patients with inherited FVII deficiency by using recombinant activated FVIIa (rFVIIa), and with prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs). In 2002-2011, 17 patients with inherited FVII deficiency underwent surgery. Thirteen patients had isolated FVII deficiency below 10%, and four patients 10-25. To prevent bleeding and hemorrhagic complications, we administered small single doses of rFVIIa (Novo-Seven) at 12-h intervals to 15 patients on surgery day and on day 1 following surgery, then every 24 h; PCCs were administered (Prothromplex, Beriplex) to two patients. No symptoms of bleeding, hemorrhagic or thromboembolic complications were observed in the perioperative and 1-month observation period in surgical patients treated with rFVIIa. One patient treated with PCC (Prothromplex) developed distal deep vein thrombosis on postoperative day 7. The results suggest that small, single, every 12-h doses of rFVIIa (NovoSeven) and in next days after surgery one time every 24 h are well tolerated and effective for prevention of thromboembolic, bleeding and hemorrhagic complications in FVII-deficient patients. Antithrombotic prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin should be applied in patients using PCCs. PMID:25688458

  17. Prevalence of emotional symptoms in Chilean oncology patients before the start of chemotherapy: potential of the distress thermometer as an ultra-brief screening instrument

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, Jorge; Campla, Cristóbal; D’Aguzan, Nicole; Barraza, Soledad; Padilla, Oslando; Sánchez, Cesar; Palma, Silvia; González, Matías

    2014-01-01

    Emotional distress (ED) is greater for oncology patients in comparison with the general population, and this has implications for the quality of life of the patient and his/her family, adherence to the treatment, and eventually, survivorship. In general, the detection of these symptoms is low, which explains the need for detection systems appropriate to the clinical reality of the oncology team. The objective of this study is to evaluate for the first time the usefulness of an ultra-brief screening instrument [distress thermometer (DT)], in a group of Chilean oncology patients. A total of 166 outpatients were evaluated at the Cancer Center of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, before starting chemotherapy. Two screening instruments were applied: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and DT. The application of HADS resulted in a prevalence of 32.7% of anxiety symptoms (HADS-A ≥ 8), 15.7% of depression symptoms (HADS-D ≥ 8), and 39.8% had a total score of HADS-T ≥ 11. The DT resulted in the prevalence of 32.5% of distress or ED (DT ≥ 5). The validity of the DT was evaluated as a screening tool in comparison with HADS, observing, in relation to the anxiety scale (HADS-A), a sensitivity of 88.9% and specificity of 78.4% (DT ≥ 4); depression (HADS-D), a sensitivity of 69.2% and specificity of 74.3% (DT ≥ 5); and in relation to the total scale (HADS-T), a sensitivity of 68.2% and specificity of 73.0% (DT ≥ 4). This study demonstrates the elevated prevalence of emotional symptoms in Chilean oncology patients, before the start of chemotherapy, and confirms the potential of the DT as a brief screening instrument with easy application. The DT will allow the clinician to increase the detection threshold in the Chilean oncology population, intervene in a timely manner, and contribute to the comprehensive handling of the oncology patient without affecting the time needed for assistance. PMID:24966889

  18. Addressing Spirituality Within the Care of Patients at the End of Life: Perspectives of Patients With Advanced Cancer, Oncologists, and Oncology Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Andrea C.; Lauderdale, Katharine E.; Alcorn, Sara; Dillinger, Jennifer; Balboni, Michael T.; Van Wert, Michael; VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Balboni, Tracy A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Attention to patients' religious and spiritual needs is included in national guidelines for quality end-of-life care, but little data exist to guide spiritual care. Patients and Methods The Religion and Spirituality in Cancer Care Study is a multi-institution, quantitative-qualitative study of 75 patients with advanced cancer and 339 cancer physicians and nurses. Patients underwent semistructured interviews, and care providers completed a Web-based survey exploring their perspectives on the routine provision of spiritual care by physicians and nurses. Theme extraction was performed following triangulated procedures of interdisciplinary analysis. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression models assessed relationships between participants' characteristics and attitudes toward spiritual care. Results The majority of patients (77.9%), physicians (71.6%), and nurses (85.1%) believed that routine spiritual care would have a positive impact on patients. Only 25% of patients had previously received spiritual care. Among patients, prior spiritual care (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 14.65; 95% CI, 1.51 to 142.23), increasing education (AOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.49), and religious coping (AOR, 4.79; 95% CI, 1.40 to 16.42) were associated with favorable perceptions of spiritual care. Physicians held more negative perceptions of spiritual care than patients (P < .001) and nurses (P = .008). Qualitative analysis identified benefits of spiritual care, including supporting patients' emotional well-being and strengthening patient-provider relationships. Objections to spiritual care frequently related to professional role conflicts. Participants described ideal spiritual care to be individualized, voluntary, inclusive of chaplains/clergy, and based on assessing and supporting patient spirituality. Conclusion Most patients with advanced cancer, oncologists, and oncology nurses value spiritual care. Themes described provide an empirical basis for engaging spiritual issues

