Science.gov

Sample records for sustainable economic development

  1. Pedagogy for Economic Competitiveness and Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi; Oldroyd, David

    2010-01-01

    Accelerating threats to a sustainable relationship between economic growth and the capacity of the global social-ecological system to support it require that the implications of competitiveness be reassessed. Today, the capacities that underlie economic competitiveness must also be brought to bear on policy and pedagogy to prepare the coming…

  2. Nature's role in sustaining economic development

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Partha

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I formalize the idea of sustainable development in terms of intergenerational well-being. I then sketch an argument that has recently been put forward formally to demonstrate that intergenerational well-being increases over time if and only if a comprehensive measure of wealth per capita increases. The measure of wealth includes not only manufactured capital, knowledge and human capital (education and health), but also natural capital (e.g. ecosystems). I show that a country's comprehensive wealth per capita can decline even while gross domestic product (GDP) per capita increases and the UN Human Development Index records an improvement. I then use some rough and ready data from the world's poorest countries and regions to show that during the period 1970–2000 wealth per capita declined in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, even though the Human Development Index (HDI) showed an improvement everywhere and GDP per capita increased in all places (except in sub-Saharan Africa, where there was a slight decline). I conclude that, as none of the development indicators currently in use is able to reveal whether development has been, or is expected to be, sustainable, national statistical offices and international organizations should now routinely estimate the (comprehensive) wealth of nations. PMID:20008380

  3. Economic valuation for sustainable development in the Swedish coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Söderqvist, Tore; Eggert, Håkan; Olsson, Björn; Soutukorva, Asa

    2005-03-01

    The Swedish coastal zone is a scene of conflicting interests about various goods and services provided by nature. Open-access conditions and the public nature of many services increase the difficulty in resolving these conflicts. "Sustainability" is a vague but widely accepted guideline for finding reasonable trade-offs between different interests. The UN view of sustainable development suggests that coastal zone management should aim at a sustainable ecological, economic, and social-cultural development. Looking closer at economic sustainability, it is observed that economic analyses about whether changes in society imply a gain or a loss should take into account the economic value of the environment. Methods used for making such economic valuation in the context of the Swedish coastal zone are briefly reviewed. It is noted that the property rights context matters for the results of a valuation study. This general background is followed by a concise presentation of the design and results of four valuation studies on Swedish coastal zone issues. One study is on the economic value of an improved bathing water quality in the Stockholm archipelago. The other studies are a travel cost study about the economic value of improved recreational fisheries in the Stockholm archipelago, a replacement cost study on the value of restoring habitats for sea trout, and a choice experiment study on the economic value of improved water quality along the Swedish westcoast. PMID:15865316

  4. Pollution prevention and its role in sustainable economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Mattos, de Lemos, H. )

    1992-12-01

    The recent United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) was the largest gathering of governments and heads of states to date. This paper describes the preparatory process for this meeting as well as the recommendations of UNCED. This Conference was essentially about changing behavior -- specifically economic behavior. The implications of sustainable development was among the subjects explored during the 9th World Clean Air Congress in Montreal in September 1992. At a plenary session on the topic, Professor de Lemos, President of Brazil's UNEP Institute, reported on the 1992 UNCED Conference and what it revealed about the impact of business, poverty, and population on the goals of sustainable development. His remarks are included in the article. 8 refs.

  5. Water: The conveyor belt for sustainable livelihoods and economic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapani, Benjamin; Meck, Maideyi; Makurira, Hodson; Magole, Lapologang; Mashauri, Damas; mazvimavi, Dominic; Mul, Marloes

    2016-04-01

    The theme for the 2014 symposium focused on the contribution of integrated water resources management (IWRM) to socio-economic development. A number of papers presented various methods that could be used to enable society to access clean water; sanitation and provision of water for rainfed and irrigation based agriculture and aquaculture. Water is the engine of development, that drives both money generating ventures as well as activities which cannot be assigned exact monetary value, but are essential for the social and economic well being of communities. It is now accepted that in order to produce most products, the contribution of water has to be factored in; from manufacturing to mining. The role that water plays in the has a much higher economic value than most people realize.

  6. Ecological Network Analysis for Economic Systems: Growth and Development and Implications for Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input–output (I-O) tables for 1985–2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985–2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects. PMID:24979465

  7. Understanding Economic and Management Sciences Teachers' Conceptions of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development has become a key part of the global educational discourse. Education for sustainable development (ESD) specifically is pronounced as an imperative for different curricula and regarded as being critical for teacher education. This article is based on research that was conducted on economic and management sciences (EMS)…

  8. World without end: Economics, environment, and sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, D.W.; Warford, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The volume is the outcome of several years of research, fieldwork, and policy advice concerned with the rapidly growing subject of environmental economics in developing countries. The authors make no claim to originality of research and have borrowed freely from the existing literature. In at least two respects, however, the volume is unique. First, it uses a great deal of material, such as background papers and research conducted for the World Bank, that is not readily available to the wider public. Some of the chapters overlap. This is deliberate and, in fact, unavoidable. Since many readers may only want to read about a specific subject, such as population, poverty, market-based incentives, or tropical forests, the authors have attempted to make each chapter self-contained. The authors experimented with several sequences for the chapters and found that, regardless of the overall structure, the authors frequently had to share information among chapters to make each story coherent.

  9. Home Economics Teachers' Intentions and Engagement in Teaching Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapala, Irja; Biggs, Simon; Cederberg, Riitta; Kosonen, Anna-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Home Economics (HE) teachers can have a central role in teaching sustainable development (SD) to young adolescents through everyday household management and the promotion of personally and globally sustainable well-being. How well the teachers cope with this task is not well known. The objective of this study was to survey Finnish HE…

  10. Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmandt, Jurgen; Ward, C. H.; Marilu Hastings, Assisted By

    2000-04-01

    Demographers predict that the world population will double during the first half of the 21st century before it will begin to level off. In this volume, a group of prominent authors examine what societal changes must occur to meet this challenge to the natural environment and the transformational changes that we must experience to achieve sustainability. Frances Cairncross, Herman E. Daly, Stephen H. Schneider and others provide a broad discussion of sustainable development. They detail economic and environmental, as well as spiritual and religious, corporate and social, scientific and political factors. Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Transition offers many insightful policy recommendations about how business, government, and individuals must change their current values, priorities, and behavior to meet present and future challenges. It will appeal to scholars and decision makers interested in global change, environmental policy, population growth, and sustainable development, and also to corporate environmental managers.

  11. Economic dimensions of sustainable development, the fight against poverty and educational responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Manzoor

    2010-06-01

    The arguments in the article are based on the ongoing discourse in the academic community and among stakeholders, which has contributed to the articulation of the concepts and premises of sustainable development and the role of learning modalities, technologies and networks. The article draws on this discourse to explore the economic aspects of sustainable development, focusing on pervasive poverty, and the implications for educational actions. The concepts and underlying premises of education for sustainable development (ESD) are discussed. The article presents the key elements of an integrated approach to fighting poverty in the context of sustainable development. The role of learning and education in this integrated approach is outlined, framing the educational elements within the perspective of lifelong learning.

  12. Economic development in an era of global environmentalism: Sustainable development and environmental policy implementation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qingguo

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to explore the opportunities and constraints of implementing environmental policy and sustainable development in China. As the most populous country on earth, China's development and survival has come to a turning point. Many scholars as well as the Chinese government have realized that there is only one way out of the impending environmental disaster. That is by adopting a policy of sustainable development to protect the already damaged environment. The study is centered by a case study of Yunnan Biomass-to-Electricity (BTE) Program, which is a joint research effort between American and Chinese institutions to implement biomass energy projects in rural areas of Yunnan province, China. By integrating energy production and environmental protection, the BTE Program could serve both the environmental and economic needs of the local regions. Therefore, the Yunnan BTE program can serve as a model of sustainable development. Furthermore, because the Yunnan BTE program was a cooperative research effort involving Chinese and American institutions, it also provides an opportunity to study and assess international joint policy implementation efforts. In this case study, we developed an analytical model that contains key factors, both constraints and opportunities, which may have affected the implementation of the BTE program. We explore the role of environmental policy and relationships among various relevant Chinese and American institutions involved in the BTE program. Through careful examination of these factors, and their roles in the process, we establish which facilitate and inhibit program implementation. The study of Mengpeng BTE project showed that all the factors in the analytical model influenced the outcome of the project implementation. Some played more vital roles while others were just minor players. The study demonstrated that preferential environmental policy and sound institutional setting are essential for the

  13. Economic Dimensions of Sustainable Development, the Fight against Poverty and Educational Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Manzoor

    2010-01-01

    The arguments in the article are based on the ongoing discourse in the academic community and among stakeholders, which has contributed to the articulation of the concepts and premises of sustainable development and the role of learning modalities, technologies and networks. The article draws on this discourse to explore the economic aspects of…

  14. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  15. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  16. Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Discusses South African national development priorities, sustainable development, and the future of agriculture and presents three scenarios of possible national action: production for sale and export, household food security, and conservation of natural resources. (MKR)

  17. Sustainable development and quality of life: expected effects of prospective changes in economic and environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Vlek, C; Skolnik, M; Gatersleben, B

    1998-01-01

    In the context of "sustainable development", we studied which attributes are important to people's quality of life (QoL) and which changes in QoL people would expect from future economic and environmental improvements or deteriorations. About 200 adult subjects evaluated the relative importance of 22 different QoL attributes. They subsequently indicated expected changes in those attributes, under three different scenarios in which economic and environmental conditions would either improve or deteriorate. On average, subjects judged the QoL attributes "healthy", "family", "environmental quality", "nature" and "safety" to be most important, while "recognition", "comfort", "status" and "spiritual life" were found least important. The most important QoL attributes as well as "security" were judged as more important by women than by men. Also observed were income and age effects on relative attribute importance. Our (Dutch) subjects expected significant and varied negative QoL changes from an environmental-deterioration scenario involving either an improved or a deteriorated economy. In contrast, they had mixed positive-negative QoL expectations about environmental improvement combined with economic deterioration. Subjects high in environmental concern assigned greater weight to "environmental" QoL attributes, and they expected environmental improvement versus deterioration to more strongly affect their QoL-attributes "environmental quality", "nature", "health" and "unity with nature", than did subjects low in environmental concern. We conclude that quality of life can be meaningfully conceived as a multi-attribute value concept, useful for assessing the expected effects of future economic and environmental conditions. Suggestions are given for methodological improvement and for further research. PMID:9857825

  18. Wayanad widows: A study of sustainable rural economic development using renewable energy technology for micro enterprise in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voorhees, Maire Claire

    This thesis examines the situation of the farmer widows of Wayanad, Kerala through exploration of the underlying agricultural and economic issues leading to farmers' suicides, the current state of the environment in the Wayanad District of Kerala, India, and an economic model of micro-entrepreneurship to address economic and social issues of the surviving widows. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were performed through the assessment and document analysis of archive, newspaper, and published reports to gain a macro perspective. The Environmental Vulnerability Index was used as a tool to evaluate and organize findings of the current environmental conditions in the region. This thesis supports the sustainability concept of considering the economic, ecological, and social impacts when identifying economic development pathways. The goal was to explore the appropriateness of small household solar systems as vehicle in the micro-enterprise model to be a sustainable alternative economic pathway to agriculture for the farmer widows of Wayanad.

  19. Sustainable developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Hundreds of diplomats, along with industry, finance, environment, and labor leaders from around the world met from April 20 to May 1 for the sixth session of the United Nations Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD), an annual follow-up conference to track the Agenda 21 program of action adopted at the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit.During the session, which focused on freshwater management concerns and the role of industry in sustainable development, the participants discussed a number of issues about development and parity among northern and southern hemisphere countries.

  20. How developing nations can protect children from hazardous chemical exposures while sustaining economic growth.

    PubMed

    Trasande, Leonardo; Massey, Rachel I; DiGangi, Joseph; Geiser, Kenneth; Olanipekun, Abiola Ifueko; Gallagher, Louise

    2011-12-01

    Increasing worldwide use of chemicals, including heavy metals used in industry and pesticides used in agriculture, may produce increases in chronic diseases in children unless steps are taken to manage the production, use, trade, and disposal of chemicals. In 2020 the developing world will account for 33 percent of global chemical demand and 31 percent of production, compared with 23 percent and 21 percent, respectively, in 1995. We describe present and potential costs of environmental exposures and discuss policy options to protect future generations of children in a sustainable development context. Specifically, we describe the principles of sound chemicals management, as follows: precaution, or the use of cost-effective measures to prevent potentially hazardous exposures before scientific understanding is complete; the right to know, or informing the public--especially vulnerable groups--in a timely fashion about the safe use of chemicals and any releases of chemicals into the environment; pollution prevention, or preventing the use of hazardous chemicals and the production of pollutants, rather than focusing on managing wastes; internalization of environmental and health costs, or ensuring that the consequences of exposures are reflected in the price of chemicals through such approaches as "polluter pays"; and use of best available scientific information in making decisions such as what chemicals to allow into the market. We recommend that industrializing nations in particular employ these principles to prevent disease among their populations while at the same time minimizing the risk to their own economic development. PMID:22147869

  1. Towards using space technology( satellite information) for the attainment of sustainable economic development- Nigerian Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akeh, L. E.; Okpara, J. N.

    This paper attempts to x-ray the important role NigeriaSat1 and Meteorological satellites in constellation with other satellites have played in the recent time in attaining sustainable economic development in Nigeria Instead of the usual discrete observations scattered all over the surface of the earth especially the more populated areas and major trading routes or inferring to the shape and movement of weather systems from few widely scattered observations scientists in Nigeria can now enjoy a bird s eye view of the planet and see the movement and evolution of the storm system in animated sequences on computer screen as well as the continuous surveillance of the entire planet With satellite data Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET is able to determine the location and intensity of storms diagnose weather producing system heavy rainfall and tracking of meso-scale convective systems This have been very helpful in improving the quality of short and medium range weather forecast specialized forecasts also have greatly increased public confidence in the usage of our products Also with launching of NigeriaSat 1 by the National Space Research and Development Agency NASRDA there has been improved Famine Early Warning System FEWS and appropriate decision- making in the country coupled with thorough environmental monitoring

  2. Sustainable economic development: Strategies for creating jobs while conserving natural resources and protecting the environment. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    Sustainable economic development is a departure from traditional economic development. It requires a change from linear, short-term to cyclical, long-term thinking--whether this thinking is applied to understanding industrial processes, the nature of products and waste, energy, or new business development. This publication provides practical assistance to the economic development community by contributing to a new generation of economic development strategies: (1) Increase profitability and save jobs in business, industry, and government by preventing pollution and reducing waste. (2) Develop new jobs in recycling-based manufacturing, demanufacturing, and remanufacturing industries and ecoindustrial parks. (3) Create jobs and new buinsesses through energy-efficiency investments in the public and private sectors. (4) Expand renewable energy technologies and manufacturing. (5) Capture markets in green businesses and environmental technologies. The publication includes annotated bibliographies and appendices with additional resources or technical discussions for each strategy.

  3. New Economic and Financial Indicators of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, James; Wilhelm, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Financial accounting methods fall short of fully accounting for the relative sustainability of college and university operations. Management of social, environmental, and economic performance will be aided by changes to and new developments in financial accounting practices to complement other indicators of sustainability.

  4. Environment, health, and sustainable development: the role of economic instruments and policies.

    PubMed Central

    Warford, J. J.

    1995-01-01

    Recent years have seen considerable progress in integrating environmental concerns into the mainstream of development policy and planning. Economic instruments designed explicitly for environmental purposes may help to achieve cost-effective solutions, and generate public revenues. Macroeconomic and sectoral policies may impact heavily upon the environment, and there is much scope for policy reforms that are justified in both economic and environmental terms. Progress in this area has been much more rapid than in the case of health objectives, even though the rationale for environmental improvement is often ultimately related to human health and well-being. It is proposed that lessons from recent experience in the use of economic instruments and policies to achieve environmental objectives are highly relevant for the health sector, which should seek and encourage support for measures that requires consumer and producers of environmentally degrading products to pay for the economic and social costs of the damage resulting from their use. Policy reform at the macroeconomic or sectoral level may yield cost-effective solutions to some health problems, and may even bring about improvements in health status that involve no net cost at all. The countrywide impact of such policies indicate that health agencies, including WHO, should develop the capacity to understand how economic policies and the adjustment process impact upon human health, not only direct through the effect on incomes, but also indirectly, via changes in the natural environment. Ability to conduct rigorous health impact assessment of economic policy reform, which requires a multidisciplinary effort, is a necessary condition if health ministries are to maximize their effectiveness in influencing overall government economic policy. PMID:7614671

  5. Sustainable development is healthy development.

    PubMed

    Litsios, S

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth has brought with it substantial environmental damage. Nature has been abused and little consideration has been given to the consequences, among them the adverse effects on health. Healthy people are vital for local development that is both economically and ecologically sound. The health sector should be actively involved in the movement for sustainable development. What this would require in practice is considered below, with particular reference to the quality of life in regions of tropical forest. PMID:8018295

  6. Experiential Learning and Sustainable Economic Development in Appalachian Communities: A Teaching Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Bruce; Ezzell, Tim; Ogle, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a participative planning class held in economically dis-advantaged communities in east Tennessee. The class follows a structured method, which includes community workshops and project development, in dealing with the communities. Among many observations gained in eight years of running the class are that…

  7. Modeling Integrated Farm Systems: A Tool for Developing more Economically and Environmentally Sustainable Farming Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of models have been developed to represent farm systems, but only a few actually integrate all or most of the major biological, physical, and economic processes of a farm. Farm system models are used for decision support, education, and research purposes. Because of differences in the type ...

  8. Development of an integrated methodology for the sustainable environmental and socio-economic management of river ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Koundouri, P; Ker Rault, P; Pergamalis, V; Skianis, V; Souliotis, I

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Water Framework Directive aimed to establish an integrated framework of water management at European level. This framework revolves around inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and ground waters. In the process of achieving the environment and ecological objectives set from the Directive, the role of economics is put in the core of the water management. An important feature of the Directive is the recovery of total economic cost of water services by all users. The total cost of water services can be disaggregated into environmental, financial and resource costs. Another important aspect of the directive is the identification of major drivers and pressures in each River Basin District. We describe a methodology that is aiming to achieve sustainable and environmental and socioeconomic management of freshwater ecosystem services. The Ecosystem Services Approach is in the core of the suggested methodology for the implementation of a more sustainable and efficient water management. This approach consists of the following three steps: (i) socio-economic characterization of the River Basin area, (ii) assessment of the current recovery of water use cost, and (iii) identification and suggestion of appropriate programs of measures for sustainable water management over space and time. This methodology is consistent with a) the economic principles adopted explicitly by the Water Framework Directive (WFD), b) the three-step WFD implementation approach adopted in the WATECO document, c) the Ecosystem Services Approach to valuing freshwater goods and services to humans. Furthermore, we analyze how the effects of multiple stressors and socio-economic development can be quantified in the context of freshwater resources management. We also attempt to estimate the value of four ecosystem services using the benefit transfer approach for the Anglian River Basin, which showed the significance of such services. PMID:26277441

  9. Global health and development: conceptualizing health between economic growth and environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Borowy, Iris

    2013-07-01

    After World War II, health was firmly integrated into the discourse about national development. Transition theories portrayed health improvements as part of an overall development pattern based on economic growth as modeled by the recent history of industrialization in high-income countries. In the 1970s, an increasing awareness of the environmental degradation caused by industrialization challenged the conventional model of development. Gradually, it became clear that health improvements depended on poverty-reduction strategies including industrialization. Industrialization, in turn, risked aggravating environmental degradation with its negative effects on public health. Thus, public health in low-income countries threatened to suffer from lack of economic development as well as from the results of global economic development. Similarly, demands of developing countries risked being trapped between calls for global wealth redistribution, a political impossibility, and calls for unrestricted material development, which, in a world of finite land, water, air, energy, and resources, increasingly looked like a physical impossibility, too. Various international bodies, including the WHO, the Brundtland Commission, and the World Bank, tried to capture the problem and solution strategies in development theories. Broadly conceived, two models have emerged: a "localist model," which analyzes national health data and advocates growth policies with a strong focus on poverty reduction, and a "globalist" model, based on global health data, which calls for growth optimization, rather than maximization. Both models have focused on different types of health burdens and have received support from different institutions. In a nutshell, the health discourse epitomized a larger controversy regarding competing visions of development. PMID:22467707

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ECONOMICAL AND SUSTAINABLE IRRIGATION RAM PUMP FOR COMMUNITY GARDENING IN SOUTH AFRICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Johns Hopkins Chapter of Engineers Without Borders (EWB-JHU) is working with local partners in KZN to improve and promote a locally designed (“Alcock”) ram pump as an appropriate and sustainable solution to problems of irrigation in much needed community vegeta...

