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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Australian National University Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems provides information about photovoltaics and solar thermal energy technology. Links are provided to energy information and research sites.

Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSES); University, Australian N.

2

Energy system assessment with sustainability indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an attempt to select, define and apply a set of sustainability indicators for the energy system assessment. Starting from the general sustainability concept, a set of indicators is defined reflecting specific criteria for the energy system evaluation. Particular attention is devoted to the resource, environment, social and economic criteria. Among these groups of criteria there are individual

Naim H. Afgan; Maria G. Carvalho; Nikolai V. Hovanov

2000-01-01

3

Sustainability assessment of a hybrid energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid energy system in the form of the Object structure is the pattern for the structure of options in the evaluation of a hybrid system. The Object structure is defined as: Hybrid Energy System {[production (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas)] [utilization(electricity, heat, hydrogen)]}.In the evaluation of hybrid energy systems only several options are selected to demonstrate the sustainability assessment

Nain H. Afgan; Maria G. Carvalho

2008-01-01

4

Accelerating the transition to sustainable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slow pace of transition to sustainable energy systems is the result of several factors running in parallel.The starting points are very low. Even 30% per annum increases in rated capacity (for wind energy or solar PV, for example) take many years to make a big impact at the global level. Policy initiatives are for the most part ineffectual in

Michael Jefferson

2008-01-01

5

A review on sustainable design of renewable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviewed the state of the art in designing renewable energy systems specifically solar-based energy system, ground source-based system and day-lighting system, to gain optimum performances in sustainable buildings. Efficiency of each of these systems in reducing resource consumption was evaluated. Geometric conditions have a determining effect on the performances of solar-based energy system and day-lighting system. In solar-based

Long Shi; Michael Yit Lin Chew

6

Sustainable Energy Economy: The Next Challenge for Systems Engineers; Preprint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The realities of shrinking fossil fuel reserves, growing global energy demand, and climate change concerns will force a change to a sustainable energy economy. Systems engineers need to take a leadership role in making the transition to this new energy ec...

N. Snyder

2008-01-01

7

Hydrogen futures: toward a sustainable energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fueled by concerns about urban air pollution, energy security, and climate change, the notion of a “hydrogen economy” is moving beyond the realm of scientists and engineers and into the lexicon of political and business leaders. Interest in hydrogen, the simplest and most abundant element in the universe, is also rising due to technical advances in fuel cells — the

Seth Dunn

2002-01-01

8

Energy Sustainability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy susta...

A. W. Reed D. G. Wilson R. D. Robinett

2006-01-01

9

Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.  

PubMed

Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. PMID:22351622

Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

2012-03-12

10

Energy storage as an essential part of sustainable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy supply is an intricate task that provides a reliable energy service to consumers throughout the year. Import dependencies, seasonal differences in energy supply and use, and daily fluctuations in consumption require a sophisticated management of energy resources and conversion, or energy distribution and resource intermittency in order to guarantee continuous energy services throughout all sectors. Therein, energy storage plays

Marco Semadeni

2003-01-01

11

A Framework for Supporting Organizational Transition Processes Towards Sustainable Energy Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic development over the last century has driven a tripling of the world's population, a twenty-fold increase in fossil fuel consumption, and a tripling of traditional biomass consumption. The associated broad income and wealth inequities are retaining over 2 billion people in poverty. Adding to this, fossil fuel combustion is impacting the environment across spatial and temporal scales and the cost of energy is outpacing all other variable costs for most industries. With 60% of world energy delivered in 2008 consumed by the commercial and industrial sector, the fragmented and disparate energy-related decision making within organizations are largely responsible for the inefficient and impacting use of energy resources. The global transition towards sustainable development will require the collective efforts of national, regional, and local governments, institutions, the private sector, and a well-informed public. The leadership role in this transition could be provided by private and public sector organizations, by way of sustainability-oriented organizations, cultures, and infrastructure. The diversity in literature exemplifies the developing nature of sustainability science, with most sustainability assessment approaches and frameworks lacking transformational characteristics, tending to focus on analytical methods. In general, some shortfalls in sustainability assessment processes include lack of: · thorough stakeholder participation in systems and stakeholder mapping, · participatory envisioning of future sustainable states, · normative aggregation of results to provide an overall measure of sustainability, and · influence within strategic decision-making processes. Specific to energy sustainability assessments, while some authors aggregate results to provide overall sustainability scores, assessments have focused solely on energy supply scenarios, while including the deficits discussed above. This paper presents a framework for supporting organizational transition processes towards sustainable energy systems, using systems and stakeholder mapping, participatory envisioning, and sustainability assessment to prepare the development of transition strategies towards realizing long-term energy sustainability. The energy system at Arizona State University's Tempe campus (ASU) in 2008 was used as a baseline to evaluate the sustainability of the current system. From interviews and participatory workshops, energy system stakeholders provided information to map the current system and measure its performance. Utilizing operationalized principles of energy sustainability, stakeholders envisioned a future sustainable state of the energy system, and then developed strategies to begin transition of the current system to its potential future sustainable state. Key findings include stakeholders recognizing that the current energy system is unsustainable as measured against principles of energy sustainability and an envisioned future sustainable state of the energy system. Also, insufficient governmental stakeholder engagement upstream within the current system could lead to added risk as regulations affect energy supply. Energy demand behavior and consumption patterns are insufficiently understood by current stakeholders, limiting participation and accountability from consumers. In conclusion, although this research study focused on the Tempe campus, ASU could apply this process to other campuses thereby improving overall ASU energy system sustainability. Expanding stakeholder engagement upstream within the energy system and better understanding energy consumption behavior can also improve long-term energy sustainability. Finally, benchmarking ASU's performance against its peer universities could expand the current climate commitment of participants to broader sustainability goals.

Buch, Rajesh

12

An Energy Systems Perspective on Sustainability and the ?Prosperous Way Down?  

EPA Science Inventory

Energy Systems Theory provides a theoretical context for understanding, evaluating and interpreting shared social visions like ?Growth?, ?Sustainability? and ?The Prosperous Way Down?. A social vision becomes dominant within society when a sufficient number of people recognize t...

13

Smart Cities Initiative: how to foster a quick transition towards local sustainable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Commission has recently launched the Smart Cities Initiative to demonstrate and disseminate how to foster a quick transition towards local sustainable energy systems. Within this initiative, the three main challenges faced by pioneering cities, are to reduce or modify the demand for energy services, to improve the uptake of energy efficient technologies and to improve the uptake of

Leonardo Meeus; Erik Delarue; Isabel Azevedo; Jean-Michel Glachant; Vitor Leal; Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes

2010-01-01

14

Sustainable aquaculture systems  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this paper is to examine and assess the technical feasibility of the integration of plant and/or animal aquaculture systems into a sustainable agriculture. Although most researchers tend to avoid a precise definition of sustainable aquaculture, the implication that one gets from `reading between the lines` is that a sustainable agro-ecosystem is one which recycles materials at maximum energy efficiency. The `unspoken` standard against which comparisons of sustainability are often made is that of a mature natural ecosystem at a steady state. Cost comparisons of alternative systems will be used whenever possible, however, in many cases, conventional cost/benefit analysis will be of limited value in such an analysis. For aquaculture, such an analysis can best be conducted by analyzing the possibilities of integrating nutrients, water, and energy flow from aquaculture systems both to and from, conventional agricultural systems. The various aquaculture options are then qualitatively compared as their potential, limitations, environmental soundness, productivity, socio-economic viability and the availability of supporting technology. It is important to realize that the usefulness or applicability of any sustainable or integrated aquaculture practice is highly site specific.

Brune, D.E.

1994-08-01

15

Towards sustainable energy: are there lessons from the history of the early factory system?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of sustainable energy has been slow. We compare it with a historical example of rapid innovation – the first factory system. The first factory system in the English Derwent Valley mills in the eighteenth century was based not on new technology like the steam engine, but on the familiar water mill. The locale was less prosperous than others in

Paul Bellaby; Rob Flynn; Miriam Ricci

2010-01-01

16

Sustainable Energy Coalition Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sustainable Energy Coalition brings together business, environmental, and consumer organizations that advocate federal energy policies that will lead to "a cleaner environment, safe reliable energy technologies, and a secure, prosperous future for all Americans."

2008-08-18

17

Strategic steps towards the implementation of sustainable energy systems as seen by an oil and gas company.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication relates to the implementation of sustainable energy systems by strategy. Main themes discussed are the world's shifting energy picture from 1860 to 1992 and the current European energy and natural gas picture including some future projecti...

G. Myrvang

1998-01-01

18

Decentralized Micro-hydro Energy Systems in Nepal: En Route to Sustainable Energy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, 85 percent of Nepalese people live in remote areas with limited access to energy except fuel wood and other biomass for their energy source. This article examines the sustainable energy projects, considering socioeconomic conditions of the country. In this study, it is revealed that micro-hydro operations in remote\\/isolated areas are considered to be one of the most feasible

G. R. Pokharel; A. B. Chhetri; M. I. Khan; M. R. Islam

2008-01-01

19

Fostering innovation for sustainable energy systems: Lessons from the Carbon Trust in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout Europe policy-makers are increasingly confronting the challenge of restructuring energy systems into more sustainable forms. Innovation is often considered as a win-win- solution by helping to tackle climate change whilst also contributing to develop low carbon business opportunities. In the UK policy makers are trying to foster low carbon (technology) innovation by using a variety of policy instruments. Probably

Florian Kern

2008-01-01

20

The Sustainable Energy Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependence on oil and fossil fuels for over 80% of our energy and the continued emission of carbon dioxide threatening stable climate are captured in a single term: sustainability. Although we generally agree that sustainability is valuable, there is less agreement on how much sustainability is necessary or desirable. In this talk, three criteria describing increasingly strict features of sustainability will be presented and applied to evaluate the alternatives to oil and carbon dioxide emission, such as tapping unused energy flows in sunlight and wind, producing electricity without carbon emissions from clean coal and high efficiency nuclear power plants, and replacing oil with biofuels or electricity. Implementing these more sustainable alternatives requires new materials of increasing complexity and functionality that control the transformation of energy between light, electrons and chemical bonds at the nanoscale. Challenges and opportunities for developing the complex materials and controlling the chemical changes that enable greater sustainability will be presented. )

Crabtree, George

2010-02-01

21

China must have its own unique sustainable energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy and associated environmental problems are now the central focus of mankind. These problems are extremely serious and urgent, because global climate change will not wait for a long time. The problems should be solved in a limited time-frame of less than 50 years. Human-induced climate change could overshadow all our efforts to cure diseases, reduce poverty, prevent warfare and

Weidou Ni; Shilie Weng

2009-01-01

22

Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

2009-04-01

23

Sustainable energy planning based on a stand-alone hybrid renewableenergy\\/hydrogen power system: Application in Karpathos island, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the sustainable planning of a renewables-based energy system, which aims to fulfil the electric needs of the island by replacing the existing diesel generators with new wind farms, photovoltaic installations and hydrogen production systems. Electric system design and least cost planning analysis were concluded using historic data from both demand and supply sides. An optimal “sustainable island”

G. P. Giatrakos; T. D. Tsoutsos; P. G. Mouchtaropoulos; G. D. Naxakis; G. Stavrakakis

2009-01-01

24

Northeast Sustainable Energy Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Sustainable Energy Association (NSEA), a chapter of the American Solar Energy Society, is an organization for northeastern United States focused on "promoting the understanding, development, and adoption of energy conservation and non-polluting, renewable energy technologies." NSEA promotes the use of electricity produced through sustainable and non-polluting methods, as well as green transportation and building construction and design through advocacy and education. The NSEA Web site offers some useful tools for homeowners and teachers alike. These include Information About Sustainable Transportation, energy conservation tips, and selected articles from the Northeast Sun (published quarterly). Also available are resources and publications for educators; however, some things are not freely available on the Web and must be ordered from the NSEA.

2001-01-01

25

A self-sustaining energy system for a rural community in India  

SciTech Connect

A large segment of the world's population is poor and undernourished. They essentially earn their meager income from agriculture. Their future is tied up with the economics of agriculture, which in turn is strongly related to energy. So is true of a vast majority of the population in India, who live in over 560,000 villages. A large number of these villages are inaccessible to commercial supplies. An autonomous and self-sustaining energy system comprising of three renewable energy sources: sun, wind and biomass cam make a significant contribution to their economy. Appropriate combinations of these three energy resources is needed to make it economical, viable and compatibel with rural economy. The paper discusses one such system, highlighting the major characteristics of the three components.

Gupta, M.C.

1983-12-01

26

Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's rural areas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems currently in China's rural areas. It also provides feasible policy strategies for removing these barriers, thus enabling IAB systems to better serve sustainable rural development objectives in China. Prospects for the transfer of IAB systems to other developing countries are briefly considered.

Zhou, Aiming

27

Modeling a Renewable Energy System to Meet University Energy Needs and Promote Regional Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning and feasibility analysis of a renewable energy system for an institution like a university campus requires the development of an overall energy system model. The scope of this model should include biomass production systems and the effects on the producers of biorenewables in the region surrounding the institution should be considered. Student teams from Iowa State University's (ISU) Engineers

Jason Haegele; Brian Steward; Evan Visser; Marisol Martinez; Delly Oliveira; Caio Marcus; Rowena Vieira; Fernando Grilo

28

Sustainable Systems Analysis of Production and Transportation Scenarios for Conventional and Bio-based Energy Commodities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International commerce places unique pressures on the sustainability of water resources and marine environments. System impacts include noise, emissions, and chemical and biological pollutants like introduction of invasive species into key ecosystems. At the same time, maritime trade also enables the sustainability ambition of intragenerational equity in the economy through the global circulation of commodities and manufactured goods, including agricultural, energy and mining resources (UN Trade and Development Board 2013). This paper presents a framework to guide the analysis of the multiple dimensions of the sustainable commerce-ocean nexus. As a demonstration case, we explore the social, economic and environmental aspects of the nexus framework using scenarios for the production and transportation of conventional and bio-based energy commodities. Using coupled LCA and GIS methodologies, we are able to orient the findings spatially for additional insight. Previous work on the sustainable use of marine resources has focused on distinct aspects of the maritime environment. The framework presented here, integrates the anthropogenic use, governance and impacts on the marine and coastal environments with the natural components of the system. A similar framework has been highly effective in progressing the study of land-change science (Turner et al 2007), however modification is required for the unique context of the marine environment. This framework will enable better research integration and planning for sustainability objectives including mitigation and adaptation to climate change, sea level rise, reduced dependence on fossil fuels, protection of critical marine habitat and species, and better management of the ocean as an emerging resource base for the production and transport of commodities and energy across the globe. The framework can also be adapted for vulnerability analysis, resilience studies and to evaluate the trends in production, consumption and commerce. To demonstrate the usefulness of the framework, we construct several scenarios as case studies to explore the emerging trends of larger ship deployment and the changing portfolio of energy resources including the increased consumption of bio-based energy. The maritime transportation industry remains heavily reliant on fossil fuels to power transport, while energy, mineral and grain remain the largest bulk commodities shipped. Emerging markets for such commodities, as well as new production methods and locations are considered. We overlay these trends and shifts with ecological areas of concern and biological migration routes. The diversity of governance regimes is also considered to produce a clearer picture of the emerging hot-spots for further study and for the synergies and tradeoffs that must be considered to achieve a sustainable ocean system. References Turner BL, Lambin EF, Reenberg A (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci, (104):20666-20671. UN Trade and Development Board (2013) Recent developments and trends in international maritime transport affecting trade of developing countries, TD/B/C.1/30.

Doran, E. M.; Golden, J. S.; Nowacek, D. P.

2013-12-01

29

Exploring the sustainability of industrial production and energy generation with a model system  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance and complexity of sustainability has been well recognized and a formal study of sustainability based on system theory approaches is imperative as many of the relationships between the various components of the system could be non-linear, intertwined, and non-intuit...

30

Sustainable application of renewable sources in water pumping systems: Optimized energy system configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen years ago, in Portugal, the expenses in a water supply system associated with energy consumption were quite low. However, with the successive crises of energy fuel and the increase of the energy tariff as well as the water demand, the energy consumption is becoming a larger and a more important part of the total budget of water supply pumping

J. S. Ramos; H. M. Ramos

2009-01-01

31

Energy Independence with Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past five years there has been a sea change in the natural gas and petroleum resources that are available in the US and worldwide. We want to take advantage of these resources while also driving toward a sustainable world. This means that we must continue to drive down prices of renewable energy, increase the use of hybrid and all electric vehicles and reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. The substitution of natural gas for coal reduces the amount of CO2 by 50% but we clearly need much larger reductions. I will review some of the initiatives ongoing within the Department of Energy that are driven by the need to drive toward a sustainable solution to the CO2 problem.

Brinkman, W. F.

2012-12-01

32

Smart and sustainable energy systems for developing countries: An Indian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is a highly diverse country with regard to its electrification status, covering all from well developed cities to rural areas without access to electricity. It has identified renew- able energy sources as the long-term solution for future energy and progressing in the direction of electrifying the unreachable pockets. In this context, paper accumulates the prospects of sustainable energy and

V. S. K. Murthy Balijepalli; S. A. Khaparde

2011-01-01

33

High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.  

SciTech Connect

The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub-models for overall analysis of the system. It also provides control over key user input parameters and the ability to effectively consolidate vital output results for uncertainty/sensitivity analysis and optimization procedures. The preliminary analysis has shown promising advanced fuel cycle scenarios that include Pressure Water Reactors Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs) and dedicated HEST waste incineration facilities. If deployed, these scenarios may substantially reduce nuclear waste inventories approaching environmentally benign nuclear energy system characteristics. Additionally, a spent fuel database of the isotopic compositions for multiple design and control parameters has been created for the VHTR-HEST input fuel streams. Computational approaches, analysis metrics, and benchmark strategies have been established for future detailed studies.

Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene

2009-09-01

34

Scientific American: Energy & Sustainability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy and the broader ideas surrounding "sustainability" are hot topics today, and Scientific American has created this website to provide access to high-quality information about these subjects. The website begins with a list of "Latest Stories", and there is also a "Most Popular" listing so that users can gauge what other folks are interested in. Users shouldn't miss the "Multimedia" area, which offers up features like "How Much Is Left? The Limits of Earth's Resources", which is quite amazing. After a dramatic introduction, the piece allows visitors to watch an interactive timeline and view video clips which provide some insight into this situation. There are other features here, including "The Music of Language" and "When the Sea Saved Humanity". The site also features links to selected articles from the magazine and a listing of materials by topic.

2010-08-27

35

Content for Teaching Sustainable Energy Systems in Physics at Upper Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding energy with a focus on sustainable development requires further knowledge beyond traditional conceptual understanding. This paper presents the result from one main investigation and two smaller follow-up studies. The main study (step 1) consists of an interpreting, iterative analysis of statements made by experts on contents for…

Engstrom, Susanne; Gustafsson, Peter; Niedderer, Hans

2011-01-01

36

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project research has developed a fundamental approach. The emphasis was place on individual unit processes as an organizing framework to understand the life cycle of manufactured products. The rearrangement of unit processes provides an efficient and versatile means of understanding improved manufactured products such as wind generators. The taxonomy and structure of unit process lci were developed in this project. A series of ten unit process lci were developed to sample the major segments of the manufacturing unit process taxonomy. Technical and economic effectiveness has been a focus of the project research in Task three. The use of repeatable modules for the organization of information on environmental improvement has a long term impact. The information developed can be used and reused in a variety of manufacturing plants and for a range of wind generator sizes and designs. Such a modular approach will lower the cost of life cycle analysis, that is often asked questions of carbon footprint, environmental impact, and sustainability. The use of a website for dissemination, linked to NREL, adds to the economic benefit as more users have access to the lci information. Benefit to the public has been achieved by a well-attended WSU conference, as well as presentations for the Kansas Wind Energy Commission. Attendees represented public interests, land owners, wind farm developers, those interested in green jobs, and industry. Another benefit to the public is the start of information flow from manufacturers that can inform individuals about products.

Janet M Twomey, PhD

2010-04-30

37

SUSTAINABILITY AND COMPLEX SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The important question in sustainability is not whether the world is sustainable, but whether a humanly acceptable regime of the world is sustainable. World commission on environment and development defines sustainability as ?development that meets the needs of the present withou...

38

MultiComponent Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System for sustainable growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental harmonization of nuclear energy technology is considered as an absolutely necessary condition in its future successful development for peaceful use. Establishment of Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System, that simultaneously meets four requirements — energy production, fuel production, burning of radionuclides and safety, strongly relies on the neutron excess generation. Implementation of external non-fission based neutron sources into fission energy system

Masaki Saito

2002-01-01

39

High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental

Pavel Valeryevich Tsvetkov; Salvador B. Rodriguez; II David E; Gary Eugene Rochau

2009-01-01

40

Energy Realpolitik : Towards a Sustainable Energy Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term strategy based on existing technological, ecological, economical, and geopolitical realities is urgently needed to develop a sustainable energy economy, which should be designed with adaptability to unpredicted changes in any of these aspects. While only a highly diverse energy portfolio and conservation can ultimately guarantee optimum sustainability, based on a comparison of current primary energy generation methods ,

W. Udo Schröder

41

Energy Realpolitik: Towards a Sustainable Energy Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term strategy based on existing technological, ecological, economical, and geopolitical realities is urgently needed to develop a sustainable energy economy, which should be designed with adaptability to unpredicted changes in any of these aspects. While only a highly diverse energy portfolio and conservation can ultimately guarantee optimum sustainability, based on a comparison of current primary energy generation methods, it

W. Udo Schroeder

2008-01-01

42

Sustainable Energy Solutions; Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ;\\u000a\\u0009The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different

Janet M Twomey

2010-01-01

43

Optimizing root system architecture in biofuel crops for sustainable energy production and soil carbon sequestration  

PubMed Central

Root system architecture (RSA) describes the dynamic spatial configuration of different types and ages of roots in a plant, which allows adaptation to different environments. Modifications in RSA enhance agronomic traits in crops and have been implicated in soil organic carbon content. Together, these fundamental properties of RSA contribute to the net carbon balance and overall sustainability of biofuels. In this article, we will review recent data supporting carbon sequestration by biofuel crops, highlight current progress in studying RSA, and discuss future opportunities for optimizing RSA for biofuel production and soil carbon sequestration.

To, Jennifer PC; Zhu, Jinming; Benfey, Philip N

2010-01-01

44

The properties of hydrogen as fuel tomorrow in sustainable energy system for a cleaner planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global energy system transition from fossil fuel to hydrogen utilization is described. Environmental benefits of the combustion of hydrogen are reported. World carbon emissions from fossil fuel are schematized in connection with the opportunities of using hydrogen. The atomic hydrogen\\/carbon ratio and chemical properties of hydrogen are described. Pollutants of the energy system in our planet and hydrogen production

Magdalena Momirlan; T. N. Veziroglu

2005-01-01

45

Cleaner energy for sustainable future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of the Journal of Cleaner Production focuses on “Energy for Sustainable Future”. It is designed to mirror the increasing relevance of renewable energy sources and improved efficiency as crucial topics for practitioners in industry, for governmental policy makers, as well as for civic service providers, researchers, and educators. The purpose of this special issue is to serve

Vincenzo Giorgio Dovia; Ferenc Friedler; Donald Huisingh; Ji?í Jaromír Klemeš

2009-01-01

46

Design and implementation of dc-bus system module for parallel integrated sustainable energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a performance analysis of a highly integrated, high-performance dc-bus system module is presented. This module introduces a solution for medium & low voltage DC distribution applications. It is designed for applications requiring a single bus solution to control up to twelve DC-sources sharing same dc-bus and having same dc-voltage level. The bus is also designed to interface

Mahmoud M. Amin; O. A. Mohammed

2011-01-01

47

Energy Realpolitik: Towards a Sustainable Energy Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term strategy based on existing technological, ecological, economical,\\u000aand geopolitical realities is urgently needed to develop a sustainable energy\\u000aeconomy, which should be designed with adaptability to unpredicted changes in\\u000aany of these aspects. While only a highly diverse energy portfolio and\\u000aconservation can ultimately guarantee optimum sustainability, based on a\\u000acomparison of current primary energy generation methods, it

W. Udo Schroeder

2008-01-01

48

Energy supply for sustainable rural livelihoods. A multi-criteria decision-support system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy supply to the rural poor in developing countries is a complex activity that transcends the simple selection of a best technology. This paper explains the outcomes achieved by using a new multi-criteria decision-support system to assist in calculating the most appropriate set of energy options for providing sufficient power to fulfil local demands that improve livelihoods. The elicitation of

Judith A. Cherni; Isaac Dyner; Felipe Henao; Patricia Jaramillo; Ricardo Smith

2007-01-01

49

PETER GLASER LECTURE: SPACE AND A SUSTAINABLE 21 ST CENTURY ENERGY SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent of the current high oil and gas prices, that might eventually fall again, with world population increasing toward 9 billion, and living standards of large parts of the world increasing accordingly energy demand will increase rapidly, straining the entire supply chain from exploration to refining. In addition, environmental problems associated with our current fossil fuel based energy system gain

Franco Ongaro; Leopold Summerer

50

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed. SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Joergensen, 1994) in which systems are modeled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Danuso, Francesco (University of Udine) [University of Udine

2008-06-18

51

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

ScienceCinema

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Francesco Danuso

2010-01-08

52

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Francesco Danuso

2008-06-18

53

Sustainable futures using nuclear energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the role of nuclear energy in a sustainable future. This addresses the social, economic and environmental concerns of us all. Nuclear energy today avoids the emission of nearly two billion tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) each year, thanks to over 400 reactors operating worldwide.Nevertheless, there is no real recognition of real incentives for large-scale non-emitters like nuclear energy

Romney B. Duffey

2005-01-01

54

The Role of the Latvian District Heating System in the Development of Sustainable Energy Supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study is to determine whether and to what extent it is possible to use excess electricity produced by wind power plants during low demand periods for district heat production by heat pumps. Energy system analysis on an hourly basis is conducted at various capacities of wind power plants. The results show that it is possible to increase the share of renewable energy sources, decrease the use of primary energy sources and CO2 emissions per unit of the produced energy, i.e. heat and electricity, by using the surplus electricity produced by wind power in the heat pumps combined with the heat storage.

Bazbauers, Gatis; Cimdina, Ginta

2011-01-01

55

SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY  

EPA Science Inventory

While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) namely development that "meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future," it is import...

56

Solving the Meteorological Challenges of Creating a Sustainable Energy System (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global energy demand is projected to double from 13 TW at the start of this century to 28 TW by the middle of the century. This translates into obtaining 1000 MW (1 GW, the amount produced by an average nuclear or coal power plant) of new energy every single day for the next 40 years. The U.S. Department of Energy has conducted three feasibility studies in the last two years identifying the costs, challenges, impacts, and benefits of generating large portions of the nation’s electricity from wind and solar energy, in the new two decades. The 20% Wind by 2030 report found that the nation could meet one-fifth of its electricity demand from wind energy by 2030. The second report, the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study, considered similar costs, challenges, and benefits, but considered 20% wind energy in the Eastern Interconnect only, with a target date of 2024. The third report, the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, considered the operational impact of up to 35% penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs) and, concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group, with a target date of 2017. All three studies concluded that it is technically feasible to obtain these high penetration levels of renewable energy, but that increases in the balancing area cooperation or coordination, increased utilization of transmission and building of transmission in some cases, and improved weather forecasts are needed. Current energy systems were designed for dispatchable fuels, such as coal, natural gas and nuclear energy. Fitting weather-driven renewable energy into today's energy system is like fitting a square peg into a round hole. If society chooses to meet a significant portion of new energy demand from weather-driven renewable energy, such as wind and solar energy, a number of obstacles must be overcome. Some of these obstacles are meteorological and climatological issues that are amenable to scientific research. For variable renewable energy sources to reach high penetration levels, electric system operators and utilities need better atmo¬spheric observations, models, and forecasts. Current numerical weather prediction models have not been optimized to help the nation use renewable energy. Improved meteorological observations (e.g., wind turbine hub-height wind speeds, surface direct and diffuse solar radiation), as well as observations through a deeper layer of the atmosphere for assimilation into NWP models, are needed. Particularly urgent is the need for improved forecasts of ramp events. Longer-term predictions of renewable resources, on the seasonal to decadal scale, are also needed. Improved understanding of the variability and co-variability of wind and solar energy, as well as their correlations with large-scale climate drivers, would assist decision-makers in long-term planning. This talk with discuss the feasibility and benefits of developing enhanced weather forecasts and climate information specific to the needs of a growing renewable energy infrastructure.

Marquis, M.

2010-12-01

57

Energy issues and renewables for sustainable development in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is an essential factor to achieve sustainable development. So, countries striving to this end are seeking to reassess their energy systems with a view towards planning energy programs and strategies in line with sustainable development goals and objectives. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental

O. Ozyurt

2010-01-01

58

Sustained high-frequency energy harvesting through a strongly nonlinear electromechanical system under single and repeated impulsive excitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work investigates a vibration-based energy harvesting system composed of two oscillators coupled with essential (nonlinearizable) stiffness nonlinearity and subject to impulsive loading of the mechanical component. The oscillators in the system consist of one grounded, weakly damped linear oscillator mass (primary system), which is coupled to a second light-weight, weakly damped oscillating mass attachment (the harvesting element) through a piezoelastic cable. Due to geometric/kinematic mechanical effects the piezoelastic cable generates a nonlinearizable cubic stiffness nonlinearity, whereas electromechanical coupling simply sees a resistive load. Under single and repeated impulsive inputs the transient damped dynamics of this system exhibit transient resonance captures (TRCs) causing high-frequency 'bursts' or instabilities in the response of the harvesting element. In turn, these high-frequency dynamic instabilities result in strong and sustained energy transfers from the directly excited primary system to the lightweight harvester, which, through the piezoelastic element, are harvested by the electrical component of the system or, in the present case, dissipated across a resistive element in the circuit. The primary goal of this work is to demonstrate the efficacy of employing this type of high-frequency dynamic instability to achieve enhanced nonlinear vibration energy harvesting under impulsive excitations.

Remick, Kevin; Joo, Han Kyul; McFarland, D. Michael; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.; Bergman, Lawrence; Quinn, D. Dane; Vakakis, Alexander

2014-07-01

59

Use of Biomass as a Transitional Strategy to a Sustainable and Clean Energy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to establish regenerative energy sources are still being rejected. Only since the oil crises, have regenerative energy sources been included in energy policy discussions. Compared with conventional sources of energy, used a much longer period of time, there appears to be a considerable lack of knowledge on regenerative sources of energy. It is another aspect that present-day supply of

K. Kaygusuz; S. Kele?

2008-01-01

60

Epidemiology in sustainable systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of plant disease epidemiology has had increasing impact in the production-based industry of both the developed and developing world. In the last 50 years European agriculture has been associated with a move towards the simplification of systems, as farms have tended to specialize in arable or livestock production, largely determined by their soil or climatic conditions. Although cereal monoculture

Robert J. Cook; David J. Yarhm

61

Green energy strategies for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we propose some green energy strategies for sustainable development. In this regard, seven green energy strategies are taken into consideration to determine the sectoral, technological, and application impact ratios. Based on these ratios, we derive a new parameter as the green energy impact ratio. In addition, the green energy-based sustainability ratio is obtained by depending upon the

Adnan Midilli; Ibrahim Dincer; Murat Ay

2006-01-01

62

Sustainable roofs with real energy savings  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

1996-12-31

63

Solving the Meteorological Challenges of Creating a Sustainable Energy System (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global energy demand is projected to double from 13 TW at the start of this century to 28 TW by the middle of the century. This translates into obtaining 1000 MW (1 GW, the amount produced by an average nuclear or coal power plant) of new energy every single day for the next 40 years. The U.S. Department of Energy

M. Marquis

2010-01-01

64

Renewable energy - the path to sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to address some lingering debates within sustainability studies by revealing the connec- tions between renewable energy consumption and sustainability. Using data from 30 OECD countries, the article examines the connections via regression and geospatial analysis. Findings from the quantitative analysis indicate that about 50% of the variation in sustainability is accounted for by the degree of renewables

Tan Xiaomei; Brett Rose

2008-01-01

65

Sustainable Energy Education and Training (SEET)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sustainable Energy Education and Training (SEET) Project is being developed by the Advanced Technology Environmental Education Center (ATEEC) and partners to help build the capacity of energy and environmental technicians to meet the challenges of energy sustainability in the 21st century workplace. The SEET project is providing professional development training for 50 upper level high school and community college technology instructors. Training focuses on the areas of sustainable energy and energy efficiency, delivered through two ten-day intensive annual workshops at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and continued through online networking activities. Om this site, visitors will find information about the workshops, the topics they cover, the program's partner institutions, and sustainable energy education instructional materials, which are available from ATEEC's Sustainable Energy resource clearinghouse for free.

2008-10-30

66

Energy revolution: policies for a sustainable future  

SciTech Connect

The book examines the policy options for mitigating or removing the entrenched advantages held by fossil fuels and speeding the transition to a more sustainable energy future, one based on improved efficiency and a shift to renewable sources such as solar, wind, and bioenergy. The book: examines today's energy patterns and trends and their consequences; describes the barriers to a more sustainable energy future and how those barriers can be overcome; provides ten case studies of integrated strategies that have been effective in different parts of the world examines international policies and institutions and recommends ways they could be improved; reviews global trends that suggest that the transition to renewables and increased efficiency is underway and is achievable. The core of the book are presentations of Clean Energy scenarios for the US and Brazil. His US scenario has 10 policies. These include: Adopt voluntary agreements to reduce industrial energy use; Provide tax incentives for innovative renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies; Expand federal R & D and deployment programs; Remove barriers to combined heat and power systems; and Strengthen emissions standards on coal-fired plants. Geller calculates that the impact of his ten policies would be a $600 billion cost and a $1200 billion savings, for a net savings of $600 billion compared to a baseline scenario of continued promotion of fossil fuels.

Howard Geller [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project, Boulder, CO (United States)

2002-07-01

67

ON ENERGY AND SUSTAINABILITY (PERSONAL COLUMN)  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of energy is a major and desirable feature of modern human existence, but it has significant impact on the planetary environment. It is, therefore, an important issue in the quest for sustainability. The search for viable policies leading to energy sustainability falls ...

68

Energy for Me: Sustaining My Community with Renewable Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning unit, learners explore the possibilities of sustainable energy, and engage in a project to provide electricity for their city using alternative energy sources. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed to be used in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use.