  19. A Targeted E-Learning Program for Surgical Trainees to Enhance Patient Safety in Preventing Surgical Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, Seamus Mark; Corrigan, Mark; Dimitrov, Borislav; Cowman, Seamus; Tierney, Sean; Humphreys, Hilary; Hill, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Surgical site infection accounts for 20% of all health care-associated infections (HCAIs); however, a program incorporating the education of surgeons has yet to be established across the specialty. Methods: An audit of surgical practice in infection prevention was carried out in Beaumont Hospital from July to November 2009. An…

  20. Implementation of the american college of surgeons oncology group z1071 trial data in clinical practice: is there a way forward for sentinel lymph node dissection in clinically node-positive breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy?

    PubMed

    Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Caudle, Abigail S; Yang, Wei; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Shaitelman, Simona; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Woodward, Wendy A; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Kuerer, Henry M; Hunt, Kelly K

    2014-08-01

    For clinically node-positive breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, approximately 40 % will be found to be pathologically node negative. The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 trial was therefore conducted to evaluate sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) in these patients. The trial's primary end point was to determine the false-negative rate (FNR) among patients with clinical N1 disease in whom at least 2 sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were identified. The FNR was 12.6 %, which exceeded the prespecified end point of 10.0 %. After data publication, our multidisciplinary team discussed the trial results and how we may incorporate the findings into clinical practice. Patient selection and surgical technique are critical. As an example, when dual tracer technique was used, the FNR was 10.8 %. Data from the trial presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium suggested that the FNR could be improved if a clip was placed in the biopsy-proven positive lymph node and removal of that node during SLND was confirmed. Taking this into consideration, we have proposed an approach to surgical management of the axilla in clinically node-positive patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy termed targeted axillary dissection (TAD). TAD involves placing a clip at the time a lymph node is determined to be positive. After completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the clipped node is localized by using a wire or radioactive seed, and during the SLND procedure, all SLNs and the clipped node are removed. We are currently evaluating the efficacy of TAD in axillary staging after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:24841348

  1. Incorporating the sense of smell into patient and haptic surgical simulators.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Brandon S

    2006-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the sense of smell plays an important role in the field of medicine. The sense of smell not only assists the physician in the diagnosis of certain disorders, but it also plays a surgical role as well. Historically, learning this skill was mostly contingent upon some level of clinical exposure to medically related odors. The advent of computerized scent production devices could change this. This article proposes a surgical simulation model that incorporates olfactory technologies into existing patient and haptic surgical simulators. If incorporated into virtual educational settings such as these, computerized scent production devices could be used not only as a novel way to enhance the virtual experience, but also as a way for medical students to begin to recognize the important role that the sense of smell plays during both diagnosis and surgery. PMID:16445261

  2. Surgical prevention of femoral neck fractures in elderly osteoporotic patients. A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chiarello, Eugenio; Tedesco, Giuseppe; Cadossi, Matteo; Capra, Paola; Terrando, Silvio; Miti, Andrea; Giannini, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fragility fractures of the femur are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The incidence of new contralateral hip fractures in elderly osteoporotic patients ranges from 7 to 12% within 2 years after the first fracture. Secondary prevention can be divided in: pharmacological therapy based on the prescription of anti-osteoporotic drugs with different mechanism of action and non-pharmacological therapy which is based on modification of environmental risk factors, on a healthy diet with daily supplements of calcium and vitamin D and calcium and on the use of hip protectors. Recently a new form of prevention is becoming achievable: surgical prevention; the rationale of surgical reinforcement is the need to increase the resistance of the femoral neck to the compression and distraction forces acting on it. In this paper we analyse all the experimental and “on the market” device available for the surgical prevention of femoral neck fracture. PMID:27252744

  3. Suprastomal tracheal stenosis after dilational and surgical tracheostomy in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Koitschev, A; Simon, C; Blumenstock, G; Mach, H; Graumüller, S

