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1

Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Australian National University Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems provides information about photovoltaics and solar thermal energy technology. Links are provided to energy information and research sites.

Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSES)

2

Monitoring the energy systems of sustainable buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complexity of sustainable energy systems for buildings services calls for more transparency of the processes which provide energy for the buildings heating, cooling and power needs. In the frame of applied scientific research at University of Applied Sciences Offenburg, different systems and even buildings in total have been monitored over years to analyse their performance and to optimize the system installations and operations. New EU regulations like EN 16001 require an effective monitoring and a continuous commissioning of the energy relevant systems to certificate sustainable processes. On the other hand, new operation tools are necessary to handle the volatility of renewable energy sources and the buildings demand. Predictive building automation has shown good results when applied for energy systems with high inertia. Operating large-scale solar thermal systems and sustainable buildings over long-term periods the University of Applied Sciences provided evidence that monitoring is an essential system tool for an energy and cost efficient operation of sustainable buildings.

Bollin, Elmar

2011-05-01

3

Monitoring the energy systems of sustainable buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of sustainable energy systems for buildings services calls for more transparency of the processes which provide energy for the buildings heating, cooling and power needs. In the frame of applied scientific research at University of Applied Sciences Offenburg, different systems and even buildings in total have been monitored over years to analyse their performance and to optimize the

Elmar Bollin

2011-01-01

4

Environmental sustainability of cellulosic energy cropping systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The environmental sustainability of bioenergy production depends on both direct and indirect effects of the production systems to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This chapter evaluates what is known about the environmental sustainability of cellulosic bioenergy crop production for the types of produc...

5

Hydrogen futures: toward a sustainable energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fueled by concerns about urban air pollution, energy security, and climate change, the notion of a “hydrogen economy” is moving beyond the realm of scientists and engineers and into the lexicon of political and business leaders. Interest in hydrogen, the simplest and most abundant element in the universe, is also rising due to technical advances in fuel cells — the

Seth Dunn

2002-01-01

6

Sustainable systems for the storage and conversion of energy are dependent on interconnected  

E-print Network

SEMTE abstract Sustainable systems for the storage and conversion of energy are dependent energy systems for harvesting low availability thermal energy and for providing integrated power, cooling performance buildings, renewable energy conversion, and energy storage can be streamlined by identifying

Reisslein, Martin

7

A Systems Approach to Assessing the Sustainability of Hybrid Community Energy Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal to achieve a sustainable society that will endure over the long term is generally regarded as a positive evolutionary course. One of the challenges with this goal is developing a quantitative assessment of the sustainability of a system. Despite the different measures available in the literature, a standard and universally accepted index for assessing sustainability does not yet exist. This thesis develops a novel Integrated Sustainability Index (ISI) for energy systems that considers critical multidimensional sustainability criteria. The originality of this new index is that it incorporates fundamental thermodynamic, economic, and environmental constraints to combine indicators from multiple dimensions into a single-score evaluation of sustainability. The index is therefore unique because it can assess sustainability relative to an ideal reference state instead of being limited to ranking systems via relative assessments. The ISI of an energy system is determined by normalization, weighting, and aggregation of sustainability indicators. Indicators are normalized relative to sustainable threshold values and weighted based on time, space, and receptor (i.e., human or ecosystem impacts) criteria. Aggregation yields an ISI between zero and one, where one represents a sustainable system. The ISI is calculated for several different case studies spanning a range of fossil- and renewable-based energy systems. Each is designed as a stand-alone system to meet the energy needs of a small community in Southern Ontario. The analysis shows that of the various alternatives, a solar-photovoltaic-hydrogen system has the best ISI, which ranges from 0.65--0.90 and is a 4--25% improvement over the reference, gas-fired system. For the solar-photovoltaic-hydrogen system and many others, climate change and ozone layer depletion indicators have the strongest effect on ISI. Affordability, commercial viability, and land area indicators are also critical for other energy systems. The ISI is expected to prove useful as a high-level, multi-criteria decision analysis tool for understanding and fostering sustainable energy systems, alone or in concert with other approaches. Keywords: Energy system; Index; Life-cycle assessment; Sustainability; Weighting factor.