69

Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

Thomas, Evan A.

2010-01-01

70

Sustainable infrastructure system modeling under uncertainties and dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrastructure systems support human activities in transportation, communication, water use, and energy supply. The dissertation research focuses on critical transportation infrastructure and renewable energy infrastructure systems. The goal of the research efforts is to improve the sustainability of the infrastructure systems, with an emphasis on economic viability, system reliability and robustness, and environmental impacts. The research efforts in critical transportation

Yongxi Huang

2010-01-01

71

Progress on linking gender and sustainable energy  

SciTech Connect

The field of gender and energy has been identified as critical in global sustainable energy development and is increasingly important to decision makers. The theme of women and energy was of significance at the 1998 World Renewable Energy Congress in Florence, Italy. This paper traces further developments in this field by summarizing selected programmatic initiatives, meetings, and publications over the past 18 months.

Farhar, B.

2000-04-05

72

A Landscape Perspective on Sustainability of Agricultural Systems  

SciTech Connect

Landscape sustainability of agricultural systems considers effects of farm activities on social, economic, and ecosystem services at local and regional scales. Sustainable agriculture entails: defining sustainability, developing easily measured indicators of sustainability, moving toward integrated agricultural systems, and offering incentives or imposing regulations to affect farmer behavior. A landscape perspective is useful because landscape ecology provides theory and methods for dealing with spatial heterogeneity, scaling, integration, and complexity. To implement agricultural sustainability, we propose adopting a systems perspective, recognizing spatial heterogeneity, addressing the influences of context, and integrating landscape-design principles. Topics that need further attention at local and regional scales include (1) protocols for quantifying material and energy flows; (2) effects of management practices; (3) incentives for enhancing social, economic, and ecosystem services; (4) integrated landscape planning and management; (5) monitoring and assessment; (6) effects of societal demand; and (7) consistent and holistic policies for promoting agricultural sustainability.

Dale, Virginia H [ORNL] [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaffka, Stephen R [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis; Langeveld, J.W.A. [Wageningen University, Netherlands] [Wageningen University, Netherlands

2013-01-01

73

Coconut Palms for Sustainable Energy and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Existing coconut palms (cocos nucifera) provide a large sustainable resource for food, energy, timber, fiber and numerous other products. Most of this resource is currently wasted, yet it could give a strong basis for practical rural development in tropic...

D. L. Hagen D. Etherington

1993-01-01

74

The coming sustainable energy transition: History, strategies, and outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facing global climate change and scarce petroleum supplies, the world must switch to sustainable energy systems. While historical transitions between major energy sources have occurred, most of these shifts lasted over a century or longer and were stimulated by resource scarcity, high labor costs, and technological innovations. The energy transition of the 21st century will need to be more rapid.

Barry D. Solomon; Karthik Krishna

2011-01-01

75

A systems framework for characterizing farm sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a framework for quantifying and diagnosing constraints to sustainability of farming systems. For a dynamic, stochastic, purposeful system, sustainability is defined as its ability to continue into the future. It can be expressed as the probability of continuation within specified threshold boundaries through a specified future period. Long-term, stochastic simulation of a system model serves as a

J. W. Hansen; J. W. Jones

1996-01-01

76

Toward Knowledge Systems for Sustainability Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managing ecosystems for the outcomes of agricultural productivity and resilience will require fundamentally different knowledge management systems. In the industrial paradigm of the 20th century, land was considered an open, unconstrained system managed for maximum yield. While dramatic increases in yield occurred in some crops and locations, unintended but often foreseeable consequences emerged. While productivity remains a key objective, we must develop analytic systems that can identify better management options for the full range of monetized and non-monetized inputs, outputs and outcomes that are captured in the following framing question: How much valued service (e.g. food, materials, energy) can we draw from a landscape while maintaining adequate levels of other valued or necessary services (e.g. biodiversity, water, climate regulation, cultural services) including the long-term productivity of the land? This question is placed within our contemporary framing of valued services, but structured to illuminate the shifts required to achieve long-term sufficiency and planetary resilience. This framing also highlights the need for fundamentally new knowledge systems including information management infrastructures, which effectively support decision-making on landscapes. The purpose of this initiative by authors from diverse fields across government and academic science is to call attention to the need for a vision and investment in sustainability science for landscape management. Substantially enhanced capabilities are needed to compare and integrate information from diverse sources, collected over time that link choices made to meet our needs from landscapes to both short and long term consequences. To further the goal of an information infrastructure for sustainability science, three distinct but interlocking domains are best distinguished: 1) a domain of data, information and knowledge assets; 2) a domain that houses relevant models and tools in a curated space; and 3) a domain that includes decision support tools and systems tailored toward frame particular trade-offs, which may focus on inputs or outputs and may range in scale from local to global. An information infrastructure for sustainability science is best built be built and maintained as a modular, open source, open standard, open access, open content platform. We have defined the scope of this challenge, managing choices within agroecosystems, recognizing that any decision on a landscape involves multidimensional tradeoffs. An effort to address this challenge will need a cohesive, coherent and targeted approach toward an integrated knowledge management infrastructure for sustainability science applied to land management is essential to move more rapidly toward sustainable, productive, and resilient landscapes.

Zaks, D. P.; Jahn, M.

2011-12-01

77

Threshold Concepts, Systems and Learning for Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework for understanding the role that systems theory might play in education for sustainability (EfS). It offers a sketch and critique of Land and Meyer's notion of a "threshold concept", to argue that seeing systems as a threshold concept for sustainability is useful for understanding the processes of…

Sandri, Orana Jade

2013-01-01

78

Sustainable cities: transport, energy, and urban form  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper extends the debate over the ideal of the sustainable city, particularly as it relates to transport, by providing empirical evidence, from five case-study cities in the United Kingdom and one in the Netherlands on the links between urban form and energy consumption in transport. It also links energy use measures to the physical, economic, and social structure of

D Banister; S Watson; C Wood

1997-01-01

79

Introduction to Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this course model on renewable and sustainable technology. The course emphasizes energy consumption, efficiency, and conservation. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Kox, Amy L.

2011-05-03

80

Energy storage — a key technology for global energy sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of life today is dependent upon access to a bountiful supply of cheap energy. For a sustainable future, the energy should be derived from non-fossil sources; ideally, it should also be reliable and safe, flexible in use, affordable, and limitless. This paper examines the present global use of energy in its various forms, and considers projections for the year 2020 with particular attention to the harnessing of 'clean' and renewable forms of energy for electricity generation and road transportation. The incorporation of renewables is constrained in many instances by the variable and intermittent nature of their output. This calls for the practical application of energy-storage systems. An evaluation is made of the prospects of the candidate storage technologies — pumped-hydro, flywheels, hydrogen (for use in fuel cells), batteries — for application in centralized and distributed electricity supplies, and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The discussion concludes with the developments foreseen over the next 20 years.

Dell, R. M.; Rand, D. A. J.

81

Advanced Decentralized Water/Energy Network Design for Sustainable Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to provide a water infrastructure that is more sustainable into and beyond the 21st century, drinking water distribution systems and wastewater collection systems must account for our diminishing water supply, increasing demands, climate change, energy cost and availabil...

82

Sustainable energy for tomorrow's world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world energy economy is poised for a sweeping shift away from imported oil and environmentally damaging coal during the next few decades, despite the belief by most energy planners that the future will probably see a continuation of past trends. Pushed by the need to stabilize the earth's climate, and pulled by the investment opportunities that beckon, the world's

Christopher Flavin

1996-01-01

83

CREST: Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology, a 501(c)(3) organization in Washington, DC, announces Solstice, a file server with state-of-the-art information on renewable energy, energy efficiency, the environment, and sustainable community development.

84

Guidelines for Energy-Efficient Sustainable Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These guidelines present optional strategies to be considered in designing schools to be more energy efficient and sustainable. The guidelines are organized by the following design and construction process: site selection; selection of A & E design team; programming and goal setting; schematic design; design development; construction documents;…

Nicklas, Michael; Bailey, Gary; Rosemain, Pascale; Olin, Samuel

85

SEMS: System for Environmental Monitoring and Sustainability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to establish a computational and data management system, SEMS, building on our existing system and MTPE-related research. We proposed that the new system would help support Washington University's efforts in environmental sustainability through use in: (a) Problem-based environmental curriculum for freshmen and sophomores funded by the Hewlett Foundation that integrates scientific, cultural, and policy perspectives to understand the dynamics of wetland degradation, deforestation, and desertification and that will develop policies for sustainable environments and economies; (b) Higher-level undergraduate and graduate courses focused on monitoring the environment and developing policies that will lead to sustainable environmental and economic conditions; and (c) Interdisciplinary research focused on the dynamics of the Missouri River system and development of policies that lead to sustainable environmental and economic floodplain conditions.

Arvidson, Raymond E.

1998-01-01

86

Wind Power for a Clean and Sustainable Energy Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy is the fastest-growing electricity-generating technology. The wind energy targets set during the last decade have all been surpassed. Climate change is a major challenge to sustainable development worldwide and is increasingly recognized by forward-looking political and business leaders. One of the tasks we are facing is a profound transformation of our energy system over the next few decades

K. Kaygusuz

2009-01-01

87

Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

2007-01-01

88

Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable md sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (8) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, end verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered systems are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are made to refine model details.

O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

2005-01-01

89

Sustainable Energy-Without the Hot Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have an addiction to fossil fuels, and it's not sustainable. The devel-oped world gets 80% of its energy from fossil fuels; Britain, 90%. And this is unsustainable for three reasons. First, easily-accessible fossil fuels will at some point run out, so we'll eventually have to get our energy from someplace else. Second, burning fossil fuels is having a measurable

David J. C. Mackay; David Hafemeister

2010-01-01

90

A Sustainable U.S. Energy Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report gives guidance on what could be done to overcome the political stalemate that has long blocked the creation of\\u000a a sustainable energy plan, leaving the United States vulnerable to oil imports while emitting large amounts of greenhouse\\u000a gases. An overall energy policy is suggested for use by political leaders, along with specific goals on climate change and\\u000a national

Herschel Specter

2009-01-01

91

Integration of Energy/Sustainable Practices into Standard Army MILCON Designs: Energy and Sustainability Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Army Corps of Engineers has been tasked with determining the building features construction methods and materials that will optimize energy reduction and sustainability for new construction standard designs in FY13 for five Army building types: Barrac...

A. Soulek

2010-01-01

92

Assessment of sustainable energy potential of non-plantation biomass resources in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing bio-energy and establishing sustainable rural energy systems are important considerations for rural development and the protection of the global environment. This study aims to assess the sustainable energy potential of non-plantation biomass resources in China for the years 2005 and 2010. In this paper, the energy potential of the following resources have been assessed: (1) agricultural residues, (2) animal

Li Junfeng; Hu Runqing; Song Yanqin; Shi Jingli; S. C. Bhattacharya; P. Abdul Salam

2005-01-01

93

Performance of a transmutation advanced device for sustainable energy application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies have been performed to design a device for nuclear waste transmutation and hydrogen generation based on a gas-cooled pebble bed accelerator driven system, TADSEA (Transmutation Advanced Device for Sustainable Energy Application). In previous studies we have addressed the viability of an ADS Transmutation device that uses as fuel wastes from the existing LWR power plants, encapsulated in graphite

C. García; J. Rosales; L. García; A. Pérez-Navarro; A. Escrivá; A. Abánades

94

Energy Sustainability and the Army: The Current Transformation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the U.S. Army's use of conservation and renewable energy systems (RES) for the purposes of sustainability and national security. Initiatives in these areas will allow the U.S. Army to transform itself into a more bu...

N. D. Northern

2009-01-01

95

Sustainability Evaluation of Ground Source Heat Pump System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology is regarded as an effective technology for energy saving in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems, which is being boosted greatly in China. The sustainable development of GSHP system requires to quantitatively analyze from the aspects such as economic, social and environmental benefits. In this paper, as the cases of 3 different cooling and

Yuhe Luo; Lixing Ding; Xianrong Zhuo; Lanlan Lin

2010-01-01

96

China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency  

SciTech Connect

China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various industries, and developing a multi-year program for standards and for optimizing the industrial motor systems in China. Past work has included a comprehensive study of China's oil refining sector. Cross-Cutting--analysis and research focused on multisector, policy, and long-term development issues. Current cross-cutting policy and analysis research includes work on government procurement programs; energy service companies; a national energy policy assessment including the National Energy Strategy released by the government in early 2005; energy efficiency policy; an analysis of past trends in energy consumption in China as well as of future scenarios; and our China Energy Databook accompanied by chapter summaries and analysis of recent trends.

Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

2006-03-20

97

Energy technology progress for sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

Energy security is a fundamental part of a country`s national security. Access to affordable, environmentally sustainable energy is a stabilizing force and is in the world community`s best interest. The current global energy situation however is not sustainable and has many complicating factors. The primary goal for government energy policy should be to provide stability and predictability to the market. This paper differentiates between short-term and long-term issues and argues that although the options for addressing the short-term issues are limited, there is an opportunity to alter the course of long-term energy stability and predictability through research and technology development. While reliance on foreign oil in the short term can be consistent with short-term energy security goals, there are sufficient long-term issues associated with fossil fuel use, in particular, as to require a long-term role for the federal government in funding research. The longer term issues fall into three categories. First, oil resources are finite and there is increasing world dependence on a limited number of suppliers. Second, the world demographics are changing dramatically and the emerging industrialized nations will have greater supply needs. Third, increasing attention to the environmental impacts of energy production and use will limit supply options. In addition to this global view, some of the changes occurring in the US domestic energy picture have implications that will encourage energy efficiency and new technology development. The paper concludes that technological innovation has provided a great benefit in the past and can continue to do so in the future if it is both channels toward a sustainable energy future and if it is committed to, and invested in, as a deliberate long-term policy option.

Arvizu, D.E.; Drennen, T.E.

1997-03-01

98

What makes closed ecological systems sustainable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed ecosystem has some properties that an open systems lacks. Let us consider the ones that increase the sustainability of an ecosystem. The common feature of biological and physicochemical life support systems is that basically they are both catalytic. There are two fundamental properties distinguishing biological systems: 1) they are auto-catalytic: their catalysts - enzymes of protein nature -

I. Gitelson; A. Degermendzhy; E. Rodicheva

2002-01-01

99

Desalination using solar energy: Towards sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the theoretical rationale for a new low temperature phase-change desalination process, and six examples of applications to illustrate how this process can be engineered for sustainable desalination. In this process, brackish water is evaporated at near-ambient temperatures under near-vacuum pressures created by the barometric head without any mechanical energy input. Thermodynamic advantages and benefits of low temperature

Veera Gnaneswar Gude; Nagamany Nirmalakhandan; Shuguang Deng

2011-01-01

100

Energy storage — a key technology for global energy sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of life today is dependent upon access to a bountiful supply of cheap energy. For a sustainable future, the energy should be derived from non-fossil sources; ideally, it should also be reliable and safe, flexible in use, affordable, and limitless. This paper examines the present global use of energy in its various forms, and considers projections for the

R. M Dell; D. A. J Rand

2001-01-01

101

The Center for Agroecology & Sustainable Food Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Center for Agroecology & Sustainable Food Systems at the University of California, Santa Cruz is "to research, develop and advance sustainable food and agricultural systems that are environmentally sound, economically viable, socially responsible, nonexploitative, and that serve as a foundation for future generations." First-time visitors to the site may wish to start by reading through their newsletter, "The Cultivar", and then proceeding to their "Research" area where they can learn more about their ongoing investigations into the sociology of sustainable food systems and the agroecology of farm landscapes. Most visitors will want to look at the "Publications" area as well. Here they can learn more about organic gardening through primers that cover garlic, apple trees, peas, and more. Additionally, this section of the site also has factsheets on building fertile soil, making compost, and non-chemical snail and slug control.

102

Sustainability Science: Sustainable Energy for Mobility and Its Use in Policy Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980s sustainability has clearly become the challenge of the 21st century. In a process toward a sustainable society it is crucial that different stakeholders start collaboration and exchange ideas with technicians and academics. To finalize the policy decisions on important issues such as energy sustainability, collaboration between policy makers, academia and the private sector is important. This work

Fabio Orecchini; Adriano Santiangeli; Valeria Valitutti

2011-01-01

103

Sustainable multipurpose tree production systems for Nepal  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory is developing methods for producing reforestation plating stock, fuel, and fodder in a sustainable manner in Nepal. This project, in cooperation with the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation of Nepal, is sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (AID). Several production systems are being evaluated for the Mid-Hills Region of Nepal. To provide sustainable biomass production and ecological management of the fragile Mid-Hills Region, the production systems must simultaneously satisfy the physiological requirements of the plants, the symbiotic requirements of the plant and the microorganisms in its rhizosphere, the physicochemical requirements of nutrient and water cycling, and the climatic and topographic constraints.

Shen, S.Y.; Kilpatrick, K.J.

1988-03-01

104

Designing Systems for Environmental Sustainability  

EPA Science Inventory

Dr. Smith will describe his U.S. EPA research which involves elements of design, from systems as diverse as biofuel supply chains to recycling systems and chemical processes. Design uses models that rate performance as part of a synthesis approach, where steps of analysis and sy...

105

Sustaining leadership in an unsustainable system.  

PubMed

Healthcare executive failures and departures are not only linked to the involved individuals' skills but also are often the result of complex dynamics reflecting larger system, societal, and global polarities and tensions. At the root of many of the challenges leaders face is system unsustainability. This article discusses common challenges as fractals of more complex dynamics, strategies for managing dynamics between organizations and their stakeholders, and approaches for leaders to sustain themselves within this unsustainable system. PMID:21739824

Trimnell, Jean; Veldhorst, Georgina; Witteveen, Fred

2010-01-01

106

Role of Fusion Energy in a Sustainable Global Energy Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fusion can play an important role in sustainable global energy because it has an available and unlimited fuel supply and location not restricted by climate or geography. Further, it emits no greenhouse gases. It has no potential for large energy releases ...

J. Sheffield

2001-01-01

107

Sustainable Food Systems Cluster, Vermont Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vermont, as one of the most rural and independent states in the U.S., has always relied heavily on agriculture and its natural environment to underpin its economy. This article examines the state's agricultural economy as a sustainable food systems cluster and how it is adapting to the global economy, corporate agriculture, and environmental concerns. It describes the scale and concentration

Stuart A. Rosenfeld

2010-01-01

108

Biorefinery systems – potential contributors to sustainable innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable biorefineries have a critical role to play in our common future. The need to provide more goods using renewable resources, combined with advances in science and technology, has provided a receptive environment for biorefinery systems development. Biorefineries offer the promise of using fewer non-renewable resources, reducing CO2 emissions, creating new employment, and spurring innovation using clean and efficient technologies.

Maria Wellisch; Gerfried Jungmeier; Adrian Karbowski; Martin K Patel; Magdalena Rogulska

2010-01-01

109

Sustainable decision making: the role of decision support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable decision making stands for decision making which contributes to the transition to a sustainable society. It raises a number of challenging problems for which existing decision support systems (DSS) may not be equipped. The role of DSS in sustainable decision making is considered. The different models of decision making and their appropriateness in sustainable decision making are discussed. Examples

Marion A. Hersh

1999-01-01

110

FISHER INFORMATION AS A METRIC FOR SUSTAINABLE SYSTEM REGIMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The important question in sustainability is not whether the world is sustainable, but whether a humanly acceptable regime of the world is sustainable. We propose Fisher Information as a metric for the sustainability of dynamic regimes in complex systems. The quantity now known ...

111

MIT: Global System for Sustainable Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global System for Sustainable Development (GSSD) is a project of the Global Accords Consortium for Sustainable Development that is "dedicated to internationalization of knowledge access, provision & sharing for 'reducing the gap between knowledge & policy.'" Housed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), GSSD is "a multi-dimensional knowledge networking system" that combines public and private networks to provide a continually evolving cross-referenced knowledge base for informing decision-making and policy in the domain of "sustainable development." The Using GSSD section of the website provides information on the organizing principles used to develop the database, demonstrates the functionality and architecture of the system and other aspects of the project, such as the multiple mirror sites that are in languages other than English. Reports and working papers from the GSSD are also posted. Visitors can search the holdings of the database using a text search or based on other parameters, such as issue area or industry type, and are invited to submit websites to be considered for inclusion.

112

China's sustainable energy future: Scenarios of energy and carbonemissions (Summary)  

SciTech Connect

China has ambitious goals for economic development, and mustfind ways to power the achievement of those goals that are bothenvironmentally and socially sustainable. Integration into the globaleconomy presents opportunities for technological improvement and accessto energy resources. China also has options for innovative policies andmeasures that could significantly alter the way energy is acquired andused. These opportunities andoptions, along with long-term social,demographic, and economic trends, will shape China s future energysystem, and consequently its contribution to emissions of greenhousegases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). In this study, entitled China sSustainable Energy Future: Scenarios of Energy and Carbon Emissions, theEnergy Research Institute (ERI), an independent analytic organizationunder China's Na tional Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), soughtto explore in detail how China could achieve the goals of the TenthFive-Year Plan and its longer term aims through a sustainable developmentstrategy. China's ability to forge a sustainable energy path has globalconsequences. China's annual emissions of greenhouse gases comprisenearly half of those from developing countries, and 12 percent of globalemissions. Most of China's greenhouse gas emissions are in the form ofCO2, 87 percent of which came from energy use in 2000. In that year,China's carbon emissions from energy use and cement production were 760million metric tons (Mt-C), second only to the 1,500 Mt-C emitted by theUS (CDIAC, 2003). As China's energy consumption continues to increase,greenhouse gas emissions are expected to inevitably increase into thefuture. However, the rate at which energy consumption and emissions willincrease can vary significantly depending on whether sustainabledevelopment is recognized as an important policy goal. If the ChineseGovernment chooses to adopt measures to enhance energy efficiency andimprove the overall structure of energy supply, it is possible thatfuture economic growth may be supported by a relatively lower increase inenergy consumption. Over the past 20 years, energy intensity in China hasbeen reduced partly through technological and structural changes; currentannual emissions may be as much as 600 Mt-C lower than they would havebeen without intensity improvements. China must take into account itsunique circumstances in considering how to achieve a sustainabledevelopment path. This study considers the feasibility of such anachievement, while remaining open to exploring avenues of sustainabledevelopment that may be very different from existing models. Threescenarios were prepared to assist the Chinese Government to explore theissues, options and uncertainties that it confronts in shaping asustainable development path compatible with China's uniquecircumstances. The Promoting Sustainability scenario offers a systematicand complete interpretation of the social and economic goals proposed inthe Tenth Five-Year Plan. The possibility that environmentalsustainability would receive low priority is covered in the OrdinaryEffort scenario. Aggressive pursuit of sustainable development measuresalong with rapid economic expansion is featured in the Green Growthscenario. The scenarios differ in the degree to which a common set ofenergy supply and efficiency policies are implemented. In cons ultationwith technology and policy experts domestically and abroad, ERI developedstrategic scenarios and quantified them using an energy accounting model.The scenarios consider, in unprecedented detail, changes in energy demandstructure and technology, as well as energy supply, from 1998 to 2020.The scenarios in this study are an important step in estimating realistictargets for energy efficiency and energy supply development that are inline with a sustainable development strategy. The scenarios also helpanalyze and explore ways in which China might slow growth in greenhousegas emissions. The key results have important policy implications:Depending on how demand for energy services is met, China could quadrupleits gross domesti

Zhou, Dadi; Levine, Mark; Dai, Yande; Yu, Cong; Guo, Yuan; Sinton, Jonathan E.; Lewis, Joanna I.; Zhu, Yuezhong

2004-03-10

113

Sustainable Energy - Without the hot air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reader John Roeder writes about a website associated with David MacKay's book Sustainable Energy-Without the hot air. The book is a freely downloadable PDF (or purchasable) book describing an analysis detailing a low-carbon renewable energy transformation route for a large, modern first world industrial country (the United Kingdom). Written for the layman, the work uses vernacular language, e.g., energy consumption and production in a series of bar charts detailing the impacts of necessary strategies such as population reduction, lifestyle changes, and technology changes. MacKay notes that most reasonable plans have large nuclear and ``clean coal'' or other carbon capture components, lots of pumped heat, wind, and much efficiency improvement. He debunks some sacred cows (roof-mounted micro-turbines; hydrogen-powered cars) while pointing out simple effective technologies such as roof-mounted solar water heaters. Similar modest changes in the U.S. (painting roofs white in the southern half of the country) have strong impacts. MacKay claims that he ``doesn't advocate any particular plan or technology,'' but ``tells you how many bricks are in the lego box, and how big each brick is'' so readers can start making planning decisions.

MacIsaac, Dan

2009-11-01

114

Sustainable energy in china: the closing window of opportunity  

SciTech Connect

China's remarkable economic growth has been supported by a generally adequate and relatively low-cost supply of energy, creating the world's largest coal industry, its second-largest oil market, and an eclectic power business that is adding capacity at an unprecedented rate. If energy requirements continue to double every decade, China will not be able to meet the energy demands of the present without seriously compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own energy needs. This title uses historical data from 1980 and alternative scenarios through 2020 to assess China's future energy requirements and the resources to meet them. It calls for a high-level commitment to develop and implement an integrated, coordinated, and comprehensive energy policy. The authors recommend eight building blocks to reduce energy consumption growth well below the targeted rate of economic growth, to use national resources on an economically and environmentally sound basis, and to establish a robust energy system that can better ensure the security of a diverse supply of competitively priced energy forms. Sustainability calls for persistence of effort, greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, and better standards enforcement. Achieving these goals will require policy initiatives that restrict demand and create a 'resources-conscious society', reconcile energy needs with environmental imperatives, rationalize pricing, and tackle supply security. While the challenges are daunting, China has a unique opportunity to position itself as a world leader in the application of cutting-edge energy developments to create a sustainable energy sector effectively supporting a flourishing economy and society.

Fei Feng; Roland Priddle; Leiping Wang; Noureddine Berrah

2007-03-15

115

Wood Energy Production, Sustainable Farming Livelihood and Multifunctionality in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change and the projected depletion of fossil energy resources pose multiple global challenges. Innovative technologies offer interesting possibilities to achieve more sustainable outcomes in the energy production sector. Local, decentralized alternatives have the potential to sustain livelihoods in rural areas. One example of such a…

Huttunen, Suvi

2012-01-01

116

Sustainable Schools: Making Energy Efficiency a Lifestyle Priority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promoting efficient energy use in schools that consequently reduces greenhouse gas emissions is the purpose of a residential Energy Efficiency in Schools (EEIS) program reported on in this paper. Research on this program aligns with one of the "key "overarching" sustainability issues", set out in the "Learning for Sustainability: NSW Environmental…

Purnell, Ken; Sinclair, Mark; Gralton, Anna

2004-01-01

117

SUSTAINABILITY APPRAISAL OF TAIPEI MUNICIPAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to develop a simulation model to evaluate sustainability of water supply systems for Taipei municipal and neighbor areas. The definition of sustainability is addressed first, which indicates that sustainable development requires keeping cumulative impacts not exceeding environmental carrying capacity. The carrying capacity of a water supply system is the quantity of potential water supply

Ching-Pin Tung; Yun-Ju Chen; Szu-Wei Chen; Tzu-Ming Liu

2006-01-01

118

Comparison Analysis of Sustainable Development of Regional Energy Consumption in China: Based on DEA Windows Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the Window Techniques of DEA, this paper integrates the evaluation index system of sustainable development at home and abroad, and calculates the technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of the sustainable development ability of energy consumption in eastern, central and western of China from 2001 to 2007. The results show that the provinces and cities of

Yingling Shi; Hongsong Yang; Fugang Zhang; Yuanyuan Liu

2009-01-01

119

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects. This is importa...

120

Key Assets for a Sustainable Low Carbon Energy Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of the 21st century, concerns of energy security and climate change gave rise to energy policies focused on energy conservation and diversified low-carbon energy sources. Provided lessons of Fukushima accident are evidently accounted for, nuclear energy will probably be confirmed in most of today's nuclear countries as a low carbon energy source needed to limit imports of oil and gas and to meet fast growing energy needs. Future challenges of nuclear energy are then in three directions: i) enhancing safety performance so as to preclude any long term impact of severe accident outside the site of the plant, even in case of hypothetical external events, ii) full use of Uranium and minimization long lived radioactive waste burden for sustainability, and iii) extension to non-electricity energy products for maximizing the share of low carbon energy source in transportation fuels, industrial process heat and district heating. Advanced LWRs (Gen-III) are today's best available technologies and can somewhat advance nuclear energy in these three directions. However, breakthroughs in sustainability call for fast neutron reactors and closed fuel cycles, and non-electric applications prompt a revival of interest in high temperature reactors for exceeding cogeneration performances achievable with LWRs. Both types of Gen-IV nuclear systems by nature call for technology breakthroughs to surpass LWRs capabilities. Current resumption in France of research on sodium cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs) definitely aims at significant progress in safety and economic competitiveness compared to earlier reactors of this type in order to progress towards a new generation of commercially viable sodium cooled fast reactor. Along with advancing a new generation of sodium cooled fast reactor, research and development on alternative fast reactor types such as gas or lead-alloy cooled systems (GFR & LFR) is strategic to overcome technical difficulties and/or political opposition specific to sodium. In conclusion, research and technology breakthroughs in nuclear power are needed for shaping a sustainable low carbon future. International cooperation is key for sharing costs of research and development of the required novel technologies and cost of first experimental reactors needed to demonstrate enabling technologies. At the same time technology breakthroughs are developed, pre-normative research is required to support codification work and harmonized regulations that will ultimately apply to safety and security features of resulting innovative reactor types and fuel cycles.

Carre, Frank

2011-10-01

121

Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Vermont Highlight (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Case study on Vermont's innovative strategy for helping low-income families save energy through its Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) program. The DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) granted Vermont to give its weatherization clients access to solar energy systems and one-on-one assistance from energy efficiency coaches to help clients achieve meaningful and long-lasting reductions in their energy bills. Vermont-SERC is administered by the Vermont Office of Economic Opportunity and is carried out by five local weatherization agencies. The purpose of the program is to identify technologies and new approaches-in this case, solar energy and energy efficiency coaches-that can improve weatherization services to low-income clients. The program selects households that have previously received weatherization services. This has several advantages. First, the clients already understand how weatherization works and are willing to strive for additional energy savings. Second, the weatherization agencies are working with clients who have previously had weatherization and therefore have complete energy usage data from utility bills collected during the first energy upgrade installation. This allows the agencies to select the best potential candidates for solar energy. Agencies have existing knowledge of the homes and can pre-screen them for potential structural problems or lack of south-facing exposure.

Not Available

2012-01-01

122

Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

2009-01-01

123

Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today’s waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous longterm management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by externalintrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the longterm success of the prescribed system. In fact, given that society has become more reliant on and confident of engineered controls, there may be a growing tendency to be even less concerned with institutional controls.

Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

2004-06-01

124

Indoor Air Quality in Sustainable, Energy Efficient Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building designers, contractors, owners and managers have long been challenged with providing quality indoor environments at a reasonable energy cost. Current efforts to improve building energy efficiency, including goals of sustainability and net-zero energy use, are bringing more focus on how to simultaneously achieve energy efficiency and good indoor air quality (IAQ). While energy efficiency and IAQ are sometimes viewed

Andrew K. Persily; Steven J. Emmerich

2011-01-01

125

Sustainable Development and Energy Geotechnology Potential Roles for Geotechnical Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The world is facing unprecedented challenges related to energy resources, global climate change, material use, and waste generation. Failure to address these challenges will inhibit the growth of the developing world and will negatively impact the standard of living and security of future generations in all nations. The solutions to these challenges will require multidisciplinary research across the social and physical sciences and engineering. Although perhaps not always recognized, geotechnical engineering expertise is critical to the solution of many energy and sustainability-related problems. Hence, geotechnical engineers and academicians have opportunity and responsibility to contribute to the solution of these worldwide problems. Research will need to be extended to non-standard issues such as thermal properties of soils; sediment and rock response to extreme conditions and at very long time scales; coupled hydro-chemo-thermo-bio-mechanical processes; positive feedback systems; the development of discontinuities; biological modification of soil properties; spatial variability; and emergent phenomena. Clearly, the challenges facing geotechnical engineering in the future will require a much broader knowledge base than our traditional educational programs provide. The geotechnical engineering curricula, from undergraduate education through continuing professional education, must address the changing needs of a profession that will increasingly be engaged in alternative/renewable energy production; energy efficiency; sustainable design, enhanced and more efficient use of natural resources, waste management, and underground utilization.

FragaszyProgram Dire, Dr. R. J. [National Science Foundation; Santamarina, Carlos [Georgia Institute of Technology; Espinoza, N. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jang, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jung, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2011-01-01

126

Designing sustainable work systems: the need for a systems approach.  

PubMed

There is a growing discussion concerning sustainability. While this discussion was at first mainly focused on a society level--and sometimes regarding especially environmental problems, one can now see that this topic is of increasing relevance for companies worldwide and even the social dimension of this three pillar approach is gaining more and more importance. This leads to some questions: Is sustainability already a part of human factors thinking or do we have to further develop our discipline? How can we define sustainable work systems? What are the topics we have to consider? Do we need a new systems ergonomics perspective regarding whole value creation chains and a life-cycle perspective concerning products (and work systems)? How can we deal with potential contradictions about social, ecological, and economic goals? PMID:23608710

Zink, Klaus J

2014-01-01

127

Natural Treatment Systems as Sustainable Ecotechnologies for the Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

The purpose of natural treatment systems is the re-establishment of disturbed ecosystems and their sustainability for benefits to human and nature. The working of natural treatment systems on ecological principles and their sustainability in terms of low cost, low energy consumption, and low mechanical technology is highly desirable. The current review presents pros and cons of the natural treatment systems, their performance, and recent developments to use them in the treatment of various types of wastewaters. Fast population growth and economic pressure in some developing countries compel the implementation of principles of natural treatment to protect natural environment. The employment of these principles for waste treatment not only helps in environmental cleanup but also conserves biological communities. The systems particularly suit developing countries of the world. We reviewed information on constructed wetlands, vermicomposting, role of mangroves, land treatment systems, soil-aquifer treatment, and finally aquatic systems for waste treatment. Economic cost and energy requirements to operate various kinds of natural treatment systems were also reviewed.

Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zaffar, Habiba; Yaqoob, Hajra; Waseem, Muhammad; Zahidullah

2013-01-01

128

Biofuels, land and water : a systems approach to sustainability.  