    2006-09-01

    We have previously reported cases of severe suprastomal stenosis after tracheostomy. In this observational study we investigated the occurrence of suprastomal stenosis as a late complication. Patients with persistent tracheostomy after intensive care underwent an endoscopic examination of tracheostoma, larynx and trachea. A percutaneous dilational tracheostomy was employed in 105 (71.9%) and surgical tracheostomy in 41 (28.1%) of the cases (n = 146). The incidence of severe suprastomal stenosis (grade II > 50% of the lumen) was 23.8% (25 of 105) after dilational tracheostomy and 7.3% (3 of 41) after surgical tracheostomy (p = 0.033). Age, gender, underlying disease, ventilation time, and swallowing ability were not significantly associated with the tracheal pathology. This study suggests that dilational tracheostomy is associated with an increased risk of severe suprastomal tracheal stenosis compared to the surgical technique. PMID:16922748

  4. Dissecting aneurysm of the descending aorta. Improved surgical results in 91 patients.

    PubMed

    Reul, G J; Cooley, D A; Hallman, G L; Reddy, S B; Kyger, E R; Wukasch, D C

    1975-05-01

    Dissecting aneurysm of the descending thoraic aorta (type iii) is a specific disease process whose pathogenesis, pathologic description, surgical treatment, and prognosis is different from dissections of the ascending arota (types l and ll). From 1964 through 1974, 91 patients underwent surgical correction of type iii dissection. The operative mortality was 21% and late mortality, up to ten years follow-up, was 13%. During the past four years, operative mortality has dropped to 6.5%. Mortality was determined by extent of the aneurysm and underlying cardiac disease. Antihypertensive and negative ionotropic drugs have not been used as definitive treatment but as adjuncts in perioperative support. Based on our present mortality of 6.5%, with no late mortality, we urge early surgical treatment of acute and chronic dissecting aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta before extension, rupture, or massive enlargement of the aneurysm occurs. PMID:1093515

  5. A Comparison of Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia With Intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia for Postoperative Pain Management After Major Gynecologic Oncologic Surgeries: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moslemi, Farnaz; Rasooli, Sousan; Baybordi, Ali; Golzari, Samad E.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postoperative pain after major open gynecologic surgeries requires appropriate pain management. Objectives: This study aimed at comparing perioperative patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) and patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCA) after gynecologic oncology surgeries. Patients and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 90 patients with American society of anesthesiologists (ASA) class I or II scheduled for gynecologic oncologic surgeries were randomly allocated to two groups (45 patients each group) to receive: patient-controlled epidural analgesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl (PCEA group), or patient controlled intravenous analgesia (IV PCA group) with fentanyl, pethidine and ondansetron. Postoperative pain was assessed over 48 hours using the visual analog scale (VAS). The frequency of rescue analgesia was recorded. Occurrence of any concomitant events such as nausea, vomiting, ileus, purities, sedation and respiratory complications were recorded postoperatively. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in demographic data including; age, weight, ASA physical status, duration of surgery, intraoperative bleeding, and the amount of blood transfusion (P > 0.05), between the two studied groups. Severity of postoperative pain was not significantly different between the two groups (P > 0.05); however, after first patient mobilization, pain was significantly lower in the epidural group than the IV group (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the incidence of complications such as nausea, vomiting, purities or ileus (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, the incidence and severity of sedation was significantly higher in the IV group (P < 0.001). Respiratory depression was higher in the IV group than the epidural group; this difference, however, was not significant (P = 0.11). In the epidural group, only 10 patients (22.2%) had mild and transient lower extremities parenthesis. Conclusions

  6. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Gynecologic Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Kristina M.; Neubauer, Nikki L.

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery has been utilized in the field of obstetrics and gynecology as far back as the 1940s when culdoscopy was first introduced as a visualization tool. Gynecologists then began to employ minimally invasive surgery for adhesiolysis and obtaining biopsies but then expanded its use to include procedures such as tubal sterilization (Clyman (1963), L. E. Smale and M. L. Smale (1973), Thompson and Wheeless (1971), Peterson and Behrman (1971)). With advances in instrumentation, the first laparoscopic hysterectomy was successfully performed in 1989 by Reich et al. At the same time, minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology was being developed alongside its benign counterpart. In the 1975s, Rosenoff et al. reported using peritoneoscopy for pretreatment evaluation in ovarian cancer, and Spinelli et al. reported on using laparoscopy for the staging of ovarian cancer. In 1993, Nichols used operative laparoscopy to perform pelvic lymphadenectomy in cervical cancer patients. The initial goals of minimally invasive surgery, not dissimilar to those of modern medicine, were to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with surgery and therefore improve patient outcomes and patient satisfaction. This review will summarize the history and use of minimally invasive surgery in gynecologic oncology and also highlight new minimally invasive surgical approaches currently in development. PMID:23997959

  7. Surgical strategies of fertility preservation in female cancers.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, M; Frydman, R

