Note: This page contains sample records for the topic sustainable energy system from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Monitoring the energy systems of sustainable buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of sustainable energy systems for buildings services calls for more transparency of the processes which provide energy for the buildings heating, cooling and power needs. In the frame of applied scientific research at University of Applied Sciences Offenburg, different systems and even buildings in total have been monitored over years to analyse their performance and to optimize the system installations and operations. New EU regulations like EN 16001 require an effective monitoring and a continuous commissioning of the energy relevant systems to certificate sustainable processes. On the other hand, new operation tools are necessary to handle the volatility of renewable energy sources and the buildings demand. Predictive building automation has shown good results when applied for energy systems with high inertia. Operating large-scale solar thermal systems and sustainable buildings over long-term periods the University of Applied Sciences provided evidence that monitoring is an essential system tool for an energy and cost efficient operation of sustainable buildings.

Bollin, Elmar

2011-04-01

2

The sustainable system for global nuclear energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainable system for global nuclear energy utilization has been developed based on the concept of the Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System. As the results, it is clarified that metallic fuel fast reactor cycle with recycling of actinides and five LLFPs is one of the most promising systems for the sustainable nuclear utilization. It is important to develop the related technologies

Kazuo Arie; Yoshio Araki; Mitsuyoshi Sato; Kenji Mori; Masatoshi Kawashima; Yoshiyuki Nakayama; Kazuo Ishiguma; Yoichi Fuji-ie

2007-01-01

3

Sustainable design of complex industrial and energy systems under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depletion of natural resources, environmental pressure, economic globalization, etc., demand seriously industrial organizations to ensure that their manufacturing be sustainable. On the other hand, the efforts of pursing sustainability also give raise to potential opportunities for improvements and collaborations among various types of industries. ^ Owing to inherent complexity and uncertainty, however, sustainability problems of industrial and energy systems are

Zheng Liu

2012-01-01

4

The sustainable system for global nuclear energy utilization  

SciTech Connect

The sustainable system for global nuclear energy utilization has been developed based on the concept of the Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System. As the results, it is clarified that metallic fuel fast reactor cycle with recycling of actinides and five LLFPs is one of the most promising systems for the sustainable nuclear utilization. It is important to develop the related technologies toward its realization. (authors)

Arie, Kazuo; Araki, Yoshio; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Mori, Kenji [Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8523 (Japan); Kawashima, Masatoshi [Aitel Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan); Nakayama, Yoshiyuki; Ishiguma, Kazuo [The Japan Atomic Power Company, 1-1, Kanda-Mitoshiro-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0053 (Japan); Fuji-ie, Yoichi [Nuclear Salon Fuji-ie, 1-7-6, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

2007-07-01

5

Sustainable design of complex industrial and energy systems under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depletion of natural resources, environmental pressure, economic globalization, etc., demand seriously industrial organizations to ensure that their manufacturing be sustainable. On the other hand, the efforts of pursing sustainability also give raise to potential opportunities for improvements and collaborations among various types of industries.\\u000aOwing to inherent complexity and uncertainty, however, sustainability problems of industrial and energy systems are always

Zheng Liu

2012-01-01

6

Sustainable Energy Economy: The Next Challenge for Systems Engineers; Preprint.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The realities of shrinking fossil fuel reserves, growing global energy demand, and climate change concerns will force a change to a sustainable energy economy. Systems engineers need to take a leadership role in making the transition to this new energy ec...

N. Snyder

2008-01-01

7

Thermodynamic Aspects of Energy Systems and Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving sustainable solutions to today's energy and environmental problems requires long-term planning and actions. Energy issues are particularly prevalent at present and renewable energy resources appear to provide one component of an effective sustainable solution. An understanding of the thermodynamic aspects of sustainable development can help in taking sustainable actions regarding energy. In this article, possible future energy-utilization patterns and

S. Bilgen; K. Kaygusuz; A. Sari

2007-01-01

8

Sustainable design of complex industrial and energy systems under uncertainty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depletion of natural resources, environmental pressure, economic globalization, etc., demand seriously industrial organizations to ensure that their manufacturing be sustainable. On the other hand, the efforts of pursing sustainability also give raise to potential opportunities for improvements and collaborations among various types of industries. Owing to inherent complexity and uncertainty, however, sustainability problems of industrial and energy systems are always very difficult to deal with, which has made industrial practice mostly experience based. For existing research efforts on the study of industrial sustainability, although systems approaches have been applied in dealing with the challenge of system complexity, most of them are still lack in the ability of handling inherent uncertainty. To overcome this limit, there is a research need to develop a new generation of systems approaches by integrating techniques and methods for handling various types of uncertainties. To achieve this objective, this research introduced series of holistic methodologies for sustainable design and decision-making of industrial and energy systems. The introduced methodologies are developed in a systems point of view with the functional components involved in, namely, modeling, assessment, analysis, and decision-making. For different methodologies, the interval-parameter-based, fuzzy-logic-based, and Monte Carlo based methods are selected and applied respectively for handling various types of uncertainties involved, and the optimality of solutions is guaranteed by thorough search or system optimization. The proposed methods are generally applicable for any types of industrial systems, and their efficacy had been successfully demonstrated by the given case studies. Beyond that, a computational tool was designed, which provides functions on the industrial sustainability assessment and decision-making through several convenient and interactive steps of computer operation. This computational tool should be able to greatly facilitate the academic and industrial practices on the study of sustainability problems, and it is the first one available to the public.

Liu, Zheng

9

The role of compressed air energy storage (CAES) in future sustainable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future sustainable energy systems call for the introduction of integrated storage technologies. One of these technologies is compressed air energy storage (CAES). In Denmark at present, wind power meets 20% and combined heat and power production (CHP) meets 50% of the electricity demand. Based on these figures, the paper assesses the value of integrating CAES into future sustainable energy systems

Henrik Lund; Georges Salgi

2009-01-01

10

Environment, Energy and Sustainability from a Systems Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a framework for teaching and learning about environment, energy and sustainability issues from the perspective of the emerging field of engineering systems. Engineering systems integrates approaches from engineering, management and social sciences to address systems with a high degree of technical and social complexity of importance to human societies. We share approaches to integrating engineering systems research and teaching from the Engineering Systems Division at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Topics include simulation and modeling; risk assessment; technology assessment; coupled human-natural systems; and optimization. We show how we have applied active learning techniques using simple models (e.g. climate and economic system modeling) to help students understand the dynamics of complexity in environmental systems and their interacting human components.

Selin, N. E.; Webster, M. D.; Trancik, J.

2010-12-01

11

Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.  

PubMed

Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. PMID:22351622

Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

2012-02-20

12

Urban Energy Carrying Capacity A Evaluation Method on Sustainable Urban Energy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative concept of urban energy carry capacity (UECC) is introduced in this paper, which evaluate the degree of urban energy sustainability based on the relationship between energy system and city. The UECC model is established in hierarchical structure with pressure and bearing force layer. The pressure layer contains energy and environment indicators system, which cause pressure to city due

Zhonghai Zheng; Lin Fu; Hongfa Di; Zi Wu

2009-01-01

13

Towards sustainable and renewable systems for electrochemical energy storage.  

PubMed

Renewable energy sources and electric automotive transportation are popular topics in our belated energy-conscious society, placing electrochemical energy management as one of the major technological developments for this new century. Besides efficiency, any new storage technologies will have to provide advantages in terms of cost and environmental footprint and thus rely on sustainable materials that can be processed at low temperature. To meet such challenges future devices will require inspiration from living organisms and rely on either bio-inspired or biomimetic approaches. PMID:18683264

Tarascon, Jean-Marie

2008-01-01

14

A Framework for Supporting Organizational Transition Processes Towards Sustainable Energy Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic development over the last century has driven a tripling of the world's population, a twenty-fold increase in fossil fuel consumption, and a tripling of traditional biomass consumption. The associated broad income and wealth inequities are retaining over 2 billion people in poverty. Adding to this, fossil fuel combustion is impacting the environment across spatial and temporal scales and the cost of energy is outpacing all other variable costs for most industries. With 60% of world energy delivered in 2008 consumed by the commercial and industrial sector, the fragmented and disparate energy-related decision making within organizations are largely responsible for the inefficient and impacting use of energy resources. The global transition towards sustainable development will require the collective efforts of national, regional, and local governments, institutions, the private sector, and a well-informed public. The leadership role in this transition could be provided by private and public sector organizations, by way of sustainability-oriented organizations, cultures, and infrastructure. The diversity in literature exemplifies the developing nature of sustainability science, with most sustainability assessment approaches and frameworks lacking transformational characteristics, tending to focus on analytical methods. In general, some shortfalls in sustainability assessment processes include lack of: · thorough stakeholder participation in systems and stakeholder mapping, · participatory envisioning of future sustainable states, · normative aggregation of results to provide an overall measure of sustainability, and · influence within strategic decision-making processes. Specific to energy sustainability assessments, while some authors aggregate results to provide overall sustainability scores, assessments have focused solely on energy supply scenarios, while including the deficits discussed above. This paper presents a framework for supporting organizational transition processes towards sustainable energy systems, using systems and stakeholder mapping, participatory envisioning, and sustainability assessment to prepare the development of transition strategies towards realizing long-term energy sustainability. The energy system at Arizona State University's Tempe campus (ASU) in 2008 was used as a baseline to evaluate the sustainability of the current system. From interviews and participatory workshops, energy system stakeholders provided information to map the current system and measure its performance. Utilizing operationalized principles of energy sustainability, stakeholders envisioned a future sustainable state of the energy system, and then developed strategies to begin transition of the current system to its potential future sustainable state. Key findings include stakeholders recognizing that the current energy system is unsustainable as measured against principles of energy sustainability and an envisioned future sustainable state of the energy system. Also, insufficient governmental stakeholder engagement upstream within the current system could lead to added risk as regulations affect energy supply. Energy demand behavior and consumption patterns are insufficiently understood by current stakeholders, limiting participation and accountability from consumers. In conclusion, although this research study focused on the Tempe campus, ASU could apply this process to other campuses thereby improving overall ASU energy system sustainability. Expanding stakeholder engagement upstream within the energy system and better understanding energy consumption behavior can also improve long-term energy sustainability. Finally, benchmarking ASU's performance against its peer universities could expand the current climate commitment of participants to broader sustainability goals.

Buch, Rajesh

15

Transportation and energy: Strategies for a sustainable transportation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread concern about energy efficiency, societal impacts and environmental quality has sparked a global interest in the reevaluation of their transportation systems. This book examines how transportation energy choices made by citizens, policy makers and planners will affect national goals of mobility, accessibility, environmental quality, quality of life, economic growth, and energy security. Chapters cover: mobility, growth and system change,

D. Sperling; S. A. Shaheen

1995-01-01

16

Transportation and energy: Strategies for a sustainable transportation system  

SciTech Connect

Widespread concern about energy efficiency, societal impacts and environmental quality has sparked a global interest in the reevaluation of their transportation systems. This book examines how transportation energy choices made by citizens, policy makers and planners will affect national goals of mobility, accessibility, environmental quality, quality of life, economic growth, and energy security. Chapters cover: mobility, growth and system change, including land use and transportation alternatives; energy and vehicle alternatives, including ``superefficient`` cars, alternative fuels and energy and emissions reduction policy; social cost analysis of alternative fuels; market-based demand management policies in Southern California; fuel and vehicle taxation as market incentives for higher fuel economy and the effect of taxation policies on vehicle characteristics in the US and other developed countries; and industry perspectives on technology, economics and government-industry cooperation. Based on presentations made by transportation system planners and policy-makers at the 1993 Asilomar Conference on Transportation and Energy.

Sperling, D.; Shaheen, S.A. [eds.] [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1995-12-31

17

An Energy Systems Perspective on Sustainability and the ?Prosperous Way Down?  

EPA Science Inventory

Energy Systems Theory provides a theoretical context for understanding, evaluating and interpreting shared social visions like ?Growth?, ?Sustainability? and ?The Prosperous Way Down?. A social vision becomes dominant within society when a sufficient number of people recognize t...

18

An energy systems view of sustainability: emergy evaluation of the San Luis Basin, Colorado.  

PubMed

Energy Systems Theory (EST) provides a framework for understanding and interpreting sustainability. EST implies that "what is sustainable" for a system at any given level of organization is determined by the cycles of change originating in the next larger system and within the system of concern. The pulsing paradigm explains the ubiquitous cycles of change that apparently govern ecosystems, rather than succession to a steady state that is then sustainable. Therefore, to make robust decisions among environmental policies and alternatives, decision-makers need to know where their system resides in the cycles of change that govern it. This theory was examined by performing an emergy evaluation of the sustainability of a regional system, the San Luis Basin (SLB), CO. By 1980, the SLB contained a climax stage agricultural system with well-developed crop and livestock production along with food and animal waste processing. The SLB is also a hinterland in that it exports raw materials and primary products (exploitation stage) to more developed areas. Emergy indices calculated for the SLB from 1995 to 2005 revealed changes in the relative sustainability of the system over this time. The sustainability of the region as indicated by the renewable emergy used as a percent of total use declined 4%, whereas, the renewable carrying capacity declined 6% over this time. The Emergy Sustainability Index (ESI) showed the largest decline (27%) in the sustainability of the region. The total emergy used by the SLB, a measure of system well-being, was fairly stable (CV = 0.05). In 1997, using renewable emergy alone, the SLB could support 50.7% of its population at the current standard of living, while under similar conditions the U.S. could support only 4.8% of its population. In contrast to other indices of sustainability, a new index, the Emergy Sustainable Use Index (ESUI), which considers the benefits gained by the larger system compared to the potential for local environmental damage, increased 34% over the period. PMID:22115513

Campbell, Daniel E; Garmestani, Ahjond S

2011-11-10

19

Sustainable Development as a challenge for transforming the energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instruction to readers: this is a preliminary and incomplete paper, without having passed a language check and with only few references, more an area of construction than a well-formulated paper. Please use it only for preparing the Deutschlandsberg summer school 2007 and don't circulate it. Abstract The energy system (supply, transport and usage) is of highest importance in the context

Armin Grunwald; Jürgen Kopfmüller

20

Sustainable aquaculture systems  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this paper is to examine and assess the technical feasibility of the integration of plant and/or animal aquaculture systems into a sustainable agriculture. Although most researchers tend to avoid a precise definition of sustainable aquaculture, the implication that one gets from `reading between the lines` is that a sustainable agro-ecosystem is one which recycles materials at maximum energy efficiency. The `unspoken` standard against which comparisons of sustainability are often made is that of a mature natural ecosystem at a steady state. Cost comparisons of alternative systems will be used whenever possible, however, in many cases, conventional cost/benefit analysis will be of limited value in such an analysis. For aquaculture, such an analysis can best be conducted by analyzing the possibilities of integrating nutrients, water, and energy flow from aquaculture systems both to and from, conventional agricultural systems. The various aquaculture options are then qualitatively compared as their potential, limitations, environmental soundness, productivity, socio-economic viability and the availability of supporting technology. It is important to realize that the usefulness or applicability of any sustainable or integrated aquaculture practice is highly site specific.

Brune, D.E.

1994-08-01

21

Combining policy instruments for sustainable energy systems: An assessment with the GMM model  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the impact of an illustrative portfolio of policy instruments that address different sustainability concerns in the global energy system in areas of climate change, air pollution and introduction of renewable-energy resources is conducted. The effects of a policy set containing three instruments, implemented either individually or in combination, were examined. The policy instruments under examination in this

Peter Rafaj; Leonardo Barreto; Socrates Kypreos

2006-01-01

22

The nuclear power satellite (NPS) - Key to a sustainable global energy economy and solar system civilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential role of nuclear power satellite (NPS) in developing a sustainable global energy economy for earth and in the spread of human civilization across the solar system is discussed. The technical steps needed to develop, operate, and maintain NSP facilities are described. An initial application of NPS is examined which involves linking its energy output via energy beaming to hydrogen energy parks on earth.

Angelo, J. A., Jr.; Buden, D.

23

Innovative systems for sustainable nuclear energy generation and waste management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limited amount of fossil resources, the impact of green-house gas emissions on the world climate, the rising demand of primary energy projected to 2050, lead to a potentially critical situation for the world energy supply. The need for alternative (to fossil energies) massive energy production is evaluated to 10 Gtoe. The potential of Nuclear Energy generation at the level

Jm Loiseaux; S. David

2006-01-01

24

Sustainable Energy Coalition Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sustainable Energy Coalition brings together business, environmental, and consumer organizations that advocate federal energy policies that will lead to "a cleaner environment, safe reliable energy technologies, and a secure, prosperous future for all Americans."

2008-08-18

25

Introduction to Sustainable Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of MIT's innovative OpenCourseWare Project, which provides materials from MIT classes to the public on the web, this site outlines the content of a Sustainable Energy seminar at MIT. The site provides lecture notes and assignments and solutions. The topics covered include energy transfer and conversion, sustainability issues, renewable energy, thermodynamics and more.

2008-09-18

26

Decentralized Micro-hydro Energy Systems in Nepal: En Route to Sustainable Energy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, 85 percent of Nepalese people live in remote areas with limited access to energy except fuel wood and other biomass for their energy source. This article examines the sustainable energy projects, considering socioeconomic conditions of the country. In this study, it is revealed that micro-hydro operations in remote\\/isolated areas are considered to be one of the most feasible

G. R. Pokharel; A. B. Chhetri; M. I. Khan; M. R. Islam

2008-01-01

27

Nuclear energy systems: Safety, transmutation of radiowastes and fuel self-sustaining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of incineration of the most hazardous long-lived radiowastes ( minor actinides, iodine-129 and technetium-99) is analyzed. It is concluded that large-scale nuclear energy system based on thermal and improved fast reactors supplemented with accelerator-driven blanket facilities can be characterized by safety, self-sustaining and capability to incinerate the most hazardous long-lived radiowastes.

A. N Chmelev; V. A Apse; G. G Koulikov

1995-01-01

28

Energy issues affecting corn/soybean systems: Challenges for sustainable production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantifying energy issues associated with agricultural systems, even for a simple two-crop corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) rotation, is not a simple task. It becomes even more complicated if the goal is to include all aspects of sustainability (i.e., economic, environmental, ...

29

Renewable Energy: Energy Security and Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy offers the possibility of providing a complete, sustainable energy infrastructure without anthropogenic emission of CO2. Large-scale implementation of renewable technologies would eliminate the need to develop and implement sequestration systems, by reducing the use of, and ultimately eliminating fossil based energy production. Renewable energy also offers energy security because indigenous resources are sufficient. The major renewable energy systems

John Turner

2002-01-01

30

China must have its own unique sustainable energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy and associated environmental problems are now the central focus of mankind. These problems are extremely serious and urgent, because global climate change will not wait for a long time. The problems should be solved in a limited time-frame of less than 50 years. Human-induced climate change could overshadow all our efforts to cure diseases, reduce poverty, prevent warfare and

Weidou Ni; Shilie Weng

2009-01-01

31

Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

2009-04-01

32

Prospects for Sustainable Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil fuels are a finite resource, and their continued use as the world's dominant energy supply is damaging the environment. Future use of alternative methods of energy supply is inescapable. This book offers a critical assessment of all possible sustainable energy technologies and energy storage. Coverage explores the historical origins, technical features, marketability, and environmental impacts of the complete range of sustainable energy technologies: solar, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal power, ocean-energy sources, solar-derived hydrogen fuel, and energy storage. The aim is to inform policy analysts and decision makers of the options available for sustainable energy production. This accessible volume will be a valuable resource for a broad group of academics and researchers with a wide range of backgrounds and scientific training. It will also be an ideal supplementary next for advanced courses in environmental studies, energy economics and policy, and engineering.

Cassedy, Edward S., Jr.

2000-04-01

33

Northeast Sustainable Energy Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Sustainable Energy Association (NSEA), a chapter of the American Solar Energy Society, is an organization for northeastern United States focused on "promoting the understanding, development, and adoption of energy conservation and non-polluting, renewable energy technologies." NSEA promotes the use of electricity produced through sustainable and non-polluting methods, as well as green transportation and building construction and design through advocacy and education. The NSEA Web site offers some useful tools for homeowners and teachers alike. These include Information About Sustainable Transportation, energy conservation tips, and selected articles from the Northeast Sun (published quarterly). Also available are resources and publications for educators; however, some things are not freely available on the Web and must be ordered from the NSEA.

2001-01-01

34

Toward a sustainable energy future in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Envisioning Australia's energy future through a ‘strong sustainability’ framework would see a future that is based on the efficient and equitable use of energy, sourced from a diverse range of renewable, distributed energy systems. Supply and use of this energy would produce low or zero greenhouse gases and other emissions. A sustainable energy future in Australia would also see a

Peter Kinrade

2007-01-01

35

Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's rural areas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems currently in China's rural areas. It also provides feasible policy strategies for removing these barriers, thus enabling IAB systems to better serve sustainable rural development objectives in China. Prospects for the transfer of IAB systems to other developing countries are briefly considered.

Zhou, Aiming

36

Exergetic and exergoeconomic aspects of wind energy systems in achieving sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of renewable energy resources appears to be one of the most efficient and effective ways in achieving sustainable development, that is now widely seen as important to worldwide public opinion. Among renewable energy sources, wind energy, which is a free, clean, and renewable source of energy, which will never run out, plays a big role. In this context, a

Arif Hepbasli; Zeyad Alsuhaibani

2011-01-01

37

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

EXECUTIVE SUMARRY This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

Janet.twomey@wichita.edu

2010-04-30

38

Diversification and localization of energy systems for sustainable development and energy security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominance of a single-energy system inevitably leads to excessive burden on, and eventually weakening, a particular aspect of the environment, and can cause environmental fatigue and failure (permanent damage) or even catastrophe if dominated for too long; thus it inevitably poses the health and environmental risk. This is the case for our currently fossil-fuel-based energy systems. In fact, each

Xianguo Li

2005-01-01

39

Smart and sustainable energy systems for developing countries: An Indian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is a highly diverse country with regard to its electrification status, covering all from well developed cities to rural areas without access to electricity. It has identified renew- able energy sources as the long-term solution for future energy and progressing in the direction of electrifying the unreachable pockets. In this context, paper accumulates the prospects of sustainable energy and

V. S. K. Murthy Balijepalli; S. A. Khaparde

2011-01-01

40

Hopi Sustainable Energy Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hopi Tribal Government as part of an initiative to ?Regulate the delivery of energy and energy services to the Hopi Reservation and to create a strategic business plan for tribal provision of appropriate utility, both in a manner that improves the reliability and cost efficiency of such services,? established the Hopi Clean Air Partnership Project (HCAPP) to support the Tribe?s economic development goals, which is sensitive to the needs and ways of the Hopi people. The Department of Energy (DOE) funded, Formation of Hopi Sustainable Energy Program results are included in the Clean Air Partnership Report. One of the Hopi Tribe?s primary strategies to improving the reliability and cost efficiency of energy services on the Reservation and to creating alternative (to coal) economic development opportunities is to form and begin implementation of the Hopi Sustainable Energy Program. The Hopi Tribe through the implementation of this grant identified various economic opportunities available from renewable energy resources. However, in order to take advantage of those opportunities, capacity building of tribal staff is essential in order for the Tribe to develop and manage its renewable energy resources. As Arizona public utilities such as APS?s renewable energy portfolio increases the demand for renewable power will increase. The Hopi Tribe would be in a good position to provide a percentage of the power through wind energy. It is equally important that the Hopi Tribe begin a dialogue with APS and NTUA to purchase the 69Kv transmission on Hopi and begin looking into financing options to purchase the line.

Norman Honie, Jr.; Margie Schaff; Mark Hannifan

2004-08-01

41

High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy

Pavel Valeryevich Tsvetkov; Salvador B. Rodriguez; II David E; Gary Eugene Rochau

2010-01-01

42

A case for sustainable security systems engineering: Integrating national, human, energy and environmental security  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, there is a growing sense of insecurity felt by many citizens around\\u000a the world. Sustainable security, with roots in the sustainable development and human security literature, seeks positive transformations\\u000a for the co-evolving and mutually dependent human-environmental condition by integrating (and subsuming) national, human, environmental,\\u000a and energy security concerns and capitalizing

Jason K. Levy

2009-01-01

43

From wind-solar energy educational demo system (WISE) to sustainable energy research facility (SERF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes education, outreach, and research activities on residential use of wind and solar energy performed at Frostburg State University (FSU). A residential size wind and solar energy demonstration system named ldquoWISErdquo consisting of a 2-kW solar (PV) array and 1.8-kW wind turbine was constructed on FSU campus. A broad range of community outreach presentations have been offered to

O. A. Soysal; H. S. Soysal

2009-01-01

44

Policy Strategies and Paths to promote Sustainable Energy Systems- The dynamic Invert Simulation Tool  

SciTech Connect

The European Union has established a number of targetsregarding energy efficiency, Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and CO2reductions as the 'GREEN PAPER on Energy Efficiency', the Directive for'promotion of the use of bio-fuels or other renewable fuels fortransport' or 'Directive of the European Parliament of the Council on thepromotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internalenergy market'. A lot of the according RES and RUE measures are notattractive for investors from an economic point of view. Thereforegovernmentsall over the world have to spend public money to promotethese technologies/measures to bring them into market. These expenditureshave to be adjusted to budget concerns and should be spent mostefficiently. Therefore, the spent money has to be dedicated totechnologies and efficiency measures with the best yield in CO2 reductionwithout wasting money. The core question: "How can public money - forpromoting sustainable energy systems - be spent most efficiently toreduce GHG-emissions?" has been well investigated by the European projectInvert. In course of this project a simulation tool has been designed toanswer this core question. This paper describes the modelling with theInvert simulation tool and shows the key features necessary forsimulating the energy system. A definition of 'Promotion SchemeEfficiency' is given which allows estimating the most cost effectivetechnologies and/or efficiency measures to reduce CO2 emissions.Investigations performed with the Invert simulation tool deliver anoptimum portfolio mix of technologies and efficiency measures for eachselected region. Within Invert seven European regions were simulated andfor the Austrian case study the detailed portfolio mix is shown andpolitical conclusions are derived.

Stadler, Michael; Kranzl, Lukas; Huber, Claus; Haas, Reinhard; Tsioliaridou, Elena

2006-05-01

45

Technique of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for sustainable building energy systems performance calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable buildings design process is typical for modeling and simulation usage. The main reason is because there is generally no experience with such buildings and there is lot of new approaches and technical solutions to be used. Computer simulation could be supporting tool in engineering design process and can bring the good way for reducing energy consumption together with optimalization

Kotek Petr; Jordán Filip; Kabele Karel; JLM Hensen

2007-01-01

46

Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron

A. Abánades; C. García; L. García; A. Escrivá; A. Pérez-Navarro; J. Rosales

2011-01-01

47

The 21 ST century coe program: COE-INES “innovative nuclear energy systems for sustainable development of the world”  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the year 2002 and 2003 the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) started the “Priority Assistance for the Formation of Worldwide Renowned Centers of Research — The 21st Century Center of Excellence (COE) Program”, which is planned to continue for 5 years.A program proposed by Tokyo Institute of Technology “Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems for Sustainable

Hiroshi Sekimoto

2005-01-01

48

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project research has developed a fundamental approach. The emphasis was place on individual unit processes as an organizing framework to understand the life cycle of manufactured products. The rearrangement of unit processes provides an efficient and versatile means of understanding improved manufactured products such as wind generators. The taxonomy and structure of unit process lci were developed in this project. A series of ten unit process lci were developed to sample the major segments of the manufacturing unit process taxonomy. Technical and economic effectiveness has been a focus of the project research in Task three. The use of repeatable modules for the organization of information on environmental improvement has a long term impact. The information developed can be used and reused in a variety of manufacturing plants and for a range of wind generator sizes and designs. Such a modular approach will lower the cost of life cycle analysis, that is often asked questions of carbon footprint, environmental impact, and sustainability. The use of a website for dissemination, linked to NREL, adds to the economic benefit as more users have access to the lci information. Benefit to the public has been achieved by a well-attended WSU conference, as well as presentations for the Kansas Wind Energy Commission. Attendees represented public interests, land owners, wind farm developers, those interested in green jobs, and industry. Another benefit to the public is the start of information flow from manufacturers that can inform individuals about products.

Janet M Twomey, PhD

2010-04-30

49

Scientific American: Energy & Sustainability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Energy and the broader ideas surrounding "sustainability" are hot topics today, and Scientific American has created this website to provide access to high-quality information about these subjects. The website begins with a list of "Latest Stories", and there is also a "Most Popular" listing so that users can gauge what other folks are interested in. Users shouldn't miss the "Multimedia" area, which offers up features like "How Much Is Left? The Limits of Earth's Resources", which is quite amazing. After a dramatic introduction, the piece allows visitors to watch an interactive timeline and view video clips which provide some insight into this situation. There are other features here, including "The Music of Language" and "When the Sea Saved Humanity". The site also features links to selected articles from the magazine and a listing of materials by topic.

50

Renewable Energy: Energy Security and Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy offers the possibility of providing a complete, sustainable energy infrastructure without anthropogenic emission of CO2. Large-scale implementation of renewable technologies would eliminate the need to develop and implement sequestration systems, by reducing the use of, and ultimately eliminating fossil based energy production. Renewable energy also offers energy security because indigenous resources are sufficient. The major renewable energy systems include phovoltaics (solar cells), solar thermal (electric and thermal), wind, biomass (plants and trees), hydroelectric, ocean, and geothermal. Given the intermittent nature of solar energy, only those energy systems that are coupled to an energy storage technology will be viable. Among the energy storage technologies are hydrogen, batteries, flywheels, superconductivity, ultracapacitors, pumped hydro, molten salts (for thermal storage), and compressed gas. One of the most versatile energy storage systems and the best energy carrier for transportation is hydrogen. This talk will review some of the basic renewable energy systems, present possible pathways for the implementation of hydrogen into the energy infrastructure and offer research areas that need to be addressed to increase the viability of these renewable energy technologies.

Turner, John

2002-03-01

51

DC-bus voltage control for hybrid 4-port high frequency parallel-connected sustainable energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a performance analysis of a dc-bus voltage control for hybrid parallel-connected sustainable energy conversion system is presented. The hybrid system is the combination of fuel cell (FC), wind turbine, and battery storage via a common dc-bus. These hybrid sources are interfaced to dc- bus through high frequency-based power converters. The main advantages of the proposed topologies are:

Mahmoud M. Amin; Osama A. Mohammed

2011-01-01

52

Energy Conversion Chain Analysis of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Transportation Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In general terms there are only three primary energy sources: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear fission. For fueling road transportation, there has been much speculation about the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, which would usher in the "hydrogen economy." A parallel situation would use a simple battery to store electricity…

Evans, Robert L.

2008-01-01

53

MultiComponent Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System for sustainable growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental harmonization of nuclear energy technology is considered as an absolutely necessary condition in its future successful development for peaceful use. Establishment of Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System, that simultaneously meets four requirements — energy production, fuel production, burning of radionuclides and safety, strongly relies on the neutron excess generation. Implementation of external non-fission based neutron sources into fission energy system

Masaki Saito

2002-01-01

54

Two Sustainable Energy System Analysis Models. A comparison of methodologies and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy. The one model (EnergyPLAN) has been designed for national and regional analyses. It has been used in the design of strategies for integration of wind power and other fluctuating renewable energy

Henrik Lund; Maria da Graça Carvalho

55

High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental

Pavel Valeryevich Tsvetkov; Salvador B. Rodriguez; II David E; Gary Eugene Rochau

2009-01-01

56

Energy Realpolitik : Towards a Sustainable Energy Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term strategy based on existing technological, ecological, economical, and geopolitical realities is urgently needed to develop a sustainable energy economy, which should be designed with adaptability to unpredicted changes in any of these aspects. While only a highly diverse energy portfolio and conservation can ultimately guarantee optimum sustainability, based on a comparison of current primary energy generation methods ,

W. Udo Schröder

57

High Fidelity Nuclear Energy System Optimization Towards an Environmentally Benign, Sustainable, and Secure Energy Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoy...

D. E. Ames G. E. Rochau P. V. Tsvetkov S. Rodriquez

2009-01-01

58

High Fidelity Nuclear Energy System Optimization Towards an Environmentally Benign, Sustainable, and Secure Energy Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a ...