SciTech Connect

There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the sustainability of biofuels, especially because of the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Sustainability will be a strong factor in the regulatory environment and investments in biofuels. Biomass feedstock production is an important contributor to environmental, social, and economic impacts from biofuels. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy, and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. We focus on efficient use of land and water resources. We conducted a spatial analysis evaluating marginal land and degraded water resources to improve feedstock productivity with concomitant environmental restoration for the state of Nebraska. Results indicate that utilizing marginal land resources such as riparian and roadway buffer strips, brownfield sites, and marginal agricultural land could produce enough feedstocks to meet a maximum of 22% of the energy requirements of the state compared to the current supply of 2%. Degraded water resources such as nitrate-contaminated groundwater and wastewater were evaluated as sources of nutrients and water to improve feedstock productivity. Spatial overlap between degraded water and marginal land resources was found to be as high as 96% and could maintain sustainable feedstock production on marginal lands. Other benefits of implementing this strategy include feedstock intensification to decrease biomass transportation costs, restoration of contaminated water resources, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Snyder, S. W.; LaFreniere, L.

2009-08-01

129

Renewable Energy for Sustainable Rural Village Power  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that two billion people live without electricity and its services worldwide. In addition, there is a sizeable number of rural villages that have limited electrical service, with either part-day operation by diesel generator or partial electrification. For many villages connected to the grid, power is often sporadically available and of poor quality. The US National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has initiated a program that involves hybrid systems, to address these potential electricity opportunities in rural villages through the application of renewable energy technologies.1 The objective of this program is to develop and implement applications that demonstrate the technical performance, economic competitiveness, operational viability, and environmental benefits of renewable rural electric solutions, compared to the conventional options of line extension and isolated diesel mini-grids. Hybrid systems are multi-disciplinary, multi-technology, multi-application programs composed of six activities, including village applications development, computer model development, systems analysis, pilot project development, technical assistance, and Internet-based village power project data base. While the current program emphasizes wind, photovoltaics (PV), and their hybrids with diesel generator, micro-hydro and micro-biomass technologies may be integrated in the future. Thirteen countries are actively engaged in hybrid systems for rural and remote applications and another dozen countries have requested assistance in exploring wind/PV hybrid systems within their territories. At present rural/remote site application of renewable technologies is the fastest growing aspect of renewable energy worldwide.

Touryan, J. O. V.; Touryan, K. J.

1999-08-05

130

Sustainable Energy - Without the Hot Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his book, MacKay explores our populationâs addiction to fossil fuels and the problems faced with sustainability. Two issues faced with fossil fuels are they will eventually run out and they are harming our environment during use. McKay does not give one simple solution to the problem, but contrast various advanced technologies and how they may be applied to improve our environment and sustainability. More information may be found at http://www.withouthotair.com/.

Cambridge, University O.

131

Occupational Entropy and Mind Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concept of occupational entropy is developed and related to the efficient use of mental (cognitive, emotional, and moral) resources and capacities. The corresponding “mind” indicators and pertinent response actions have proven essential for monitoring the state and projecting the behavior changes toward energy sustainability, as well as sustainable development in general. Contributed by the Organizing Committee for the First

Jordan Pop-Jordanov; Natasa Markovska; Nada Pop-Jordanova; Silvana Markovska Simoska

2004-01-01

132

Sustainable Rural Energy: Traditional Water Wheels in Padang (PWW) Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable and sustainable energy is increasingly gaining interest in current research circles due to the debates on renewable energy resources. It is essential for scientists and researchers to search for solutions in renewable energy resources, with effective technologies, and low cost in operation and maintenance. Hydro resources can be considered a potential renewable energy resource. The traditional water wheel with simple construction coupled with a basic concept of technology can be utilised as a renewable and sustainable rural energy system. This paper discusses the case of the water wheel as a renewable energy system employed in Padang, Indonesia. The Padang water wheel is constructed from hardwood material with a diameter of 300 cm and width of 40 cm. It is built on a river using water flow to generate the movement of the wheel. The water wheel application in the area showed that it is suitable to be utilised to elevate and distribute water to rice fields located at a higher level than the water level of the river. The water wheel capacity is about 100-120 liters/min. It could continuously irrigate +/-5 ha. of the rice fields. One of the advantages of this water wheel type is to function as a green technology concept promising no negative effect on the environment. The traditional water wheel has also a big economic impact on the rural economy, increasing the productivity of the rice fields. The people of Padang live in a water landscape encompassing the water wheel as an ubiquitous part of their lives, hence they relate to it and the technology of fabrication as well as the utilisation, making it an amenable and effective technology, finding relevance in the modern world.

Ibrahim, Gusri Akhyar; Haron, Che Hassan Che; Azhari, Che Husna

2010-06-01

133

Renewable and sustainable energy use in Turkey: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is an energy importing nation with more than half of our energy requirements met by imported fuels. Air pollution is becoming a significant environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources are becoming attractive for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution mitigation in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of

Kamil Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

134

Assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of energy crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production and use of biomass for energy has both positive and negative impacts on the environment. The environmental impacts of energy crops should be clarified before political choices concerning energy crops are made. An important aid to policy-making would be a systematic methodology to assess the environmental sustainability of energy crops. So far, most studies on the environmental aspects

Marjoleine C Hanegraaf; Edo E Biewinga; Gert van derBijl

1998-01-01

135

Impact of Sustainable Cool Roof Technology on Building Energy Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly reflective roofing systems have been analyzed over several decades to evaluate their ability to meet sustainability goals, including reducing building energy consumption and mitigating the urban heat island. Studies have isolated and evaluated the effects of climate, surface reflectivity, and roof insulation on energy savings, thermal load mitigation and also ameliorating the urban heat island. Other sustainable roofing systems, like green-roofs and solar panels have been similarly evaluated. The motivation for the present study is twofold: the first goal is to present a method for simultaneous evaluation and inter-comparison of multiple roofing systems, and the second goal is to quantitatively evaluate the realized heating and cooling energy savings associated with a white roof system compared to the reduction in roof-top heat flux. To address the first research goal a field experiment was conducted at the International Harvester Building located in Portland, OR. Thermal data was collected for a white roof, vegetated roof, and a solar panel shaded vegetated roof, and the heat flux through these roofing systems was compared against a control patch of conventional dark roof membrane. The second research goal was accomplished using a building energy simulation program to determine the impact of roof area and roof insulation on the savings from a white roof, in both Portland and Phoenix. The ratio of cooling energy savings to roof heat flux reduction from replacing a dark roof with a white roof was 1:4 for the month of July, and 1:5 annually in Portland. The COP of the associated chillers ranges from 2.8-4.2, indicating that the ratio of cooling energy savings to heat flux reduction is not accounted for solely by the COP of the chillers. The results of the building simulation indicate that based on energy savings alone, white roofs are not an optimal choice for Portland. The benefits associated with cooling energy savings relative to a black roof are offset by the winter-time penalty, and the net benefit from adopting white roof technology in Portland is small. That said, there are other potential benefits of white roofing such as impact on urban heat islands and roof life that must also be considered.

Vuppuluri, Prem Kiran

136

Current energy usage and sustainable energy in Kazakhstan: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kazakhstan has abundant natural resources. The country has enough coal to supply its energy needs for the next 150 years, and has the world's largest deposits of uranium, substantial quantities of natural gas and petroleum deposits. However, despite such energy riches, due to the size of the territory, its geography, and the country's economic structure, distribution of electricity in Kazakhstan is not uniform. As a result, Kazakhstani rural and remote areas suffer from serious electricity deficits. According to the latest estimates from the Ministry of Industry and New Technologies, about 25-30% of the Kazakhstani population lives in rural communities, where access to affordable energy (for heating, cooling, cooking, refrigeration, lighting, household as well as IT use) is limited. Furthermore, with the main electricity production infrastructure concentrated in the main urban areas, a high amount of electricity is therefore lost during transmission. Moreover, the consumption of poor quality coal as the main source of power generation creates a significant amount of environmental pollution. To illustrate this development, fuel combustion from coal has produced around 75% of carbon dioxide emissions in Kazakhstan. Thus, in order to address the country's electricity and environmental challenges, the Kazakhstani government is taking initiatives to promote renewable energy resources. However, so far, the outcome of these initiatives remains negligible. The current contribution of renewable energy to the total energy consumption is less than 1% (with 90% provided by hydropower) despite the significant potential for renewable energy in the country. As yet, no comprehensive study has been published on the energy scenario and on the potential for renewable energy resources in Kazakhstan. This comprehensive review aims to present an overview of the country's energy resources, supply and demand as the current energy scenario, while discussing the potential for renewable energy resources such as wind, solar, small hydro and biomass as alternative energy supplies in this country. Our analysis shows that wind and solar energy can become major contributors towards renewable energy in Kazakhstan. The biomass of agricultural residues, municipal solid waste and wood residues could be used for energy purposes too. Therefore, Kazakhstan should optimize energy consumption and take active and effective measures to increase the contribution of renewables in energy supply to make the country's energy mix environmentally sustainable.

Karatayev, Marat; Islam, Tofazzal; Salnikov, Vitaliy

2014-05-01

137

Advanced Materials for Sustainable, Clean Energy Future  

SciTech Connect

The current annual worldwide energy consumption stands at about 15 terawatts (TW, x1012 watts). Approximately 80% of it is supplied from fossil fuels: oil (34 %), coal (25 %), and natural gas (21 %). Biomass makes up 8% of the energy supply, nuclear energy accounts for 6.5 %, hydropower has a 2% share and other technologies such as wind and solar make up the rest. Even with aggressive conservation and new higher efficiency technology development, worldwide energy demand is predicted to double to 30 TW by 2050 and triple to 46 TW by the end of the century. Meanwhile oil and natural gas production is predicted to peak over the next few decades. Abundant coal reserves may maintain the current consumption level for longer period of time than the oil and gas. However, burning the fossil fuels leads to a serious environmental consequence by emitting gigantic amount of green house gases, particularly CO2 emissions which are widely considered as the primary contributor to global warming. Because of the concerns over the greenhouse gas emission, many countries, and even some states and cities in the US, have adopted regulations for limiting CO2 emissions. Along with increased CO2 regulations, is an emerging trend toward carbon “trading,” giving benefits to low “carbon footprint” industries, while making higher emitting industries purchase carbon “allowances”. There have been an increasing number of countries and states adopting the trade and cap systems.

Yang, Zhenguo

2009-04-01

138

CONSTRUCTING A GENERAL SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainability attracts enormous interest in the minds of the public and the scientific and engineering community because it holds the promise of a long-tem solution to environmental problems. Sustainability, however, is mathematically loosely defined. There is no widely accepted...

139

CONSTRUCTING A GENERAL SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainability atracts enormous interest in the minds of the public and the scientific and engineering community because it holds the promise of a long-term solution to environmental problems. Sustainability, however, is mathematically loosely defined. There is no widely accepted...

140

Sustainable systems theory: ecological and other aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

While sustainability is generally associated with the definition of sustainable development given by the Brundtland Commission ‘Our common future (1987) Oxford University Press,’ namely ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs,’ it is important to recognize that a mathematical theory embodying these concepts would be immensely valuable

Heriberto Cabezas; Christopher W. Pawlowski; Audrey L. Mayer; N. Theresa Hoagland

2005-01-01

141

75 FR 34657 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...application of sustainable design principals with respect...Department of Energy, Office of the General Counsel...application of sustainable design principals with...

2010-06-18

142

Sustainable Design and Renewable Energy Concepts in Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy use of residential and non-residential buildings in the US makes up a full 50% of the total energy use in the country. The Architects role in positively altering this equation has become more and more apparent. A change in the paradigm of how buildings are designed and the integration of renewable energy sources to meet their energy requirements can have tremendous impacts on sustainability, energy consumption, environment impacts, and the potential for climate change.

Maxwell, Lawrence

2009-07-01

143

Information systems for engineering sustainable development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability of a country to follow sustainable development paths is determined to a large extent by the capacity or capabilities of its people and its institutions. Specifically, capacity-building in the UNCED terminology encompasses the country's human, ...

R. S. Leonard

1992-01-01

144

SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY: ECOLOGICAL AND OTHER ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987), namely development that "meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of t...

145

SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY: ECOLOGICAL AND OTHER ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987), namely development that "meets the needs and asperations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of t...

146

SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY: ECOLOGICAL AND OTHER ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987), namely development that "meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those...

147

Nuclear energy and sustainability: Understanding ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulation and new environmental requirements combined with the growing scarcity of fossil resources and the increasing world energy demand lead to a renewal of the debate on tomorrow's energies. Specifically, nuclear energy, which has undeniable assets, faces new constraints. On the one hand, nuclear energy is very competitive and harmless to greenhouse effect. From this point, it seems to be

Karine Fiore

2006-01-01

148

Sustainability and Peasant Farming Systems: Some Observations from Zimbabwe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper looks at the technical and philosophical problems of attempting to answer the question as to whether peasant systems are sustainable, using Zimbabwean systems as the example. In the first part the authors consider some of the suggested indicator...

B. M. Campbell P. N. Bradley S. E. Carter

1994-01-01

149

Sustainable System Management with Fisher Information based Objectives  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainable ecosystem management that integrates ecological, economic and social perspectives is a complex task where simultaneous persistence of human and natural components of the system must be ensured. Given the complexity of this task, systems theory approaches based on soun...

150

Fostering sustained energy behavior change and increasing energy literacy in a student housing energy challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed the Kukui Cup challenge to foster energy conservation and increase energy literacy. Based on a review of the literature, the challenge combined a variety of elements into an overall game experience, including: real-time energy feedback, goals, commitments, competition, and prizes. We designed a software system called Makahiki to provide the online portion of the Kukui Cup challenge. Energy use was monitored by smart meters installed on each floor of the Hale Aloha residence halls on the University of Hawai'i at Manoa campus. In October 2011, we ran the UH Kukui Cup challenge for the over 1000 residents of the Hale Aloha towers. To evaluate the Kukui Cup challenge, I conducted three experiments: challenge participation, energy literacy, and energy use. Many residents participated in the challenge, as measured by points earned and actions completed through the challenge website. I measured the energy literacy of a random sample of Hale Aloha residents using an online energy literacy questionnaire administered before and after the challenge. I found that challenge participants' energy knowledge increased significantly compared to non-challenge participants. Positive self-reported energy behaviors increased after the challenge for both challenge participants and non-participants, leading to the possibility of passive participation by the non-challenge participants. I found that energy use varied substantially between and within lounges over time. Variations in energy use over time complicated the selection of a baseline of energy use to compare the levels during and after the challenge. The best team reduced its energy use during the challenge by 16%. However, team energy conservation did not appear to correlate to participation in the challenge, and there was no evidence of sustained energy conservation after the challenge. The problems inherent in assessing energy conservation using a baseline call into question this common practice. My research has generated several contributions, including: a demonstration of increased energy literacy as a result of the challenge, the discovery of fundamental problems with the use of baselines for assessing energy competitions, the creation of two open source software systems, and the creation of an energy literacy assessment instrument.

Brewer, Robert Stephen

151

Energy justice and foundations for a sustainable sociology of energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation proposes an approach to energy that transcends the focus on energy as a mere technical economic or engineering problem, is connected to sociological theory as a whole, and takes issues of equality and ecology as theoretical starting points. In doing so, the work presented here puts ecological and environmental sociological theory, and the work of environmental justice scholars, feminist ecologists, and energy scholars, in a context in which they may complement one another to broaden the theoretical basis of the current sociology of energy. This theoretical integration provides an approach to energy focused on energy justice. Understanding energy and society in the terms outlined here makes visible energy injustice, or the interface between social inequalities and ecological depredations accumulating as the social and ecological debts of the modern energy regime. Systems ecology is brought into this framework as a means for understanding unequal exchange, energy injustice more generally, and the requirements for long-term social and ecological reproduction in ecological terms. Energy developments in Ecuador and Cuba are used here as case studies in order to further develop the idea of energy justice and the theory of unequal ecological exchange. The point is to broaden the framework of the contemporary critical sociology of energy, putting energy justice at its heart. This dissertation contains previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

Holleman, Hannah Ann

152

Operationalizing Sustainable Development Suncor Energy Inc: A critical case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of Sustainable Development is often understood as a framework within which organizations are able to move forward in a successful and beneficial manner. However, it is also seen as an ambiguous notion with little substance beyond a hopeful dialogue. If we are to base organizational action upon the concepts of Sustainable Development, it is vital that we comprehend the implications of how the concept is understood at a behavioral level. Industry leaders, competitors, shareholders, and stakeholders recognize Suncor Energy Inc as a leading organization within the Oil and Gas energy field. In particular it has a reputation for proactive thinking and action within the areas of environmental and social responsibility. Through attempting to integrate the ideas of Sustainable Development at a foundational level into the strategic plan, the management of Suncor Energy Inc has committed the organization to be a sustainable energy company. To achieve this vision the organization faces the challenge of converting strategic goals into operational behaviors, a process critical for a successful future. This research focuses on understanding the issues found with this conversion process. Through exploring a critical case, this research illuminates the reality of a best-case scenario. The findings thus have implications for both Suncor Energy Inc and more importantly all other organizations attempting to move in a Sustainable Development direction.

Fergus, Andrew

153

An introduction to the life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for sustainable energy and product generation: Relevance and key aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are devices capable of converting organic waste fraction present in wastewaters into useful energy vectors such as electricity or hydrogen. In recent years a large amount of research has been done on these unique systems in order to improve their performance both in terms of waste treatment as well as electric current production. Already there are plans

Deepak Pant; Anoop Singh; Gilbert Van Bogaert; Yolanda Alvarez Gallego; Ludo Diels; Karolien Vanbroekhoven

2011-01-01

154

Towards Comparative Environmental Sustainability Metrics for Geothermal Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectre of climate change is a fundamental driver of sustainability policy, technology and associated research - especially so in the primary energy sector. At present, many industrialised countries obtain the majority of their energy from fossil fuels, mainly coal, oil and gas, with a variable extent from nuclear power or renewables such as hydroelectricity, wind power and biomass. The

A Camenzuli; G M Mudd

2008-01-01

155

Assessment of sustainable biomass resource for energy use in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the sustainable biomass resource for energy in China. Assessment has been carried out for the following resources: (i) agricultural residues, (ii) forest residues, and (iii) municipal solid waste (MSW). The potential of each resource is estimated for the base years 2008, 2008, and 2007. The energy potentials of these resources in 2008, 2008, and 2007 are estimated

Xinping Zhou; Fang Wang; Hongwei Hu; Lie Yang; Pengheng Guo; Bo Xiao

2011-01-01

156

Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability: Lessons From China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural electrification is now and will remain an essential element for rural development in China and other developing countries. With more than half of the world’s population living in rural communities, lessons for rural renewable energy applications and assessment from China can be very helpful in defining a global sustainable development strategy. This paper describes energy needs in rural China,

Aiming Zhou; John Byrne

2002-01-01

157

Investigating the potential for a self-sustaining slow pyrolysis system under varying operating conditions.  

PubMed

This work aimed to investigate the impact of highest treatment temperature (HTT), heating rate, carrier gas flow rate and feedstock on the composition and energy content of pyrolysis gas to assess whether a self-sustained system could be achieved through the combustion of the gas fraction alone, leaving other co-products available for alternative high-value uses. Calculations based on gas composition showed that the pyrolysis process could be sustained by the energy contained within the pyrolysis gases alone. The lower energy limit (6% biomass higher heating value (HHV)) was surpassed by pyrolysis at ?450°C while only a HTT of 650°C consistently met the upper energy limit (15% biomass HHV). These findings fill an important gap in literature related to the energy balance of the pyrolysis systems for biochar production, and show that, at least from an energy balance perspective; self-sustained slow pyrolysis for co-production of biochar and liquid products is feasible. PMID:24747394

Crombie, Kyle; Mašek, Ond?ej

2014-06-01

158

Addressing challenges to sustainable development with innovative energy technologies in a competitive electric industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radical change in the energy system is essential in the decades immediately ahead in order to address effectively the multiple economic, social, environmental, and insecurity challenges posed by conventional energy. This can come about only through a concerted international effort to speed up the rate of technological innovation worldwide for technologies that offer promise in addressing sustainable development objectives -

Robert H. Williams

2001-01-01

159

Sustainable energy development in Austria until 2020: Insights from applying the integrated model "e3.at"  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on the Austrian research project “Renewable energy in Austria: Modeling possible development trends until 2020”. The project investigated possible economic and ecological effects of a substantially increased use of renewable energy sources in Austria. Together with stakeholders and experts, three different scenarios were defined, specifying possible development trends for renewable energy in Austria. The scenarios were simulated for the period 2006–2020, using the integrated environment–energy–economy model “e3.at”. The modeling results indicate that increasing the share of renewable energy sources in total energy use is an important but insufficient step towards achieving a sustainable energy system in Austria. A substantial increase in energy efficiency and a reduction of residential energy consumption also form important cornerstones of a sustainable energy policy.

Stocker, Andrea; Grossmann, Anett; Madlener, Reinhard; Wolter, Marc Ingo

2011-01-01

160

Water and Energy Sustainability: A Balance of Government Action and Industry Innovation  

SciTech Connect

By completing the tasks and subtasks of the project, the Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC) through its state regulatory agency members and oil and gas industry partners, will bring attention to water quality and quantity issues and make progress toward water and energy sustainability though enhanced water protection and conservation thus enhancing the viability of the domestic fossil fuel industry. The project contains 4 major independent Tasks. Task 1 - Work Plan: Water-Energy Sustainability: A Symposium on Resource Viability. Task 2 - Work Plan: A Regional Assessment of Water and Energy Sustainability. Task 3 - Work Plan: Risk Based Data Management System-Water Water and Energy Module. Task 4 - Work Plan: Identification and Assessment of States Regulatory Programs Regarding Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems. Each task has a specific scope (details given).

Ben Grunewald

2009-12-31

161

Navigating towards sustainable development: A system dynamics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional fragmented and mechanistic science is unable to cope with issues about sustainability, as these are often related to complex, self-organizing systems. In the paper, sustainable development is seen as an unending process defined neither by fixed goals nor by specific means of achieving them. It is argued that, in order to understand the sources of and the solutions to

Peder Hjorth; Ali Bagheri

2006-01-01

162

Understanding and Advancing Campus Sustainability Using a Systems Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: University campuses behave as complex systems, and sustainability in higher education is best seen as an emergent quality that arises from interactions both within an institution and between the institution and the environmental and social contexts in which it operates. A framework for strategically prioritizing campus sustainability work…

Posner, Stephen M.; Stuart, Ralph

2013-01-01

163

Actualizing sustainability: environmental policy for resilience in ecological systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Society benefits from ecological systems in many ways. These benefits are often referred to as ecosystem services (MA 2005). Because these services matter to humans, they are critical to sustainability. Sustainability has many definitions, but for this chapter, we link our defi...

164

GSSD: Global System for Sustainable Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project of the Global Accords Consortium for Sustainable Development (located at MIT), this site offers a collection of over 2,500 abstracted, indexed, and cross-referenced online resources on sustainable development. Users have four options for searching the index: text (keyword and advanced) and three graphical browsers, one indexing all holdings (organized by subject and problems and solutions), the others covering industry related topics and the Alliance for Global Sustainability (AGS), respectively. Initial search returns include title, "slice" (subject), and "ring" (problem area). Item titles link to further information, including an abstract and the resource itself. GSSD also features a modest selection of full-text reports on "scientific developments and/or policy deliberations." The Consortium plans to make the entire knowledge base available in at least nine additional languages in the future.

165

Don't Waste Your Energy: Modelling the Sustainability of Direct Use at Tauranga Low-Temperature Geothermal System, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tauranga geothermal system is located on the north coast of the North Island of New Zealand, and is used by the more than 120,000 inhabitants for direct heating and cooling, bathing and aquaculture. With warm waters of up to 60°C at 500 m depth it has been monitored as a groundwater system, but increasing demands on the field and awareness of the fragility of geothermal systems has led to a call to assess the potential long-term effects of withdrawing and reinjecting fluid. Here, we create a numerical simulation of the field to determine if currently approved usage rates are sustainable, and if not to provide some constraints for future management of the area. We created a geological model of the Tauranga area covering 70 km by 130 km down to 2 km depth using Leapfrog Geothermal, and used this as the basis for a TOUGH2 model of fluid and heat flow. We calibrated the model against well temperatures measured between 0 and 759 m depth, showing that the surficial sedimentary layer was not a major control on fluid and heat flow, but that the underlying volcanoclastic rocks must have a slightly higher bulk thermal conductivity and lower permeability than had been previously measured. The model allowed us to better constrain the extent of the heat source at depth, as well as to assess its distribution. The system is primarily conductive, with the onset of convection above the main heat source in the centre of the system where modelled heat input is up to 300 mW/m2. Modelling a range of take and reinjection scenarios based on permitted values allows us to determine the capacity of the field and if its use needs to be limited to ensure that it is maintained for future generations.

Pearson, S. C.; Alcaraz, S.

2012-12-01

166

Energy engineering students on their way to expertise in sustainable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy engineering is facing new challenges in educating experts in sustainable energy. The aim of this paper is to characterise expertise related to sustainability in higher education. Future challenges and required skills are explored through recent studies, which have listed key competencies that engineers need in their working life. Sustainability and expertise are discussed on the basis of literature and energy curricula are explored on universities' internet pages.

Malkki, Helena; Alanne, Kari; Hirsto, Laura

2012-11-01

167

SIMULATED EXPERIMENTS WITH COMPLEX SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The concept of sustainability is associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development: "Development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future." But the construction of practi...

168

Sustainable Development, Systems Thinking and Professional Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the impact of the sustainable development (SD) agenda on the occupational and professional needs of those who have undergone educational and training programmes in the environmental field either at the undergraduate or the postgraduate level or through relevant professional institutions' continuing professional development…

Martin, Stephen

2008-01-01

169

Sustainability, Systems Thinking and Professional Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the impact of the new sustainability agenda on the occupational and professional needs of those who have taken educational and training programmes in the environmental field at either undergraduate or postgraduate level or through relevant professional institutions' continuing professional development programmes. It also…

Martin, Stephen; Brannigan, James; Hall, Annie

2005-01-01

170

Solar energy solutions for an environmentally sustainable world  

SciTech Connect

The United Nations Conference of Environment and Development has focused the world's attention on the complex relationship between the environment and economic development. The essence of this relationship, and the emerging theme of UNCED, is the concept of sustainability. Sustainable economic development improves quality of life and raises standards of living by using the Earth's resources in a way that ensures that they are continually renewed, and will continue to support future generations. This is the subject of this report. While energy resources are essential to economic development, the authors current patterns of energy use are not sustainable. Reliance on fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and large-scale hydroelectric projects has contributed to serious environmental problems, including atmospheric pollution, loss of land productivity, loss of biological diversity, ocean and fresh water pollution, and hazardous waste generation. Thus, if they are to achieve sustainability in their patterns of energy consumption, it is imperative that they bring about a rapid and widespread transition to the utilization of environmentally sound energy sources and technologies. Solar energy technologies are environmentally sound, socially beneficial, and economically practical. They have been proven in a wide variety of applications around the world. The barriers to the widespread implementation of solar technologies are no longer technical, but rather social, economic, and political. These barriers can and must be removed.

Not Available

1992-01-01

171

Scientific challenges in sustainable energy technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe and evaluate the technical, political, and economic challenges involved with widespread adoption of renewable energy technologies. First, we estimate fossil fuel resources and reserves and, together with the current and projected global primary power production rates, estimate the remaining years of oil, gas, and coal. We then compare the conventional price of fossil energy with that from renewable energy technologies (wind, solar thermal, solar electric, biomass, hydroelectric, and geothermal) to evaluate the potential for a transition to renewable energy in the next 20-50 years. Secondly, we evaluate - per the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - the greenhouse constraint on carbon-based power consumption as an unpriced externality to fossil-fuel use, considering global population growth, increased global gross domestic product, and increased energy efficiency per unit GDP. This constraint is projected to drive the demand for carbon-free power well beyond that produced by conventional supply/demand pricing tradeoffs, to levels far greater than current renewable energy demand. Thirdly, we evaluate the level and timescale of R&D investment needed to produce the required quantity of carbon-free power by the 2050 timeframe. Fourth, we evaluate the energy potential of various renewable energy resources to ascertain which resources are adequately available globally to support the projected demand. Fifth, we evaluate the challenges to the chemical sciences to enable the cost-effective production of carbon-free power required. Finally, we discuss the effects of a change in primary power technology on the energy supply infrastructure and discuss the impact of such a change on the modes of energy consumption by the energy consumer and additional demands on the chemical sciences to support such a transition in energy supply.

Lewis, Nathan

2006-04-01

172

Scientific Challenges in Sustainable Energy Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will describe and evaluate the challenges, both technical, political, and economic, involved with widespread adoption of renewable energy technologies. First, we estimate the available fossil fuel resources and reserves based on data from the World Energy Assessment and World Energy Council. In conjunction with the current and projected global primary power production rates, we then estimate the remaining years of supply of oil, gas, and coal for use in primary power production. We then compare the price per unit of energy of these sources to those of renewable energy technologies (wind, solar thermal, solar electric, biomass, hydroelectric, and geothermal) to evaluate the degree to which supply/demand forces stimulate a transition to renewable energy technologies in the next 20-50 years. Secondly, we evaluate the greenhouse gas buildup limitations on carbon-based power consumption as an unpriced externality to fossil-fuel consumption, considering global population growth, increased global gross domestic product, and increased energy efficiency per unit of globally averaged GDP, as produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A greenhouse gas constraint on total carbon emissions, in conjunction with global population growth, is projected to drive the demand for carbon-free power well beyond that produced by conventional supply/demand pricing tradeoffs, at potentially daunting levels relative to current renewable energy demand levels. Thirdly, we evaluate the level and timescale of R&D investment that is needed to produce the required quantity of carbon-free power by the 2050 timeframe, to support the expected global energy demand for carbon-free power. Fourth, we evaluate the energy potential of various renewable energy resources to ascertain which resources are adequately available globally to support the projected global carbon-free energy demand requirements. Fifth, we evaluate the challenges to the chemical sciences to enable the cost-effective production of carbon-free power on the needed scale by the 2050 timeframe. Finally, we discuss the effects of a change in primary power technology on the energy supply infrastructure and discuss the impact of such a change on the modes of energy consumption by the energy consumer and additional demands on the chemical sciences to support such a transition in energy supply.

Lewis, Nathan

2006-03-01

173

Energy policies for sustainable development in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises the results of a study that analysed ways of making South Africa's future energy development more sustainable. The South African economy is comparatively energy-intensive, with total primary energy supply of 11.7 MJ per US$ of GDP on a purchasing power parity basis, compared to 7.9 MJ\\/$ for Asia and 6.7 MJ\\/$ for Latin America. Moreover, the high

Harald Winkler

2007-01-01

174

Food Systems Planning and Sustainable Cities and Regions: The Role of the Firm in Sustainable Food Capitalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donald B. Food systems planning and sustainable cities and regions: the role of the firm in sustainable food capitalism, Regional Studies. This paper takes stock of the growing food systems planning movement in North American cities, regions and towns as a possibility for sustainable regional development through the lens of new directions in everyday food practices. Drawing upon theoretical insights

Betsy Donald

2008-01-01

175

Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†  

PubMed Central

Background In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. Method This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers:changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages,impacts associated with climate change on human health,progress in better understanding wind energy potential through resource assessments and new tools for detailed feasibility and project planning,need for comprehensive monitoring and data analysis, andstate funding requirements and opportunity costs. Conclusion The energy policy choices ahead for Alaska will have important implications for Arctic population health, especially for those villages whose relatively small size and remote locations make energy a key component of subsistence lifestyles and community sustainability. Wind generation can contribute to meeting renewable energy goals and is a particularly important resource for rural and remote Alaskan communities currently dependent on diesel fuel for generating electricity and heat.

Konkel, R. Steven

2013-01-01

176

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH RESEARCH (SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The major technical efforts under the management of NRMRL's Sustainable Technology Division's Systems Analysis Branch (SAB) are organized under research programs. Listed below are the SAB research programs and brief descriptions of their function. Simulation & Design -- This pro...

177

Maximal sustained energy budgets in humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why are sustained energy budgets of humans and other vertebrates limited to not more than about seven times resting metabolic rate? The answer to this question has potential applications to growth rates, foraging ecology, biogeography, plant metabolism, burn patients and sports medicine.

Kimberly A. Hammond; Jared Diamond

1997-01-01

178

Sustainable development of hydropower and biomass energy in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with policies to meet the increasing energy demand for electricity and domestic heating in Turkey. Air pollutant emissions due to power generation and their harmful effects on the environment are also presented. We also argue in favor of small scale dams for sustainable development. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125

K Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

179

Reduced Emissions and Lower Costs: Combining Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency into a Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining renewable energy and energy efficiency in Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards has emerged as a key state and national policy option to achieve greater levels of sustainable energy resources with maximum economic efficiency and equity. One advantage of the SEPS relative to a renewable portfolio standard or a stand-along energy efficiency resource standard is enhanced flexibility and broader options for

Marilyn A. Brown; Dan York; Martin Kushler

2007-01-01

180

The dynamic model for sustainable biomass production system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the authors' study there are two primary objectives for assessing a biomass production system: (a) to establish a systematic, dynamic and comprehensive model for a sustainable biomass production system and to develop guidelines to measure biomass production systems; and (b) to establish a pragmatic and cost-effective methodology to monitor dynamic characteristics of biomass production system. In this paper, they

Dong Wei; V. Naso; G. Walker; M. Lucentini; L. Rubini

1997-01-01

181

Sustainable water and energy in Gaza Strip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortage of fresh water is a common problem in different areas of the world including the Middle East. Desalination of seawater and brackish water is the cheapest way to obtain fresh water in many regions. This research focuses on the situation in Gaza Strip where there is a severe shortage in the energy and water supply. The depletion of fresh

Lubna K. Hamdan; Maryam Zarei; Russell R. Chianelli; Elizabeth Gardner

2008-01-01

182

Peat - The sustainable energy resource in Finland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Finland the level of energy consumption for heating, transportation and industry is higher than in many other European countries. This is due to the northern position of the country and also to the fact that Finland is sparsely inhabited. Peat is one o...