    2014-10-01

    Conservative and functional surgery is increasingly used in surgical oncology. Although radical surgery remains the gold standard for treatment of cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancers, conservative approaches have been developed, aiming at preserving the potential of fertility of young patients. These procedures are proposed to selected patients, depending on histological parameters and prognostic factors as well. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is mandatory to weight the benefits and risks of fertility-sparing surgery. PMID:25245992

  8. Medium-term outcome of Astra Tech implants in head and neck oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Gander, T; Studer, S; Studer, G; Grätz, K W; Bredell, M

    2014-11-01

    Rehabilitation with implant-retained prostheses is a key step in the rehabilitation of patients after ablative head and neck surgery. Data of patients who underwent mandibular restoration with Astra Tech implants were gathered consecutively and analyzed retrospectively. Implant survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis, and Cox models were used to identify any association between implant failure and contributing factors. In total, 136 implants were placed in 33 patients. The main reason for ablative surgery was squamous cell carcinoma. Twenty-one patients received adjuvant radiotherapy with a cumulative radiation dose of 56-76Gy prior to implantation. Failure occurred in six patients, resulting in the loss of 17 implants. The cumulative implant survival rate was 92.7% after 1 year and 87.5% after 20 months. Smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with a significantly higher implant failure rate. Most patients had a stable implant status after 20 months. PMID:24907130

  9. Cervical Cancer in Ethiopia: Survival of 1,059 Patients Who Received Oncologic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Moelle, Ulrike; Begoihn, Matthias; Addissie, Adamu; Trocchi, Pietro; Yonas, Bekuretsion; Hezkiel, Petros; Stang, Andreas; Thomssen, Christoph; Vordermark, Dirk; Gemechu, Tufa; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Wondemagegnehu, Tigeneh; Aynalem, Abreha; Mathewos, Assefa

    2014-01-01

    Background. Almost 500,000 women are newly diagnosed with cervical cancer (CC) every year, the majority from developing countries. There is little information on the survival of these patients. Our primary objective was to evaluate consecutive CC patients presenting over 4 years at the only radiotherapy center in Ethiopia. Methods. All patients with CC from September 2008 to September 2012 who received radiotherapy and/or surgery were included (without brachytherapy). Vital status was obtained through telephone contact or patient cards. Results. Of 2,300 CC patients, 1,059 patients with standardized treatment were included. At the end of the study, 249 patients had died; surviving patients had a median follow-up of 16.5 months; the 10% and 90% percentiles were 3.0 and 32.7 months, respectively. Mean age was 49 years (21–91 years). The majority of patients presented with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIb–IIIa (46.7%). Because of progression during the waiting time (median 3.8 months), this proportion declined to 19.3% at the beginning of radiotherapy. The 1- and 2-year overall survival probabilities were 90.4% and 73.6%. If assuming a worst-case scenario (i.e., if all patients not available for follow-up after 6 months had died), the 2-year survival probability would be 45.4%. Conclusion. This study gives a thorough 4-year overview of treated patients with CC in Ethiopia. Given the limited treatment availability, a relatively high proportion of patients survived 2 years. More prevention and early detection at all levels of the health care system are needed. Increasing the capacity for external-beam radiation as well as options for brachytherapy would facilitate treatment with curative intention. PMID:24951611

  10. Thinking in three's: changing surgical patient safety practices in the complex modern operating room.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Verna C

    2012-12-14

    The three surgical patient safety events, wrong site surgery, retained surgical items (RSI) and surgical fires are rare occurrences and thus their effects on the complex modern operating room (OR) are difficult to study. The likelihood of occurrence and the magnitude of risk for each of these surgical safety events are undefined. Many providers may never have a personal experience with one of these events and training and education on these topics are sparse. These circumstances lead to faulty thinking that a provider won't ever have an event or if one does occur the provider will intuitively know what to do. Surgeons are not preoccupied with failure and tend to usually consider good outcomes, which leads them to ignore or diminish the importance of implementing and following simple safety practices. These circumstances contribute to the persistent low level occurrence of these three events and to the difficulty in generating sufficient interest to resource solutions. Individual facilities rarely have the time or talent to understand these events and develop lasting solutions. More often than not, even the most well meaning internal review results in a new line to a policy and some rigorous enforcement mandate. This approach routinely fails and is another reason why these problems are so persistent. Vigilance actions alone have been unsuccessful so hospitals now have to take a systematic approach to implementing safer processes and providing the resources for surgeons and other stakeholders to optimize the OR environment. This article discusses standardized processes of care for mitigation of injury or outright prevention of wrong site surgery, RSI and surgical fires in an action-oriented framework illustrating the strategic elements important in each event and focusing on the responsibilities for each of the three major OR agents-anesthesiologists, surgeons and nurses. A Surgical Patient Safety Checklist is discussed that incorporates the necessary elements to