D. E. Ames G. E. Rochau P. V. Tsvetkov S. Rodriguez

2010-01-01

59

Sustainable Energy Solutions; Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ;\\u000a\\u0009The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different

Janet M Twomey

2010-01-01

60

Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon

Aiming Zhou

2006-01-01

61

Systems Replaceablility Ensures Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability of the capital investment in a building, is in the interest of building investors and is the responsibility of building design professionals. To what extent a building investor could hold a design professional accountable if, in due course, a building proved to be not economically sustainable is not addressed in this paper. The following are addressed: the terminology used

Mohammad A. Hassanain; Edward L. Harkness

1997-01-01

62

Cleaner energy for sustainable future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of the Journal of Cleaner Production focuses on “Energy for Sustainable Future”. It is designed to mirror the increasing relevance of renewable energy sources and improved efficiency as crucial topics for practitioners in industry, for governmental policy makers, as well as for civic service providers, researchers, and educators. The purpose of this special issue is to serve

Vincenzo Giorgio Dovia; Ferenc Friedler; Donald Huisingh; Ji?í Jaromír Klemeš

2009-01-01

63

A key review on exergetic analysis and assessment of renewable energy resources for a sustainable future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy resources and their utilization intimately relate to sustainable development. In attaining sustainable development, increasing the energy efficiencies of processes utilizing sustainable energy resources plays an important role. The utilization of renewable energy offers a wide range of exceptional benefits. There is also a link between exergy and sustainable development. A sustainable energy system may be regarded as a cost-efficient,

Arif Hepbasli

2008-01-01

64

PETER GLASER LECTURE: SPACE AND A SUSTAINABLE 21 ST CENTURY ENERGY SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent of the current high oil and gas prices, that might eventually fall again, with world population increasing toward 9 billion, and living standards of large parts of the world increasing accordingly energy demand will increase rapidly, straining the entire supply chain from exploration to refining. In addition, environmental problems associated with our current fossil fuel based energy system gain

Franco Ongaro; Leopold Summerer

65

Sustainable futures using nuclear energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the role of nuclear energy in a sustainable future. This addresses the social, economic and environmental concerns of us all. Nuclear energy today avoids the emission of nearly two billion tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) each year, thanks to over 400 reactors operating worldwide.Nevertheless, there is no real recognition of real incentives for large-scale non-emitters like nuclear energy

Romney B. Duffey

2005-01-01

66

SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY  

EPA Science Inventory

While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) namely development that "meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future," it is import...

67

Flywheel energy storage—An upswing technology for energy sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flywheel energy storage (FES) can have energy fed in the rotational mass of a flywheel, store it as kinetic energy, and release out upon demand. It is a significant and attractive manner for energy futures ‘sustainable’. The key factors of FES technology, such as flywheel material, geometry, length and its support system were described, which directly influence the amount of

Haichang Liu; Jihai Jiang

2007-01-01

68

Solving the Meteorological Challenges of Creating a Sustainable Energy System (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global energy demand is projected to double from 13 TW at the start of this century to 28 TW by the middle of the century. This translates into obtaining 1000 MW (1 GW, the amount produced by an average nuclear or coal power plant) of new energy every single day for the next 40 years. The U.S. Department of Energy has conducted three feasibility studies in the last two years identifying the costs, challenges, impacts, and benefits of generating large portions of the nation’s electricity from wind and solar energy, in the new two decades. The 20% Wind by 2030 report found that the nation could meet one-fifth of its electricity demand from wind energy by 2030. The second report, the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study, considered similar costs, challenges, and benefits, but considered 20% wind energy in the Eastern Interconnect only, with a target date of 2024. The third report, the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, considered the operational impact of up to 35% penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs) and, concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group, with a target date of 2017. All three studies concluded that it is technically feasible to obtain these high penetration levels of renewable energy, but that increases in the balancing area cooperation or coordination, increased utilization of transmission and building of transmission in some cases, and improved weather forecasts are needed. Current energy systems were designed for dispatchable fuels, such as coal, natural gas and nuclear energy. Fitting weather-driven renewable energy into today's energy system is like fitting a square peg into a round hole. If society chooses to meet a significant portion of new energy demand from weather-driven renewable energy, such as wind and solar energy, a number of obstacles must be overcome. Some of these obstacles are meteorological and climatological issues that are amenable to scientific research. For variable renewable energy sources to reach high penetration levels, electric system operators and utilities need better atmo¬spheric observations, models, and forecasts. Current numerical weather prediction models have not been optimized to help the nation use renewable energy. Improved meteorological observations (e.g., wind turbine hub-height wind speeds, surface direct and diffuse solar radiation), as well as observations through a deeper layer of the atmosphere for assimilation into NWP models, are needed. Particularly urgent is the need for improved forecasts of ramp events. Longer-term predictions of renewable resources, on the seasonal to decadal scale, are also needed. Improved understanding of the variability and co-variability of wind and solar energy, as well as their correlations with large-scale climate drivers, would assist decision-makers in long-term planning. This talk with discuss the feasibility and benefits of developing enhanced weather forecasts and climate information specific to the needs of a growing renewable energy infrastructure.

Marquis, M.

2010-12-01

69

Measure it, See it, Manage it: Using Real Time Data to Benchmark,Optimize, and Sustain System Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Even after years of training and awareness building at thestate and national level, industrial cross-cutting systems (motor-driven,steam, process heating) continue to offer significant opportunities forenergy savings. The US Department of Energy estimates these remainingsavings at more than 7 percent of all industrial energy use. This paperpresents a different approach to promoting industrial system energyefficiency -- providing plant personnel with ready access to data uponwhich to base energy management decisions.In 2005, a Del Monte Foodsfruit processing plant in Modesto, California worked with LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)to specify and purchase permanentinstrumentation for monitoring their compressed air system. This work,completed as part of a demonstration project under a State TechnologiesAdvancement Collaborative (STAC) grant, was designed to demonstrate theeffectiveness of enterprise energy management (EEM), which is predicatedon the assumption that the energy efficiency of existing, cross-cuttingindustrial systems (motor-driven, steam) can be improved by providingmanagement and operating personnel with real-time data on energy use. Theinitial STAC grant provided for the installation and some initialanalyses, but did not address the larger issue of integrating these newdata into an ongoing energy management program for the compressed airsystem.The California Energy Commission (CEC) decided to support furtheranalysis to identify potential for air system optimization. Through theCEC's Energy in Agriculture Program, a compressed air system audit wasperformed by Tom Taranto to: Measure and document the system's baselineand CASE Index of present operation; Establish methods to sustain anongoing CASE Index measure of performance; Use AIRMaster+ to analyzesupply side performance as compared to the CASE Index; Identify demandside opportunities for efficiency and performance improvement; Assesssupply / demand balance and energy reduction opportunities; Evaluate thepresent air compressor control strategy and potential improvement, andCollect data to benchmark parameters for compressed air systems atsimilar facilities.This paper addresses the benefits and limitations ofboth continuous and targeted measurement in benchmarking, optimizing, andsustaining an efficient compressed air system. Included are methods usedin applying both of these measurements to a complex industrial system.Further, this paper will describe the results of these additionalanalyses and the plant response to them.

Taranto, Thomas; McKane, Aimee; Amon, Ricardo; Maulhardt, Michael

2007-07-02

70

Use of Biomass as a Transitional Strategy to a Sustainable and Clean Energy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to establish regenerative energy sources are still being rejected. Only since the oil crises, have regenerative energy sources been included in energy policy discussions. Compared with conventional sources of energy, used a much longer period of time, there appears to be a considerable lack of knowledge on regenerative sources of energy. It is another aspect that present-day supply of

K. Kaygusuz; S. Kele?

2008-01-01

71

Sustainable systems as organisms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schrödinger [Schrödinger, E., 1944. What is Life? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge] marvelled at how the organism is able to use metabolic energy to maintain and even increase its organisation, which could not be understood in terms of classical statistical thermodynamics. Ho [Ho, M.W., 1993. The Rainbow and the Worm, The Physics of Organisms, World Scientific, Singapore; Ho, M.W., 1998a. The

Mae-Wan Ho; Robert Ulanowicz

2005-01-01

72

Epidemiology in sustainable systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of plant disease epidemiology has had increasing impact in the production-based industry of both the developed and developing world. In the last 50 years European agriculture has been associated with a move towards the simplification of systems, as farms have tended to specialize in arable or livestock production, largely determined by their soil or climatic conditions. Although cereal monoculture

Robert J. Cook; David J. Yarhm

73

Sustainable energy, economic growth and public health.  

PubMed

Dramatic economic growth over the last 50 years has been accompanied by widening inequalities world-wide in wealth and energy consumption, diminished life expectancy in some countries, and deteriorating indices of environmental sustainability including loss of bio-diversity. Raised output of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases due to increased economic and industrial activity is causing progressive climate change, leading in turn to direct and indirect adverse effects on health. Emissions of greenhouse gases can be lowered by increased use of renewable energy sources, for example, wind power in the United Kingdom (UK), greater energy efficiency and other measures to promote sustainability. The experience of some developing countries shows that favourable indicators of health and development can accompany a low output of greenhouse gases. It is unclear whether contemporary political and social systems can deliver improved human development without increased use of fossil fuels and other resources. PMID:11339344

Haines, A

74

Green energy strategies for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we propose some green energy strategies for sustainable development. In this regard, seven green energy strategies are taken into consideration to determine the sectoral, technological, and application impact ratios. Based on these ratios, we derive a new parameter as the green energy impact ratio. In addition, the green energy-based sustainability ratio is obtained by depending upon the

Adnan Midilli; Ibrahim Dincer; Murat Ay

2006-01-01

75

Energy technology progress for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy security is a fundamental part of a country`s national security. Access to affordable, environmentally sustainable energy is a stabilizing force and is in the world community`s best interest. The current global energy situation however is not sustainable and has many complicating factors. The primary goal for government energy policy should be to provide stability and predictability to the market.

D. E. Arvizu; T. E. Drennen

1997-01-01

76

Sustainable roofs with real energy savings  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

1996-12-31

77

Sustainability of three apple production systems.  

PubMed

Escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, reduced biodiversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food, soil degradation and health risks to farm workers handling pesticides all bring into question the sustainability of conventional farming systems. It has been claimed, however, that organic farming systems are less efficient, pose greater health risks and produce half the yields of conventional farming systems. Nevertheless, organic farming became one of the fastest growing segments of US and European agriculture during the 1990s. Integrated farming, using a combination of organic and conventional techniques, has been successfully adopted on a wide scale in Europe. Here we report the sustainability of organic, conventional and integrated apple production systems in Washington State from 1994 to 1999. All three systems gave similar apple yields. The organic and integrated systems had higher soil quality and potentially lower negative environmental impact than the conventional system. When compared with the conventional and integrated systems, the organic system produced sweeter and less tart apples, higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Our data indicate that the organic system ranked first in environmental and economic sustainability, the integrated system second and the conventional system last. PMID:11309616

Reganold, J P; Glover, J D; Andrews, P K; Hinman, H R

2001-04-19

78

Sustainability, Energy, and Alternative Fuels. Transportation Research Record. Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2017.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Sustainability in Transport: Implications for Policy Makers; Developing indicators for Comprehensive and Sustainable Transport Planning; Measuring Sustainable Accessibility; Using Global Positioning System Travel Data to Assess Real-World Energy...

2007-01-01

79

Renewable energy - the path to sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to address some lingering debates within sustainability studies by revealing the connec- tions between renewable energy consumption and sustainability. Using data from 30 OECD countries, the article examines the connections via regression and geospatial analysis. Findings from the quantitative analysis indicate that about 50% of the variation in sustainability is accounted for by the degree of renewables

Tan Xiaomei; Brett Rose

2008-01-01

80

Sustainability measurement system: a reference model proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The primary aim of this paper is to develop a reference model for measuring corporate sustainability that can be used by organizations to integrate sustainability measures into their current performance measurement system, helping them to embed sustainability into daily activities and to forge a sustainability culture. A secondary intent is to present a critical analysis of some well-known

Ivete Delai; Sérgio Takahashi

2011-01-01

81

Energy foundations for sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

Worldwide, more than three-quarters of our energy needs are obtained from nonrenewable reserves of coal, oil, gas, and uranium. The unavoidable outcome of our present path is the depletion of all non-renewable energy resources. Further exacerbating the energy picture is the mounting cost of mitigating the adverse environmental and health impacts of energy use. Problems ranging from acid rain and radioactive waste storage to the potential for widespread environmental disaster that could result from the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have made it that the earth`s capacity to absorb the waste products of energy use without serious consequences is being severely strained. Potential supply shortages and mounting costs for the energy component of our industrial enterprise will increasingly undermine our ability to sustain global economic development. Strong positive actions that shore up the energy foundations of our economy arc called for. The purpose of this presentation is to focus attention on two such proactive steps which, though insufficient to the task by themselves, are nevertheless crucial to any effective plan for heading off the recessionary tendencies of our growing energy supply and cost dilemma. The first of these essential steps is to develop a much better arrangement than we currently have for including all costs for the adverse health and environmental impacts of industrial production in the price paid by consumers for fuels, electricity, and manufactured goods. The second essential action is to expand our R&D effort to develop new manufacturing processes and new materials and products that meet our needs for power, fuels and consumer goods at lower cost, greater efficiency, and with reduced environmental cost.

Sather, N.F.

1992-09-01

82

Energy foundations for sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

Worldwide, more than three-quarters of our energy needs are obtained from nonrenewable reserves of coal, oil, gas, and uranium. The unavoidable outcome of our present path is the depletion of all non-renewable energy resources. Further exacerbating the energy picture is the mounting cost of mitigating the adverse environmental and health impacts of energy use. Problems ranging from acid rain and radioactive waste storage to the potential for widespread environmental disaster that could result from the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere have made it that the earth's capacity to absorb the waste products of energy use without serious consequences is being severely strained. Potential supply shortages and mounting costs for the energy component of our industrial enterprise will increasingly undermine our ability to sustain global economic development. Strong positive actions that shore up the energy foundations of our economy arc called for. The purpose of this presentation is to focus attention on two such proactive steps which, though insufficient to the task by themselves, are nevertheless crucial to any effective plan for heading off the recessionary tendencies of our growing energy supply and cost dilemma. The first of these essential steps is to develop a much better arrangement than we currently have for including all costs for the adverse health and environmental impacts of industrial production in the price paid by consumers for fuels, electricity, and manufactured goods. The second essential action is to expand our R D effort to develop new manufacturing processes and new materials and products that meet our needs for power, fuels and consumer goods at lower cost, greater efficiency, and with reduced environmental cost.

Sather, N.F.

1992-01-01

83

21st Century Energy Sustainability: Nuclear's Role.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In contemplating nuclear's role in 21st century sustainability, it has been useful to consider energy supply infrastructures as a whole and the historical and projected future energy clients and their special energy product needs in the decades following ...

D. C. Wade

2000-01-01

84

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY IMPLEMENTATION IN URBAN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global new deal (describing a comprehensive programme designed to respond to multiple crises in financial, economic, environmental and social sectors) recently adopted by advanced countries comprises sustainable (renewable and efficient) energy and environmentally-friendly technologies. Despite the abundance of natural renewable energy resources in Nigeria, sustainable energy remains ignored and underplayed. Aetiological method and concept of postneoliberalism were used to

Richard INGWE; Benjamin INYANG; Simon ERING

2009-01-01

85

Energy revolution: policies for a sustainable future  

SciTech Connect

The book examines the policy options for mitigating or removing the entrenched advantages held by fossil fuels and speeding the transition to a more sustainable energy future, one based on improved efficiency and a shift to renewable sources such as solar, wind, and bioenergy. The book: examines today's energy patterns and trends and their consequences; describes the barriers to a more sustainable energy future and how those barriers can be overcome; provides ten case studies of integrated strategies that have been effective in different parts of the world examines international policies and institutions and recommends ways they could be improved; reviews global trends that suggest that the transition to renewables and increased efficiency is underway and is achievable. The core of the book are presentations of Clean Energy scenarios for the US and Brazil. His US scenario has 10 policies. These include: Adopt voluntary agreements to reduce industrial energy use; Provide tax incentives for innovative renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies; Expand federal R & D and deployment programs; Remove barriers to combined heat and power systems; and Strengthen emissions standards on coal-fired plants. Geller calculates that the impact of his ten policies would be a $600 billion cost and a $1200 billion savings, for a net savings of $600 billion compared to a baseline scenario of continued promotion of fossil fuels.

Howard Geller [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project, Boulder, CO (United States)

2002-07-01

86

Sustained nuclear energy without weapons or reprocessing using accelerator-driven systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accelerator-driven thermal-spect rum molten-salt nuclear technology can greatly simplify nuclear energy technology by eliminating reprocessing and greatly enhancing once-through burn-up. In effect the accelerator may be employed as a substitute for frequent reprocessing and recycle. The accelerator makes possible reduction in plutonium and minor actinides from current LWRs by a factor of more than ten without reprocessing while converting the

Charles D. Bowman

1999-01-01

87

Sustainable and Renewable Energy Resources — Alternative Forms of Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to move towards a sustainable existence in our critically energy dependent society there is a continuing need to adopt environmentally sustainable methods for energy production, storage and conversion. A fuel cell is an energy conversion device that generates electricity and heat by electrochemically combining a gaseous fuel and an oxidant gas through electrodes and across an ion conducting electrolyte. The use of fuel cells in both stationary and mobile power applications can offer significant advantages for the sustainable conversion of energy. Currently the cost of fuel cell systems is greater than that of similar, already available products, mainly because of small scale production and the lack of economies of scale. The best fuel for fuel cells is hydrogen and another barrier is fuel flexibility. Benefits arising from the use of fuel cells include efficiency and reliability, as well as economy, unique operating characteristics and planning flexibility and future development potential. By integrating the application of fuel cells, in series with renewable energy storage and production methods, sustainable energy requirements may be realized. As fuel cell application increases and improved fuel storage methods and handlings are developed, it is expected that the costs associated with fuel cell systems will fall dramatically in the future.

Rao, M. C.

88

Fuel cycle strategies for the sustainable development of nuclear energy: The role of accelerator driven systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes fuel cycle strategies which can call for the development of accelerator driven systems (ADS) and shows how an ADS-based transmutation strategy can be envisaged in a regional context. Finally, a path towards the demonstration of the ADS concept will be proposed, which accounts for the need of developing a consistent strategy of dedicated fuel development and validation

Massimo Salvatores

2006-01-01

89

A Comprehensive Review on the Development of Sustainable Energy Strategy and Implementation in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is faced with significant challenges in the energy sector such as energy shortage, environmental pollution, greenhouse gas emission, and energy supply in rural areas, which severely restrict its sustainable development. The promotion of a sustainable energy system is the key solution to tackling those issues. In this paper, the current status and trends of sustainable energy development in China

Xia Yang; Yonghua Song; Guanghui Wang; Weisheng Wang

2010-01-01

90

Sustainability by combining nuclear, fossil, and renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy industries face two sustainability challenges: the need to avoid climate change and the need to replace traditional crude oil as the basis of our transport system. Radical changes in our energy system will be required to meet these challenges. These challenges may require tight coupling of different energy sources (nuclear, fossil, and renewable) to produce liquid fuels for

Charles W. Forsberg

2009-01-01

91

Sustainability by combining nuclear, fossil, and renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy industries face two sustainability challenges: the need to avoid climate change and the need to replace traditional crude oil as the basis of our transport system. Radical changes in our energy system will be required to meet these challenges. These challenges may require tight coupling of different energy sources (nuclear, fossil, and renewable) to produce liquid fuels for

Charles W. Forsberg

2008-01-01

92

Sustainable Rural Energy Development in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Under the Luz Para Todos ('Lights for All') Program, the Government of Brazil (GOB) seeks to provide basic electricity services to all its citizens by 2008. An estimated 2.5 million rural households (over 12 million Brazilians) currently lack electric service, with approximately 80% of them located in rural areas. Since many of these households are too geographically isolated to be connected to the national grid, they will receive distributed energy systems, and the government hopes to maximize the use of local renewable resources to service them. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with the GOB and a variety of local partners to identify and implement sustainable off-grid solutions to meet Brazil's rural energy needs. Focused in the Amazon region, these collaborative activities are, on one hand, using field-based activities to build local technical capacity and design replicable models for rural energy development, while on the other hand helping to develop the institutional structures that will be necessary to sustain distributed renewable energy development on a large-scale in Brazil.

Ghandour, A.

2005-01-01

93

Fostering The Use of Low Impact Renewable Energy Technologies with Integrated Operation Is The Key for Sustainable Energy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low impact renewable energy technologies offer important benefits compared to conventional energy sources, such as fossil fuels or nuclear power. Renewable-energy resources are abundant; worldwide, and are unevenly distributed. They are capable of producing around one-thousand-times more energy than is released today by all fossil fuels consumed. However due to their uncertainty different kinds of renewable-energy resources need to be

Pradeep K Katti; M. K. Khedkar

2008-01-01

94

Toward sustainable energy systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar Thermal Power Plants. On the verge to Commercialization Today several concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies are at the phase of a first commercial deployment for bulk power production in Europe. The present costs of electricity produced by these plants have to be decreased by a factor of 3-5 in order to compete with electricity from fossil power plants without

Diego Martinez; Felix Tellez

2006-01-01

95

Agricultural sustainability: Implications for extension systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extension could play a key role in fostering sustainability through its educational programs but there has been a growing realization that traditional extension models have not been sufficiently effective in promoting adoption of sustainable agricultural practices. Since sustainable agriculture is a knowledge- intensive system, it requires a new kind of knowledge, which differs from other forms on the basis of

Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari

2009-01-01

96

The dual sustainability of wind energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Academics, practitioners, and policy makers continue to debate the benefits and costs of alternative sources of energy. Environmental and economic concerns have yet to be fully reconciled. One view is that decisions that incorporate both society's concern with the environment and investors’ desire for shareholder value maximization are more likely to be truly sustainable. We coin the term dual sustainability

Jonathan B. Welch; Anand Venkateswaran

2009-01-01

97

Progress on linking gender and sustainable energy  

SciTech Connect

The field of gender and energy has been identified as critical in global sustainable energy development and is increasingly important to decision makers. The theme of women and energy was of significance at the 1998 World Renewable Energy Congress in Florence, Italy. This paper traces further developments in this field by summarizing selected programmatic initiatives, meetings, and publications over the past 18 months.

Farhar, B.

2000-04-05

98

Energy Sustainability and the Green Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of campus energy sustainability, explaining that both demand- and supply-side strategies are required. Suggests that on the demand side, an aggressive campus energy conservation program can reduce campus energy consumption by 30 percent or more. Asserts that addressing the supply side of the energy equation means shifting…

Simpson, Walter

2003-01-01

99

Energy Sustainability and the Green Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the importance of campus energy sustainability, explaining that both demand- and supply-side strategies are required. Suggests that on the demand side, an aggressive campus energy conservation program can reduce campus energy consumption by 30 percent or more. Asserts that addressing the supply side of the energy equation means shifting…

Simpson, Walter

2003-01-01

100

New ways for energy systems in sustainable buildings - increased energy efficiency and indoor comfort through the utilisation of low exergy systems for the heating and cooling of buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necessity for a further increase in the efficiency of energy utilisation in buildings is obvious and indisputable. This is especially true regarding the great potential for the use of those measures in the building stock. An optimisation of the energy flows in building, similar to other thermodynamic systems, such as power stations, can help in identifying the potential of

Dietrich Schmidt

101

Motivating Sustainable Energy Consumption in the Home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies are just now being developed that encourage sustainable energy usage in the home. One approach is to give home residents feedback of their energy consumption, typically presented using a computer visualization. The expectation is that this feedback will motivate home residents to change their energy behaviors in positive ways. Yet little attention has been paid to what exactly motivates

Helen Ai He; Saul Greenberg

102

Approaches to Sustainable Energy Consumption Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsustainable consumption mostly refers to energy resources and materials’ utilization, fostered by human activity. Therefore,\\u000a energy consumption represents a major challenge when approaching sustainable development issues. Despite many environmental\\u000a strategies relying on improvements in energy and material efficiency, the World’s energy demand is likely to increase in line\\u000a with its population. In addition, cultural patterns of human activities are closely

Damjan Krajnc; Rebeka Lukman; Peter Glavic

103

Sustainable biomass production for energy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to estimate the land availability for biomass production, identify and evaluate the biomass production options by yieldha?1 and financial viability, estimate the sustainable biomass production for energy, and estimate the energy potential of biomass production. Two scenarios are considered to estimate the land availability for biomass production by 2010, namely Scenario 1 (S1) and Scenario 2 (S2).

Li Junfeng; Hu Runqing

2003-01-01

104

Advanced Decentralized Water/Energy Network Design for Sustainable Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to provide a water infrastructure that is more sustainable into and beyond the 21st century, drinking water distribution systems and wastewater collection systems must account for our diminishing water supply, increasing demands, climate change, energy cost and availabil...

105

Magnetic Materials in sustainable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new energy paradigm, consisting of greater reliance on renewable energy sources and increased concern for energy efficiency in the total energy lifecycle, has accelerated research in energy-related technologies. Due to their ubiquity, magnetic materials play an important role in improving the efficiency and performance of devices in electric power generation, conversion and transportation. Magnetic materials are essential components of energy applications (i.e. motors, generators, transformers, actuators, etc.) and improvements in magnetic materials will have significant impact in this area, on par with many ``hot'' energy materials efforts. The talk focuses on the state-of-the-art hard and soft magnets and magnetocaloric materials with an emphasis on their optimization for energy applications. Specifically, the impact of hard magnets on electric motor and transportation technologies, of soft magnetic materials on electricity generation and conversion technologies, and of magnetocaloric materials for refrigeration technologies, will be discussed. The synthesis, characterization, and property evaluation of the materials, with an emphasis on structure-property relationships, will be examined in the context of their respective markets as well as their potential impact on energy efficiency. Finally, considering future bottle-necks in raw materials and in the supply chain, options for recycling of rare-earth metals will be analyzed.ootnotetextO. Gutfleisch, J.P. Liu, M. Willard, E. Bruck, C. Chen, S.G. Shankar, Magnetic Materials and Devices for the 21st Century: Stronger, Lighter, and More Energy Efficient (review), Adv. Mat. 23 (2011) 821-842.

Gutfleisch, Oliver

2012-02-01

106

DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE MARINE AQUACULTURE SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Sustainable Marine Aquaculture Technology project is a collaborative research program with scientists from the USDA Agricultural Research Service, the Aquaculture Division of Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, and Florida State University. Research is being conducted at two sites: at the H...

107

Innovation for a Sustainable Energy Future: Renewable Energy's Role  

SciTech Connect

Promise of renewable energy is profound and can be realized if we: (1) aggressively see, a global sustainable energy economy; (2) accelerate investment in technology innovation; and (3) acknowledge and mitigate the carbon challenge with the necessary policies.

Arvizu, D. E.

2008-01-01

108

Sustainable Energy - Without the hot air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reader John Roeder writes about a website associated with David MacKay's book Sustainable Energy-Without the hot air. The book is a freely downloadable PDF (or purchasable) book describing an analysis detailing a low-carbon renewable energy transformation route for a large, modern first world industrial country (the United Kingdom). Written for the layman, the work uses vernacular language, e.g., energy consumption

Dan MacIsaac

2009-01-01

109

A New Approach for Sustainable Energy Systems due to the Excitation of Inner-core Electrons on Zinc Atoms Induced by Surface-ion-recombination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crisis of Nuclear power plants due to the March 11, 2011 Tsunami in Japan suggests an increased need for sustainable science and technology in our society. The authors propose a new physical approach with surface-ion-recombination (SIR) due to the inner-core excitation of zinc atom [Ne]3s23p63d104s2 that brings no magnetic moment. Condensed material indicated the energy dependence of X-ray diffraction intensity, in which exists strong diffuse scattering intensities at 10 eV, 90 eV, 100 eV and 230 eV. These energies are strictly corresponding to zinc of electron systems (3s,3p,3d and these combination). Our approach may have the potential of techniques for future nanotechnology, especially for hydrogen storage systems.

Hamasaki, Mitsugi; Obara, Masumi; Yamaguchi, Mitsuomi; Kuwayama, Masahiro; Obara, Kozo

2011-12-01

110

Sustainable energy for tomorrow's world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world energy economy is poised for a sweeping shift away from imported oil and environmentally damaging coal during the next few decades, despite the belief by most energy planners that the future will probably see a continuation of past trends. Pushed by the need to stabilize the earth's climate, and pulled by the investment opportunities that beckon, the world's

Christopher Flavin

1996-01-01

111

Energy foundations for sustainable development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Worldwide, more than three-quarters of our energy needs are obtained from nonrenewable reserves of coal, oil, gas, and uranium. The unavoidable outcome of our present path is the depletion of all non-renewable energy resources. Further exacerbating the en...

N. F. Sather

1992-01-01

112

Sustainable health systems: addressing three key areas.  

PubMed

In the modern context sustainable health systems are being developed using the newest technological and communication technologies. This is proving to be a great success for the growth of Health Informatics and healthcare improvement. However this revolution is not being reached by a lot of the world population. This paper will address the importance of closing the Digital Divide, Empowerment of health consumers and the importance of converging communications. Key areas in the development of a truly sustainable health system. PMID:17911893

Chhanabhai, Prajesh N; Holt, Alec; Benwell, George

2007-01-01

113

Guidelines for Energy-Efficient Sustainable Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These guidelines present optional strategies to be considered in designing schools to be more energy efficient and sustainable. The guidelines are organized by the following design and construction process: site selection; selection of A & E design team; programming and goal setting; schematic design; design development; construction documents;…

Nicklas, Michael; Bailey, Gary; Rosemain, Pascale; Olin, Samuel

114

Guidelines for Energy-Efficient Sustainable Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These guidelines present optional strategies to be considered in designing schools to be more energy efficient and sustainable. The guidelines are organized by the following design and construction process: site selection; selection of A & E design team; programming and goal setting; schematic design; design development; construction documents;…

Nicklas, Michael; Bailey, Gary; Rosemain, Pascale; Olin, Samuel

115

A Sustainable U.S. Energy Plan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report gives guidance on what could be done to overcome the political stalemate that has long blocked the creation of\\u000a a sustainable energy plan, leaving the United States vulnerable to oil imports while emitting large amounts of greenhouse\\u000a gases. An overall energy policy is suggested for use by political leaders, along with specific goals on climate change and\\u000a national

Herschel Specter

2009-01-01

116

Sustainable Energy-Without the Hot Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have an addiction to fossil fuels, and it's not sustainable. The devel-oped world gets 80% of its energy from fossil fuels; Britain, 90%. And this is unsustainable for three reasons. First, easily-accessible fossil fuels will at some point run out, so we'll eventually have to get our energy from someplace else. Second, burning fossil fuels is having a measurable

David J. C. Mackay; David Hafemeister

2010-01-01

117

China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency  

SciTech Connect

China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various industries, and developing a multi-year program for standards and for optimizing the industrial motor systems in China. Past work has included a comprehensive study of China's oil refining sector. Cross-Cutting--analysis and research focused on multisector, policy, and long-term development issues. Current cross-cutting policy and analysis research includes work on government procurement programs; energy service companies; a national energy policy assessment including the National Energy Strategy released by the government in early 2005; energy efficiency policy; an analysis of past trends in energy consumption in China as well as of future scenarios; and our China Energy Databook accompanied by chapter summaries and analysis of recent trends.

Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

2006-03-20

118

Energy Sustainability and the Army: The Current Transformation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine the U.S. Army's use of conservation and renewable energy systems (RES) for the purposes of sustainability and national security. Initiatives in these areas will allow the U.S. Army to transform itself into a more bu...