1994-01-01

183

Energy Sustainability of the Water Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next century will place great strains on our planet and lifestyles. The release of large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is causing changes in our climate that are altering global patterns of temperature, rainfall, and runoff, ultimately affecting water availability. These changes are occurring along with an increasing global demand for energy and

BRUCE E. LOGAN

184

Sustainable Water and Energy in Gaza Strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shortage of fresh water is a common problem in different areas of the world including the Middle East. Desalination of seawater and brackish water is the cheapest way to obtain fresh water in many regions. This research focuses on the situation in Gaza Strip where there is a severe shortage in the energy and water supply. The depletion of fresh water supplies and lack of wastewater treatments result in environmental problems. A solar powered cogeneration plant producing water and energy is proposed to be a suitable solution for Gaza Strip. Solar energy, using Concentrating Solar thermal Power (CSP) technologies, is used to produce electricity by a steam cycle power plant. Then the steam is directed to a desalination plant where it is used to heat the seawater to obtain freshwater. The main objective of this research is to outline a solution for the water problems in Gaza Strip, which includes a cogeneration (power and water) solar powered plant. The research includes four specific objectives: 1- an environmental and economic comparison between solar and fossil fuel energies; 2- technical details for the cogeneration plant; 3- cost and funding, 4- the benefits.

Hamdan, L.; Zarei, M.; Chianelli, R.; Gardner, E.

2007-12-01

185

Energy Policy for Sustainable Development in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is crucial to all aspects of development from powering manufacturing and modernization of agricultural sectors to providing electricity to run schools and health facilities, yet the impact of its production, distribution and use grows more severe with every decade. Although new alternative and renewable as well as cleaner and more efficient technologies are being developed and implemented every year,

Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Lee Keat Teong

186

A Systems Approach to Develop Sustainable Water Supply Infrastructure and Management  

EPA Science Inventory

In a visit to Zhejiang University, China, Dr. Y. Jeffrey Yang will discuss in this presentation the system approach for urban water infrastructure sustainability. Through a system analysis, it becomes clear at an urban scale that the energy and water efficiencies of a water supp...

187

Sustainable knowledge management systems: integration personalisation and contextualisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many knowledge management (KM) systems have proven unsustainable to date, exhibiting low quantities and quality of knowledge, with systems falling into disuse. In this paper, we provide and explore a model for sustainable KM systems, focusing on the advantages to be gained from integrating knowledge work with everyday work practices, and enabling sense-making through personalisation and contextualisation. We employ a

Sharman Lichtenstein; Paula M. C. Swatman

2003-01-01

188

AFFORDABLE, SUSTAINABLE SOLAR ENERGY HEATER FOR THE DEVELOPING WORLD  

EPA Science Inventory

The proposed research project question is: ?What is an optimum, low-cost, and sustainable system for basic home water heating in underdeveloped areas of the planet?? In the United States, the availability of hot water is taken for granted. A knob is turned and hot water appea...

189

Interlocal collaboration on energy efficiency, sustainability and climate change issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interlocal energy collaboration builds upon network structures among local policy actors dealing with energy, climate change and sustainability issues. Collaboration efforts overcome institutional collective action (ICA) dilemmas, and cope with the problems spanning jurisdictional boundaries, externalities, and free-rider problems. Interlocal energy collaboration emerges as the agreements in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction, pollution control, land use, purchasing, retrofits, transportation, and so forth. Cities work collaboratively through contractual mechanisms (i.e. formal/informal agreements) and collective mechanisms (i.e. regional partnerships or membership organizations) on a variety of energy issues. What factors facilitate interlocal energy collaboration? To what extent is collaboration through interlocal contractual mechanisms different from collective mechanisms? This dissertation tries to answer these questions by examining: city goal priority on energy related issues as well as other ICA explanatory factors. Research data are drawn mainly from the 2010 national survey "Implementation of energy efficiency and sustainability program" supported by National Science Foundation and the IBM Endowment for the Business of Government. The research results show that city emphasis on common pool resource, scale economies and externality issues significantly affect individual selection of tools for energy collaboration. When expected transaction costs are extremely high or low, the contractual mechanism of informal agreement is more likely to be selected to preserve most local autonomy and flexibility; otherwise, written and formal tools for collaboration are preferred to impose constraints on individual behavior and reduce the risks of defection.

Chen, Ssu-Hsien

190

Ecological functions within a Sustainable Urban Drainage System  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTACT Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) are regarded as engineering solutions to urban storm water control and flood risk. Additional benefits from SUDS in the built environment include sediment entrapment and remediation of water quality from urban runoff through the use of retention\\/detention systems. Biodiversity value of SUDS is alluded to but few studies have evaluated conservation potential or monitored

J. I. Jackson; R. Boutle

191

Noncatalytic dissociation of MgO by laser pulses towards sustainable energy cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We succeeded in dissociating MgO using laser pulses without a reducing agent. The energy efficiency from laser to magnesium reaction energy exceeded 42.5%. Although 1 kW CO2 cw laser and Nd-YAG pulse laser are used in this experiment, the laser can be pumped by natural resources such as solar light or wind power. Thus natural resources are stored in the form of magnesium, which can be used through the reaction with water whenever we need the energy, and thus a renewable energy system will be established. This paper reports the preliminary experiments of MgO reduction toward a sustainable energy cycle.

Yabe, T.; Mohamed, M. S.; Uchida, S.; Baasandash, C.; Sato, Y.; Tsuji, M.; Mori, Y.

2007-06-01

192

Indicators to support environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems  

SciTech Connect

Indicators are needed to assess environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Effective indicators will help in the quantification of benefits and costs of bioenergy options and resource uses. We identify 19 measurable indicators for soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse gases, biodiversity, air quality, and productivity, building on existing knowledge and on national and international programs that are seeking ways to assess sustainable bioenergy. Together, this suite of indicators is hypothesized to reflect major environmental effects of diverse feedstocks, management practices, and post-production processes. The importance of each indicator is identified. Future research relating to this indicator suite is discussed, including field testing, target establishment, and application to particular bioenergy systems. Coupled with such efforts, we envision that this indicator suite can serve as a basis for the practical evaluation of environmental sustainability in a variety of bioenergy systems.

Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; McBride, Allen [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2011-01-01

193

What's Driving Sustainable Energy Consumption? A Survey of the Empirical Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of the paper is on the individual decision of energy consumers, and it's relation to sustainable consumption. Consumer behavior is based on individual decisions, but it depends largely on supply-side measures and an appropriate infrastructure (e.g. the availability of energy-efficient household equipment) and on socio-political factors (e.g. if systems of emissions trading or eco-labels exist). We derive some

Rolf Wüstenhagen; Joachim Schleich; Klaus Rennings; Stefanie Heinzle; Bettina Brohmann

2009-01-01

194

Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

2003-01-01

195

Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems.  

PubMed

As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air quality and emit more ammonia than manure belt (MB) cage houses; 2) manure removal frequency in MB houses greatly affects ammonia emissions; 3) emissions from manure storage are largely affected by storage conditions, including ventilation rate, manure moisture content, air temperature, and stacking profile; 4) more baseline data on air emissions from high-rise and MB houses are being collected in the United States to complement earlier measurements; 5) noncage houses generally have poorer air quality (ammonia and dust levels) than cage houses; 6) noncage houses tend to be colder during cold weather due to a lower stocking density than caged houses, leading to greater feed and fuel energy use; 7) hens in noncage houses are less efficient in resource (feed, energy, and land) utilization, leading to a greater carbon footprint; 8) excessive application of hen manure to cropland can lead to nutrient runoff to water bodies; 9) hen manure on open (free) range may be subject to runoff during rainfall, although quantitative data are lacking; 10) mitigation technologies exist to reduce generation and emission of noxious gases and dust; however, work is needed to evaluate their economic feasibility and optimize design; and 11) dietary modification shows promise for mitigating emissions. Further research is needed on 1) indoor air quality, barn emissions, thermal conditions, and energy use in alternative hen housing systems (1-story floor, aviary, and enriched cage systems), along with conventional housing systems under different production conditions; 2) environmental footprint for different US egg production systems through life cycle assessment; 3) practical means to mitigate air emissions from different production systems; 4) process-based models for predicting air emissions and their fate; and 5) the interactions between air quality, housing system, worker health, and animal health and welfare. PMID:21177468

Xin, H; Gates, R S; Green, A R; Mitloehner, F M; Moore, P A; Wathes, C M

2011-01-01

196

Hydropower as a renewable and sustainable energy resource meeting global energy challenges in a reasonable way  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central and State Governments in many countries have enacted laws and regulations to promote renewable energy and to encourage sustainable technologies. In doing so, they had to define what they meant by “renewable” and “sustainable”, and they had to decide which particular technologies or organizations would be eligible for subsidies and tax concessions, and which others would be excluded. Not

Gary W. Frey; Deborah M. Linke

2002-01-01

197

How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development paradigm; first, the heavy reliance on modern science leads to a failure to use local knowledge and practices which can be more sustainable to sustainability; second, the acceptance of the international capitalist system as the basis for project implementation results in little or no long-term sustainability commitment; and third, the compatibility of economic growth with environmental sustainability, which appears unlikely in the context of global economic inequality. As an alternative, this dissertation suggests several policies for promoting energy systems for rural sustainable development in the Global South.

Yamaguchi, Hideka

198

Systems methodologies for sustainable natural resources research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems methodologies are helping to reshape the way in which natural resource Research and Development (R&D) is conducted but they are under-utilised and under-researched. This paper outlines some recent trends in systems thinking, and argues the case for the use and further development of systems methodologies for research and development in sustainable natural resource management (NRM R&D). Systems, or complexity,

R. L. Ison; P. T. Maiteny; S. Carr

1997-01-01

199

Energy systems transformation  

PubMed Central

The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO2 emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the “Success to the Successful” mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy—the largest business on Earth—expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders.

Dangerman, A. T. C. Jerome; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

2013-01-01

200

Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we discuss the issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries. An integrated biomass energy system is dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, is supportive of rura...

R. D. Perlack J. W. Ranney

1993-01-01

201

Expenditures and Sustainability in Systems of Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Established by the Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS), the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program is an innovative effort to establish systems of care in communities across the country. Using data from three participating sites, we examined service use and expenditures under systems of care.We found that sites provided children with a full range

E. Michael Foster; Christopher C. Kelsch; Bruce Kamradt; Todd Sosna; Zijin Yang

2001-01-01

202

The NERSC Sustained System Performance (SSP) Metric  

SciTech Connect

Most plans and reports recently discuss only one of four distinct purposes benchmarks are used. The obvious purpose is selection of a system from among its competitors, something that is the main focus of this paper. This purpose is well discussed in many workshops and reports. The second use of benchmarks is validating the selected system actually works the way expected once it arrives. This purpose may be more important than the first reason. The second purpose is particularly key when systems are specified and selected based on performance projections rather than actual runs on the actual hardware. The third use of benchmarks, seldom mentioned, is to assure the system performs as expected throughout its lifetime1, (e.g. after upgrades, changes, and regular use.) Finally, benchmarks are used to guide system designs, something covered in detail in a companion paper from Berkeley's Institute for Performance Studies (BIPS).

Kramer, William; Shalf, John; Strohmaier, Erich

2005-09-18

203

Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for reduced carbon emissions are central to the design and optimization of future low carbon transport systems. Gaker et al (2011) suggest a framework, and provide insight into the willingness of transport consumers to pay for emission reductions of carbon dioxide from their personal transport choices within the context of other attributes of transport variables. The results of this study, although limited to a small demographic segment of the US population, demonstrate that people can integrate information on greenhouse gas emissions with other transport attributes including cost and time. Likewise, the research shows that the study group was willing to pay for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions associated with their transport choices. The study examined auto purchase choice, transport mode choice and transport route choice, which represent key decisions associated with transport that impact greenhouse gas emissions. Interestingly, they found that the study group was willing to pay for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at a relatively consistent price across these transport choices. Clearly, the study results may not broadly apply to all demographics of users of transport, even in the study domain, due to the small demographic segment that was examined and the fact that the study was conducted in the laboratory. However, the methods used by Gaker et al (2011) are cause for optimism that future studies can obtain much needed mapping of transport preferences and willingness to pay for greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with personal transport choices. Although the Gaker et al (2011) study is directed at understanding the promotion of low carbon transport in the context of existing infrastructures, the ability of these studies to elucidate human behavior and preferences within the trade-offs of transport are critical to the design of future transport systems that seek to meet transport demand with constrained greenhouse gas emissions. Additional studies of this nature that examine broader demographic groups in real world conditions are greatly need

Schauer, James J.

2011-09-01

204

Opportunities for GEOGLAM to contribute to Food Systems Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEO-GLAM) community of practice was formed, there has been much interest in how this community can be leveraged to address a series of challenges that has received recognition from a variety of stakeholder groups across acacemia, government, the private sector and multilateral international organizations. This talk will review the collaborative network that has formed around the on-going and planned activities of GEOGLAM, and how future research and development activities within and around GEOGLAM can contribute to the innovation ecosystem around agricultural monitoring and how monitoring activities can contribute to informing decision processes from stakeholders ranging from farmers to policy-makers and other key stakeholders. These collaborative activities revolve around sharing data, information, knowledge, analytics, improved reflections of risks, and opportunities related to humanity's sustainable provisioning at the land/water/energy nexus. The goal of extending GEOGLAMs collaborative activities is to mobilize aligned assets and commitments to set up more ordered approaches to describing and managing the dynamics of food systems, viewed more holistically as sets of nested geospatially and temporally explicit processes. A special focus will be given to how information assets originating from within GEOGLAM can be used to support a coherent visualization of the world's food systems along with improving representation of the resource bases upon which our survival depends

LeZaks, D.; Jahn, M.

2013-12-01

205

Evaluating the sustainability of a regional system using Fisher information in the San Luis Basin, Colorado.  

PubMed

This paper describes the theory, data, and methodology necessary for using Fisher information to assess the sustainability of the San Luis Basin (SLB) regional system over time. Fisher information was originally developed as a measure of the information content in data and is an important method in information theory. Our adaptation of Fisher information provides a means of monitoring the variables of a system to characterize dynamic order, and, therefore, its regimes and regime shifts. This work is part of the SLB Sustainability Metrics Project, which aimed to evaluate movement over time towards or away from regional sustainability. One of the key goals of this project was to use readily available data to assess the sustainability of the system including its environmental, social and economic aspects. For this study, Fisher information was calculated for fifty-three variables which characterize the consumption of food and energy, agricultural production, environmental characteristics, demographic properties and changes in land use for the SLB system from 1980 to 2005. Our analysis revealed that while the system displayed small changes in dynamic order over time with a slight decreasing trend near the end of the period, there is no indication of a regime shift. Therefore, the SLB system is stable with very slight movement away from sustainability in more recent years. PMID:21930337

Eason, Tarsha; Cabezas, Heriberto

2012-02-01

206

Preparation and characterization of nanomaterials for sustainable energy production.  

PubMed

The use of nanotechnology to develop a suite of sustainable energy production schemes is one of the most important scientific challenges of the 21st century. The challenge is to design, to synthesize, and to characterize new functional nanomaterials with controllable sizes, shapes, and/or structures. To summarize the progress of the research and development made in this important field, the Fuel Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS) organized a symposium on "Nanotechnology for Sustainable Energy and Fuels" during the 240th ACS National Meeting in Boston, MA on August 22-26, 2010, with the ACS Catalysis Division as the cosponsor. This symposium was a global gathering of leading scientists at the intersection of energy and nanotechnology. The topics discussed at the symposium included nanotechnology, not only for traditional fossil fuel production but also for novel processes for renewable energy applications. This article aims to highlight some of the most exciting advances presented at the symposium, including the preparation and characterization of nanomaterials for clean fuel production, CO(2) capture, solar cells and solar fuels, energy conversion and storage materials, hydrogen storage materials, and fuel cells. Finally, possible future developments in this important and timely area are discussed. PMID:20973572

Liu, Chang-jun; Burghaus, Uwe; Besenbacher, Flemming; Wang, Zhong Lin

2010-10-26

207

Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

Sahid, E. J. M.; Siang, C. Ch; Peng, L. Y.

2013-06-01

208

The Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) Model for Energy Service Delivery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change, energy price spikes, and concerns about energy security have reignited interest in state and local efforts to promote end-use energy efficiency, customer-sited renewable energy, and energy conservation. Government agencies and utilities have historically designed and administered such demand-side measures, but innovative…

Houck, Jason; Rickerson, Wilson

2009-01-01

209

Assessment of Renewable Energy Technology and a Case of Sustainable Energy in Mobile Telecommunication Sector  

PubMed Central

The rapid growth of the mobile telecommunication sectors of many emerging countries creates a number of problems such as network congestion and poor service delivery for network operators. This results primarily from the lack of a reliable and cost-effective power solution within such regions. This study presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles of the renewable energy technology (RET) with the objective of ensuring a reliable and cost-effective energy solution for a sustainable development in the emerging world. The grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system incorporating a power conversion and battery storage unit has been proposed based on the availability, dynamism, and technoeconomic viability of energy resources within the region. The proposed system's performance validation applied a simulation model developed in MATLAB, using a practical load data for different locations with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Results indicate that, apart from being environmentally friendly, the increase in the overall energy throughput of about 4?kWh/$ of the proposed system would not only improve the quality of mobile services, by making the operations of GSM base stations more reliable and cost effective, but also better the living standards of the host communities.

Okundamiya, Michael S.; Emagbetere, Joy O.; Ogujor, Emmanuel A.

2014-01-01

210

Sustaining Air Force Space Systems: A Model for the Global Positioning System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aging systems and systems operating longer than their anticipated life span, sometimes because of program slips in follow-on systems, have intensi ed the need for understanding how maintenance and sustainment affect the performance of space systems. In th...

D. Snyder J. C. Roll K. Comanor P. Mills

2007-01-01

211

Data Acquisition System(DAS) Sustaining Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents general information describing the Data Acquisition System contract, a summary of objectives, tasks performed and completed. The hardware deliverables which are comprised of: 1) Two ground DAS units; 2) Two flight DAS units; 3) Logistic spares; and 4) Shipping containers are described. Also included are the data requirements and scope of the contract.

1998-01-01

212

A decision support system for urban groundwater resource sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the development of a computer based software tool to generate groundwater contaminant data; that can be utilised in the sustainable management of water resources; in urban areas reliant on groundwater. The tool incorporates several models, including a model for simulation of the integrated urban water system within an urban area to estimate contaminant loads, a model that

S. Burn; D. DeSilva; M. Ambrose; S. Meddings; C. Diaper; R. Correll; R. Miller

213

Water Policy and Sustainability of Irrigated Farming Systems in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to provide an analysis of the sustainability of irrigated agriculture in Italy in the context of CAP reform and Water Framework Directive. The work combines scenario analysis, multicriteria mathematical programming simulation models and economic, social and environmental indicators. Five irrigated farming systems were considered: cereals, rice, fruit, vegetables and citrus. The results show the

Fabio Bartolini; Guido Maria Bazzani; Vittorio Gallerani; Meri Raggi; Davide Viaggi

2005-01-01

214

Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

2012-01-01

215

Reduced emissions and lower costs: combining renewable energy and energy efficiency into a sustainable energy portfolio standard  

SciTech Connect

Combining renewable energy and energy efficiency in Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standard (SEPS) has emerged as a key state and national policy option to achieve greater levels of sustainable energy resources with maximum economic efficiency and equity. One advantage of the SEPS relative to a renewable portfolio standard or a stand-alone energy efficiency resource standard is enhanced flexibility and broader options for meeting targets. (author)

Brown, Marilyn A.; York, Dan; Kushler, Martin

2007-05-15

216

Approaches for Planning and Implementing Sustainable Energy Growth in a Complex World.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject of sustainable energy development has been widely discussed and debated in recent years. However, despite widespread interest, progress toward this goal has been limited. This paper will build on current thinking related to sustainable develop...

A. Schwab N. Snyder

2012-01-01

217

CONTRIBUCIÓN DE LA ENERGÍA AL DESARROLLO DE COMUNIDADES AISLADAS NO INTERCONECTADAS: UN CASO DE APLICACIÓN DE LA DINÁMICA DE SISTEMAS Y LOS MEDIOS DE VIDA SOSTENIBLES EN EL SUROCCIDENTE COLOMBIANO CONTRIBUTION OF THE ENERGY AT DEVELOPMENT OF ISLATED COMMUNITIES IN NOT INTERCONNECTED ZONES: A CASE OF APPLICATION OF THE SYSTEMS DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS IN THE COLOMBIAN SOUTHWEST  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the problem of rural energization in isolated regions of Colombia (Not interconnected zones - NIS). Using the sustainable livelihood approach we assess the situation of the isolated communities before and after energization. System dynamics is used for simulation and evaluated energy policies. We apply our approach to the municipality of Jambaló in the Cauca department.

CARLOS FRANCO; ISAAC DYNER; SANTIAGO HOYOS

2008-01-01

218

Role of Fusion Energy in a Sustainable Global Energy Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion energy is one of only a few truly long-term energy options. Since its inception in the 1950s, the vision of the fusion energy research program has been to develop a viable means of harnessing the virtually unlimited energy stored in the nuclei of light atoms--the primary fuel deuterium is present as one part in 6,500 of all hydrogen. This

F Najmabadi; J Schmidt; J Sheffield

2001-01-01

219

75 FR 29933 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 433 and 435 [Docket No. EE-RM/STD-02-112] RIN 1904-AC13 Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards...New Federal Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

2010-05-28

220

A review of parenteral sustained-release naltrexone systems  

SciTech Connect

The ideal naltrexone sustained-release delivery system should be easy to inject or implant, not cause adverse tissue reaction, release the drug at a relatively constant rate for at least 30 days, and biodegrade within a short time afterwards. Mechanisms which can be used for sustaining drug release include reducing solubility and surface area, coating, encapsulation and microencapsulation, complexation, binding and hydrophilic gelation. Drug release from such systems is controlled by diffusion through a barrier/film, diffusion from a monolithic device, erosion of the surface, hydrolysis, ion exchange, biodegradation, or a combination of these. Injectable systems would seem to be ultimately preferred because of the ease of administration and handling, while the implantable devices may find first use in man since they are easily removable, should that be necessary. Maintaining particulate-free products and sterilization methods are two problems with all parenteral dosage forms. Production must be particularly well controlled and validated.

Olsen, J.L.; Kincl, F.A.

1981-01-01

221

Biological control as a means of enhancing the sustainability of crop\\/land management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological control can contribute to the sustainability of crop\\/land management systems by reducing the inputs currently derived from non-renewable fossil energy sources. Biologically based technology will have to be developed and gradually integrated into management systems that will include some chemicals for a long time to come. A researchable paradigm is presented: using “weed-suppressive soils” for biological control of weeds

P. C. Quimby; L. R. King; W. E. Grey

2002-01-01

222

Sustainable nanocomposites toward electrochemical energy storage and environmental remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy shortage and environmental pollution are the two most concerns right now for the long term sustainable development of human society. New technology developments are the key solutions to these challenges, which strongly rely on the continuous upgrading of advanced material performance. In this dissertation, sustainable nanocomposites with multifunctionalities are designed and fabricated targeting to the applications in high energy/power density capacitor electrodes and efficient heavy metal adsorbent for polluted water purification. Contrary to the helical carbon structure from pure cotton fabrics under microwave heating and radical oxidized ignition of nanoparticles from conventional heating, magnetic carbon tubular nanocomposite fabrics decorated with unifromally dispersed Co-Co3O4 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a microwave heating process using cotton fabric and inorganic salt as precursors, which have shown better anti-corrosive performance and demonstrated great potential as novel electrochemical pseudocapacitor electrode. Polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-NFs)/graphite oxide (GO) nanocomposites with excellent interfacial interaction and elongated fiber structure were synthesized via a facile interfacial polymerization method. The PANI-NFs/GO hybrid materials showed orders of magnitude enhancement in capacitance and energy density than that of individual GO and PANI-NF components. At the same weight loading of PANI in the composites, fibrous PANI demonstrated higher energy density and long term stability than that of particle-shaped PANI at higher power density. Besides the efforts focusing on the inside of the capacitor including new electrodes, electrolyte materials, and capacitor configuration designs. A significant small external magnetic field (720 Gauss) induced capacitance enhancement is reported for graphene and graphene nanocomposite electrodes. The capacitance of Fe2O3/graphene nanocomposites increases by 154.6% after appling magnetic field. Without any modification of the inside of the electrochemical capacitance cell, the reported magnetic field enhanced capacitance with both improved energy density and power density will have a great impact on the electrochemical energy storage field. A facile thermodecomposition process to synthesize magnetic graphene nanocomposites (MGNCs) is reported. The MGNCs demonstrate an extremely fast Cr(VI) removal from the wastewater with a high removal efficiency and with an almost complete removal of Cr(VI) within 5 min. The large saturation magnetization (96.3 emu/g) of the synthesized nanoparticles allows fast separation of the MGNCs from liquid suspension. By using a permanent magnet, the recycling process of both the MGNC adsorbents and the adsorbed Cr(VI) is more energetically and economically sustainable. The significantly reduced treatment time required to remove the Cr(VI) and the applicability in treating the solutions with low pH make MGNCs promising for the efficient removal of heavy metals from the wastewater. A waste-free process to recycle Fe Fe2O3/ polypropylene (PP) polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) is introduced to synthesize magnetic carbon nanocomposites (MCNCs) and simultaneously produce useful chemical species which can be utilized as a feedstock in petrochemical industry. The magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are found to have an effective catalytic activity on the pyrolysis of PP. The coked solid waste from the conventional process has been utilized as a carbon source to form a protective carbon shell surrounding the magnetic NPs. The magnetic carbon nanocomposites (MCNCs) pyrolyzed from PNCs containing 20.0 wt% NPs demonstrate extremely fast Cr(VI) removal from wastewater with the almost complete removal of Cr(VI) within 10 min. The large saturation magnetization (32.5 emu g-1) of these novel magnetic carbon nanocomposites allows fast recycling of both the adsorbents and the adsorbed Cr(VI) from the liquid suspension in a more energetically and economically sustainable way by simply applying a permanent magnet.

Zhu, Jiahua

223

Linking Energy Efficiency and ISO: Creating a Framework forSustainable Industrial Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Industrial motor-driven systems consume more than 2194billion kWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largestopportunities for energy savings. In the United States (US), they accountfor more than 50 percent of all manufacturing electricity use. Incountries with less well-developed consumer economies, the proportion ofelectricity consumed by motors is higher-more than 50 percent ofelectricity used in all sectors in China is attributable to motors.Todate, the energy savings potential from motor-driven systems haveremained largely unrealized worldwide. Both markets and policy makerstend to focus on individual system components, which have a typicalimprovement potential of 2-5 percent versus 20-50 percent for completesystems. Several factors contribute to this situation, most notably thecomplexity of the systems themselves. Determining how to optimize asystem requires a high level of technical skill. In addition, once anenergy efficiency project is completed, the energy savings are often notsustained due to changes in personnel and production processes. Althoughtraining and educational programs in the US, UK, and China to promotesystem optimization have proven effective, these resource-intensiveefforts have only reached a small portion of the market.The same factorsthat make it so challenging to achieve and sustain energy efficiency inmotor-driven systems (complexity, frequent changes) apply to theproduction processes that they support. Yet production processestypically operate within a narrow band of acceptable performance. Theseprocesses are frequently incorporated into ISO 9000/14000 quality andenvironmental management systems, which require regular, independentaudits to maintain ISO certification, an attractive value forinternational trade.This paper presents a new approach to achievingindustrial system efficiency (motors and steam) that will encourageplants to incorporate system energy efficiency into their existing ISOmanagement systems. We will describe an Industrial Standards Frameworkprepared for China, also applicable elsewhere, that includes nationalstandards and a System Optimization Library. ISO work instructions arepart of the Library, so that a plant can easily incorporate projects intotheir ISO Quality Environmental Manual. The goal is to provide aplant-based mechanism that helps each company maintain their focus onenergy efficiency commitments, provide visibility for its achievements,and provide verification of results for financial backers (includingcarbon traders) to help stimulate much greater industrial energyefficiency.

McKane, Aimee; Perry, Wayne; Aixian, Li; Tienan, Li; Williams,Robert

2005-04-01

224

Industrial sustainability of competing wood energy options in Canada.  

PubMed

The amount of sawmill residue available in Canada to support the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry was examined. A material flow analysis technique was employed to determine the amount of sawmill residue that could possibly be available to the ethanol industry per annum. A combination of two key trends--improved efficiency of lumber recovery and increased uptake of sawmill residues for self-generation and for wood pellet production--have contributed to a declining trend of sawmill residue availability. Approximately 2.3?x?10? bone-dry tons per year of sawmill residue was estimated to be potentially available to the cellulosic ethanol industry in Canada, yielding 350 million liters per year of cellulosic ethanol using best practices. An additional 2.7 billion liters of cellulosic ethanol might be generated from sawmill residue that is currently used for competing wood energy purposes, including wood pellet generation. Continued competition between bioenergy options will reduce the industrial sustainability of the forest industry. Recommendations for policy reforms towards improved industrial sustainability practices are provided. PMID:20533096

Ackom, Emmanuel K; Mabee, Warren E; Saddler, John N

2010-12-01

225

Overview of the US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is focused on the long-term operation of US commercial power plants. It encompasses two facets of long-term operation: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the nuclear industry that support implementation of performance improvement technologies. An important aspect of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is partnering with industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to support and conduct the long-term research needed to inform major component refurbishment and replacement strategies, performance enhancements, plant license extensions, and age-related regulatory oversight decisions. The Department of Energy research, development, and demonstration role focuses on aging phenomena and issues that require long-term research and/or unique Department of Energy laboratory expertise and facilities and are applicable to all operating reactors. This paper gives an overview of the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, including vision, goals, and major deliverables.

K. A. McCarthy; D. L. Williams; R. Reister

2012-05-01

226

Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and sustainable carbon sink will be developed. Clean energy production from biomass (such as ethanol, biodiesel, producer gas, bio-methane) could be viable option to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Electricity generation from biomass is increasing throughout the world. Co-firing of biomass with coal and biomass combustion in power plant and CHP would be a viable option for clean energy development. Biomass can produce less emission in the range of 14% to 90% compared to emission from fossil for electricity generation. Therefore, biomass could play a vital role for generation of clean energy by reducing fossil energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The main barriers to expansion of power generation from biomass are cost, low conversion efficiency and availability of feedstock. Internationalization of external cost in power generation and effective policies to improve energy security and carbon dioxide reduction is important to boost up the bio-power. In the long run, bio-power will depend on technological development and on competition for feedstock with food production and arable land use.

Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

2012-06-01

227

Stimulering van Duurzame Energie. Deel I: Onrendabele top Elektriciteit. Deel II: Waardering van Warmte (Stimultation of Sustainable Energy. Part 1: Unprofitable Top Electricity. Part 2: Valuation of Sustainable Warmth).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Third Energy Policy Memorandum and Action Program 'The Advance of Sustainable Energy' depicts the objectives for sustainable energy consumption in the Netherlands. A major condition for achieving a successful market introduction of these sources of en...

1999-01-01

228

Wind energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

Stewart, H. J.

1978-01-01

229

Role of Transportation Systems Management and Operations in Supporting Livability and Sustainability. A Primer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This primer describes the role of transportation systems management and operations (M&O) in advancing livability and sustainability. The document highlights the connections between M&O and livability and sustainability objectives and the importance of a b...

H. Rue J. Bauer J. Parks M. Grant S. Trainor

2012-01-01

230

Progress towards sustainability? What the conceptual framework of material and energy flow accounting (MEFA) can offer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability science analyses society–nature interaction on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. By explaining the link between sustainability and socio-economic material and energy flows as well as with colonization of ecosystems, this paper introduces a conceptual framework for empirical applications featured in other contributions to this special issue. The paper discusses how the proposed material and energy flow accounting

Helmut Haberl; Marina Fischer-Kowalski; Fridolin Krausmann; Helga Weisz; Verena Winiwarter

2004-01-01

231

Nuclear Energy - Hydrogen Production - Fuel Cell: A Road Towards Future China's Sustainable Energy Strategy  

SciTech Connect

Sustainable development of Chinese economy in 21. century will mainly rely on self-supply of clean energy with indigenous natural resources. The burden of current coal-dominant energy mix and the environmental stress due to energy consumptions has led nuclear power to be an indispensable choice for further expanding electricity generation capacity in China and for reducing greenhouse effect gases emission. The application of nuclear energy in producing substitutive fuels for road transportation vehicles will also be of importance in future China's sustainable energy strategy. This paper illustrates the current status of China's energy supply and the energy demand required for establishing a harmonic and prosperous society in China. In fact China's energy market faces following three major challenges, namely (1) gaps between energy supply and demand; (2) low efficiency in energy utilization, and (3) severe environmental pollution. This study emphasizes that China should implement sustainable energy development policy and pay great attention to the construction of energy saving recycle economy. Based on current forecast, the nuclear energy development in China will encounter a high-speed track. The demand for crude oil will reach 400-450 million tons in 2020 in which Chinese indigenous production will remain 180 million tons. The increase of the expected crude oil will be about 150 million tons on the basis of 117 million tons of imported oil in 2004 with the time span of 15 years. This demand increase of crude oil certainly will influence China's energy supply security and to find the substitution will be a big challenge to Chinese energy industry. This study illustrates an analysis of the market demands to future hydrogen economy of China. Based on current status of technology development of HTGR in China, this study describes a road of hydrogen production with nuclear energy. The possible technology choices in relation to a number of types of nuclear reactors are compared and assessed. The analysis shows that only high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) and sodium fast breed reactor might be available in China in 2020 for hydrogen production. Further development of very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) and gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) is necessary to ensure China's future capability of hydrogen production with nuclear energy as the primary energy. It is obvious that hydrogen production with high efficient nuclear energy will be a suitable strategic technology road, through which future clean vehicles burning hydrogen fuel cells will become dominant in future Chinese transportation industry and will play sound role in ensuring future energy security of China and the sustainable prosperity of Chinese people. (author)

Zhiwei Zhou [Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

2006-07-01

232

Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946MJha(-1), respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18kgMJ(-1), respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66kg CO2, 31.58kg N2O and 3.82kg CH4 per hectare. Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84kgCo2eqha(-1) in corn production systems. In terms of CO2 equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO2, 76% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34kgCha(-1). Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75kgCha(-1) and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. PMID:24951890

Yousefi, Mohammad; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi; Khoramivafa, Mahmud

2014-09-15

233

A renewable perspective for sustainable energy development in Turkey: The case of small hydropower plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy resources provide a large share of the total energy consumption of many developing countries. Turkey's renewable sources are the second largest source for energy production after coal. About two-thirds of the renewable energy produced is obtained from biomass, while the rest is mainly from hydroelectric energy. Hydropower is today the most important kind of renewable and sustainable energy.