  11. Thinking in three's: Changing surgical patient safety practices in the complex modern operating room

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Verna C

    2012-01-01

    The three surgical patient safety events, wrong site surgery, retained surgical items (RSI) and surgical fires are rare occurrences and thus their effects on the complex modern operating room (OR) are difficult to study. The likelihood of occurrence and the magnitude of risk for each of these surgical safety events are undefined. Many providers may never have a personal experience with one of these events and training and education on these topics are sparse. These circumstances lead to faulty thinking that a provider won’t ever have an event or if one does occur the provider will intuitively know what to do. Surgeons are not preoccupied with failure and tend to usually consider good outcomes, which leads them to ignore or diminish the importance of implementing and following simple safety practices. These circumstances contribute to the persistent low level occurrence of these three events and to the difficulty in generating sufficient interest to resource solutions. Individual facilities rarely have the time or talent to understand these events and develop lasting solutions. More often than not, even the most well meaning internal review results in a new line to a policy and some rigorous enforcement mandate. This approach routinely fails and is another reason why these problems are so persistent. Vigilance actions alone have been unsuccessful so hospitals now have to take a systematic approach to implementing safer processes and providing the resources for surgeons and other stakeholders to optimize the OR environment. This article discusses standardized processes of care for mitigation of injury or outright prevention of wrong site surgery, RSI and surgical fires in an action-oriented framework illustrating the strategic elements important in each event and focusing on the responsibilities for each of the three major OR agents-anesthesiologists, surgeons and nurses. A Surgical Patient Safety Checklist is discussed that incorporates the necessary elements to

  12. Effect of extradural blockage upon glucose and urea kinetics in surgical patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, J.H.; Galler, L.; Holdaway, I.M.; Holdaway, C.M.

    1987-09-01

    We have determined the metabolic effects induced by the use of extradural blockage with 0.5 per cent bupivacaine hydrochloride in a group of surgical patients. Turnover rates of glucose and urea were determined isotopically using radioisotopes and studies were performed both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition. In the basal state, extradural blockade resulted in a decrease in the turnover rates of both glucose and urea. In addition, when extradural blockade was instituted while the patients were receiving total parenteral nutrition, there was also a significant fall in glucose turnover. We conclude that the use of extradural blockade is effective as a means of conserving bodily resources in surgical patients both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition.

  13. Changing models of care for emergency surgical and trauma patients in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Sachin; Goo, Tiong Thye; Tan, T’zu Jen; Tan, Kok Yang; Mak, Kenneth Seck Wai

    2016-01-01

    The last 15 years have seen changing patterns of injury in emergency surgery and trauma patients. The ability to diagnose, treat and manage these patients nonoperatively has led to a decline in interest in trauma surgery as a career. In addition, healthcare systems face multiple challenges, including limited resources, an ageing population and increasing subspecialisation of medical care, while maintaining government-directed standards and managing public expectations. In the West, these challenges have led to the emergence of a new subspecialty, ‘acute care surgery’, with some models of care providing dedicated acute surgical units or separating acute and elective streams with the existing manpower resources. The outcomes for emergency surgery patients and efficiency gains are promising. In Singapore, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital has implemented its first dedicated acute surgical unit. This article outlines the evolution of acute care surgery and its relevance to Asia. PMID:27353030

  14. [SURGICAL TREATMENT OUTCOME IN PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER AND CONCOMITANT LIVER METASTASES].

    PubMed

    Shchepotin, S B; Kolesnik, O O; Burlaka, A A; Lukashenko, A V; Pryimak, V V

    2015-04-01

    Colorectal cancer with synchronous liver metastasis (sm-CRC) is extremely unfavorable prognostic factor. Surgery remains is most effective method, able to extend the life of these patients. The results of treatment of 126 patients with sm-CRC were analyzed, whom performed simultaneous (group I) or staged (group II) surgery. Simultaneous resection of 3 segments of liver or less with metastases and primary tumor is a safe surgical strategy (complicatios level was 4.8%); simultaneous resection of 3 segments of liver or more increase the complicatios level to 20.9%. Simultaneous resection ensure reduction of hospital stay terms in 58.1% and duration of surgery in 71.3% (p < 0.001). The average cost of treatment patient treating with staged strategy exceeded in simultaneous surgical treatment in 40.9%. PMID:26263637

  15. Efficacies of surgical treatments based on Harris hip score in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chengwei; Yang, Fengjian; Lin, Weilong; Fan, Yongqian