N. D. Northern

2009-01-01

119

Systems option for sustainable development—effect and limit of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry's efforts to substitute technology for energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global environmental consequences of CO2 discharge resulting from energy use are causing increasing concern regarding the sustainability of our development future. Despite the fragile nature of its energy structure, Japan successfully overcame two energy crises in the 1970s and managed to maintain economic growth which resulted in a dramatic improvement in its industrial technology. The success of these efforts

Chihiro Watanabe

1999-01-01

120

What makes closed ecological systems sustainable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed ecosystem has some properties that an open systems lacks. Let us consider the ones that increase the sustainability of an ecosystem. The common feature of biological and physicochemical life support systems is that basically they are both catalytic. There are two fundamental properties distinguishing biological systems: 1) they are auto-catalytic: their catalysts - enzymes of protein nature -

I. Gitelson; A. Degermendzhy; E. Rodicheva

2002-01-01

121

Modelling Sustainable Development Scenarios of Croatian Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of power system sustainable development is to provide the security of electricity supply required to underpin economic growth and increase the quality of living while minimizing adverse environmental impacts. New challenges such as deregulation, liberalization of energy markets, increased competition on energy markets, growing demands on security of supply, price insecurities and demand to cut CO2 emissions, are calling for better understanding of electrical systems modelling. Existing models are not sufficient anymore and planners will need to think differently in order to face these challenges. Such a model, on the basis on performed simulations, should enable planner to distinguish between different options and to analyze sustainability of these options. PLEXOS is an electricity market simulation model, used for modeling electrical system in Croatia since 2005. Within this paper, generation expansion scenarios until 2020 developed for Croatian Energy Strategy and modeled in PLEXOS. Development of sustainable Croatian energy scenario was analyzed in the paper - impacts of CO2 emission price and wind generation. Energy Strategy sets goal for 1200 MW from wind power plants in 2020. In order to fully understand its impacts, intermittent nature of electricity generation from wind power plant was modeled. We conclude that electrical system modelling using everyday growing models has proved to be inevitable for sustainable electrical system planning in complex environment in which power plants operate today.

Paši?ko, Robert; Stani?, Zoran; Debrecin, Nenad

2010-05-01

122

Energy technology progress for sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

Energy security is a fundamental part of a country`s national security. Access to affordable, environmentally sustainable energy is a stabilizing force and is in the world community`s best interest. The current global energy situation however is not sustainable and has many complicating factors. The primary goal for government energy policy should be to provide stability and predictability to the market. This paper differentiates between short-term and long-term issues and argues that although the options for addressing the short-term issues are limited, there is an opportunity to alter the course of long-term energy stability and predictability through research and technology development. While reliance on foreign oil in the short term can be consistent with short-term energy security goals, there are sufficient long-term issues associated with fossil fuel use, in particular, as to require a long-term role for the federal government in funding research. The longer term issues fall into three categories. First, oil resources are finite and there is increasing world dependence on a limited number of suppliers. Second, the world demographics are changing dramatically and the emerging industrialized nations will have greater supply needs. Third, increasing attention to the environmental impacts of energy production and use will limit supply options. In addition to this global view, some of the changes occurring in the US domestic energy picture have implications that will encourage energy efficiency and new technology development. The paper concludes that technological innovation has provided a great benefit in the past and can continue to do so in the future if it is both channels toward a sustainable energy future and if it is committed to, and invested in, as a deliberate long-term policy option.

Arvizu, D.E.; Drennen, T.E.

1997-03-01

123

Desalination using solar energy: Towards sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the theoretical rationale for a new low temperature phase-change desalination process, and six examples of applications to illustrate how this process can be engineered for sustainable desalination. In this process, brackish water is evaporated at near-ambient temperatures under near-vacuum pressures created by the barometric head without any mechanical energy input. Thermodynamic advantages and benefits of low temperature

Veera Gnaneswar Gude; Nagamany Nirmalakhandan; Shuguang Deng

2011-01-01

124

Alternative Energy Sources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy [book review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents a large amount of data dealing with the conventional and alternate energy resources and how they are used. The book is comprised of ten chapters and covers some of the following topics: a discussion about fossil fuels, including coal-fired power plants; sustainable development, and the role of natural gas; environmental impacts of energy consumption; nuclear energy; and

Saifur Rahman

2007-01-01

125

Energy storage — a key technology for global energy sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of life today is dependent upon access to a bountiful supply of cheap energy. For a sustainable future, the energy should be derived from non-fossil sources; ideally, it should also be reliable and safe, flexible in use, affordable, and limitless. This paper examines the present global use of energy in its various forms, and considers projections for the

R. M Dell; D. A. J Rand

2001-01-01

126

Sustainable multipurpose tree production systems for Nepal  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory is developing methods for producing reforestation plating stock, fuel, and fodder in a sustainable manner in Nepal. This project, in cooperation with the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation of Nepal, is sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (AID). Several production systems are being evaluated for the Mid-Hills Region of Nepal. To provide sustainable biomass production and ecological management of the fragile Mid-Hills Region, the production systems must simultaneously satisfy the physiological requirements of the plants, the symbiotic requirements of the plant and the microorganisms in its rhizosphere, the physicochemical requirements of nutrient and water cycling, and the climatic and topographic constraints.

Shen, S.Y.; Kilpatrick, K.J.

1988-03-01

127

THE SUSTAINABLE SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURE AND COUNTRYSIDE DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is increasingly obvious from our present investigations that we can hope to escape the controversies of the present day globalizing world only via sustainability, creativity, development of alternative energy resources and people’s cohesion. This applies particularly to the transitional problems of domestic agriculture arising from the change of political system in this country, where a systematic introduction of a

Laszlo Csete

2005-01-01

128

Designing Systems for Environmental Sustainability  

EPA Science Inventory

Dr. Smith will describe his U.S. EPA research which involves elements of design, from systems as diverse as biofuel supply chains to recycling systems and chemical processes. Design uses models that rate performance as part of a synthesis approach, where steps of analysis and sy...

129

Sustainability of Switchgrass Cropping Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial C4 grass that is native to the eastern two thirds of temperate North America. It has been used for conservation purposes and as a pasture grass since the 1940’s. It is currently being developed as a cellulosic biomass energy crop because it can produ...

130

Sustainability Science: Sustainable Energy for Mobility and Its Use in Policy Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980s sustainability has clearly become the challenge of the 21st century. In a process toward a sustainable society it is crucial that different stakeholders start collaboration and exchange ideas with technicians and academics. To finalize the policy decisions on important issues such as energy sustainability, collaboration between policy makers, academia and the private sector is important. This work

Fabio Orecchini; Adriano Santiangeli; Valeria Valitutti

2011-01-01

131

Sustainable Supply of Energy from Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study concerns sustainable supply of primary energy from biomass and considers the interrelation between the amount of energy captured in biomass by photosynthesis and the total land area under perennial species grown for the purpose. The authors analyse available experimental data statistically relevant to natural growths comprising a large number of individual trees of grey alder (Alnus incana), a well-known fast-growing species broadly spread in Latvia and for centuries being used as firewood. By graphical approximation of the growth-rate data available for growths up to 50 years of age the optimum age for harvesting dependent on the age at which the maximum growth-rate of biomass is reached is shown to be 18 years confirming traditional popular knowledge. With account for long-term sustainable supply of energy under condition of 18-year rotation, the average yield of energy from highest quality sites of the total land area permanently occupied by alder is calculated to be ca. 85 GJ/ha and the required land equivalent - slightly less than 12 ha per TJ of primary energy from photosynthesis.

Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

2010-01-01

132

Ecology in Sustainable Agriculture Practices and Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable and productive agroecosystems must be developed that will meet today's needs for food and other products, as well as preserving the vital natural resource base that will allow future generations to meet their needs. To increase production efficiency, to improve farming strategies based on local resources, and to design systems that are resilient in the face of changing climate

C. A. Francis; P. Porter

2011-01-01

133

Biorefinery systems – potential contributors to sustainable innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable biorefineries have a critical role to play in our common future. The need to provide more goods using renewable resources, combined with advances in science and technology, has provided a receptive environment for biorefinery systems development. Biorefineries offer the promise of using fewer non-renewable resources, reducing CO2 emissions, creating new employment, and spurring innovation using clean and efficient technologies.

Maria Wellisch; Gerfried Jungmeier; Adrian Karbowski; Martin K Patel; Magdalena Rogulska

2010-01-01

134

Multilateral Assessment of the Fast Reactor System as a Component of the Future Sustainable Nuclear Energy and Paths for the System Deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews main findings of the Joint Assessment Study on a Nuclear Energy System (NES) based on a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle with Fast Reactors (CNFC-FRs) that was performed within the IAEA project INPRO.

Baldev RAJ; Alfredo VASILE; Vladimir KAGRAMANIAN; Mi XU; Ryodai NAKAI; Young-In KIM; Vladimir USANOV; Alexander STANCULESCU

2011-01-01

135

Sustainability Communication: A Systemic-Constructivist Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Systems theory and constructivism as background theories are widely discussed. This chapter gives an overview of the core\\u000a theses, key terms and observer perspectives of this paradigm, with reference to the special features of systemic thinking.\\u000a The interconnectedness of cognition and emotion as well as the construction of reality through language are important for\\u000a the sustainability discussion.

Horst Siebert

136

Energy and sustainable development in North American Sunbelt cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goals of sustainable development are often misunderstood and variously applied. Sustainability as an urban goal is hindered by the lack of a consensus definition of sustainable development. The failure to focus on energy in cities as a means of achieving urban sustainability is one reason that successful empirical examples of implementing sustainable development are rare. The paradox is that as society attempts to achieve the goals of sustainable development, cities are using more fossil fuel based energy, which results in more pollution and ultimately makes sustainability more difficult to achieve. This dissertation explores the linkages between energy and sustainability and their connection to urban polices. This research provides a detailed review of the history of the concept of sustainability, a review of literature to date, and comparative issues concerning sustainability. The literature review will describe the underlying causes and effects of changes which have led to concerns about urban sustainability. The types of urban policies that are used by Sunbelt cities will be discussed. The purpose of this research is multifold: (1) to study the energy related policies of Sunbelt cities; (2) to propose a workable typology of policies; (3) to develop an index by which cities can be ranked in terms of sustainability; and (4) to assess and evaluate the relationships between the adoption of urban policies that promote energy efficiency, energy conservation and alternative energy to determine if they are associated with reduced energy use and greater urban sustainability. This research involves use of empirical data, U.S. census information, database explorations and other data. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis methodologies were employed as a means of defining and exploring the dimensions of energy and sustainable development in urban areas. The research will find that certain urban policies are related to changes in indicators and measures of urban energy use. In addition, there is a divergence between rates of policy adoption and actual changes in urban energy use.

Roosa, Stephen A.

137

Introduction to Lean: Sustainable Quality Systems Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an abstract of the following book- access may be gained via a free login. This book presents the notion that sustainable quality systems theory is a function of five integrated prerequisite leadership skills.: 1. Dr. Walter A. Shewhart's theory of sustainable quality articulated in his three-step inquiry learning process; probability science is vital in each step. 2. Dr. W. Edwards Deming's systems theory and his Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycle for accumulating infinitesimal units of knowledge. 3. Kiichiro Toyoda's concepts of Just In Time are essential prerequisites. 4. Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa's Quality Control Circle curriculum provides an education development plan for shop floor teams. 5. Dr. W. Edwards Deming's System of Profound Knowledge Theory.

Hall, Arlie

2010-08-10

138

Model analyses for sustainable energy supply taking resource and environmental constraints into consideration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at clarifying key points for realizing sustainable energy supply under restrictions on resource and environment. For this purpose, we first developed a database to estimate life cycle efficiencies and greenhouse gas emissions for various energy systems.Then on the basis of this life cycle assessment, we quantitatively define the concept of ‘Sustainability Limitations’ on resource depletion and environmental

Ryuji Matsuhashi; Koichi Hikita; Hisashi Ishitani

1996-01-01

139

Functional materials for sustainable energy technologies: four case studies.  

PubMed

The critical topic of energy and the environment has rarely had such a high profile, nor have the associated materials challenges been more exciting. The subject of functional materials for sustainable energy technologies is demanding and recognized as a top priority in providing many of the key underpinning technological solutions for a sustainable energy future. Energy generation, consumption, storage, and supply security will continue to be major drivers for this subject. There exists, in particular, an urgent need for new functional materials for next-generation energy conversion and storage systems. Many limitations on the performances and costs of these systems are mainly due to the materials' intrinsic performance. We highlight four areas of activity where functional materials are already a significant element of world-wide research efforts. These four areas are transparent conducting oxides, solar energy materials for converting solar radiation into electricity and chemical fuels, materials for thermoelectric energy conversion, and hydrogen storage materials. We outline recent advances in the development of these classes of energy materials, major factors limiting their intrinsic functional performance, and potential ways to overcome these limitations. PMID:19943280

Kuznetsov, V L; Edwards, P P

2010-01-01

140

The Sustainability of Renewable Energy Projects:- Wind Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of renewable energy projects cannot be taken for granted, as illustrated by the controversial projects such as the Three Gorges Hydro Scheme in China, the ill-fated Gordon Below Franklin hydro scheme in Tasmania and the stalled development of land-based wind farms in the UK. While these are extreme cases, similar factors are at play to varying degrees in

H. Outhred; K. Mallon; R. Passey; M. Watt; I. MacGill

2002-01-01

141

The Contribution of Renewable Energies to a Sustainable Energy Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ince the beginning of industrialization, energy consumption has increased considerably more rapidly than the world population. In addition to the limited resources, exhaust gases resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels have adverse effects on the world climate and the health of its population. Sustainable and socially acceptable develop- ment is, therefore, only possible if more rational and technologically advanced

H. Müller-Steinhagen; J. Nitsch

2005-01-01

142

The Kukui Cup: A Dorm Energy Competition Focused on Sustainable Behavior Change and Energy Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kukui Cup is an advanced dorm energy compe- tition whose goal is to investigate the relationships among energy literacy, sustained energy conservation, and information technol- ogy support of behavior change. Two general purpose open source systems have been implemented: WattDepot and Makahiki. WattDepot provides enterprise-level collection, storage, analysis, and visualization of energy data. Makahiki is a web application framework

Robert S. Brewer; George E. Lee; Philip M. Johnson

2011-01-01

143

The correlation between philosophy, science, energy and world sustainable civilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The correlation between philosophy and science has formed the topic of numerous essays. We have also included energy in this correlation, since for a long time, energy has proved its role through practical applications which have formed the backbone of our society. A sustainable civilization could only be achieved through philosophy, science and sustainable energy, which assures the economic and

Vasile Nitu

1995-01-01

144

Utilization of Geothermal Energy for Sustainable Global Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the beginning of this new century, the rational use of energy becomes a keyword for the world sustainable development both in developed and developing countries. Geothermal resources have the potential of contributing significantly to sustainable energy use in many parts of the world. Geothermal energy has been used commercially for about one century and its large-scale utilization (hundreds of

M. Balat; H. Balat; U. Faiz

2009-01-01

145

Key Factors in Planning a Sustainable Energy Future Including Hydrogen and Fuel Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, a number of future energy visions, especially those basing the energy systems on hydrogen, are discussed. Some often missing comparisons between alternatives, from a sustainability perspective, are identified and then performed for energy storage, energy transportation, and energy use in vehicles. It is shown that it is important…

Hedstrom, Lars; Saxe, Maria; Folkesson, Anders; Wallmark, Cecilia; Haraldsson, Kristina; Bryngelsson, Marten; Alvfors, Per

2006-01-01

146

Key Factors in Planning a Sustainable Energy Future Including Hydrogen and Fuel Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, a number of future energy visions, especially those basing the energy systems on hydrogen, are discussed. Some often missing comparisons between alternatives, from a sustainability perspective, are identified and then performed for energy storage, energy transportation, and energy use in vehicles. It is shown that it is important…

Hedstrom, Lars; Saxe, Maria; Folkesson, Anders; Wallmark, Cecilia; Haraldsson, Kristina; Bryngelsson, Marten; Alvfors, Per

2006-01-01

147

Sustainable energy in china: the closing window of opportunity  

SciTech Connect

China's remarkable economic growth has been supported by a generally adequate and relatively low-cost supply of energy, creating the world's largest coal industry, its second-largest oil market, and an eclectic power business that is adding capacity at an unprecedented rate. If energy requirements continue to double every decade, China will not be able to meet the energy demands of the present without seriously compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own energy needs. This title uses historical data from 1980 and alternative scenarios through 2020 to assess China's future energy requirements and the resources to meet them. It calls for a high-level commitment to develop and implement an integrated, coordinated, and comprehensive energy policy. The authors recommend eight building blocks to reduce energy consumption growth well below the targeted rate of economic growth, to use national resources on an economically and environmentally sound basis, and to establish a robust energy system that can better ensure the security of a diverse supply of competitively priced energy forms. Sustainability calls for persistence of effort, greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, and better standards enforcement. Achieving these goals will require policy initiatives that restrict demand and create a 'resources-conscious society', reconcile energy needs with environmental imperatives, rationalize pricing, and tackle supply security. While the challenges are daunting, China has a unique opportunity to position itself as a world leader in the application of cutting-edge energy developments to create a sustainable energy sector effectively supporting a flourishing economy and society.

Fei Feng; Roland Priddle; Leiping Wang; Noureddine Berrah

2007-03-15

148

Sustainable-energy managment practices in an energy economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic survival of any nation depends upon its ability to produce and manage sufficient supplies of low-cost safe energy. The world's consumption of fossil fuel resources currently increasing at 3% per annum is found to be unsustainable. Projections of this trend show that mankind will exhaust all known reserves in the second half of the coming century. Governments, industrialists, commercial organizations, public sector departments and the general public have now become aware of the urgent requirements for the efficient management of resources and energy-consuming activities. Most organizations in the materials, manufacturing and retail sectors and in the service industries have also created energy management departments, or have employed consultants, to monitor energy consumption and to reduce wastage. Conversely, any sustained attempt to reduce rates of energy consumption even by as little as 0.1% per annum ensures relatively an eternal future supply as well as reduction on environmental and ecological effect. Thus, there is no long- term solution to energy flow problem other than systematic and effective energy management and the continuous application of the techniques of energy management. Essential energy management strategies in support of a sustainable energy- economy are discussed.

Darkwa, K.

2001-10-01

149

THE PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE TO ASSESS ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging field of sustainability science recognizes the important role of technologies in reaching the conditional goals of sustainable development. Research in sustainable te chnologies requires transdisciplinarity to determin e the resilience, adaptive capacity, and complexity of social-ecological syste ms to assess the potential of such technologies for increasing the carrying capacity and improving the resilience of social-eco logical systems,

ALAN C BRENT

150

Integrated sustainability assessment of cropping systems with agro-ecological and economic indicators in northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of agricultural systems is frequently evaluated with indicators, which are synthetic variables describing complex systems. Each indicator deals with one aspect of sustainability (e.g. nutrients, pesticides, energy), and therefore the result of a complete assessment usually includes several indicator values. These values are frequently presented separately, while an integrated evaluation could benefit from the calculation of a single

Nicola Castoldi; Luca Bechini

2010-01-01

151

Sustainability Analysis of Innovative Transport System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of the research is to develop a new approach to transport solution based on the use of a conveyortype system and to compare the environmental impact of the new system with the existing ones. The new transport system consists of a conveyor driven by an electric motor, with a wind power plant supplying electricity, hydrogen storage and a fuel cell for matching the wind power production with the motor load. The research tasks included the evaluation of the consumption of fossil fuels and the associated environmental impact of existing transport system and a comparison with energy consumption and associated environmental impact of the new system. The energy balance of the conveyor transport system was modelled on an hourly basis by using the EnergyPLAN computer program [1] which allows to analyze a combination of intermittent renewable energy technologies, storage and transport systems. The results show that the existing transport system has greater impact on the environment than the proposed one.

Meiere, Ieva; Bazbauers, Gatis

2011-01-01

152

Sustainability of Organic, Integrated and Conventional Farming Systems in Tuscany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of Organic, Integrated and Conventional Farming Systems (OFS, IFS, and CFS, respectively) at farm and more detailed spatial scales. This is achieved applying

Cesare Pacini; G. W. J. Giesen; V. Vazzana; Ada Wossink

2002-01-01

153

Reporting Systems for Sustainability: What Are They Measuring?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The dominance of the neoliberal discourse in the sustainability debate has tended to privilege the economy over environment and social dimensions with implications for what is measured by sustainability monitoring systems. Moreover, systems to measure sustainability, including those influenced by neoliberal discourse, lack robust definitions and…

Davidson, Kathryn M.

2011-01-01

154

Sustainable Schools: Making Energy Efficiency a Lifestyle Priority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promoting efficient energy use in schools that consequently reduces greenhouse gas emissions is the purpose of a residential Energy Efficiency in Schools (EEIS) program reported on in this paper. Research on this program aligns with one of the "key "overarching" sustainability issues", set out in the "Learning for Sustainability: NSW Environmental…

Purnell, Ken; Sinclair, Mark; Gralton, Anna

2004-01-01

155

Wood Energy Production, Sustainable Farming Livelihood and Multifunctionality in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change and the projected depletion of fossil energy resources pose multiple global challenges. Innovative technologies offer interesting possibilities to achieve more sustainable outcomes in the energy production sector. Local, decentralized alternatives have the potential to sustain livelihoods in rural areas. One example of such a…

Huttunen, Suvi

2012-01-01

156

Wood Energy Production, Sustainable Farming Livelihood and Multifunctionality in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Climate change and the projected depletion of fossil energy resources pose multiple global challenges. Innovative technologies offer interesting possibilities to achieve more sustainable outcomes in the energy production sector. Local, decentralized alternatives have the potential to sustain livelihoods in rural areas. One example of such a…

Huttunen, Suvi

2012-01-01

157

Sustainable Schools: Making Energy Efficiency a Lifestyle Priority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Promoting efficient energy use in schools that consequently reduces greenhouse gas emissions is the purpose of a residential Energy Efficiency in Schools (EEIS) program reported on in this paper. Research on this program aligns with one of the "key "overarching" sustainability issues", set out in the "Learning for Sustainability: NSW…

Purnell, Ken; Sinclair, Mark; Gralton, Anna

2004-01-01

158

Assessment of nuclear energy sustainability index using fuzzy logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear energy is increasingly perceived as an attractive mature energy generation technology that can deliver an answer to the worldwide increasing energy demand while respecting environmental concerns as well as contributing to a reduced dependence on fossil fuel. Advancing nuclear energy deployment demands an assessment of nuclear energy with respect to all sustainability dimensions.In this paper, the nuclear energy, whose

Ayah E. Abouelnaga; Abdelmohsen Metwally; Naguib Aly; Mohammad Nagy; Saeed Agamy

2010-01-01

159

Social sustainability and social acceptance in technology assessment: A case study of energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses an approach for assessing indicators for the social sustainability of technical systems developed within a Swedish technology assessment tool called ORWARE. Social sustainability is approached from the perspective of one of its ingredients, namely social acceptance. The research takes the form of a case study on energy technologies conducted in the municipality of Kil in west central

G. Assefa; B. Frostell

2007-01-01

160

Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Vermont Highlight (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Case study on Vermont's innovative strategy for helping low-income families save energy through its Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) program. The DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) granted Vermont to give its weatherization clients access to solar energy systems and one-on-one assistance from energy efficiency coaches to help clients achieve meaningful and long-lasting reductions in their energy bills. Vermont-SERC is administered by the Vermont Office of Economic Opportunity and is carried out by five local weatherization agencies. The purpose of the program is to identify technologies and new approaches-in this case, solar energy and energy efficiency coaches-that can improve weatherization services to low-income clients. The program selects households that have previously received weatherization services. This has several advantages. First, the clients already understand how weatherization works and are willing to strive for additional energy savings. Second, the weatherization agencies are working with clients who have previously had weatherization and therefore have complete energy usage data from utility bills collected during the first energy upgrade installation. This allows the agencies to select the best potential candidates for solar energy. Agencies have existing knowledge of the homes and can pre-screen them for potential structural problems or lack of south-facing exposure.

Not Available

2012-01-01

161

Key Assets for a Sustainable Low Carbon Energy Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of the 21st century, concerns of energy security and climate change gave rise to energy policies focused on energy conservation and diversified low-carbon energy sources. Provided lessons of Fukushima accident are evidently accounted for, nuclear energy will probably be confirmed in most of today's nuclear countries as a low carbon energy source needed to limit imports of oil and gas and to meet fast growing energy needs. Future challenges of nuclear energy are then in three directions: i) enhancing safety performance so as to preclude any long term impact of severe accident outside the site of the plant, even in case of hypothetical external events, ii) full use of Uranium and minimization long lived radioactive waste burden for sustainability, and iii) extension to non-electricity energy products for maximizing the share of low carbon energy source in transportation fuels, industrial process heat and district heating. Advanced LWRs (Gen-III) are today's best available technologies and can somewhat advance nuclear energy in these three directions. However, breakthroughs in sustainability call for fast neutron reactors and closed fuel cycles, and non-electric applications prompt a revival of interest in high temperature reactors for exceeding cogeneration performances achievable with LWRs. Both types of Gen-IV nuclear systems by nature call for technology breakthroughs to surpass LWRs capabilities. Current resumption in France of research on sodium cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs) definitely aims at significant progress in safety and economic competitiveness compared to earlier reactors of this type in order to progress towards a new generation of commercially viable sodium cooled fast reactor. Along with advancing a new generation of sodium cooled fast reactor, research and development on alternative fast reactor types such as gas or lead-alloy cooled systems (GFR & LFR) is strategic to overcome technical difficulties and/or political opposition specific to sodium. In conclusion, research and technology breakthroughs in nuclear power are needed for shaping a sustainable low carbon future. International cooperation is key for sharing costs of research and development of the required novel technologies and cost of first experimental reactors needed to demonstrate enabling technologies. At the same time technology breakthroughs are developed, pre-normative research is required to support codification work and harmonized regulations that will ultimately apply to safety and security features of resulting innovative reactor types and fuel cycles.

Carre, Frank

2011-10-01

162

Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today’s waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous longterm management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by externalintrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the longterm success of the prescribed system. In fact, given that society has become more reliant on and confident of engineered controls, there may be a growing tendency to be even less concerned with institutional controls.

Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

2004-06-01

163

Designing sustainable work systems: The need for a systems approach.  

PubMed

There is a growing discussion concerning sustainability. While this discussion was at first mainly focused on a society level - and sometimes regarding especially environmental problems, one can now see that this topic is of increasing relevance for companies worldwide and even the social dimension of this three pillar approach is gaining more and more importance. This leads to some questions: Is sustainability already a part of human factors thinking or do we have to further develop our discipline? How can we define sustainable work systems? What are the topics we have to consider? Do we need a new systems ergonomics perspective regarding whole value creation chains and a life-cycle perspective concerning products (and work systems)? How can we deal with potential contradictions about social, ecological, and economic goals? PMID:23608710

Zink, Klaus J

2013-04-19

164

Natural Treatment Systems as Sustainable Ecotechnologies for the Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

The purpose of natural treatment systems is the re-establishment of disturbed ecosystems and their sustainability for benefits to human and nature. The working of natural treatment systems on ecological principles and their sustainability in terms of low cost, low energy consumption, and low mechanical technology is highly desirable. The current review presents pros and cons of the natural treatment systems, their performance, and recent developments to use them in the treatment of various types of wastewaters. Fast population growth and economic pressure in some developing countries compel the implementation of principles of natural treatment to protect natural environment. The employment of these principles for waste treatment not only helps in environmental cleanup but also conserves biological communities. The systems particularly suit developing countries of the world. We reviewed information on constructed wetlands, vermicomposting, role of mangroves, land treatment systems, soil-aquifer treatment, and finally aquatic systems for waste treatment. Economic cost and energy requirements to operate various kinds of natural treatment systems were also reviewed.

Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zaffar, Habiba; Yaqoob, Hajra; Waseem, Muhammad; Zahidullah

2013-01-01

165

TOWARD A THEORY OF SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

While there is tremendous interest in the topic of sustainability, a fundamental theory of sustainability does not exist. We present our efforts at constructing such a theory starting with Information Theory and ecological models. We discuss the state of complex sustainable syste...

166

Exploring strategic approaches towards a sustainable transport system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper undertakes a 'backcasting' analysis exploring strategic approaches for overall systems sustainability in personal transport. Starting from a robust definition of sustainability for the personal transport sector, the research examines the impact of combinations of transport technologies and changes in travel behaviour in reducing CO2 emissions towards a sustainable level. In doing this a simple equation model is used.

Stephen Potter

167

Sustainability of Animal Production Systems: An Ecological Perspective1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of sustainability of agricultural production and the use of natural resources has become a popular topic. Most scientists agree that current systems are generally non-sus- tainable. Current rates of resource extraction will lead us to a depleted earth in the future. Sustainability is defined in many ways. For this paper sustainability should be considered the overlap of what

Martin Vavra

168

Sustainable Development and Energy Geotechnology Potential Roles for Geotechnical Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The world is facing unprecedented challenges related to energy resources, global climate change, material use, and waste generation. Failure to address these challenges will inhibit the growth of the developing world and will negatively impact the standard of living and security of future generations in all nations. The solutions to these challenges will require multidisciplinary research across the social and physical sciences and engineering. Although perhaps not always recognized, geotechnical engineering expertise is critical to the solution of many energy and sustainability-related problems. Hence, geotechnical engineers and academicians have opportunity and responsibility to contribute to the solution of these worldwide problems. Research will need to be extended to non-standard issues such as thermal properties of soils; sediment and rock response to extreme conditions and at very long time scales; coupled hydro-chemo-thermo-bio-mechanical processes; positive feedback systems; the development of discontinuities; biological modification of soil properties; spatial variability; and emergent phenomena. Clearly, the challenges facing geotechnical engineering in the future will require a much broader knowledge base than our traditional educational programs provide. The geotechnical engineering curricula, from undergraduate education through continuing professional education, must address the changing needs of a profession that will increasingly be engaged in alternative/renewable energy production; energy efficiency; sustainable design, enhanced and more efficient use of natural resources, waste management, and underground utilization.

FragaszyProgram Dire, Dr. R. J. [National Science Foundation; Santamarina, Carlos [Georgia Institute of Technology; Espinoza, N. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jang, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jung, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2011-01-01

169

Tidal energy extraction: renewable, sustainable and predictable.  

PubMed

The tidal flow of sea water induced by planetary motion is a potential source of energy if suitable systems can be designed and operated in a cost-effective manner This paper examines the physical origins of the tides and how the local currents are influenced by the depth of the seabed and presence of land mass and associated coastal features. The available methods of extracting energy from tidal movement are classified into devices that store and release potential energy and those that capture kinetic energy directly. A survey is made of candidate designs and, for the most promising, the likely efficiency of energy conversion and methods of installing them are considered. Overall, the need to reduce CO2 emissions, a likely continued rise in fossil fuel cost will result in a significantly increased use of tidal energy. What is still required, especially for kinetic energy devices, is a much greater understanding of how they can be designed to withstand long-term immersion in the marine environment. PMID:18453284

Nicholls-Lee, R F; Turnock, S R

2008-01-01

170

Sustainable Rural Energy: Traditional Water Wheels in Padang (PWW) Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable and sustainable energy is increasingly gaining interest in current research circles due to the debates on renewable energy resources. It is essential for scientists and researchers to search for solutions in renewable energy resources, with effective technologies, and low cost in operation and maintenance. Hydro resources can be considered a potential renewable energy resource. The traditional water wheel with simple construction coupled with a basic concept of technology can be utilised as a renewable and sustainable rural energy system. This paper discusses the case of the water wheel as a renewable energy system employed in Padang, Indonesia. The Padang water wheel is constructed from hardwood material with a diameter of 300 cm and width of 40 cm. It is built on a river using water flow to generate the movement of the wheel. The water wheel application in the area showed that it is suitable to be utilised to elevate and distribute water to rice fields located at a higher level than the water level of the river. The water wheel capacity is about 100-120 liters/min. It could continuously irrigate +/-5 ha. of the rice fields. One of the advantages of this water wheel type is to function as a green technology concept promising no negative effect on the environment. The traditional water wheel has also a big economic impact on the rural economy, increasing the productivity of the rice fields. The people of Padang live in a water landscape encompassing the water wheel as an ubiquitous part of their lives, hence they relate to it and the technology of fabrication as well as the utilisation, making it an amenable and effective technology, finding relevance in the modern world.

Ibrahim, Gusri Akhyar; Haron, Che Hassan Che; Azhari, Che Husna

2010-06-01

171

Renewable energy in Iran: Challenges and opportunities for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around the globe, developing countries have reported different cases of successfully implemented Renewable Energy (RE) program supported by bilateral or multilateral funding. In developing countries subsidy has played a big role in RE program marketing and whether this will lead to sustainable development is yet to be determined. The adoption of implementation strategies that will support sustainable development and overcoming

F. Atabi

172

Sustainable Energy - Without the Hot Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his book, MacKay explores our populationâs addiction to fossil fuels and the problems faced with sustainability. Two issues faced with fossil fuels are they will eventually run out and they are harming our environment during use. McKay does not give one simple solution to the problem, but contrast various advanced technologies and how they may be applied to improve our environment and sustainability. More information may be found at http://www.withouthotair.com/.

Cambridge, University O.