Havva Balat

2007-01-01

234

Dynamic Business Networks: A Headache for Sustainable Systems Interoperability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Collaborative networked environments emerged with the spread of the internet, contributing to overcome past communication barriers, and identifying interoperability as an essential property. When achieved seamlessly, efficiency is increased in the entire product life cycle. Nowadays, most organizations try to attain interoperability by establishing peer-to-peer mappings with the different partners, or in optimized networks, by using international standard models as the core for information exchange. In current industrial practice, mappings are only defined once, and the morphisms that represent them, are hardcoded in the enterprise systems. This solution has been effective for static environments, where enterprise and product models are valid for decades. However, with an increasingly complex and dynamic global market, models change frequently to answer new customer requirements. This paper draws concepts from the complex systems science and proposes a framework for sustainable systems interoperability in dynamic networks, enabling different organizations to evolve at their own rate.

Agostinho, Carlos; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo

235

Pharmacological preconditioning with diazoxide slows energy metabolism during sustained ischemia.  

PubMed

Ischemic preconditioning (PC) is associated with slower destruction of the adenine nucleotide pool ( summation operatorAd) and slower rate of anaerobic glycolysis during ischemic stress. These changes are concordant with the preconditioned state, supporting an essential role of lowered energy demand in the cardioprotective mechanism of PC. Although pharmacological PC induced by the activation of mitochondrial K(ATP) channels also limits infarct size, its effect on energy metabolism during sustained ischemia is unknown. Using metabolite levels found at baseline and after a 15 min test episode of regional ischemia, the effect of a cardioprotective dose of diazoxide on metabolic features associated with PC was tested in barbital-anesthetized, open-chest dogs. Diazoxide (3.5 mg/kg at an intravenous rate of 1 mL/min) infused before a test episode of ischemia had no effect on baseline metabolic indices. However, during ischemic stress, treated hearts exhibited less destruction of ATP, less degradation of the summation operatorAd into nucleosides and bases, as well as less lactate production than control hearts subjected only to ischemic stress. Thus, diazoxide mimics the metabolic alterations observed in PC tissue. This supports the hypothesis that a reduction in energy demand, which is now equated with an increased ATP to ADP ratio in the sarcoplasm, is a critical component of the mechanism of cardioprotection in preconditioned myocardium. It is hypothesized that during PC or diazoxide treatment, the passage of the summation operatorAd into and out of the mitochondria is slowed, limiting the level of ATP available to the mitochondrial ATPase and preserving ATP and the total summation operatorAd. Altered ischemic mitochondrial metabolism plays an important role in establishing and maintaining the preconditioned state. PMID:18650995

Schwartz, Lisa M; Reimer, Keith A; Crago, Mark S; Jennings, Robert B

2007-01-01

236

Program Framework and Collaboration: Sustainable Energy from High School to Community College  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation which outlines a framework for a degree program in sustainable energy. The document also details how educators can establish high school to community college pathways in sustainable energy. The presentation includes links to free online curricula and lab activities in renewable energy. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2012-09-10

237

A comprehensive life cycle analysis of cofiring algae in a coal power plant as a solution for achieving sustainable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algae cofiring scenarios in a 360 MW coal power plant were studied utilizing an ecologically based hybrid life cycle assessment methodology. The impacts on the ecological system were calculated in terms of cumulative mass, energy, industrial exergy, and ecological exergy. The environmental performance metrics, including efficiency, loading, and renewability ratios were also quantified to assess the sustainability of cofiring scenarios from

Murat Kucukvar; Omer Tatari

2011-01-01

238

Organic farming and the sustainability of agricultural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desire for a sustainable agriculture is universal, yet agreement on how to progress towards it remains elusive. The extent to which the concept of sustainable agriculture has any operational meaning is discussed. Sustainability is considered in relation to organic farming — a sector growing rapidly in many countries. The role of regulation and the use of synthetic agrochemicals, the desired

D. Rigby; D. Cáceres

2001-01-01

239

Welfare and Generational Equity in Sustainable Unfunded Pension Systems.  

PubMed

Using stochastic simulations we analyze how public pension structures spread the risks arising from demographic and economic shocks across generations. We consider several actual and hypothetical sustainable PAYGO pension structures, including: (1) versions of the US Social Security system with annual adjustments of taxes or benefits to maintain fiscal balance; (2) Sweden's Notional Defined Contribution system and several variants developed to improve fiscal stability; and (3) the German system, which also includes annual adjustments to maintain fiscal balance. For each system, we present descriptive measures of uncertainty in representative outcomes for a typical generation and across generations. We then estimate expected utility for generations based on simplifying assumptions and incorporate these expected utility calculations in an overall social welfare measure. Using a horizontal equity index, we also compare the different systems' performance in terms of how neighboring generations are treated.While the actual Swedish system smoothes stochastic fluctuations more than any other and produces the highest degree of horizontal equity, it does so by accumulating a buffer stock of assets that alleviates the need for frequent adjustments. In terms of social welfare, this accumulation of assets leads to a lower average rate of return that more than offsets the benefits of risk reduction, leaving systems with more frequent adjustments that spread risks broadly among generations as those most preferred. PMID:21818166

Auerbach, Alan J; Lee, Ronald

2011-02-01

240

A decision-support system for sustainable urban metabolism in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Urban metabolism components define the energy and material exchanges within a city and, therefore, can provide valuable information on the environmental quality of urban areas. Assessing the potential impact of urban planning alternatives on urban metabolism components (such as energy, water, carbon and pollutants fluxes) can provide a quantitative estimation of their sustainability performance. Urban metabolism impact assessment can, therefore, contribute to the identification of sustainable urban structures with regards, for example, to building types, materials and layout, as well as to location and capacity of transportation and infrastructural developments. In this way, it enables the formulation of planning and policy recommendations to promote efficient use of resources and enhance environmental quality in urban areas. The European FP7 project BRIDGE (sustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism) has developed a decision-support system (DSS) that systematically integrates urban metabolism components into impact assessment processes with the aim of accurately quantifying the potential effects of proposed planning interventions. The DSS enables integration of multiple spatial and non-spatial datasets (e.g. physical flows of energy and material with variables of social and economic change) in a systematic manner to obtain spatially defined assessment results and to thus inform planners and decision-makers. This multi-criteria approach also enables incorporation of stakeholders' perceptions in order to prioritise decisive assessment criteria. This paper describes the methodological framework used to develop the DSS and critically examines the results of its practical application in five European cities. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urban metabolism in sustainability assessment of planning alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer European FP7 project applied to 5 real life case studies across Europe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decision support system enables incorporating scientific knowledge into planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scale, data availability and stakeholder representativeness limit its application.

Gonzalez, Ainhoa, E-mail: ainhoag@yahoo.com [Trinity Centre for Biodiversity Research, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Donnelly, Alison, E-mail: donnelac@tcd.ie [Centre for the Environment, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Jones, Mike, E-mail: mike.jones@tcd.ie [Discipline of Botany, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Chrysoulakis, Nektarios, E-mail: zedd2@iacm.forth.gr [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics (Greece); Lopes, Myriam, E-mail: myr@ua.pt [Departamento de Ambiente e Ordenamento and CESAM, University of Aveiro (Portugal)

2013-01-15

241

Towards sustainability of health information systems: how can we define, measure and achieve it?  

PubMed

Health information systems (HIS) in their current form are rarely sustainable. In order to sustain our health information systems and with it our health systems, we need to focus on defining and maintaining sustainable Health Information System building blocks or components. These components need to be easily updatable when clinical knowledge (or anything else) changes, easily adaptable when business requirements or processes change, and easily exchangeable when technology advances. One major prerequisite for this is that we need to be able to define and measure sustainability, so that it can become one of the major business drivers in HIS development. Therefore, this paper analyses general definitions and indicators for sustainability, and analyses their applicability to HIS. We find that general 'Emergy analysis' is one possibility to measure sustainability for HIS. Based on this, we investigate major enablers and inhibitors to sustainability in a highlevel framework consisting of four pillars: clinical, technical, socio-technical, and political/business. PMID:17911901

Garde, Sebastian; Hullin, Carola M; Chen, Rong; Schuler, Thilo; Gränz, Jana; Knaup, Petra; Hovenga, Evelyn J S

2007-01-01

242

Ammonia recycling enables sustainable operation of bioelectrochemical systems.  

PubMed

Ammonium (NH4(+)) migration across a cation exchange membrane is commonly observed during the operation of bioelectrochemical systems (BES). This often leads to anolyte acidification (pH <5.5) and complete inactivation of biofilm electroactivity. Without using conventional pH controls (dosage of alkali or pH buffers), the present study revealed that anodic biofilm activity (current) could be sustained if recycling of ammonia (NH3) was implemented. A simple gas-exchange apparatus was designed to enable continuous recycling of NH3 (released from the catholyte at pH >10) from the cathodic headspace to the acidified anolyte. Results indicated that current (110 mA or 688 Am(-3) net anodic chamber volume) was sustained as long as the NH3 recycling path was enabled, facilitating continuous anolyte neutralization with the recycled NH3. Since the microbial current enabled NH4(+) migration against a strong concentration gradient (~10-fold), a novel way of ammonia recovery from wastewaters could be envisaged. PMID:23774293

Cheng, Ka Yu; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

2013-09-01

243

Pathway to Support the Sustainable National Health Information System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heath information across geographically distributed healthcare centers has been recognized as an essential resource that drives an efficient national health-care plan. There is thus a need for the National Health Information System (NHIS) that provides the transparent and secure access to health information from different healthcare centers both on demand and in a time efficient manner. As healthiness is the ultimate goal of people and nation, we believe that the NHIS should be sustainable by taking the healthcare center and information consumer perspectives into account. Several issues in particular must be resolved altogether: (i) the diversity of health information structures among healthcare centers; (ii) the availability of health information sharing from healthcare centers; (iii) the efficient information access to various healthcare centers; and (iv) the privacy and privilege of heath information. To achieve the sustainable NHIS, this paper details our work which is divided into 3 main phases. Essentially, the first phase focuses on the application of metadata standard to enable the interoperability and usability of health information across healthcare centers. The second phase moves forward to make information sharing possible and to provide an efficient information access to a large number of healthcare centers. Finally, in the third phase, the privacy and privilege of health information is promoted with respect to access rights of information consumers.

Sahavechaphan, Naiyana; Phengsuwan, Jedsada; U-Ruekolan, Suriya; Aroonrua, Kamron; Ponhan, Jukrapong; Harnsamut, Nattapon; Vannarat, Sornthep

244

Energetic composite and system with enhanced mechanical sensitivity to initiation of self-sustained reaction  

DOEpatents

An energetic composition and system using amassed energetic multilayer pieces which are formed from the division, such as for example by cutting, scoring, breaking, crushing, shearing, etc., of a mechanically activatable monolithic energetic multilayer(s) (e.g. macro-scale sheets of multilayer films), for enhancing the sensitivity of the energetic composite and system to mechanical initiation of self-sustained reaction. In particular, mechanical initiation of the energetic composition may be achieved with significantly lower mechanical energy inputs than that typically required for initiating the monolithic energetic multilayers from which it is derived.

Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2012-05-29

245

A total system approach to sustainable pest management  

PubMed Central

A fundamental shift to a total system approach for crop protection is urgently needed to resolve escalating economic and environmental consequences of combating agricultural pests. Pest management strategies have long been dominated by quests for “silver bullet” products to control pest outbreaks. However, managing undesired variables in ecosystems is similar to that for other systems, including the human body and social orders. Experience in these fields substantiates the fact that therapeutic interventions into any system are effective only for short term relief because these externalities are soon “neutralized” by countermoves within the system. Long term resolutions can be achieved only by restructuring and managing these systems in ways that maximize the array of “built-in” preventive strengths, with therapeutic tactics serving strictly as backups to these natural regulators. To date, we have failed to incorporate this basic principle into the mainstream of pest management science and continue to regress into a foot race with nature. In this report, we establish why a total system approach is essential as the guiding premise of pest management and provide arguments as to how earlier attempts for change and current mainstream initiatives generally fail to follow this principle. We then draw on emerging knowledge about multitrophic level interactions and other specific findings about management of ecosystems to propose a pivotal redirection of pest management strategies that would honor this principle and, thus, be sustainable. Finally, we discuss the potential immense benefits of such a central shift in pest management philosophy.

Lewis, W. J.; van Lenteren, J. C.; Phatak, Sharad C.; Tumlinson, J. H.

1997-01-01

246

Effect of yogic education system and modern education system on sustained attention  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: Sustained attention is a vital function mediated by the right frontoparietal cortex. The Six Letter Cancellation Task (SLCT) measures sustained attention. Development of sustained attention in a yoga-based education system compared to a modern one is the theme of the present study. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of the Modern Education System (MES) and the Gurukula Education System (GES) in developing sustained attention. Materials and Methods: Forty nine boys (11-13 years) were selected from two residential schools, one MES and the other GES, providing similar ambiance and daily routines. The boys were matched for age and socioeconomic status. The GES educational program is based around integrated yoga modules while the MES provides a conventional modern education program. Sustained attention was assessed using the SLCT at the start and end of an academic year. Results: Within groups, the pre-post test differences were significant for both groups. However, the between groups result showed improvement in the GES group compared to the MES group at a P < 0.001 significance level. Conclusions: The study suggests that both MES and GES improve sustained attention in school boys, but GES is more effective.

Rangan, R; Nagendra, H R; Bhatt, Ramachandra

2009-01-01

247

Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon emission reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 /m3 and 1.00 /m3, respectively. By international standards, these costs are competitive. The results of renewable energy powered commercial tilapia production indicate that a wind-diesel system has high potential for intensive tilapia production as well as carbon dioxide emission reductions. The study also investigates aeration failures in renewable energy powered tilapia production systems. With respect to the ice-making plant, unlike previous studies which consider nighttime operation only, we have found that a nighttime PV powered ice-making system is more expensive (1/kWh) than daytime ice-making system (0.70/kWh). Our optimal energy options analysis at project scale which includes SWRO, ice-making plant and household energy consumption for about 100 households shows that compared to diesel only energy option, PV-D, W-D, and PV-W-D hybrids are very cost-effective energy options. Moreover, energy options with high levels of renewable energy including 100% renewables have the lowest net present cost and they are already cost-effective without CDM. On the other hand, while the removal of about 87% carbon dioxide emissions could be achieved at negative cost, initial investment could increase by a factor of 40, which is one of the primary barriers hindering wider renewable energy applications in developing countries. Thus in order to increase developing countries' participation in the carbon market, CDM policy should shift from a purely market oriented approach to investigating how to facilitate renewable energy projects through barrier removal. Thus, we recommend that further research should focus on how to efficiently remove renewable energy implementation barriers as a means to improve developing countries participation in meaningful emission reduction while at the same time meeting the needs of sustainable economic development.

Gilau, Asmerom M.

248

Seven essential strategies for promoting and sustaining systemic cultural competence.  

PubMed

Racial and ethnic disparities are disturbing facets of the American healthcare system that document the reality of unequal treatment. Research consistently shows that patients of color experience poorer quality of care and health outcomes contributing to increased risks and accelerated mortality rates relative to their white counterparts. While initially conceptualized as an approach for increasing the responsiveness of children's behavioral health care, cultural competence has been adopted as a key strategy for eliminating racial and ethnic health disparities across the healthcare system. However, cultural competence research and practices largely focus on improving provider competencies, while agency and system level approaches for meeting the service needs of diverse populations are given less attention. In this article we offer seven essential strategies for promoting and sustaining organizational and systemic cultural competence. These strategies are to: (1) Provide executive level support and accountability, (2) Foster patient, community and stakeholder participation and partnerships, (3) Conduct organizational cultural competence assessments, (4) Develop incremental and realistic cultural competence action plans, (5) Ensure linguistic competence, (6) Diversify, develop, and retain a culturally competent workforce, and (7) Develop an agency or system strategy for managing staff and patient grievances. For each strategy we offer several recommendations for implementation. PMID:22581030

Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E; Andres-Hyman, Raquel; Flanagan, Elizabeth H; Davidson, Larry

2013-03-01

249

Sustainable Energy Production - Facing up to our Common Challenge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With this presentation the Norwegian Prime Minister opened the conference, the Offshore Northern Seas Conference, an important meeting place for the oil and gas industry. Today, sustainable development, the environment and human rights are vital issues th...

K. M. Bondevik

1998-01-01

250

Climate Change, Kosovo Energy Scenarios and CO2 Reduction toward Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change will be the first truly global challenge for sustainability. Energy production and consumption from fossil fuels has central role to climate change, but also to sustainability in general. Because climate change is regionally driven with global consequences and is a result of economic imperatives and social values, it requires a redefinition as to the balance of these outcomes

Skender Kabashi; Sadik Bekteshi; Skender Ahmetaj; Gazmend Kabashi; Dimitrij Najdovski

251

Naltrexone: a review of existing sustained drug delivery systems and emerging nano-based systems.  

PubMed

Narcotic antagonists such as naltrexone (NTX) have shown some efficiency in the treatment of both opiate addiction and alcohol dependence. A few review articles have focused on clinical findings and pharmacogenetics of NTX, advantages and limitations of sustained release systems as well as pharmacological studies of NTX depot formulations for the treatment of alcohol and opioid dependency. To date, three NTX implant systems have been developed and tested in humans. In this review, we summarize the latest clinical data on commercially available injectable and implantable NTX-sustained release systems and discuss their safety and tolerability aspects. Emphasis is also laid on recent developments in the area of nanodrug delivery such as NTX-loaded micelles and nanogels as well as related research avenues. Due to their ability to increase the therapeutic index and to improve the selectivity of drugs (targeted delivery), nanodrug delivery systems are considered as promising sustainable drug carriers for NTX in addressing opiate and alcohol dependence. PMID:24704710

Goonoo, Nowsheen; Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Ujoodha, Reetesh; Jhugroo, Anil; Hulse, Gary K; Jhurry, Dhanjay

2014-06-10

252

Controlled Release System for Localized and Sustained Drug Delivery Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current controlled release formulations has many drawbacks such as excess of initial burst release, low drug efficiency, non-degradability of the system and low reproducibility. The present project aims to offer an alternative by developing a technique to prepare uniform, biodegradable particles ( ˜19 mum ) that can sustainably release a drug for a specific period of time. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide that has many characteristics to be used for biomedical applications. In the last two decades, there have been a considerable number of studies affirming that chitosan could be used for pharmaceutical applications. However, chitosan suffers from inherent weaknesses such as low mechanical stability and dissolution of the system in acidic media. In the present study, chitosan microparticles were prepared by emulsification process. The model drug chosen was acetylsalicylic acid as it is a small and challenging molecule. The maximum loading capacity obtained for the microparticles was approximately 96%. The parameters for the preparation of uniform particles with a narrow size distribution were identified in a triangular phase diagram. Moreover, chitosan particles were successfully coated with thin layers of poly lactic-coglycolic acid (PLGA) and poly lactic acid (PLA). The performance of different layerswas tested for in vitro drug release and degradation studies. Additionally, the degradability of the system was evaluated by measuring the weight loss of the system when exposed to enzyme and without enzyme. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used to characterize the controlled release system. Additionally, the in vitro drug release was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results obtained from this project showed that it is possible to prepare biodegradable microparticles with a uniform size distribution and high drug loading efficiency. However, this could only be achieved with a hybrid system consisting of chitosan matrix interior and then exterior coating of PLGA or PLA. A two layer coating of PLGA 50:50 was shown to be optimal with sustainable controlled drug release for almost 5 days and with 91% of degradation (weight loss) in 8 weeks.

Rodriguez, Lidia Betsabe

253

Minimum Energy Requirements for Sustained Microbial Activity in Anoxic Sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently understood mechanisms of biochemical energy conservation dictate that, in order to be biologically useful, energy must be available to organisms in "quanta" equal to, at minimum one-third to one-fifth of the energy required to synthesize ATP in vivo. The existence of this biological energy quantum means that a significant fraction of the chemical amp on Earth cannot be used to drive biological productivity, and places a fundamental thermodynamic constraint on the origins, evolution, and distribution of life. We examined the energy requirements of intact microbial assemblages in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA, using dissolved hydrogen concentrations as a non-invasive probe. In this system, the thermodynamics of metabolic processes occurring inside microbial cells is reflected quantitatively by H2 concentrations measured outside those cells. We find that methanogenic archaea are supported by energy yields as small as 10 kJ per mol, about half the quantity calculated from studies of microorganisms in culture. This finding implies that a significantly broader range of geologic and chemical niches might be exploited by microorganisms than would otherwise be expected.

Hoehler, Tori M.; Alperin, Marc J.; Albert, Daniel B.; Martens, Christoper S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

254

Evaluating the sustainability of space life support systems: case study on air revitalisation systems ARES and BIORAT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space life support systems can be taken as kinds of miniature models of industrial systems found on Earth. The term "industrial" is employed here in a generic sense, referring to all human technological activities. The time scale as well as the physical scope of space life support systems is reduced compared to most terrestrial systems and so is consequently their complexity. These systems can thus be used as a kind of a "laboratory of sustainability" to examine concerns related to the environmental sustainability of industrial systems and in particular to their resource use. Two air revitalisation systems, ARES and BIORAT, were chosen as the test cases of our study. They represent respectively a physico-chemical and a biological life support system. In order to analyse the sustainability of these systems, we began by constructing a generic system representation applicable to both these systems (and to others). The metabolism of the systems was analysed by performing Material Flow Analyses—MFA is a tool frequently employed on terrestrial systems in the field of industrial ecology. Afterwards, static simulation models were developed for both ARES and BIORAT, focusing, firstly, on the oxygen balances of the systems and, secondly, on the total mass balances. It was also necessary to define sustainability indicators adapted to space life support systems in order to evaluate and to compare the performances of ARES and BIORAT. The defined indicators were partly inspired from concepts used in Material Flow Accounting and they were divided into four broad categories: 1. recycling and material use efficiency, 2. autarky and coverage time, 3. resource use and waste creation, and 4. system mass and energy consumption. The preliminary results of our analyses show that the performance of BIORAT is superior compared to ARES in terms of the defined resource use indicators. BIORAT seems especially effective in reprocessing carbon dioxide created by human metabolism. The performances of ARES and BIORAT are somewhat closer in terms of material use efficiency and resource intensity. However, the excellence of BIORAT in terms of resource use is countered by the fact that its energy consumption is greater than that of ARES by a factor of ten.

Suomalainen, Emilia; Erkman, Suren

255

Sustainable systems rating program: Marketing ``Green`` Building in Austin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Four major resource issues for home construction were identified: water, energy, materials, and waste. A systems flow model was then developed that tracked the resource issues through interactive matrices in the areas of sourcing, processing, using, and disposing or recycling. This model served as the basis for a rating system used in an educational and marketing tool called the Eco-Home Guide.

Not Available

1991-12-01

256

Sustainable systems rating program: Marketing Green'' Building in Austin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Four major resource issues for home construction were identified: water, energy, materials, and waste. A systems flow model was then developed that tracked the resource issues through interactive matrices in the areas of sourcing, processing, using, and disposing or recycling. This model served as the basis for a rating system used in an educational and marketing tool called the Eco-Home Guide.

Not Available

1991-12-01

257

Designing Biological Systems for Sustainability and Programmed Environmental Interface (2011 JGI User Meeting)  

ScienceCinema

The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Pam Silver of Harvard University gives a presentation on "Designing Biological Systems for Sustainability and Programmed Environmental Interface" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

Silver, Pam [Harvard University

2011-06-03

258

Designing Biological Systems for Sustainability and Programmed Environmental Interface (2011 JGI User Meeting)  

ScienceCinema

The U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) invited scientists interested in the application of genomics to bioenergy and environmental issues, as well as all current and prospective users and collaborators, to attend the annual DOE JGI Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting held March 22-24, 2011 in Walnut Creek, Calif. The emphasis of this meeting was on the genomics of renewable energy strategies, carbon cycling, environmental gene discovery, and engineering of fuel-producing organisms. The meeting features presentations by leading scientists advancing these topics. Pam Silver of Harvard University gives a presentation on "Designing Biological Systems for Sustainability and Programmed Environmental Interface" at the 6th annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 23, 2011

259

Sustainable fouling management for spacecraft fluid handling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current technologies for microgravity fluid management utilize centripetal acceleration or capillary action to separate liquids from gases without gravity buoyancy. Centripetal acceleration hardware is prone to failure from fouling, while capillary technologies have only been utilized in favorable wetting environments, wherein the contact angle of the liquid, Qadv, a key design parameter, is reliably low. In this work, the impact of wastewater fouling on Qadv, is characterized, and the results applied to the development of a capillary static phase separator. Mean wastewater Qadv, on clean surfaces are between ?78° and ?89° on hydrophilic surfaces, and up to over ?105° on hydrophobic surfaces. Small crystalline growth on the order of 10microm can lower advancing contact angles Qadv, by approximately 30°, while biofilm growth can lower them by approximately 15o. Vacuum drying of fouled surfaces increased Qadv, by about 8°, and defects greater in height than 5% of the capillary length increased Qadv, by approximately 30°. Interestingly, the promotion of wastewater fouling may even improve the performance of capillary dependent fluid management systems, and designs attempting to exploit wastewater wetting must account for highly variable wetting conditions. Reduced gravity flight tests demonstrated a static phase separator that achieved nearly 100% separation of gas from fluids with widely varying Qadv. The system uses centrifugal force to coalesce droplets via a circular path; collects bulk fluid via capillary geometries (wetting) or air drag (non-wetting); and contains bulk fluid by capillary force; while minimizing liquid carryover into the air stream by pinning edges (wetting) or tortuous path (non-wetting). Instead of attempting to prevent or reduce wastewater fouling, sustainable fluid management systems can be designed to accommodate fouling. For example, a lunar outpost water recovery system could be encouraged to foul regolith media and form biofilms and precipitates that can then be filtered and the water reclaimed. Additionally, instead of testing with controlled environments that do not reflect actual complex operational environments, systems can be designed and tested over a reasonable envelope of expected conditions. This approach can be applied to myriad sustainable fluid management technologies, including providing clean water in developing countries.

Thomas, Evan Alexander Beirne

260

Land-Use Analysis of Croplands for Sustainable Food and Energy Production in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy security and environmental sustainability are major concerns to many in the U.S. Energy from biomass has been proposed as a strategy to help meet future energy needs; however, widespread cultivation for biofuels could have significant impacts on food security and the environment. One solution to minimizing the impacts of biofuel cultivation is to limit production to abandoned croplands where competition from food crops and environmental degradation will be minimized. Here I estimate the spatial distribution of historical U.S. cropland areas from 1850 to 2000 and subsequently calculate abandoned cropland areas for the year 2000. From this data I estimate the potential biomass energy that could be obtained from abandoned croplands. I also estimate the potential for biomass energy to contribute to a renewable energy system consisting of wind and solar power by meeting seasonal energy storage needs that are a result of the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources. Lastly, I use the historical cropland areas result to estimate the ability of U.S. croplands to supply food to local populations at the county level.

Zumkehr, Andrew Lee

261

Sustainable product systems—experiences based on case projects in sustainable product development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study summarizes results from six case studies in Sustainable Product Development, based on a method developed in the Nordic Project for Environmentally Sound Product Development. In all, but one case, there are reported significant improvements in environmental performance of new products, compared to existing reference products. Proposed options for improvement would increase purchase cost in as many cases as

O. J. Hanssen

1999-01-01

262

Sustainability Factors for Information Systems in Developing Countries - Academic Registry Information System in Mozambique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ph. D. thesis shall investigate ways to develop and implement information systems in a sustainable way in developing economies, where resources are scarce. The goal is to identify relevant entities and stakeholders, their goals, and how their actions influence these goals. This will enable us to understand the problems typically encountered in information system implementation. The goal is to

Markus Pscheidt

2008-01-01

263

Piezoelectric transducer based devices for development of a sustainable machining system - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability in production is to develop a system that reduces usage of resources for converting raw material into useful product; Moreover, it could produce waste that can be directly used by another production system. Intentionally inducing vibration to make machining system sustainable started from the work of Kumabe. Based on the direction of modulation with respect to workpiece motion three

Ravinder Singh Joshi; Harpreet Singh

2011-01-01

264

Sustainability decision-making frameworks and the application of systems thinking: an urban context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature cites the importance of systems thinking to operationalise sustainability. However, the application of a systems approach for sustainable development is not widely applied. The failure to take advantage of systems thinking results in decision-making processes being less effective than they could be. As the complexity of decision-making for built environment professionals becomes more challenging with increasing pressures, such

Kathryn M. Davidson; Jackie Venning

2011-01-01

265

ELEMENTS OF A MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The subject of Sustainability has recently attracted enormous interest in the minds of both the public and the scientific and engineering community. The reason for this interest is the fact that the concept of Sustainability holds the promise of a solution to society's long-term ...

266

Implementing strategies through management control systems: the case of sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to explore if and how management control sysems (MCS) have a role in implementing sustainable strategies. In particular, the paper aims to investigate how MCS work in order to translate these strategies into action and how they should be modified when a strategic change in a sustainable direction occurs. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research relies upon

Angelo Riccaboni; Emilia Luisa Leone

2010-01-01

267

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center: Sustainable Agriculture Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains the following categories of information related to sustainable agriculture: Bibliographies of articles and research publications, searchable sites and databases, educational resources for elementary, high school, and college instructors, and lists of people and institutions that are involved in researching or promoting sustainable agriculture.

2008-10-13

268

Sustainable energy planning with efficient office buildings and cogeneration plants in Frankfurt am Main.  

PubMed

Sustainable development of a city not only is determined through the amount of protected areas, but it is also an important task to integrate sustainable development in urban energy planning. In the last 10 years, many new areas for offices and residential buildings have been developed in Frankfurt am Main. In this context, the municipality has taken over a new role as organizer for the integrated energy planning. This article gives an overview of the achievements. PMID:15253915

Friedel, Wendelin; Neumann, Werner

2004-06-01

269

Towards global benchmarking for sustainable homes: an international comparison of the energy performance of housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 15 years, house building standards across the western world have begun to address ecologically sustainable development\\u000a (ESD) principles. Amongst the range of environmental sustainability issues arising from housing construction and occupation,\\u000a the energy demand for heating and\\/or cooling to maintain thermal comfort has the longest history and is most widespread in\\u000a policy and regulation. Since energy in our

Ralph Horne; Carolyn Hayles

2008-01-01

270

Energy Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PRESTO, a COSMIC program, handles energy system specifications and predicts design efficiency of cogeneration systems. These systems allow a company to use excess energy produced to generate electricity. PRESTO is utilized by the Energy Systems Division of Thermo Electron Corporation in the custom design of cogeneration systems.

1986-01-01

271

Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.  

PubMed

We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system. PMID:19209604

Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

2009-01-01

272

Achieved Energy Assessment and Modeling of Railway Transportation Systems with Three Levels Converters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper emphasizes a number of sustainability- based concepts, such achieved energy and exergy efficiency, related as tools in order to describe, analyse and optimize energy conversion in electric railway transportation systems. For the sustainable railway vehicles, the achieved energy assessment provides a basis for exergy efficiency increasing, reducing both energy losses and environmental damage. Further on, achieved energy and

Daniel C. Cismaru; Doru A. Nicola; Cornelia A. Bulucea; Gheorghe Manole; Gabriela M. Cismaru

2008-01-01

273

Building a Sustainable Energy Future: U.S. Actions for an Effective Economy Transformation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States faces a critical challenge to transform our current fossil fuel based energy economy to a stable and sustainable energy economy. This transformation must be achieved in a timely manner to increase U.S. energy independence, enhance enviro...

2009-01-01

274

Practicing Sustainability in an Urban University: A Case Study of a Behavior Based Energy Conservation Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study of the University of Toronto Sustainability Office's energy conservation project, Rewire, explores the implementation of a social marketing campaign that encourages energy efficient behavior. Energy conservation activities have reached approximately 3,000 students and staff members annually, and have saved electricity, thermal…

Chan, Stuart; Dolderman, Dan; Savan, Beth; Wakefield, Sarah

2012-01-01

275

Self-sustained oscillation and harmonic generation in optomechanical systems with quadratic couplings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many works are based on the steady-state analysis of mean-value dynamics in electro- or optomechanical systems to explore vibration cooling, squeezing, and quantum-state controlling of massive objects. These studies are always conducted in a red-detuned pumping field under a lower power to maintain a stable situation. In this paper we consider self-sustained oscillations of a cavity-field-driven oscillator combined with quadratic coupling in a blue-detuned regime above a pumping threshold. Our study finds that the oscillator will be far away from its steady-state behavior by conducting a self-sustained oscillation with a discrete amplitude locking effect producing a rich energy-balanced structure. The dynamical backaction of this self-oscillation on the field mode induces a multipeak field spectrum, which implies an efficient harmonic generation with its intensity modified not only by the displacement x0 but also by the amplitude A of the mechanical oscillation. The corresponding nonlinear field spectrum and its magnitude are analytically analyzed with quadratic coupling when the mechanical oscillator is dynamically locked to a self-sustained oscillation.

Zhang, Lin; Kong, Hong-Yan

2014-02-01

276

Toxicogenomic analysis of a sustained release local anesthetic delivery system.  