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the efficacies of four surgical treatments, i.e., total hip arthroplasty (THA), internal fixation (IF), hemiarthroplasty (HA), and artificial femoral head replacement (artificial FHR), by performing a network meta-analysis based on Harris hip score (HHS) in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture. Methods: In strict accordance with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, randomized controlled trails (RCTs) were screened and selected from a larger group of studies that were retrieved through a comprehensive search of scientific literature databases, further complimented by manual search. The resultant high-quality data from final selected studies were analyzed using Stata 12.0 software. Results: A total of 3680 studies were initially retrieved from database search, and 15 RCTs were eventually incorporated into this meta-analysis, containing 1781 elderly patients who had undergone various surgical treatments for femoral neck fracture (THA group = 604; HA group = 604; IF group = 495; artificial FHR group = 78). Our major result revealed a statistically significant difference in HHS of femoral neck fracture when HA and IF groups were compared with THA. No differences were detected in the HHS of femoral neck fracture undergoing artificial FHR and THA. The surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) value of HHS, in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture after surgery, revealed that IF has the highest value. Conclusions: The current network meta-analysis results suggest that IF is the superlative surgical procedure for femoral neck fracture patients, and IF significantly improves the HHS in femoral neck fracture patients. PMID:26221216

  16. Surgical treatment of synchronous multiple primary lung cancers: a retrospective analysis of 122 patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming; He, Wenxin; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background Synchronous multiple primary lung cancers (SMPLC) become more common in clinical practice. To identify factors attributed to SMPLC treatment outcomes, we have reviewed our experiences with surgical resections of SMPLC and analyzed the treatment outcomes in this paper. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients who have been diagnosed as SMPLC and underwent surgical resection between 1990 and 2010. Based on EGFR and KRAS mutations, we identified 27 cases as SMPLC out of 50 cases, which were difficult to distinguish primary lung cancers from metastases. A total of 265 tumors from 122 patients were studied. Results The 5-year survival rate for all patients was 40.5%. There was a significant difference in the 5-year survival between smokers and never-smokers (30.8% vs. 55.6%, P=0.011). Survival rate was also different between patients with same tumor histology and those with different tumor histology (46.9% vs. 24.8%, P=0.036). In addition, Solid nodule and pneumonectomy were associated with the worse survival (P=0.026, P=0.030). Multivariable analysis identified smoking status, stage, lymph node metastasis and pneumonectomy as significant independent predictive factors for overall survival. Conclusions Surgical treatment is a safe approach for patients with SMPLC; pneumonectomy should be avoided as far as possible given the poor prognosis. Mutational status of EGFR and KRAS may be advocated as a diagnostic criteria of synchronous lung cancer rather metastasis mainly in case of adenocarcinoma histology.

  17. Snoring Sounds Predict Obstruction Sites and Surgical Response in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Ang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Gui-She; Ni, Yung-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Snoring sounds generated by different vibrators of the upper airway may be useful indicators of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This study aimed to investigate associations between snoring sounds, obstruction sites, and surgical responses (≥50% reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and <10 events/hour) in patients with OSAHS. This prospective cohort study recruited 36 OSAHS patients for 6-hour snoring sound recordings during in-lab full-night polysomnography, drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), and relocation pharyngoplasty. All patients received follow-up polysomnography after 6 months. Fifteen (42%) patients with at least two complete obstruction sites defined by DISE were significantly, positively associated with maximal snoring sound intensity (40-300 Hz; odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.49) and body mass index (OR, 1.48, 95% CI 1.02-2.15) after logistic regression analysis. Tonsil obstruction was significantly, inversely correlated with mean snoring sound intensity (301-850 Hz; OR, 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.96). Moreover, baseline tonsil obstruction detected by either DISE or mean snoring sound intensity (301-850 Hz), and AHI could significantly predict the surgical response. Our findings suggest that snoring sound detection may be helpful in determining obstruction sites and predict surgical responses. PMID:27471038

  18. Craniofacial surgical management of a patient with systematic juvenile idiopathic arthritis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Kasfikis, Georgios; Georgios, Kasfikis; Antoniades, Helias; Helias, Antoniades; Kyrgidis, Athanassios; Athanassios, Kyrgidis; Markovitsi, Eleni; Eleni, Markovitsi; Antoniades, Konstantinos; Konstantinos, Antoniades