173

From Renewable Energy to Sustainability: The Challenge for Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy has an important role to play in meeting future energy needs and achieving sustainability. However, its diffusion and deployment is slow in the past decade due to low fossil fuel prices and barriers in the energy market. Rigorous methods are needed to accelerate the development and utilization of renewable energy, and to increase its contribution to the current

Sam C. M. Hui

174

Assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of energy crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production and use of biomass for energy has both positive and negative impacts on the environment. The environmental impacts of energy crops should be clarified before political choices concerning energy crops are made. An important aid to policy-making would be a systematic methodology to assess the environmental sustainability of energy crops. So far, most studies on the environmental aspects

Marjoleine C Hanegraaf; Edo E Biewinga; Gert van derBijl

1998-01-01

175

Renewable and sustainable energy use in Turkey: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is an energy importing nation with more than half of our energy requirements met by imported fuels. Air pollution is becoming a significant environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources are becoming attractive for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution mitigation in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of

Kamil Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

176

Assessment of sustainable development system in Suihua City, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development is a complex and systemic issue. It is essential to study it by the component analysis method from\\u000a the view of system science. The urban developmental sustainability is one of focuses that people has paid more attention to,\\u000a however, little common understanding how to measure and evaluate the sustainability has been gotten. In this paper, a framework\\u000a is

Jia Zhou; Haifeng Xiao; Jincheng Shang; Xuelin Zhang

2007-01-01

177

Energy Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posters are provided for several different energy conversion systems. Students are provided with cards that give the name and a description of each of the components in an energy system. They match these with the figures on the diagram. Since the groups look at different systems, they also describe their results to the class to share their knowledge.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

178

BIOFUELS: THE KEY TO INDIA'S SUSTAINABLE ENERGY NEEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A country of billion population and having seen a sustained and rapid economic expansion in the last decade India's energy demand will see a quantum 40 percent growth in the next ten years. India, like many other developing countries, is a net importer of energy. More than 25 percent of primary energy needs are being met through imports mainly in

Linoj Kumar; M P Ram Mohan

179

Do increases in energy efficiency improve environmental quality and sustainability?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Governments world-wide increasingly see energy efficiency as an important aspect of sustainability. However, there is a debate in the literature as to whether the impact of improved energy efficiency on reducing energy use might be partially, or more than wholly, offset through “rebound” and “backfire” effects. This paper clarifies the theoretical conditions under which such effects would occur and explores

Nick Hanley; Peter G. McGregor; J. Kim Swales; Karen Turner

2009-01-01

180

Conducting Sustainable Energy Projects in Secondary Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses how sixth through twelfth grade science teachers can engage their students in the design and implementation of sustainable energy projects as part of a unit of study on energy. The project challenges students to engage in an energy project that gives them the opportunity to make a difference in their local community and the…

Toolin, Regina; Watson, Anne

2010-01-01

181

Sustainability, complexity and learning: insights from complex systems approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to explore core contributions from two different approaches to complexity management in organisations aiming to improve their sustainability,: the Viable Systems Model (VSM), and the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). It is proposed to perform this by summarising the main insights each approach offers to understanding organisational transformations aiming to improve sustainability; and

A. Espinosa; T. Porter

2011-01-01

182

Developing a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for biomass to contribute to energy supply in a low-carbon economy is well recognised. However, for the sector to contribute fully to sustainable development in the UK, specific exploitation routes must meet the three sets of criteria usually recognised as representing the tests for sustainability: economic viability in the market and fiscal framework within which the supply chain

Lucia Elghali; Roland Clift; Philip Sinclair; Calliope Panoutsou; Ausilio Bauen

2007-01-01

183

SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY: ECOLOGICAL AND OTHER ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987), namely development that "meets the needs and asperations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of t...

184

SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY: ECOLOGICAL AND OTHER ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987), namely development that "meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those...

185

SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY: ECOLOGICAL AND OTHER ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987), namely development that "meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of t...

186

Human-powered small-scale generation system for a sustainable dance club  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most human powered energy harvesting systems are used to power ubiquitously deployed sensor networks and mobile electronics. These systems scavenge power from human activity or derive limited energy from ambient heat, light, or vibrations. In most of these conventional methods users must focus their attention on power generation at the expense of other activities. However, for sustainable electrical power generation,

J. J. H. Paulides; J. W. Jansen; L. Encica; E. A. Lomonova; M. Smit

2009-01-01

187

Sustaining Action and Optimizing Entropy: Coupling Efficiency for Energy and the Sustainability of Global Ecosystems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Consideration of the property of action is proposed to provide a more meaningful definition of efficient energy use and sustainable production in ecosystems. Action has physical dimensions similar to angular momentum, its magnitude varying with mass, spatial configuration and relative motion. In this article, the relationship of action to…

Rose, Michael T.; Crossan, Angus N.; Kennedy, Ivan R.

2008-01-01

188

Energy justice and foundations for a sustainable sociology of energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation proposes an approach to energy that transcends the focus on energy as a mere technical economic or engineering problem, is connected to sociological theory as a whole, and takes issues of equality and ecology as theoretical starting points. In doing so, the work presented here puts ecological and environmental sociological theory, and the work of environmental justice scholars, feminist ecologists, and energy scholars, in a context in which they may complement one another to broaden the theoretical basis of the current sociology of energy. This theoretical integration provides an approach to energy focused on energy justice. Understanding energy and society in the terms outlined here makes visible energy injustice, or the interface between social inequalities and ecological depredations accumulating as the social and ecological debts of the modern energy regime. Systems ecology is brought into this framework as a means for understanding unequal exchange, energy injustice more generally, and the requirements for long-term social and ecological reproduction in ecological terms. Energy developments in Ecuador and Cuba are used here as case studies in order to further develop the idea of energy justice and the theory of unequal ecological exchange. The point is to broaden the framework of the contemporary critical sociology of energy, putting energy justice at its heart. This dissertation contains previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

Holleman, Hannah Ann

189

Catalysis: Role and Challenges for a Sustainable Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

After introducing the role of catalysis as pillar of chemical industry to reach the sustainability of the society, the contribution\\u000a discusses catalysis for energy as one of the critical areas of development to respond to societal needs and which further\\u000a demonstrate the link between catalysis, innovation and sustainability. In particular, some aspects of development of catalysts\\u000a for the photo- and

Gabriele Centi; Siglinda Perathoner

2009-01-01

190

Nuclear energy and sustainability: Understanding ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulation and new environmental requirements combined with the growing scarcity of fossil resources and the increasing world energy demand lead to a renewal of the debate on tomorrow's energies. Specifically, nuclear energy, which has undeniable assets, faces new constraints. On the one hand, nuclear energy is very competitive and harmless to greenhouse effect. From this point, it seems to be

Karine Fiore

2006-01-01

191

Addressing challenges to sustainable development with innovative energy technologies in a competitive electric industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radical change in the energy system is essential in the decades immediately ahead in order to address effectively the multiple economic, social, environmental, and insecurity challenges posed by conventional energy. This can come about only through a concerted international effort to speed up the rate of technological innovation worldwide for technologies that offer promise in addressing sustainable development objectives -

Robert H. Williams

2001-01-01

192

Can large-scale advanced-adiabatic compressed air energy storage be justified economically in an age of sustainable energy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores whether large-scale compressed air energy storage can be justified technically and economically in an era of sustainable energy. In particular, we present an integrated energy and exergy analysis of an idealized case of an advanced-adiabatic compressed air energy storage system and estimate its cycle efficiency. Based on our results, advanced-adiabatic compressed air energy storage (AA-CAES) seems to

William F. Pickard; Nicholas J. Hansing; Amy Q. Shen

2009-01-01

193

Mass transport in reverse electrodialysis for sustainable energy generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a promising and potentially attractive technology for the generation of sustainable energy from the mixing of salt and fresh water. It uses the free energy of mixing two solutions of different salinity (e.g. river and sea water) to generate power. In RED, a concentrated salt solution and a less concentrated salt solution are brought into contact

Piotr Edward Dlugolecki

2009-01-01

194

Sustained competitive advantage with inter-organizational information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability of competitive advantage from an inter-organizational information system (IOIS) is considered. It is noted that sustainability has two aspects: retaining the competitive edge itself, or, failing that, retaining market share gained before competitors offset the edge. It is argued that in some cases an IOIS that promises to be profitable in the short run can turn out to

Vivek Choudhury

1988-01-01

195

Navigating towards sustainable development: A system dynamics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional fragmented and mechanistic science is unable to cope with issues about sustainability, as these are often related to complex, self-organizing systems. In the paper, sustainable development is seen as an unending process defined neither by fixed goals nor by specific means of achieving them. It is argued that, in order to understand the sources of and the solutions to

Peder Hjorth; Ali Bagheri

2006-01-01

196

EVALUATING THE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY OF INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Economic and environmental sustainability has become a major concern for forage-based animal production in Europe, North America and some other parts of the world. Development of more sustainable farming systems requires an assimilation of experimental and modelling research. Field research is criti...

197

A generalized environmental sustainability index for agricultural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and development of an Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) and describes a case study used to evaluate the performance of the index. The objective of the index was to provide a modelling-based, quantitative measure of sustainability from an environmental perspective, comprising both on- and off-site environmental effects associated with agricultural systems. A performance approach was utilized

Gary R. Sands; Terence H. Podmore

2000-01-01

198

GSSD: Global System for Sustainable Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project of the Global Accords Consortium for Sustainable Development (located at MIT), this site offers a collection of over 2,500 abstracted, indexed, and cross-referenced online resources on sustainable development. Users have four options for searching the index: text (keyword and advanced) and three graphical browsers, one indexing all holdings (organized by subject and problems and solutions), the others covering industry related topics and the Alliance for Global Sustainability (AGS), respectively. Initial search returns include title, "slice" (subject), and "ring" (problem area). Item titles link to further information, including an abstract and the resource itself. GSSD also features a modest selection of full-text reports on "scientific developments and/or policy deliberations." The Consortium plans to make the entire knowledge base available in at least nine additional languages in the future.

199

Sustainability, Systems Thinking and Professional Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the impact of the new sustainability agenda on the occupational and professional needs of those who have taken educational and training programmes in the environmental field at either undergraduate or postgraduate level or through relevant professional institutions' continuing professional development programmes. It also…

Martin, Stephen; Brannigan, James; Hall, Annie

2005-01-01

200

Sustainable Development, Systems Thinking and Professional Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the impact of the sustainable development (SD) agenda on the occupational and professional needs of those who have undergone educational and training programmes in the environmental field either at the undergraduate or the postgraduate level or through relevant professional institutions' continuing professional development…

Martin, Stephen

2008-01-01

201

World energy: Building a sustainable future  

SciTech Connect

As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world`s major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

1992-04-01

202

World energy: Building a sustainable future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world's major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

1992-04-01

203

Innovative paths for providing green energy for sustainable global economic growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to United Nation, world population may reach 10.1 billion by the year 2100. The fossil fuel based global economy is not sustainable. For sustainable global green energy scenario we must consider free fuel based energy conversion, environmental concerns and conservation of water. Photovoltaics (PV) offers a unique opportunity to solve the 21st century's electricity generation because solar energy is essentially unlimited and PV systems provide electricity without any undesirable impact on the environment. Innovative paths for green energy conversion and storage are proposed in areas of R and D, manufacturing and system integration, energy policy and financing. With existing silicon PV system manufacturing, the implementation of new innovative energy policies and new innovative business model can provide immediately large capacity of electricity generation to developed, emerging and underdeveloped economies.

Singh, Rajendra; Alapatt, G. F.

2012-10-01

204

Energy engineering students on their way to expertise in sustainable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy engineering is facing new challenges in educating experts in sustainable energy. The aim of this paper is to characterise expertise related to sustainability in higher education. Future challenges and required skills are explored through recent studies, which have listed key competencies that engineers need in their working life. Sustainability and expertise are discussed on the basis of literature and energy curricula are explored on universities' internet pages.

Malkki, Helena; Alanne, Kari; Hirsto, Laura

2012-11-01

205

ECONOMIC AND RISK ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper evaluates the profitability and economic risks associated with six cropping systems for the Sustainable Agriculture Demonstration site at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Maryland. The six systems are: (1) no-tillage system, (2) corn/soybean system, (3) cover crop system, (...

206

Tracking emerging technologies in energy research: Toward a roadmap for sustainable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science and technology for renewable and sustainable energy are indispensable for our future society and economics. To meet the goal of sustainable energy development, there is a growing body of research efforts world wide. The planner of energy research has to grasp the broader coverage of scientific and technological research, and make decisions on effective investment in promising and emerging

Yuya Kajikawa; Junta Yoshikawa; Yoshiyuki Takeda; Katsumori Matsushima

2008-01-01

207

Scientific challenges in sustainable energy technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe and evaluate the technical, political, and economic challenges involved with widespread adoption of renewable energy technologies. First, we estimate fossil fuel resources and reserves and, together with the current and projected global primary power production rates, estimate the remaining years of oil, gas, and coal. We then compare the conventional price of fossil energy with that from renewable energy technologies (wind, solar thermal, solar electric, biomass, hydroelectric, and geothermal) to evaluate the potential for a transition to renewable energy in the next 20-50 years. Secondly, we evaluate - per the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - the greenhouse constraint on carbon-based power consumption as an unpriced externality to fossil-fuel use, considering global population growth, increased global gross domestic product, and increased energy efficiency per unit GDP. This constraint is projected to drive the demand for carbon-free power well beyond that produced by conventional supply/demand pricing tradeoffs, to levels far greater than current renewable energy demand. Thirdly, we evaluate the level and timescale of R&D investment needed to produce the required quantity of carbon-free power by the 2050 timeframe. Fourth, we evaluate the energy potential of various renewable energy resources to ascertain which resources are adequately available globally to support the projected demand. Fifth, we evaluate the challenges to the chemical sciences to enable the cost-effective production of carbon-free power required. Finally, we discuss the effects of a change in primary power technology on the energy supply infrastructure and discuss the impact of such a change on the modes of energy consumption by the energy consumer and additional demands on the chemical sciences to support such a transition in energy supply.

Lewis, Nathan

2006-04-01

208

Scientific Challenges in Sustainable Energy Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will describe and evaluate the challenges, both technical, political, and economic, involved with widespread adoption of renewable energy technologies. First, we estimate the available fossil fuel resources and reserves based on data from the World Energy Assessment and World Energy Council. In conjunction with the current and projected global primary power production rates, we then estimate the remaining years of supply of oil, gas, and coal for use in primary power production. We then compare the price per unit of energy of these sources to those of renewable energy technologies (wind, solar thermal, solar electric, biomass, hydroelectric, and geothermal) to evaluate the degree to which supply/demand forces stimulate a transition to renewable energy technologies in the next 20-50 years. Secondly, we evaluate the greenhouse gas buildup limitations on carbon-based power consumption as an unpriced externality to fossil-fuel consumption, considering global population growth, increased global gross domestic product, and increased energy efficiency per unit of globally averaged GDP, as produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). A greenhouse gas constraint on total carbon emissions, in conjunction with global population growth, is projected to drive the demand for carbon-free power well beyond that produced by conventional supply/demand pricing tradeoffs, at potentially daunting levels relative to current renewable energy demand levels. Thirdly, we evaluate the level and timescale of R&D investment that is needed to produce the required quantity of carbon-free power by the 2050 timeframe, to support the expected global energy demand for carbon-free power. Fourth, we evaluate the energy potential of various renewable energy resources to ascertain which resources are adequately available globally to support the projected global carbon-free energy demand requirements. Fifth, we evaluate the challenges to the chemical sciences to enable the cost-effective production of carbon-free power on the needed scale by the 2050 timeframe. Finally, we discuss the effects of a change in primary power technology on the energy supply infrastructure and discuss the impact of such a change on the modes of energy consumption by the energy consumer and additional demands on the chemical sciences to support such a transition in energy supply.

Lewis, Nathan

2006-03-01

209

Food Systems Planning and Sustainable Cities and Regions: The Role of the Firm in Sustainable Food Capitalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donald B. Food systems planning and sustainable cities and regions: the role of the firm in sustainable food capitalism, Regional Studies. This paper takes stock of the growing food systems planning movement in North American cities, regions and towns as a possibility for sustainable regional development through the lens of new directions in everyday food practices. Drawing upon theoretical insights

Betsy Donald

2008-01-01

210

Future energy system in environment, economy, and energy problems (2) various nuclear energy system evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Role and potentials of nuclear energy system in the energy options are discussed from the viewpoint of sustainable development with protecting from global warming by using the energy module structure of GRAPE model. They change and are affected dramatically by different sets of energy characteristics, nuclear behavior and energy policy even under the moderate set of presumptions. Introduction of thousands

Kazuaki Matsui; Hiroshi Ujita; Masanori Tashimo

2006-01-01

211

Scientific challenges in sustainable energy technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe and evaluate the technical, political, and economic challenges involved with widespread adoption of renewable energy technologies. First, we estimate fossil fuel resources and reserves and, together with the current and projected global primary power production rates, estimate the remaining years of oil, gas, and coal. We then compare the conventional price of fossil energy with that from renewable

Nathan Lewis

2006-01-01

212

Sustainable consumption, production and infrastructure construction for operating and planning intercity passenger transport systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two bi-level programming models—an operational model and a planning model—for the intercity passenger transport systems under sustainability contexts are proposed in this study. In the upper-level models, the government (regulator) aims to provide the transport infrastructures and to regulate the fares (tolls) to achieve some sustainability objectives, indexed by energy consumption, air pollution, traffic safety, and travel time. In the

Yu-Chiun Chiou; Lawrence W. Lan; Kai-Lin Chang

213

Reducing legacy ATE system sustainment costs through modern system engineering architecture concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cost of sustaining legacy automatic test systems is increasing. Obsolete and unsupportable equipment create higher maintenance costs every year the systems are in operation. With a large dollar investment in the test program sets (TPS) and extended sustainment requirements beyond expected life cycle, a plan to sustain the test capability is needed. A complete modernization of the test system

W. Tjoland; A. Brennan; C. D. McPhee

1999-01-01

214

Environmental Impacts from the Solar Energy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy technologies offer a clean, renewable, and domestic energy source, and are essential components of a sustainable energy future. Solar energy systems (i.e., photovoltaics, solar thermal) provide significant environmental benefits in comparison to the conventional energy sources. It is known that these systems have some minor negative impacts on the environment during their production and operation. This study presents

H. Gunerhan; A. Hepbasli; U. Giresunlu

2008-01-01

215

Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy future.  

PubMed

Access to clean, affordable and reliable energy has been a cornerstone of the world's increasing prosperity and economic growth since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Our use of energy in the twenty-first century must also be sustainable. Solar and water-based energy generation, and engineering of microbes to produce biofuels are a few examples of the alternatives. This Perspective puts these opportunities into a larger context by relating them to a number of aspects in the transportation and electricity generation sectors. It also provides a snapshot of the current energy landscape and discusses several research and development opportunities and pathways that could lead to a prosperous, sustainable and secure energy future for the world. PMID:22895334

Chu, Steven; Majumdar, Arun

2012-08-16

216

Reduced Emissions and Lower Costs: Combining Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency into a Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standard  

SciTech Connect

Combining renewable energy and energy efficiency in Sustainable Energy Portfolio Standards has emerged as a key state and national policy option to achieve greater levels of sustainable energy resources with maximum economic efficiency and equity. One advantage of the SEPS relative to a renewable portfolio standard or a stand-along energy efficiency resource standard is enhanced flexibility and broader options for meeting targets.

Brown, Marilyn A [ORNL

2007-01-01

217

Maximal sustained energy budgets in humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why are sustained energy budgets of humans and other vertebrates limited to not more than about seven times resting metabolic rate? The answer to this question has potential applications to growth rates, foraging ecology, biogeography, plant metabolism, burn patients and sports medicine.

Kimberly A. Hammond; Jared Diamond

1997-01-01

218

Sustainable biomass production for energy in selected Asian countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a synthesis of assessment of sustainable biomass production potential in six Asian countries—China, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand, and is based on the detailed studies carried out in these countries under the Asian Regional Research Programme in Energy, Environment and Climate (ARRPEEC). National level studies were undertaken to estimate land availability for biomass production, identify

S. C. Bhattacharya; P. Abdul Salam; H. L. Pham; N. H. Ravindranath

2003-01-01

219

A Systems Approach to Develop Sustainable Water Supply Infrastructure and Management  

EPA Science Inventory

In a visit to Zhejiang University, China, Dr. Y. Jeffrey Yang will discuss in this presentation the system approach for urban water infrastructure sustainability. Through a system analysis, it becomes clear at an urban scale that the energy and water efficiencies of a water supp...

220

Hydropower in Turkey: The Sustainable Energy Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, global electricity production has more than doubled and electricity demand is rising rapidly around the world as economic development spreads to emerging economies. Not only has electricity demand increased significantly, it is the fastest growing end-use of energy. Therefore, technical, economic, and environmental benefits of hydroelectric power make it an important contributor to the future

K. Kaygusuz

2009-01-01

221

Energy Policy for Sustainable Development in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is crucial to all aspects of development from powering manufacturing and modernization of agricultural sectors to providing electricity to run schools and health facilities, yet the impact of its production, distribution and use grows more severe with every decade. Although new alternative and renewable as well as cleaner and more efficient technologies are being developed and implemented every year,

Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Lee Keat Teong

222

Sustainable Water and Energy in Gaza Strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shortage of fresh water is a common problem in different areas of the world including the Middle East. Desalination of seawater and brackish water is the cheapest way to obtain fresh water in many regions. This research focuses on the situation in Gaza Strip where there is a severe shortage in the energy and water supply. The depletion of fresh water supplies and lack of wastewater treatments result in environmental problems. A solar powered cogeneration plant producing water and energy is proposed to be a suitable solution for Gaza Strip. Solar energy, using Concentrating Solar thermal Power (CSP) technologies, is used to produce electricity by a steam cycle power plant. Then the steam is directed to a desalination plant where it is used to heat the seawater to obtain freshwater. The main objective of this research is to outline a solution for the water problems in Gaza Strip, which includes a cogeneration (power and water) solar powered plant. The research includes four specific objectives: 1- an environmental and economic comparison between solar and fossil fuel energies; 2- technical details for the cogeneration plant; 3- cost and funding, 4- the benefits.

Hamdan, L.; Zarei, M.; Chianelli, R.; Gardner, E.

2007-12-01

223

Sustainable water and energy in Gaza Strip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortage of fresh water is a common problem in different areas of the world including the Middle East. Desalination of seawater and brackish water is the cheapest way to obtain fresh water in many regions. This research focuses on the situation in Gaza Strip where there is a severe shortage in the energy and water supply. The depletion of fresh

Lubna K. Hamdan; Maryam Zarei; Russell R. Chianelli; Elizabeth Gardner

2008-01-01

224

Sustainable Production of Switchgrass for Biomass Energy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 grass native to the North American tallgrass prairies, which historically extended from Mexico to Canada. It is the model perennial warm-season grass for biomass energy. USDA-ARS in Lincoln, NE has studied switchgrass continuously since 1936. Plot-scale rese...

225

Review and appraisal of concept of sustainable food production systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental degradation, competition for resources, increasing food demands, and the integration of agriculture into the international economy threaten the sustainability of many food production systems. Despite these concerns, the concept of sustainable food production systems remains unclear, and recent attempts to appraise sustainability have been hampered by conceptual inconsistencies and the absence of workable definitions. Six perspectives are shown to underpin the concept. Environmental accounting identifies biophysical limits for agriculture. Sustained yield refers to output levels that can be maintained continuously. Carrying capacity defines maximum population levels that can be supported in perpetuity. Production unit viability refers to the capacity of primary producers to remain in agriculture. Product supply and security focuses on the adequacy of food supplies. Equity is concerned with the spatial and temporal distribution of products dervied from resource use. Many studies into sustainable agriculture cover more than one of these perspectives, indicating the concept is complex and embraces issues relating to the biophysical, social, and economic environments. Clarification of the concept would facilitate the development of frameworks and analytical systems for appraising the sustainability of food production systems.

Brklacich, Michael; Bryant, Christopher R.; Smit, Barry

1991-01-01

226

An operational system for evaluating sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of Organic, Integrated and Conventional Farming Systems (OFS, IFS, and CFS, respectively) at farm and more detailed spatial scales. This is achieved applying

C. Pacini; G. Lazzerini; C. Vazzana; G. Giesen; G. A. A. Wossink

2002-01-01

227

Sustainable knowledge management systems: integration personalisation and contextualisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many knowledge management (KM) systems have proven unsustainable to date, exhibiting low quantities and quality of knowledge, with systems falling into disuse. In this paper, we provide and explore a model for sustainable KM systems, focusing on the advantages to be gained from integrating knowledge work with everyday work practices, and enabling sense-making through personalisation and contextualisation. We employ a

Sharman Lichtenstein; Paula M. C. Swatman

2003-01-01

228

System Performance and Sustainability of Higher Education in Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focusing on the higher education system in Nigeria, seeks to take a fresh look at issues involved in its perceived decline, to identify and analyze main factors working against positive system performance, and to make suggestions on system adaptability with a view to ensuring sustainability and averting total collapse. (EV)|

Osinubi, Tokunbo Simbowale

2003-01-01

229

Towards a sustainable energy future: realities and opportunities.  

PubMed

My purpose in this paper is threefold. First, I would like to examine why the world needs us to produce more energy. Second, I will look at the range of energy sources available for a sustainable future. A number of myths have grown up around the various energy sources and their relative contribution to addressing the global energy challenge: I will seek to dispel some of those. Third, I want to highlight what I see as an urgent need: for more informed decision making and more action in this complex area. PMID:21464076

Armstrong, Lynda

2011-05-13

230

Transitions Towards Sustainable Dynamic Traffic Management: A Living Systems Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Transumo1 theme ‘Transition towards Sustainable Mobility’ asks for inspiration and the dare to come with stimulating, new ideas. The\\u000a sustainability challenge ahead of us will need such input. Our belief is that several paradigm shifts in the field of traffic\\u000a management are inevitable and necessary. One of them is to recognize that the traffic system needs to be seen

Ben Immers; Rien van der Knaap

231

Measuring Environmental Sustainability of Intensive Poultry-Rearing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sustainability of human activities is one of the most important concerns of the European Union. Consequently, the need to\\u000a assess the level of sustainability achieved both at local and at government level is increasing. This process involves all\\u000a economic sectors, including agriculture and, in particular, livestock. Until several years ago livestock production systems\\u000a were mainly focused on production efficiency and

Simone Bastianoni; Antonio Boggia; Cesare Castellini; Cinzia Stefano; Valentina Niccolucci; Emanuele Novelli; Luisa Paolotti; Antonio Pizzigallo

232

SEMS: System for Environmental Monitoring and Sustainability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project was to establish a computational and data management system, SEMS, building on our existing system and MTPE-related research. We proposed that the new system would help support Washington University's efforts in environmental sust...

R. E. Arvidson

1998-01-01

233

AFFORDABLE, SUSTAINABLE SOLAR ENERGY HEATER FOR THE DEVELOPING WORLD  

EPA Science Inventory

The proposed research project question is: â??What is an optimum, low-cost, and sustainable system for basic home water heating in underdeveloped areas of the planet?â?ť In the United States, the availability of hot water is taken for granted. A knob is turned and hot water appea...

234

Considerations in implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we discuss the issues and barriers associated with implementing integrated biomass energy systems in developing countries. An integrated biomass energy system is dependent on sustainably grown and managed energy crops, is supportive of rura...

R. D. Perlack J. W. Ranney

1993-01-01

235

Energy systems transformation.  

PubMed

The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

2013-01-07

236

Advanced separation processes for sustainable nuclear systems  

SciTech Connect

In the frame of the French national waste management 1991 act, the CEA had launched research and development studies on the separation of the minor actinides - i.e. neptunium, americium and curium - from high active waste issuing from nuclear spent fuel reprocessing. In compliance with the 2006 deadline specified by this act, tests of the main processes developed were realized in 2005 in ATALANTE. As shown by the results summarized in this paper, the feasibility of the processes selected for partitioning was demonstrated. In June 2006, a new act on sustainable management of radioactive waste has been voted by the French parliament with a national plan (PNG-MDR). This plan specifies a step by step programme of HLLL waste management, with, for partitioning-transmutation, a program in tight connection with the 4. generation reactors development in which transmutation of minor actinides could be operated. In this frame, the next important 2012 milestone is the evaluation of the two possible transmutation roads: homogeneous recycling of all the actinides together or minor actinides heterogeneous recycling in UO{sub 2} assemblies in core blankets. The last step could be the building of a small partitioning workshop (micro-pilot) dedicated to the production of fuel assemblies containing minor actinides. (authors)

Baron, P.; Masson, M.; Rostaing, C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique DEN/VRH/DRCP, BP 17 171 30207 Bagnols/Ceze Cedex (France); Boullis, B. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique DEN/SAC/DDIN, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

2007-07-01

237

Sustainability, Complexity and Learning: Insights from Complex Systems Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore core contributions from two different approaches to complexity management in organisations aiming to improve their sustainability,: the Viable Systems Model (VSM), and the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). It is proposed to perform this by summarising the main insights each approach offers to…

Espinosa, A.; Porter, T.

2011-01-01

238

Obsolescence Driven Design Refresh Planning for Sustainment-Dominated Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many technologies have life cycles that are shorter than the life cycle of the product they are in. Life cycle mismatches caused by the obsolescence of technology (and particularly the obsolescence of electronic parts) results in high sustainment costs for long field life systems, e.g., avionics and military systems. This article presents a methodology for performing optimum design refresh planning

Pameet Singh; Peter Sandborn

2006-01-01

239

Defining socio-environmental systems for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defining of a `socio-environmental system' is a critical and inevitable step on the path towards achieving sustainable development for specific parts of the world. In this paper we discuss some important, and problematic, aspects of such a definition. We propose a definition of socio-environmental systems that is based on the hierarchical organisation of human activities, is structural as well as

C. J. M. Musters; H. J. de Graaf; W. J. ter Keurs

1998-01-01

240

Systems methodologies for sustainable natural resources research and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems methodologies are helping to reshape the way in which natural resource Research and Development (R&D) is conducted but they are under-utilised and under-researched. This paper outlines some recent trends in systems thinking, and argues the case for the use and further development of systems methodologies for research and development in sustainable natural resource management (NRM R&D). Systems, or complexity,

R. L. Ison; P. T. Maiteny; S. Carr

1997-01-01

241

Sustainable agriculture and the production of biomass for energy use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern bioenergy is seen as a promising option to curb greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, a potential competition\\u000a for land and water between bioenergy and food crops. Another question is whether biomass for energy use can be produced in\\u000a a sustainable manner given the current conventional agricultural production practices. Other than the land and water competition,\\u000a this question is

Adrian Muller

2009-01-01

242

A Review of Sustainability Assessment Models as System of Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people believe that our society is at the crossroads today because of societal and environmental problems of scales ranging from the local to the global. Such problems as global warming, species extinction, overpopulation, poverty, drought, to name but a few, raise questions about the degree of sustainability of our society. To answer sustainability questions, one has to know the

Yannis A. Phillis; Vassilis S. Kouikoglou; Vasilios Manousiouthakis

2010-01-01

243

Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for reduced carbon emissions are central to the design and optimization of future low carbon transport systems. Gaker et al (2011) suggest a framework, and provide insight into the willingness of transport consumers to pay for emission reductions of carbon dioxide from their personal transport choices within the context of other attributes of transport variables. The results of this study, although limited to a small demographic segment of the US population, demonstrate that people can integrate information on greenhouse gas emissions with other transport attributes including cost and time. Likewise, the research shows that the study group was willing to pay for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions associated with their transport choices. The study examined auto purchase choice, transport mode choice and transport route choice, which represent key decisions associated with transport that impact greenhouse gas emissions. Interestingly, they found that the study group was willing to pay for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at a relatively consistent price across these transport choices. Clearly, the study results may not broadly apply to all demographics of users of transport, even in the study domain, due to the small demographic segment that was examined and the fact that the study was conducted in the laboratory. However, the methods used by Gaker et al (2011) are cause for optimism that future studies can obtain much needed mapping of transport preferences and willingness to pay for greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with personal transport choices. Although the Gaker et al (2011) study is directed at understanding the promotion of low carbon transport in the context of existing infrastructures, the ability of these studies to elucidate human behavior and preferences within the trade-offs of transport are critical to the design of future transport systems that seek to meet transport demand with constrained greenhouse gas emissions. Additional studies of this nature that examine broader demographic groups in real world conditions are greatly need

Schauer, James J.