  11. 36 CFR 219.19 - Ecological, social, and economic sustainability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... economic sustainability. 219.19 Section 219.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE..., Social, and Economic Sustainability § 219.19 Ecological, social, and economic sustainability. Sustainability, composed of interdependent ecological, social, and economic elements, embodies the...

  12. 36 CFR 219.19 - Ecological, social, and economic sustainability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... economic sustainability. 219.19 Section 219.19 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE..., Social, and Economic Sustainability § 219.19 Ecological, social, and economic sustainability. Sustainability, composed of interdependent ecological, social, and economic elements, embodies the...

  13. Towards sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, R. E.

    Sustainable development is a difficult phrase to define, particularly in the context of human ecosystems. Questions have to be asked, such as "Sustainable for whom?" "Sustainable for what purposes?" "Sustainable at the subsistence or at the luxury level?" and "Sustainable under what conditions?" In this paper, development is taken to mean improving the quality of life. (If development were to mean growth, then it could not be sustained over the long term.) Studies of development must, of course, consider economic factors, particularly in the case of societies who suffer from the pollution of poverty. However, cultural and environmental factors are equally important. In fact, development is not sustainable over the long term if it is not ecologically sustainable. The terms maximum sustainable yield of a renewable resource, carrying capacity of a region and assimilative capacity of a watershed or airshed are discussed. Approaches using these resource management tools are recommended when external conditions are not changing very much. The problem today is that unprecedented rates of change are expected in the next century, not only of environmental conditions such as climate but also of socioeconomic conditions such as renewable resource consumption and populations (of both people and of automobiles)! In rapidly changing situations, policies must be adopted that strengthen resilence and ecosystem integrity; that is, society must increase its ability to adapt. Maintaining the status quo is a long-term prescription for disaster. The problem is of course that little is known about how to design strategies that will increase resilience and ecosystem integrity, and this area of research needs to be strengthened. Some suggestions on appropriate indicators of ecosystem integrity are given in the paper but these need considerable refinement. One of the main problems with long-term environmental policy formulation is the uncertainty to be expected, including the possibility

  14. Sustainable energy, economic growth and public health.

    PubMed

    Haines, A

    2001-01-01

    Dramatic economic growth over the last 50 years has been accompanied by widening inequalities world-wide in wealth and energy consumption, diminished life expectancy in some countries, and deteriorating indices of environmental sustainability including loss of bio-diversity. Raised output of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases due to increased economic and industrial activity is causing progressive climate change, leading in turn to direct and indirect adverse effects on health. Emissions of greenhouse gases can be lowered by increased use of renewable energy sources, for example, wind power in the United Kingdom (UK), greater energy efficiency and other measures to promote sustainability. The experience of some developing countries shows that favourable indicators of health and development can accompany a low output of greenhouse gases. It is unclear whether contemporary political and social systems can deliver improved human development without increased use of fossil fuels and other resources. PMID:11339344

  15. Control System for Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlman, Inga

    2008-10-01

    Ecological sustainability presupposes that a global human population acts in such ways, that their total impact on the biosphere, together with nature's reactions, keeps the biosphere sufficient for sustaining generations to come. Human conduct is ultimately controlled by means of law. The problem can be summed up as: Controlling system—Population—Sustainable ecosystems This paper discusses two interlinked issues: a) the social scientific need for systems theory in the context of achieving and maintaining sustainable development and b) how theory of anticipatory modelling and computing can be applied when constructing and applying societal controlling systems for ecological sustainability with as much local democracy and economic efficiency as possible.

  16. Sustainability and Environmental Economics: Some Critical Foci

    EPA Science Inventory

    I present five seminal concepts of environmental economic thought and discuss their applicability to the idea of sustainability. These five, Maximum Sustainable Yield and Steady-state, The Environmental Kuznet’s curve, Substitutability, Discount rate and Intergenerational equity...

  17. Sustainable biomass energy production and rural economic development using alfalfa as feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Swanberg, D.R.; Oelke, E.A.

    1995-11-01

    Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 4 dry tons per acre per year and with separate alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product.

  18. LAND-USE, ECONOMICS AND HYDROLOGIC IMPACT ASSESSMENT: A SECOND STEP TOWARDS ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past and present development and land-use patterns have drastically altered the hydrologic function of our nation's watersheds. What is only now widely recognized is that the increased storm water volume and peak flows resulting from development in watersheds, not just the pollu...

  19. Building Resiliency: The Role of Anchor Institutions in Sustaining Community Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of University Partnerships, 2013

    2013-01-01

    These days, the federal government is keenly interested in how to encourage the process of developing resiliency in the struggle to revitalize decayed urban communities. The White House, through the Strong Cities, Strong Communities (SC2) initiative, is also seeking to create cross-agency collaborations "to strengthen neighborhoods, towns,…

  20. Engineering sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Deitz, D.

    1996-05-01

    This article describes how engineers are forming alliances on the job, in communities, and in international organizations to accelerate economic development while they preserve resources and the environment. Despite the end of the Cold War and the rapid economic development in Asia and Latin America, anxiety abounds as the 21st century dawns. The growth rate of the world`s population remains frighteningly high, and the Earth`s atmosphere appears endangered. Even rays of hope, such as the surge in China`s and India`s economies, cast a shadow on the future by threatening to deplete natural resources even further. In the face of such overwhelming conditions, individual effort may seem futile. There are signs, however, that people are joining forces to do what they can within the limits of what is technologically and economically possible. Although many of them are driven by idealism, a good number are participating to make business more efficient and profitable as well as to enhance their nation`s industrial competitiveness. Their model for change and growth is one that doesn`t endanger the environment--a concept that has come to be known as sustainable development. In the process, engineers are leaving the isolation of their laboratories and individual disciplines to educate, invent, inspire, and join forces with other engineers, community groups, environmentalists, business and labor leaders, and government officials. One sign that such collaborative efforts are succeeding--in addition to the tangible results--is the evolution in thinking about sustainable development, as it applies both to today`s world and to future generations.

  1. Environmental management and economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, G.; Warford, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Contents include: environmental management and economic policy in developing countries; environmental and natural resource accounting; marginal opportunity cost as a planning concept in natural resource management; the environmental basis of sustainable development; economic incentives for sustainable production; deforestation in Brazil's Amazon region: magnitude, rate, and causes; an economic justification for rural afforestation: the case of Ethiopia; managing the supply of and demand for fuelwood in Africa; economic aspects of afforestation and soil-conservation projects; multilevel resource analysis and management: the case of watersheds.

  2. Developing Sustainable Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Brent, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Developing and sustaining leaders is a major challenge for all those involved in education today. This book contains a collection of essays from recognized authors to provide insights, frameworks and ideas on how to sustain school leaders and develop values-based leadership. It also offers guidance on countering short-term management solutions,…

  3. Community Colleges and Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallego, Augustine

    This document argues that regions that sustain economic growth or recover rapidly from economic slumps are often the same communities that have aggressively developed and continue to strengthen collaborations with business and industry, universities, community colleges, high schools, and other key public and private sector entities. In San Diego…

  4. Sustainable development: A HUD perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, E.

    1994-12-31

    Sustainable development is the current term now being used to describe the environmental movement. The term`s popularity can be traced to publication of Our Common Future, the report of the World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission). Sustainable development means exactly what is implied; development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Brundtland Commission). It is another way of conveying the basic premise of {open_quotes}Spaceship Earth{close_quotes}; that our species has been given this planet to live on and we must carefully balance resource utilization if we want to endure more than a few generations, because this is all we`ve got. It is a natural evolution of the conservation and environmental movements into a format that recognizes that environmental issues cannot be viewed in isolation, but must be evaluated in a context of economic development (Powledge). Sustainable development is thus a broad term that encompasses many elements, depending upon the context. Such elements can include: 1 energy, 2 economic development, 3 pollution prevention, 4 biodiversity, 5 historic preservation, 6 social equity, and 7 recycling and solid waste disposal. One of the cornerstones of sustainable development is energy policy, since energy use is perhaps the most defining element of contemporary civilization. In the energy discipline, sustainability can best be paraphrased as living off one`s income as opposed to depleting ones capital. In other words, using solar, wind and other renewables rather than fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are limited and will eventually be depleted, therefore they cannot be considered sustainable. Another element embraced by sustainable development is biodiversity. The biodiversity movement is most sharply distinguished from traditional conservationism for its commitment to the principle of preserving and managing entire ecosystems.

  5. Sustainable Development and Spatial Inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbuch, Gérard

    2013-05-01

    Historical data, theory and computer simulations support a connection between growth and economic inequality. Our present world with large regional differences in economic activity is a result of fast economic growth during the last two centuries. Because of limits to growth we might expect a future world to develop differently with far less growth. The question that we here address is: "Would a world with a sustainable economy be less unequal?" We then develop integrated spatial economic models based on limited resources consumption and technical knowledge accumulation and study them by the way of computer simulations. When the only coupling between world regions is diffusion we do not observe any spatial unequality. By contrast, highly localized economic activities are maintained by global market mechanisms. Structures sizes are determined by transportation costs. Wide distributions of capital and production are also predicted in this regime.

  6. Is environmental management an economically sustainable business?

    PubMed

    Gotschol, Antje; De Giovanni, Pietro; Esposito Vinzi, Vincenzo

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates whether environmental management is an economically sustainable business. While firms invest in green production and green supply chain activities with the primary purpose of reducing their environmental impact, the reciprocal relationships with economic performance need to be clarified. Would firms and suppliers adjust their environmental strategies if the higher economic value that environmental management generates is reinvested in greening actions? We found out that environmental management positively influences economic performance as second order (long term) target, to be reached conditioned by higher environmental performance; in addition, firms can increase their performance if they reinvest the higher economic value gained through environmental management in green practices: While investing in environmental management programs is a short term strategy, economic rewards can be obtained only with some delays. Consequently, environmental management is an economically sustainable business only for patient firms. In the evaluation of these reciprocal relationships, we discovered that green supply chain initiatives are more effective and more economically sustainable than internal actions. PMID:24921964

  7. Socio-economic vulnerability and sustainable development in context of Development vs. Conservation debate: A study of Bhagirathi Basin, Uttarakhand, INDIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisha; Punia, M.

    2014-11-01

    mountain system bound to have a different path of development owing to its fragile ecological and geological setup. Any drastic and abrupt changes in this system can have repercussion beyond mitigation in form of natural disasters. Remote sensing can play a key role in risk assessment and management, particularly when a few simultaneous reasons coincide, for example, susceptibility to natural disaster and the urban sprawl, spreading over highly vulnerable regions. The present study furnish socioeconomic vulnerability mapping of the Bhagirathi basin through computation of the Socio vulnerability Index (SoVI). SoVI correlates vulnerability to natural or anthropogenic disasters to socio - economic development and illustrates how developmental parameters alter equation of potential effect and recovery in event of a natural catastrophe in the study region. An analytical framework has been imparted to understand possible triggering factors of disasters. Built up area expansion; land use land cover change (LULCC) - deforestation, conversion of forested land into agricultural land and residential settlements, and dam project area; road network development; urbanization; population growth & migration and pilgrimage activities are major drivers which put burden on limited carrying capacity of the natural resources. A guideline for policy making has been presented for an integrated and wholesome development incorporating regional developmental aspiration of the people and ingredients of sustainable development.

  8. Energy and the ecological economics of sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Peet, J.

    1992-05-01

    This book examines the roots of the present environmental crisis in the neoclassical economics upon which modern industrial society is based. The author explains that only in view of the larger context of the global ecosystem and in acceptance of the physical limits as to what is possible can sustainability be achieved.

  9. Sustainable Biofuels Development Center

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, Kenneth F.

    2015-03-01

    The mission of the Sustainable Bioenergy Development Center (SBDC) is to enhance the capability of America’s bioenergy industry to produce transportation fuels and chemical feedstocks on a large scale, with significant energy yields, at competitive cost, through sustainable production techniques. Research within the SBDC is organized in five areas: (1) Development of Sustainable Crops and Agricultural Strategies, (2) Improvement of Biomass Processing Technologies, (3) Biofuel Characterization and Engine Adaptation, (4) Production of Byproducts for Sustainable Biorefining, and (5) Sustainability Assessment, including evaluation of the ecosystem/climate change implication of center research and evaluation of the policy implications of widespread production and utilization of bioenergy. The overall goal of this project is to develop new sustainable bioenergy-related technologies. To achieve that goal, three specific activities were supported with DOE funds: bioenergy-related research initiation projects, bioenergy research and education via support of undergraduate and graduate students, and Research Support Activities (equipment purchases, travel to attend bioenergy conferences, and seminars). Numerous research findings in diverse fields related to bioenergy were produced from these activities and are summarized in this report.

  10. Sustainable development in British land use regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Basiago, A.D.

    1995-12-01

    Sustainable development is a new international theory of development founded on principles of futurity, environment, equity and participation. It is the legacy of twenty years of international environmental law that has established a doctrine of global trusteeship. Sustainable development has entered British land use regulation through the Maastricth Treaty; the EU`s Fifth Environmental Action Program; as well as the British government`s Planning Policy Guidance notes on land use principles, local plans, transport and historic preservation, and its white papers. The Earth Summit accord Agenda 21 is a blueprint on how to make development socially, economically and environmentally sustainable. Under its terms, Britain has prepared a national sustainable development strategy for the UN`s Commission on Sustainable Development. It features Local Agenda 21 strategies in which local authorities develop policies for sustainable development and establish partnerships with other sectors. In this paper, the Local Agenda 21 strategies of seven local authorities are evaluated according to the paradigm introduced in Agenda 21 and elaborated by Kahn that describes sustainable development as a dynamic system of integrated and interlinked economic, social and environmental sustainability. The author concludes that sustainable development in British land use regulation is guided by notions of economic development, social justice and environmental planning and not by the dynamic, integrated model of Agenda 21. 46 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Sustainable Groundwater Management Using Economic Incentive Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, T.; Shih, J.; Sanchirico, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    with development rights and development in the high intensity area is contingent on the purchase of the rights, which are transferred via a market. By comparing these two policy regimes, which are often analyzed separately, we can gain a better sense of the relative costs involved and the potential trade-offs and/or benefits from a hybrid policy. Furthermore, we will also investigate the potential barriers of adopting economic incentive approach specifically for the groundwater management context. These research results will assist policymakers at all levels to better understand how to design effective trading programs and realize the potential costs savings associated with these approaches for sustainable groundwater management.

  12. Sustainable development - lessons from success

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, W.V.C. )

    1989-05-01

    This article examines the push of development agencies and multilateral development banks in developing countries to achieve economic, political and social sustainability without considering long-term environmental costs. A case in point is dams built for irrigation and hydroelectric power; the benefits are outweighed by the environmental costs of salt intrusion, delta erosion, drying of downstream lakes and channel deepening as well as the effects of displacement of people. The information and technologies that form the basis of ecologically sustainable development already exist. Energy efficiency projects could reduce the balance of trade deficits in developing nations. In addition, great advances in agricultural, forest and range productivity could be achieved at very low capital costs through soil and water conservation techniques, intercropping, agroforestry and organic fertilization.

  13. Developing Sustainable Feedback Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, David; Salter, Diane; Yang, Min; Lam, Joy

    2011-01-01

    Feedback is central to the development of student learning, but within the constraints of modularized learning in higher education it is increasingly difficult to handle effectively. This article makes a case for sustainable feedback as a contribution to the reconceptualization of feedback processes. The data derive from the Student Assessment and…

  14. Games on Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Dennis L.; Van der Waals, Barbara

    This booklet contains a collection of educational games that can be used by teachers to convey ideas and create discussion related to environmental protection and sustainable development. The games accommodate participants of all ages and require little preparation by the teacher, up to 30-40 players with only one operator, minimal materials (many…

  15. Hanford Site sustainable development initiatives

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, C.T.

    1994-05-01

    Since the days of the Manhattan Project of World War II, the economic well being of the Tri-Cities (Pasco, Kennewick, and Richland) of Washington State has been tied to the US Department of Energy missions at the nearby Hanford Site. As missions at the Site changed, so did the economic vitality of the region. The Hanford Site is now poised to complete its final mission, that of environmental restoration. When restoration is completed, the Site may be closed and the effect on the local economy will be devastating if action is not taken now. To that end, economic diversification and transition are being planned. To facilitate the process, the Hanford Site will become a sustainable development demonstration project.

  16. Students Promoting Economic Development and Environmental Sustainability: An Analysis of the Impact of Involvement in a Community-Based Research and Service-Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, Cheryl; Baldwin, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Community-based research has been suggested as a particularly effective form of service learning in college-community collaborations. This paper reviews findings from interviews with alumni/ae and community partners of an environmental and economic sustainability center at Allegheny College in Northwest Pennsylvania, the Center for Economic and…

  17. Transforming Our World: Literacy for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanemann, Ulrike, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This compilation offers global examples of innovative and promising literacy and numeracy programmes that link the teaching and learning of literacy to sustainable development challenges such as health, social equality, economic empowerment and environmental sustainability. This publication is a timely contribution to the 2030 Agenda for…

  18. Population and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Visaria, P

    1989-01-01

    This paper assesses the feasibility of sustainable development for various low-income countries in the context of prospective population growth. In that context, development that is sustainable is development that does not endanger the natural systems that support life on earth. Since a short time has elapsed since the Mexico City Conference, not all the developmental goals highlighted at that meeting could be reviewed. Emphasis in this paper is placed on an assessment of recent trends in food production and availability, employment and poverty issues, with an emphasis on India, China, and a few other Asian countries on which the author has had access to information. In the view of the author, the key to sustained development in the face of likely continued population growth up to the end of the 21st century lies in technological change and effective use of the human and physical resources in developing countries. Adequate planning and judicious adaptation of the institutional framework can help to avoid the suffering and misery of millions of people currently alive and also those who will be born during further decades. PMID:12282630

  19. Nigeria: Energy for sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Eleri, E.O.

    1993-12-31

    Though an essentially contested concept, it is safe to acknowledge that the attainment of sustainable development requires that the growth and well-being of present generations are brought about in such ways that the ability of future people to meet their own needs will not be compromised. The availability of safe and sound energy as a factor of production is a key element in such a development process. Despite the abundance of energy resources, acute shortages of energy services have become endemic in Nigeria. This paper reassesses the common proposition that energy has fueled growth and development in Nigeria by its role as the chief source of state revenue and through its input into economic activities in the country. It is argued here, however, that conventional energy management in Nigeria has tended to create development flaws of its own. The article is divided into six sections: 1st, a general account of the energy and development linkages in Nigeria; 2nd, the failures of these linkages are assessed; 3rd, policy initiatives are considered that would be reconcilable to the nation`s sustainable development; 4th, the present reform agenda, its inadequacies and barriers are surveyed; 5th, the achievement of sustainable development, it is argued, will demand the re-institutionalization of the political economy of the energy sector in Nigeria, which will depend largely on the resolution of the dilemmas and conflicts in the country`s broader political and economic reforms; and 6th, an outlook is suggested for future policy development.

  20. Managing nitrogen for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Davidson, Eric A; Mauzerall, Denise L; Searchinger, Timothy D; Dumas, Patrice; Shen, Ye

    2015-12-01

    Improvements in nitrogen use efficiency in crop production are critical for addressing the triple challenges of food security, environmental degradation and climate change. Such improvements are conditional not only on technological innovation, but also on socio-economic factors that are at present poorly understood. Here we examine historical patterns of agricultural nitrogen-use efficiency and find a broad range of national approaches to agricultural development and related pollution. We analyse examples of nitrogen use and propose targets, by geographic region and crop type, to meet the 2050 global food demand projected by the Food and Agriculture Organization while also meeting the Sustainable Development Goals pertaining to agriculture recently adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. Furthermore, we discuss socio-economic policies and technological innovations that may help achieve them. PMID:26595273

  1. Managing nitrogen for sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Davidson, Eric A.; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Searchinger, Timothy D.; Dumas, Patrice; Shen, Ye

    2015-12-01

    Improvements in nitrogen use efficiency in crop production are critical for addressing the triple challenges of food security, environmental degradation and climate change. Such improvements are conditional not only on technological innovation, but also on socio-economic factors that are at present poorly understood. Here we examine historical patterns of agricultural nitrogen-use efficiency and find a broad range of national approaches to agricultural development and related pollution. We analyse examples of nitrogen use and propose targets, by geographic region and crop type, to meet the 2050 global food demand projected by the Food and Agriculture Organization while also meeting the Sustainable Development Goals pertaining to agriculture recently adopted by the United Nations General Assembly. Furthermore, we discuss socio-economic policies and technological innovations that may help achieve them.

  2. GLOBAL TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental accounting using emergy is a tool for evaluating development and determining what is sustainable. Global sustainable development means that all nations will become better places for their inhabitants to live. Development follows a cycle of change from rapid growth ...