    2009-05-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common chronic inflammatory disease in early age. It affects one or more joints, lasts more than 3 weeks, and appears in patients younger than 16 years. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is classified according to the International League of Associations for Rheumatology consensus depending on the number of affected joints in the beginning of the disease. When JIA affects the temporomandibular joint, the development of the mandible is constrained. Patients show a tendency toward retrognathism and a vertical facial development pattern. The purpose of this study was to present a rare case of a young teenager who experienced JIA and Crohn's disease at the same time. The patient was referred to the hospital for aesthetic and functional problems, mainly convex facial profile and obstructive sleep apnea caused by the craniofacial abnormality. The patient was treated by sagittal split mandibular advancement osteotomy and advancement genioplasty. The mechanisms of obstructive sleep apnea development and the surgical treatment through osteotomies are commentated on. The surgical outcome is functionally and aesthetically favorable and solid 2 years after the operation. Surgical management of the craniofacial region can be a problem-solving treatment modality for patients with juvenile arthritis. PMID:19461338

  19. Management of spontaneous extramedullary spinal haematomas: results in eight patients after MRI diagnosis and surgical decompression.

    PubMed Central

    Langmayr, J J; Ortler, M; Dessl, A; Twerdy, K; Aichner, F; Felber, S

    1995-01-01

    Spinal cord compression due to extradural and subdural haemorrhage is a neurosurgical emergency. Differences in clinical presentation in relation to localisation of the haematoma, value of MRI as a diagnostic tool, surgical treatment, and prognosis were investigated in a retrospective case series of eight patients with extradural (n = four) and subdural (n = four) haematomas. Results of MRI were compared with operative findings and proved to be of high sensitivity in defining the type of bleeding and delineating craniocaudal extension and ventrodorsal location. Surgical treatment by decompressive laminectomy, haematoma evacuation, and postoperative high dose corticosteroids resulted in resolution of symptoms in five patients and improvement in the clinical situation in two patients. One patient with a chronic subdural haematoma had a second operation because of arachnoidal adhesions. One patient presented with a complete cord transection syndrome due to an acute subdural haematoma and remained paraplegic. It is concluded that prompt, reliable, and non-invasive diagnosis by MRI leads to efficient surgical treatment and a favourable outcome in this rare condition. Images PMID:7561928

  20. Catheter-based or surgical repair of the highest risk secondary mitral regurgitation patients

    PubMed Central

    Arsalan, Mani; Squiers, John J.; DiMaio, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Surgical mitral valve repair (MVR) remains the standard of care for patients with severe valve incompetence with clear, proven benefit for patients with primary mitral regurgitation (MR). Secondary MR is a primary disease of the left ventricular (LV) myocardium. Up to 50% of patients develop secondary MR after an acute myocardial infarction (ischemic MR), with approximately 10% of these having severe MR. It is controversial as to whether surgical MVR is beneficial for these patients because valve repair or replacement does not correct the underlying disease. The increased perioperative risk due to decreased LV function makes clinical decision-making even more complex. The recently introduced less-invasive, catheter-based therapies are potential promising solutions for this dilemma. While the MitraClip device is already in widespread clinical use as a viable therapeutic option in higher-risk patients with primary MR and currently in investigational trials for secondary MR, several other devices for both repair and replacement are currently undergoing feasibility trials. Due to the complex structure of the mitral valve, the development of transcatheter mitral valve replacement has been much slower than that of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, but this approach may be an attractive therapeutic option in the future. Currently, the role of surgical therapy in comparison to transcatheter techniques in secondary MR is not well defined. PMID:26309831

  1. Snoring Sounds Predict Obstruction Sites and Surgical Response in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li-Ang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Gui-She; Ni, Yung-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Snoring sounds generated by different vibrators of the upper airway may be useful indicators of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This study aimed to investigate associations between snoring sounds, obstruction sites, and surgical responses (≥50% reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and <10 events/hour) in patients with OSAHS. This prospective cohort study recruited 36 OSAHS patients for 6-hour snoring sound recordings during in-lab full-night polysomnography, drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), and relocation pharyngoplasty. All patients received follow-up polysomnography after 6 months. Fifteen (42%) patients with at least two complete obstruction sites defined by DISE were significantly, positively associated with maximal snoring sound intensity (40–300 Hz; odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.49) and body mass index (OR, 1.48, 95% CI 1.02–2.15) after logistic regression analysis. Tonsil obstruction was significantly, inversely correlated with mean snoring sound intensity (301–850 Hz; OR, 0.84, 95% CI 0.74–0.96). Moreover, baseline tonsil obstruction detected by either DISE or mean snoring sound intensity (301–850 Hz), and AHI could significantly predict the surgical response. Our findings suggest that snoring sound detection may be helpful in determining obstruction sites and predict surgical responses. PMID:27471038

  2. Individual and social concerns in American surgical education: paying patients, prepaid health insurance, Medicare and Medicaid.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, John S