2011-09-01

244

CHALLENGING HEALTH CARE SYSTEM SUSTAINABILITY IN OMAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The healthcare system in Oman is being reformed. During last three decades, the system has demonstrated and reported great achievements in health care services, preventive and curative medicine. In 2001, WHO ranked Oman first because of what was described as a \\

Ali A. Al Dhawi; Daniel J. West

245

The NERSC Sustained System Performance (SSP) Metric  

SciTech Connect

Most plans and reports recently discuss only one of four distinct purposes benchmarks are used. The obvious purpose is selection of a system from among its competitors, something that is the main focus of this paper. This purpose is well discussed in many workshops and reports. The second use of benchmarks is validating the selected system actually works the way expected once it arrives. This purpose may be more important than the first reason. The second purpose is particularly key when systems are specified and selected based on performance projections rather than actual runs on the actual hardware. The third use of benchmarks, seldom mentioned, is to assure the system performs as expected throughout its lifetime1, (e.g. after upgrades, changes, and regular use.) Finally, benchmarks are used to guide system designs, something covered in detail in a companion paper from Berkeley's Institute for Performance Studies (BIPS).

Kramer, William; Shalf, John; Strohmaier, Erich

2005-09-18

246

Applying Sustainable Systems Development Approach to Educational Technology Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information technology (IT) is an essential part of modern education. The roles and contributions of technology to education have been thoroughly documented in academic and professional literature. Despite the benefits, the use of educational technology systems (ETS) also creates a significant impact on the environment, primarily due to energy

Huang, Albert

2012-01-01

247

Applying Sustainable Systems Development Approach to Educational Technology Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information technology (IT) is an essential part of modern education. The roles and contributions of technology to education have been thoroughly documented in academic and professional literature. Despite the benefits, the use of educational technology systems (ETS) also creates a significant impact on the environment, primarily due to energy

Huang, Albert

2012-01-01

248

Nuclear energy option for energy security and sustainable development in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is facing great challenges in its economic development due to the impact on climate change. Energy is the important driver of economy. At present Indian energy sector is dominated by fossil fuel. Due to international pressure for green house gas reduction in atmosphere there is a need of clean energy supply for energy security and sustainable development. The nuclear

Subhash Mallah

2011-01-01

249

Design of a grid-independent energy efficient building: Sustainable Energy Research Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes architectural and engineering design features of the “Sustainable Energy Research Facility (SERF)” to be constructed on Frostburg State University campus located in Western Maryland, USA. SERF will be an off-grid, energy efficient, residential size building supplied by clean renewable energy sources. When completed, SERF will be used by the FSU Renewable Energy Center to offer research, education,

O. Soysal; H. Soysal; J. Spears; D. Posson; K. O'Hearn; B. Charles; B. Harwick

2010-01-01

250

AUV Docking System for Sustainable Science Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a technological development of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) docking system motivated by science requirements. Twenty-seven case studies were drafted after having elaborate discussions with twelve senior marine scientists from a wide range of oceanographic fields including physical oceanography, ocean chemistry, midwater ecology, biological oceanography, molecular biology, marine microbiology, geology, evolutionary biology, and benthic ecology.

Tarun Kanti Podder; Mark Sibenac; James Bellingham

2004-01-01

251

The Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) Model for Energy Service Delivery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Climate change, energy price spikes, and concerns about energy security have reignited interest in state and local efforts to promote end-use energy efficiency, customer-sited renewable energy, and energy conservation. Government agencies and utilities have historically designed and administered such demand-side measures, but innovative…

Houck, Jason; Rickerson, Wilson

2009-01-01

252

Sustainability of Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Multistorey Residential Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: The urban water supply systems in Australian large cities, which generally depend on large surface water reservoirs, are highly stressed due to rapid urban growth and severe drought conditions during the current decade . To ensure the long term sustainability of urban water supply, various alternative water sources inc luding rainwater tanks, grey water, wastewater and desalination plants

A. Rahman; J. Dbais; M. Imteaz

253

Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation

Amelie Y. Davis

2009-01-01

254

SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics  

EPA Science Inventory

The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

255

CHALLENGES AND ADVANCES TOWARD SUSTAINED UTILIZATION OF ARID USA SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sustainable use of renewable resources in arid USA systems requires large amounts of land because productivity is generally very low. As a result, there are a great variety of soil types, vegetation, and land tenure within any land use enterprise. The sensitivity of soils and vegetation to overuse a...

256

Development of impact aggregation procedure for sustainable transport system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the investigation, the problems of utility evaluation methodology application for transport development projects evaluation are described. The main steps of development of impact aggregation procedure for sustainable transport system are described in the article. The new 3 stage environmental impact aggregation procedure is suggested.

Patlins, Antons; Kunicina, Nadezhda

2009-01-01

257

Production–Consumption Systems and the Pursuit of Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The pursuit of sustainability has many facets. Sectoral approaches attempt to improve the productivity of agriculture or energy\\u000a efficiency while reducing negative impacts of air and water pollutants on the environment. In place-based approaches a suite\\u000a of environmental challenges posed by development are tackled together seeking to reduce underlying drivers, complementarities\\u000a among inputs and inputs, and negotiating trade-offs when win-win

Louis Lebel; Sylvia Lorek

258

Nuclear Energy - Hydrogen Production - Fuel Cell: A Road Towards Future China's Sustainable Energy Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development of Chinese economy in 21. century will mainly rely on self-supply of clean energy with indigenous natural resources. The burden of current coal-dominant energy mix and the environmental stress due to energy consumptions has led nuclear power to be an indispensable choice for further expanding electricity generation capacity in China and for reducing greenhouse effect gases emission. The

Zhiwei Zhou

2006-01-01

259

Indicators for sustainable energy development: An initiative by the International Atomic Energy Agency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1999, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been leading a multinational, multi-agency effort to develop a set of energy indicators useful for measuring progress on sustainable development at the national level. This effort has included the identification of major relevant energy indicators, the development of a framework for implementation and the testing of the applicability of this tool

I. A. Vera; L. M. Langlois; H. H. Rogner; A. I. Jalal; F. L. Toth

2005-01-01

260

A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable

Yingchun Yuan

2009-01-01

261

Role of Fusion Energy in a Sustainable Global Energy Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion energy is one of only a few truly long-term energy options. Since its inception in the 1950s, the vision of the fusion energy research program has been to develop a viable means of harnessing the virtually unlimited energy stored in the nuclei of light atoms--the primary fuel deuterium is present as one part in 6,500 of all hydrogen. This

F Najmabadi; J Schmidt; J Sheffield

2001-01-01

262

Sustainable Energy Future: The Essential Role of Nuclear Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Directors of the Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratories strongly believe that nuclear energy must play a significant and growing role in our nation's--and the world's--energy portfolio. This conclusion is based on an analysis of national and...

J. Grossenbacher M. Anastasio S. Aronson S. Chu T. Hunter

2008-01-01

263

A review of parenteral sustained-release naltrexone systems  

SciTech Connect

The ideal naltrexone sustained-release delivery system should be easy to inject or implant, not cause adverse tissue reaction, release the drug at a relatively constant rate for at least 30 days, and biodegrade within a short time afterwards. Mechanisms which can be used for sustaining drug release include reducing solubility and surface area, coating, encapsulation and microencapsulation, complexation, binding and hydrophilic gelation. Drug release from such systems is controlled by diffusion through a barrier/film, diffusion from a monolithic device, erosion of the surface, hydrolysis, ion exchange, biodegradation, or a combination of these. Injectable systems would seem to be ultimately preferred because of the ease of administration and handling, while the implantable devices may find first use in man since they are easily removable, should that be necessary. Maintaining particulate-free products and sterilization methods are two problems with all parenteral dosage forms. Production must be particularly well controlled and validated.

Olsen, J.L.; Kincl, F.A.

1981-01-01

264

Role of Earth Observations for Sustainable Development: Emerging Trends (SS1: ICORSE Earth Observation Systems for Sustainable Development)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development aims at optimal use of natural resources, protection and conservation of ecological systems, and improving economic efficiency. It tries to provide food, fuel, fiber and shelter for the ever increasing world population on sustainable basis. Ecosystems like agro, coastal, forest, freshwater and grasslands, and natural disasters are some of the ideal facets for examining the magnitude of the

R R Navalgund; Satish C Jayanthi

265

Technology policy and sustainability: An empirical study of renewable energy development in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the debate over sustainability and development paradigms, energy assumes a unique position by virtue of its direct link with environmental sustainability and its role as an essential vehicle for development. Agenda 21 recognizes that coupling end-use energy efficiency with renewable sources of energy will help meet a large share of the world's energy needs while reducing the environmental impacts

Maithili Iyer

2000-01-01

266

Army Sustainability and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sustainability is one of the newest Army buzzwords. You may ask then, What is sustainability. The word sustain is of Latin origin, and sustainability is the capacity to uphold, maintain, or endure. However, in the last several years the term has taken on ...

R. C. Wingfield

2010-01-01

267

Current energy usage and sustainable energy in Malaysia: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysia has a good mix of energy resources like oil, natural gas, coal and renewable energies such as biomass, solar and hydro. In spite of this plenty of resources, the country is dependent on fossil fuel for industrial and transportation sector. In 2009, 94.5% of electricity is generated by using fossil fuel such as natural gas, coal, diesel oil and

S. M. Shafie; T. M. I. Mahlia; H. H. Masjuki; A. Andriyana

2011-01-01

268

The role of nuclear energy in establishing sustainable energy paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear energy remains a controversial issue for public policies on energy and the environment because of arguments concerning radioactive waste, reactor accidents, nuclear proliferation and economic competitiveness. The issues of climate change and supply security have provided a new rationale for its reappearance on the international political agenda. Recent national policy directions in some countries show that such a comeback

J. J. C. Bruggink; B. C. C. der van Zwaan

2002-01-01

269

SAFE—A hierarchical framework for assessing the sustainability of agricultural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development and the definition of indicators to assess progress towards sustainability have become a high priority in scientific research and on policy agendas. In this paper, we propose a consistent and comprehensive framework of principles, criteria and indicators (PC&I) for sustainability assessment of agricultural systems, referred to as the Sustainability Assessment of Farming and the Environment (SAFE) framework. In

N. Van Cauwenbergh; K. Biala; C. Bielders; V. Brouckaert; L. Franchois; V. Garcia Cidad; M. Hermy; E. Mathijs; B. Muys; J. Reijnders; X. Sauvenier; J. Valckx; M. Vanclooster; B. Van der Veken; E. Wauters; A. Peeters

2007-01-01

270

Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol production facilities. Since a valuable byproduct of corn ethanol production is Distiller's Grain Solubles (DGS), siting of ethanol plants was considered with regard to both corn production by county within the conterminous United States and head of cattle available to use this output as feed. We found that many counties outside the Midwest could sustain smaller sized ethanol plants, especially when considering that most large production facilities need to redistribute their DGS in dried form sometimes as far as California which has negative impacts on the Net Energy Value of corn based ethanol. The future of ethanol expansion however lies with cellulosic feedstock which is bulkier and thus more costly to transport than corn. Our results indicate that cellulosic ethanol plants should be smaller in capacity, especially when compared to corn ethanol plants where 100 million gallons a year (mgy) plants are more the norm. Only 7 out of 3109 counties in the conterminous United States contain enough wood, switchgrass or crop residue feedstock to sustain plants that produce greater than 40 mgy of biofuel, meaning that larger plants would need to import feedstock from considerable distances and thus incur greater feedstock transport costs. The last section explored co-location options for siting lignocellulosic ethanol plant production facilities.

Davis, Amelie Y.

271

Is Sustainability Achievable? Exploring the Limits of Sustainability with Model Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Successful implementation of sustainability ideas in ecosystem management requires a basic understanding of the often nonlinear and non-intuitive relationships amongst different dimensions of sustainability, particularly the systemwide implications of human actions. This basic un...

272

Rethinking assessment of drought impacts: a systemic approach towards sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although impacting primarily economic sectors, droughts may also initiate dynamic mechanisms that have socio-environmental\\u000a consequences on sustainability of the impacted areas. To date, most research has dealt with the economic impacts of droughts,\\u000a with minimal attention being paid to the dynamics of damaging mechanisms associated with socio-environmental impacts. Using\\u000a a systemic approach, this paper develops a method of identifying the

Mohammadreza Shahbazbegian; Ali Bagheri

2010-01-01

273

Barriers to Lean Enterprise Transformation: A Case Study of the F-16 Avionics Sustainment System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instituting basic principles of lean thinking can help transform the U.S. Air Force's sustainment system by substantially improving its efficiency and effectiveness. One of the immediate outcomes of viewing the sustainment system through 'lean lenses' is ...

B. M. Brandt

2003-01-01

274

(Energy conservation in buildings and community systems)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The International Energy Agency, Energy Conservation in Building and Community Systems, with cooperation from the Solar Research and Development and the Commission of the European Communities has been developing plans for new areas of investigation that affect various energy, environmental, economic, and technical trends on buildings of the next 40 years. Creating a sustainable society must be accomplished in the

1990-01-01

275

The strategic management of energy service company to enhance the sustainable energy management in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thailand imports a large portion of crude oil which equals to 12 % of GDP in 2008 for driving the growth of Thailand economy. Several countermeasures are developed from various fields of responsibility in order to provide the sufficient and sustainable energy policy. This paper reviews the development of energy service company (ESCO) in Thailand which is expected to be

Rittirong Intarajinda; V. Chutiprapat; P. Bhasaputra; W. Pattaraprakorn

2010-01-01

276

Electrolysis: The important energy transformer in a world of sustainable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world of sustainable energy supply, the latter will be predominantly generated, distributed and consumed in the form of electric power and hydrogen. In order to balance supply and demand, for storage purposes and to meet the specific requirements of the different end users, we need powerful energy transformers in both directions—fuel cells and electrolyzers.Though based upon a simple

W. Kreuter; H. Hofmann

1998-01-01

277

Linking Energy Efficiency and ISO: Creating a Framework forSustainable Industrial Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Industrial motor-driven systems consume more than 2194billion kWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largestopportunities for energy savings. In the United States (US), they accountfor more than 50 percent of all manufacturing electricity use. Incountries with less well-developed consumer economies, the proportion ofelectricity consumed by motors is higher-more than 50 percent ofelectricity used in all sectors in China is attributable to motors.Todate, the energy savings potential from motor-driven systems haveremained largely unrealized worldwide. Both markets and policy makerstend to focus on individual system components, which have a typicalimprovement potential of 2-5 percent versus 20-50 percent for completesystems. Several factors contribute to this situation, most notably thecomplexity of the systems themselves. Determining how to optimize asystem requires a high level of technical skill. In addition, once anenergy efficiency project is completed, the energy savings are often notsustained due to changes in personnel and production processes. Althoughtraining and educational programs in the US, UK, and China to promotesystem optimization have proven effective, these resource-intensiveefforts have only reached a small portion of the market.The same factorsthat make it so challenging to achieve and sustain energy efficiency inmotor-driven systems (complexity, frequent changes) apply to theproduction processes that they support. Yet production processestypically operate within a narrow band of acceptable performance. Theseprocesses are frequently incorporated into ISO 9000/14000 quality andenvironmental management systems, which require regular, independentaudits to maintain ISO certification, an attractive value forinternational trade.This paper presents a new approach to achievingindustrial system efficiency (motors and steam) that will encourageplants to incorporate system energy efficiency into their existing ISOmanagement systems. We will describe an Industrial Standards Frameworkprepared for China, also applicable elsewhere, that includes nationalstandards and a System Optimization Library. ISO work instructions arepart of the Library, so that a plant can easily incorporate projects intotheir ISO Quality Environmental Manual. The goal is to provide aplant-based mechanism that helps each company maintain their focus onenergy efficiency commitments, provide visibility for its achievements,and provide verification of results for financial backers (includingcarbon traders) to help stimulate much greater industrial energyefficiency.

McKane, Aimee; Perry, Wayne; Aixian, Li; Tienan, Li; Williams,Robert

2005-04-01

278

PEPFAR, health system strengthening, and promoting sustainability and country ownership.  

PubMed

Evidence demonstrates that scale-up of HIV services has produced stronger health systems and, conversely, that stronger health systems were critical to the success of the HIV scale-up. Increased access to and effectiveness of HIV treatment and care programs, attention to long-term sustainability, and recognition of the importance of national governance, and country ownership of HIV programs have resulted in an increased focus on structures that compromise the broader health system. Based on a review published literature and expert opinion, the article proposes 4 key health systems strengthening issues as a means to promote sustainability and country ownership of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and other global health initiatives. First, development partners need provide capacity building support and to recognize and align resources with national government health strategies and operational plans. Second, investments in human capital, particularly human resources for health, need to be guided by national institutions and supported to ensure the training and retention of skilled, qualified, and relevant health care providers. Third, a range of financing strategies, both new resources and improved efficiencies, need to be pursued as a means to create more fiscal space to ensure sustainable and self-reliant systems. Finally, service delivery models must adjust to recent advancements in areas of HIV prevention and treatment and aim to establish evidence-based delivery models to reduce HIV transmission rates and the overall burden of disease. The article concludes that there needs to be ongoing efforts to identify and implement strategic health systems strengthening interventions and address the inherent tension and debate over investments in health systems. PMID:22797732

Palen, John; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phoya, Ann; Imtiaz, Rubina; Einterz, Robert; Quain, Estelle; Blandford, John; Bouey, Paul; Lion, Ann

2012-08-15

279

Efficiency and sustainability indicators for passenger and commodities transportation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different energy analysis approaches (energy and embodied energy, exergy and emergy analysis) have been applied to the road and railway systems of a medium size district of central Italy, in order to shed light on the dynamics of the local transport sector and develop a tool for analysis capable of taking the system complexity into account. Road and railway

M Federici; S Ulgiati; D Verdesca; R Basosi

2003-01-01

280

Applicability and methodology of determining sustainable yield in groundwater systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is currently a need for a review of the definition and methodology of determining sustainable yield. The reasons are: (1) current definitions and concepts are ambiguous and non-physically based so cannot be used for quantitative application, (2) there is a need to eliminate varying interpretations and misinterpretations and provide a sound basis for application, (3) the notion that all groundwater systems either are or can be made to be sustainable is invalid, (4) often there are an excessive number of factors bound up in the definition that are not easily quantifiable, (5) there is often confusion between production facility optimal yield and basin sustainable yield, (6) in many semi-arid and arid environments groundwater systems cannot be sensibly developed using a sustained yield policy particularly where ecological constraints are applied. Derivation of sustainable yield using conservation of mass principles leads to expressions for basin sustainable, partial (non-sustainable) mining and total (non-sustainable) mining yields that can be readily determined using numerical modelling methods and selected on the basis of applied constraints. For some cases there has to be recognition that the groundwater resource is not renewable and its use cannot therefore be sustainable. In these cases, its destiny should be the best equitable use.

Kalf, Frans R. P.; Woolley, Donald R.

2005-03-01

281

Impact assessment for a sustainable energy future—Reflections and practical experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

As energy issues are at the top of the policy agenda worldwide, policy-makers increasingly need better decision-supporting processes to assist them in fostering a sustainable energy future. This paper reflects on the interpretation of sustainable development, and links these reflections with the theory and practice of impact assessment applied on energy issues. An analysis of existing impact assessment approaches with

Jean Hugé; Tom Waas; Gilbert Eggermont; Aviel Verbruggen

2011-01-01

282

Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and sustainable carbon sink will be developed. Clean energy production from biomass (such as ethanol, biodiesel, producer gas, bio-methane) could be viable option to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Electricity generation from biomass is increasing throughout the world. Co-firing of biomass with coal and biomass combustion in power plant and CHP would be a viable option for clean energy development. Biomass can produce less emission in the range of 14% to 90% compared to emission from fossil for electricity generation. Therefore, biomass could play a vital role for generation of clean energy by reducing fossil energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The main barriers to expansion of power generation from biomass are cost, low conversion efficiency and availability of feedstock. Internationalization of external cost in power generation and effective policies to improve energy security and carbon dioxide reduction is important to boost up the bio-power. In the long run, bio-power will depend on technological development and on competition for feedstock with food production and arable land use.

Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

2012-06-01

283

Modeling of a conceptual self-sustained liquid fuel vaporization – combustion system with radiative output using inert porous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present model is based on a combined self-sustained liquid fuel vaporization – combustion system, where the liquid fuel vaporization occurs on a wetted wall plate with energy transferred through the plate from the combustion of vaporized oil. The vaporization energy has been derived through the radiative interaction of the vaporizing plate and an upstream end surface of the porous

Tarun K. Kayal; Mithiles Chakravarty

2007-01-01

284

A framework of indicator system for measuring Taipei's urban sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since the Earth Summit was launched at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, the concept of sustainability has exerted significant influence on policy at local level. Sustainable urban development has also become an important local strategy for global sustainability. Due to their integrative and forward-looking characteristics, sustainability indicators have been proposed to measure and evaluate urban development. After discussing

Shu-Li Huang; Jui-Hao Wong; Tzy-Chuen Chen

1998-01-01

285

Sustained resonance in very slowly varying oscillatory Hamiltonian systems  

SciTech Connect

By formulating slowly varying oscillatory systems into Hamiltonian standard form, canonical averaging techniques can be performed automatically by symbolic manipulation programs to very high orders. For the very slow variation considered, these high orders are required to find uniformly valid solutions. When resonance is exhibited in these systems, the original system of 2N first order differential equations is reduced to two differential equations which embody the resonance behavior. Sustained resonance, also referred to as phase locking, occurs when the leading order frequency of the reduced system oscillates about zero for long times. The general solution procedure is illustrated, and a highly accurate asymptotic solution if found explicitly for a frequently occurring class of problems, which results when only a single harmonic of the resonance is present. This solution was not possible for the same class of problems with the usual slow time. Two test cases are considered to numerically verify all results. 24 refs., 13 figs.

Bosley, D.L.; Kevorkian, J.

1990-03-01

286

Role of Transportation Systems Management and Operations in Supporting Livability and Sustainability. A Primer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This primer describes the role of transportation systems management and operations (M&O) in advancing livability and sustainability. The document highlights the connections between M&O and livability and sustainability objectives and the importance of a b...

H. Rue J. Bauer J. Parks M. Grant S. Trainor

2012-01-01

287

Electricity supply, irregularities, and the prospect for solar energy and energy sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are faced with the problem of expanding urban growth and demographic shift, necessitating the need to achieve a sustainable rate of positive economic growth. To move toward a sustainable future, many reforms have been implemented, including in the energy sector. Reforms in the energy sector will lead to a secure future energy supply, open globalised

Dan Nchelatebe Nkwetta; Mervyn Smyth; Vu Van Thong; Johan Driesen; Ronnie Belmans

2010-01-01

288

Systems Engineering Approach to Sustainable Energy Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world faces no greater challenge in the 21st Century than arresting the rapidly increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that cause climate change\\u000a risks.\\u000a \\u000a Despite an enormous amount of efforts done to reduce the uncertainties surrounding the danger of climate change, there is\\u000a a little progress toward a global understanding about how to tackle the global warning

István Krómer

2009-01-01

289

Using models to manage systems subject to sustainability indicators  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mathematical and numerical models can provide insight into sustainability indicators using relevant simulated quantities, which are referred to here as predictions. To be useful, many concerns need to be considered. Four are discussed here: (a) mathematical and numerical accuracy of the model; (b) the accuracy of the data used in model development, (c) the information observations provide to aspects of the model important to predictions of interest as measured using sensitivity analysis; and (d) the existence of plausible alternative models for a given system. The four issues are illustrated using examples from conservative and transport modelling, and using conceptual arguments. Results suggest that ignoring these issues can produce misleading conclusions.

Hill, M. C.

2006-01-01

290

EVALUATION OF UNDERGROUND RAILWAY NETWORKS OPERATING SUSTAINABLE COOLING SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground railway system usage is growing throughout the developing world and in many cities the underground railway is the most commonly used form of public transport. The heavy use of electrically propelled train carriages within these systems can generate substantial quantities of rejected heat energy. This energy can significantly increase air temperatures within the trains and tunnels. When coupled to

J. A. Thompson; G. G. Maidment; J. F. Missenden; F. Ampofo

291

2009 AFHVS presidential address: the steering question: challenges to achieving food system sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this address I examine the challenges of achieving food system sustainability. Starting from the position that most people\\u000a want a food system that is “sustainable” and that we have a great reservoir of unapplied technical knowledge applicable to\\u000a increasing sustainability, I argue that the big issue is collective decision-making to accomplish the goal of sustainability.\\u000a Using the metaphor of

Gilbert W. Gillespie Jr

2010-01-01

292

Nuclear Energy - Hydrogen Production - Fuel Cell: A Road Towards Future China's Sustainable Energy Strategy  

SciTech Connect

Sustainable development of Chinese economy in 21. century will mainly rely on self-supply of clean energy with indigenous natural resources. The burden of current coal-dominant energy mix and the environmental stress due to energy consumptions has led nuclear power to be an indispensable choice for further expanding electricity generation capacity in China and for reducing greenhouse effect gases emission. The application of nuclear energy in producing substitutive fuels for road transportation vehicles will also be of importance in future China's sustainable energy strategy. This paper illustrates the current status of China's energy supply and the energy demand required for establishing a harmonic and prosperous society in China. In fact China's energy market faces following three major challenges, namely (1) gaps between energy supply and demand; (2) low efficiency in energy utilization, and (3) severe environmental pollution. This study emphasizes that China should implement sustainable energy development policy and pay great attention to the construction of energy saving recycle economy. Based on current forecast, the nuclear energy development in China will encounter a high-speed track. The demand for crude oil will reach 400-450 million tons in 2020 in which Chinese indigenous production will remain 180 million tons. The increase of the expected crude oil will be about 150 million tons on the basis of 117 million tons of imported oil in 2004 with the time span of 15 years. This demand increase of crude oil certainly will influence China's energy supply security and to find the substitution will be a big challenge to Chinese energy industry. This study illustrates an analysis of the market demands to future hydrogen economy of China. Based on current status of technology development of HTGR in China, this study describes a road of hydrogen production with nuclear energy. The possible technology choices in relation to a number of types of nuclear reactors are compared and assessed. The analysis shows that only high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) and sodium fast breed reactor might be available in China in 2020 for hydrogen production. Further development of very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) and gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) is necessary to ensure China's future capability of hydrogen production with nuclear energy as the primary energy. It is obvious that hydrogen production with high efficient nuclear energy will be a suitable strategic technology road, through which future clean vehicles burning hydrogen fuel cells will become dominant in future Chinese transportation industry and will play sound role in ensuring future energy security of China and the sustainable prosperity of Chinese people. (author)

Zhiwei Zhou [Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

2006-07-01

293

Hydrogen and the materials of a sustainable energy future  

SciTech Connect

The National Educator`s Workshop (NEW): Update 96 was held October 27--30, 1996, and was hosted by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This was the 11th annual conference aimed at improving the teaching of material science, engineering and technology by updating educators and providing laboratory experiments on emerging technology for teaching fundamental and newly evolving materials concepts. The Hydrogen Education Outreach Activity at Los Alamos National Laboratory organized a special conference theme: Hydrogen and the Materials of a Sustainable Energy Future. The hydrogen component of the NEW:Update 96 offered the opportunity for educators to have direct communication with scientists in laboratory settings, develop mentor relationship with laboratory staff, and bring leading edge materials/technologies into the classroom to upgrade educational curricula. Lack of public education and understanding about hydrogen is a major barrier for initial implementation of hydrogen energy technologies and is an important prerequisite for acceptance of hydrogen outside the scientific/technical research communities. The following materials contain the papers and view graphs from the conference presentations. In addition, supplemental reference articles are also included: a general overview of hydrogen and an article on handling hydrogen safely. A resource list containing a curriculum outline, bibliography, Internet resources, and a list of periodicals often publishing relevant research articles can be found in the last section.

Zalbowitz, M. [ed.

1997-02-01

294

Glasses for solar energy conversion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar technologies are projected to increase tremendously over the next 10 years. Glasses are playing an important role as transparent materials of photovoltaic (PV) cells and concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. Glasses are materials of short energy payback time and environmental compatibility suitable for sustainable energy concepts. The paper reviews recent solar applications. Surface structuring and coating of glasses are

J. Deubener; G. Helsch; A. Moiseev; H. Bornhöft

2009-01-01

295

STATUS OF THE NEW NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS STUDY IN CIAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear energy civil-application has been started in China. To meet the long-term sustainable primary energy supply it could be envisaged that the nuclear power systems will be developed in large scale. Following three key points must be satisfied by the future nuclear energy systems: - more safer nuclear energy systems than recent those should be developed to decrease the

D. DING; Z. LUO; M. XU

296

Sustainability of Switchgrass for Cellulosic Ethanol: Evaluating Net Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Feedstocks Costs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Perennial herbaceous plants such as switchgrass are being evaluated as cellulosic bioenergy crops. Sustainability concerns with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and similar energy crops have been about net energy efficiency, potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic feasibility grown ...

297

Undergraduate Research on Sustainability: Campus Energy Analysis and Building Energy Audits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an innovative junior-senior engineering clinic course1-2 four Rowan University undergraduate students worked on a multidisciplinary project to learn first hand what sustainability challenges are and what it means to be a professional energy auditor. Their task was to find out why Rowan University led a group of 20 peer universities and colleges in energy consumption per square foot and

Peter Jansson; James Blanck; Patrick Giordano; Dona Johnson; Sara Ross

298

Pharmacological preconditioning with diazoxide slows energy metabolism during sustained ischemia  

PubMed Central

Ischemic preconditioning (PC) is associated with slower destruction of the adenine nucleotide pool (?Ad) and slower rate of anaerobic glycolysis during ischemic stress. These changes are concordant with the preconditioned state, supporting an essential role of lowered energy demand in the cardioprotective mechanism of PC. Although pharmacological PC induced by the activation of mitochondrial KATP channels also limits infarct size, its effect on energy metabolism during sustained ischemia is unknown. Using metabolite levels found at baseline and after a 15 min test episode of regional ischemia, the effect of a cardioprotective dose of diazoxide on metabolic features associated with PC was tested in barbital-anesthetized, open-chest dogs. Diazoxide (3.5 mg/kg at an intravenous rate of 1 mL/min) infused before a test episode of ischemia had no effect on baseline metabolic indices. However, during ischemic stress, treated hearts exhibited less destruction of ATP, less degradation of the ?Ad into nucleosides and bases, as well as less lactate production than control hearts subjected only to ischemic stress. Thus, diazoxide mimics the metabolic alterations observed in PC tissue. This supports the hypothesis that a reduction in energy demand, which is now equated with an increased ATP to ADP ratio in the sarcoplasm, is a critical component of the mechanism of cardioprotection in preconditioned myocardium. It is hypothesized that during PC or diazoxide treatment, the passage of the ?Ad into and out of the mitochondria is slowed, limiting the level of ATP available to the mitochondrial ATPase and preserving ATP and the total ?Ad. Altered ischemic mitochondrial metabolism plays an important role in establishing and maintaining the preconditioned state.

Schwartz, Lisa M; Reimer, Keith A; Crago, Mark S; Jennings, Robert B

2007-01-01

299

Recent developments and forecasts for renewable ocean energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy sources from the oceans include, among others, offshore wind, underwater currents, and wave energy. Growing awareness of renewable energy sources as a key element in sustaining future economies has lead to development in renewable ocean energy systems. Examination of worldwide investments in implementation of renewable energy technologies reveals that offshore wind energy is one of the fastest growing

A. T. Jones; W. Rowley

2001-01-01

300

Solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic, self sustaining and self perpetuating, device for the production of motive force by combining cryogenic and thermodynamic principles into one system, keeping the systems separated, two open to atmosphere, the other closed, sealed, pressurized and utilizing special compounded fluids, which when alternately exposed to the heat of atmospheric temperature, then, to the coldness of a liquid or an

A. L. Cahill; J. L. Scott

1982-01-01

301

Welfare and Generational Equity in Sustainable Unfunded Pension Systems  

PubMed Central

Using stochastic simulations we analyze how public pension structures spread the risks arising from demographic and economic shocks across generations. We consider several actual and hypothetical sustainable PAYGO pension structures, including: (1) versions of the US Social Security system with annual adjustments of taxes or benefits to maintain fiscal balance; (2) Sweden’s Notional Defined Contribution system and several variants developed to improve fiscal stability; and (3) the German system, which also includes annual adjustments to maintain fiscal balance. For each system, we present descriptive measures of uncertainty in representative outcomes for a typical generation and across generations. We then estimate expected utility for generations based on simplifying assumptions and incorporate these expected utility calculations in an overall social welfare measure. Using a horizontal equity index, we also compare the different systems’ performance in terms of how neighboring generations are treated. While the actual Swedish system smoothes stochastic fluctuations more than any other and produces the highest degree of horizontal equity, it does so by accumulating a buffer stock of assets that alleviates the need for frequent adjustments. In terms of social welfare, this accumulation of assets leads to a lower average rate of return that more than offsets the benefits of risk reduction, leaving systems with more frequent adjustments that spread risks broadly among generations as those most preferred.