  3. Curriculum Development in Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, David, Ed.

    This book reproduces sixteen papers on recent developments in economics curriculum in Britain. The papers, presented and examined at a two-day conference at the University of Manchester in January, 1973, offer a comprehensive look at the current state of economic education and research. Directed to economics teachers and curriculum specialists,…

  4. ADJUSTING DEVELOPMENT TO SUSTAINABILITY CRITERIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability in any ecosystem is conditioned by properties established by nature. Intervention into ecosystems for the purposes of developing the built/socio-physical environment involves value judgments regarding human well-being. Therefore, if development is sustainable, it m...

  5. Sustainable Development, Education and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Ann; Newman, Lenore

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To distinguish sustainable development education from environmental education and stress the importance of problem-based interdisciplinary learning to sustainable development education. Design/methodology/approach: A range of published works relating to sustainable development education are critiqued, an introduction to complexity theory…

  6. Wind Economic Development (Postcard)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides information on the economic development benefits of wind energy. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to the economic development benefits section on the Wind Powering America website.

  7. Globalization, Sustainable Development and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toakley, Arthur Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Globalization is a natural outcome of the sustained technological and economic growth, which originated with the Industrial Revolution in Britain during the 18th century. This path to continuing economic growth spread initially to continental Europe and North America, and brought with it the creation of large towns and substantial social change.…

  8. Strong sustainability in Nepal: A structural economics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, Surendra R.

    This dissertation analyzes the sustainability of the economy of Nepal. The main empirical question addressed is whether the Tenth Plan of Nepal (2002--2007) will meet its projected economic output goal and achieve its primary goal of reducing poverty. To this end, economic growth scenarios are examined in terms of availability of energy demand and supply, and income disparity among different households. The structure of the Nepali economy is examined using a Leontief input-output table, a Ghosian supply-side input-output table, and a social accounting matrix for the year 1999. Based on the input-output analysis of energy demand and supply for the 10th Plan, it is unlikely that energy requirements of the projected output will be met, unless some extra sources of energy are developed. Households need to switch their energy use from fuel wood/biomass to other alternatives. In order to meet the target of the Plan vis-a-vis energy demand or supply, a few policy measures are urgently needed, though some of these options require many years to develop. Household income inequality and distribution is examined through the SAM multipliers; namely aggregate, transfer, open-loop, and closed-loop multipliers. The investment-income multiplier scenarios for the 10th Plan indicate that the nominal income of households may increase due to the increased investment, which will not necessarily improve the bottom deciles households, particularly socio-economically deprived households. Economic growth in Nepal during the past fifty years demonstrates that the modernization model is unsuccessful. Economic growth occurred at some centers at the cost of periphery. A huge regional disparity has developed between hills and plains, east and west, city and rural areas. Nepal's persistent poverty indicates a failure of modernization theory. The Tenth Plan would be another continuation of a failed legacy, unless social and natural endowments are considered for sustainability. Nepal could be an

  9. Partnerships in Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Edward J.; Dary, Donald K.

    1988-01-01

    Many colleges in North America are taking a proactive role in community economic development to respond to changing economic conditions. This article explores the myriad of activities engaged in by Red Deer College, Alberta, Canada, by describing the partnerships themselves, their benefits, and the principles under which they operate. (Author)

  10. DEVELOP ECONOMIC ANALYSIS CAPABILITY OF THE SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (SAGE)(SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This task will upgrade and enhance the SAGE software system by developing cost algorithms that will give it a cost projection capability. This capability will complement the process selection capability of the existing system by giving the user a complete picture including the co...

  11. Family Support and Community Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalley, Jacqueline, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This report of the Family Resource Coalition of America examines the interrelationship of sustainable community economic strategies and sustainable family units. The introductory section of the report consists of one article, "Integrating Community Development and Family Support." The second section, "Community Building: A Movement is Afoot,"…

  12. Women and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Meena, R

    1992-07-01

    Gender issues in sustainable development focuses on constraints, the policy environment, land rights, the division of labor, reproductive rights, human resource development, productive energy, care of children, education, politics, security, social norms, and women's initiatives. African women's participation in the development process has been limited by the policy environment, sociocultural setting, and women's initiatives. African policy has not recognized the different roles that men and women play. There is unequal division of labor, legal discrimination against women, and abuse of women's basic human rights. Women's subordinate position in society and their concrete needs are ignored. Land tenure and credit systems are based on discriminatory policies. Women share a major portion and in some cases all of the agricultural labor with few tools or equipment. The operating assumption is that women's labor supply is inelastic. In order to fully participate in the development process, women need to be able to determine the number of children needed, the spacing between children, and the timing and the method of contraception. Human resource development in Africa has focused on training men. Women must contribute a major portion of time and labor to processing and cooking food in addition to caring for children. Access to higher education is limited. Political accords have been reached without women when women have contributed significantly to political struggles. Social security is compromised during violence and civil strife. There is sexual harassment in the work place. Culture can subordinate women. Women have been unable to change policy making, planning, and patriarchal ideology. Women are marginal contributors to the labor force. Income-generating projects are primarily confined to the informal sector. The governments impose the women's programs. Political influence is highly desired if change in women's stature is to be accomplished. PMID:12285818

  13. GLOBAL TRANSITION TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Global transition to sustainable development is possible but many obstacles lie in the way and it will require acts of political will on the part of both the developed and developing nations to become a reality. In this paper, sustainable development is defined as continuous prog...

  14. Never Waste a Good Crisis: Towards Social Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijl, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The report by the Stiglitz Commission on the Measurement of Economic Performance and Social Progress highlighted the idea that sustainability in essence is about quality of life. This paper discusses and elaborates this notion. It argues that sustainable development should be seen as a process which does not focus on economic development alone,…

  15. Western and Chinese Development Discourses: Education, Growth and Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2009-01-01

    This article examines Western and Chinese discourses of education, sustainable growth and development. Education is increasingly considered as a means to fuel economic growth, especially since the 1980s, when conservative economic values became predominant in Western development thought. Despite a discourse on sustainability favouring ecologically…

  16. Democracy and economic development.

    PubMed

    Rao, V

    1985-01-01

    This discussion explains why democracy as is generally understood may not be suitable to meet the challenges of a developing economy and how democratic institutions generally fail to respond to the immediate demands of a population impatient to raise its level of living. It defines the terms economic development and democracy, reviews some theoretical models of democracy which have been proposed in economic theory, proposes an approach to the process of economic development, and considers problems of development. Economic development is a process which calls for huge investments in personnel and material. Such investment programs imply cuts in current consumption that would be painful at the low levels of living that exist in almost all developing societies. Governments need to resort to strong measures, and they must enforce them vigorously in order to marshal the surpluses required for investment. If such measures were put to a popular vote, they would certainly be defeated. Mainstream economic theory assumes the virtues of a market system and the decisions arrived at by the interaction of market forces. This is the economic equivalent of democracy. Yet, mainstream economic theory devotes little attention to the conditions under which a market system generates a just solution. The democratic developing countries have all inherited a class society, with a highly skewed distribution of income. The wealthy minority often seeks to preserve its privileged position and to enjoy the benefits of development. It even seeks the help of the judiciary to preserve the sanctity of private property and to assure that its patterns of conspicuous consumption can continue. This is done in the name of democratic rights. Many developing societies are burdened with outmoded traditions and value systems that are incompatible with the production relations of the new society they hope to achieve. The international exchange of resources is believed by some to be an attempt to control the

  17. Successful Globalisation, Education and Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.; Green, Andy

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of education in "successful globalisation" and how this links with agendas for sustainable development. In the first part "successful globalisation" is defined as economic growth combined with equality and social peace. Japan and the East Asian tiger economies--particularly South Korea and Taiwan--have been uniquely…

  18. South Korea's Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihm, Chon-Sun

    1988-01-01

    Examines South Korea's economic development from being one of the poorest nations in the world in the 1950s to becoming a "rising giant" in international trade. Surveys the path to growth, the reasons for success, and problems and new challenges facing the country as it seeks developed nation status. (GEA)

  19. Sustainable Library Development Training Package

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This Sustainable Library Development Training Package supports Peace Corps' Focus In/Train Up strategy, which was implemented following the 2010 Comprehensive Agency Assessment. Sustainable Library Development is a technical training package in Peace Corps programming within the Education sector. The training package addresses the Volunteer…

  20. Developing Sustainable Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Brent

    2007-01-01

    The emphasis on short-term accountability measures has often prioritised the use of short-term management strategies to meet test and Ofsted measures. Moving away from short-termism to more fundamental consideration of sustainable leadership is the focus of this paper. While it would be naive or unrealistic to suggest that school leaders do not…

  1. Sustainable Development: The Challenge for Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Dorothy N.; Weil, Marie O.

    1997-01-01

    Five areas of inquiry shape the sustainable development movement: environmental movement, women's movement, overpopulation concerns, critique of development models, and new indicators of social progress. Community development workers are challenged to prepare local development projects within a sustainable development framework. (SK)

  2. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113

  3. [Economic Growth and Development].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Recent efforts of the World Bank to improve global economic problems are described, issues which will influence the role of the World Bank in the decade to come are discussed, and the Bank's future role is examined. Recent World Bank efforts to help developing nations include a lending program, project investments, analytical and advisory work,…

  4. Resource linkages and sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anouti, Yahya

    prices we estimate that the demand for gasoline could be reduced by 7.8 percent and that of diesel by 5.9 percent. This would lead to not only reduction in the associated negative externalities, but also to the generation of more than USD400 billion in revenues for governments. However, the partial equilibrium analysis in essay one ignores the general equilibrium effects that will be mainly driven by how the government spends the subsidy. In essay 2, we build the case for phasing out these subsidies and accompanying that by a welfare compensating cash transfer. In order to evaluate the impact of that on consumer's welfare, we develop a numerical model for Saudi Arabia in a general equilibrium setting to discuss a phase out of transport fuel subsidies that is. Results show that the Saudi government can increase its consumers' welfare up to five percentage points. In case the cash transfer is adjusted to keep consumers' utility at the pre-reform level, the required compensating transfer would leave the government with three percentage points of additional revenues. Finally, we highlight policy implications of phasing out the transport fuel subsidies. Finally, in essay 3 we turn our focus to the application of local content policies in the oil and gas sector. There is limited literature that investigates economic linkages from the extractive industries, assesses intertemporal tradeoffs, and guides the design of efficient and sustainable policies. Our contribution in this essay is three-fold. First, we present the first comprehensive analysis of economic linkages from the oil and gas sector across 48 countries. Then, we analyze the economic distortions from applying local content policies using a Hotelling type optimal control model with an international oil company maximizing its profits subject to a local content requirement. Finally, we investigate the presence of a socially optimal local content level when the social planner maximizing the net benefits from the

  5. Management of the four waters at micro level by considering the social and economic backwardness for sustainable development using remote sensing & gis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perni, Venkateswarlu

    As we enter the third millennium, we are witnessing a gale of bewildering change and transformation. Communication is well on its way to becoming instant. Knowledge based processes and an electronic network blankets the globe. And yet, there are certain things that never change, like for instance, the basic needs, of which water is most important. While in the past wars were fought over territory, markets and access to resources, future wars in the new millennium are likely to be fought over access to water for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Water that most abundant of natural resources, is also very scarce in its usable form in most places on earth. The critical challenge facing arid and semi-arid areas will be to provide enough water for domestic and sustainable agricultural purposes. Already 22 countries have renewable water resources of less than one thousand cubic meters per capita, dangerously little in years of rain scarcity. With ever increasing pressure of human population, there is severe stress on water resources. This dangerous situation can still be reversed through efficient rainwater harvesting and judicious utilization by the local community. And the best socio-physical unit for such resource management is the watershed. The present study deals with the application of Remote sensing and Geographical Information systems techniques for the generation of an alternative land use/land cover practice with due consideration to the social and economic backwardness of the different ethnic groups besides protecting the long term carrying capacity of the eco-system through the integrated micro-level management of the four waters concept. The Remote sensing data used is IRS-IC-LISS-III imagery and ERDAS / IMAGINE 8.3 GIS software. Landuse/Landcover, Hydro-geomorphology, Soil map etc are generated by interpreting the satellite data and with necessary ground check. The slope map and drainage maps are generated with the help of 1:50,000 scale

  6. Developing sustainable food supply chains.

    PubMed

    Smith, B Gail

    2008-02-27

    This paper reviews the opportunities available for food businesses to encourage consumers to eat healthier and more nutritious diets, to invest in more sustainable manufacturing and distribution systems and to develop procurement systems based on more sustainable forms of agriculture. The important factors in developing more sustainable supply chains are identified as the type of supply chain involved and the individual business attitude to extending responsibility for product quality into social and environmental performance within their own supply chains. Interpersonal trust and working to standards are both important to build more sustainable local and many conserved food supply chains, but inadequate to transform mainstream agriculture and raw material supplies to the manufactured and commodity food markets. Cooperation among food manufacturers, retailers, NGOs, governmental and farmers' organizations is vital in order to raise standards for some supply chains and to enable farmers to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. PMID:17766237

  7. USING CODE-PSID TO COORDINATE THE INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY SUSTAINABLE WATER INFRASTRUCTURE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN EL CONVENTO, HONDURAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Through the use of CODE-PSI’s feedback process in the communities of Lagunitas and La Fortuna, EWB-LC determined that the water system built in Lagunitas may not be sustainable because of the financial constraints village...

  8. Sustaining the natural and economical resources of the Lac Courte Oreilles, Leslie Isham; Jason Weaver

    SciTech Connect

    Isham, Leslie; Weaver, Jason

    2013-09-30

    The Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, located in northwest Wisconsin has developed a project, entitled Sustaining the Natural and Economic Resources of the LCO Ojibwe. This technical report is a summary of the project.

  9. Management of the four waters at micro level by considering the social and economic backwardness for sustainable development using remote sensing & gis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perni, Venkateswarlu

    As we enter the third millennium, we are witnessing a gale of bewildering change and transformation. Communication is well on its way to becoming instant. Knowledge based processes and an electronic network blankets the globe. And yet, there are certain things that never change, like for instance, the basic needs, of which water is most important. While in the past wars were fought over territory, markets and access to resources, future wars in the new millennium are likely to be fought over access to water for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Water that most abundant of natural resources, is also very scarce in its usable form in most places on earth. The critical challenge facing arid and semi-arid areas will be to provide enough water for domestic and sustainable agricultural purposes. Already 22 countries have renewable water resources of less than one thousand cubic meters per capita, dangerously little in years of rain scarcity. With ever increasing pressure of human population, there is severe stress on water resources. This dangerous situation can still be reversed through efficient rainwater harvesting and judicious utilization by the local community. And the best socio-physical unit for such resource management is the watershed. The present study deals with the application of Remote sensing and Geographical Information systems techniques for the generation of an alternative land use/land cover practice with due consideration to the social and economic backwardness of the different ethnic groups besides protecting the long term carrying capacity of the eco-system through the integrated micro-level management of the four waters concept. The Remote sensing data used is IRS-IC-LISS-III imagery and ERDAS / IMAGINE 8.3 GIS software. Landuse/Landcover, Hydro-geomorphology, Soil map etc are generated by interpreting the satellite data and with necessary ground check. The slope map and drainage maps are generated with the help of 1:50,000 scale

  10. Using Sustainable Development as a Competitive Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spearman, Pat

    Sustainable development reduces construction waste by 43%, generating 50% cost savings. Residential construction executives lacking adequate knowledge regarding the benefits of sustainable development practices are at a competitive disadvantage. Drawing from the diffusion of innovation theory, the purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore knowledge acquisition within the bounds of sustainable residential construction. The purposive sample size of 11 executive decision makers fulfilled the sample size requirements and enabled the extraction of meaningful data. Participants were members of the National Home Builders Association and had experience of a minimum of 5 years in residential construction. The research question addressed how to improve knowledge acquisition relating to the cost benefits of building green homes and increase the adoption rate of sustainable development among residential builders. Data were collected via semistructured telephone interviews, field observation, and document analysis. Transcribed data were validated via respondent validation, coded into 5 initial categories aligned to the focus of the research, then reduced to 3 interlocking themes of environment, competitive advantage, and marketing. Recommendations include developing comprehensive public policies, horizontal and vertical communications networks, and green banks to capitalize sustainable development programs to improve the diffusion of green innovation as a competitive advantage strategy. Business leaders could benefit from this data by integrating sustainable development practices into their business processes. Sustainable development reduces operational costs, increases competitive advantage for builders, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Implications for social change increase energy independence through conservation and developing a legislative policy template for comprehensive energy strategies. A comprehensive energy strategy promotes economic development

  11. Sustainability and economics: The Adirondack Park experience, a forest economic-ecological model, and solar energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Jon David

    The long-term sustainability of human communities will depend on our relationship with regional environments, our maintenance of renewable resources, and our successful disengagement from nonrenewable energy dependence. This dissertation investigates sustainability at these three levels, following a critical analysis of sustainability and economics. At the regional environment level, the Adirondack Park of New York State is analyzed as a potential model of sustainable development. A set of initial and ongoing conditions are presented that both emerge from and support a model of sustainability in the Adirondacks. From these conditions, a clearer picture emerges of the definition of regional sustainability, consequences of its adoption, and lessons from its application. Next, an economic-ecological model of the northern hardwood forest ecosystem is developed. The model integrates economic theory and intertemporal ecological concepts, linking current harvest decisions with future forest growth, financial value, and ecosystem stability. The results indicate very different economic and ecological outcomes by varying opportunity cost and ecosystem recovery assumptions, and suggest a positive benefit to ecological recovery in the forest rotation decision of the profit maximizing manager. The last section investigates the motives, economics, and international development implications of renewable energy (specifically photovoltaic technology) in rural electrification and technology transfer, drawing on research in the Dominican Republic. The implications of subsidizing a photovoltaic market versus investing in basic research are explored.

  12. Making technological innovation work for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Chan, Gabriel; Harley, Alicia G; Matus, Kira; Moon, Suerie; Murthy, Sharmila L; Clark, William C

    2016-08-30

    This paper presents insights and action proposals to better harness technological innovation for sustainable development. We begin with three key insights from scholarship and practice. First, technological innovation processes do not follow a set sequence but rather emerge from complex adaptive systems involving many actors and institutions operating simultaneously from local to global scales. Barriers arise at all stages of innovation, from the invention of a technology through its selection, production, adaptation, adoption, and retirement. Second, learning from past efforts to mobilize innovation for sustainable development can be greatly improved through structured cross-sectoral comparisons that recognize the socio-technical nature of innovation systems. Third, current institutions (rules, norms, and incentives) shaping technological innovation are often not aligned toward the goals of sustainable development because impoverished, marginalized, and unborn populations too often lack the economic and political power to shape innovation systems to meet their needs. However, these institutions can be reformed, and many actors have the power to do so through research, advocacy, training, convening, policymaking, and financing. We conclude with three practice-oriented recommendations to further realize the potential of innovation for sustainable development: (i) channels for regularized learning across domains of practice should be established; (ii) measures that systematically take into account the interests of underserved populations throughout the innovation process should be developed; and (iii) institutions should be reformed to reorient innovation systems toward sustainable development and ensure that all innovation stages and scales are considered at the outset. PMID:27519800

  13. Energy foundations for sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Sather, N.F.

    1992-09-01

    Worldwide, more than three-quarters of our energy needs are obtained from nonrenewable reserves of coal, oil, gas, and uranium. The unavoidable outcome of our present path is the depletion of all non-renewable energy resources. Further exacerbating the energy picture is the mounting cost of mitigating the adverse environmental and health impacts of energy use. Problems ranging from acid rain and radioactive waste storage to the potential for widespread environmental disaster that could result from the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have made it that the earth`s capacity to absorb the waste products of energy use without serious consequences is being severely strained. Potential supply shortages and mounting costs for the energy component of our industrial enterprise will increasingly undermine our ability to sustain global economic development. Strong positive actions that shore up the energy foundations of our economy arc called for. The purpose of this presentation is to focus attention on two such proactive steps which, though insufficient to the task by themselves, are nevertheless crucial to any effective plan for heading off the recessionary tendencies of our growing energy supply and cost dilemma. The first of these essential steps is to develop a much better arrangement than we currently have for including all costs for the adverse health and environmental impacts of industrial production in the price paid by consumers for fuels, electricity, and manufactured goods. The second essential action is to expand our R&D effort to develop new manufacturing processes and new materials and products that meet our needs for power, fuels and consumer goods at lower cost, greater efficiency, and with reduced environmental cost.