PubMed

Concerns over neurotoxicity have impeded the development of sustained release formulations providing prolonged duration local anesthesia (PDLA) from a single injection, for which there is an urgent clinical need. Here, we have used toxicogenomics to investigate whether nerve injury occurred during week-long continuous sciatic nerve blockade by microspheres containing bupivacaine, tetrodotoxin, and dexamethasone (TBD). Animals treated with amitriptyline solution (our positive control for local anesthetic-associated nerve injury) developed irreversible nerve blockade, had severely abnormal nerve histology, and the expression of hundreds of genes was altered in the dorsal root ganglia at 4 and 7 days after injection. In marked contrast, TBD-treated nerves reverted to normal function, were normal histologically and there were changes in the expression of a small number of genes. Toxicogenomic studies have great potential in delineating patterns of gene expression associated with specific patterns of tissue injury (e.g. amitriptyline neurotoxicity), and in identifying related changes in gene expression upon exposure to a drug, biomaterial, or drug delivery system. PMID:22341215

Shichor, Iris; Shomron, Noam; Lawlor, Michael W; Bae, Seul A; Zoldan, Janet; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S

2012-05-01

277

Toxicogenomic analysis of a sustained release local anesthetic delivery system  

PubMed Central

Concerns over neurotoxicity have impeded the development of sustained release formulations providing prolonged duration local anesthesia (PDLA) from a single injection, for which there is an urgent clinical need. Here, we have used toxicogenomics to investigate whether nerve injury occurred during week-long continuous sciatic nerve blockade by microspheres containing bupivacaine, tetrodotoxin, and dexamethasone (TBD). Animals treated with amitriptyline solution (our positive control for local anesthetic-associated nerve injury) developed irreversible nerve blockade, had severely abnormal nerve histology, and the expression of hundreds of genes was altered in the dorsal root ganglia at 4 and 7 days after injection. In marked contrast, TBD-treated nerves reverted to normal function, were normal histologically and there were changes in the expression of a small number of genes. Toxicogenomic studies have great potential in delineating patterns of gene expression associated with specific patterns of tissue injury (e.g. amitriptyline neurotoxicity), and in identifying related changes in gene expression upon exposure to a drug, biomaterial, or drug delivery system.

Shichor, Iris; Shomron, Noam; Lawlor, Michael W; Bae, Seul A; Zoldan, Janeta; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S

2012-01-01

278

Energy in rural Ethiopia: Consumption patterns, associated problems, and prospects for a sustainable energy strategy  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a picture of energy resources and their current use in rural Ethiopia and presents an analysis of energy supply patterns and consumption trends. This exercise aims to build an empirical knowledge of real energy systems in the country and also to synthesize and analyze the general and specific problems that exist within the current energy system. Based on these lines of analysis, a series of technical and policy-oriented recommendations for rural energy development are discussed.

Mulugetta, Y. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy] [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy

1999-07-01

279

Subtask 5.3 - Water and Energy Sustainability and Technology  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this Energy & Environmental Research Center project was to evaluate water capture technologies in a carbon capture and sequestration system and perform a complete systems analysis of the process to determine potential water minimization opportunities within the entire system. To achieve that goal, a pilot-scale liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) was fabricated and tested in conjunction with a coal-fired combustion test furnace outfitted with CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies, including the options of oxy-fired operation and postcombustion CO{sub 2} capture using an amine scrubber. The process gas stream for these tests was a coal-derived flue gas that had undergone conventional pollutant control (particulates, SO{sub 2}) and CO{sub 2} capture with an amine-based scrubber. The water balance data from the pilot-scale tests show that the packed-bed absorber design was very effective at capturing moisture down to levels that approach equilibrium conditions.

Bruce Folkedahl; Christopher Martin; David Dunham

2010-09-30

280

Measuring Sustainability within the Veterans Administration Mental Health System Redesign Initiative  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine how attributes affecting sustainability differ across VHA organizational components and by staff characteristics. Subjects Surveys of 870 change team members and 50 staff interviews within the VA’s Mental Health System Redesign initiative. Methods A one-way ANOVA with a Tukey post-hoc test examined differences in sustainability by VISN, job classification, and tenure from staff survey data of the Sustainability Index. Qualitative interviews used an iterative process to identify “a priori” and “in vivo” themes. A simple stepwise linear regression explored predictors of sustainability. Results Sustainability differed across VISN and staff tenure. Job classification differences existed for: 1) Benefits and Credibility of the change and 2) staff involvement and attitudes toward change. Sustainability barriers were: staff and institutional resistance, and non-supportive leadership. Facilitators were: commitment to veterans, strong leadership, and use of QI Tools. Sustainability predictors were outcomes tracking, regular reporting, and use of PDSA cycles. Conclusions Creating homogeneous implementation and sustainability processes across a national health system is difficult. Despite the VA’s best evidence-based implementation efforts, there was significant variance. Locally tailored interventions might better support sustainability than “one-size-fits all” approaches. Further research is needed to understand how participation in a QI collaborative affects sustainability.

Ford, James H.; Krahn, Dean; Wise, Meg; Oliver, Karen Anderson

2011-01-01

281

Training and Familiarization with the Battle Command Sustainment Support System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commanders always require a large amount of data to maintain situational awareness, a very complicated endeavor, especially during deployments in Iraq or Afghanistan with subordinate units spread across the country. The Battle Command Sustainment Support ...

D. C. Santillo

2010-01-01

282

SUSTAINABILITY: ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND SYSTEMS ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "? development that ?meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future' ?" However, a mathematical theo...

283

A Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture that Supports a System of Systems Approach to Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mission-systems architecture based on a highly modular "systems of systems" infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is absolutely essential for an affordable and sustainable space exploration program. This architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimum sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the space shuttle program are applied to help define and refine the model.

Watson, Steve; Orr, Jim; O'Neil, Graham

2004-01-01

284

Challenges and opportunities for implementing sustainable energy strategies in coastal communities of Baja California Sur, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the potential of renewable energy and efficiency strategies to solve the energy challenges faced by the people living in the biosphere reserve of El Vizcaino, which is located in the North Pacific region of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. This research setting provides a practical analytical milieu to understand better the multiple problems faced by practitioners and agencies trying to implement sustainable energy solutions in Mexico. The thesis starts with a literature review (chapter two) that examines accumulated international experience regarding the development of renewable energy projects as a prelude to identifying the most salient implementation barriers impeding this type of initiatives. Two particularly salient findings from the literature review include the importance of considering gender issues in energy analysis and the value of using participatory research methods. These findings informed fieldwork design and the analytical framework of the dissertation. Chapter three surveys electricity generation as well as residential and commercial electricity use in nine coastal communities located in El Vizcaino. Chapter three summarizes the fieldwork methodology used, which relies on a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods that aim at enabling a gender-disaggregated analysis to describe more accurately local energy uses, needs, and barriers. Chapter four describes the current plans of the state government, which are focused in expanding one of the state's diesel-powered electricity grids to El Vizcaino. The Chapter also examines the potential for replacing diesel generators with a combination of renewable energy systems and efficiency measures in the coastal communities sampled. Chapter five analyzes strategies to enable the implementation of sustainable energy approaches in El Vizcaino. Chapter five highlights several international examples that could be useful to inform organizational changes at the federal and state level aimed at fostering renewable energy and efficiency initiatives that enhance energy security, protect the environment, and also increase economic opportunities in El Vizcaino and elsewhere in Mexico. Chapter six concludes the thesis by providing: a summary of all key findings, a broad analysis of the implications of the research, and an overview of future lines of inquiry.

Etcheverry, Jose R.

285

Physiological traits and cereal germplasm for sustainable agricultural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeding is not a discipline that readily comes to mind when agricultural sustainability is being considered. Sustainability\\u000a is normally associated with farming practices such as stubble retention, direct-drilling, or amelioration practices such as\\u000a contour farming or liming, or rotation practices for nutrient management and disease control. The contribution of plant breeding\\u000a will be in providing germplasm for these changed

R. A. Richards; M. Watt; G. J. Rebetzke

2007-01-01

286

Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation  

SciTech Connect

We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and ultimately reverse) the growth in total energy consumption and carbon emissions. Instead, policy makers need to return to an earlier emphasis on"conservation," with energy efficiency seen as a means rather than an end in itself. We briefly review the concept of"intensive" versus"extensive" variables (i.e., energy efficiency versus energy consumption), and why attention to both consumption and efficiency is essential for effective policy in a carbon- and oil-constrained world with increasingly brittle energy markets. To start, energy indicators and policy evaluation metrics need to reflect energy consumption as well as efficiency. We introduce the concept of"progressive efficiency," with the expected or required level of efficiency varying as a function of house size, appliance capacity, or more generally, the scale of energy services. We propose introducing progressive efficiency criteria first in consumer information programs (including appliance labeling categories) and then in voluntary rating and recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR. As acceptance grows, the concept could be extended to utility rebates, tax incentives, and ultimately to mandatory codes and standards. For these and other programs, incorporating criteria for consumption as well as efficiency offers a path for energy experts, policy-makers, and the public to begin building consensus on energy policies that recognize the limits of resources and global carrying-capacity. Ultimately, it is both necessary and, we believe, possible to manage energy consumption, not just efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may find it possible to shift expectations away from perpetual growth and toward satisfaction with sufficiency.

Diamond, Rick; Harris, Jeff; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

2007-08-13

287

Using Information Processing Techniques to Forecast, Schedule, and Deliver Sustainable Energy to Electric Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the number of electric vehicles on the road increases, current power grid infrastructure will not be able to handle the additional load. Some approaches in the area of Smart Grid research attempt to mitigate this, but those approaches alone will not be sufficient. Those approaches and traditional solution of increased power production can result in an insufficient and imbalanced power grid. It can lead to transformer blowouts, blackouts and blown fuses, etc. The proposed solution will supplement the ``Smart Grid'' to create a more sustainable power grid. To solve or mitigate the magnitude of the problem, measures can be taken that depend on weather forecast models. For instance, wind and solar forecasts can be used to create first order Markov chain models that will help predict the availability of additional power at certain times. These models will be used in conjunction with the information processing layer and bidirectional signal processing components of electric vehicle charging systems, to schedule the amount of energy transferred per time interval at various times. The research was divided into three distinct components: (1) Renewable Energy Supply Forecast Model, (2) Energy Demand Forecast from PEVs, and (3) Renewable Energy Resource Estimation. For the first component, power data from a local wind turbine, and weather forecast data from NOAA were used to develop a wind energy forecast model, using a first order Markov chain model as the foundation. In the second component, additional macro energy demand from PEVs in the Greater Rochester Area was forecasted by simulating concurrent driving routes. In the third component, historical data from renewable energy sources was analyzed to estimate the renewable resources needed to offset the energy demand from PEVs. The results from these models and components can be used in the smart grid applications for scheduling and delivering energy. Several solutions are discussed to mitigate the problem of overloading transformers, lack of energy supply, and higher utility costs.

Pulusani, Praneeth R.

288

Exploitation of renewable energy resources for environment?friendly sustainable development in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent increase in energy costs, driven by a surge in oil prices, has increased world?wide efforts on the exploitation of renewable\\/wind energy resources for environment?friendly sustainable development and to mitigate future energy challenges. Moreover, experience in the wind energy industry has reached high levels in the field of manufacturing and application. This inevitably increases the merits of wind energy

M. A. Elhadidy; S. M. Shaahid

2009-01-01

289

Embedded value systems in sustainability assessment tools and their implications.  

PubMed

This paper explores the implications that arise with the selection of specific sustainability evaluation tools. Sustainability evaluation tools are conceptualized in this paper as value articulating institutions and as such their choice is a far from a trivial matter. In fact their choice can entail various ethical and practical repercussions. However, in most cases the choice of the evaluation tool is made by the analyst(s) without taking into consideration the values of the affected stakeholders. By choosing the analytical tool the analyst essentially "subscribes to" and ultimately "enforces" a particular worldview as the legitimate yardstick to evaluate the sustainability of a particular project (or policy). Instead, this paper argues that the selection of evaluation tools should be consistent with the values of the affected stakeholders. With this in mind, different sustainability evaluation tools' assumptions are critically reviewed and a number of suggestions that could facilitate the choice of the most appropriate tool according to the context of the sustainability evaluation are provided. It is expected that conscious evaluation tool selection, following the suggestions made in this paper, will reduce the risk of providing distorted sustainability evaluations. PMID:20413212

Gasparatos, Alexandros

2010-08-01

290

Exploring intersectoral convergence of sustainable energy and disaster management for residential buildings in the U.S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Housing in the U.S. is a major focal point for both sustainability and disaster management. This study assesses intersectoral convergence of sustainable energy and disaster management affecting residential buildings in the U.S. using an interpretive content analysis and thematic text analysis of written materials. Twenty-four word combinations were searched for in 62 written materials to identify occurrences of convergence and to uncover how the terms are used in the separate policy fields. The disaster management and sustainable energy domains have some complementary public policies, actors, interest groups, regulatory systems, goals and desired outcomes; however, these two fields have not adequately converged, missing opportunities for greater positive impact on society. Convergence is found in isolated examples. Namely, convergence is found in federal interagency collaboration, policies that are general enough to span both domains, and policies that address long-range actions rather than emergency response. One voluntary program, FORTIFIED Homes, was identified. The Center for Housing Policy is noted as a key interest group guiding the convergence of disaster and sustainable energy policy.

Martel, J. C.

291

Energy budget closure and field scale estimation of canopy energy storage with increased and sustained turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eddy Covariance (EC) is widely used for direct, non-invasive observations of land-atmosphere energy and mass fluxes. However, EC observations of available energy fluxes are usually less than fluxes inferred from radiometer and soil heat flux observations; thus introducing additional uncertainty in using and interpreting EC flux measurements. We compare EC observations from two towers established over sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) in Hawai'i, USA under similar cultivation, temperature, sunlight, and precipitation, but drastically different wind conditions due to orographic effects. At a daily scale, we find that energy closure for both towers occurs on days when the entire 24 hours has sufficient turbulence. At our windier site, this turbulence condition occurs over 60% of the time, which contributes to substantially better daily energy closure (~98%) than at the calmer site (~75%). At our windy site, we then invert the daily energy closure for continuously windy days to calculate canopy energy storage. At full canopy, peak daily canopy energy storage fluxes (200-400 Wm-2) are approximately an order of magnitude larger than soil heat flux (20-40 Wm-2). As a fraction of net radiation, canopy energy storage appears to vary seasonally and shows substantially greater variability than soil heat flux. The results illustrate the importance of sustained turbulence for accurate, direct measurement of land-atmosphere fluxes. As increasing number of EC towers are established in complex terrain, these results indicate the need for preliminary wind studies to optimize tower placement where orography enhances, rather than suppresses, turbulence.

Anderson, R. G.; Wang, D.

2012-12-01

292

Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

2012-02-01

293

Sustained-release delivery systems of triclosan for treatment of Streptococcus mutans biofilm.  

PubMed

Dental diseases are chronic infections caused by oral bacteria harboring the dental biofilm. Local sustained-release delivery systems prolong the duration of a drug in the oral cavity, thus enhancing its therapeutic potential, while reducing its side effects. Triclosan is an agent that was found to have an antibacterial effect against oral bacteria. However, its substantivity in the oral cavity is low, resulting in reduced antibacterial efficiency. The purpose of this study was to develop a local sustained release device containing triclosan and to test its antibacterial efficacy on Streptococcus mutans biofilm. Our results show that we can formulate an ethylcellulose-based, nondegradable, sustained-release device in which 80% of the loaded triclosan is released over a 10-day period. The release rate of triclosan corresponded to the Higuchi's planar homogenous diffusion release model (r2 = 0.998). A degradable local sustained-release delivery based on a methacrylate ester matrix was also developed for a faster release rate of triclosan. The release kinetics in those types of sustained-release delivery systems was erosion control. The local sustained-release delivery system significantly affected the viability of S. mutans in biofilm compared to placebo as was tested by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Our in vitro results show that triclosan can be incorporated into degradable or nondegradable sustained-release drug delivery systems. The release of triclosan from the local sustained-release delivery system can be controlled, thus extending its antibacterial properties. PMID:16362957

Steinberg, Doron; Tal, Tamir; Friedman, Michael

2006-05-01

294

Supercapacitors-based energy storage for urban mass transit systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advance in energy storage technologies allows to improve significantly the performances of electrified light transportation systems. This is aligned with the massive requirement of competitiveness compared to other transportation technologies in terms of sustainable energy and high reduction of environmental impact reduction. The present paper deals with the problem of designing and sizing supercapacitors energy storage systems applied in

Flavio Ciccarelli; Diego Iannuzzi; Davide Lauria

2011-01-01

295

Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries. An integrated biomass energy system in dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, is supportive of rural development, is environmentally beneficial (locally and globally), is adapted to local conditions, takes advantage of by- and co-products, and uses conversion technologies that

R. D. Perlack; J. W. Ranney

1993-01-01

296

Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking  

ScienceCinema

INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.;

2013-05-28

297

Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking  

ScienceCinema

INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

298

Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking  

SciTech Connect

INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

2011-01-01

299

Ecological footprint — a tool for assessing sustainable energy supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a modified calculation model of the ecological footprint for energy planning. The original footprint model can only evaluate energy savings, but not the substitution of fossil through renewable energy carriers. With the modified calculation model, energy savings as well as substitution potentials can be described. The examination of case studies where this model has been applied in

Gernot Stöglehner

2003-01-01

300

Solar energy education - a viable pathway for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing consumption of limited reserves of fossil fuels and their impact to the environment have raised global interest in harnessing solar energy. Proper knowledge of solar energy is lacking in many levels of society. Recently, the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) have conducted a survey on the availability of solar energy

S. M. Hasnain; S. H. Alawaji; U. A. Elani

1998-01-01

301

Sustainable use of geothermal energy in Icelandic horticulture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The greenhouse industry in Iceland is based on abundant geothermal energy in form of steam or hot water. The annual use of geothermal energy in greenhouses is approx. 216 GWh\\/yr that accounts for 80% of the geothermal and hydroelectric energy used in horticulture. Other uses of geothermal energy are soil disinfection, 6 GWh\\/yr and soil heating in the cultivation of

Björn Gunnlaugsson; Magnus A. Agustsson; Sveinn Adalsteinsson

302

The human component of sustainability: a study for assessing "human performances" of energy efficient construction blocks.  

PubMed

This paper presents an applied research aimed at understanding the relevance and the applicability of human related criteria in sustainability assessment of construction materials. Under a theoretical perspective, human factors consideration is strongly encouraged by building sustainability assessment methods, but the practice demonstrates that current models for building sustainability assessment neglect ergonomic issues, especially those ones concerning the construction phase. The study starts from the observation that new construction techniques for high energy efficient external walls are characterized by elements generally heavier and bigger than traditional materials. In this case, high sustainability performances connected with energy saving could be reached only consuming high, and then not very much sustainable, human efforts during setting-up operations. The paper illustrates a practical approach for encompassing human factors in sustainability assessment of four block types for energy efficient external walls. Research steps, from block selections to bricklaying task analysis, human factors indicators and metrics formulation, data gathering and final assessment are going to be presented. Finally, open issues and further possible generalizations from the particular case study will be discussed. PMID:22317033

Attaianese, Erminia; Duca, Gabriella

2012-01-01

303

Model based approach to Study the Impact of Biofuels on the Sustainability of an Ecological System  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance and complexity of sustainability has been well recognized and a formal study of sustainability based on system theory approaches is imperative as many of the relationships between various components of the ecosystem could be nonlinear, intertwined and non intuitive...

304

Sustainability of greenhouse fruit vegetables; Spain versus The Netherlands; Development of a monitoring system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability is becoming more and more important in the competitive battle between the greenhouse-grown fruiting vegetables produced in Spain and the Netherlands. A monitoring system has been developed. Sustainability is a broad concept regarding primary producers and other links in the chain. However, the greatest impact on the environment comes from the primary production. The first phase of the research

Velden van der N. J. A

2004-01-01

305

Sustainable lean six-sigma green engineering system design educational challenges and interactive multimedia solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important for all of us to incorporate sustainable product and process engineering, green, lean design, manufacturing \\/ assembly system and factory design \\/ management rules and principles into our engineering and management courses. Furthermore, we have to understand millennial students, who are keen to learn about sustainable green engineering. Millennial generation students (who were born after 1982) are

Paul G. Ranky; Olga Kalaba; Yijun Zheng

2012-01-01

306

Sustainable green product design and manufacturing \\/ assembly systems engineering principles and rules with examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable product and process engineering, green, lean design, manufacturing \\/ assembly system and factory design \\/ management rules and principles are offered with a focus on `monozukuri'. The Japanese phrase, `monozukuri' means sustainable, environmentally friendly, green factories and products with simultaneously integrated product and process designs. Based on the author's extensive research and study of products, processes and factories in

Paul G. Ranky

2010-01-01

307

On the Sustainability and Management of a Model System with Ecological, Macroeconomic, and Legal Components  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainability is essentially about insuring that human existence can be indefinitely supported by the biological system of the Earth at an appropriate level of civilization. Hence, one of the most fundamental questions in sustainability is the extent to which human activities a...

308

Biogas: A Promising Sustainable Energy Source for Rural Based Economy in LDC and MDC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation on biogas. Specifically, the material discusses the economic possibilities the sustainable energy source has for both less developed and more developed countries. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2013-01-01

309

A novel energy-recovery sustaining driver for plasma display panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel energy-recovery driver is proposed to drive a plasma display panel (PDP) in the sustaining operation. The proposed circuit uses the parallel resonance between the inductor and the intrinsic capacitance of PDP to mainly recover the energy lost by the capacitive displacement current of the PDP. The parasitic resonance caused by the parasitic inductance and the stray capacitance is

Chen-Chang Liu; Chern-Lin Chen; Kun-Ming Lee

2000-01-01

310

Energy efficient and sustainable ancient museum buildings: a case study in Florence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Historical Bardini Museum in Florence is a representative paradigm of the Italian Museum Building, and it is very suitable to serve as an exemplary pilot project for the restoration of historical museums. This article presents results of the architectural and energy retrofitting carried out applying appropriate and strategic low-energy and sustainable techniques and of the monitoring campaign (IAQ, thermal

Marco Sala; Paola Gallo

2007-01-01

311

Psychological factors influencing sustainable energy technology acceptance: A review-based comprehensive framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental and societal problems related to energy use have spurred the development of sustainable energy technologies, such as wind mills, carbon capture and storage, and hydrogen vehicles. Public acceptance of these technologies is crucial for their successful introduction into society. Although various studies have investigated technology acceptance, most technology acceptance studies focused on a limited set of factors that can

N. M. A. Huijts; E. J. E. Molin; L. Steg

312

Application of multi-criteria decision making to sustainable energy planning—A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques are gaining popularity in sustainable energy management. The techniques provide solutions to the problems involving conflicting and multiple objectives. Several methods based on weighted averages, priority setting, outranking, fuzzy principles and their combinations are employed for energy planning decisions. A review of more than 90 published papers is presented here to analyze the applicability of

S. D. Pohekar; M. Ramachandran

2004-01-01

313

A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable manufacturing as it establishes a clear link between manufacturing system components and its overall sustainability performance, and provides a framework for environmental impact reductions. In this dissertation, the system approach developed is applied for environmental impact reduction of a semiconductor nano-scale manufacturing system, with three case scenarios analyzed in depth on manufacturing process improvement, clean energy supply, and toxic chemical material selection. The analysis on manufacturing process improvement is conducted on Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3 dielectric gate on semiconductor microelectronics devices. Sustainability performance and scale-up impact of the ALD technology in terms of environmental emissions, energy consumption, nano-waste generation and manufacturing productivity are systematically investigated and the ways to improve the sustainability of the ALD technology are successfully developed. The clean energy supply is studied using solar photovoltaic, wind, and fuel cells systems for electricity generation. Environmental savings from each clean energy supply over grid power are quantitatively analyzed, and costs for greenhouse gas reductions on each clean energy supply are comparatively studied. For toxic chemical material selection, an innovative schematic method is developed as a visual decision tool for characterizing and benchmarking the human health impact of toxic chemicals, with a case study conducted on six chemicals commonly used as solvents in semiconductor manufacturing. Reliability of the schematic method is validated by comparing its benchmark results on 104 chemicals with that from the conventional Human Toxicity Potential (HTP) method. This dissertation concludes with discussions on environmental impact assessment of nanotechnologies and sustainability management of nano-particles. As nano-manufacturing is emerging for wide industrial applications, improvement and expansion of the system approach would be valuable for use in the environmental management of nano-manufacturing and in the risk control of nano-particles in the interests of public health and the environment.

Yuan, Yingchun

314

An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

Janic, Milan

2003-01-01

315

Comparative Analysis of Sustainable Approaches and Systems for Scientific Data Stewardship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable data systems are critical components of the cyberinfrastructure needed to provide long-term stewardship of scientific data, including Earth science data, throughout their entire life cycle. A variety of approaches may help ensure the sustainability of such systems, but these approaches must be able to survive the demands of competing priorities and decreasing budgets. Analyzing and comparing alternative approaches can identify viable aspects of each approach and inform decisions for developing, managing, and supporting the cyberinfrastructure needed to facilitate discovery, access, and analysis of data by future communities of users. A typology of sustainability approaches is proposed, and example use cases are offered for comparing the approaches over time. These examples demonstrate the potential strengths and weaknesses of each approach under various conditions and with regard to different objectives, e.g., open vs. limited access. By applying the results of these analyses to their particular circumstances, systems stakeholders can assess their options for a sustainable systems approach along with other metrics and identify alternative strategies to ensure the sustainability of the scientific data and information for which they are responsible. In addition, comparing sustainability approaches should inform the design of new systems and the improvement of existing systems to meet the needs for long-term stewardship of scientific data, and support education and workforce development efforts needed to ensure that the appropriate scientific and technical skills are available to operate and further develop sustainable cyberinfrastructure.

Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

2012-12-01

316

Solar energy collection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved solar energy collection system, having enhanced energy collection and conversion capabilities, is delineated. The system is characterized by a plurality of receivers suspended above a heliostat field comprising a multiplicity of reflector surfaces, each being adapted to direct a concentrated beam of solar energy to illuminate a target surface for a given receiver. A magnitude of efficiency, suitable for effectively competing with systems employed in collecting and converting energy extracted from fossil fuels, is indicated.

Selcuk, M. K. (inventor)

1977-01-01

317

Expert systems, knowledge development and utilization, and sustained competitive advantage: A resource-based model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a resource-based model to explain how expert systems generate sustained competitive advantage for a firm. Specifically, we analyze the extent to which expert systems (ESs) exhibit the attributes of value, rareness, imperfect imitability, and nonsubstitutability associated with a rent-generating resource (e.g., Barney, 1991). Then, we discuss how expert systems yield sustainable competitive advantage through fostering

Augustine A. Lado; Michael J. Zhang

1998-01-01

318

Expert Systems, Knowledge Development and Utilization, and Sustained Competitive Advantage: A Resource-Based Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a resource-based model to explain how expert systems generate sustained competitive advantage for a firm. Speciftcally, we analyze the extent to which expert systems (ESs) exhibit the attributes of value, rareness, imperfect imitability, and non substitutability associated with a rent-generating resource (e.g., Barney, 1991). Then, we discuss how expert systems yield sustainable competitive advantage through

Augustine A. Lado; Michael J. Zhang

1998-01-01

319

Energy Smart Schools: Creating a Sustainable Learning Environment in Ohio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the Ohio Energy Project (OEP) was awarded a grant through Rebuild America, under the U.S. Department of Energy, to develop an EnergySmart Schools Program for Ohio. Together with its partners, this program serves to empower students to improve the conditions of their school buildings through education, thus increasing scientific literacy…

Ohio Energy Project, Lewis Center.

320

Networks of Action: Sustainable Health Information Systems Across Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our paper is motivated by one simple question: Why do so many action research efforts fail to persist over time? We approach this question, the problem of sustainability, building on a perspective on action research identifying the pivotal impor- tance of networks. More precisely, local action research interventions need to be conceptualized and approached as but one element in a

Jørn Braa; Eric Monteiro; Sundeep Sahay

2004-01-01

321

Systemic knowledge processes, innovation and sustainable competitive advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Turbulence and complexity in the business environment is growing along with the need for external information in creating innovation, as innovation is seen as the primary source of sustainable competitive advantages in the knowledge economy. Consequently, the underlying information processes were external information are gathered and put into use, are crucial for companies in their development of innovation,

Jon-Arild Johannessen; Bjørn Olsen

2009-01-01

322

Model of the sustained innovation system in logistic enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rapid development of supply chain management and information technology, logistic enterprises in China, currently facing market competition that is ever fiercer, are urged to gain the sustained competitive advantage by practicing innovation. Compared with the perspective of traditional research, which tends to focus on innovation in technology, management and service, the Thesis combines the \\

Hanpo Hou; Mingke He

2008-01-01

323

SUSTAINABILITY: ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "Development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future". However, a mathematical theory e...

324

The ecological footprint from a systems perspective of sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ecological Footprint (EF) is a method for estimating the biologically productive area necessary to support current consumption patterns, given prevailing technical and economic processes. By comparing human impact with the planet's limited bioproductive area. this method tests a basic ecological condition for sustainability. The ecological footprint has gained popularity for its pedagogical strength as it expresses the results of

John Holmberg; Ulrika Lundqvist; Karl-Henrik Robèrt; Mathis Wackernagel

1999-01-01

325

Software Sustainment -- Now and Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Today's systems are increasingly reliant on software that must be sustained into the future. To sustain these systems, organizations must define sustainment, meet the criteria to enter sustainment, and overcome some classic sustainment challenges. This ar...

M. A. Lapham

2014-01-01

326

System for identifying sustainable geographical areas by remote sensing techniques and method thereof  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Particularly applicable to the implementation of sustainability requirements concerning on the promotion of the use of bioproduct from renewable sources, through the system and method described is possible to ensure that the origin of raw materials is sustainable (according to a previously defined sustainability requirements), avoiding travel to the area of interest, thus saving time and economic costs and preventing errors and fraud. More specifically, the system and method object of the invention are particularly applicable for identifying those areas that comply with said sustainability requirements. Said sustainability requirements state that raw material intended for bioproduct shall not be made from lands with a high biodiversity, high carbon stock or peatlands, and bearing in mind additionally the land use requirement.

2013-05-14

327

A Model for Sustainable Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) Using Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) Mechanism for Hotel Buildings in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hotel building is one of the high-energy-consuming building types, and retrofitting hotel buildings is an untapped solution to help cut carbon emissions contributing towards sustainable development. Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) has been promulgated as a market mechanism for the delivery of energy efficiency projects. EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently, and it has not been implemented successfully in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. The aim of this research is to develop a model for achieving the sustainability of Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) in hotel buildings under the Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) mechanism. The objectives include: • To identify a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for measuring the sustainability of BEER in hotel buildings; • To identify Critical Success Factors (CSFs) under EPC mechanism that have a strong correlation with sustainable BEER project; • To develop a model explaining the relationships between the CSFs and the sustainability performance of BEER in hotel building. Literature reviews revealed the essence of sustainable BEER and EPC, which help to develop a conceptual framework for analyzing sustainable BEER under EPC mechanism in hotel buildings. 11 potential KPIs for sustainable BEER and 28 success factors of EPC were selected based on the developed framework. A questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain the importance of selected performance indicators and success factors. Fuzzy set theory was adopted in identifying the KPIs. Six KPIs were identified from the 11 selected performance indicators. Through a questionnaire survey, out of the 28 success factors, 21 Critical Success Factors (CSFs) were also indentified. Using the factor analysis technique, the 21 identified CSFs in this study were grouped into six clusters to help explain project success of sustainable BEER. Finally, AHP/ANP approach was used in this research to develop a model to examine the interrelationships among the identified CSFs, KPIs, and sustainable dimensions of BEER. The findings indicate that the success of sustainable BEER in hotel buildings under the EPC mechanism is mainly decided by project objectives control mechanism, available technology, organizing capacity of team leader, trust among partners, accurate M&V, and team workers' technical skills.

Xu, Pengpeng

328

State Energy Data System  

EIA Publications

The State Energy Data System (SEDS) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) source for comprehensive state energy statistics. Included are estimates of energy production, consumption, prices, and expenditures broken down by energy source and sector. Production and consumption estimates begin with the year 1960 while price and expenditure estimates begin with 1970.The multidimensional completeness of SEDS allows users to make comparisons across states, energy sources, sectors, and over time.

2013-06-28

329

Living Systems Energy Module.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its sol...

1995-01-01

330

Towards Sustainable Watershed Dvelopment: A Geographic Information Systems based Approach  

SciTech Connect

With an unprecedented projection of population and urban growth in the coming decades, assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of land use change is crucial for optimizing management practices to control runoff and non-point source (NPS) pollution associated with sustainable watershed development. Land use change, dominated by an increase in urban/impervious areas, can have a significant impact on water resources. Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the leading cause of degraded water quality in the US and urban areas are an important source of NPS pollution. Most planners, government agencies, and consultants lack access to simple impact-assessment tools despite widespread concern over the environmental impacts of watershed development. Before investing in complex analyses and customized data collection, it is often useful to utilize simple screening analyses using data that are already available. In this paper, we discuss such a technique for long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) that makes use of basic land use, soils and long-term rainfall data to compare the hydrologic impacts of past, present and any future land use change. Long-term daily rainfall records are used in combination with soils and land use information to calculate average annual runoff and NPS pollution at a watershed scale. Because of the geospatial nature of land use and soils data, and the increasingly widespread use of GIS by planners, government agencies and consultants, the model is integrated with a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows convenient generation and management of model input and output data, and provides advanced visualization of the model results. An application of the L-THIA/NPS model on the Little Eagle Creek (LEC) watershed near Indianapolis, Indiana is illustrated in this paper. Three historical land use scenarios for 1973, 1984, and 1991 were analyzed to track land use change in the watershed and to assess the impacts of land use change on annual average runoff and NPS pollution from the watershed and its five sub-basins. Results highlight the effectiveness of the L-THIA approach in assessing the long-term hydrologic impact of urban sprawl. The L-THIA/NPS GIS model is a powerful tool for identifying environmentally sensitive areas in terms of NPS pollution potential and for evaluating alternative land use scenarios to enhance NPS pollution management. Access to the model via the INTERNET enhances the usability and effectiveness of the technique significantly. Recommendations can be made to community decision makers, based on this analysis, concerning how development can be controlled within the watershed to minimize the long-term impacts of increased stormwater runoff and NPS pollution for better management of water resources.

Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2006-01-01

331

Sustainable Charcoal Production and Charcoal Briquetting  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sustainable energy system includes energy efficiency, energy reliability, energy flexibility, fuel poverty, and environmental impacts. A sustainable biofuel has two favorable properties which are availability from renewable raw material, and its lower negative environmental impact than that of fossil fuels. Charcoal is produced by slow heating wood (carbonization) in airtight ovens or retorts, in chambers with various gases, or

A. Demirbas

2009-01-01

332

Integrated home energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible means of salvaging and using heat energy wasted in a typical household are examined, and an integrated home energy system designed to reduce the energy consumption in a nine room house for a family of four is described. A heat exchanger which uses heat energy normally lost from dishwasher, shower, washer and dryer to preheat hot water from 50

C. H. Long

1975-01-01

333

Pyramidal energy collector system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiation energy collector system in which an energy absorber is positioned within a pyramidal enclosure of which approximately one-half of the side area is radiation energy transmissive, and the other side and base area having a reflective inner surface, whereby radiation energy passing through the transmissive side area in part directly impinges on the absorber, and in part is

Orillion

1981-01-01

334

Science for Sustainable Energy: Recommendations of the 2010 BESAC Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August 2010, DOE's Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee issued a major report on Science for Energy Technology. The report identified opportunities for science to help overcome roadblocks to progress in emerging clean energy technologies and thus to have much needed near-term impact on our energy infrastructure. The report covered diverse areas including solar electricity from photovoltaics, advanced nuclear energy, carbon sequestration, electrochemical energy storage, power grid technologies including power electronics and superconductors, solid state lighting, biofuels, building efficiency, fuel cells and wind power. In addition, mechanisms were suggested to facilitate progress, in particular, by strengthening the link between basic research and industry. The talk will review the highlights of this report.

Malozemoff, Alexis

2012-02-01

335

A Real-Time Recording Model of Key Indicators for Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions of Sustainable Buildings  

PubMed Central

Buildings' sustainability is one of the crucial parts for achieving urban sustainability. Applied to buildings, life-cycle assessment encompasses the analysis and assessment of the environmental effects of building materials, components and assemblies throughout the entire life of the building construction, use and demolition. Estimate of carbon emissions is essential and crucial for an accurate and reasonable life-cycle assessment. Addressing the need for more research into integrating analysis of real-time and automatic recording of key indicators for a more accurate calculation and comparison, this paper aims to design a real-time recording model of these crucial indicators concerning the calculation and estimation of energy use and carbon emissions of buildings based on a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)-based system. The architecture of the RFID-based carbon emission recording/tracking system, which contains four functional layers including data record layer, data collection/update layer, data aggregation layer and data sharing/backup layer, is presented. Each of these layers is formed by RFID or network devices and sub-systems that operate at a specific level. In the end, a proof-of-concept system is developed to illustrate the implementation of the proposed architecture and demonstrate the feasibility of the design. This study would provide the technical solution for real-time recording system of building carbon emissions and thus is of great significance and importance to improve urban sustainability.

Wu, Weiwei; Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David; Hou, Yanhong; Li, Qiming

2014-01-01

336

A real-time recording model of key indicators for energy consumption and carbon emissions of sustainable buildings.  

PubMed

Buildings' sustainability is one of the crucial parts for achieving urban sustainability. Applied to buildings, life-cycle assessment encompasses the analysis and assessment of the environmental effects of building materials, components and assemblies throughout the entire life of the building construction, use and demolition. Estimate of carbon emissions is essential and crucial for an accurate and reasonable life-cycle assessment. Addressing the need for more research into integrating analysis of real-time and automatic recording of key indicators for a more accurate calculation and comparison, this paper aims to design a real-time recording model of these crucial indicators concerning the calculation and estimation of energy use and carbon emissions of buildings based on a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)-based system. The architecture of the RFID-based carbon emission recording/tracking system, which contains four functional layers including data record layer, data collection/update layer, data aggregation layer and data sharing/backup layer, is presented. Each of these layers is formed by RFID or network devices and sub-systems that operate at a specific level. In the end, a proof-of-concept system is developed to illustrate the implementation of the proposed architecture and demonstrate the feasibility of the design. This study would provide the technical solution for real-time recording system of building carbon emissions and thus is of great significance and importance to improve urban sustainability. PMID:24831109

Wu, Weiwei; Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David; Hou, Yanhong; Li, Qiming

2014-01-01

337

Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

338

New Approaches to the Health Promoting School: Participation in Sustainable Food Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to synthesize research on 3 strategies that public schools use to procure food from within sustainable food systems—school food gardens, farm-to-school programs, and school procurement policies—and discuss the potential roles for dietitians. Peer-reviewed and “grey” literature provides a wealth of successful models for how schools participate in sustainable food systems, why they do it,

Liesel Carlsson; Patricia L. Williams

2008-01-01

339

Building Sustainability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation for high school and community college instructors on developing curricula in the sustainable building industry. The document was part of a workshop held during ATEEC's Sustainable Energy Education and Training conference. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-03-31

340

Energy scalable system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the notion of energy-scalable system- design. The principal idea is to maximize computational quality for a given energy constraint at all levels of the system hierarchy. The desirable energy-quality (E-Q) characteristics of systems are dis- cussed. E-Q behavior of algorithms is considered and transforms that significantly improve scalability are analyzed using three dis- tinct categories of commonly used

Amit Sinha; Alice Wang; Anantha Chandrakasan

2002-01-01

341

Energy Recovery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cogeneration system is one in which the energy ordinarily wasted in an industrial process is recovered and reused to create a second form of energy. Such an energy recovery system is in use at Crane Company's plant in Ferguson, KY, which manufactures ceramic bathroom fixtures. Crane's system captures hot stack gases from the company's four ceramic kilns and uses them to produce electrical power for plant operations.

1983-01-01

342

Sustainability of Energy Crop Cultivation in Central Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Currently biomass contributes to 69 106 tons of oil equivalents (MtOE) or 4% of the total energy consumption in Europe. According\\u000a to the European Union (EU) Biomass Action Plan biofuels shall contribute 150 MtOE to the total energy consumption in 2010.\\u000a This share shall increase to 20% or 220 MtOE in 2020. Approximately half of it will be derived from

Volkhard Scholz; Monika Heiermann; Peter Kaulfuss

343

Beyond energy monitors: interaction, energy, and emerging energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by a recent surge of research related to energy and sustainability, this paper presents a review of energy-related work within HCI as well as from literature outside of HCI. Our review of energy-related HCI research identifies a central cluster of work focused on electricity consumption feedback (ECF). Our review of literature outside of HCI highlights a number of emerging

James Pierce; Eric Paulos

2012-01-01

344

Innovating a Sustainable Energy Future (2011 EFRC Summit)  

ScienceCinema

The second speaker in the 2011 EFRC Summit session titled "Leading Perspectives in Energy Research" was Mark Little, Senior Vice President and Director of GE Global Research. He discussed the role that industry and in particular GE is playing as a partner in innovative energy research. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several ?grand challenges? and use-inspired ?basic research needs? recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

Little, Mark (GE Global Research)

2012-03-14

345

Towards the Development of a Rating System for Sustainable Infrastructure: A Checklist or a Decision-Making Tool?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability rating systems such as LEED, BREEAM, and others, had a significant impact in the design and delivery of buildings and in the increased adoption and understanding of sustainability metrics, solutions and value proposition within governments, developers, and end-users. Sustainability rating systems facilitated the broad adoption of the term by providing point-based certification that is easy to understand, communicate, market,

Georgoulias Andreas; Jill Allen; Libby Farley; Jon Kher Kao; Irina Mladenova; Andreas Georgoulias

2010-01-01

346

An integrated, semi-automated approach to thermochemical conversion research for sustainable farming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated, semi-automated system is presented for the rapid and efficient testing and production of research-scale quantities of biochar. This biochar, produced from agricultural waste materials, can easily be incorporated in future sustainable livestock farming systems. These farming systems will be able to diversify farm income by generating a consistent, predictable, marketable product. Before biochar is incorporated into production systems,

K. B. Cantrell; J. H. Martin II

2010-01-01

347

NASA's Materials and Processes Technology Information System (MAPTIS): How It Relates to Sustainable Aerospace Advanced Manufacturing and Sustainable Materials Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our poster shows how MAPTIS relates to Sustainable Aerospace Advanced Manufacturing and Sustainable Materials Management. MAPTIS is a 'pre- Milestone B' design-engineering tool. MAPTIS provides materials and manufacturing processes information to design-e...

C. C. Hudson I. Higuchi

2011-01-01

348

Thermochemical energy systems research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on Heat-pump thermochemical energy systems and thermochemical reduction of CO2 to CO for open-loop solar energy transport is described. Analysis of the NaOH-H2O heat-pumped system indicted cost effectiveness relative to hot oil solar system with parabolic trough receivers for production of 0.101 MPa saturated steam high-temperature heat-pumped systems are being defined.

Nix, R. G.

1983-08-01

349

ARM Best Estimate Data (ARMBE) Products for Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF)  

DOE Data Explorer

This data set was created for the Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) model testbed project and is an extension of the hourly average ARMBE dataset to other extended facility sites and to include uncertainty estimates. Uncertainty estimates were needed in order to use uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques with the data.

Laura Riihimaki; Krista Gaustad; Sally McFarlane

350

Stakeholder assessment for the introduction of sustainable energy and environmental technologies in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global environmental concerns call for a prompt introduction of sustainable energy and environmental technologies (SEETs) such as high-efficiency appliances and zero-emission vehicles. In reality, however, their introduction has been slow due to a number of complex factors that have not been systematically examined. This research adopted a holistic approach to analyzing elements surrounding the introduction of SEETs in Japan. Through

Masahiro Matsuura; Tatsujiro Suzuki; Hideaki Shiroyama

2009-01-01

351

SUSTAINABLE CONVERSION OF RENEWABLE FUELS TO ENERGY IN FLUIDISED BED BOILERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of sustainable power and the ability to convert renewable fuels to energy is growing in importance due to a number of global drivers such as growing environmental issues (greenhouse gases, regulations for landfill etc.), increasing costs of fossil fuels and the global increase in the demand for electricity. Renewable fuels can cover a wide range of sources, from

Elmar Offenbacher

352

Nanofluidic sustainable energy conversion using a 1D nanofluidic network.  

PubMed

We propose a 1-dimensional (1D) nanofluidic energy conversion device by implementing a surface-patterned Nafion membrane for the direct energy conversion of the pressure to electrical power. By implementing a -200-nm-thick nano-bridge with a 5-nm pore size between two microfluidic channels, we acquired an effective streaming potential of 307 mV and output power of 94 pW with 0.1 mM KCI under pressure difference of 45 MPa. The experimental results show both the effects of applied pressure differences and buffer concentrations on the effective streaming potential, and are consistent with the analytical prediction. PMID:24734635

Kim, Sang Hui; Kwak, Seungmin; Han, Sung Il; Chun, Dong Won; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Kim, Jinseok; Lee, Jeong Hoon

2014-05-01

353

Constructed wetland treatment system in textile industry and sustainable development.  

PubMed

This study focuses on the evaluation of the adequacy and sustainability of a constructed wetland (CW), with vertical flow (VF) design to treat a strongly coloured textile wastewater.Secondly an accidental AO7 overloaded discharge (700 mg l(-1)) was studied. A set of three similar VFCW beds (3x1 m2), operating in series, allowed also the efficient treatment of the AO7 heavy loaded wastewaters. The treated effluent quality enables water reuse for irrigation purposes or within the process. PMID:19039183

Davies, L C; Pedro, I S; Ferreira, R A; Freire, F G; Novais, J M; Martins-Dias, S

2008-01-01

354

Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is often known as the catalyst for development. Globally, the per capita consumption of energy is often used as a barometer to measure the level of economic development in a particular country. Realizing the importance of energy as a vital component in economic and social development, the government of Malaysia has been continuously reviewing its energy policy to ensure

Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Keat Teong Lee

2006-01-01

355

Integrated Renewable Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of several manifestations of solar energy in tandem by means of integrated renewable energy systems (IRES) to supply a variety of energy and other needs has the potential to energize (in contrast to electrification) remote rural areas in a cost-effective manner. Such actions can dramatically improve the quality of life for hundreds of millions of people living in remote

R. Ramakumar

1995-01-01

356

The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

Vanderburg, Willem H.

2008-01-01

357

Hydropower in Turkey for a clean and sustainable energy future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, global electricity production has more than doubled and electricity demand is rising rapidly around the world as economic development spreads to emerging economies. Not only has electricity demand increased significantly, it is the fastest growing end-use of energy. Therefore, technical, economic and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power make it an important contributor to the future

Ibrahim Yüksel

2008-01-01

358

Coal and sustainable energy supply challenges and barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal is broadly recognized as secure, competitive, diversified, not vulnerable and predictable in price as an energy resource. In the power generation sector, coal is playing a dominant role in the EU-27 with 25% share of the total installed capacity and almost one-third of the power generation. The role played by the domestic resources and especially by coal is increasingly

K. Kavouridis; N. Koukouzas

2008-01-01

359

Feasibility of the green energy production by hybrid solar + hydro power system in Europe and similar climate areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the hybrid solar and hydro (SHE) system as a unique technological concept of the sustainable energy system that can provide continuous electric power and energy supply to its consumers and the possibilities of its implementation in Europe and areas with similar climate. The sustainability of such system is based on solar photovoltaic (PV) and hydroelectric (HE) energy

Jure Margeta; Zvonimir Glasnovic

2010-01-01

360

A Cost-Effective Energy-Recovering Sustain Driving Circuit for ac Plasma Display Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new sustain driving circuit, featuring an energy-recovering function with simple structure and minimal component count, is proposed as a cost-effective solution for driving plasma display panels during the sustaining period. Compared with existing solutions, the proposed circuit reduces the number of semiconductor switches and reactive circuit components without compromising the circuit performance and gas-discharging characteristics. In addition, the proposed circuit utilizes the harness wire as an inductive circuit component, thereby further simplifying the circuit structure. The performance of the proposed circuit is confirmed with a 42-inch plasma display panel.

Lim, Jae Kwang; Tae, Heung-Sik; Choi, Byungcho; Kim, Seok Gi

361

A novel current-fed energy-recovery sustaining driver for plasma display panel (PDP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel current-fed energy-recovery sustaining driver (CFERSD) for a plasma display panel (PDP) is proposed. It uses the current source to recover the energy stored in a PDP, which also provides zero-voltage switching (ZVS) of all main switches and the improved operational voltage margin. Furthermore, it features a lower conduction loss and faster transition time. It is well suited for

Sang-Kyoo Han; Gun-Woo Moon; Myung-Joong Youn

2005-01-01

362

Coal exports may make Australia's energy sector among least sustainable  

SciTech Connect

Plentiful coal and cheap energy prices have resulted in an unusually heavy carbon footprint. Clearly, Australia has to rethink how much coal it will use to feed its own growing economy while becoming more conscious of its significant carbon export problem. For a country long used to digging the coal out of the ground and shipping it overseas, climate change will be a game changer.

NONE

2009-11-15

363

A global conversation about energy from biomass: the continental conventions of the global sustainable bioenergy project  

PubMed Central

The global sustainable bioenergy (GSB) project was formed in 2009 with the goal of providing guidance with respect to the feasibility and desirability of sustainable, bioenergy-intensive futures. Stage 1 of this project held conventions with a largely common format on each of the world's continents, was completed in 2010, and is described in this paper. Attended by over 400 persons, the five continental conventions featured presentations, breakout sessions, and drafting of resolutions that were unanimously passed by attendees. The resolutions highlight the potential of bioenergy to make a large energy supply contribution while honouring other priorities, acknowledge the breadth and complexity of bioenergy applications as well as the need to take a systemic approach, and attest to substantial intra- and inter-continental diversity with respect to needs, opportunities, constraints and current practice relevant to bioenergy. The following interim recommendations based on stage 1 GSB activities are offered: —?Realize that it may be more productive, and also more correct, to view the seemingly divergent assessments of bioenergy as answers to two different questions rather than the same question. Viewed in this light, there is considerably more scope for reconciliation than might first be apparent, and it is possible to be informed rather than paralysed by divergent assessments.—?Develop established and advanced bioenergy technologies such that each contributes to the other's success. That is, support and deploy in the near-term meritorious, established technologies in ways that enhance rather than impede deployment of advanced technologies, and support and deploy advanced technologies in ways that expand rather than contract opportunities for early adopters and investors.—?Be clear in formulating policies what mix of objectives are being targeted, measure the results of these policies against these objectives and beware of unintended consequences.—?Undertake further exploration of land efficiency levers and visions for multiply-beneficial bioenergy deployment. This should be unconstrained by current practices, since we cannot hope to achieve a sustainable and a secure future by continuing the practices that have led to the unsustainable and insecure present. It should also be approached from a global perspective, based on the best science available, and consider the diverse realities, constraints, needs and opportunities extant in different regions of the world.The future trajectory of the GSB project is also briefly considered.

Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Aziz, Ramlan Abdul; de Brito Cruz, Carlos Henrique; Chimphango, Annie Fabian Abel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa; Faaij, Andre; Greene, Nathanael; Keller, Martin; Osseweijer, Patricia; Richard, Tom L.; Sheehan, John; Chugh, Archana; van der Wielen, Luuk; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem Heber

2011-01-01

364

Niche to Mainstream in Sustainable Urban Food Systems: The Case of Food Distribution in Portland, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the negative environmental, political, and social consequences of the dominant, industrialized global food system, communities around the world have developed goals and values underlying a sustainable food system. Conceptualizing food production, distribution, and consumption as systems helps clarify the ways food affects social and natural environments, with the distribution element as the critical juncture where the product reaches

Bowen Close

2006-01-01

365

Closed soilless growing systems: A sustainable solution for Dutch greenhouse horticulture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dutch greenhouse growers are obliged to invest in environmental friendly cropping systems, in order to comply with new legislation. Closed soilless growing systems may lead to environmental friendly systems and thus to a sustainable horticultural sector. This paper encompasses the change from general to specific legislation, the availability of good water and the developments in disinfection of nutrient solutions. For

Erik A. Van OS

1999-01-01

366

Artificial photosynthesis combines biology with technology for sustainable energy transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photosynthesis supports the biosphere. Currently, human activity appropriates about one fourth of terrestrial photosynthetic net primary production (NPP) to support our GDP and nutrition. The cost to Earth systems of "our cut" of NPP is thought to be rapidly driving several Earth systems outside of bounds that were established on the geological time scale. Even with a fundamental realignment of human priorities, changing the unsustainable trajectory of the anthropocene will require reengineering photosynthesis to more efficiently meet human needs. Artificial photosynthetic systems are envisioned that can both supply renewable fuels and serve as platforms for exploring redesign strategies for photosynthesis. These strategies can be used in the nascent field of synthetic biology to make vast, much needed improvements in the biomass production efficiency of photosynthesis.

Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens

2013-03-01

367

The Macroecology of Sustainability  

PubMed Central

The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

Burger, Joseph R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brown, James H.; Burnside, William R.; Davidson, Ana D.; Fristoe, Trevor S.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Okie, Jordan G.; Zuo, Wenyun

2012-01-01

368

Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas.  

PubMed

An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO(2) content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades. PMID:19082575

Metzger, Jürgen O; Hüttermann, Aloys

2009-02-01

369

Energy Efficient White LEDs for Sustainable Solid-State Lighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R&D-level white-LED single-lamp luminous efficacy has reached levels as high as 152 lumens/watt at low currents, which greatly exceeds the bare-bulb incandescent lamp efficacy of 17 lumens/watt. Commercial-based white LED lamp fixtures are typically much lower, in the region of 64 lm/W, due to several issues associated with scaling up to higher currents, heat, and optical losses. These issues will be solved by employing higher light extraction, better optical designs, new chip designs, and better heat sinking. The long lifetime of LEDs (100,000 hours) and their higher efficiencies could lead to considerable maintenance and energy-saving benefits for consumers.

Denbaars, Steve

2008-09-01

370

An optimisation-based environmental decision support system for sustainable development in a rural area in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development has been widely recognised as an effective means for harmonising human society and natural systems. However, achieving the goal of sustainability is difficult since many conflicting factors have to be balanced due to the complexities of real-world problems. Previously, many efforts have been made to clarify the concept of sustainable development and to develop related theoretical and practical

G. H. Huang; X. S. Qin; W. Sun; X. H. Nie; Y. P. Li

2009-01-01

371

The coastal use structure within the coastal system. A sustainable development-consistent approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To contribute to the development of methodological approaches to coastal area management consistent with the sustainable development concept and guidelines provided by UNCED Agenda 21, Chapter 17, first the classifications of coastal uses provided by literature and those adopted by coastal management programmes are presented and discussed. Moving from this basis and reasoning in terms of general system-sustained approach the following concepts and methodological issues are considered: a goal-oriented concept of coastal use; the sustainable development-grounded coastal use framework and the role of discriminants through which it is conceived and described; the relationships between coastal uses; in particular, conflicting relationships focusing attention on conflicts between decision-making centres, as well as users, motivations and tractability of uses; the relationships between coastal uses and the ecosystem; the basic options for sustainability-consistent coastal use development.

Vallega, A.

1996-01-01

372

Sustainable Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Tom Tietenberg, Professor of Economics, Colby College, this page offers an extensive bibliography of works on ecological economics and sustainable development. Bibliography headings include Economic Incentives Policies, Population, Energy and Global Warming, and Biodiversity and Wildlife Management, among others. Student case study assignments are also available with references to additional texts, and a list of sustainable development links completes the site.

Tietenberg, Tom.

373

Requirements for nuclear energy in the 21st century nuclear energy as a sustainable energy source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear energy must compete against other energy technologies in the 21st century. It must be economical and it must be proven that it fulfills the conditions for sutainability. This means that the requirements of — no short term depletion of resources — extremely low emission of noxious or radioactive substances to the environment — extremely low release of radioactivity from

G. Kessler

2002-01-01

374

Quantitative energy extraction measurements in a photoionization-stabilized self-sustained XeF laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed time-correlated gain, fluorescence, and laser energy measurements were used to obtain quantitative data on energy extraction efficiencies for a photoionization-stabilized self-sustained XeF laser. A current pulse of 25 ns full width at half-maximum produced an 80-cu-cm XeF plasma in NF3:Xe:He gas mixtures with a maximum output energy of 80 mJ. The results show that the maximum small-signal gain and the maximum specific output energy is proportional to the NF3 content of the gas mixture. This suggests that there is an optimum fractional utilization of the NF3 molecules in the discharge. Under high-gain conditions, 30-40% of the energy stored in XeF(asterisk) can be extracted in a gain-switched pulse. The output energy represents less than 1% of the input energy.

Lee, C. M.; Hasson, V.; Rowley, P. D.; Exberger, R.

1979-01-01

375

A systematic approach to assessing the sustainability of the Renewable Energy Standard (RES) under the proposed American Renewable Energy Act (H.R. 890)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing sustainability is a complex challenge for policy makers, scientists and engineers. In an effort to evaluate industrial systems, a range of alternative methods have been developed; unfortunately, these methods stop short at demonstrating how industrial activity affects sustainability. In response to this need, the Population based Model for Assessing Sustainability Implications (PMASI) was developed through a systematic view of

Tarsha N. Eason; Yaw A. Owusu; Hans Chapman

2009-01-01

376

Wind energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the

R. D. Richardson; GERALD M. MCNERNEY

1993-01-01

377

Energy recovery system  

SciTech Connect

An energy recovery system for use in conjunction with a fermenter operating with an overpressure preferably of 5 to 10 bars gauge is described. Gas under pressure leaving the fermenter passes to a gas expander and the power produced by the expander is used to drive the compressor which supplies gas under pressure to the fermenter. The combination of the energy recovery system with a fermenter provides an efficient means for operating a process for the production of single cell protein.

Cordell, G.B.; Maslen, F.P.

1980-12-09

378

Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

2012-01-01

379

A Living Systems Model for Assessing and Promoting the Sustainability of Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A living systems model of community development has been synthesized from elements of three perspectives: (1) a global movement toward more sustainable patterns of human development that is identifying indicators of community health in a wide range of categories; (2) research on the complex interactions of living systems that make life on earth…

Larrick, Steve

380

Product Design as a Key to a Business System Perspective that Promotes Sustainable Forestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sustainable business system should uphold a core value linkage between customer interests and business operations and their foundation in natural and human resource values. However, in many industrial economies, companies in the established business systems, all too frequently seek to obtain the natural and human resources at lowest short-term costs while paying little or no attention to the long-term

Reine Karlsson; Magnus Löf; Donald Huisingh

381

Sustained Systemic Delivery of Monoclonal Antibodies by Genetically Modified Skin Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo production and systemic delivery of therapeutic antibodies by engineered cells might advantageously replace injection of purified antibodies for treating a variety of life-threatening diseases, including cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and autoimmune diseases. We report here that skin fibroblasts retrovirally transduced to express immunoglobulin genes can be used for sustained long-term systemic delivery of cloned antibodies in immunocompetent mice.

Danièle Noël; Mireia Pelegrin; Frédérique Brockly; Anders H. Lund; Marc Piechaczyk

2000-01-01

382

Are Agile and Lean Manufacturing Systems Employing Sustainability, Complexity and Organizational Learning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper aims to peruse theories and practices of agile and lean manufacturing systems to determine whether they employ sustainability, complexity and organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: The critical review of the comparative operational similarities and difference of the two systems was conducted while the new views…

Flumerfelt, Shannon; Siriban-Manalang, Anna Bella; Kahlen, Franz-Josef

2012-01-01

383

Solar Thermal Chemical Processing Research: A Path Toward Sustainable Energy Technology  

ScienceCinema

There is enough solar energy reaching the earth to supply the current world demand for energy. But this radiation is dilute, intermittent, and unequally distributed. So how can one grab hold of a sunbeam and either immediately use it for industrial purposes, or store it and transport it from the sunny regions of the earth to the population centers to be used when it is needed? I present a selection of the latest research findings to illustrate the current state of solar chemistry science and technology as well as describe the future challenges that must be met if this path is to lead us to a palette of sustainable energy technology options.

384

An environmental sustainability based budget allocation system for regional water quality management.  

PubMed

A budget allocation system for regional water quality management to achieve environmental sustainability was developed in this study to assist a local authority with making appropriate budget allocations for improving Regional Water Environmental Sustainability (RWES) in an efficient manner. The system consists of visions and goals, RWES indicators, and an analysis of budget allocation versus RWES. Visions and goals define task priorities for improving water environmental sustainability. Indicators are used to measure the progress of related tasks toward RWES goals. These indicators are classified by the Driving Force-State-Response (DSR) framework to facilitate the analysis of relationships among indicators. Linkages between budget allocation and indicators are also analyzed, and the result is used to assess whether the available budget is allocated properly to raise the RWES. The applicability of the system is demonstrated by a case study involving a local environmental protection authority. PMID:18294753

Kao, Jehng-Jung; Pan, Tze-Chin; Lin, Chin-Min

2009-02-01

385

Establishing and Sustaining System Integrity via Root of Trust Installation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrity measurements provide a means by which distributed systems can assess the trustability of potentially compromised remote hosts. However, current measurement techniques simply assert the identity of software, but provide no indication of the ongoing status of the system or its data. As a result, a number of significant vulnerabilities can result if the system is not configured and managed

L. St. Clair; J. Schiffman; T. Jaeger; P. McDaniel

2007-01-01

386

Establishing and Sustaining System Integrity via Root of Trust Installation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrity measurements provide a means by which dis- tributed systems can assess the trustability of potentially compromised remote hosts. However, current measurement techniques simply assert the identity of software, but pro- vide no indication of the ongoing status of the system or its data. As a result, a number of significant vulnerabilities can result if the system is not configured

Luke St. Clair; Joshua Schiffman; Trent Jaeger; Patrick Mcdaniel

2007-01-01

387

A System Utilizing Solar Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The possibilities of using solar energy as a future energy source are discussed. A system utilizing solar energy is described and discussed. The factors necessary for a solar energy system are listed. (Author)

1974-01-01

388

Development of Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS IN INDIA. To ensure long term availability of nuclear energy in a sustainable manner, taking cognisance of its resource position, India has followed the closed fuel cycle and chalked out a three-stage nuclear power programme based on uranium and thorium. The three stages of this programme comprise: (1) Natural uranium fuelled Pressurised Heavy Water

P. D. Krishnani

389

Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions.  

PubMed

Carbon sequestration, infrastructure rehabilitation, brownfields clean-up, hazardous waste disposal, water resources protection and global warming-these twenty-first century challenges can neither be solved by the high-energy consumptive practices that hallmark industry today, nor by minor tweaking or optimization of these processes. A more radical, holistic approach is required to develop the sustainable solutions society needs. Most of the above challenges occur within, are supported on, are enabled by or grown from soil. Soil, contrary to conventional civil engineering thought, is a living system host to multiple simultaneous processes. It is proposed herein that 'soil engineering in vivo', wherein the natural capacity of soil as a living ecosystem is used to provide multiple solutions simultaneously, may provide new, innovative, sustainable solutions to some of these great challenges of the twenty-first century. This requires a multi-disciplinary perspective that embraces the science of biology, chemistry and physics and applies this knowledge to provide multi-functional civil and environmental engineering designs for the soil environment. For example, can native soil bacterial species moderate the carbonate cycle in soils to simultaneously solidify liquefiable soil, immobilize reactive heavy metals and sequester carbon-effectively providing civil engineering functionality while clarifying the ground water and removing carbon from the atmosphere? Exploration of these ideas has begun in earnest in recent years. This paper explores the potential, challenges and opportunities of this new field, and highlights one biogeochemical function of soil that has shown promise and is developing rapidly as a new technology. The example is used to propose a generalized approach in which the potential of this new field can be fully realized. PMID:20829246

DeJong, Jason T; Soga, Kenichi; Banwart, Steven A; Whalley, W Richard; Ginn, Timothy R; Nelson, Douglas C; Mortensen, Brina M; Martinez, Brian C; Barkouki, Tammer

2011-01-01

390

Integrated agricultural energy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this program is to show New England farmers and other New England energy users how they can use alternative energy sources to reduce their energy cost and dependency on conventional sources. The project demonstrates alternative energy technologies in solar, alcohol and methane. Dissemination is planned through tours to be conducted by the Worcester County Extension Service. Most of these goals were completed as planned. A few things have yet to be completed. The solar panels and solar hot water tanks have to be installed. The fermenter's agitating and cooling system have to be secured inside the fermenter. Once these items are complete tours will begin early in the spring.

Taylor, R. M.

1985-08-01

391

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

1984-01-01

392

NASA's GreenLab Research Facility: A Guide for a Self-Sustainable Renewable Energy Ecosystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a large gap between the production and demand for energy from alternative fuel and alternative renewable energy sources. The sustainability of humanity, as we know it, directly depends on the ability to secure affordable fuel, food, and freshwater. NASA Glenn Research Center (Glenn) has initiated a laboratory pilot study on using biofuels as viable alternative fuel resources for the field of aviation, as well as utilizing wind and solar technology as alternative renewable energy resources. The GreenLab Research Facility focuses on optimizing biomass feedstock using algae and halophytes as the next generation of renewable aviation fuels. The unique approach in this facility helps achieve optimal biomass feedstock through climatic adaptation of balanced ecosystems that do not use freshwater, compete with food crops, or use arable land. In addition, the GreenLab Research Facility is powered, in part, by alternative and renewable energy sources, reducing the major environmental impact of present electricity sources. The ultimate goal is to have a 100 percent clean energy laboratory that, when combined with biomass feedstock research, has the framework in place for a self-sustainable renewable energy ecosystem that can be duplicated anywhere in the world and can potentially be used to mitigate the shortage of food, fuel, and water. This paper describes the GreenLab Research Facility at Glenn and its power and energy sources, and provides recommendations for worldwide expansion and adoption of the facility s concept.

Bomani, B. M. McDowell; Hendricks, R. C.; Elbuluk, Malik; Okon, Monica; Lee, Eric; Gigante, Bethany

2011-01-01

393

Self-sustainable energy efficient long range WiFi network for rural communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

WiFi is a cost effective technology of choice for network extension in the rural areas. The telecentre network can reach further to the nearby villages within 10km radius by the use of long range WiFi relay points. The challenges encountered will be the self-sustainability of the network. It should be highly energy efficient and to be powered by the very

Khairuddin Ab-Hamid; Chong Eng Tan; Sei Ping Lau

2011-01-01

394

2005 Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition  

SciTech Connect

This report gives a summary of the 2005Tour de Sol: The Sustainable Energy and Transportation Festival and Competition. It lists our objectives, what we did, and an analysis of how we met our objectives. An 80-page report with a list of verified print, radio and TV media coverage, and copies of selected news clips and web media coverage is available at the NESEA office for review.

Nancy Hazard

2005-05-07

395

Rapid assessment system based on ecosystem services for retrofitting of sustainable drainage systems.  

PubMed

Sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) design and retrofitting is predominantly based on expert opinion supported by descriptive guidance documents. The aim of this paper is to develop an innovative rapid decision support tool based on novel ecosystem service variables for retrofitting of key SuDS techniques. This unique tool proposes the retrofitting of a SuDS technique that obtained the highest ecosystem service score for a specific urban site. This approach contrasts with methods based on traditional civil engineering judgement linked to standard variables based on community and environment studies. For a case study area (Greater Manchester), a comparison with the traditional approach of determining community and environment variables indicates that permeable pavements, filter strips, swales, ponds, constructed wetlands and below-ground storage tanks are generally less preferred than infiltration trenches, soakaways and infiltration basins. However, permeable pavements and belowground storage tanks also received relatively high scores, because of their great potential impact in terms of water quality improvement and flood control, respectively. The application of the proposed methodology will lead to changes of the sustainable drainage infrastructure in the urban landscape. PMID:24701926

Scholz, Miklas

2014-01-01

396

Effective grouping for energy and performance: Construction of adaptive, sustainable, and maintainable data storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance gap between processors and storage systems has been increasingly critical over the years. Yet the performance disparity remains, and further, storage energy consumption is rapidly becoming a new critical problem. While smarter caching and predictive techniques do much to alleviate this disparity, the problem persists, and data storage remains a growing contributor to latency and energy consumption. Attempts have been made at data layout maintenance, or intelligent physical placement of data, yet in practice, basic heuristics remain predominant. Problems that early studies sought to solve via layout strategies were proven to be NP-Hard, and data layout maintenance today remains more art than science. With unknown potential and a domain inherently full of uncertainty, layout maintenance persists as an area largely untapped by modern systems. But uncertainty in workloads does not imply randomness; access patterns have exhibited repeatable, stable behavior. Predictive information can be gathered, analyzed, and exploited to improve data layouts. Our goal is a dynamic, robust, sustainable predictive engine, aimed at improving existing layouts by replicating data at the storage device level. We present a comprehensive discussion of the design and construction of such a predictive engine, including workload evaluation, where we present and evaluate classical workloads as well as our own highly detailed traces collected over an extended period. We demonstrate significant gains through an initial static grouping mechanism, and compare against an optimal grouping method of our own construction, and further show significant improvement over competing techniques. We also explore and illustrate the challenges faced when moving from static to dynamic (i.e. online) grouping, and provide motivation and solutions for addressing these challenges. These challenges include metadata storage, appropriate predictive collocation, online performance, and physical placement. We reduced the metadata needed by several orders of magnitude, reducing the required volume from more than 14% of total storage down to less than 1/2%. We also demonstrate how our collocation strategies outperform competing techniques. Finally, we present our complete model and evaluate a prototype implementation against real hardware. This model was demonstrated to be capable of reducing device-level accesses by up to 65%. Keywords: computer systems, collocation, data management, file systems, grouping, metadata, modeling and prediction, operating systems, performance, power, secondary storage.