Auerbach, Alan J.; Lee, Ronald

2011-01-01

302

Sustainable Food Systems in Europe: Policies, Realities and Futures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the food sustainability challenges facing the 27-nation member European Union (EU). It describes the evolution of sustainable development policy in Europe against the background of the EU's evolution and diverse membership, with particular reference to agriculture and food. It argues that while sustainability challenges in agriculture have received considerable policy attention, those facing the powerful manufacturing and

Geof Rayner; David Barling; Tim Lang

2008-01-01

303

Energetic composite and system with enhanced mechanical sensitivity to initiation of self-sustained reaction  

SciTech Connect

An energetic composition and system using amassed energetic multilayer pieces which are formed from the division, such as for example by cutting, scoring, breaking, crushing, shearing, etc., of a mechanically activatable monolithic energetic multilayer(s) (e.g. macro-scale sheets of multilayer films), for enhancing the sensitivity of the energetic composite and system to mechanical initiation of self-sustained reaction. In particular, mechanical initiation of the energetic composition may be achieved with significantly lower mechanical energy inputs than that typically required for initiating the monolithic energetic multilayers from which it is derived.

Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2012-05-29

304

Ammonia recycling enables sustainable operation of bioelectrochemical systems.  

PubMed

Ammonium (NH4(+)) migration across a cation exchange membrane is commonly observed during the operation of bioelectrochemical systems (BES). This often leads to anolyte acidification (pH <5.5) and complete inactivation of biofilm electroactivity. Without using conventional pH controls (dosage of alkali or pH buffers), the present study revealed that anodic biofilm activity (current) could be sustained if recycling of ammonia (NH3) was implemented. A simple gas-exchange apparatus was designed to enable continuous recycling of NH3 (released from the catholyte at pH >10) from the cathodic headspace to the acidified anolyte. Results indicated that current (110 mA or 688 Am(-3) net anodic chamber volume) was sustained as long as the NH3 recycling path was enabled, facilitating continuous anolyte neutralization with the recycled NH3. Since the microbial current enabled NH4(+) migration against a strong concentration gradient (~10-fold), a novel way of ammonia recovery from wastewaters could be envisaged. PMID:23774293

Cheng, Ka Yu; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

2013-05-31

305

Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction  

SciTech Connect

The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

2012-06-30

306

A total system approach to sustainable pest management  

PubMed Central

A fundamental shift to a total system approach for crop protection is urgently needed to resolve escalating economic and environmental consequences of combating agricultural pests. Pest management strategies have long been dominated by quests for “silver bullet” products to control pest outbreaks. However, managing undesired variables in ecosystems is similar to that for other systems, including the human body and social orders. Experience in these fields substantiates the fact that therapeutic interventions into any system are effective only for short term relief because these externalities are soon “neutralized” by countermoves within the system. Long term resolutions can be achieved only by restructuring and managing these systems in ways that maximize the array of “built-in” preventive strengths, with therapeutic tactics serving strictly as backups to these natural regulators. To date, we have failed to incorporate this basic principle into the mainstream of pest management science and continue to regress into a foot race with nature. In this report, we establish why a total system approach is essential as the guiding premise of pest management and provide arguments as to how earlier attempts for change and current mainstream initiatives generally fail to follow this principle. We then draw on emerging knowledge about multitrophic level interactions and other specific findings about management of ecosystems to propose a pivotal redirection of pest management strategies that would honor this principle and, thus, be sustainable. Finally, we discuss the potential immense benefits of such a central shift in pest management philosophy.

Lewis, W. J.; van Lenteren, J. C.; Phatak, Sharad C.; Tumlinson, J. H.

1997-01-01

307

Towards sustainable nuclear energy: Putting nuclear physics to work  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new method to propagate the uncertainties of fundamental nuclear physics models and parameters to the design and performance parameters of future, clean nuclear energy systems. Using Monte Carlo simulation, it is for the first time possible to couple these two fields at the extremes of nuclear science without any loss of information in between. With the

A. J. Koning; D. Rochman

2008-01-01

308

Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon emission reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 /m3 and 1.00 /m3, respectively. By international standards, these costs are competitive. The results of renewable energy powered commercial tilapia production indicate that a wind-diesel system has high potential for intensive tilapia production as well as carbon dioxide emission reductions. The study also investigates aeration failures in renewable energy powered tilapia production systems. With respect to the ice-making plant, unlike previous studies which consider nighttime operation only, we have found that a nighttime PV powered ice-making system is more expensive (1/kWh) than daytime ice-making system (0.70/kWh). Our optimal energy options analysis at project scale which includes SWRO, ice-making plant and household energy consumption for about 100 households shows that compared to diesel only energy option, PV-D, W-D, and PV-W-D hybrids are very cost-effective energy options. Moreover, energy options with high levels of renewable energy including 100% renewables have the lowest net present cost and they are already cost-effective without CDM. On the other hand, while the removal of about 87% carbon dioxide emissions could be achieved at negative cost, initial investment could increase by a factor of 40, which is one of the primary barriers hindering wider renewable energy applications in developing countries. Thus in order to increase developing countries' participation in the carbon market, CDM policy should shift from a purely market oriented approach to investigating how to facilitate renewable energy projects through barrier removal. Thus, we recommend that further research should focus on how to efficiently remove renewable energy implementation barriers as a means to improve developing countries participation in meaningful emission reduction while at the same time meeting the needs of sustainable economic development.

Gilau, Asmerom M.

309

Protective sustainability of ecosystems using Department of Energy buffer lands as a case study.  

PubMed

State and federal agencies are faced with protecting human health and the environment for a range of hazardous sites, including nuclear waste storage facilities. At some sites, nuclear materials must be stored for the foreseeable future because no technology currently exists for safe treatment and disposal. Using Department of Energy (DOE) lands as a case study, this article examines the meaning of protective sustainability for ecosystems and proposes a tiered approach to such protection with stakeholder participation during all phases. The approach includes: (1) governmental, institutional and public support to maintain the system, (2) agreement on the ecosystem to sustain, (3) agreement on the goods and services that the ecosystem should provide, (4) methods of monitoring the status of the ecosystem (usually involving bioindicators), (5) methods of evaluating the trends and changes within that system, and (6) methods of managing or restoring components of the ecosystem (response and corrective actions). The latter three steps are those normally considered for management and maintenance of healthy ecosystems, and figure prominently in natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). However, the former three are necessary components for sustainability. Regardless of technologies or technical expertise, the ecosystem will not be protected sustainably unless there is governmental, institutional, and public support for its protection, as well as consensus about the features of the ecosystem to be protected. While the selection of a preferred ecosystem at DOE sites will likely occur as part of remediation/restoration/NRDA, decisions about ecosystem services and human use on buffer lands can be revisited periodically. Monitoring is an integral part of evaluating continued health and safety of the ecosystem and its component parts, and such data should then be used to evaluate status and trends. These evaluations, however, will be most useful when they include hypothesis testing, tribal involvement stakeholder involvement, and comanagement among all the interested and affected parties. The tiered approach for ecosystem protection described here can be used for any ecosystems. PMID:17934954

Burger, Joanna

2007-11-01

310

Exergy sustainability.  

SciTech Connect

Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

2006-05-01

311

Nutrient balances as indicators for sustainability of broiler production systems.  

PubMed

1. Flock balances of nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and copper (N, P, Zn, Cu) were calculated in order to evaluate environmental effects of three different broiler production systems (intensive indoor, free range and organic). 2. Nutrient gain in birds per unit nutrient intake (retention) in intensive indoor production was higher than in free range and organic production. 3. Nutrient surplus relative to nutrient retention was higher in organic production than in free range and intensive indoor production. 4. The main reasons for differences in nutrient efficiency between intensive indoor, free range and organic production were duration of growth period, strain of broilers and feeding strategy. 5. The calculation of whole farm indicators (livestock density, N and P excretions per hectare of farmland) demonstrates how defining system boundaries affects the outcome of an evaluation: organic farms had the smallest livestock densities and the lowest N and P excretions per hectare of farmland. 6. In the efforts to reach a more holistic evaluation of agricultural production systems, the definition of adequate system boundaries must be discussed. In addition to nutrient balances, further indicators of sustainability, such as human and ecological toxicity, should be considered. PMID:15222410

Kratz, S; Halle, I; Rogasik, J; Schnug, E

2004-04-01

312

Sustainable Energy Production - Facing up to our Common Challenge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With this presentation the Norwegian Prime Minister opened the conference, the Offshore Northern Seas Conference, an important meeting place for the oil and gas industry. Today, sustainable development, the environment and human rights are vital issues th...

K. M. Bondevik

1998-01-01

313

Title: New Strategies for Global Governance: Sustainable Energy-Related Global Policy Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy spurs social and economic development and has multiple effects on the ecological and social environment of societies. Energy access for socially equitable development, energy security for sustainable economic growth, and the mitigation of climate change all represent issues of long-term developments, whose effects are not fully reflected in considerations of actors maximizing short-term profits in energy markets. Consequently, this

Sebastian Wienges

314

Sustainability of Different Nutrient Combinations in a Long-Term Rice-Wheat Cropping System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability of any cropping system across years influences the food safety in a particular region, as cropping systems are mostly region\\/zone specific. The present study examined the yield sustainability of 12 nutrient treatments that were combinations of organic and inorganic sources (inorganic, organic or different combinations of both) in a rice-wheat cropping system, using information from experiments conducted across 17

Pradip Kumar Sahu; A. L. Kundu; P. K. Mani; M. Pramanick

2005-01-01

315

Piezoelectric transducer based devices for development of a sustainable machining system - A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability in production is to develop a system that reduces usage of resources for converting raw material into useful product; Moreover, it could produce waste that can be directly used by another production system. Intentionally inducing vibration to make machining system sustainable started from the work of Kumabe. Based on the direction of modulation with respect to workpiece motion three

Ravinder Singh Joshi; Harpreet Singh

2011-01-01

316

Are Alternative Food Systems Socially Sustainable? A Case Study from Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the importance of alternative food systems in delivering social sustainability to local communities. The perceptions of local and organic food systems actors regarding equity (or fairness) between the actors and viability of the local communities are examined to analyze social sustainability in Juva, Finland. The findings lend conditional support to the positive relationship between localized food systems

Marko Nousiainen; Päivi Pylkkänen; Fred Saunders; Laura Seppänen; Kari Mikko Vesala

2009-01-01

317

Development of a dynamic strategy planning theory and system for sustainable river basin land use management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land use management is central to government planning for sustainable development. The main purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy planning theory and system to assist responsible authorities in obtaining alternatives of sustainable top river basin land use management. The concepts and theory of system analysis, driving force–state–response (DSR) framework, and system dynamics are used to establish

Ching-Ho Chen; Wei-Lin Liu; Shu-Liang Liaw; Chien-Hwa Yu

2005-01-01

318

Community, culture and sustainability in multilevel dynamic systems intervention science.  

PubMed

This paper addresses intertwined issues in the conceptualization, implementation and evaluation of multilevel dynamic systems intervention science (MDSIS). Interventions are systematically planned, conducted and evaluated social science-based cultural products intercepting the lives of people and institutions in the context of multiple additional events and processes (which also may be referred to as interventions) that may speed, slow or reduce change towards a desired outcome. Multilevel interventions address change efforts at multiple social levels in the hope that effects at each level will forge synergistic links, facilitating movement toward desired change. This paper utilizes an ecological framework that identifies macro (policy and regulatory institutions), meso (organizations and agencies with resources, and power) and micro (individuals, families and friends living in communities) interacting directly and indirectly. An MDSIS approach hypothesizes that change toward a goal will occur faster and more effectively when synchronized and supported across levels in a social system. MDSIS approaches by definition involve "whole" communities and cannot be implemented without the establishments of working community partnerships This paper takes a dynamic systems approach to science as conducted in communities, and discusses four concepts that are central to MDSIS--science, community, culture, and sustainability. These concepts are important in community based participatory research and to the targeting, refinement, and adaptation of enduring interventions. Consistency in their meaning and use can promote forward movement in the field of MDSIS, and in community-based prevention science. PMID:19387824

Schensul, Jean J

2009-06-01

319

Engineering sustainable engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability is one of the global grand challenges of the 21st century. In order for future generations to enjoy a satisfactory quality of life, the current generation must find ways to meet humanity's needs for energy, shelter, food and water in ways that are environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable. Engineers must be trained to design systems and technologies that have

M. L. Sattler; K. Alavi; V. C. P. Chen; S. P. Mattingly; K. J. Rogers; Y. P. Weatherton; B. Afotey; M. Rani

2010-01-01

320

Solar energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solar energy system is disclosed in which the solar energy is converted to electrical energy for immediate use or the energy may be stored for use at a later date. The solar energy is converted to electrical energy by a large photo-voltaic array and the output of the photo-voltaic array is fed through an inverter and other control circuitry

1983-01-01

321

Socially sustainable work organizations : a chaordic systems approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines both theoretical and practical approaches to socially sustainable work organizations. Socially sustainable work organizations have a dynamic ability to function both by repeating accustomed and by devising innovative solutions, and they maintain this operational viability by promoting the functioning capabilities of their stakeholders. The organizational and stakeholder functioning capabilities are founded on complexity stemming from the simultaneous

Mari Kira; Frans M. van Eijnatten

2008-01-01

322

Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.  

PubMed

We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system. PMID:19209604

Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

2009-01-01

323

Sustainable Design Policy and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Certification.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2007 Air Force Sustainable Development and Design Policy mandates the use of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) criteria for military construction projects. Additionally, the policy authorizes adding two percent of the original build...

D. M. Nyikos

2008-01-01

324

Best Practices for Sustainable Wind Energy Development in the Great Lakes Region and Beyond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document offers a menu of 18 different, yet complimentary preferred practices and policies. The best practices cover all phases of the wind energy development process - from the policies that allow for wind development, to the sustainable operation o...

C. Haven J. Hummer V. Pebbles

2011-01-01

325

Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) treatment train assessment tool.  

PubMed

This paper outlines a rationale and scoring system for the stormwater treatment train assessment tool (STTAT) which is a proposed regulatory tool for Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). STTAT provides guidance and regulatory consistency for developers about the requirements of planners and the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA). The tool balances the risks of pollution to the receiving water body with the treatment provided in a treatment train. It encourages developers to take SUDS into account early, avoiding any misunderstanding of SUDS requirements at the planning stage of a development. A pessimistic view on pollution risks has been adopted since there may be a change of land use on the development in the future. A realistic view has also been taken of maintenance issues and the 'survivability' of a SUDS component. The development of STTAT as a response to the requirements of the Water Framework Directive is explored, the individual scores being given in tabular format for receiving water and catchment risks. Treatment scores are proposed for single SUDS components as well as multiple components within treatment trains. STTAT has been tested on a range of sites, predominantly in Scotland where both development and receiving water information was known. The operational tool in use by SEPA is presented. PMID:19717910

Jefferies, C; Duffy, A; Berwick, N; McLean, N; Hemingway, A

2009-01-01

326

Approaches for Planning and Implementing Sustainable Energy Growth in a Complex World: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The subject of sustainable energy development has been widely discussed and debated in recent years. However, despite widespread interest, progress toward this goal has been limited. This paper will build on current thinking related to sustainable development, energy forecasting, and complexity theory and show how past roadmapping methodologies fall short. While proposing ways of thinking about our responses to global changes, we consider how we can create and discover the pathways through those unpredictable changes toward high global renewables penetration.

Snyder, N.; Schwab, A.

2012-06-01

327

Towards global benchmarking for sustainable homes: an international comparison of the energy performance of housing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 15 years, house building standards across the western world have begun to address ecologically sustainable development\\u000a (ESD) principles. Amongst the range of environmental sustainability issues arising from housing construction and occupation,\\u000a the energy demand for heating and\\/or cooling to maintain thermal comfort has the longest history and is most widespread in\\u000a policy and regulation. Since energy in our

Ralph Horne; Carolyn Hayles

2008-01-01

328

Industrial Prospects for the Optimized use of U, Pu and Th for Sustainable Nuclear Energy Deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Nuclear energy is part of a sustainable energy future” is a conclusion which is increasingly reached by a variety of energy scenario studies by world-renown institutions such as the IAEA, OECD\\/IEA & OECD\\/NEA, World Energy Council, and also reached by different national energy assessment reports. Nuclear does own various unique features that make this energy technology a prime candidate to

Luc Van Den Durpel; Bernard Guesdon; Michel Lecomte

2011-01-01

329

Sensitivity analysis of a hierarchical qualitative model for sustainability assessment of cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity Analysis (SA) was performed on the MASC model (Multi-attribute Assessment of the Sustainability of Cropping systems), a hierarchical qualitative model built to assess the sustainability of cropping systems developed under a decision support tool called DEXi. Three approaches were tested to perform a first-order SA assuming a fixed model structure and no correlation among input variables: (i) factorial designs

Marta Carpani; Jacques-Eric Bergez; Hervé Monod

330

Culture, Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Sustainable Development: A Critical View of Education in an African Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The article's focus is the relationship between culture, indigenous knowledge systems (IKS), sustainable development and education in Africa. It analyzes the concept of sustainability with particular reference to education and indigenous knowledge systems. In particular the article analyzes the documents from the World Summit in Johannesburg in…

Breidlid, Anders

2009-01-01

331

Sustainable manufacturing: Modeling and optimization challenges at the product, process and system levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving sustainability in manufacturing requires a holistic view spanning not just the product, and the manufacturing processes involved in its fabrication, but also the entire supply chain, including the manufacturing systems across multiple product life-cycles. This requires improved models, metrics for sustainability evaluation, and optimization techniques at the product, process, and system levels. This paper presents an overview of recent

A. D. Jayal; F. Badurdeen; O. W. Dillon Jr.; I. S. Jawahir

2010-01-01

332

Sustainability of energy sources in nordic countries-case study based on comprehensive analysis of different renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bringing sustainability in overall energy sphere can ensure a strong pathway for the existing economic growth of Nordic countries. Globally, Renewable Energy sources are taken into consideration to formulate a solid energy framework for envisioned carbon emission free world. This paper will convey some ideas on the technical and environomical viabilities of available renewable energy sources in Nordic countries. It

Raza Ali Zaidi

2011-01-01

333

Energy Control Systems: Energy Savings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The installation of proper control systems is estimated as saving up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other potential energy-saving areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)|

School Business Affairs, 1980

1980-01-01

334

Moving Sustainability Forward: Energy Efficient Renovations and Solar Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For any goal to be a "smart goal" it needs to be specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time sensitive. This is equally true for sustainability goals for educational facilities. Evidence abounds that "green strategies" greatly impact both the academic and operational performance of a school. Agencies from the U.S. Environmental Protection…

Taylor, Bill

2011-01-01

335

Energy in rural Ethiopia: Consumption patterns, associated problems, and prospects for a sustainable energy strategy  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a picture of energy resources and their current use in rural Ethiopia and presents an analysis of energy supply patterns and consumption trends. This exercise aims to build an empirical knowledge of real energy systems in the country and also to synthesize and analyze the general and specific problems that exist within the current energy system. Based on these lines of analysis, a series of technical and policy-oriented recommendations for rural energy development are discussed.

Mulugetta, Y. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Strategy

1999-07-01

336

Practicing Sustainability in an Urban University: A Case Study of a Behavior Based Energy Conservation Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study of the University of Toronto Sustainability Office's energy conservation project, Rewire, explores the implementation of a social marketing campaign that encourages energy efficient behavior. Energy conservation activities have reached approximately 3,000 students and staff members annually, and have saved electricity, thermal…

Chan, Stuart; Dolderman, Dan; Savan, Beth; Wakefield, Sarah

2012-01-01

337

Versatile energy recovery circuit for driving AC plasma display panel with single sustain circuit board  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an energy recovery (ER) circuit which can operate either in a series or a parallel resonance mode and can drive an AC plasma display panel (PDP) with a single sustain circuit board. The proposed ER circuit consists of one energy storage capacitor, two energy recovery inductors, and three insulated-gate bipolar transistors. The circuit operations in the series

S. C. Lee; S. Y. Soh; J. W. Seo; B. K. Kang

2006-01-01

338

Sediment management in sustainable urban drainage system ponds.  

PubMed

Since removal and disposal of sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) sediment can incur high maintenance costs, assessments of sediment volumes, quality and frequency of removal are required. Sediment depth and quality were surveyed annually from 1999-2003 in three ponds and one wetland in Dunfermline, Scotland, UK. Highest sediment accumulation occurred in Halbeath Pond, in the most developed watershed and with no surface water management train. From comparison of measured potentially toxic metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) with standards, the average sediment quality should not impair aquatic ecosystems. 72-84% of the metal flux into the SUDS was estimated to be associated with coarse sediment (> 500 microm diameter) suggesting that management of coarse sediment is particularly important at this site. The timing of sediment removal for these SUDS is expected to be determined by loss of storage volume, rather than by accumulation of contaminants. If sediment removal occurs when 25% of the SUDS storage volume has infilled, it would be required after 17 years in Halbeath Pond, but only after 98 years in Linburn Pond (which has upstream detention basins). From the quality measurements, sediment disposal should be acceptable on adjacent land within the boundaries of the SUDS studied. PMID:16838706

Heal, K V; Hepburn, D A; Lunn, R J

2006-01-01

339

Energy transmission systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods of transporting large quantities of energy are compared. The energy source is assumed to be nuclear fission. However, expected significant effects of alternative energy sources are noted. The associated energy distribution system is essentially ignored. The procedure consists of evaluating several different thermal, chemical, and electrical energy forms. Basically, the evaluation is a technical and economic comparison including

G. G. Leeth

1976-01-01

340

Energy storage system  

SciTech Connect

An energy storage system particularly adapted for mobile x-ray units which uses electrical energy from an ordinary 110 volt wall outlet, stores it as mechanical energy, and then converts part of the mechanical energy back to electrical energy in a short period of time. The mechanical energy is stored in flywheels which are also parts of a generator which converts mechanical to electrical energy as required.

Jordan, R.D.

1980-01-08

341

Measuring Sustainability within the Veterans Administration Mental Health System Redesign Initiative  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine how attributes affecting sustainability differ across VHA organizational components and by staff characteristics. Subjects Surveys of 870 change team members and 50 staff interviews within the VA’s Mental Health System Redesign initiative. Methods A one-way ANOVA with a Tukey post-hoc test examined differences in sustainability by VISN, job classification, and tenure from staff survey data of the Sustainability Index. Qualitative interviews used an iterative process to identify “a priori” and “in vivo” themes. A simple stepwise linear regression explored predictors of sustainability. Results Sustainability differed across VISN and staff tenure. Job classification differences existed for: 1) Benefits and Credibility of the change and 2) staff involvement and attitudes toward change. Sustainability barriers were: staff and institutional resistance, and non-supportive leadership. Facilitators were: commitment to veterans, strong leadership, and use of QI Tools. Sustainability predictors were outcomes tracking, regular reporting, and use of PDSA cycles. Conclusions Creating homogeneous implementation and sustainability processes across a national health system is difficult. Despite the VA’s best evidence-based implementation efforts, there was significant variance. Locally tailored interventions might better support sustainability than “one-size-fits all” approaches. Further research is needed to understand how participation in a QI collaborative affects sustainability.

Ford, James H.; Krahn, Dean; Wise, Meg; Oliver, Karen Anderson

2011-01-01

342

SUSTAINABILITY: ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND SYSTEMS ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "? development that ?meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future' ?" However, a mathematical theo...

343

Subtask 5.3 - Water and Energy Sustainability and Technology  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this Energy & Environmental Research Center project was to evaluate water capture technologies in a carbon capture and sequestration system and perform a complete systems analysis of the process to determine potential water minimization opportunities within the entire system. To achieve that goal, a pilot-scale liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) was fabricated and tested in conjunction with a coal-fired combustion test furnace outfitted with CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies, including the options of oxy-fired operation and postcombustion CO{sub 2} capture using an amine scrubber. The process gas stream for these tests was a coal-derived flue gas that had undergone conventional pollutant control (particulates, SO{sub 2}) and CO{sub 2} capture with an amine-based scrubber. The water balance data from the pilot-scale tests show that the packed-bed absorber design was very effective at capturing moisture down to levels that approach equilibrium conditions.

Bruce Folkedahl; Christopher Martin; David Dunham

2010-09-30

344

Sustainable electricity generation by solar pv/diesel hybrid system without storage for off grids areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Access to energy is known as a key issue for poverty reduction. The electrification rate of sub Saharan countries is one of the lowest among the developing countries. However this part of the world has natural energy resources that could help raising its access to energy, then its economic development. An original "flexy energy" concept of hybrid solar pv/diesel/biofuel power plant, without battery storage, is developed in order to not only make access to energy possible for rural and peri-urban populations in Africa (by reducing the electricity generation cost) but also to make the electricity production sustainable in these areas. Some experimental results conducted on this concept prototype show that the sizing of a pv/diesel hybrid system by taking into account the solar radiation and the load/demand profile of a typical area may lead the diesel generator to operate near its optimal point (70-90 % of its nominal power). Results also show that for a reliability of a PV/diesel hybrid system, the rated power of the diesel generator should be equal to the peak load. By the way, it has been verified through this study that the functioning of a pv/Diesel hybrid system is efficient for higher load and higher solar radiation.

Azoumah, Y.; Yamegueu, D.; Py, X.

2012-02-01

345

Physiological traits and cereal germplasm for sustainable agricultural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeding is not a discipline that readily comes to mind when agricultural sustainability is being considered. Sustainability\\u000a is normally associated with farming practices such as stubble retention, direct-drilling, or amelioration practices such as\\u000a contour farming or liming, or rotation practices for nutrient management and disease control. The contribution of plant breeding\\u000a will be in providing germplasm for these changed

R. A. Richards; M. Watt; G. J. Rebetzke

2007-01-01

346

Challenges and opportunities for implementing sustainable energy strategies in coastal communities of Baja California Sur, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the potential of renewable energy and efficiency strategies to solve the energy challenges faced by the people living in the biosphere reserve of El Vizcaino, which is located in the North Pacific region of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. This research setting provides a practical analytical milieu to understand better the multiple problems faced by practitioners and agencies trying to implement sustainable energy solutions in Mexico. The thesis starts with a literature review (chapter two) that examines accumulated international experience regarding the development of renewable energy projects as a prelude to identifying the most salient implementation barriers impeding this type of initiatives. Two particularly salient findings from the literature review include the importance of considering gender issues in energy analysis and the value of using participatory research methods. These findings informed fieldwork design and the analytical framework of the dissertation. Chapter three surveys electricity generation as well as residential and commercial electricity use in nine coastal communities located in El Vizcaino. Chapter three summarizes the fieldwork methodology used, which relies on a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods that aim at enabling a gender-disaggregated analysis to describe more accurately local energy uses, needs, and barriers. Chapter four describes the current plans of the state government, which are focused in expanding one of the state's diesel-powered electricity grids to El Vizcaino. The Chapter also examines the potential for replacing diesel generators with a combination of renewable energy systems and efficiency measures in the coastal communities sampled. Chapter five analyzes strategies to enable the implementation of sustainable energy approaches in El Vizcaino. Chapter five highlights several international examples that could be useful to inform organizational changes at the federal and state level aimed at fostering renewable energy and efficiency initiatives that enhance energy security, protect the environment, and also increase economic opportunities in El Vizcaino and elsewhere in Mexico. Chapter six concludes the thesis by providing: a summary of all key findings, a broad analysis of the implications of the research, and an overview of future lines of inquiry.

Etcheverry, Jose R.

347

Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation  

SciTech Connect

We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and ultimately reverse) the growth in total energy consumption and carbon emissions. Instead, policy makers need to return to an earlier emphasis on"conservation," with energy efficiency seen as a means rather than an end in itself. We briefly review the concept of"intensive" versus"extensive" variables (i.e., energy efficiency versus energy consumption), and why attention to both consumption and efficiency is essential for effective policy in a carbon- and oil-constrained world with increasingly brittle energy markets. To start, energy indicators and policy evaluation metrics need to reflect energy consumption as well as efficiency. We introduce the concept of"progressive efficiency," with the expected or required level of efficiency varying as a function of house size, appliance capacity, or more generally, the scale of energy services. We propose introducing progressive efficiency criteria first in consumer information programs (including appliance labeling categories) and then in voluntary rating and recognition programs such as ENERGY STAR. As acceptance grows, the concept could be extended to utility rebates, tax incentives, and ultimately to mandatory codes and standards. For these and other programs, incorporating criteria for consumption as well as efficiency offers a path for energy experts, policy-makers, and the public to begin building consensus on energy policies that recognize the limits of resources and global carrying-capacity. Ultimately, it is both necessary and, we believe, possible to manage energy consumption, not just efficiency in order to achieve a sustainable energy balance. Along the way, we may find it possible to shift expectations away from perpetual growth and toward satisfaction with sufficiency.

Diamond, Rick; Harris, Jeff; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

2007-08-13

348

Integrating Participatory Learning and Action Research and Systems Ecology: A Potential for Sustainable Agriculture Transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the potential of integrating Participatory Learning and Action Research (PLAR) and Systems Ecology (SE)\\u000a for improving research capability in facilitating sustainable development transitions in agriculture. Goal conflicts that\\u000a arose in a PLAR group working on sustainability issues in small-scale organic tomato production are analysed from the perspective\\u000a of SE. The possibility to improve agency for sustainable development

Karin Eksvärd; Torbjörn Rydberg

2010-01-01

349

Exploitation of renewable energy resources for environment?friendly sustainable development in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent increase in energy costs, driven by a surge in oil prices, has increased world?wide efforts on the exploitation of renewable\\/wind energy resources for environment?friendly sustainable development and to mitigate future energy challenges. Moreover, experience in the wind energy industry has reached high levels in the field of manufacturing and application. This inevitably increases the merits of wind energy

M. A. Elhadidy; S. M. Shaahid

2009-01-01

350

Solar energy recovery system  

SciTech Connect

A solar tracking system for a sun sensitive system such as a solar energy generating unit is described. Means for tracking the sun in bright sunlight and in cloudy conditions having a sun sensing mode and a blind mode are disclosed. Solar energy generating units compatible with the solar tracking system capable of automatically operating a stock watering system are also disclosed.

Arbogast, C.C.

1984-10-16

351

Material Design, Selection, and Manufacturing Methods for System Sustainment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a material selection and validation process proven to be successful for manufacturing high-reliability long-life product. The National Secure Manufacturing Center business unit of the Kansas City Plant (herein called KCP) designs and manufactures complex electrical and mechanical components used in extreme environments. The material manufacturing heritage is founded in the systems design to manufacturing practices that support the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). Material Engineers at KCP work with the systems designers to recommend materials, develop test methods, perform analytical analysis of test data, define cradle to grave needs, present final selection and fielding. The KCP material engineers typically will maintain cost control by utilizing commercial products when possible, but have the resources and to develop and produce unique formulations as necessary. This approach is currently being used to mature technologies to manufacture materials with improved characteristics using nano-composite filler materials that will enhance system design and production. For some products the engineers plan and carry out science-based life-cycle material surveillance processes. Recent examples of the approach include refurbished manufacturing of the high voltage power supplies for cockpit displays in operational aircraft; dry film lubricant application to improve bearing life for guided munitions gyroscope gimbals, ceramic substrate design for electrical circuit manufacturing, and tailored polymeric materials for various systems. The following examples show evidence of KCP concurrent design-to-manufacturing techniques used to achieve system solutions that satisfy or exceed demanding requirements.