  14. Energy foundations for sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Sather, N.F.

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide, more than three-quarters of our energy needs are obtained from nonrenewable reserves of coal, oil, gas, and uranium. The unavoidable outcome of our present path is the depletion of all non-renewable energy resources. Further exacerbating the energy picture is the mounting cost of mitigating the adverse environmental and health impacts of energy use. Problems ranging from acid rain and radioactive waste storage to the potential for widespread environmental disaster that could result from the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have made it that the earth's capacity to absorb the waste products of energy use without serious consequences is being severely strained. Potential supply shortages and mounting costs for the energy component of our industrial enterprise will increasingly undermine our ability to sustain global economic development. Strong positive actions that shore up the energy foundations of our economy arc called for. The purpose of this presentation is to focus attention on two such proactive steps which, though insufficient to the task by themselves, are nevertheless crucial to any effective plan for heading off the recessionary tendencies of our growing energy supply and cost dilemma. The first of these essential steps is to develop a much better arrangement than we currently have for including all costs for the adverse health and environmental impacts of industrial production in the price paid by consumers for fuels, electricity, and manufactured goods. The second essential action is to expand our R D effort to develop new manufacturing processes and new materials and products that meet our needs for power, fuels and consumer goods at lower cost, greater efficiency, and with reduced environmental cost.

  15. Implementing sustainable development programs in Chicago

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, H.

    1994-12-31

    Achieving sustainable development requires a revision of the present view of the nature of the city as an environment, and its relation to a larger ecosystem of which it is an essential part. The environmental health of a wilderness area is inextricably related to the environmental, and economic, health of the great urban centers. The vitality of dense metropolitan areas, where population and economic activities are concentrated, is key to the preservation of productive farm lands, wildlife habitat, and open spaces. The social and economic crisis which grips many metropolitan centers, with attendant flight of industry and development to the so-called {open_quotes}greenfields,{close_quotes} fundamentally spreads a broader crisis to our common ecosystem. This crisis is marked by the obliteration of habitat necessary for biodiversity, loss of fertile farm land, and the contamination of air, water and land, as an unescapable effect of the sprawl created by flight from the urban centers. The removal of false conceptual distinctions between the city and nature, distinctions that are unfortunately at the heart of so much of American environmental philosophy, is key to the concept of `sustainable development.` This article sets forth how the City of Chicago is implementing this understanding of the nature of the urban environment, in pursuit of sustainable development within the city.

  16. Massive Open Online Courses and Economic Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liyanagunawardena, Tharindu R.; Lundqvist, Karsten O.; Williams, Shirley A.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of users around the world have registered on Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) offered by hundreds of universities (and other organizations) worldwide. Creating and offering these courses costs thousands of pounds. However, at present, revenue generated by MOOCs is not sufficient to offset these costs. The sustainability of MOOCs is a…

  17. Indicators for technological, environmental and economic sustainability of ozone contactors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Tejada-Martinez, Andres E; Lei, Hongxia; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-09-15

    Various studies have attempted to improve disinfection efficiency as a way to improve the sustainability of ozone disinfection which is a critical unit process for water treatment. Baffling factor, CT10, and log-inactivation are commonly used indicators for quantifying disinfection credits. However the applicability of these indicators and the relationship between these indicators have not been investigated in depth. This study simulated flow, tracer transport, and chemical species transport in a full-scale ozone contactor operated by the City of Tampa Water Department and six other modified designs using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Through analysis of the simulation results, we found that baffling factor and CT10 are not optimal indicators of disinfection performance. We also found that the relationship between effluent CT obtained from CT transport simulation and baffling factor depends on the location of ozone release. In addition, we analyzed the environmental and economic impacts of ozone contactor designs and upgrades and developed a composite indicator to quantify the sustainability in technological, environmental and economic dimensions. PMID:27322565

  18. Re-thinking Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trainer, Ted

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the overconsumption and overproduction of industrialized nations and the condition of developing nations. Considers the global revolution in institutions, systems, values, and lifestyles necessary to implement sustainable development. Depicts a world of decentralized, self-sufficient communities, and describes education's potential role…

  19. Environmental valuation under sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, R.B.; Norgaard, R.B. )

    1992-05-01

    Environmentalism has evolved since the 1960's from a concern with the preservation of wilderness in the American experience to a concern over pollution of human habitat throughout the industrialized world. Northern anxiety spread to the loss of tropical rainforests and biodiversity in the South, where environmentalism evolved further in an encounter with indigenous interpretations, conditions, and priorities. By the late 1980's, climate change emerged as a central issue in a now global discourse on the relationship between environment and development. The principle of sustainable development - that current needs are to be met as fully as possible while ensuring that the life opportunities of future generations are undiminished relative to present - is now widely accepted. This paper illustrates that incorporating environmental values per se in decision-making will not bring about sustainability unless each generation is committed to transferring to the next sufficient natural resources and capital assets to make development sustainable. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Ruling Relationships in Sustainable Development and Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berryman, Tom; Sauvé, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    It is from historical perspectives on more than 40 years of environment related education theories, practices, and policies that we revisit what might otherwise become a tired conversation about environmental education and sustainable development. Our contemporary critical analysis of Stefan Bengtsson's research about policy making leads us to…

  1. Conceptualisation of Technology Education within the Paradigm of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlova, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of how sustainable development might be conceptualised and used to advance technology education practice. It is argued that a conceptualisation of sustainable development based on a combination of weak anthropocentrism and value based approaches within particular social, environmental and economic contexts provides…

  2. Realities of sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Annan, R.H.

    1997-12-01

    The author gives a brief overview of rural electrification projects which have been developed worldwide based on different forms of renewable energy sources. Rural electrification provides hope to the 1.3 billion people who are still unserved by the power grid, and as a consequence are severely disadvantaged in todays economy in most facits of daily life and health. He recommends a more concerted effort to consolidate the experiences gained from present programs in order to present a more organized program by the time of the 2002 UNCED conference. His recommendation is that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory serve as a secretariat, to gather and formalize the information which has been learned to this point in time.

  3. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  4. Resource linkages and sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anouti, Yahya

    prices we estimate that the demand for gasoline could be reduced by 7.8 percent and that of diesel by 5.9 percent. This would lead to not only reduction in the associated negative externalities, but also to the generation of more than USD400 billion in revenues for governments. However, the partial equilibrium analysis in essay one ignores the general equilibrium effects that will be mainly driven by how the government spends the subsidy. In essay 2, we build the case for phasing out these subsidies and accompanying that by a welfare compensating cash transfer. In order to evaluate the impact of that on consumer's welfare, we develop a numerical model for Saudi Arabia in a general equilibrium setting to discuss a phase out of transport fuel subsidies that is. Results show that the Saudi government can increase its consumers' welfare up to five percentage points. In case the cash transfer is adjusted to keep consumers' utility at the pre-reform level, the required compensating transfer would leave the government with three percentage points of additional revenues. Finally, we highlight policy implications of phasing out the transport fuel subsidies. Finally, in essay 3 we turn our focus to the application of local content policies in the oil and gas sector. There is limited literature that investigates economic linkages from the extractive industries, assesses intertemporal tradeoffs, and guides the design of efficient and sustainable policies. Our contribution in this essay is three-fold. First, we present the first comprehensive analysis of economic linkages from the oil and gas sector across 48 countries. Then, we analyze the economic distortions from applying local content policies using a Hotelling type optimal control model with an international oil company maximizing its profits subject to a local content requirement. Finally, we investigate the presence of a socially optimal local content level when the social planner maximizing the net benefits from the

  5. The Adolescent Dip in Students' Sustainability Consciousness--Implications for Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Daniel; Gericke, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that interest in and concern about environmental issues tends to decrease in adolescence, but less is known about adolescents' broader consciousness of sustainable development, also including economic and social issues. This study investigates students' sustainability consciousness in the transition to adolescence. This…

  6. Sustainable development: a trade union perspective.

    PubMed

    Gereluk, Winston; Royer, Lucien

    2003-01-01

    Sustainable development has become an important issue for trade unions around the world, but progress on sustainable development has been slow. Agenda 21, which came out of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, called on workers and trade unions to assume an active role. The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and the Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC) to the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) became influential players who represent more than 155 million members in 148 countries and territories. The implementation of Agenda 21 has been hampered by bureaucratic gridlock--a situation that trade unions propose to overcome through innovative strategies on workplaces and workers. They realize that sustainable development cannot take place without radical changes in production and consumption. Globalization is creating opulence on the one hand and grinding poverty on the other. ICFTU and TUAC propose a new "world order" that includes democratic decision-making, popular accountability, transparency, and local control. They have proposed priorities, outlined in this article, for an international approach to sustainable development. PMID:17208715

  7. Lunar COTS: An Economical and Sustainable Approach to Reaching Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Rasky, Daniel; Pittman, Robert B.; Zapata, Edgar; Lepsch, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The NASA COTS (Commercial Orbital Transportation Services) Program was a very successful program that developed and demonstrated cost-effective development and acquisition of commercial cargo transportation services to the International Space Station (ISS). The COTS acquisition strategy utilized a newer model than normally accepted in traditional procurement practices. This new model used Space Act Agreements where NASA entered into partnerships with industry to jointly share cost, development and operational risks to demonstrate new capabilities for mutual benefit. This model proved to be very beneficial to both NASA and its industry partners as NASA saved significantly in development and operational costs while industry partners successfully expanded their market share of the global launch transportation business. The authors, who contributed to the development of the COTS model, would like to extend this model to a lunar commercial services program that will push development of technologies and capabilities that will serve a Mars architecture and lead to an economical and sustainable pathway to transporting humans to Mars. Over the past few decades, several architectures for the Moon and Mars have been proposed and studied but ultimately halted or not even started due to the projected costs significantly exceeding NASA's budgets. Therefore a new strategy is needed that will fit within NASA's projected budgets and takes advantage of the US commercial industry along with its creative and entrepreneurial attributes. The authors propose a new COTS-like program to enter into partnerships with industry to demonstrate cost-effective, cis-lunar commercial services, such as lunar transportation, lunar ISRU operations, and cis-lunar propellant depots that can enable an economical and sustainable Mars architecture. Similar to the original COTS program, the goals of the proposed program, being notionally referred to as Lunar Commercial Orbital Transfer Services (LCOTS

  8. Have the Cake and Eat It: Ecojustice versus Development? Is It Possible to Reconcile Social and Economic Equity, Ecological Sustainability, and Human Development? Some Implications for Ecojustice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucker, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    In this article I argue that it is impossible to look at educational issues before we develop a clear understanding of the dominant ideologies that currently perpetuate unsustainability. Only if we appreciate the pervasiveness and the fallacies of such concepts as "development," "growth," and "progress" within a limited biosphere can we start to…

  9. A territorial understanding of sustainability in public development

    SciTech Connect

    Peti, Marton

    2012-01-15

    Sustainability theories in European Union (EU) development policies are facing significant challenges: it is difficult to transmit context-specific, publicly communicable messages; the recent development policies strengthen the concurrent development paradigm of economic growth and competitiveness; 'climate change' became a more popular environmental integration term than sustainability in the last few years. However, due to the recent crises of the economic growth, there is a great chance to reintroduce a sustainability-based development. A territorial/regional understanding of sustainability can also be an answer for the current challenges, a platform for refreshing the concept with relevant, specific messages that are close to the everyday life. This paper summarises the 'territorial system'-based basic principles of territorial sustainability in a model called AUTHARSIIV (AUTonomy, HARmony, Solidarity, Innovation, Identity and Values). This is a supplementary sustainability content specified for the context of spatial/regional development or planning. The paper also examines the presence of 'general and territorial sustainability' in regional development programmes, and case studies on applying the territorial sustainability principles in planning, assessment, and implementation. According to the results, sustainability is rarely adapted to the conditions of a given sector or a region, and the territorial aspect of sustainability is underrepresented even in territorial programmes. Therefore, the paper proposes a new planning and assessment system that is based on a set of regionally legitimate sustainability values.

  10. Bioenergy for sustainable development: An African context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangoyana, Robert Blessing

    This paper assesses the sustainability concerns of bioenergy systems against the prevailing and potential long term conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa with a special attention on agricultural and forestry waste, and cultivated bioenergy sources. Existing knowledge and processes about bioenergy systems are brought into a “sustainability framework” to support debate and decisions about the implementation of bioenergy systems in the region. Bioenergy systems have been recommended based on the potential to (i) meet domestic energy demand and reduce fuel importation (ii) diversify rural economies and create employment (iii) reduce poverty, and (iv) provide net energy gains and positive environmental impacts. However, biofuels will compete with food crops for land, labour, capital and entrepreneurial skills. Moreover the environmental benefits of some feedstocks are questionable. These challenges are, however, surmountable. It is concluded that biomass energy production could be an effective way to achieve sustainable development for bioenergy pathways that (i) are less land intensive, (ii) have positive net energy gains and environmental benefits, and (iii) provide local socio-economic benefits. Feasibility evaluations which put these issues into perspective are vital for sustainable application of agricultural and forest based bioenergy systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Such evaluations should consider the long run potential of biofuels accounting for demographic, economic and technological changes and the related implications.

  11. 10th Anniversary Focus: From mainstream 'environmental economics' to 'sustainability economics'. On the need for new thinking.

    PubMed

    Söderbaum, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Traditional ideas of science as being separate and separable from ideology and politics have to be reconsidered. Each interpretation of sustainable development is not only scientific but at the same time ideological. For this reason our ideas about good science should also be related to normal imperatives of democracy. Mainstream neoclassical economics is specific in scientific and ideological terms. This paradigm is useful for some purposes and has played a role as a mental map in guiding us towards economic growth and other ideas about progress in society and the economy. Sustainable development, however, represents an ideological turn in our ideas about progress and it is no longer clear that neoclassical theory will be enough. Alternative perspectives in economics are being developed as part of a pluralistic strategy and the monopoly position of neoclassical economists at university departments of economics is thereby challenged. A 'political economic person' is suggested as alternative (complement) to Economic Man assumptions and a 'political economic organization' to be compared with the neoclassical profit maximizing firm. Alternative ways of understanding markets and international trade, efficiency, decision-making, monitoring and assessment are also needed. It is argued that such an alternative mental map is useful for actors who take the challenge of sustainable development seriously. PMID:19037489

  12. Modelling sustainable development planning: a multicriteria decision conferencing approach.

    PubMed

    Quaddus, M A; Siddique, M A

    2001-09-01

    Development planning is multidimensional in nature. On the one hand, it addresses economic growth, and on the other, it deals with economic development of the whole nation. Sustainable development, on the other hand, emphasizes the need for integration of economics and environment, as well as promoting intra- and intergenerational equity. While the literature deals extensively with the issues of sustainable development, it lacks a prescription of an easy-to-use, yet rigorous, methodology for it. In this paper, we offer a decision conferencing approach to sustainable development planning based on a multicriteria model. The integrated model is presented and applied to a sustainable development planning exercise in a third world country. Sample results are presented and detailed sensitivity analyses show the environmental variables that are of major concern. PMID:11697680

  13. Sustainability and economic evaluation of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Mendes, Adélio M; Caetano, Nídia S; Martins, António A

    2014-09-01

    This article evaluates the sustainability and economic potential of microalgae grown in brewery wastewater for biodiesel and biomass production. Three sustainability and two economic indicators were considered in the evaluation within a life cycle perspective. For the production system the most efficient process units were selected. Results show that harvesting and oil separation are the main process bottlenecks. Microalgae with higher lipid content and productivity are desirable for biodiesel production, although comparable to other biofuel's feedstock concerning sustainability. However, improvements are still needed to reach the performance level of fossil diesel. Profitability reaches a limit for larger cultivation areas, being higher when extracted biomass is sold together with microalgae oil, in which case the influence of lipid content and areal productivity is smaller. The values of oil and/or biomass prices calculated to ensure that the process is economically sound are still very high compared with other fuel options, especially biodiesel. PMID:24830377

  14. Measurement and evaluation of sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Kondyli, Julia

    2010-11-15

    This paper develops a methodology to analyse, measure and evaluate sustainable development (SD). A holistic approach (systems analysis) is applied to operationalise the SD concept and an integrated approach (composite indicator construction) is adopted for the measurement of SD. The operationalisation of the SD concept is based on an in-depth systems analysis of issues associated with economic, social and environmental problems in a policy context. The composite indicator (overall sustainability index) is developed based on the three composite sub-indicators of the SD dimensions. The valuation of the SD is based both on the aggregated sub-indicators and the overall composite indicator. The methodology is used to evaluate the SD of the North Aegean islands between different temporal points. The assessment of the change in the islands' SD is based on a quartile grading scale of the overall SD composite scores.

  15. Economic sustainability and the preservation of environmental assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foy, George

    1990-11-01

    The core requirement of sustainability is that current economic activities should not result in an excessive burden on future generations. This criterion is general enough to imply different decision rules for the preservation of environmental assets. Neoclassical economics does not have a sustainability criterion for environmental assets independent of the intertemporal efficiency criterion, which allocates environmental and man-made capital based on projected monetary benefits and costs. This criterion is examined in terms of the feasibility of valuing the benefits of environmental assets, the substitution possibilities between natural and man-made capital, and the ethical grounds for using efficiency as the sole determinant of the allocation of environmental assets. An alternative ecological sustainability criterion is the preservation of safe minimum levels of environmental assets in physical terms rather than the dollar value of a composite of natural and man-made capital. Safe minimum standards for environmental assets constrain the efficiency criterion in order to ensure the sustainability of economic systems. It is argued that the ecological approach to sustainability should limit the economic approach for decisions involving the allocation of environmental assets.

  16. Classroom Curriculum Development in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Brian

    1974-01-01

    A review of reference literature in curriculum development and a short sample curriculum, "Economic Aspects of the Local Environment," are presented to help guide economics teachers in making curriculum revisions. (JH)

  17. Replacing fallow by cover crops: economic sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, José Luis; Garrido, Alberto; Quemada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Replacing fallow by cover crops in intensive fertilized systems has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for reducing nitrate leaching. However, despite the evident environmental services provided and the range of agronomic benefits documented in the literature, farmers' adoption of this new technology is still limited because they are either unwilling or unable, although adoption reluctance is frequently rooted in low economic profitability, low water se efficiency or poor knowledge. Economic analyses permit a comparison between the profit that farmers obtain from agricultural products and the cost of adopting specific agricultural techniques. The goal of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of replacing the usual winter fallow with cover crops (barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Vanessa), vetch (Vicia villosa L., cv. Vereda) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L., cv. Licapo)) in irrigated maize systems and variable Mediterranean weather conditions using stochastic Monte-Carlo simulations of key farms' financial performance indicators. The three scenarios studied for each cover crop were: i) just leaving the cover crop residue in the ground, ii) leaving the cover crop residue but reduce following maize fertilization according to the N available from the previous cover crop and iii) selling the cover crop residue for animal feeding. All the scenarios were compared with respect to a typical maize-fallow rotation. With observed data from six different years and in various field trials, looking for different weather conditions, probability distribution functions of maize yield, cover crop biomass production and N fertilizer saving was fitted. Based in statistical sources maize grain price, different forage prices and the cost of fertilizer were fitted to probability distribution functions too. As result, introducing a cover crop involved extra costs with respect to fallow as the initial investment, because new seed, herbicide or extra field operations. Additional

  18. Economics of reservoir sedimentation and sustainable management of dams.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, A; Shah, F; Dinar, A

    2001-02-01

    Accepted practice has been to design and operate reservoirs to fill with sediment, generating benefits from remaining storage over a finite period of time. The consequences of sedimentation and project abandonment are left to the future. This 'future' has already arrived for many existing reservoirs and most others will eventually experience a similar fate, thereby imposing substantial costs on society. Such costs could be avoided if sedimentation was minimized and dams were allowed to live forever. The fact that the world's inventory of suitable reservoir sites is limited provides an additional reason for encouraging the sustainable management of dams. This paper provides a framework for assessing the economic feasibility of sediment management strategies that would allow the life of dams to be prolonged indefinitely. Even if reduced accumulation or removal of sediment is technically possible, its economic viability is likely to depend on physical, hydrological and financial parameters. The model presented incorporates such factors and allows a characterization of conditions under which sustainable management would be desirable. The empirical implementation of the model draws upon the substantial amount of technical information available. We analyze the sustainability of reservoirs, with a focus on the trade-off between such sustainability and the short to medium term benefits which a reservoir is expected to produce. The results show that, for a very wide range of realistic parameter values, sustainable management of reservoirs is economically more desirable than the prevailing practice of forcing a finite reservoir life through excessive sediment accumulation. PMID:11381772

  19. Lecturers' Perspectives on How Introductory Economic Courses Address Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tom L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explore sustainability commitments' potential implications for the curriculum of introductory economics courses. Universities have signed the Talloires Declaration, committing themselves to promoting students' environmental literacy and ecological citizenship, thereby creating pressure to integrate…

  20. Collaborative decision making for sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsley, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    For many years, economic development has mean industrial recruitment where business-at-any-cost was preached by a small elite, where civic discord replaced civic discussion, where families made more money but had less to spend, where residents learned to lock their doors, where communities changed from the unique to commonplace and a thousand towns looked alike. But now, scores of communities are saying no to old, worn-out approaches to development and embracing a new kind of development that respects the community and the environment. Created collaboratively by people from all walks of community life, this new approach is called sustainable community economic development. Though new, sustainable development is based on traditional values of stewardship and working together. Its principles are powerful in their simplicity. Its lessons enrich community decision making. This paper describes these principles and lessons. It introduces a community decision-making process that applies them and suggests the kinds of results you can expect from such a process in your town.