    2010-05-01

    The education of the U.S. surgeon was traditionally based on a system in which surgeons-in-training cared for a population of largely indigent patients in a setting of graded responsibility. To ensure an ethically appropriate bargain, senior surgeons served as mentors, assumed ultimate responsibility for the patient, and supervised the surgical care of the ward patient by the surgical trainee. During the 20th century, changes in health care financing challenged this comfortable accommodation between charity care and medical education. As others have also written, the introduction of prepaid health insurance plans such as Blue Cross/Blue Shield in the early third of the century, the rapid expansion of employment-based health benefits during World War II, and the enactment of the Medicare and Medicaid legislation under Titles XVIII and XIX of the Social Security Act all contributed to a dramatic reduction in hospital ward (i.e., service) populations. The tension between education and patient care remains incompletely resolved; the proper balance between supervision and graded responsibility for the resident is ultimately worked out on an individual basis. Newer issues facing U.S. surgical education, including the justifiable demand for greater transparency, are likely to upset this suspended truce and lead to renewed discussions about such fundamental concepts as the definition of the resident and the role of the patient in the education of future surgeons. PMID:20520042

  3. Value of PCR in surgically treated patients with staphylococcal infective endocarditis: a 4-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Zaloudíková, B; Němcová, E; Pol, J; Sorm, Z; Wurmová, S; Novotná, K; Vaněrková, M; Holá, V; Růžička, F; Dušek, L; Němec, P; Freiberger, T

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to establish a diagnostic value for broad-range polymerase chain reaction (br-PCR) and staphylococci-specific multiplex PCR (ssm-PCR) performed on surgical material from patients with staphylococcal infective endocarditis (IE). Data were analysed retrospectively from 60 patients with suspected staphylococcal IE and 59 controls who were surgically treated at three cardiosurgery centres over 4 years. Both PCR tests showed high agreement and could be aggregated. In patients with definite and rejected IE, the clinical sensitivity and specificity of PCR reached 89 and 95%, respectively. Tissue culture (TC) and PCR agreed with blood culture (BC) in 29% and 67% of IE cases. TC helped to determine aetiology in five BC negative cases while PCR aided in nine cases. Out of 52 patients with conclusive staphylococcal IE, 40 were diagnosed with S. aureus and 12 with coagulase-negative staphylococci. PCR was shown to be highly superior to TC in confirming preoperative diagnosis of IE. In addition to aid in culture negative patients, PCR helped to establish or refine aetiology in inconclusive cases. We suggest that simultaneous br-PCR and ssm-PCR performed on surgical material together with histopathology could significantly increase the performance of current Duke criteria. PMID:21964590

  4. Prevalence and Determinants of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shoar, Saeed; Naderan, Mohammad; Aghajani, Motahareh; Sahimi-Izadian, Elaheh; Hosseini-Araghi, Negin; Khorgami, Zhamak

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Mood disorders are prevalent in hospitalized patients. However, risk factors for early diagnosis have not been studied exclusively in surgical patients. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression and anxiety symptoms in surgical patients. Methods We included 392 surgical patients in this prospective cross-sectional study, which took place between June 2011 and June 2012. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to screen for symptoms of depression and anxiety at weekly interviews. Regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for early (the day after admission) and late (one week or more) in-hospital psychiatry symptoms. Results Depression and anxiety symptoms increased from the time of admission toward longer hospital stay. Scores obtained in the second and third weeks of admission were associated with the need for surgery while HADS in the third week was associated with lack of familial support and being under the poverty line (p < 0.050). Regression model analysis showed that early depression was associated with female gender, and early anxiety was inversely affected by female gender and protected by higher education level. A history of mood disorder was a risk factor. Later anxiety was also associated with longer hospital stay. Conclusions Depression and anxiety symptoms are a major concern in surgical patients especially in females and those with a history of mood disorders or lower educational level. Patients with a longer hospital stay, in particular, those with underlying diseases, postoperative complications, lack of familial support, and the need for reoperation were also at increased risk. PMID:27162587

  5. Non surgical predicting factors for patient satisfaction after third molar surgery

    PubMed Central

    Balaguer-Martí, José-Carlos; Aloy-Prósper, Amparo; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David

    2016-01-01

    Background In the third molar surgery, it is important to focus not only on surgical skills, but also on patient satisfaction. Classically studies have been focused on surgery and surgeon’s empathy, but there are non-surgical factors that may influence patient satisfaction. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on 100 patients undergoing surgical extractions of impacted mandibular third molars treated from October 2013 to July 2014 in the Oral Surgery Unit of the University of Valencia. A questionnaire (20 questions) with a 10-point Likert scale was provided. The questionnai