David Sowder, Jim Lula, Curtis Marshall

2010-02-18

352

Biomass as a Renewable Energy Source for Sustainable Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to establish regenerative energy sources are still being rejected. Only since the oil crises, have regenerative energy sources been included in energy policy discussions. Compared with conventional sources of energy that have been used a much longer period of time, there appears to be a considerable lack of knowledge on regenerative sources of energy. In contrast, renewable sources of

K. Kaygusuz

2009-01-01

353

Potential contribution of biomass to the sustainable energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is a renewable energy source and its importance will increase as national energy policy and strategy focuses more heavily on renewable sources and conservation. Biomass is considered the renewable energy source with the highest potential to contribute to the energy needs of modern society for both the industrialized and developing countries worldwide. The most important biomass energy sources are

M. Fatih Demirbas; Mustafa Balat; Havva Balat

2009-01-01

354

Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embed- ded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based, has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of

Vijay Raghunathan; Aman Kansal; Jason Hsu; Jonathan Friedman; Mani B. Srivastava

2005-01-01

355

Real-Time Energy Management of a Stand-Alone Hybrid Wind-Microturbine Energy System Using Particle Swarm Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy sustainability of hybrid energy systems is essentially a multiobjective, multiconstraint problem, where the energy system requires the capability to make rapid and robust decisions regarding the dispatch of electrical power produced by generation assets. This process of control for energy system components is known as energy management. In this paper, the application of particle swarm optimization (PSO), which is

S. Ali Pourmousavi; M. Hashem Nehrir; Christopher M. Colson; Caisheng Wang

2010-01-01

356

Analysis of the interrelationship of energy, economy, and environment: A model of a sustainable energy future for Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary purpose of this dissertation is to provide the groundwork for a sustainable energy future in Korea. For this purpose, a conceptual framework of sustainable energy development was developed to provide a deeper understanding of interrelationships between energy, the economy, and the environment (E 3). Based on this theoretical work, an empirical simulation model was developed to investigate the ways in which E3 interact. This dissertation attempts to develop a unified concept of sustainable energy development by surveying multiple efforts to integrate various definitions of sustainability. Sustainable energy development should be built on the basis of three principles: ecological carrying capacity, economic efficiency, and socio-political equity. Ecological carrying capacity delineates the earth's resource constraints as well as its ability to assimilate wastes. Socio-political equity implies an equitable distribution of the benefits and costs of energy consumption and an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. Economic efficiency dictates efficient allocation of scarce resources. The simulation model is composed of three modules: an energy module, an environmental module and an economic module. Because the model is grounded on economic structural behaviorism, the dynamic nature of the current economy is effectively depicted and simulated through manipulating exogenous policy variables. This macro-economic model is used to simulate six major policy intervention scenarios. Major findings from these policy simulations were: (1) carbon taxes are the most effective means of reducing air-pollutant emissions; (2) sustainable energy development can be achieved through reinvestment of carbon taxes into energy efficiency and renewable energy programs; and (3) carbon taxes would increase a nation's welfare if reinvested in relevant areas. The policy simulation model, because it is based on neoclassical economics, has limitations such that it cannot fully account for socio-political realities (inter- and intra-generational equity) which are core feature of sustainability. Thus, alternative approaches based on qualitative analysis, such as the multi-criteria approach, will be required to complement the current policy simulation model.

Boo, Kyung-Jin

357

A screening life cycle metric to benchmark the environmental sustainability of waste management systems.  

PubMed

The disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) can lead to significant environmental burdens. The implementation of effective waste management practices, however, requires the ability to benchmark alternative systems from an environmental sustainability perspective. Existing metrics--such as recycling and generation rates, or the emissions of individual pollutants--often are not goal-oriented, are not readily comparable, and may not provide insight into the most effective options for improvement. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an effective approach to quantify and compare systems, but full LCA comparisons typically involve significant expenditure of resources and time. In this work we develop a metric called the Resource Conservation Efficiency (RCE) that is based on a screening-LCA approach, and that can be used to rapidly and effectively benchmark (on a screening level) the ecological sustainability of waste management practices across multiple locations. We first demonstrate that this measure is an effective proxy by comparing RCE results with existing LCA inventory and impact assessment methods. We then demonstrate the use of the RCE metric by benchmarking the sustainability of waste management practices in two U.S. cities: San Francisco and Honolulu. The results show that while San Francisco does an excellent job recovering recyclable materials, adding a waste to energy (WTE) facility to their infrastructure would most beneficially impact the environmental performance of their waste management system. Honolulu would achieve the greatest gains by increasing the capture of easily recycled materials not currently being recovered. Overall results also highlight how the RCE metric may be used to provide insight into effective actions cities can take to boost the environmental performance of their waste management practices. PMID:20666561

Kaufman, Scott M; Krishnan, Nikhil; Themelis, Nickolas J

2010-08-01

358

Living Systems Energy Module.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its sol...

1995-01-01

359

The national biomass energy policy communication campaigns for community access to sustainable renewable energy in east Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective communication campaigns strategy for biomass energy innovations can create, raise, sustain and develop public awareness, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and behaviour towards early adoption of biomass energy innovations in the east African lake victoria basin. This is an audience survey of a national biomass energy policy communication campaigns in Uganda (Wakiso district), results indicate that some efforts have been made

Wilson Okaka; George A. Migunga; Josephine Wanyama Ngaira; Jacob Mbego

360

Role of legumes in providing N for sustainable tropical pasture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forage legumes have long been lauded for their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and contribute to the sustainability of agricultural production systems. However despite the benefits they bring in terms of increased herbage and animal production they are not widely used in temperate or tropical regions. In this review the amounts of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) needed to sustain the

R. J. Thomas

1995-01-01

361

Building sustainable community information systems: lessons from a digital government project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a rationale for and approach to the study of sustainability in computerized community information systems. It begins by presenting a theoretical framework for posing questions about sustainability predicated upon assumptions from social construction of technology and adaptive structuration theories. Based in part on the literature and in part on our own experiences in developing a community information

Teresa M. Harrison; James P. Zappen

2005-01-01

362

Assessing Sustainability in Real Urban Systems: The Greater Cincinnati Metropolitan Area in Ohio  

EPA Science Inventory

The goal of this research article is to present a practical and general methodology for a sustainability assessment in real urban systems. The method is based on the computation and interpretation of Fisher Information (FI) as a sustainability metric using time series for 29 soci...

363

Sustainable lean six-sigma green engineering system design educational challenges and interactive multimedia solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important for all of us to incorporate sustainable product and process engineering, green, lean design, manufacturing \\/ assembly system and factory design \\/ management rules and principles into our engineering and management courses. Furthermore, we have to understand millennial students, who are keen to learn about sustainable green engineering. Millennial generation students (who were born after 1982) are

Paul G. Ranky; Olga Kalaba; Yijun Zheng

2012-01-01

364

Soil sustainability as measured by carbon sequestration using carbon isotopes from crop-livestock management systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is an integral part of maintaining and measuring soil sustainability. This study was undertaken to document and better understand the relationships between two livestock-crop-forage systems and the sequestration of SOC with regards to soil sustainability and was conducted o...

365

Towards a Monitoring and Evaluation System for Sustainable Development in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

exercise choices (Sen 1999), especially regarding the quality of li fe that they would prefer to maintain. The objective with sustainable development in this sense is to empower citizens to aspire to a self-sustaining improvement in medium t o long term life quality. This implies inevitably a coherent systemic integration of devel opment initiatives, resulting in a structural, functional and

Fanie Cloete

2005-01-01

366

Sustainable leadership: management control systems and organizational culture in Novo Nordisk A\\/S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how top managers seek to provide the necessary leadership inside an organisation when sustainability is a primary strategic objective, and the paper seeks to ask to what extent it is possible to influence sustainability at the operational level by contemporary management control systems as it proposes to integrate the perspective

Mette Morsing; Dennis Oswald

2009-01-01

367

On the Sustainability and Management of a Model System with Ecological, Macroeconomic, and Legal Components  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainability is essentially about insuring that human existence can be indefinitely supported by the biological system of the Earth at an appropriate level of civilization. Hence, one of the most fundamental questions in sustainability is the extent to which human activities a...

368

Ammonium as a sustainable proton shuttle in bioelectrochemical systems.  

PubMed

This work examines a pH control method using ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as a sustainable proton shuttle in a CEM-equipped BES. Current generation was sustained by adding NH(3) or ammonium hydroxide (NH(4)OH) to the anolyte, controlling its pH at 7. Ammonium ion migration maintained the catholyte pH at approximately 9.25. Such NH(4)(+)/NH(3) migration accounted for 90±10% of the ionic flux in the BES. Reintroducing the volatilized NH(3) from the cathode into the anolyte maintained a suitable anolyte pH for sustained microbial-driven current generation. Hence, NH(4)(+)/NH(3) acted as a proton shuttle that is not consumed in the process. PMID:21865037

Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; Law, Yingyu; Cheng, Ka Yu

2011-08-05

369

Controlled mobility for sustainable wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key challenge in sensor networks is ensuring the sustainability of the system at the required performance level, in an autonomous manner. Sustainability is a major concern because of severe resource constraints in terms of energy, bandwidth and sensing capabilities in the system. In this paper, we envision the use of a new design dimension to enhance sustainability in sensor

Aman Kansal; Mohammad Rahimi; Deborah Estrin; William J Kaiser; Gregory J Pottie; Mani B Srivastava

2004-01-01

370

Ecological footprint — a tool for assessing sustainable energy supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a modified calculation model of the ecological footprint for energy planning. The original footprint model can only evaluate energy savings, but not the substitution of fossil through renewable energy carriers. With the modified calculation model, energy savings as well as substitution potentials can be described. The examination of case studies where this model has been applied in

Gernot Stöglehner

2003-01-01

371

Atoms for Peace, Redux: Energy Codependency for Sustained Cooperation on the Korean Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Korea's nuclear program is a threat to sustained stability on the Korean peninsula. Unfortunately, the traditional notion of “Atoms for Peace'' has been a failure in the engagement of the North. In this paper we propose a novel approach to mutual cooperation in energy provision on the Korean peninsula, premised on having North Korea host reactors that deliver energy

Kyle Beardsley; Jamus J. Lim

2009-01-01

372

Integrating environmental equity, energy and sustainability: A spatial-temporal study of electric power generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical scope of this dissertation encompasses the ecological factors of equity and energy. Literature important to environmental justice and sustainability are reviewed, and a general integration of global concepts is delineated. The conceptual framework includes ecological integrity, quality human development, intra- and inter-generational equity and risk originating from human economic activity and modern energy production. The empirical focus of

George Earl Touche

2002-01-01

373

Practical Potential of Reverse Electrodialysis As Process for Sustainable Energy Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reverse electrodialysis (RED) is a nonpolluting sustainable technology that converts the free energy of mixing of two solutions with different salinity directly into electrical energy. Although the theoretical potential is high, the practical power output obtained is limited yet due to concentration polarization phenomena and spacer shadow effects. In this work we combine theoretical calculations with direct current and alternating

Piotr Dlugolecki; Antoine Gambier; Kitty Nijmeijer; Matthias Wessling

2009-01-01

374

Permeable (pervious) pavements and geothermal heat pumps: addressing sustainable urban stormwater management and renewable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and energy are the two most fundamental ingredients of modern civilisation and are also the most precious and essential resources around the globe. They are inseparably coupled and with increasing pressures on these resources as the world's populations grow, the concepts of a combined approach can be applied while addressing the economic, climate, water and energy crises. Sustainable development

Kiran Tota-Maharaj; Miklas Scholz

2009-01-01

375

An empirical analysis of the impact of renewable energy deployment on local sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is usually mentioned that renewable energy sources (RES) have a large potential to contribute to the sustainable development of specific territories by providing them with a wide variety of socioeconomic benefits, including diversification of energy supply, enhanced regional and rural development opportunities, creation of a domestic industry and employment opportunities. The analysis of these benefits has usually been too

Pablo del Río; Mercedes Burguillo

2009-01-01

376

Impact of nanotechnology advances in ICT on sustainability and energy efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urbanization, sustainability, energy efficiency, information and communication technology (ICT) and nanotechnology are emerging at the beginning of the 21st century. They are seeking to improve environmental effectiveness in the context of connected communities, global competitiveness, economic development, climate change, and demographic shifts. Virtually all proposed solutions to energy consumption and climate change acknowledge the role ICT plays as a key

Dragan S. Markovic; Dejan Zivkovic; Dragan Cvetkovic; Ranko Popovic

2012-01-01

377

Microalgae as a sustainable energy source for biodiesel production: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the three generations of biodiesel feedstocks described in this paper, food crops, non-food crops and microalgae-derived biodiesel, it was found that the third generation, microalgae, is the only source that can be sustainably developed in the future. Microalgae can be converted directly into energy, such as biodiesel, and therefore appear to be a promising source of renewable energy. This

A. L. Ahmad; N. H. Mat Yasin; C. J. C. Derek; J. K. Lim

2011-01-01

378

Population growth, sustainable development, energy resources and environmental protection: the nuclear option  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the satisfaction of the future global energy demand. The gravity of the situation the world is going to face in the coming years is due to many and conflicting problems (world population growth, sustainable development, energy resources, environmental protection). Probably some Countries like Italy live these gravity much more then others, may be because they renounced

Daniele Menniti; Alessandro Burgio; Nadia Scordino

2007-01-01

379

Expert systems, knowledge development and utilization, and sustained competitive advantage: A resource-based model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a resource-based model to explain how expert systems generate sustained competitive advantage for a firm. Specifically, we analyze the extent to which expert systems (ESs) exhibit the attributes of value, rareness, imperfect imitability, and nonsubstitutability associated with a rent-generating resource (e.g., Barney, 1991). Then, we discuss how expert systems yield sustainable competitive advantage through fostering

Augustine A. Lado; Michael J. Zhang

1998-01-01

380

Expert Systems, Knowledge Development and Utilization, and Sustained Competitive Advantage: A Resource-Based Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a resource-based model to explain how expert systems generate sustained competitive advantage for a firm. Speciftcally, we analyze the extent to which expert systems (ESs) exhibit the attributes of value, rareness, imperfect imitability, and non substitutability associated with a rent-generating resource (e.g., Barney, 1991). Then, we discuss how expert systems yield sustainable competitive advantage through

Augustine A. Lado; Michael J. Zhang

1998-01-01

381

Managing Sustainable Demand-side Infrastructure for Power System Ancillary Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread access to renewable electricity is seen as a viable method to mitigate carbon emissions, although problematic are the issues associated with the integration of the generation systems within current power system configurations. Wind power plants are the primary large-scale renewable generation technology applied globally, but display considerable short-term supply variability that is difficult to predict. Power systems are currently not designed to operate under these conditions, and results in the need to increase operating reserve in order to guarantee stability. Often, operating conventional generation as reserve is both technically and economically inefficient, which can overshadow positive benefits associated with renewable energy exploitation. The purpose of this thesis is to introduce and assess an alternative method of enhancing power system operations through the control of electric loads. In particular, this thesis focuses on managing highly-distributed sustainable demand-side infrastructure, in the form of heat pumps, electric vehicles, and electrolyzers, as dispatchable short-term energy balancing resources. The main contribution of the thesis is an optimal control strategy capable of simultaneously balancing grid- and demand-side objectives. The viability of the load control strategy is assessed through model-based simulations that explicitly track end-use functionality of responsive devices within a power systems analysis typically implemented to observe the effects of integrated wind energy systems. Results indicate that there is great potential for the proposed method to displace the need for increased reserve capacity in systems considering a high penetration of wind energy, thereby allowing conventional generation to operate more efficiently and avoid the need for possible capacity expansions.

Parkinson, Simon Christopher

382

SIMULATED EXPERIMENTS WITH COMPLEX SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS: ECOLOGY AND TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The concept of sustainability is associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "... development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future..." However, this s...

383

Systemic knowledge processes, innovation and sustainable competitive advantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Turbulence and complexity in the business environment is growing along with the need for external information in creating innovation, as innovation is seen as the primary source of sustainable competitive advantages in the knowledge economy. Consequently, the underlying information processes were external information are gathered and put into use, are crucial for companies in their development of innovation,

Jon-Arild Johannessen; Bjřrn Olsen

2009-01-01

384

Organic school meal systems - towards a more sustainable nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional and health problems related to life style alarm European governments. The interest in school meals as a lever for change is increasing because young people reside longer in public institutions and their often unsatisfactory eating patterns might be counterbalanced by healthy school food. Organic food contributes to sustainable nutrition, and hence is an interesting starting point for healthier menus

A.-K. Lřes; B. Nölting

2009-01-01

385

SUSTAINABILITY: ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "Development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future". However, a mathematical theory e...

386

Sustainability and economics: The Adirondack Park experience, a forest economic-ecological model, and solar energy policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term sustainability of human communities will depend on our relationship with regional environments, our maintenance of renewable resources, and our successful disengagement from nonrenewable energy dependence. This dissertation investigates sustainability at these three levels, following a critical analysis of sustainability and economics. At the regional environment level, the Adirondack Park of New York State is analyzed as a potential

Jon David Erickson

1997-01-01

387

Sustainable non-electric applications of nuclear energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nuclear energy, while contributing 17% of electricity generation worldwide, currently contributes only 7910to primary energy. Except for electricity generation, with few exceptions (e.g., military ship propulsion), the diverse applicability of nuclear pow...

D. C. Wade

2000-01-01

388

Community-based Energy Model: A Novel Approach to Developing Sustainable Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional energy development and management systems are centralized and grid-connected, making the setup vulnerable and unsustainable. In this paper, a new energy development and management model is proposed. This proposed approach aims at utilizing available natural resources and considers the community as the main stakeholder to implement the model. Locally produced wastes are considered as one source for generating energy

M. I. Khan; A. B. Chhetri; M. R. Islam

2007-01-01

389

Economic scale, energy and sustainability: an international empirical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship of economic scale, as reflected in a country's energy throughput, to that of renewable energy flows through the supporting ecosystem. The renewable flow is net primary productivity (NPP) and is calculated by country and grouped by income per capita levels. The use of fossil fuels first rises and then declines relative to available renewable energies

P. H. Templet

1995-01-01

390

Energy Smart Schools: Creating a Sustainable Learning Environment in Ohio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1999, the Ohio Energy Project (OEP) was awarded a grant through Rebuild America, under the U.S. Department of Energy, to develop an EnergySmart Schools Program for Ohio. Together with its partners, this program serves to empower students to improve the conditions of their school buildings through education, thus increasing scientific literacy…

Ohio Energy Project, Lewis Center.

391

Renewable Energy for a Clean and Sustainable Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the growing need of energy in both developed and developing countries, and the acute population growth, which will exceed 10 billion by the year 2050. How can a world of 10 billion people be provided with adequate supplies of energy, cleanly, safely and substantially? There is a growing consensus that renewable energy sources will be a very

SELCUK BILGEN; KAMIL KAYGUSUZ; AHMET SARI

2004-01-01

392

Towards Sustainable Watershed Dvelopment: A Geographic Information Systems based Approach  

SciTech Connect

With an unprecedented projection of population and urban growth in the coming decades, assessment of the long-term hydrologic impacts of land use change is crucial for optimizing management practices to control runoff and non-point source (NPS) pollution associated with sustainable watershed development. Land use change, dominated by an increase in urban/impervious areas, can have a significant impact on water resources. Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the leading cause of degraded water quality in the US and urban areas are an important source of NPS pollution. Most planners, government agencies, and consultants lack access to simple impact-assessment tools despite widespread concern over the environmental impacts of watershed development. Before investing in complex analyses and customized data collection, it is often useful to utilize simple screening analyses using data that are already available. In this paper, we discuss such a technique for long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) that makes use of basic land use, soils and long-term rainfall data to compare the hydrologic impacts of past, present and any future land use change. Long-term daily rainfall records are used in combination with soils and land use information to calculate average annual runoff and NPS pollution at a watershed scale. Because of the geospatial nature of land use and soils data, and the increasingly widespread use of GIS by planners, government agencies and consultants, the model is integrated with a Geographic Information System (GIS) that allows convenient generation and management of model input and output data, and provides advanced visualization of the model results. An application of the L-THIA/NPS model on the Little Eagle Creek (LEC) watershed near Indianapolis, Indiana is illustrated in this paper. Three historical land use scenarios for 1973, 1984, and 1991 were analyzed to track land use change in the watershed and to assess the impacts of land use change on annual average runoff and NPS pollution from the watershed and its five sub-basins. Results highlight the effectiveness of the L-THIA approach in assessing the long-term hydrologic impact of urban sprawl. The L-THIA/NPS GIS model is a powerful tool for identifying environmentally sensitive areas in terms of NPS pollution potential and for evaluating alternative land use scenarios to enhance NPS pollution management. Access to the model via the INTERNET enhances the usability and effectiveness of the technique significantly. Recommendations can be made to community decision makers, based on this analysis, concerning how development can be controlled within the watershed to minimize the long-term impacts of increased stormwater runoff and NPS pollution for better management of water resources.

Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL

2006-01-01

393

Simulation of submarine gas hydrate deposits as a sustainable energy source and CO2 storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being aware that conventionally exploitable natural gas resources are limited, research concentrates on the development of new technologies for the extraction of methane from gas hydrate deposits in subsea sediments. The quantity of methane stored in hydrate form is considered to be a promising means to overcome future shortages in energy resources. In combination with storing carbon dioxide (CO2) as hydrates in the deposits chances for sustainable energy supply systems are given. The combustion of hydrate-based natural gas can contribute to the energy supply, but the coupled CO2 emissions cause climate change effects. At present, the possible options to capture and subsequently store CO2 (CCS-Technology) become of particular interest. To develop a sustainable hydrate-based energy supply system, the production of natural gas from hydrate deposits has to be coupled with the storage of CO2. Hence, the simultaneous storage of CO2 in hydrate deposits has to be developed. Decomposition of methane hydrate in combination with CO2 sequestration appears to be promising because CO2 hydrate is stable within a wider range of pressure and temperature than methane hydrate. As methane hydrate provides structural integrity and stability in its natural formation, incorporating CO2 hydrate as substitute for methane hydrate will help to preserve the natural sediments' stability. Regarding the technological implementation, many problems have to be overcome. Especially heat and mass transfer in the deposits are limiting factors causing very long process times. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR«, different technological approaches are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical effects are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs like CMG STARS and UMSICHT HyReS. By means of abstract scenarios, the effects occurring during gas production and CO2 storage within a hydrate deposit are identified and described. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is discussed and compared for different production strategies: depressurization, CO2 injection after depressurization and simultaneous methane production and CO2 injection.

Janicki, G.; Hennig, T.; Schlüter, S.; Deerberg, G.

2012-04-01

394

The Sustainable Hydrogen Economy  

ScienceCinema

Identifying and building a sustainable energy system is perhaps one of the most critical issues that today's society must address. Replacing our current energy carrier mix with a sustainable fuel is one of the key pieces in that system. Hydrogen as an energy carrier, primarily derived from water, can address issues of sustainability, environmental emissions and energy security. The hydrogen economy then is the production of hydrogen, its distribution and utilization as an energy carrier. A key piece of this hydrogen economy is the fuel cell. A fuel cell converts the chemical energy in a fuel into low-voltage dc electricity and when using hydrogen as the fuel, the only emission is water vapor. While the basic understanding of fuel cell technology has been known since 1839, it has only been recently that fuel cells have shown their potential as an energy conversion device for both transportation and stationary applications. This talk will introduce the sustainable hydrogen economy and address some of the issues and barriers relating to its deployment as part of a sustainable energy system.

395

Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognised as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims ...

M. Janic

2005-01-01

396

Utilizing Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Agricultural Education to Promote Sustainable Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding and appreciation of indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) are essential for promoting sustainable agriculture development. IKS provides a cultural basis for nonformal agricultural programs that is absent in technology transfer approaches. (SK)

Williams, David L.; Muchena, Olivia N.

1991-01-01

397

Sustainability Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sustainability Institute is a nonprofit organization that provides information, analysis, and practical demonstrations that help promote the development of sustainable systems locally, regionally, and globally. Users can read about recent projects and services that the Sustainability Institute has been involved in .

2007-01-20

398

'Part of the solution': Developing sustainable energy through co-operatives and learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After five years of development, WindShare Co-operative in Toronto, Ontario became the first urban wind turbine in North America and the first co-operatively owned and operated wind turbine in Canada. The development of WindShare Co-operative has spurred the growth of a green energy co-operative sector in Ontario. This study, which included 27 interviews and a focus group with members of WindShare Co-operative, focuses on the roles of community-based green energy co-operatives in advancing sustainable energy development and energy literacy. Sustainable energy development is firmly rooted in the triple bottom line of environmental, social and economic success, and green energy co-operatives can be a way to help achieve those successes. Green energy co-operatives are structures for providing renewable energy generation or energy conservation practices, both of which have important environmental impacts regarding climate change and pollution levels. Co-operative structures are supported by processes that include local ownership, democracy, participation, community organizing, learning and social change. These processes have a significant social impact by creating a venue for people to be directly involved in the energy industry, by involving learning through participation in a community-based organization, and by advancing energy literacy within the membership and the general public. In regards to the economic impacts, green energy co-operatives foster a local economy and local investment opportunities, which have repercussions regarding building expertise within Ontario's green energy and co-operative development future, and more generally, captures members' interest because they have a direct stake in the co-operative. This thesis shows that green energy co-operatives, like WindShare, play an important role in advancing sustainable energy development, energy literacy and the triple bottom line. Members of WindShare expressed resounding feelings of pride, efficacy and understanding of WindShare's role in sustainable energy. WindShare Co-operative provided the structure whereby members felt a part of the solution in terms of sustainable energy development. Policies and practices at all levels of government should encourage the advancement of green energy co-operatives to support Canada's efforts at public involvement in combating climate change and pollution.

Duguid, Fiona C. B.

399

Application of systems engineering methodologies to transitions to sustainable technologies: An architecture framework supporting management of portfolios of sustainable technology transition projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transition Management (TM) is a concept which has gained popularity as a means to affect large-scale shifts to more sustainable technologies. The transition management approach is a cyclical process built upon a multilevel perspective of technology transitions. There is also a growing body of research on systems engineering for sustainability, but the field remains focused in areas such as indicators

Kim Davis; Thomas Mazzuchi; Shahram Sarkani

2011-01-01

400

Astronomy in Sustainable Energy: A New Approach to Make It Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of a new approach to teaching non-science students concepts of sustainable energy using astronomy, real life and fictional scenarios. Teaching non-science majors about energy is important because of the challenge that scientific (il)literacy poses for tangible and political problems like energy. We have established a course in which students are involved in critical thinking and the process of scientific reasoning while discovering the nature of energy and its role in our lives and its presentation in the fiction genre. In the course, students construct and apply their knowledge of transformation of energy to understanding of the concepts of the formation of the sun and the planets. Along with these concepts, students learn about ways of harnessing energy for sustaining life on Earth. During the course students transform their "Why do I care?” to "What can I do?” We are achieving this change by starting with a broad introduction of the concepts and physical laws involved in understanding of the Solar Nebular hypothesis during which we discuss the role of different forms of energy involved in the process. In the next step we narrow down the discussion to importance and use of energy on Earth and then we discuss the role of different forms of energy in maintaining our individual lives. Thus students go from intangible notions about energy to making informed decisions on what type of sustainable energy makes sense to use in their houses and how many burgers they want to eat per day. Moving towards sustainable energy technologies requires a public who understands the science behind the issues. The work presented here is aimed at providing a mechanism for increase literacy regarding these issues and testing this mechanism's success.

Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

2012-01-01

401

Re-envisioning the role of hydrogen in a sustainable energy economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the fundamental question of where hydrogen might fit into a global sustainable energy strategy for the 21st century that confronts the three-pronged challenge of irreversible climate change, uncertain oil supply, and rising pollution. We re-envision the role of hydrogen at national and international strategic levels, relying entirely on renewable energy and energy efficiency. It is suggested the

John Andrews; Bahman Shabani

402

Linking local vulnerability to system sustainability in a resilience framework: two cases from Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collectively, individual adjustments to environmental and economic change can have disproportionate influence on the sustainability\\u000a of the broader social–environmental system in which exposure takes place. Here we focus on the specific mechanisms by which\\u000a farm-level responses to globalization and environmental change feedback to affect the sustainability and resilience of the\\u000a social–environment system. We use a proposal by Lambin as an

Hallie C. Eakin; Mónica B. Wehbe

2009-01-01

403

New Approaches to the Health Promoting School: Participation in Sustainable Food Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to synthesize research on 3 strategies that public schools use to procure food from within sustainable food systems—school food gardens, farm-to-school programs, and school procurement policies—and discuss the potential roles for dietitians. Peer-reviewed and “grey” literature provides a wealth of successful models for how schools participate in sustainable food systems, why they do it,

Liesel Carlsson; Patricia L. Williams

2008-01-01

404

Energy information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilities control center at Shell Oil Company's Deer Park, Texas, manufacturing complex functions as a computer-based energy-information system which has contributed much to a safe, more efficient, and more profitable operation. With the increasing emphasis on energy conservation, systems such as this are increasingly warranted. The secret to good control is to provide the right information to the right

2009-01-01

405

Economic Development and Energy: From Fad to a Sustainable Discipline?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-based economic development (EBED) can provide economic, social, and environmental benefits, such as job creation, industry development, and alternative energy deployment. The United States has recently devoted substantial financial support to EBED efforts. Although early assessments of these efforts are promising, the discipline is at risk of becoming compromised or discredited. It lacks a basic framework, common definitions, and clear

Sanya Carley; Adrienne Brown; Sara Lawrence

2012-01-01

406

IMPROVING SUSTAINABLE URBAN DEVELOPMENT THROUGH ENERGY TRANSITION IN NIGERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ongoing increase in oil price compels the search for cost-efficient energy alternatives. The peaking of petroleum oil currently selling at about $130 per barrel and the dependence of risky radioactive power stations on inefficient spending of public funds is nearly ubiquitous wherever conventional energy technology is being applied. Persistent increase in the price of petroleum (oil) is rattling in

Richard Ingwe; Felix E. Ojong; Ekwuore M. Ushie; Walter A. Mboto

2009-01-01

407

Nuclear Power and Sustainable Energy Policy: Promises and Perils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the challenges and opportunities of nuclear power in meeting the projected large absolute increase in energy demand, especially electricity, throughout the industrialized and developing world, while helping to mitigate the threat of climate change. A significant global nuclear power deployment would engender serious risks related to proliferation, safety, and waste disposal. Unlike renewable sources of energy, nuclear

Ioannis N. Kessides

2010-01-01

408

Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article establishes the benefits of applying renewable energy and analyzes the main difficulties that have stood in the way of more widely successful renewable energy for rural areas in the developing world and discusses why outcomes from these technologies fall short. Although there is substantial recognition of technological, economic,…

Alazraque-Cherni, Judith

2008-01-01

409

An energy consumption benchmarking system for residential buildings in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the energy crisis in the 1970s, the government and policymakers have endeavoured to promote energy conservation policy on sustainable building designs and operations. Various benchmarks of building energy consumption were developed. Unfortunately, the complicated benchmarking models would impose difficulties in general adaptation. This study proposes a simple sustainability benchmark using a 5-star rating system for electricity and fuel gas

LT Wong; KW Mui; LY Law

2009-01-01

410

A Review on Sustainability Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The apprehensions around the climate change and energy crisis have led to the emergence of the need for sustainability analysis. The subject of sustainability is now of wider inclusivity as it can be applied to almost any field of study. There are different approaches to model sustainability; however the systems approach is the focus of consideration in this paper. The proposed model for sustainability incorporates the use of neural networks to develop a complex adaptive system. The complexity of the system is simplified using influence diagrams or knowledge management techniques.

Far, Amin Hosseinian; Pimenidis, Elias; Jahankhani, Hamid; Wijeyesekera, D. C.

411

Sustainability Engineering and Maintenance - Plan, Design, and Construct for Maintainability: Sustainable Lighting Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advances in lighting technologies, innovative daylighting designs, and direct digital control (DDC) systems have enabled more efficient electrical lighting usage. Consideration of long-term operations and maintenance (O&M) requirements with proper plannin...

M. Chan

2011-01-01

412

Building Sustainability  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation for high school and community college instructors on developing curricula in the sustainable building industry. The document was part of a workshop held during ATEEC's Sustainable Energy Education and Training conference. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-03-31

413

Health professionals' and primary producers' understanding of sustainable food production systems for healthy eating.  