  1. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  2. Ten objectives for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Hu, A

    2000-02-01

    Sustainable development is one of the fundamental strategies for China's socioeconomic development in its 10th 5-Year Plan (2001-2005) period and beyond. It is a human-centered strategy focusing on improved quality of life in which environmental quality is an important part. This article presents 10 objectives that must be achieved for the sustainable development strategy to succeed. These objectives are: 1) continue to implement the family planning program; 2) maintain a dynamic balance of arable land (not less than 123 million hectares) and implement an agricultural development strategy; 3) maintain a dynamic balance of water resources by reducing water consumption for every unit of gross development product growth and agricultural value added; 4) import large quantities of oil and natural gas; 5) control emissions of carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide by large cities and industries and close high-pollution thermal power plants; 6) compensate for ¿forest deficit¿ with ¿trade surplus¿ by reducing timber production and increase timber import; 7) import large quantities of iron ore, copper, zinc, aluminum, and other minerals and encourage foreign participation in resource exploration and development; 8) make time-bound commitments to clean up large cities, rivers, and lakes and forcefully close down seriously polluting enterprises; 9) implement a massive ecological construction project to slow down ecological degradation; and 10) develop the environmental industry and eco-buildup to expand domestic demand, increase employment, and alleviate poverty. PMID:12295909

  3. Sustainable regional development and natural hazard impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena; Svetlosanov, Vladimir; Kudin, Valery

    2016-04-01

    During the last decades, natural hazard impacts on social and economic development in many countries were increasing due to the expansion of human activities into the areas prone to natural risks as well as to increasing in number and severity of natural hazardous events caused by climate changes and other natural phenomena. The escalation of severe disasters (such as Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan 2011) triggered by natural hazards and related natural-technological and environmental events is increasingly threatening sustainable development at different levels from regional to global scale. In our study, we develop a model of ecological, economic and social sustainable development for the European part of Russia and the Republic of Belarus. The model consists of six blocks including 1) population, 2) environment, 3) mineral resources, 4) geographic space, 5) investments, and 6) food production and import. These blocks were created based on the analysis of the main processes at the regional level; all the blocks are closely interrelated between each other. Reaching the limit values of block parameters corresponds to a sharp deterioration of the system; as a result, the system can lose its stability. Aggravation of natural and natural-technological risk impacts on each block and should be taken into account in the model of regional development. Natural hazards can cause both strong influences and small but permanent perturbations. In both cases, a system can become unstable. The criterion for sustainable development is proposed. The Russian Foundation for Humanities and Belorussian Republican Foundation for Fundamental Research supported the study (project 15-22-01008).

  4. Consumption: Challenge to sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, N.

    1997-04-04

    This editorial about sustainable development points to consumption as one of the four interlinked global problems including population, environment, and development, and the least tractable of the four. Consumption patterns and expectations are deeply entrenched in most cultures, and hard to change, though change will come whether by design or defaults. Among the topics commented on are artificially priced fossil fuels, toxic pollutants, use of nonrenewable resources, etc. Also discussed are policy options and the role of science. A response is included. 21 refs.

  5. SUSTAINABILITY: ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND SYSTEMS ASPECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "? development that ?meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future' ?" However, a mathematical theo...

  6. Population, environment and sustainable development in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jones, G W

    1993-12-01

    Sustainable development is expressed in terms of living standards and economic welfare. The basic dichotomy of general sustainable development pits the environmentalists who fear that population growth poses grave threats to natural resources against the economic rationalists who envisage that market forces will take care of scarcities and technological development will solve environmental problems. The Brundtland committee defined sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability to meet the needs of future generations. An increase in population or per capita income will increase environmental stress, while an increase in efficiency of production will reduce environmental stress. Indonesia is an important case of the interrelationships between population growth and environmental problems. It had 180 million people in 1990. Despite fertility decline the population is expected to increase by 89 million over the next 30 years. The island of Java is subject to the greatest population-related environmental stress because the population numbers 112 million people. Severe erosion already occurred in the 1950s in the uplands, and cultivation is moving further up the slopes of volcanic hillsides to accommodate commercial vegetable growing on previously forested slopes. The underlying problem is population growth and the need for increased crop production and employment. Other causative factors are the building of freeways, airports, and factories; sand and soil extraction; the impact on fisheries of blasting of coral rock; and urbanization. Jakarta has inadequate water supplies and waste disposal and increasing air pollution. In the outer island in South Sulawesi erosion is also severe; in South Sumatra deforestation is widespread as the transmigration program unfolds. Natural resource degradation occurs when population becomes too large in relation to the productivity of the resource base. PMID:12159254

  7. The Hanford summit and sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, C.T.

    1994-05-01

    Since the days of the Manhattan Project of World War II, the economic well being of the Tri-Cities (Pasco, Kennewick, and Richland) of Washington State has been tied to the US Department of Energy missions at the nearby Hanford Site. As missions at the Site changed, so did the well being of the region. The Hanford Site is now poised to complete its final mission, that of environmental restoration. When restoration is compiled, the Site may be closed and the effect on the local economy will be devastating if action is not taken now. To that end, economic diversification and transition are being planned. To facilitate the process, the Hanford Site will become a sustainable development demonstration project -- a project with regional, national, and international application.

  8. Flow of natural versus economic capital in industrial supply networks and its implications to sustainability.

    PubMed

    Ukidwe, Nandan U; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2005-12-15

    Appreciating the reliance of industrial networks on natural capital is a necessary step toward their sustainable design and operation. However, most contemporary accounting techniques, including engineering economics, life cycle assessment, and full cost accounting, fail in this regard, as they take natural capital for granted and concentrate mainly on the economic aspects and emissions. The recently developed "thermodynamic input-output analysis" (TIOA) includes the contribution of ecological goods, ecosystem services, human resources, and impact of emissions in an economic input-output model. This paper uses TIOA to determine the throughputs of natural and economic capitals along industrial supply networks. The ratios of natural to economic capitals of economic sectors reveals a hierarchical organization of the U.S. economy wherein basic infrastructure industries are at the bottom and specialized value-added industries constitute the top. These results provide novel insight into the reliance of specific industrial sectors and supply chains on natural capital and the corresponding economic throughput. Such insight is useful for understanding the implications of corporate restructuring on industrial sustainability metrics and of outsourcing of business activities on outsourcer, outsourcee, and global sustainability. These implications are discussed from the standpoints of weak and strong sustainability paradigms. The calculated ratios can also be used for hybrid thermodynamic life cycle assessment. PMID:16475364

  9. Economic development partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Nikkila, N.

    1994-12-31

    The economy and the environment are inextricably linked. Neither one can be concentrated on to the total exclusion of the other. When the economy declines, so does public and private support for aggressive clean air measures. So a healthy economy is a necessary partner for a healthful environment. California is going through tough economic times and, in the future, when things have improved, the South Coast Air Quality Management District wants to be able to look back and say it pitched in and did its share to help in the recovery. The author gives a few examples of what it has done and what it is doing.

  10. Population, poverty and economic development.

    PubMed

    Sinding, Steven W

    2009-10-27

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on this aspect of the debate, concludes that the burden of evidence now increasingly supports a positive conclusion, examines recent trends in demographic change and economic development and argues that the countries representing the last development frontier, those of Sub-Saharan Africa, would be well advised to incorporate policies and programmes to reduce high fertility in their economic development strategies. PMID:19770153

  11. Population, poverty and economic development

    PubMed Central

    Sinding, Steven W.

    2009-01-01

    Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty. The paper examines recent evidence on this aspect of the debate, concludes that the burden of evidence now increasingly supports a positive conclusion, examines recent trends in demographic change and economic development and argues that the countries representing the last development frontier, those of Sub-Saharan Africa, would be well advised to incorporate policies and programmes to reduce high fertility in their economic development strategies. PMID:19770153

  12. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  13. Information systems for engineering sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.S.

    1992-02-27

    The ability of a country to follow sustainable development paths is determined to a large extent by the capacity or capabilities of its people and its institutions. Specifically, capacity-building in the UNCED terminology encompasses the country's human, scientific, technological, organizational, institutional, and resource capabilities. A fundamental goal of capacity-building is to enhance the ability to pose, evaluate and address crucial questions related to policy choices and methods of implementation among development options. As a result the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Agenda 21 planning process has identified the need for better methods by which information can be transferred between industrialized nations and developing nations. The reasons for better methods of information transfer include facilitating decisions related to sustainable development and building the capacity of developing nations to better plan their future in both an economical and environmentally sound manner. This paper is a discussion on mechanisms for providing information and technologies available for presenting the information to a variety of cultures and levels of technical literacy. Consideration is given to access to information technology as well as to the cost to the user. One concept discussed includes an Engineering Partnership'' which brings together the talents and resources of private consulting engineers, corporations, non-profit professional organizations, government agencies and funding institution which work in partnership with each other and associates in developing countries. Concepts which are related to information technologies include a hypertext based, user configurable cultural translator and information navigator and the use of multi-media technologies to educate engineers about the concepts of sustainability, and the adaptation of the concept of metabolism to creating industrial systems.

  14. Information systems for engineering sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.S.

    1992-02-27

    The ability of a country to follow sustainable development paths is determined to a large extent by the capacity or capabilities of its people and its institutions. Specifically, capacity-building in the UNCED terminology encompasses the country`s human, scientific, technological, organizational, institutional, and resource capabilities. A fundamental goal of capacity-building is to enhance the ability to pose, evaluate and address crucial questions related to policy choices and methods of implementation among development options. As a result the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Agenda 21 planning process has identified the need for better methods by which information can be transferred between industrialized nations and developing nations. The reasons for better methods of information transfer include facilitating decisions related to sustainable development and building the capacity of developing nations to better plan their future in both an economical and environmentally sound manner. This paper is a discussion on mechanisms for providing information and technologies available for presenting the information to a variety of cultures and levels of technical literacy. Consideration is given to access to information technology as well as to the cost to the user. One concept discussed includes an ``Engineering Partnership`` which brings together the talents and resources of private consulting engineers, corporations, non-profit professional organizations, government agencies and funding institution which work in partnership with each other and associates in developing countries. Concepts which are related to information technologies include a hypertext based, user configurable cultural translator and information navigator and the use of multi-media technologies to educate engineers about the concepts of sustainability, and the adaptation of the concept of metabolism to creating industrial systems.

  15. Environmental and economic sustainability of the Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Germani, Alessia; Vitiello, Valeria; Giusti, Anna Maria; Pinto, Alessandro; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; del Balzo, Valeria

    2014-12-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been proposed as a healthy dietary pattern for disease prevention. However, little information exists on the cost and on the environmental impact of such a dietary model. We compared the environmental impact and the costs of the current food consumption pattern of the Italian population and the Mediterranean model in order to investigate its overall sustainability. The environmental impact was calculated on the basis of three indexes, i.e. Carbon, Ecological and Water Footprint. The costs (Euro) per person of the MD and of the current Italian household food expenditure were considered on a weekly basis according to the 2013 data from the Observatory prices and tariffs of the Ministry of Economic Development and the service SMS consumers of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Forestry. The MD resulted to produce a lower environmental impact than the current food consumption of the Italian population. The monthly expenditure of the MD is slightly higher in the overall budget compared to the current expenditure allocated to food by the Italian population, but there is a substantial difference in the distribution of budget according to the different food groups. PMID:25088933

  16. Developing States: Politics and Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    Identifies the developing nations of the Pacific Rim to be the Philippines, Indonesia, and 21 small states such as Fiji and Papua, New Guinea. Discusses the political and economic factors which both hinder and aid the governments of these nations. Contends that the region's tremendous potential is unrealized because of economic underdevelopment…

  17. RESTORATION PLUS: A COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS TO ACHIEVE ECOLOGICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is evaluating ecosystem restoration and management techniques to ensure they create sustainable solutions for degraded watersheds. ORD NRMRL initiated the Restoration Plus (RePlus) program in 2002 to a) evaluate ecosystem restoration and management options, b) assess the non-...

  18. RESTORATION PLUS: A COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY RESEARCH PROGRAM TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE ECOSYSTEM RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS TO ACHIEVE ECOLOGICALLY AND ECONOMICALLY SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is evaluating ecosystem restoration and management techniques to ensure they create sustainable solutions for degraded watersheds. The ORD/NRMRL initiated the Restoration Plus (RePlus) program in 2002, which emphasizes collabora...

  19. Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuanhui; Xu, Tongwen

    2006-09-01

    Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) is a kind of technology that integrates solvent and salt dissociation. It can realize salt conversion without second salt pollution or provide H+ and OH-/alkoxide ions in situ without salt introduction. Thus, it inherently possesses economical and environmental benefits. Moreover, its technological compatibility gives rise to new functions when it couples with other technologies, such as complexion, ion exchange, extraction, and adsorption. In view of the above peculiarities, EDBM has found many interesting applications in chemistry, food processing, biochemical industries, and environmental protection. However, its development has been restricted by such factors as lack of recognition of its contribution to industrial ecology, high membrane cost, insufficient research investment, and scarce operation experience. This paper compiles an introduction to this technology from the perspective of industrial ecology and conducts an extensive examination into EDBM applications. Its purpose is to gather synergic strength from academia, industry, and government to perfect EDBM for sustainable development. PMID:16999094

  20. Balancing limiting factors and economic drivers for sustainable midwestern U.S. agricultural residue feedstock supplies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading the soil and other natural resources. This review examine...

  1. Sustainable development: concept, value and practice.

    PubMed

    Barrow, C J

    1995-11-01

    The author discusses the concept of sustainable development (SD) and explores the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Approaches to implementing sustainable development include 1) "a stocktaking approach" that involves regional and national environmental audits, resource accounting, and national environmental action plans; and 2) "changes in people's attitudes." Each approach reinforces the other. Eden examined the International Chamber of Commerce reactions to the 1987 Brundtland Report and found that business generally favored SD over no-growth environmentalism. SD occurs as a process with a variety of routes that most often involve technology that improves upon traditional methods or protects from the destructive effects of modernization. SD assures that environmental quality is maintained, and economic and social development enhances resources and the environment. SD allows for the best quality of life for people. SD assures that future generations do not have reduced options. SD prevents or avoids major natural catastrophes. The requirements are corrective treatment of root causes of nonsustainability and a shift away from consumption-oriented life styles. Trade-offs must be made. Politicians and planners must use a longer planning perspective. There must be transition to smaller population numbers. Resource conflicts must be resolved. Pollution must be reduced and resources must not be wasted. Local resources should be used for agriculture, industry, and power generation. There should be a transition to a more equitable sharing of resources. The author identifies 12 other requirements. Progress thus far is disappointing and not demonstrably evident. PMID:12320792

  2. Education for Sustainable Living: Integrating Theory, Practice, Design, and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlberg, Mauri; Aanismaa, Pirjo; Dillon, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    A 4-year-long action research project involving curriculum development in education for sustainable living as part of home economics in a university teacher education course is described and analysed. Design experiments were used to develop the curriculum and promote learning. The design experiments emphasised an integrating approach to action…

  3. Conservation and economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.J.

    1992-05-01

    This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I`m going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today`s energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work!

  4. Conservation and economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.J.

    1992-05-01

    This oral presentation is about the Espanola Power Savers Project which involves both the utility and for the community. I'm going to spend much of my time today discussing why this project makes sense for the community, but I would like to start with a brief word about why community-based conservation makes sense for utilities. A number of reasons are listed to show why conservation is today's energy resource of choice. But if, for a moment, we take that as a given and ask why community-based conservation programs are the right way to develop that resource, the answer is simple: They work

  5. World Trends in Education for Sustainable Development. Environmental Education, Communication and Sustainability. Volume 32

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leal Filho, Walter, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that sustainable development is a long-term goal, which both individuals and institutions (and countries!) need to pursue. This important theme is characterized by an intrinsic complexity, since it encompasses ecological or environmental considerations on the one hand, and economic matters, social influences and political…

  6. The Implementation of Education for Sustainable Development in Sweden: Investigating the Sustainability Consciousness among Upper Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Teresa; Gericke, Niklas; Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sustainable development (SD) is a complex idea, based on environmental, economic and social dimensions. In line with SD, education for sustainable development (ESD) is an approach to teaching that combines cognitive and affective domains and aims to build empowerment abilities. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate…

  7. SUSTAINABILITY: ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "Development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future". However, a mathematical theory e...

  8. SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics

    EPA Science Inventory

    The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

  9. Technology in Sustainable Development Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kimio

    The economic and demographic growth in Asia has put increased importance to this part of the world whose contribution to the global community is vital in meeting global challenges. International cooperation in engineering education assumes a pivotal role in providing access to the frontiers of scientific and technological knowledge to the growing youths in the region. The thrust for advancement has been provided by the logic coming from the academic world itself, whereas expectations are high that the engineering education responds to challenges that are coming from outside the universities, such as environmental management, disaster management, and provision of common knowledge platform across disciplinary lines. Some cases are introduced in curriculum development that incorporates fieldwork and laboratory work intended to enhance the ability to cooperate. The new mode is discussed with focus on production, screening, storing/delivery, and leaning phases of knowledge. The strength of shared information will be enhanced through international cooperation.

  10. Chicken Farming in Grassland Increases Environmental Sustainability and Economic Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meizhen; Wang, Bingxue; Osborne, Colin P.; Jiang, Gaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background Grassland degradation caused by overgrazing poses a threat to both animal husbandry and environmental sustainability in most semi-arid areas especially north China. Although the Chinese Government has made huge efforts to restore degraded grasslands, a considerable attempt has unfortunately failed due to an inadequate consideration of economic benefits to local communities. Methodology/Principal Findings A controlled field experiment was conducted to test our hypothesis that utilizing natural grasslands as both habitat and feed resources for chickens and replacing the traditional husbandry system with chicken farming would increase environmental sustainability and raise income. Aboveground plant biomass elevated from 25 g m−2 for grazing sheep to 84 g m−2 for chicken farming. In contrast to the fenced (unstocked) grassland, chicken farming did not significantly decrease aboveground plant biomass, but did increase the root biomass by 60% (p<0.01). Compared with traditional sheep grazing, chicken farming significantly improved soil surface water content (0–10 cm), from 5% to 15%. Chicken farming did not affect the soil bulk density, while the traditional sheep grazing increased the soil bulk density in the 0–10 cm soil layer by 35% of the control (p<0.05). Most importantly, the economic income of local herdsmen has been raised about six times compared with the traditional practice of raising sheep. Ecologically, such an innovative solution allowed large degraded grasslands to naturally regenerate. Grasslands also provided a high quality organic poultry product which could be marketed in big cities. Conclusion/Significance Chicken farming is an innovative alternative strategy for increasing environmental sustainability and economic income, rather than a challenge to the traditional nomadic pastoral system. Our approach might be technically applicable to other large degraded grasslands of the world, especially in China. PMID:23372678

  11. Energy access and sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.; Alstone, Peter; Gershenson, Dimitry

    2015-03-01

    With 1.4 billion people lacking electricity to light their homes and provide other basic services, or to conduct business, and all of humanity (and particularly the poor) are in need of a decarbonized energy system can close the energy access gap and protect the global climate system. With particular focus on addressing the energy needs of the underserved, we present an analytical framework informed by historical trends and contemporary technological, social, and institutional conditions that clarifies the heterogeneous continuum of centralized on-grid electricity, autonomous mini- or community grids, and distributed, individual energy services. We find that the current day is a unique moment of innovation in decentralized energy networks based on super-efficient end-use technology and low-cost photovoltaics, supported by rapidly spreading information technology, particularly mobile phones. Collectively these disruptive technology systems could rapidly increase energy access, contributing to meeting the Millennium Development Goals for quality of life, while simultaneously driving action towards low-carbon, Earth-sustaining, energy systems.