Essary, David S.

397

Helicopter auxiliary energy system  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus in a rotary wing aircraft is described for providing auxiliary energy in an autorotation mode, the rotary wing aircraft including a rotor system, a main propulsion engine, and a drive shaft connecting the main propulsion engine with the rotor system.

Logan, A.H.; Graves, J.D.

1986-09-02

398

Systems, Society, Sustainability and the Geosciences: A Workshop to Create New Curricular Materials to Integrate Geosciences into the Teaching of Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainability is emerging as a central theme for teaching about the environment, whether it be from the perspective of science, economics, or society. The Systems, Society, Sustainability and the Geosciences workshop provided 48 undergraduate faculty from 46 institutions a forum to discuss the challenges and possibilities for integrating geoscience concepts with a range of other disciplines to teach about the fundamentals of sustainability. Participants from community college to doctorate-granting universities had expertise that included geosciences, agriculture, biological sciences, business, chemistry, economics, ethnic studies, engineering, environmental studies, environmental education, geography, history, industrial technology, landscape design, philosophy, physics, and political science. The workshop modeled a range of teaching strategies that encouraged participants to network and collaborate, share successful strategies and materials for teaching sustainability, and identify opportunities for the development of new curricular materials that will have a major impact on the integration of geosciences into the teaching of sustainability. The workshop design provided participants an opportunity to reflect upon their teaching, learning, and curriculum. Throughout the workshop, participants recorded their individual and collective ideas in a common online workspace to which all had access. A preliminary synthesis of this information indicates that the concept of sustainability is a strong organizing principle for modern, liberal education requiring systems thinking, synthesis and contributions from all disciplines. Sustainability is inherently interdisciplinary and provides a framework for educational collaboration between and among geoscientists, natural/physical scientists, social scientists, humanists, engineers, etc.. This interdisciplinary framework is intellectually exciting and productive for educating students at all levels of higher education. Sustainability also provides a productive bridge from global to local issues, and vice versa. It has the potential to raise the value placed on faculty engagement with local resources and research questions, and to bring community-based stakeholders outside of academia into the classroom. There are many challenges that participants from geographically diverse parts of the country have in common, including the creation of new courses, and teaching interdisciplinary material beyond one's area of expertise. However, one of the greatest opportunities of using a sustainability theme is that it can be integrated into existing courses. It was also clear that incorporating one module on a sustainability topic can be stimulating and powerful mechanism for linking course content to real world issues. Two of the most important outcomes from the workshop were the creation of an online collection of activities and courses (http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/workshops/sustainability2012/index.html) as well as the development of a community that can support integration of geoscience and issues of sustainability across the curriculum.

Gosselin, D. C.; Manduca, C. A.; Oches, E. A.; MacGregor, J.; Kirk, K. B.

2012-12-01

399

Technology policy and sustainability: An empirical study of renewable energy development in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the debate over sustainability and development paradigms, energy assumes a unique position by virtue of its direct link with environmental sustainability and its role as an essential vehicle for development. Agenda 21 recognizes that coupling end-use energy efficiency with renewable sources of energy will help meet a large share of the world's energy needs while reducing the environmental impacts of energy use. Nevertheless, the extent and scope of diffusion of new and renewable energy technologies is contingent upon the capabilities of the countries concerned to realize firstly, a need, and subsequently, the resources for utilizing the technologies. India has one of the largest renewable energy programs (REPs) in the world, however, renewables continue to remain a marginal contributor to the total energy supply. The need to fundamentally change the program design of REPs has been suggested by many critics and experts in view of the implementation problems. However, mainstream thinking maintains that Poor financial conditions in the energy sector, not program design flaws, are at the heart of poor implementation results, leading to the premise that infusion of capital and efforts at market transformation through the involvement of the private sector could solve the problem. This dissertation uses case studies on solar photovoltaics, wind energy, and biogas in India to analyze the implementation of renewable energy technologies. Based on stakeholder interviews, documents, and site visits, this dissertation argues that the problems currently recognized are in reality symptomatic of a combination of three underlying problems: (1) An inadequate understanding of the needs of energy users and the complex interplay of existing policies and technological choices with user needs and behavior; (2) An institutional network, both at the local and the national level, that lacks the capacity to facilitate information exchange within and between institutions, thereby losing the opportunity to transfer valuable knowledge gained from implementing REPs; and (3) A program design that does not include adequate planning for infrastructure and policy support, which undermines the effectiveness of the programs.

Iyer, Maithili

400

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT, SUSTAINABILITY THEORY, AND THE CHALLENGE OF UNCERTAINTY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting fo rthe multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well s the usual physical and life science aspects. This is important...

401

Decision-Support System Workbench for Sustainable Water Management Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decision Support Systems (DSS) comprise a wide-range of computer-enabled applications that are based on some form of analytical model, commonly linked to a database. Coupled with the visualization and spatial analysis facilities provided by a Geographi c Information System (GIS), a unifying framework can be developed to promote the uptake of advanced decision support technology across a wide range of

M. S. Morley; C. K. Makropoulos; D. A. Savic; D. Butler

402

Design considerations for sustainable spacecraft water management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally

Evan A. Thomas; Mark M. Weislogel; David M. Klaus

2010-01-01

403

Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture  

SciTech Connect

This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

Binder, Claudia R., E-mail: claudia.binder@geo.uzh.c [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for System Science, Innovation and Sustainability Research, University of Graz (Austria); Feola, Giuseppe [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Steinberger, Julia K. [Social and Industrial Ecology, Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Social Ecology, Faculty for Interdisciplinary Studies, University of Klagenfurt, Schottenfeldgasse 29, A-1070 Vienna (Austria)

2010-02-15

404

For sustainable development: some aspects on energy and environment in Turkey  

SciTech Connect

The high energy demand in Turkey is closely linked to economic growth, industrialization, and population increase. Turkish general energy policies are designed to support economic and social development. Natural conditions of Turkey are favorable for utilization of new and renewable energies, such as hydraulic energy, geothermal energy, wind energy, biomass energy, solar energy, and, probably, nuclear energy. As the use of hydraulic and coal in Turkey will reach its full capacity by 2020, imported natural gas, coal, and other resources will be used to meet the energy demand. By 2020, approximately 75% of final energy demand and 67% of electricity supply will be met by coal, oil, and natural gas. Energy investments, which are closely related with the environmental protection, require massive financial resources. It is also important to use standardized equipment and materials in all areas of energy generation, transmission, distribution, and trade. For a sustainable development, the next investments on industry should be made for the clean technologies in regard with being environment-friendly.

Salvarli, H. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Izmir Vocational School

2009-07-01

405

Using Earth System Science as Basis for Sustainability Education in an Undergraduate Environmental Science Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate programs in Environmental Science (ES) have progressively grown over the past decades. One of the many challenges of providing an effective curriculum is deciding what content and which skills are included in such a wide ranging field. Certainly geoscience needs to be included as part of the content but how is this best executed? More precisely, what should ES majors know about how the earth, oceans, and atmosphere work? One possible approach is to include existing undergraduate geology or atmospheric science courses as part of the required core, but this has potential pitfalls. For example, courses may be geared toward general education requirements or may be designed more for geology majors. A better solution is to offer a course or set of courses that are specifically tailored for ES majors. I propose that Earth System Science (ESS) is an excellent approach as it incorporates the earth as a whole system and can be taught within the context of environmental sustainability. My approach to ESS is to focus on the movement/cycles of matter (e.g., carbon, calcium, nitrogen) and energy. By referring back to this focus throughout the semester, students are provided with a structure to begin to make sense of a complex problem. In support of this, lab exercises provide practice in collecting and analyzing data using a variety resources.

Sinton, C. W.

2012-12-01

406

Toward a synthetic economic systems modeling tool for sustainable exploitation of ecosystems.  

PubMed

Environmental resources that underpin the basic human needs of water, energy, and food are predicted to become in such short supply by 2050 that global security and the well-being of millions will be under threat. These natural commodities have been allowed to reach crisis levels of supply because of a failure of economic systems to sustain them. This is largely because there have been no means of integrating their exploitation into any economic model that effectively addresses ecological systemic failures in a way that provides an integrated ecological-economic tool that can monitor and evaluate market and policy targets. We review the reasons for this and recent attempts to address the problem while identifying outstanding issues. The key elements of a policy-oriented economic model that integrates ecosystem processes are described and form the basis of a proposed new synthesis approach. The approach is illustrated by an indicative case study that develops a simple model for rainfed and irrigated food production in the Murray-Darling basin of southeastern Australia. PMID:21332498

Richardson, Colin; Courvisanos, Jerry; Crawford, John W

2011-02-01

407

Generation-IV Nuclear Energy Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear power technology has evolved through roughly three generations of system designs: a first generation of prototypes and first-of-a-kind units implemented during the period 1950 to 1970; a second generation of industrial power plants built from 1970 to the turn of the century, most of which are still in operation today; and a third generation of evolutionary advanced reactors which began being built by the turn of the 20^th century, usually called Generation III or III+, which incorporate technical lessons learned through more than 12,000 reactor-years of operation. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a cooperative international endeavor to develop advanced nuclear energy systems in response to the social, environmental and economic requirements of the 21^st century. Six Generation IV systems under development by GIF promise to enhance the future contribution and benefits of nuclear energy. All Generation IV systems aim at performance improvement, new applications of nuclear energy, and/or more sustainable approaches to the management of nuclear materials. High-temperature systems offer the possibility of efficient process heat applications and eventually hydrogen production. Enhanced sustainability is achieved primarily through adoption of a closed fuel cycle with reprocessing and recycling of plutonium, uranium and minor actinides using fast reactors. This approach provides significant reduction in waste generation and uranium resource requirements.

McFarlane, Harold

2008-05-01

408

The global technical potential of bio-energy in 2050 considering sustainability constraints  

PubMed Central

Bio-energy, that is, energy produced from organic non-fossil material of biological origin, is promoted as a substitute for non-renewable (e.g., fossil) energy to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependency on energy imports. At present, global bio-energy use amounts to approximately 50 EJ/yr, about 10% of humanity's primary energy supply. We here review recent literature on the amount of bio-energy that could be supplied globally in 2050, given current expectations on technology, food demand and environmental targets (‘technical potential’). Recent studies span a large range of global bio-energy potentials from ?30 to over 1000 EJ/yr. In our opinion, the high end of the range is implausible because of (1) overestimation of the area available for bio-energy crops due to insufficient consideration of constraints (e.g., area for food, feed or nature conservation) and (2) too high yield expectations resulting from extrapolation of plot-based studies to large, less productive areas. According to this review, the global technical primary bio-energy potential in 2050 is in the range of 160–270 EJ/yr if sustainability criteria are considered. The potential of bio-energy crops is at the lower end of previously published ranges, while residues from food production and forestry could provide significant amounts of energy based on an integrated optimization (‘cascade utilization’) of biomass flows.

Haberl, Helmut; Beringer, Tim; Bhattacharya, Sribas C; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Hoogwijk, Monique

2010-01-01

409

Ocean energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress is reported on the development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems that will provide synthetic fuels (e.g., methanol), energy-intensive products such as ammonia (for fertilizers and chemicals), and aluminum. The work also includes assessment and design concepts for hybrid plants, such as geothermal-OTEC (GEOTEC) plants. Another effort that began in the spring of 1982 is a technical advisory role to DOE with respect to their management of the conceptual and preliminary design activity of industry teams that are designing a shelf-mounted offshore OTEC pilot plant that could deliver power to Oahu, Hawaii. In addition, a program is underway to evaluate and test the Pneumatic Wave-Energy Conversion System (PWECS), an ocean-energy device consisting of a turbine that is air-driven as a result of wave action in a chamber. The work on the various tasks as of 31 March 1983 is reported.

410

A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy  

SciTech Connect

The National Ignition Facility (NIF), a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, will soon be completed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in 2010, using laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 35 MJ are expected soon thereafter. They propose that a laser system capable of generating fusion yields of 35 to 75 MJ at 10 to 15 Hz (i.e., {approx} 350- to 1000-MW fusion and {approx} 1.3 to 3.6 x 10{sup 20} n/s), coupled to a compact subdritical fission blanket, could be used to generate several GW of thermal power (GWth) while avoiding carbon dioxide emissions, mitigating nuclear proliferation concerns and minimizing the concerns associated with nuclear safety and long-term nuclear waste disposition. this Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) based system is a logical extension of the NIF laser and the yields expec ted from the early ignition experiments on NIF. The LIFE concept is a once-through,s elf-contained closed fuel cycle and would have the following characteristics: (1) eliminate the need for spent fuel chemical separation facilities; (4) maintain the fission blanket subcritical at all times (k{sub eff} < 0.90); and (5) minimize future requirements for deep underground geological waste repositories and minimize actinide content in the end-of-life nuclear waste below the Department of Energy's (DOE's) attractiveness Level E (the lowest). Options to burn natural or depleted U, Th, U/Th mixtures, Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) without chemical separations of weapons-attractive actinide streams, and excess weapons Pu or highly enriched U (HEU) are possible and under consideration. Because the fission blanket is always subcritical and decay heat removal is possible via passive mechanisms, the technology is inherently safe. Many technical challenges must be met, but a LIFE solution could provide a sustainable path for worldwide growth of nuclear powr for electricity production and hydrogen generation.

Moses, E; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Storm, E; Latkowski, J; Farmer, J; Abbott, R; Kramer, K; Peterson, P; Shaw, H; Lehman II, R

2009-05-22

411

Making Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Sustainable in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spatial technologies, particularly Geographic Information Systems (GIS), have become invaluable and persuasive tools in society today. These technologies have also made their way into classrooms around the world and Australian teachers are leaders in implementing GIS technology into their classrooms. There is still a way to go in order to make…

Dascombe, Brett

2006-01-01

412

Sustained remission of systemic lupus erythematosus related calciphylaxis.  

PubMed

Calciphylaxis continues to present a clinical challenge for patient management. As in this case, it can be associated with connective tissue disease (CTD) such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Unlike previous reported cases, long-term remission has been attained. This provides some insight into methods of therapy as well as potential pathogenic models for this disease. PMID:22031536

Mallett, A; John, G T; Ranganathan, D; Kark, A; Berquier, I; Casey, J; Healy, H; Francis, L

2012-04-01

413

Batteries and energy systems  

SciTech Connect

A historical review of the galvanic concept and a brief description of the theory of operation of batteries are followed by chapters on specific types of batteries and energy systems. Chapters contain a section on basic theory, performance and applications. Secondary cells discussed are: SLI batteries, lead-acid storage batteries, lead secondary cells, alkaline secondary cells, nickel and silver-cadmium systems and solid electrolyte systems. Other chapters discuss battery charging, regenerative electrochemical systems, solar cells, fuel cells, electric vehicles and windmills. (KAW)

Mantell, C.L.

1982-01-01

414

Evaluating the sustainability of a regional system using Fisher information in the San Luis Basin, Colorado  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes the theory, data, and methodology necessary for using Fisher information to assess the sustainability of the San Luis Basin (SLB) regional system over time. Fisher information was originally developed as a measure of the information content in data and is an ...

415

FEDERAL EPA TECHNICAL AND SUPPORT STAFF (SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH, SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

Contacts for the Systems Analysis Branch (SAB)of NRMRL's Sustainable Technology Division are listed on SAB's Federal EPA Technical and Support Staff page. This page lists names, titles, telephone numbers, and e-mail addresses for SAB staff members. To view SAB's list of contacts...

416

Integrated Metrics for Improving the Life Cycle Approach to Assessing Product System Sustainability  

EPA Science Inventory

Life cycle approaches are critical for identifying and managing to reduce burdens in the sustainability of product systems. While these methods can indicate potential environmental impacts of a product, current Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods fail to integrate the multiple im...

417

European innovation policy for environmentally sustainable development: Application of a systems model of technical change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical change is described using a systems model that focuses on four important characteristics: multi?directional linkages, knowledge and learning, unique development paths and cumulative self?reinforcing development. The model is then applied to the goal of environmentally sustainable development in order to determine the implications for policy at the level of the European Union (EU). The European Commission should use direct

Luc Soete; Anthony Arundel

1995-01-01

418

Problems of auditing using quality management systems for sustainable development of organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of international standards is analysed in accordance with the quality management of organisations by the requirements of sustainable development. Organisations and companies become increasingly dependent on each other and foreign partners in business, prosperity, socio?economic change and environment responsibility. There is an essential necessity for using International Standards under these changing conditions. The management systems standards ISO 9001

Adolfas Kazili?nas

2008-01-01

419

Workshop on the Design of Sustainable Product Systems and Supply Chains; Final Report,  

EPA Science Inventory

ABOUT THE WORKSHOP The Workshop on the Design of Sustainable Product Systems and Supply Chains was held September 12?13, 2011 at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) offices in Arlington, Virginia. The Workshop was co-sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (...

420

THE SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS APPROACH TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF FRESHWATER PRAWN MARKETING SYSTEMS IN SOUTHWEST BANGLADESH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework, drawn from an approach to poverty reduction known as the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA), is applied to understanding the role of freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) marketing systems in southwest Bangladesh. Freshwater prawn marketing potentially provides economic returns and social benefits to the rural poor. Although the potential benefits are great, a number of constraints were identified for

Nesar Ahmed; Catherine Lecouffe; Edward H. Allison; James F. Muir

2009-01-01

421

Sustainable Competitive Advantage in E-Commerce and the Role of the Enterprise System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing and sustaining a competitive advantage from the use of information technology is a topic of concern for information systems research. Mata et al. (1995) discuss the possibilities of IT as a competitive advantage and present a model that is founded on the resource-based view of the firm. The model is used in this paper to discuss factors that lead

Petra Schubert; Susan P. Williams; Ralf Wölfle

2011-01-01

422

Integration of elements of a farming system for sustainable weed and pest management in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversification of agricultural activities that links farm-based enterprises with cultivation of field crops helps the resource-poor farmers in tropics to generate additional income, gainful employment and improve their dietary standards. A farming system approach has been found to be a resource management strategy for achieving economic and sustainable agricultural production, catering to the diverse needs of tropical farm household while

R. M. Kathiresan

2007-01-01

423

Sustainability of a Privatized Community-based Animal Health Worker System in Mwingi District, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a study on the sustainability of Community-based Animal Health Worker (CAHW) services in Mwingi District, Kenya. These services began in 1992 and were supported by the District Veterinary Authority (DVA) with assistance from the Integrated Food Security Programme – Eastern (IFSP-E). Over time and using a process of participatory reviews with multiple stakeholders, the system evolved into

J. C. Rubyogo; P. M. Murithii; G. J. O. Agumbah; G. Obhai

2005-01-01

424

Transforming governance and institutions for global sustainability: key insights from the Earth System Governance Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current institutional framework for sustainable development is by far not strong enough to bring about the swift transformative progress that is needed. This article contends that incrementalism—the main approach since the 1972 Stockholm Conference—will not suffice to bring about societal change at the level and speed needed to mitigate and adapt to earth system transformation. Instead, the article argues

F. Biermann; K. Abbott; S. Andresen; K. Bäckstrand; S. Bernstein; M. M. Betsill; H. Bulkeley; B. Cashore; J. Clapp; C. Folke; A. Gupta; J. Gupta; P. M. Haas; A. Jordan; N. Kanie; T. Kluvánková-Oravská; L. Lebel; D. Liverman; J. Meadowcroft; R. B. Mitchell; P. Newell; S. Oberthür; L. Olsson; P. Pattberg; R. Sánchez-Rodriguez; H. Schroeder; A. Underdal; S. Camargo Vieira; C. Vogel; O. R. Young; A. Brock; R. Zondervan

2012-01-01

425

Operational sustainability metrics assessing metric effectiveness in the context of electronics-recycling systems.  

PubMed

In the past 15 years corporations and governments have developed a growing appreciation of the need for sustainability. However, there is still little clarity on how to move toward the goal of sustainability or measure improvements. Not only are there currently few operational metrics by which to practically assess progress toward sustainability, there is also little understanding of how to judge the effectiveness of such metrics. This paper presents a pragmatic approach to developing--and evaluating--system-specific performance metrics for sustainability. Electronics recycling is used as a case problem in developing and judging the effectiveness of such metrics. Despite growing concerns aboutthe handling of end-of-life electronics, data availability is inconsistent, and there is still limited understanding of the electronics-recycling system as a whole. To begin to address the need for practical quantitative methods to assess system performance, several indicators were developed and applied to three U.S. electronics-recycling operations. These metrics were assessed based on the developed criteria that effective measures be useful, robust, and feasible. Results show that the current measure of "mass percent to landfill" is not sufficient to assess system performance. Relevance-weighted mass indicators with varying data requirements can provide additional insights on resource efficiency. PMID:16903293

Atlee, Jennifer; Kirchain, Randolph

2006-07-15

426

Parsimonious Use of Indicators for Evaluating Sustainability Systems with Multivariate Statistical Analyses  

EPA Science Inventory

Indicators are commonly used for evaluating relative sustainability for competing products and processes. When a set of indicators is chosen for a particular system of study, it is important to ensure that they are variable independently of each other. Often the number of indicat...

427

Fuzzy cost recovery in planning for sustainable water supply systems in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing water to all the world’s inhabitants is a daunting task. In order to make the task at all feasible, efficiency in planning is required. Demand-responsive project design is directly related to the sustainability of rural water systems, and cost recovery is a significant indicator of demand responsiveness. As such, cost recovery can be used as a proxy indicator of

K. Virjee; S. Gaskin

2005-01-01

428

Green process design, industrial ecology, and sustainability: A systems analysis perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a systems analysis perspective that extends the traditional process design framework to green process design and industrial ecology leading to sustainability. For green process design this involves starting the design decisions as early as chemical and material selection stage on one end, and managing and planning decisions at the other end. However, uncertainties and multiple and conflicting

Urmila Diwekar

2005-01-01

429

DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM FOR PIGNON, HAITI  

EPA Science Inventory

In conducting a survey of the population we found that Pignon is in need of a sustainable water supply and distribution system. We had no prior available data on the town, so we collected elevation data, figured water demand and modeled it against the supply, mapped the entire...

430

Osmotically regulated asymmetric capsular systems for simultaneous sustained delivery of anti-tubercular drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustained release asymmetric membrane capsular systems were developed for simultaneous oral delivery of rifampicin and isoniazid sodium in order to reduce the problems associated with the multi drug therapy of tuberculosis. Dense semipermeable membrane coating capsules were also prepared for the delivery of these drugs by adopting two different filling approaches. In vitro release studies were carried out for both

D. Prabakaran; Paramjit Singh; K. S. Jaganathan; Suresh P. Vyas

2004-01-01

431

Geologic setting of the Central Alaskan Hot Springs Belt: Implications for geothermal resource capacity and sustainable energy production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Alaskan Hot Springs Belt (CAHSB) is a vast stretch of low-temperature hydrothermal systems that has the potential to be a geothermal energy resource for remote communities in Alaska. Little exploration has occurred in the CAHSB and the resource is poorly understood. A geothermal power plant was installed in 2006 at Chena Hot Springs (CHS), one of the 30-plus hot springs in the CAHSB. This, in addition to the multiple direct use projects at CHS, could serve as a model for geothermal development elsewhere in the CAHSB. This dissertation evaluates the geologic setting of the CAHSB and explores the implications for resource capacity and sustainable energy production. The local geology and geochemical characteristics of CHS are characterized, with a focus on identifying ultimate heat source responsible for the hot springs. A radiogenic heat source model is proposed and tested for the entire CAHSB, wherein the anomalously radioactive plutons that are associated with nearly every hot spring are providing the source of heat driving the geothermal activity. This model appears to be feasible mechanism for the observed heat transfer. This implies that CAHSB "reservoir" fluids are probably low-temperature. It also suggests that individual hydrothermal systems are small-scale and localized features, unlike the types of hydrothermal systems that are conventionally exploited for energy (i.e., those that derive their heat from magmatic or deep crustal sources, which have higher reservoir temperatures and larger spatial extent). In this context, the individual capacity of several CAHSB resources close to communities is assessed, and a preliminary evaluation of the sustainability of the power production scheme at CHS is given. As another approach to the question of sustainability, this dissertation explores the ways in which external benefits of geothermal energy can influence the economics of a project. In sum, producing geothermal energy from CAHSB resources is somewhat risky at the present time, though it may be less risky than continued use of diesel fuel. The risks of geothermal development could be greatly reduced by rapid and immediate exploration efforts to collect much-needed data about CAHSB geothermal resources.

Kolker, Amanda M.

432

Sync or anti-sync – dynamical pattern selection in coupled self-sustained oscillator systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of similar, self-sustained oscillators coupled by a common platform exhibits fascinating collective behavior. Experiments performed with pendulum clocks and metronomes reported both the absence of synchronization, in-phase synchronization, antiphase synchronization, beat-death phenomenon, or even chaotic dynamics. Here we present a numerical study on two identical self-sustained oscillators placed on a common movable platform. As order parameter for synchronization we use the Pearson correlation coefficient between the oscillators coordinates. As a function of the relevant physical parameters of this system we reproduce all the experimentally reported dynamics. We provide conditions for obtaining stable and emergent in-phase or anti-phase synchronization.

Davidova, Larissa; Újvári, Szeréna; Néda, Zoltán

2014-05-01

433

Y-12 Site Sustainability Plan  

SciTech Connect

The accomplishments to date and the long-range planning of the Y-12 Energy Management and Sustainability and Stewardship programs support the DOE and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) vision for a commitment to energy efficiency and sustainability and to achievement of the Guiding Principles. Specifically, the Y-12 vision is to support the Environment, Safety and Health Policy and the DOE Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan (SSPP) while promoting overall sustainability and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Table ES.2 gives a comprehensive overview of Y-12's performance status and planned actions. B&W Y-12's Energy Management mission is to incorporate renewable energy and energy efficient technologies site-wide and to position Y-12 to meet NNSA energy requirement needs through 2025 and beyond. During FY 2011, the site formed a sustainability team (Fig. ES.1). The sustainability team provides a coordinated approach to meeting the various sustainability requirements and serves as a forum for increased communication and consistent implementation of sustainability activities at Y-12. The sustainability team serves as an information exchange mechanism to promote general awareness of sustainability information, while providing a system to document progress and to identify resources. These resources are necessary to implement activities that support the overall goals of sustainability, including reducing the use of resources and conserving energy. Additionally, the team's objectives include: (1) Foster a Y-12-wide philosophy to conserve resources; (2) Reduce the impacts of production operations in a cost-effective manner; (3) Increase materials recycling; (4) Use a minimum amount of energy and fuel; (5) Create a minimum of waste and pollution in achieving Y-12-strategic objectives; (6) Develop and implement techniques, technologies, process modifications, and programs that support sustainable acquisition; (7) Minimize the impacts to resources, including energy/fuel, water, waste, pesticides, and pollution generation; (8) Incorporate sustainable design principles into the design and construction of facility upgrades, new facilities, and infrastructure; and (9) Comply with federal and state regulations, executive orders, and DOE requirements. Y-12 is working to communicate its sustainment vision through procedural, engineering, operational, and management practices. The site will make informed decisions based on the application of the five Guiding Principles for HPSBs to the maximum extent possible.

Sherry, T. D.; Kohlhorst, D. P.; Little, S. K.

2011-12-01

434

Advanced energy system program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ogjectives are to design, develop, and demonstrate a natural-gas-fueled, highly recuperated, 50 kw Brayton-cycle cogeneration system for commercial, institutional, and multifamily residential applications. Recent marketing studies have shown that the Advanced Energy System (AES), with its many cost-effective features, has the potential to offer significant reductions in annual electrical and thermal energy costs to the consumer. Specific advantates of the system that result in low cost ownership are high electrical efficiency (34 percent, LHV), low maintenance, high reliability and long life (20 years). Significant technical features include: an integral turbogenerator with shaft-speed permanent magnet generator; a rotating assembly supported by compliant foil air bearings; a formed-tubesheet plate/fin recuperator with 91 percent effectiveness; and a bi-directional power conditioner to ultilize the generator for system startup. The planned introduction of catalytic combustion will further enhance the economic and ecological attractiveness.

Trester, K.

1987-06-01

435

Osmotically regulated asymmetric capsular systems for simultaneous sustained delivery of anti-tubercular drugs.  

PubMed

Sustained release asymmetric membrane capsular systems were developed for simultaneous oral delivery of rifampicin and isoniazid sodium in order to reduce the problems associated with the multi drug therapy of tuberculosis. Dense semipermeable membrane coating capsules were also prepared for the delivery of these drugs by adopting two different filling approaches. In vitro release studies were carried out for both types of systems and the results were compared. Asymmetric membrane capsules provided sustained release of rifampicin associated with initial burst release, where isoniazid release rates were comparatively high due to higher aqueous solubility. Dense semipermeable membrane systems provided controlled release of both drugs but were devoid of initial burst release of isoniazid. To overcome these drawbacks, a modified asymmetric system was developed by adding appropriate amount of hydrophilic polymer mixture with isoniazid. The system provided satisfactory sustained release of rifampicin and isoniazid with initial burst release may be sufficient to achieve minimum effective concentration in blood. In vitro dissolution kinetics of the systems followed first order kinetics and statistical analysis of release rate data proved that modified asymmetric system was better amongst the developed systems. PMID:14980772

Prabakaran, D; Singh, Paramjit; Jaganathan, K S; Vyas, Suresh P

2004-03-01

436

Energy generation system  

SciTech Connect

An energy generation system includes a motive fluid which is alternately heated and cooled to drive a heat engine. An inexpensively built and operated system heats the motive fluid with solar radiation and cools it with atmospheric or wind cooling. Low cost solar heat collectors are fabricated with aluminum foil or aluminized Mylar reflective surface overlying parabolically shaped paperboard bases. Low cost fluid cooling devices are fabricated from various fluid carrying porous canvas bags, some being provided with wind catching devices.

Wardman, J.C.; Adams, J.Y.

1983-07-26

437

Sustained small oscillations in nonlinear control systems. [launch vehicle dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some results of bifurcation theory were used to study the existence of small-amplitude periodic behavior in launch vehicle dynamics, assuming that nonlinearity exists as a cubic term in the rudder response. The analysis follows closely Sattinger's (1973) approach to the theory of periodic bifurcations. The conditions under which a bifurcating branch of orbitally stable periodic solutions will exist are determined. It is shown that in more complicated cases, the conditions under which the system matrix has a pair of simple purely imaginary eigenvalues can be determined with the aid of linear stability techniques.

George, J. H.; Gunderson, R. W.; Hahn, H.

1975-01-01

438

Sustained Effects of the Communities That Care System on Prevention Service System Transformation  

PubMed Central

Objectives We examined whether the Communities That Care (CTC) system sustained effects 1.5 years after study funding ended on prevention system constructs expected to be important for community-level reductions in drug use and antisocial behaviors among youths. Methods Data were from a community trial of 24 towns in the United States randomized to either the CTC intervention or control conditions. Participants were 928 community key leaders interviewed at 1 to 4 waves from 2001 to 2009. Intervention activities, including training and technical assistance, were conducted between 2003 and 2008 in the CTC communities. Results Leaders from CTC communities reported higher levels of adoption of a science-based approach to prevention and a higher percentage of funding desired for prevention activities in 2009 than did leaders in control communities. CTC communities showed a higher increase over time in community norms against adolescent drug use as well as adoption of a science-based approach compared with control communities. Conclusions These findings indicated that CTC implementation produced enduring transformation of important prevention system constructs in intervention communities, which might, in turn, produce long-term reductions in youth problem behaviors.

Rhew, Isaac C.; Brown, Eric C.; Hawkins, J. David; Briney, John S.

2013-01-01

439

Energy Infrastructure Defense Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy infrastructure faced with deregulation and coupled with interdependencies with other critical infrastructures and increased demand for high-quality and reliable electricity for our digital economy is becoming more and more stressed. The occurrence of several cascading failures in the past 40 years has helped focus attention on the need to understand the complex phenomena associated with these interconnected systems and

MASSOUD AMIN

2005-01-01

440

Wind Energy Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

441

Energy Doubler Refrigeration System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Energy Doubler refrigeration system is required to cool long strings of warm iron magnets with a high degree of reliability and/or redundancy. The 6.5 km circumference together with the extremely small cooling channels dictated by the warm iron config...

C. Rode D. Richied S. Stoy P. C. VanderArend

1977-01-01

442

Exploring a Systems Approach to Mainstreaming Sustainability in Universities: A Case Study of Rhodes University in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the use of systems theory to inform the mainstreaming of sustainability in a university's functions as it responds to sustainable development challenges in its local context. Offering a case study of Rhodes University, the paper shows how the use of systems models and concepts, underpinned by a critical realist ontology…

Togo, Muchaiteyi; Lotz-Sisitka, Heila

2013-01-01

443

Sustainable Cooling via a Ground Coupled Chilled Ceiling System - A Theoretical Investigation (UK6.M1P)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Traditional cooling systems are large contributors to global warming and ozone depletion and this has provided opportunities for new sustainable methods of cooling buildings. One approach that has recently been reported involves an integrated system utilising ground source heat exchangers and chilled ceilings to provide sustainable cooling. This paper describes a study into the practicalities and economics of applying

G. G. Maidment; J. F. Missenden

444

The Formation of Life-sustaining Planets in Extrasolar Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The spatial exploration is providing us a large quantity of information about the composition of the planets and satellites crusts. However, most of the experiences that are proposed in the guides of activities in Planetary Geology are based exclusively on the images utilization: photographs, maps, models or artistic reconstructions [1,2]. That things help us to recognize shapes and to deduce geological processes, but they says us little about the materials that they are implicated. In order to avoid this dicotomy between shapes and materials, we have designed an experience in the one which, employing of rocks and landscapes of our geological environment more next, the pupils be able to do an exercise of compared planetology analyzing shapes, processes and material of several planetary bodies of the Solar System.

Chambers, J. E.

2003-01-01

445