PubMed

Background - 'Eating for Sustainability' remains poorly understood by both public health professionals and primary producers in spite of an emerging recognition in linking the themes of sustainability with nutrition, eating habits, and food production. Objectives - To explore public health professionals' and primary producers' understanding with respect to the meaning, viability, and implications of various models of sustainable food production for healthy eating. Design - An electronic survey was sent to approximately 650 Australian public health and nutrition professionals and primary producers. The broad issue of eating for sustainability, sustainability of beef cattle production systems in Australia as a case study; and the relationship between Australian Dietary Guidelines and sustainable agriculture were explored. Results - The overall response rate was 14%, this was mainly due to the difficulty and the novelty of the topic. As expected, a majority (62%) of respondents were unaware or unsure of the concept of 'Eating for Sustainability'. Conclusions - Australian primary producers and public health professionals need to have adequate communication to enhance future sustainable food production. PMID:15023681

Tsai, K M; Schubert, E C; Mullen, B F

2003-01-01

414

Evaluation of sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems: a farm and field-scale analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems (OFS, IFS and CFS, respectively) at farm level and on more detailed spatial scales. This was

Cesare Pacini; Ada Wossink; Gerard Giesen; Concetta Vazzana; Ruud Huirne

2003-01-01

415

Feasibility of the green energy production by hybrid solar + hydro power system in Europe and similar climate areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the hybrid solar and hydro (SHE) system as a unique technological concept of the sustainable energy system that can provide continuous electric power and energy supply to its consumers and the possibilities of its implementation in Europe and areas with similar climate. The sustainability of such system is based on solar photovoltaic (PV) and hydroelectric (HE) energy

Jure Margeta; Zvonimir Glasnovic

2010-01-01

416

Energy policy: security of supply, sustainability and competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper considers the main components of energy policy, in particular the challenges of network security of supply, long-term contracts and the environmental constraints. It is argued that policy should take account of multiple market failures and context dependent. Given energy liberalisation in the 1980s and 1990s, interventions based upon market-based instruments should be given greater prominence. Institutional reform to

Dieter Helm

2002-01-01

417

Hydrogen and fuel cells: Towards a sustainable energy future  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge—some would argue, the major challenge facing our planet today—relates to the problem of anthropogenic-driven climate change and its inextricable link to our global society's present and future energy needs [King, D.A., 2004. Environment—climate change science: adapt, mitigate, or ignore? Science 303, 176–177]. Hydrogen and fuel cells are now widely regarded as one of the key energy solutions

P. P. Edwards; V. L. Kuznetsov; W. I. F. David; N. P. Brandon

2008-01-01

418

Innovating a Sustainable Energy Future (2011 EFRC Summit)  

SciTech Connect

The second speaker in the 2011 EFRC Summit session titled "Leading Perspectives in Energy Research" was Mark Little, Senior Vice President and Director of GE Global Research. He discussed the role that industry and in particular GE is playing as a partner in innovative energy research. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

Little, Mark (GE Global Research)

2011-05-25

419

New Science for a Secure and Sustainable Energy Future  

SciTech Connect

Over the past five years, the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Sciences has engaged thousands of scientists around the world to study the current status, limiting factors and specific fundamental scientific bottlenecks blocking the widespread implementation of alternate energy technologies. The reports from the foundational BESAC workshop, the ten 'Basic Research Needs' workshops and the panel on Grand Challenge science detail the necessary research steps (http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/list.html). This report responds to a charge from the Director of the Office of Science to the Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee to conduct a study with two primary goals: (1) to assimilate the scientific research directions that emerged from these workshop reports into a comprehensive set of science themes, and (2) to identify the new implementation strategies and tools required to accomplish the science. From these efforts it becomes clear that the magnitude of the challenge is so immense that existing approaches - even with improvements from advanced engineering and improved technology based on known concepts - will not be enough to secure our energy future. Instead, meeting the challenge will require fundamental understanding and scientific breakthroughs in new materials and chemical processes to make possible new energy technologies and performance levels far beyond what is now possible.

None

2008-12-01

420

NASA's Materials and Processes Technology Information System (MAPTIS): How It Relates to Sustainable Aerospace Advanced Manufacturing and Sustainable Materials Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our poster shows how MAPTIS relates to Sustainable Aerospace Advanced Manufacturing and Sustainable Materials Management. MAPTIS is a 'pre- Milestone B' design-engineering tool. MAPTIS provides materials and manufacturing processes information to design-e...

C. C. Hudson I. Higuchi

2011-01-01

421

An Integrative Modeling Framework to Evaluate the Productivity and Sustainability of Biofuel Crop Production Systems  

SciTech Connect

The potential expansion of biofuel production raises food, energy, and environmental challenges that require careful assessment of the impact of biofuel production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, nutrient loading, and water quality. In this study, we describe a spatially-explicit integrative modeling framework (SEIMF) to understand and quantify the environmental impacts of different biomass cropping systems. This SEIMF consists of three major components: 1) a geographic information system (GIS)-based data analysis system to define spatial modeling units with resolution of 56 m to address spatial variability, 2) the biophysical and biogeochemical model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) applied in a spatially-explicit way to predict biomass yield, GHG emissions, and other environmental impacts of different biofuel crops production systems, and 3) an evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithm for exploring the trade-offs between biofuel energy production and unintended ecosystem-service responses. Simple examples illustrate the major functions of the SEIMF when applied to a 9-county Regional Intensive Modeling Area (RIMA) in SW Michigan to 1) simulate biofuel crop production, 2) compare impacts of management practices and local ecosystem settings, and 3) optimize the spatial configuration of different biofuel production systems by balancing energy production and other ecosystem-service variables. Potential applications of the SEIMF to support life cycle analysis and provide information on biodiversity evaluation and marginal-land identification are also discussed. The SEIMF developed in this study is expected to provide a useful tool for scientists and decision makers to understand sustainability issues associated with the production of biofuels at local, regional, and national scales.

Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; West, T. O.; Post, W. M.; Thomson, Allison M.; Bandaru, V. P.; Nichols, J.; Williams, J.R.

2010-09-08

422

An integrative modeling framework to evaluate the productivity and sustainability of biofuel crop production systems  

SciTech Connect

The potential expansion of biofuel production raises food, energy, and environmental challenges that require careful assessment of the impact of biofuel production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, nutrient loading, and water quality. In this study, we describe a spatially explicit integrative modeling framework (SEIMF) to understand and quantify the environmental impacts of different biomass cropping systems. This SEIMF consists of three major components: (1) a geographic information system (GIS)-based data analysis system to define spatial modeling units with resolution of 56 m to address spatial variability, (2) the biophysical and biogeochemical model Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) applied in a spatially-explicit way to predict biomass yield, GHG emissions, and other environmental impacts of different biofuel crops production systems, and (3) an evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithm for exploring the trade-offs between biofuel energy production and unintended ecosystem-service responses. Simple examples illustrate the major functions of the SEIMF when applied to a nine-county Regional Intensive Modeling Area (RIMA) in SW Michigan to (1) simulate biofuel crop production, (2) compare impacts of management practices and local ecosystem settings, and (3) optimize the spatial configuration of different biofuel production systems by balancing energy production and other ecosystem-service variables. Potential applications of the SEIMF to support life cycle analysis and provide information on biodiversity evaluation and marginal-land identification are also discussed. The SEIMF developed in this study is expected to provide a useful tool for scientists and decision makers to understand sustainability issues associated with the production of biofuels at local, regional, and national scales.

Zhang, X [University of Maryland; Izaurralde, R. C. [University of Maryland; Manowitz, D. [University of Maryland; West, T. O. [University of Maryland; Thomson, A. M. [University of Maryland; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Bandaru, Vara Prasad [ORNL; Nichols, Jeff [ORNL; Williams, J. [AgriLIFE, Temple, TX

2010-10-01

423

Sustainable Transportation, Renewable Energy and Climate Change: The Data\\/Information Dimension  

Microsoft Academic Search

everal Nations have long recognized that a sound transportation system is critical to the well-being of their societies and econo- mies. The complexity, inter- connectivity, and high cost of the transportation infra- structure construction, ope- ration and maintenance necessitate long lead times for the sustainable transfor- mation of current transporta- tion systems. Also, the recent advancement of the transpor- tation

Ayad Altaai

424

Energy production from grassland – Assessing the sustainability of different process chains under German conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many regions of Europe, grassland shapes the landscape and fulfils important functions in protecting nature, soil, and water. However, the traditional uses of grassland for forage production are vanishing with progress in breeding and structural adaptations in agriculture. On the other hand, the demand for biomass energy is rising due to political sustainability goals and financial measures to support

Christine Rösch; J. Skarka; K. Raab; V. Stelzer

2009-01-01

425

Oil palm biomass as a sustainable energy source: A Malaysian case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been widely accepted worldwide that global warming is by far the greatest threat and challenge in the new millennium. In order to stop global warming and to promote sustainable development, renewable energy is a perfect solution to achieve both targets. Presently million hectares of land in Malaysia is occupied with oil palm plantation generating huge quantities of biomass.

SIEW HOONG SHUIT; KOK TAT TAN; KEAT TEONG LEE; A. H. Kamaruddin

2009-01-01

426

Sustainable development and advanced nuclear energy concepts of the post-Soviet countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sustainable development and the status and prospects of nuclear power in the newly-independent states on the territory of former Soviet Union are considered. The ecological and economic prerequisites as well as the scientific-technical and industrial basis, advanced nuclear energy technologies for implementation of the national programs are discussed.

A. Yu Gagarinski

1995-01-01

427

From riches to rags: Biofuels, media discourses, and resistance to sustainable energy technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to open the black box of resistance to sustainable energy technologies by analyzing (shifts in) media discourse. To this end, media coverage on biofuels in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2008 is analyzed by means of combining novel quantitative approaches with practitioner interviews. The quantitative analyses reveal the dynamics in the content of media discourse, but also

F. Sengers; R. P. J. M. Raven; Venrooij van AHTM

2010-01-01

428

Renewable energy for sustainable urban development: Redefining the concept of energisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely recognised that access to and supply of modern energy play a key role in poverty alleviation and sustainable development. The emerging concept of energisation seems to capture this idea; however, there is no unified definition at the point of writing. In this paper, the aim is to propose a new and comprehensive definition of the concept of

Christian Nissing; Harro von Blottnitz

2010-01-01

429

Understand the energy demand behaviours for a sustainable management of the natural resources in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to fall under a prospect for sustainable management of the natural resources in Cameroon, this communication tries, using a 1996 survey carried out from 400 households in the towns of Yaounde, Mbalmayo and Ebolowa, to understand the demand behaviours of the urban households, with respect to the various sources of energy. The work aims to highlight the place

Robert Nkendah

2007-01-01

430

Wind power! Marketing renewable energy on tribal lands and the struggle for just sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a case study approach and employing the critical framework of just sustainability, this article examines the ambivalent intersections of marketing and social\\/environmental justice as articulated through the public rhetoric of corporate entities that promote renewable energy generated on American Indian tribal lands. Because of its critical interest in the empowerment of disenfranchised communities through a shift away from traditional

Miranda J. Brady; Salma Monani

2012-01-01

431

Best Practices for Sustainable WInd Energy Development in the Great Lakes Region and Beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document offers a menu of 18 different, yet complimentary preferred practices and policies. The best practices cover all phases of the wind energy development process - from the policies that allow for wind development, to the sustainable operation of a wind project, to the best practices for decommissioning a spent turbine - including applications for offshore wind. The practices

Victoria Pebbles; John Hummer; Celia Haven

2011-01-01

432

Nachhaltige Fruchtfolgesysteme für den biologischen Energiepflanzenanbau in Österreich Sustainable crop rotations for organic energy crop production in Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas production is a key technology for sustainable use of biomass from agricultural production. An optimisation of biogas production from energy crops should not confine to the consideration of the biogas process. To assure a durable success, cropping of energy plants has to be designed according to the principles of sustainable crop rota- tions. Only in site-adapted and ecologically balanced

R. Hrbek; B. Freyer

433

Facilitating and evaluating farmer innovations towards more sustainable energy and material flows: case-study in Flanders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper starts from the overal societal concern about the sustainability of energy and material flows, in particular in highly urbanized regions, and the role of agriculture to increase this sustainability. The case of Flanders (Belgium) is taken because of its high throughput of energy and materials. The paper proposes a conceptual and methodological framework for interactively and iteratively clarifying

Sven Defrijna; Erik Mathijs; Hubert Gulinck; Ludwig Lauwers

434

Renewable energy resources and sustainable development in Mykonos (Greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the increase of carbon dioxide emissions contributes to the surface temperature's increase and it is the prime cause for the climatic changes. The basic measure that has been taken by world community for the confrontation of this phenomenon was the use of renewable energy sources (RES).This research refers to the use of RES, in the island of Mykonos. It

Agisilaos Economou

2010-01-01

435

Interdisciplinary Environmental Education: Communicating and Applying Energy Efficiency for Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article demonstrates that interdisciplinary alliances on environmental education projects can effectively address the gap between complex environmental problems in the real world and disciplinary curricula in a university. We describe an alliance between an advanced communication course and a general science course wherein we addressed interconnections of energy efficiency, economics, and global climate change with respect to their impact

Joshua M. Pearce; Chris Russill

2005-01-01

436

Energy -efficient materials: Route to sustainability in green buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over exploitation of land, water, air and energy resources, as part of the urbanization and industrialization has forced the imbalance of the natural ecosystem. Millions of tonnes of various industrial wastes accumulated at different sites due to rapid industrialization cause severe damage to environment. Further, demolition wastes from constructed facilities also generate huge amount of wastes which include sand, gravel,

D. Sandanasamy; S. Govindarajane; T. Sundararajan

2011-01-01

437

The Most Economic, Socially Viable, and Environmentally Sustainable Alternative Energy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The strengths and weaknesses of current energy planning can be attributed to the limited economic, social, and environmental contexts taken into account as a result of the current intellectual and professional division of labor. A preventive approach is developed by which the ratio of desired to undesired effects can be substantially improved. It…

Vanderburg, Willem H.

2008-01-01

438

Guidelines for sustainable building design: Recommendations from the Presidio of San Francisco energy efficiency design charrette  

SciTech Connect

In 1994, the Bay Chapter of the Association of Energy Engineers{reg_sign} organized a two-day design charrette for energy-efficient redevelopment of buildings by the National Park Services (NPS) at the Presidio of San Francisco. This event brought together engineers, researchers, architects, government officials, and students in a participatory environment to apply their experience to create guidelines for the sustainable redesign of Presidio buildings. The venue for the charrette was a representative barracks building located at the Main Post of the Presidio. Examination of this building allowed for the development of design recommendations, both for the building and for the remainder of the facilities. The charrette was organized into a committee structure consisting of: steering, measurement and monitoring, modeling, building envelope and historic preservation (architectural), HVAC and controls, lighting, and presentation. Prior to the charrette itself, the modeling and measurement/monitoring committees developed substantial baseline data for the other committees during the charrette. An integrated design approach was initiated through interaction between the committees during the charrette. Later, committee reports were cross-referenced to emphasize whole building design and systems integration.

Brown, K.; Sartor, D.; Greenberg, S. [and others

1996-05-01

439

The Sustainable Development Research of Copula System on Real Estate Project Operation Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key quality of the real estate project operation environment is decided whether to realize the sustainable development. This paper takes that establishes the system model on project operation environment as a foundation; takes the non-linear dynamics theory as the tool, deeply researches the feedback mechanism between real estate project operation system and economic system, discuss of the coordination evolution

Zhang Jingmin; Chen Liwen; Sun Weifeng

2010-01-01

440

Civic Ecology Education: A Systems Approach to Education for Sustainable Development in Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resilience refers to the ability of a socio-ecological system to maintain function and grow in the face of change. Because all socio-ecological systems are subject to change, whether it be catastrophic as in the case of severe weather events or more gradual, the ability to respond to change is integral to ensuring the sustainability of a system. Two attributes of

Marianne E Krasny; Keith G Tidball

441

Niche to Mainstream in Sustainable Urban Food Systems: The Case of Food Distribution in Portland, Oregon  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address the negative environmental, political, and social consequences of the dominant, industrialized global food system, communities around the world have developed goals and values underlying a sustainable food system. Conceptualizing food production, distribution, and consumption as systems helps clarify the ways food affects social and natural environments, with the distribution element as the critical juncture where the product reaches

Bowen Close

2006-01-01

442

Role of legumes in providing N for sustainable tropical pasture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Forage legumes have long been lauded for their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and contribute to the sustainability of\\u000a agricultural production systems. However despite the benefits they bring in terms of increased herbage and animal production\\u000a they are not widely used in temperate or tropical regions. In this review the amounts of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF)\\u000a needed to sustain the

R. J. Thomas

443

Implanted Energy Conversion System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Richland Energy Laboratory heart power source combines the high efficiency of Stirling engines with the reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of hydraulic power transfer and control to ensure long system life and physiological effectiveness. Extend...

R. P. Johnston L. P. Bakker A. Bennett C. R. Blair S. G. Emigh

1976-01-01

444

A global conversation about energy from biomass: the continental conventions of the global sustainable bioenergy project.  

PubMed

The global sustainable bioenergy (GSB) project was formed in 2009 with the goal of providing guidance with respect to the feasibility and desirability of sustainable, bioenergy-intensive futures. Stage 1 of this project held conventions with a largely common format on each of the world's continents, was completed in 2010, and is described in this paper. Attended by over 400 persons, the five continental conventions featured presentations, breakout sessions, and drafting of resolutions that were unanimously passed by attendees. The resolutions highlight the potential of bioenergy to make a large energy supply contribution while honouring other priorities, acknowledge the breadth and complexity of bioenergy applications as well as the need to take a systemic approach, and attest to substantial intra- and inter-continental diversity with respect to needs, opportunities, constraints and current practice relevant to bioenergy. The following interim recommendations based on stage 1 GSB activities are offered: -?Realize that it may be more productive, and also more correct, to view the seemingly divergent assessments of bioenergy as answers to two different questions rather than the same question. Viewed in this light, there is considerably more scope for reconciliation than might first be apparent, and it is possible to be informed rather than paralysed by divergent assessments.-?Develop established and advanced bioenergy technologies such that each contributes to the other's success. That is, support and deploy in the near-term meritorious, established technologies in ways that enhance rather than impede deployment of advanced technologies, and support and deploy advanced technologies in ways that expand rather than contract opportunities for early adopters and investors.-?Be clear in formulating policies what mix of objectives are being targeted, measure the results of these policies against these objectives and beware of unintended consequences.-?Undertake further exploration of land efficiency levers and visions for multiply-beneficial bioenergy deployment. This should be unconstrained by current practices, since we cannot hope to achieve a sustainable and a secure future by continuing the practices that have led to the unsustainable and insecure present. It should also be approached from a global perspective, based on the best science available, and consider the diverse realities, constraints, needs and opportunities extant in different regions of the world.The future trajectory of the GSB project is also briefly considered. PMID:22419984

Lynd, Lee Rybeck; Aziz, Ramlan Abdul; de Brito Cruz, Carlos Henrique; Chimphango, Annie Fabian Abel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa; Faaij, Andre; Greene, Nathanael; Keller, Martin; Osseweijer, Patricia; Richard, Tom L; Sheehan, John; Chugh, Archana; van der Wielen, Luuk; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem Heber

2011-02-02

445

Coal exports may make Australia's energy sector among least sustainable  

SciTech Connect

Plentiful coal and cheap energy prices have resulted in an unusually heavy carbon footprint. Clearly, Australia has to rethink how much coal it will use to feed its own growing economy while becoming more conscious of its significant carbon export problem. For a country long used to digging the coal out of the ground and shipping it overseas, climate change will be a game changer.

NONE

2009-11-15

446

Solar energy systems cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five major areas of work currently being pursued in the United States in solar energy which will have a significant impact on the world's energy situation in the future are addressed. The five significant areas discussed include a technical description of several solar technologies, current and projected cost of the selected solar systems, and cost methodologies which are under development.

Lavender

1980-01-01

447

Annual Cycle Energy System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design, operation, and performance of the Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES) which provides space heating and cooling and hot water for an experimental house in Knoxville, TN are described. ACES is basically an assisted heat pump with energy storage in...

R. E. Minturn

1979-01-01

448

Energy Information Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the need for accurate, reliable data on energy, flowing upward to the national government from various energy-intensive information systems. Part I explores the need for a national policy coordinating this flow within both the United States and, for comparative purposes, Great Britain. Part II presents in outline form the…

Hales, Celia E.

449

Artificial photosynthesis combines biology with technology for sustainable energy transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photosynthesis supports the biosphere. Currently, human activity appropriates about one fourth of terrestrial photosynthetic net primary production (NPP) to support our GDP and nutrition. The cost to Earth systems of "our cut" of NPP is thought to be rapidly driving several Earth systems outside of bounds that were established on the geological time scale. Even with a fundamental realignment of human priorities, changing the unsustainable trajectory of the anthropocene will require reengineering photosynthesis to more efficiently meet human needs. Artificial photosynthetic systems are envisioned that can both supply renewable fuels and serve as platforms for exploring redesign strategies for photosynthesis. These strategies can be used in the nascent field of synthetic biology to make vast, much needed improvements in the biomass production efficiency of photosynthesis.

Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens

2013-03-01

450

The macroecology of sustainability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The discipline of sustainability science has emerged in response to concerns of natural and social scientists, policymakers, and lay people about whether the Earth can continue to support human population growth and economic prosperity. Yet, sustainability science has developed largely independently from and with little reference to key ecological principles that govern life on Earth. A macroecological perspective highlights three principles that should be integral to sustainability science: 1) physical conservation laws govern the flows of energy and materials between human systems and the environment, 2) smaller systems are connected by these flows to larger systems in which they are embedded, and 3) global constraints ultimately limit flows at smaller scales. Over the past few decades, decreasing per capita rates of consumption of petroleum, phosphate, agricultural land, fresh water, fish, and wood indicate that the growing human population has surpassed the capacity of the Earth to supply enough of these essential resources to sustain even the current population and level of socioeconomic development.

Burger, Joseph R.; Allen, Craig D.; Brown, James H.; Burnside, William R.; Davidson, Ana D.; Fristoe, Trevor S.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Okie, Jordan G.; Zuo, Wenyun

2012-01-01

451

Combined solar power and desalination plants for the Mediterranean region — sustainable energy supply using large-scale solar thermal power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives a review of concentrating solar power technologies and shows their perspectives for sustainable development and climate protection. New concepts for the combined generation of power and water are presented together with instruments for enhanced project assessment using remote sensing technologies and geographic information systems. The vast solar energy resources of the South can be activated by international

Franz Trieb; Joachim Nitsch; Stefan Kronshage; Christoph Schillings; Lars-Arvid Brischke; Gerhard Knies; G. Czisch

2003-01-01

452

Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

2009-02-01

453

Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas.  

PubMed

An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO(2) content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades. PMID:19082575

Metzger, Jürgen O; Hüttermann, Aloys

2008-12-10

454

An optimisation-based environmental decision support system for sustainable development in a rural area in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development has been widely recognised as an effective means for harmonising human society and natural systems. However, achieving the goal of sustainability is difficult since many conflicting factors have to be balanced due to the complexities of real-world problems. Previously, many efforts have been made to clarify the concept of sustainable development and to develop related theoretical and practical

G. H. Huang; X. S. Qin; W. Sun; X. H. Nie; Y. P. Li

2009-01-01

455

High-Altitude Wind Energy for Sustainable Marine Transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the use of a controlled tethered wing, or kite, for naval transportation. Linked to a boat by light composite-fiber lines, the kite is able to fly between 200 and 600 m above the sea and to generate high traction forces. A mechatronic system named Kite Steering Unit (KSU) that is installed on the boat controls the kite

Lorenzo Fagiano; Mario Milanese; Valentino Razza; Mario Bonansone

2012-01-01

456

Integrated agricultural energy system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this program is to show New England farmers and other New England energy users how they can use alternative energy sources to reduce their energy cost and dependency on conventional sources. The project demonstrates alternative energy technologies in solar, alcohol and methane. Dissemination is planned through tours to be conducted by the Worcester County Extension Service. Most of these goals were completed as planned. A few things have yet to be completed. The solar panels and solar hot water tanks have to be installed. The fermenter's agitating and cooling system have to be secured inside the fermenter. Once these items are complete tours will begin early in the spring.

Taylor, R. M.

1985-08-01

457

Living Systems Energy Module  

SciTech Connect

The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

NONE

1995-09-26

458

Energy management system  

SciTech Connect

An energy management system is described for reducing the power consumption of a plurality of loads and including a seven-day timer, a 24 hour timer and a fractional day timer such as a 30-minute timer, each controlling a plurality of subcircuits such that each subcircuit is operative to interrupt the flow of energy to it's associative load at selected times on weekends, in the evening and at synchronized periods throughout the day, the latter periods being synchronized with the other subcircuits, so as to reduce the peak energy demand and to improve the efficiency of the loads. The energy management system further includes circuitry for sequentially shutting down selected loads when the peak energy demand exceeds predetermined levels and circuitry for sequentially energizing the loads following a power failure.

Walden, J.O.

1980-10-14

459

Energy, environment and sustainable development - tough decisions for a democracy  

SciTech Connect

Electricity is recognized to be essential to attaining even minimum modem levels of human welfare in any country. However, where electricity is available, the public shows little concern about where it comes from or what it takes to make sure supply continues to be adequate. In the next century, the world will have to face the difficult decision about the long-term use of plutonium as fuel, and deal with its implications for nonproliferation. What the United States does on this issue will affect all nations, and particularly those around the Pacific Basin. How do responsible leaders set rational priorities in a democracy, when every issue has its vocal advocates and the news media can reach every household? If democracies are to avoid the downside risks of energy shortages, leadership will have to emerge that has the courage to tell the people the truth. That means providing scientific facts and explanations in terms that people can understand.

Rossin, A.D.

1994-12-31

460

Energy Efficient White LEDs for Sustainable Solid-State Lighting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The R&D-level white-LED single-lamp luminous efficacy has reached levels as high as 152 lumens/watt at low currents, which greatly exceeds the bare-bulb incandescent lamp efficacy of 17 lumens/watt. Commercial-based white LED lamp fixtures are typically much lower, in the region of 64 lm/W, due to several issues associated with scaling up to higher currents, heat, and optical losses. These issues will be solved by employing higher light extraction, better optical designs, new chip designs, and better heat sinking. The long lifetime of LEDs (100,000 hours) and their higher efficiencies could lead to considerable maintenance and energy-saving benefits for consumers.

Denbaars, Steve

2008-09-01

461

Development of Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS IN INDIA. To ensure long term availability of nuclear energy in a sustainable manner, taking cognisance of its resource position, India has followed the closed fuel cycle and chalked out a three-stage nuclear power programme based on uranium and thorium. The three stages of this programme comprise: (1) Natural uranium fuelled Pressurised Heavy Water

P. D. Krishnani

462

Disney's Enterprise Energy Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disney's Enterprise Energy Management Systems integrates commercial energy management systems with custom web-based energy information systems. This technology-based solution is used throughout the Walt Disney World Resort organization by administrative managers, engineering, operations and maintenance staff, and cast members. Using Disney's energy information system, each Disney business unit's energy usage is continually measured using a “utility report card.” This special

Paul J. Allen

2007-01-01

463

Sustainability at BPA.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In June 2010, the Department of Energy completed its own Strategic Sustainability Performance Plan, which describes DOE's activities to meet the president's sustainability goals. DOE is working to achieve its sustainability goals by: 1) Fostering a cultur...

2011-01-01

464

Indications of Propulsion System Malfunctions - Sustained Thrust Anomaly Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of providing specific indications to flight crews when a propulsion system malfunction occurs was evaluated. The Boeing Phase 1 Report, Indications of Propulsion System Malfunctions, DOT/FAA/AR-03/72, reviewed and analyzed propulsion syste...

G. B. Ostrom J. Mason S. Clark S. Clark

2007-01-01

465

Operational sustainability metrics - assessing performance of electronics recycling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite growing concern about the handling of end-of-life electronics, the existing electronics recycling system has not been characterized in detail, either by the fate of the materials recovered or the economic and environmental performance of the system. There is a need for systematic ways to describe system functioning and quantitative methods to assess system performance. Existing evaluations of eco-efficiency or

Randolph Kirchain; Jennifer Atlee

2004-01-01

466

Integrating Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering Education: The Application of an Environmental Management System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The principles of sustainable development have been integrated in chemical engineering education by means of an environmental management system. These principles have been introduced in the teaching laboratories where students perform their practical classes. In this paper, the implementation of the environmental management system, the problems…

Montanes, M. T.; Palomares, A. E.; Sanchez-Tovar, R.

2012-01-01

467

Implications of the synergies between systems theory and permaculture for learning about and acting towards sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permaculture involves the use of principles derived from the operation and organisation of ecological systems to guide the creation of sustainable settlements. This paper is based on the premise that the benefits of integrating the two broad schools of practice and thought in systems theory, namely goal oriented and learning oriented approaches are often overlooked in our efforts become a

Tanzi Smith; Juliet Willetts; Cynthia Mitchell

468

A system dynamics model for the sustainable land use planning and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies a system dynamics model for the sustainable land use and urban development in Hong Kong. The model is used to test the outcomes of development policy scenarios and make forecasts. It consists of five sub-systems including population, economy, housing, transport and urban\\/developed land, respectively. Two distinctively different development schemes concerning urban population density are simulated by the

Qiping Shen; Qing Chen; Bo-sin Tang; Stanley Yeung; Yucun Hu; Gordon Cheung

2009-01-01

469

Determining Land System Sustainability through a Land Architecture Approach: Example of Southern Yucatán (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable land systems involve an array of tradeoffs, not only among ecosystem services, but between those services and human outcomes. These tradeoffs are affected by the architecture of the land system---the kind, size, pattern, and distribution of land uses and covers. Working towards a model capable of handling a full array of ecosystem services and human outcomes, the concept of

B. L. Turner II

2009-01-01

470

Ethnographic Approaches to Understanding Social Sustainability in Small-scale Water Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social sustainability is an important, but often neglected, aspect of determining the success of small-scale water systems. This paper reviews ethnographic approaches for understanding how indigenous knowledge enhances social sustainability of small-scale water systems, particularly in small-scale water systems threatened by water scarcity. After reviewing the literature on common-pool and traditional resource management strategies, the paper will focus on the case of a community-managed small-scale water system in Cochabamba, Bolivia. This study uses ethnographic evidence to demonstrate how indigenous institutions can be used to manage a small-scale urban water system sustainably. Several factors were crucial to the institution's success. First, indigenous residents had previous experience with common management of rural irrigation systems which they were able to adapt for use in an urban environment. Second, institutional rules were designed to prioritize the conservation of the water source. Third, indigenous Andean social values of uniformity, regularity, and transparency ensured that community members perceived the system as legitimate and complied with community rules. Fourth, self-governance enabled community members to quickly adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as seasonal scarcity and groundwater overdraft. The paper concludes with a discussion of the promise and limitations of ethnographic approaches and indigenous knowledge for understanding social sustainability in small-scale water systems.

Wutich, A.

2011-12-01

471

Water and Health in Limpopo: Designing a sustainable filtration and distribution system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the design of a sustainable water supply and sanitation system in the villages of Tshapasha and Tshibvumo in Limpopo province South Africa. We begin by briefly describing the work done by previous Water and Health in Limpopo (WHIL) teams. The report provides details of the current process of monitoring and troubleshooting of the supply system built by

Satyaki Adhikari; Talal Assir; R. Locke Bell; Camil G. Boulos; James R. Comfort; Ryan P. Oley; M. Carter Saunders; Adam N. Tiller; Garrick E. Louis

2011-01-01

472

Dynamic performance metrics to assess sustainability and cost effectiveness of integrated urban water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive set of metrics quantifying sustainability and cost effectiveness of urban water systems is required to rigorously inform policy, design and management decisions, as cities all over the world face the combined pressures of drought and flood, climatic uncertainty, rising population, and an increasingly complex wastewater. These metrics need to be generated using an integrated system approach covering the

J. E. Fagan; M. A. Reuter; K. J. Langford

2010-01-01

473

Improving sustainability of engineering projects through the application of systems engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the application of a systems engineering approach to handling the additional complexity introduced into engineering projects by including sustainability characteristics as design parameters. Systems engineering incorporates a 'top-down' approach that ensures that all the stakeholder requirements and their complex interdependencies are correctly identified and then reflected throughout the detailed development of the project. The case study presented

Barnaby Smeaton; Erik W. Aslaksen

474

Sustainability of poultry production using the emergy approach: Comparison of conventional and organic rearing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic production system is an important strategy, compatible with sustainable agriculture, avoiding the use of chemical comp