  12. Information Networking and Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Howard

    1987-01-01

    Infrastructures and competitiveness are considered in the context of library networking, library service, and economic development in the state of North Carolina. The North Carolina Information Network, a network developed and maintained by the state library and responsive to the needs of the nonlibrary community, is described. (MES)

  13. Strategic Planning for Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Warren H.

    The relationship of postsecondary education to the economy in Ohio is discussed. Attention is focused on efforts of the Ohio Board of Regents and the Ohio Department of Development to foster economic development and revitalization. Information is included on the Ohio Board of Regents'"Master Plan for Higher Education," along with initiatives for…

  14. The Environmental and Economic Sustainability of Carbon Capture and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Hardisty, Paul E.; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Brooks, Peter

    2011-01-01

    For carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO2 abated—there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others) which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications—indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO2 entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and technically

  15. The environmental and economic sustainability of carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Brooks, Peter

    2011-05-01

    For carbon capture and storage (CCS) to be a truly effective option in our efforts to mitigate climate change, it must be sustainable. That means that CCS must deliver consistent environmental and social benefits which exceed its costs of capital, energy and operation; it must be protective of the environment and human health over the long term; and it must be suitable for deployment on a significant scale. CCS is one of the more expensive and technically challenging carbon emissions abatement options available, and CCS must first and foremost be considered in the context of the other things that can be done to reduce emissions, as a part of an overall optimally efficient, sustainable and economic mitigation plan. This elevates the analysis beyond a simple comparison of the cost per tonne of CO(2) abated--there are inherent tradeoffs with a range of other factors (such as water, NOx, SOx, biodiversity, energy, and human health and safety, among others) which must also be considered if we are to achieve truly sustainable mitigation. The full life-cycle cost of CCS must be considered in the context of the overall social, environmental and economic benefits which it creates, and the costs associated with environmental and social risks it presents. Such analysis reveals that all CCS is not created equal. There is a wide range of technological options available which can be used in a variety of industries and applications-indeed CCS is not applicable to every industry. Stationary fossil-fuel powered energy and large scale petroleum industry operations are two examples of industries which could benefit from CCS. Capturing and geo-sequestering CO(2) entrained in natural gas can be economic and sustainable at relatively low carbon prices, and in many jurisdictions makes financial sense for operators to deploy now, if suitable secure disposal reservoirs are available close by. Retrofitting existing coal-fired power plants, however, is more expensive and technically

  16. Science, Open Communication, and Sustainable Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Wilbanks, John T.; Fulkerson, William

    2010-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for sustainable development is knowledge, in order to inform coping with sustainability threats and to support innovative sustainability pathways. Transferring knowledge is therefore a fundamental challenge for sustainability, in a context where external knowledge must be integrated with local knowledge in order to promote user-driven action. But effective local co-production of knowledge requires ongoing local access to existing scientific and technical knowledge so that users start on a level playing field. The information technology revolution can be a powerful enabler of such access if intellectual property obstacles can be overcome, with a potential to transform prospects for sustainability in many parts of the world.

  17. Forestry management for sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    D'Silva, E.; Appanah, S.

    1993-01-01

    Forests in the developing world are in crisis. Nowhere is this more acute than in Asia: though one-third of the land mass is covered with forests, this ratio is shrinking rapidly at the rate of 2 million hectares per year. By current trends, half of the original 725 million hectares will disappear by the year 2000. The dramatic declines will occur in India, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Some of the economic costs of deforestation are obvious. Timber export has long been an important income earner (eg, it is a second major export after oil earning $4.2 billion in 1991 for Indonesia and $3.8 billion in 1992 for Malaysia). Some of the losses from deforestation are of concern to the world community. China, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia are among the 12 'mega-diversity' countries in which half of the earth's plant and animal species are to be found. (Copyright (c) 1993 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  18. Solution to the Problems of the Sustainable Development Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusko, Miroslav; Procházková, Dana

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows that environment is one of the basic public assets of a human system, and it must be therefore specially protected. According to our present knowledge, the sustainability is necessary for all human systems and it is necessary to invoke the sustainable development principles in all human system assets. Sustainable development is understood as a development that does not erode ecological, social or politic systems on which it depends, but it explicitly approves ecological limitation under the economic activity frame and it has full comprehension for support of human needs. The paper summarises the conditions for sustainable development, tools, methods and techniques to solve the environmental problems and the tasks of executive governance in the environmental segment.

  19. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  20. Testing for sustainable development through environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    George, C.

    1999-03-01

    The potential of environmental assessment as a sustainability instrument has long been recognized, but the criteria against which development proposals traditionally are judged are not necessarily criteria for sustainable development. Meanwhile, Agenda 21 identified the need for indicators of sustainable development for use in decision-making, but those that have been developed are not easy to apply in project level environmental assessment. These problems are addressed by returning to the fundamental principles of sustainable development and relating them to the principles of environmental assessment. In this way, 18 criteria have been derived, all of which must be satisfied if a development proposal is to be classified as sustainable development. These criteria have been tested against a number of actual environmental assessments to identify the likely consequences for project approval.

  1. Agricultural policy and sustainable livestock development.

    PubMed

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1999-01-01

    Future agricultural and rural development is, to a large extent, influenced by the projected food needs of 2.5 billion people expected to swell the world population by 2020. This increase will require more food in general and, in view of recent experience in East Asia, more animal products. To achieve this increase will require judicious use of resources, and trade, especially in those countries where natural resources are insufficient to support food production. Achieving food sufficiency in a sustainable manner is a major challenge for farmers, agro-industries, researchers and governments. The latter play an important role as many of the farmers' choices are, to a large extent, directed by government or supra-government, often through macro- and micro-economic policy. In many countries the economic, environmental, trade and agricultural policies have not been conducive to an agricultural development that is risk-free with respect to the environment, animal welfare or public health. The recent decline of government support in agriculture forced farmers in Western countries to think about more risk adverse agricultural practices and more efficient production systems. On the other hand, many countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, as well as other developing countries, are still going through a painful process of adjustment to new market conditions. International banks and development agencies have a mandate to help developing countries, but are somewhat restricted both by needing to work directly with governments and by their perceived dogmatic approach to development. Changing policies do, now and in the future, also affect the development of animal disease control programmes, including the control of parasitic diseases. On the one hand there is an increasing interest in risk-free control practices, and on the other hand a demand for greater regulatory control over the production process. As parasitic diseases of animals are closely linked to the

  2. [Environment, health and sustainable development].

    PubMed

    Rattner, Henrique

    2009-01-01

    Environmental problems and their impact on health and welfare of the population, mainly the most deprived and excluded, from access to material and symbolic goods, provided only to a privileged minority, must be analyzed within the context of the global economic and financial crisis which swept the whole world since 2008. The collapse of the capitalist system and its negative impacts on production, income and employment provide evidence to the predatory nature of the underlying social and political relations which lead humanity to a catastrophic abyss whose consequences are felt on local, national and global levels. Appointing to the main aspects of environmental deterioration - greenhouse gases; pollution of rivers, lakes and oceans; the erosion and intoxication of soils; the lack of basic sanitation and fresh water supply in metropolitan areas, this essay refers to official health indicators published recently by the Ministry of Health of Brazil which documents destructive trends. Discussing the dysfunction and the paradoxes of capital accumulation the essay points out to the need for building a new development paradigm based on cooperation and solidarity; an equitable distribution of the social product and the reform of the political system leading from the present authoritarian patterns of social relations to a participative and a true democratic model. PMID:20069163

  3. Argentina and Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andelman, Marta

    2005-01-01

    In Argentina, few groups recognize the value of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). The Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) carries no significant weight in governmental and nongovernmental circles. It does not appear in any agenda, or in any suggestion or recommendation for policy-making, not even in proposals for…

  4. Sustainable Development in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taoussanidis, Nikolaos N.; Antoniadou, Myrofora A.

    2006-01-01

    The principles and practice of environmentally and socially sustainable engineering are in line with growing community expectations and the strengthening voice of civil society in engineering interventions. Pressures towards internationalization and globalization are reflected in new course accreditation criteria and higher education structures.…

  5. The interaction of energy, population and sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, J.I.; Herring, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    The relationships among, energy, population growth, and sustainable economic development will be of critical importance during the next half century. In previous papers, the authors have modeled the interactions among energy, population and economic development. These studies have shown that the increased availability of economic alternatives, improved health conditions, and sustainable energy supplies have a direct interaction with the rate of population growth. Conversely, their studies and others have shown that poverty, poor health conditions, and the lack of economic alternatives contribute to a vicious cycle in which rapid population growth continues, poverty prevails, and health conditions deteriorate further. Reducing population growth to a sustainable steady state value is, in part, a product of the improved health and living conditions brought on by a well-considered industrialization. Improving the availability and reliability of the electric supply is an integral part of that industrialization. Free trade zones surrounding major ports are becoming a major vehicle for development and gateways to the global economy. By providing the needed electricity to power these enterprise zones, US technology could furnish a vital link in development. Many current projects for providing power to preindustrial countries involve the construction of large, centralized projects. The construction of conventional fossil and nuclear plants requires that the developing countries first develop an infrastructure for both the construction and operation of such plants. Both hydro and steam plants require significant capital investment, either by the host country or by outside development agencies, before the first kilowatt-hour is delivered.

  6. Education for Sustainable Development at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012, marking the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the tenth anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. With more than…

  7. 75 FR 74077 - Information Collection for Native American Business Development Institute Funding for Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Funding for Economic Development Feasibility Studies and Long-Term Strategic, Reservation-Wide Economic... information collection. SUMMARY: The Division of Economic Development (DED), Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) seeks to spur job growth and sustainable economies on American...

  8. Population growth and sustainable development in China.

    PubMed

    Gui, S

    1998-12-01

    This article identifies the adverse impacts of population growth in China and offers suggestions for attaining sustainable development. Although China has below replacement level fertility, population will continue to increase. Chinese demographers project that the total fertility rate will average 2.1 each year until 2010, 2.1 until 2050, or 1.88 until 2010 and 1.6 during 2010-2050 under high, medium, and low variants, respectively. Total population would number 1.69 billion, 1.50 billion, or 1.46 billion under various projections, respectively, by 2050. Continued growth is expected to seriously slow economic development, to hinder improvements in the quality of and full use of human resources, to depress increases in per-capita economic development levels, and to impact on reasonable use of resources and environmental protection. The averting of 5 million births would save 35.5 billion yuan. Population growth has reduced the per-capita share of cultivated land from 0.19 to 0.08 hectares during 1952-95. There are about 150-190 million surplus rural laborers. Registered unemployment in cities was 3.1% in 1997. 11.5 million were laid-off workers. The working-age population will exceed 900 million during 2007-26. China's gross national product (GNP) was the 8th highest in the world in 1990, but its per-capita GNP was in 100th place. China's abundant natural resources are seriously reduced when population is considered. Environmental damage is already evident. Population growth needs to be controlled through family planning, an old-age social security program, and long-term population policies. Society needs healthier births and childbearing and better educated children. PMID:12321930

  9. Children between Sustainable Development and Commercials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Péter, Lilla; Balázs, Szilvia

    2009-01-01

    Our paper deals with the relationship between sustainability, media advertisements and their effect on children. This topic is highly actual today, as the children of today, who grow up in front of the TV will be the consumers of tomorrow. The perpetual growth of consuming and gathering material goods is not serving the sustainable development.…

  10. Professional Development Leading to Sustained Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickney, Catherine Alaimo

    2012-01-01

    Determining effective change that leads to sustainable improved student achievement remains an elusive goal for most educational communities. This research addresses the question of what factors of professional development promote sustained change within a school organization. The survey questions focus on the formation of professional learning…

  11. Environment, Education and Sustainable Development: Workshop Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Convergence, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the 7th World Assembly of the International Council of Adult Education. It also presents a workshop proposal on Environment, Ecology and Sustainable Development, based mainly on the Treaty of Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility. The proposal emphasizes on an inclusive, permanent and…

  12. The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2008-01-01

    The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

  13. Economically sustainable scaling of photovoltaics to meet climate targets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Needleman, David Berney; Poindexter, Jeremy R.; Kurchin, Rachel C.; Peters, I. Marius; Wilson, Gregory; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2016-04-21

    To meet climate targets, power generation capacity from photovoltaics (PV) in 2030 will have to be much greater than is predicted from either steady state growth using today's manufacturing capacity or industry roadmaps. Analysis of whether current technology can scale, in an economically sustainable way, to sufficient levels to meet these targets has not yet been undertaken, nor have tools to perform this analysis been presented. Here, we use bottom-up cost modeling to predict cumulative capacity as a function of technological and economic variables. We find that today's technology falls short in two ways: profits are too small relative tomore » upfront factory costs to grow manufacturing capacity rapidly enough to meet climate targets, and costs are too high to generate enough demand to meet climate targets. We show that decreasing the capital intensity (capex) of PV manufacturing to increase manufacturing capacity and effectively reducing cost (e.g., through higher efficiency) to increase demand are the most effective and least risky ways to address these barriers to scale. We also assess the effects of variations in demand due to hard-to-predict factors, like public policy, on the necessary reductions in cost.Lastly, we review examples of redundant technology pathways for crystalline silicon PV to achieve the necessary innovations in capex, performance, and price.« less

  14. The relationship between settlement population size and sustainable development measured by two sustainability metrics

    SciTech Connect

    O'Regan, Bernadette Morrissey, John; Foley, Walter; Moles, Richard

    2009-04-15

    This paper reports on a study of the relative sustainability of 79 Irish villages, towns and a small city (collectively called 'settlements') classified by population size. Quantitative data on more than 300 economic, social and environmental attributes of each settlement were assembled into a database. Two aggregated metrics were selected to model the relative sustainability of settlements: Ecological Footprint (EF) and Sustainable Development Index (SDI). Subsequently these were aggregated to create a single Combined Sustainable Development Index. Creation of this database meant that metric calculations did not rely on proxies, and were therefore considered to be robust. Methods employed provided values for indicators at various stages of the aggregation process. This allowed both the first reported empirical analysis of the relationship between settlement sustainability and population size, and the elucidation of information provided at different stages of aggregation. At the highest level of aggregation, settlement sustainability increased with population size, but important differences amongst individual settlements were masked by aggregation. EF and SDI metrics ranked settlements in differing orders of relative sustainability. Aggregation of indicators to provide Ecological Footprint values was found to be especially problematic, and this metric was inadequately sensitive to distinguish amongst the relative sustainability achieved by all settlements. Many authors have argued that, for policy makers to be able to inform planning decisions using sustainability indicators, it is necessary that they adopt a toolkit of aggregated indicators. Here it is argued that to interpret correctly each aggregated metric value, policy makers also require a hierarchy of disaggregated component indicator values, each explained fully. Possible implications for urban planning are briefly reviewed.

  15. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  16. Educating for Sustainability: Developing Critical Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearins, Kate; Springett, Delyse

    2003-01-01

    Advocates a critical theory approach to sustainability in business and environmental management education that incorporates a radical change perspective. Provides exercises for developing the critical skills of reflexivity, critique, and social action. (Contains 37 references.) (SK)

  17. [Health and environmental governance for sustainable development].

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Gallo, Edmundo; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Buss, Daniel Forsin

    2012-06-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, will address the challenges for sustainable development (SD), 'green economy and poverty eradication' and the 'institutional structure of sustainable development'. Therefore it will address the governance needed to achieve such goals. This paper discusses the structure of global, regional and national governance of and for health and environment in the context of SD. Among other global actions, the Millenium Development Goals were a significant recent political effort, but despite its advances, it fails when ignores the structural causes of production and consumption patterns and the unequal distribution of power, which are responsible for inequities and impede true development. To achieve SD, proposals must avoid reductionism, advancing conceptually and methodologically to face the challenges of the socio-environmental determinants of health through intersectoral action, including social participation and all levels of government. It is paramount to continue the implementation of Agenda 21, to meet the MDGs and to create 'Sustainable Development Goals'. Regarding the health field, Rio+20 Summit must reassure the connection between health and sustainability - as a part of the Social pillar of sustainable development - inspiring politics and actions in multiple levels. PMID:22699639

  18. An Integrated Social, Economic, and Ecologic Conceptual (ISEEC) framework for considering rangeland sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fox, W.E.; McCollum, D.W.; Mitchell, J.E.; Swanson, L.E.; Kreuter, U.P.; Tanaka, J.A.; Evans, G.R.; Theodore, Heintz H.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Geissler, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard method to assess the complex systems in rangeland ecosystems. Decision makers need baselines to create a common language of current rangeland conditions and standards for continued rangeland assessment. The Sustainable Rangeland Roundtable (SRR), a group of private and public organizations and agencies, has created a forum to discuss rangeland sustainability and assessment. The SRR has worked to integrate social, economic, and ecological disciplines related to rangelands and has identified a standard set of indicators that can be used to assess rangeland sustainability. As part of this process, SRR has developed a two-tiered conceptual framework from a systems perspective to study the validity of indicators and the relationships among them. The first tier categorizes rangeland characteristics into four states. The second tier defines processes affecting these states through time and space. The framework clearly shows that the processes affect and are affected by each other. ?? 2009 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  19. Economic transition and environmental sustainability: effects of economic restructuring on air pollution in the Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Cherp, Aleg; Kopteva, Irina; Mnatsakanian, Ruben

    2003-06-01

    Economic liberalization in former socialist countries may have various implications for their environmental sustainability. Positive effects of this process are potentially associated with improved efficiency, investments into cleaner technologies, responsiveness to environmentally aware markets, and ending subsidies to heavy industries. On the other hand, market liberalization may result in weaker environmental controls, economic instabilities distracting attention from environmental issues, and increasing orientation towards profit-making leading to more intensive exploitation of natural resources. In addition, trade liberalization may result in shifts towards more pollution and resource-intensive industries. This article seeks to quantify effects of economic restructuring in Russia on air pollution from productive economic sectors in the 1990s. Air pollution in Russia had significantly declined in 1991-1999, however, this decline was largely due to economic decline, as the overall pollution intensity of the economy had decreased only slightly. The factors that affected the pollution intensity are: (1) a decrease in the combined share of industrial and transport activities in the economy and (2) changing pollution intensities of the industrial and transport sectors. The pollution intensity of the Russian industry had remained relatively stable during the 1990s. This was the result of the two opposite and mutually canceling trends: (a) increasing shares of pollution-intensive branches such as metal smelting and oil production vs. less pollution intensive manufacturing and (b) decline in pollution intensities within the industrial branches. The article proposes a methodology by which the contribution of both factors to the overall pollution intensity of the industrial sector can be quantified. The pollution intensity of the Russian transport sector appears to have declined in the first half of the 1990s and increased in the second half. The most recent trend can be

  20. A Perspective on Education for Sustainable Development: Historical Development of Environmental Education in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nomura, Ko

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the historical development of environmental education (EE) in Indonesia with emphasis on the non-formal sector, and applies its findings to the discussion on education for sustainable development (ESD), which seldom draws on case studies from developing countries. Local socio-economic and political conditions have made EE in…

  1. Collaborative procurement for developing a sustainable campus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nifa, Faizatul Akmar Abdul; Rahim, Syukran Abdul; Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd; Ismail, Mohd. Noorizhar

    2016-08-01

    It is particularly challenging to achieve sustainability in campus universities, where a high volume of users and activities has made it more imperative to promote green buildings that reduce energy and water consumption while having a minimal carbon footprint. At present, the frameworks for sustainable campus have seldom focused on the project procurement method which would improve construction team integration in developing the physical aspect of campus development. Therefore, in response to that challenge, this paper investigates how the delivery team, responsible for the design and construction of a project, can be integrated to work together more efficiently and more using the collaborative procurement method known as partnering. This paper reports part of a previous research and sets the base for ongoing research on the critical factors in partnering for sustainable campus development. The outcome or result of this study will meet and support the requirement for construction, maintenance, and operation process for universities towards sustainable building/campus in the future.

  2. Joining Others for Community Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, Joseph A.; Shade, William B.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the basic principles of economic development and provides a case study of the Communitywide Work Force Development Project, which was designed to involve the community in solving the economic development and work force problems of Terre Haute, Indiana. (DMM)

  3. A framework for sustainable invasive species management: environmental, social and economic objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Phillips-Mao, Laura; Quiram, Gina; Sharpe, Leah; Stark, Rebecca; Sugita, Shinya; Weiler, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Applying the concept of sustainability to invasive species management (ISM) is challenging but necessary, given the increasing rates of invasion and the high costs of invasion impacts and control. To be sustainable, ISM must address environmental, social, and economic factors (or *pillars*) that influence the causes, impacts, and control of invasive species across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although these pillars are generally acknowledged, their implementation is often limited by insufficient control options and significant economic and political constraints. In this paper, we outline specific objectives in each of these three *pillars* that, if incorporated into a management plan, will improve the plan's likelihood of sustainability. We then examine three case studies that illustrate how these objectives can be effectively implemented. Each pillar reinforces the others, such that the inclusion of even a few of the outlined objectives will lead to more effective management that achieves ecological goals, while generating social support and long-term funding to maintain projects to completion. We encourage agency directors and policy-makers to consider sustainability principles when developing funding schemes, management agendas, and policy.

  4. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Suding, P.H.

    1995-12-31

    There is a marked difference between the perception of the sustainable development problem in the industrialized countries and that prevailing in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C). Whereas the industrialized countries seem concerned about the sustainability of their development in view of global climate change, developing countries in LA&C are looking for a sustainable development course that will lead them out of poverty and away from the destruction of the local environment. The industrialized countries perspective is apparent in the titles of the papers being presented at the IAEE Conference under the topic: Harmonizing Energy Policy, Environment, and Sustainable Economic Growth. A great number of titles and sessions focus on the apparent antagonism between economic growth and the environment. By environment one seems to primarily mean emissions into the air, especially greenhouse gas emissions. Probably the majority of the energy community of the industrial countries regards Latin America, on the one hand, as a holder of a large CO{sub 2} sink in danger of extinction and, on the other hand, as a potential new large contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Higher Education for Sustainable Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Dongjie; Jiang, Dahe; Li, Fengting

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the significance of developments across Chinese higher education in the field of education and learning for sustainable development (SD) and to assess the relative impact of these initiatives. Design/methodology/approach: This is a review of policy and practice to examine developments, challenges,…

  6. Modelling interactions between mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusser, D. E.; Siabatto, F. A. P.; Garcia Cantu Ros, A.; Pape, C.; Lissner, T.; Kropp, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Managing the interdependence of climate mitigation, adaptation and sustainable development requires a good understanding of the dominant socioecological processes that have determined the pathways in the past. Key variables include water and food availability which depend on climate and overall ecosystem services, as well as energy supply and social, political and economic conditions. We present our initial steps to build a system dynamic model of nations that represents a minimal set of relevant variables of the socio- ecological development. The ultimate goal of the modelling exercise is to derive possible future scenarios and test those for their compatibility with sustainability boundaries. Where dynamics go beyond sustainability boundaries intervention points in the dynamics can be searched.

  7. Is Sustainability Sustainable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonevac, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The most important concept in current environmental thinking is "sustainability". Environmental policies, economic policies, development, resource use--all of these things, according to the consensus, ought to be sustainable. But what is sustainability? What is its ethical foundation? There is little consensus about how these questions ought to be…

  8. Economic--GNP per Capita Learning Module. Development Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This learning module has two main goals: (1) to increase students' knowledge and understanding of the often complex relationship between sustainable development and the social, economic, and environmental conditions in a country; and (2) to strengthen students' ability to perform statistical calculations, make and interpret maps, charts, and…

  9. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  10. Exploration of sustainable development by applying green economy indicators.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yungkun; Chen, Chia-Yon; Hsieh, Tsuifang

    2011-11-01

    Following the global trend of sustainable development, development of green economy is the best way of slowing the negative ecological and environmental impact. This research establishes the Taiwan's green economic indicators based on the ecological footprint and energy analysis. The results are as follows: Taiwan's ecological footprint in 2008 intensity index was at 4.364; ecological overshoot index was at 3.364, showing that Taiwan's ecological system is in overload state. Moreover, this study utilizes energy analysis model to study the sustainable development of Taiwan. Findings showed that total energy use in 2008 was 3.14 × 10(23) sej (solar energy joule, sej), energy of renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22) sej, energy of nonrenewable resources was 2.26 × 10(23) sej, energy of products from renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22)sej, energy of currency flow was 8.02 × 10(22) sej and energy of wastes flow was 6.55 × 10(22) sej. Taiwan's energy per capita and the utilization rate of energy is lower while the environmental loading rate is significantly higher comparing to some other countries. The foregoing findings indicate that Taiwan currently belongs to an economic development pattern based on high resource consumption. The economic development is mainly established on the exploitation and utilization of nonrenewable resources. Therefore, Taiwan should change the development pattern, regulate the industrial structure, promote the utilization rate of resources, develop green pollution-free products, and enhance the sustainable development of ecological economic system. PMID:21336490

  11. Watershed Education for Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapp, William B.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on the Global Rivers Environmental Education Network (GREEN), which is a global communication system for analyzing watershed usage and monitoring the quality and quantity of river water. Describes GREEN's watershed educational model and strategies and international development. (Contains 67 references.) (Author/YDS)

  12. Sustainability Efficiency Factor: Measuring Sustainability in Advanced Energy Systems through Exergy, Exergoeconomic, Life Cycle, and Economic Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldon, Lauren

    The Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems defines sustainability or industrial ecology as "the wise use of resources through critical attention to policy, social, economic, technological, and ecological management of natural and human engineered capital so as to promote innovations that assure a higher degree of human needs fulfilment, or life support, across all regions of the world, while at the same time ensuring intergenerational equity" (Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems 1998). Developing and integrating sustainable energy systems to meet growing energy demands is a daunting task. Although the technology to utilize renewable energies is well understood, there are limited locations which are ideally suited for renewable energy development. Even in areas with significant wind or solar availability, backup or redundant energy supplies are still required during periods of low renewable generation. This is precisely why it would be difficult to make the switch directly from fossil fuel to renewable energy generation. A transition period in which a base-load generation supports renewables is required, and nuclear energy suits this need well with its limited life cycle emissions and fuel price stability. Sustainability is achieved by balancing environmental, economic, and social considerations, such that energy is produced without detriment to future generations through loss of resources, harm to the environment, etcetera. In essence, the goal is to provide future generations with the same opportunities to produce energy that the current generation has. This research explores sustainability metrics as they apply to a small modular reactor (SMR)-hydrogen production plant coupled with wind energy and storage technologies to develop a new quantitative sustainability metric, the Sustainability Efficiency Factor (SEF), for comparison of energy systems. The SEF incorporates the three fundamental aspects of sustainability and provides SMR or nuclear hybrid energy system

  13. Sustainable Development and Protection of the Environment: Two Management Strategies Not Always Compatible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athanassakis, Artemios M.

    2010-01-01

    The definition of Sustainable Development has received intense criticism and contestations with the result, that International Union for the Conservation of Natural Resources (I.U.C.N.), and the World Wide Fund for Nature (W.W.F.) clarified that sustainable development means the improvement of life quality, inside the limits of clarified capacity of ecosystems. According to its critics, is considered as a general concept, indefinite and contradictory. Those disputes put the accent on the close relation between the Sustainable Development and the values of the today's global market. This relationship transforms the Sustainable Development to an one dimensional economical growth with the "ecological ornaments" of sustainability and protection of environment. Therefore this paper looks for, whether the sustainable development consists one more device, focuses on the world financial system, or establishes one optimistic developmental perspective, which might harmonize the economical activities with the natural function of our planetic ecosystems.

  14. Colorado Technology Transfer Plan for Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Advanced Tech. Inst., Denver.

    Recognizing the importance of technology transfer to economic growth, the U.S. Economic Development Administration (EDA) provided the Colorado Advanced Technology Institute (CATI) with a grant to coordinate the development of a plan for using technology transfer in Colorado's economic development. The plan, outlined in this report, describes the…

  15. Signposts to Literacy for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The two studies included in this volume, both dealing with the subject of literacy and sustainable development, are joint winners of the 2004-2005 International Award for Literacy Research, sponsored jointly by the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, Hamburg, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) and the Canadian…

  16. Project-Based Learning for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Marcia L.

    2008-01-01

    Project-based learning is a pedagogy that involves students in applying and developing theories, skills, and techniques to solve real world problems. Three faculty members used project-based learning to involve graduate students in an interdisciplinary seminar on sustainable development in Appalachian Ohio, which was convened under the auspices of…

  17. Curitiba: Towards sustainable urban development

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, J.

    1995-12-31

    Curitiba is best known for its innovative public transport system based on buses but this is only one among many initiatives which have improved the environment and quality of life in the city, limited pollution and waste and reduced resource use. The public transport system has also been complemented by comprehensive initiatives in planning and land use management. This paper describes not only the development of the public transport system but also the planning and administrative framework that was needed to make it, and other initiatives taken in Curitiba, effective.

  18. Macroeconomic policies for sustainable development of the Amazon Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Teel, S.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the application of the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development in the context of managing natural resources in the Amazon Basin. In order for these two concepts to be implemented efficiently and effectively three specific macroeconomic policies can be used which insure that economic growth will continue but not at the expense of ecological integrity. This paper starts with an economic treatment of the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development. The use of two separate resources are discussed here, they compromise one which can be harvested and one which insures that the harvested resource will continue to flourish after it has been harvested. Next, the paper shows which three macroeconomic policies can be used to allow the Amazon Basin to remain at its present level. They are regulation, government expenditures and financial incentives. This paper defines exactly what is meant by each policy, then shows ways that each policy can be implemented. After showing how each policy can be implemented the paper shows why it should be used and whether or not the usage of the policy will be effective in overcoming the destruction of the rain forest. The paper also shows problems associated with the policies themselves and problems with the implementation of the policies.

  19. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dizdaroglu, Didem

    2015-09-15

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [Turkish] Highlights: • As the impacts of environmental problems have multi-scale characteristics, sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all scales. • The detailed data is necessary to assess local environmental change in urban ecosystems to provide insights into the national and global scales. • This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. • This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature.

  20. Neoliberalism and Justice in Education for Sustainable Development: A Call for Inclusive Pluralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopnina, Helen; Cherniak, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Commonly conceived, sustainable development is concerned with social and economic equity and maintenance of ecological stability for future generations. The Brundtland Report addresses the ethical principles of intragenerational and intergenerational equity as fundamental pillars of sustainable development. This equity is often defined in economic…

  1. Discussing Sustainable Development among Teachers: An Analysis from a Conflict Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasslof, Helen; Ekborg, Margareta; Malmberg, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Education for Sustainable Development has been discussed as problematic, as a top down directive promoting an--"indoctrinating" education. The concept of the intertwined dimensions (economic, social-cultural, and environmental) of sustainable development is seen both as an opportunity and as a limitation for pluralistic views of…

  2. Towards transformational change: UNDP's work in environment and sustainable development 2008-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Mordt, Matilde; Hildebrandt, Laura; Iyer, Devika; Fankuchen, Alexander

    2013-03-15

    This report highlights significant advances in sustainable development from almost 60 country reports and underscores the challenges and bottlenecks to moving beyond the economic-led growth strategies of the past 20 years.

  3. Sustainable High-Potential Career Development: A Resource-Based View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iles, Paul

    1997-01-01

    In the current economic climate, fast-track career models pose problems for individuals and organizations. An alternative model uses a resource-based view of the company and principles of sustainable development borrowed from environmentalism. (SK)

  4. Women Education and Economic Development in Kenya: Implications for Curriculum Development and Implementation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syomwene, Anne; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the relationship between women education and sustainable economic development in Kenya and its implications for curriculum development and implementation processes. The argument advanced in this paper is that the solution to the development problems in Kenya and other developing nations lies on women education.…

  5. Combined Sustainability Assessment and Techno-Economic Analysis for the Production of Biomass-Derived High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit

    2015-11-13

    Conversion technologies for biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels are being actively developed. Converting biomass into advanced hydrocarbon fuels requires detailed assessments to help prioritize research; techno-economic analysis (TEA) is a long established tool used to assess feasibility and progress. TEA provides information needed to make informed judgments about the viability of any given conceptual conversion process; it is particularly useful to identify technical barriers and measure progress toward overcoming those barriers. Expansion of the cellulosic biofuels industry at the scale needed to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard goals is also expected to have environmental impacts. Hence, the success of the biofuels industry depends not only on economic viability, but also on environmental sustainability. A biorefinery process that is economically feasible but suffers from key sustainability drawbacks is not likely to represent a long-term solution to replace fossil-derived fuels. Overarching concerns like environmental sustainability need to be addressed for biofuels production. Combined TEA and environmental sustainability assessment of emerging pathways helps facilitate biorefinery designs that are both economically feasible and minimally impactful to the environment. This study focuses on environmental sustainability assessment and techno-economic analysis for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via gasification and methanol/dimethyl ether intermediates. Results from the conceptual process design with economic analysis, along with the quantification and assessment of the environmental sustainability, are presented and discussed. Sustainability metrics associated with the production of high-octane gasoline include carbon conversion efficiency, consumptive water use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy consumption, energy return on investment and net energy value.

  6. On sustainable development of population and national economy.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1995-01-01

    This article offers a strategy for achieving sustainable development of population and the national economy in China. It is argued that economic growth and population growth must be in balance and coordinated. In 1993 it was estimated that a national economic growth rate of 4.03-4.60% was needed in order to balance the natural population growth rate of 1.15% at the existing standard of living. When the national economy grows faster than population in the life expectancy time period, overpopulation can be checked. Population must be balanced with sufficient means for subsistence. The key measure of sustainable development is the ratio between the size of the working-age population and the means of production. The number of people in the labor force is positively related to fixed assets and negatively related to the labor force's technical equipment. China's problems include weak industrial fixed assets, a surplus labor force, and slow growth in industrial and agricultural productivity. Potential solutions are to shift employment from a cultivation-oriented rural economy to a diversified rural economy, to increase the pace of change to an industrial and commercial economy, and to increase the pace of change to nonmaterial production and to raising employment efficiency. Solutions are dependent upon improvement in the quality of population, which means increased levels of education. China still has 181,610,00 people who are illiterate or semi-illiterate among the working-age population. Sustainable development also relies on active promotion of social support for the elderly by a pension system, family support, and reemployment of the elderly. Surplus labor should be absorbed by the service industry. Population structure and economic development are more advanced in coastal areas that have 41% of total population. Inland areas should develop labor-intensive, technology-intensive, and investment-intensive industries. Northwest areas need an educated population

  7. Economic "Growth" vs. "Development" of Rural Communities: It Means the Difference between Local and Outside Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Maria

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth increases the amount of money in a community but does not increase the community's capacity to steer its own direction as economic development can. The accomplishments of Rio Arriba County (New Mexico) offer a rare example of successful economic development. Sustainable environmentalism, instead of conservation, considers people as…

  8. Michigan Economic Development Education Manual. Second Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conboy, Michael, Ed.; Guiles, Roger, Ed.

    This manual represents an educational program designed for public officials, interested citizens, and professionals interested in improving the economic climate of the municipality or region. Its purpose is to teach economic development skills, thus enabling participants to develop community economic growth plans. Focus is on four essential…

  9. Development towards sustainability: how to judge past and proposed policies?

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Most countries have, at least since the 1992 United Nations summit in RIO, adopted some vague "sustainable development" policies. The goals of such policies are to combine economic growth with social development, while protecting our fragile planetary life support system. The scientific data about the state of our planet, presented at the 2012 (Rio+20) summit, documented that today's human family lives even less sustainably than it did in 1992. The data indicate furthermore that the environmental impacts from our current economic activities are so large, that we are approaching situations where potentially controllable regional problems can easily lead to uncontrollable global disasters. Despite these obvious failures, our political global leaders and their institutions are continuing the same "sustainable development" policies, which are now supplemented by equally vague ideas about future "green economies". Assuming that (1) the majority of the human family, once adequately informed, wants to achieve a "sustainable way of life" and (2) that the "development towards sustainability" roadmap will be based on scientific principles, one must begin with unambiguous and quantifiable definitions of these goals. As will be demonstrated, the well known scientific method to define abstract and complex issues by their negation, satisfies these requirements. Following this new approach, it also becomes possible to decide if proposed and actual policy changes will make our way of life less unsustainable, and thus move us potentially into the direction of sustainability. Furthermore, if potentially dangerous tipping points are to be avoided, the transition roadmap must include some minimal speed requirements. Combining the negation method and the time evolution of that remaining natural capital in different domains, the transition speed for a "development towards sustainability" can be quantified at local, regional and global scales. The presented ideas allow us to measure the

  10. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  11. Internationalising Experiential Learning for Sustainable Development Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young S.; Schottenfeld, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the internationalising of informal experiential learning as a pedagogical intervention for sustainable development education in the curriculum of built environment disciplines in the United States (US). A group of American students in the School of Planning, Design and Construction at Michigan State University participated in…

  12. Doing Research on Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Pipere, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the research preferences and differences of education for sustainable development (ESD) researchers. A model with the continuums assimilation-accommodation and adaptation-agency was applied resulting in quantitative, qualitative, theoretic and participative research orientations.…

  13. Sustainable Development, Systems Thinking and Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the impact of the sustainable development (SD) agenda on the occupational and professional needs of those who have undergone educational and training programmes in the environmental field either at the undergraduate or the postgraduate level or through relevant professional institutions' continuing professional development…

  14. Environmental Education for Sustainable Development in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimov, N. S.; Malkhazova, S. M.; Romanova, E. P.

    2005-01-01

    The conceptual underpinning and the organizational structure of the existing system of higher environmental education in Russia are analysed. The system, embracing 129 universities, has been created in the last 10 years. At present there is a shift from general environmental education to education for sustainable development. The new system is…

  15. The PEARL Model of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilgin, Mert

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses perception (P), environment (E), action (A), relationship (R), and locality (L) as the social indicators of sustainable development (SD), the capital letters of which label the PEARL model. The paper refers to PEARL with regard to three aspects to elaborate the promises and limits of the model. Theoretically; it discusses…

  16. Integrating Sustainable Development into Operations Management Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredriksson, Peter; Persson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely acknowledged that aspects of sustainable development (SD) should be integrated into higher level operations management (OM) education. The aim of the paper is to outline the experiences gained at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden from integrating aspects of SD into OM courses. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  17. Food and Higher Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clugston, Richard; Calder, Wynn

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that food issues are an appropriate, if not necessary, topic for education for sustainable development (ESD) both in terms of teaching and institutional practice. The first section summarises critical topics for a school or university course on food. The second section cites two examples of university efforts--at the University…

  18. How to change economic paradigms: Impacts of corporate communications on sustainable leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Kremser, M.

    1997-12-31

    For many companies it is difficult to reflect sufficiently on {open_quotes}sustainable development{close_quotes}. This topic often proves to be an innovative context, out of established paradigms. Due to the Kirton-Adaptor-Innovator theory there`s a widespread tendency to focus on adaptive styles of corporate problem solving. It means that companies tend to solve problems within a given and economically accepted neoclassic context. The challenge is to integrate a more innovative style of problem solving, as this allows the integration and transformation of new context systems. To provoke new paradigm thinking is one task of corporate communications, the other one is to balance it with an adaptive style in order to establish a sustainable {open_quotes}win-win{close_quotes}-context.

  19. Hydro-economic modeling with aquifer-river interactions to guide sustainable basin management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahil, Mohamed Taher; Ward, Frank A.; Albiac, Jose; Eggleston, Jack; Sanz, David

    2016-08-01

    Policymakers in arid and semiarid basins face hard choices on water policies needed for adaptation to climate change. Hydro-economic modeling is a state-of-the art approach that can be used to guide the design and implementation of these policies in basins. A major gap in developments of hydro-economic modeling to date has been the weak integration of physically-based representations of water sources and uses such as the interaction between ground and surface water resources, to inform complex basin scale policy choices. This paper presents an integrated hydro-economic modeling framework to address this gap with application to an important and complex river basin in Spain, the Jucar basin, for the assessment of a range of climate change scenarios and policy choices. Results indicate that in absence of adequate policies protecting water resources and natural ecosystems, water users will strategically deplete reservoirs, aquifers and river flows for short-term adaptation to climate change, disregarding the impacts on the environment and future human activities. These impacts can be addressed by implementing sustainable management policies. However, these policies could have disproportionate costs for some stakeholders groups, and their opposition may undermine attempts at sustainable policy. These tradeoffs among water policy choices are important guides to the design of policies aimed at basin-wide adaptation to climate change.

  20. Toward an integrated approach to nutritional quality, environmental sustainability, and economic viability: research and measurement gaps.

    PubMed

    Herforth, Anna; Frongillo, Edward A; Sassi, Franco; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana; Tirado, Cristina; Remans, Roseline; Mantilla, Gilma; Thomson, Madeleine; Pingali, Prabhu

    2014-12-01

    Nutrition is affected by numerous environmental and societal causes. This paper starts with a simple framework based on three domains: nutritional quality, economic viability, and environmental sustainability, and calls for an integrated approach in research to simultaneously account for all three. It highlights limitations in the current understanding of each domain, and how they influence one another. Five research topics are identified: measuring the three domains (nutritional quality, economic viability, environmental sustainability); modeling across disciplines; furthering the analysis of food systems in relation to the three domains; connecting climate change and variability to nutritional quality; and increasing attention to inequities among population groups in relation to the three domains. For an integrated approach to be developed, there is a need to identify and disseminate available metrics, modeling techniques, and tools to researchers, practitioners, and policy makers. This is a first step so that a systems approach that takes into account potential environmental and economic trade-offs becomes the norm in analyzing nutrition and food-security patterns. Such an approach will help fill critical knowledge gaps and will guide researchers seeking to define and address specific research questions in nutrition in their wider socioeconomic and environmental contexts. PMID:25351044

  1. Understanding regional metabolism for a sustainable development of urban systems.

    PubMed

    Baccini, P

    1996-06-01

    Cities are the most complex forms of settlements which man has built in the course of his cultural development. Their "metabolism" is connected with the world economy and is run mainly by fossil energy carriers. Up to now there are no validated models for the evaluation of a sustainable development of urban regions.The guidelines for a "sustainable development" suggest the reduction of resource consumption. The article is concerned with the problem of how the "sustainable-development concept" can be transformed from a global to a regional scale. In urban settlements the strategy of final storage should be applied. By this, the subsystem waste management can be transformed within 10 to 15 years to a "sustainable status".With regard to the system "agronomy", the article concludes that agriculture in urban systems should focus on food production instead of promoting reduction of food production in favour of energy plants, which is not a suitable strategy.The main problems are the energy carriers. Transformation to a "sustainble status" is only possible by a reconstruction of the urban system, i.e. of buildings and the transportation network. The rate determining step in achieving such a status is the change in the fabric of buildings and in the type of transportation networks. The reconstruction of an urban system needs, mainly for economical reasons, a time period of two generations. PMID:24234960

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF PLANNING PROCESS TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concepts of sustainability are numerous, widely discussed, and necessary, but sustainability needs to be applied to development projects to succeed. However, few applications are made and their measures are unclear. Sustainability indicators are typically used as measures, but ...

  3. Hydro-economic modeling of conjunctive ground and surface water use to guide sustainable basin management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher Kahil, Mohamed; Ward, Frank A.; Albiac, Jose; Eggleston, Jack; Sanz, David

    2016-04-01

    Water demands for irrigation, urban and environmental uses in arid and semiarid regions continue to grow, while freshwater supplies from surface and groundwater resources are becoming scarce and are expected to decline with climate change. Policymakers in these regions face hard choices on water management and policies. Hydro-economic modeling is the state-of-the art tool that could be used to guide the design and implementation of sustainable water management policies in basins. The strength of hydro-economic modeling lies in its capacity to integrate key biophysical and socio-economic components within a unified framework. A major gap in developments on hydro-economic modeling to date has been the weak integration of surface and groundwater flows, based on the theoretically correct Darcy equations used by the hydrogeological community. The modeling approach taken here is integrated, avoiding the single-tank aquifer assumption, avoiding simplified assumptions on aquifer-river linkages, and bypassing iterations among separate hydrological and economic models. The groundwater flow formulation used in this paper harnesses the standard finite difference expressions for groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water exchange developed in the USGS MODFLOW groundwater model. The methodological contribution to previous modeling efforts is the explicit specification of aquifer-river interactions, important when aquifer systems make a sizable contribution to basin resources. The modeling framework is solved completely, and information among the economic and hydrological components over all periods and locations are jointly and simultaneously determined. This novel framework is applied to the Jucar basin (Spain), which is a good experimental region for an integrated basin scale analysis. The framework is used for assessing the impacts of a range of climate change scenarios and policy choices, especially the hydrologic, land use, and economic outcomes. The modeling framework

  4. New York/New Jersey Highlands -- ecological and economic sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, C.

    1997-08-01

    The New York/New Jersey Highlands region is one million acres of Appalachian ridges and valleys that stretch from the Hudson to the Delaware River. The spatial relationship of Highlands to the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area provides a unique opportunity for regional development. The New Jersey Highlands Region, stretching from the Hudson River to the Delaware River, is an area critical to the overall environmental quality of the nation`s largest metropolitan area. However, there is substantial development pressure in this region. The way in which the Highlands Region is developed in the near future will have long-lasting effects. Patterns of population density, water use, pollution and resource consumption are difficult to rectify once established. All indications point to the Highlands becoming the latest addition to the urban sprawl of the New York/New Jersey metropolitan areas. Great cooperation and motivation would be required to change this pattern. This paper will attempt to explore the ecological merits of a Highland greenway proposal, the economic impacts and possible planning techniques which might effect a win/win situation.

  5. 41 CFR 102-76.50 - What is sustainable development?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Construction Sustainable Development § 102-76.50 What is sustainable development? Sustainable... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is sustainable development? 102-76.50 Section 102-76.50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  6. 41 CFR 102-76.50 - What is sustainable development?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Construction Sustainable Development § 102-76.50 What is sustainable development? Sustainable... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is sustainable development? 102-76.50 Section 102-76.50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  7. 41 CFR 102-76.50 - What is sustainable development?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Construction Sustainable Development § 102-76.50 What is sustainable development? Sustainable... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is sustainable development? 102-76.50 Section 102-76.50 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  8. Activity-Based Micro-pricing: Realizing Sustainable Behavior Changes through Economic Incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamabe, Tetsuo; Lehdonvirta, Vili; Ito, Hitoshi; Soma, Hayuru; Kimura, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Tatsuo

    In this paper, we further develop the idea of combining pervasive computing techniques with electronic payment systems to create activity-based micro-incentives. Economic incentives are an effective way to influence consumer behavior, and are used in e.g. marketing and resource coordination. Our approach allows marketers and regulators to induce consumers to perform particular actions in new application domains by attaching micro-prices to a wider range of behaviors. A key challenge is designing incentive mechanisms that result in desired behavior changes. We examine two basic incentive models. Based on the results of preliminary experiments, we discuss how economic incentives can affect consumer attitudes and lead to sustainable behavior changes.

  9. Education for a Sustainable Future: A Resource for Curriculum Developers, Teachers, and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg. School Programs Div.

    This document, on social, environmental, and economic sustainability, is a resource for teachers, administrators, and curriculum developers. The increasing human population on the earth directs attention to sustainability, which was not a problem until the industrial revolution. This book uses an interdisciplinary approach and provides assistance…

  10. The Riddle of Sustainable Development and the Role of Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Malcolm

    1995-01-01

    Explores the meaning of sustainable development from the economic and ethical perspectives. Argues that education for sustainability programs ought to acknowledge and address questions raised by these two perspectives. Concludes that the goals of environmental education need to be reconceptualized, continually and reflexively, in response to the…

  11. Sustainable Energy in Remote Indonesian Grids. Accelerating Project Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Brian; Burman, Kari; Davidson, Carolyn; Elchinger, Michael; Hardison, R.; Karsiwulan, D.; Castermans, B.

    2015-06-30

    Sustainable Energy for Remote Indonesian Grids (SERIG) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded initiative to support Indonesia’s efforts to develop clean energy and increase access to electricity in remote locations throughout the country. With DOE support, the SERIG implementation team consists of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Winrock International’s Jakarta, Indonesia office. Through technical assistance that includes techno-economic feasibility evaluation for selected projects, government-to-government coordination, infrastructure assessment, stakeholder outreach, and policy analysis, SERIG seeks to provide opportunities for individual project development and a collective framework for national replication office.

  12. Carbon sequestration, biological diversity, and sustainable development: Integrated forest management

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, M.A.; Meganck, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Tropical deforestation provides a significant contribution to anthropogenic increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration that may lead to global warming. Forestation and other forest management options to sequester CO2 in the tropical latitudes may fail unless they address local economic, social, environmental, and political needs of people in the developing world. Forest management is discussed in terms of three objectives: carbon sequestration; sustainable development; and biodiversity conservation. An integrated forest management strategy of land-use planning is proposed to achieve these objectives, and is centered around: preservation of primary forests; intensified use of non-timber resources; agroforestry, and selective use of plantation forestry.

  13. Modelling Sustainable Development Scenarios of Croatian Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pašičko, Robert; Stanić, Zoran; Debrecin, Nenad

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of power system sustainable development is to provide the security of electricity supply required to underpin economic growth and increase the quality of living while minimizing adverse environmental impacts. New challenges such as deregulation, liberalization of energy markets, increased competition on energy markets, growing demands on security of supply, price insecurities and demand to cut CO2 emissions, are calling for better understanding of electrical systems modelling. Existing models are not sufficient anymore and planners will need to think differently in order to face these challenges. Such a model, on the basis on performed simulations, should enable planner to distinguish between different options and to analyze sustainability of these options. PLEXOS is an electricity market simulation model, used for modeling electrical system in Croatia since 2005. Within this paper, generation expansion scenarios until 2020 developed for Croatian Energy Strategy and modeled in PLEXOS. Development of sustainable Croatian energy scenario was analyzed in the paper - impacts of CO2 emission price and wind generation. Energy Strategy sets goal for 1200 MW from wind power plants in 2020. In order to fully understand its impacts, intermittent nature of electricity generation from wind power plant was modeled. We conclude that electrical system modelling using everyday growing models has proved to be inevitable for sustainable electrical system planning in complex environment in which power plants operate today.

  14. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Troschinetz, Alexis M. Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-02-15

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  15. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Troschinetz, Alexis M; Mihelcic, James R

    2009-02-01

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors. PMID:18657963

  16. When does ecological sustainability ensure economic sustainability? An integrated analysis of thresholds in semi-arid western rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobourn, K. M.; Peckham, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    The vulnerability of agri-environmental systems to ecological threshold events depends on the combined influence of economic factors and natural drivers, such as climate and disturbance. This analysis builds an integrated ecologic-economic model to evaluate the behavioral response of agricultural producers to changing and uncertain natural conditions. The model explicitly reflects the effect of producer behavior on the likelihood of a threshold event that threatens the ecological and/or economic sustainability of the agri-environmental system. The foundation of the analysis is a threshold indicator that incorporates the population dynamics of a species that supports economic production and an episodic disturbance regime-in this case rangeland grass that is grazed by livestock and is subject to wildfire. This ecological indicator is integrated into an economic model in which producers choose grazing intensity given the state of the grass population and a set of economic parameters. We examine two model variants that characterize differing economic circumstances. The first characterizes the optimal grazing regime assuming that the system is managed by a single planner whose objective is to maximize the aggregate long-run returns of producers in the system. The second examines the case in which individual producers choose their own stocking rates in order to maximize their private economic benefit. The results from the first model variant illustrate the difference between an ecologic and an economic threshold. Failure to cross an ecological threshold does not necessarily ensure that the system remains economically viable: Economic sustainability, defined as the ability of the system to support optimal production into the infinite future, requires that the net growth rate of the supporting population exceeds the level required for ecological sustainability by an amount that depends on the market price of livestock and grazing efficiency. The results from the second

  17. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability (Journal article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show...

  18. Framework for Assessing Environmental, Social, and Economic Sustainability of ICT Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odeh, Khuloud

    2013-01-01

    Key challenges that confront the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry today in defining and achieving social, environmental, and economic sustainability goals include identifying sustainable operating standards and best practices and measuring and assessing performance against those practices. The industry lacks a framework for…

  19. Links between livestock production, the environment and sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Pradbre, J-P

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the prospects for strong growth in the supply and demand for animal products worldwide, especially in developing countries, where 80% of the world's population lives. Based on scientific publications, statistics and field observations, it reviews greenhouse gas emission levels from livestock, the ability of ruminant livestock systems to sequester carbon and the capacity of the livestock industry to meet the challenge of sustainable development and to share its benefits while minimising impacts to climate change. Special attention is paid to the situation of the 800 million livestock farmers in the world living at the extreme end of poverty. The study underlines the importance of improving livestock productivity and the interdependence of the economic, environmental and social components of sustainable development. It highlights how, in the least developed countries and most lower-middle-income countries, the pressure exerted by animal diseases hampers efforts to improve livestock productivity. Poor livestock farmers have not sufficiently benefited from development policies and need support to adopt technological advances to meet the challenges of sustainable development and poverty reduction. PMID:25812202

  20. Local Sustainability and Gender Ratio: Evaluating the Impacts of Mining and Tourism on Sustainable Development in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio—which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia. PMID:25607602

  1. Local sustainability and gender ratio: evaluating the impacts of mining and tourism on sustainable development in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ganlin; Ali, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    This study employed rapid evaluation methods to investigate how the leading industries of mining and tourism impact sustainability as manifest through social, economic and environmental dimensions in Yunnan, China. Within the social context, we also consider the differentiated impact on gender ratio-which is a salient feature of sustained development trajectories. Our results indicate that mining areas performed better than tourism areas in economic aspects but fell behind in social development, especially regarding the issue of gender balance. Conclusions on environmental status cannot be drawn due to a lack of data.  The results from the environmental indicators are mixed. Our study demonstrates that rapid evaluation using currently available data can provide a means of greater understanding regarding local sustainability and highlights areas that need attention from policy makers, agencies and academia. PMID:25607602

  2. Electricity reform and sustainable development in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, James H.; Kahrl, Fredrich

    2008-10-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of supplying electricity is a key to China's sustainable development, and a focus of both domestic and international concerns with greenhouse gas emissions. The environmental performance of the electricity sector is strongly affected by its institutional arrangements: regulatory frameworks, wholesale markets, pricing mechanisms, planning and coordination, and enforcement and incentive mechanisms. These arrangements are set to change as electricity reforms inaugurated in 2002, but sidetracked by several years of supply shortages, are being resumed. In this paper we examine the impact of electricity reform on environmental sustainability by analyzing case studies of four environmental initiatives in the electricity sector: retirement of inefficient generators, installation of pollution control equipment, renewable energy development, and efforts to promote energy efficiency. We find that implementation of these policies falls short of objectives for two main underlying reasons: conflicting priorities between central and provincial governments, and ineffective regulation. Sustainability will be best served not by redoubling short-term supply-oriented, market-based reforms, but by better aligning central and provincial government incentives, and by developing competent, independent regulation at the provincial level. China's central government and sub-national governments in industrialized countries can both contribute to the latter goal.

  3. Crafting usable knowledge for sustainable development

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper distills core lessons about how researchers (scientists, engineers, planners, etc.) interested in promoting sustainable development can increase the likelihood of producing usable knowledge. We draw the lessons from both practical experience in diverse contexts around the world and from scholarly advances in understanding the relationships between science and society. Many of these lessons will be familiar to those with experience in crafting knowledge to support action for sustainable development. However, few are included in the formal training of researchers. As a result, when scientists and engineers first venture out of the laboratory or library with the goal of linking their knowledge with action, the outcome has often been ineffectiveness and disillusionment. We therefore articulate here a core set of lessons that we believe should become part of the basic training for researchers interested in crafting usable knowledge for sustainable development. These lessons entail at least four things researchers should know, and four things they should do. The knowing lessons involve understanding the coproduction relationships through which knowledge making and decision making shape one another in social–environmental systems. We highlight the lessons that emerge from examining those coproduction relationships through the ICAP lens, viewing them from the perspectives of Innovation systems, Complex systems, Adaptive systems, and Political systems. The doing lessons involve improving the capacity of the research community to put its understanding of coproduction into practice. We highlight steps through which researchers can help build capacities for stakeholder collaboration, social learning, knowledge governance, and researcher training. PMID:27091979

  4. Crafting usable knowledge for sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Clark, William C; van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Lebel, Louis; Gallopin, Gilberto C

    2016-04-26

    This paper distills core lessons about how researchers (scientists, engineers, planners, etc.) interested in promoting sustainable development can increase the likelihood of producing usable knowledge. We draw the lessons from both practical experience in diverse contexts around the world and from scholarly advances in understanding the relationships between science and society. Many of these lessons will be familiar to those with experience in crafting knowledge to support action for sustainable development. However, few are included in the formal training of researchers. As a result, when scientists and engineers first venture out of the laboratory or library with the goal of linking their knowledge with action, the outcome has often been ineffectiveness and disillusionment. We therefore articulate here a core set of lessons that we believe should become part of the basic training for researchers interested in crafting usable knowledge for sustainable development. These lessons entail at least four things researchers should know, and four things they should do. The knowing lessons involve understanding the coproduction relationships through which knowledge making and decision making shape one another in social-environmental systems. We highlight the lessons that emerge from examining those coproduction relationships through the ICAP lens, viewing them from the perspectives of Innovation systems, Complex systems, Adaptive systems, and Political systems. The doing lessons involve improving the capacity of the research community to put its understanding of coproduction into practice. We highlight steps through which researchers can help build capacities for stakeholder collaboration, social learning, knowledge governance, and researcher training. PMID:27091979

  5. Does the biofuel industry, with the aid of certification programs, contribute to sustainable development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierulff, James Michael

    Despite being a source of alternative energy and an avenue for broad economic development, a number of biofuel producers have demonstrated that the biofuel industry has significant potential for unleashing social, environmental and economic harm. To largely avoid such perils, the industry must demonstrate that it is operating in a sustainable manner, contributing to the sustainable development of all stakeholders who rely upon the industry's responsible operation. Recently minted, internationally developed certification programs have been developed to move the industry into sustainable compliance and to offer a means by which stakeholders can incentivize the industry toward greater levels of sustainability practice. Using OLS regression analysis, this dissertation estimates that the industry is currently operating within the bounds of sustainable development as measured through the World Bank's sustainability model. This conclusion, however, is made with some caution. Many biofuel industry certification programs, despite covering a number of sustainable issues, have created loopholes within their criteria that must be resolved to avert greater long term damage to sustainable development. This work will conclude with methods and additional criteria that can be used to help move the biofuel industry toward more stable and sustainable development activity.

  6. Global environmental health and sustainable development: the role at Rio+20.

    PubMed

    Furie, Gregg Lawrence; Balbus, John

    2012-06-01

    The Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development represents a crucial opportunity to place environmental health at the forefront of the sustainable development agenda. Billions of people living in low- and middle-income countries continue to be afflicted by preventable diseases due to modifiable environmental exposures, causing needless suffering and perpetuating a cycle of poverty. Current processes of economic development, while alleviating many social and health problems, are increasingly linked to environmental health threats, ranging from air pollution and physical inactivity to global climate change. Sustainable development practices attempt to reduce environmental impacts and should, in theory, reduce adverse environmental health consequences compared to traditional development. Yet these efforts could also result in unintended harm and impaired economic development if the new "Green Economy" is not carefully assessed for adverse environmental and occupational health impacts. The environmental health community has an essential role to play in underscoring these relationships as international leaders gather to craft sustainable development policies. PMID:22699634

  7. Factors related to the economic sustainability of two-year chemistry-based technology training programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, Bridgid A.

    Two-year chemistry-based technology training (CBTT) programs in the U.S. are important in the preparation of the professional technical workforce. The purpose of this study was to identify, examine, and analyze factors related to the economic sustainability of CBTT programs. A review of literature identified four clustered categories of 31 sub-factors related to program sustainability. Three research questions relating to program sustainability were: (1) What is the relative importance of the identified factors?, (2) What differences exist between the opinions of administrators and faculty?, and (3) What are the interrelationships among the factors? In order to answer these questions, survey data gathered from CBTT programs throughout the United States were analyzed statistically. Conclusions included the following: (1) Rank order of the importance to sustainability of the clustered categories was: (1) Partnerships, (2) Employer and Student Educational Goals, (3) Faculty and Their Resources, and (4) Community Perceptions and Marketing Strategies. (2) Significant correlations between ratings of sustainability and the sub-factors included: degree of partnering, college responsiveness, administration involvement in partnerships, experiential learning opportunities, employer input in curriculum development, use of skill standards, number of program graduates, student job placement, professional development opportunities, administrator support, presence of a champion, flexible scheduling, program visibility, perception of chemical technicians, marketing plans, and promotion to secondary students. (3) Faculty and administrators differed significantly on only two sub-factor ratings: employer assisted curriculum development, and faculty workloads. (4) Significant differences in ratings by small program faculty and administrators and large program faculty and administrators were indicated, with most between small program faculty and large program administrators. The study

  8. Antimicrobial resistance-a threat to the world's sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Jasovský, Dušan; Littmann, Jasper; Zorzet, Anna; Cars, Otto

    2016-08-01

    This commentary examines how specific sustainable development goals (SDGs) are affected by antimicrobial resistance and suggests how the issue can be better integrated into international policy processes. Moving beyond the importance of effective antibiotics for the treatment of acute infections and health care generally, we discuss how antimicrobial resistance also impacts on environmental, social, and economic targets in the SDG framework. The paper stresses the need for greater international collaboration and accountability distribution, and suggests steps towards a broader engagement of countries and United Nations agencies to foster global intersectoral action on antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27416324

  9. Education, employment, and sustainable development in the European union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballah, I.; Dufourg, A.; Tondeur, D.

    2002-11-01

    This paper examines the current and prospective status of education, employment, and sustainable development in the European Union (EU). Due to the decrease of the birth rate and the increase of life expectation, the size of the labor force is decreasing and its average age is increasing. Moreover, rapid technological evolution will necessitate “long-life learning” for the old workers and young people. It will be a challenge to supply the EU’s labor market with an adequate number of workers with the appropriate skill ad tempus. This will change profoundly the classical education system that will become the largest economic sector in the next decade.

  10. Levels of Indicator Development for Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rode, Horst; Michelsen, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The article summarizes some considerations about the development of indicators for education for sustainable development (ESD). It reflects the present state of discussion, especially from a German perspective, and includes present developments in the area of quality criteria and standards for ESD. These discussion threads only denote the…