Hacatoglu, Kevork

8

Energy storage as an essential part of sustainable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy supply is an intricate task that provides a reliable energy service to consumers throughout the year. Import dependencies, seasonal differences in energy supply and use, and daily fluctuations in consumption require a sophisticated management of energy resources and conversion, or energy distribution and resource intermittency in order to guarantee continuous energy services throughout all sectors. Therein, energy storage plays

Marco Semadeni

2003-01-01

9

Sustainable markets for sustainable energy  

SciTech Connect

The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

1997-12-01

10

A Framework for Supporting Organizational Transition Processes Towards Sustainable Energy Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Economic development over the last century has driven a tripling of the world's population, a twenty-fold increase in fossil fuel consumption, and a tripling of traditional biomass consumption. The associated broad income and wealth inequities are retaining over 2 billion people in poverty. Adding to this, fossil fuel combustion is impacting the environment across spatial and temporal scales and the cost of energy is outpacing all other variable costs for most industries. With 60% of world energy delivered in 2008 consumed by the commercial and industrial sector, the fragmented and disparate energy-related decision making within organizations are largely responsible for the inefficient and impacting use of energy resources. The global transition towards sustainable development will require the collective efforts of national, regional, and local governments, institutions, the private sector, and a well-informed public. The leadership role in this transition could be provided by private and public sector organizations, by way of sustainability-oriented organizations, cultures, and infrastructure. The diversity in literature exemplifies the developing nature of sustainability science, with most sustainability assessment approaches and frameworks lacking transformational characteristics, tending to focus on analytical methods. In general, some shortfalls in sustainability assessment processes include lack of: · thorough stakeholder participation in systems and stakeholder mapping, · participatory envisioning of future sustainable states, · normative aggregation of results to provide an overall measure of sustainability, and · influence within strategic decision-making processes. Specific to energy sustainability assessments, while some authors aggregate results to provide overall sustainability scores, assessments have focused solely on energy supply scenarios, while including the deficits discussed above. This paper presents a framework for supporting organizational transition processes towards sustainable energy systems, using systems and stakeholder mapping, participatory envisioning, and sustainability assessment to prepare the development of transition strategies towards realizing long-term energy sustainability. The energy system at Arizona State University's Tempe campus (ASU) in 2008 was used as a baseline to evaluate the sustainability of the current system. From interviews and participatory workshops, energy system stakeholders provided information to map the current system and measure its performance. Utilizing operationalized principles of energy sustainability, stakeholders envisioned a future sustainable state of the energy system, and then developed strategies to begin transition of the current system to its potential future sustainable state. Key findings include stakeholders recognizing that the current energy system is unsustainable as measured against principles of energy sustainability and an envisioned future sustainable state of the energy system. Also, insufficient governmental stakeholder engagement upstream within the current system could lead to added risk as regulations affect energy supply. Energy demand behavior and consumption patterns are insufficiently understood by current stakeholders, limiting participation and accountability from consumers. In conclusion, although this research study focused on the Tempe campus, ASU could apply this process to other campuses thereby improving overall ASU energy system sustainability. Expanding stakeholder engagement upstream within the energy system and better understanding energy consumption behavior can also improve long-term energy sustainability. Finally, benchmarking ASU's performance against its peer universities could expand the current climate commitment of participants to broader sustainability goals.

Buch, Rajesh

11

An energy systems view of sustainability: emergy analysis of the San Luis Basin, Colorado  

EPA Science Inventory

Energy Systems Theory (EST) is used to provide a context for understanding and interpreting sustainability. We propose that ?what is sustainable? for a system at any given level of organization is determined by the cycles of change originating in the next larger system. Further...

12

Innovative systems for sustainable nuclear energy generation and waste management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limited amount of fossil resources, the impact of green-house gas emissions on the world climate, the rising demand of primary energy projected to 2050, lead to a potentially critical situation for the world energy supply. The need for alternative (to fossil energies) massive energy production is evaluated to 10 Gtoe. The potential of Nuclear Energy generation at the level of 5 Gtoe is examined. Such a sustainable production can only be met by a breeder reactor fleet for which a deployment scenario is described with the associated constraints. Waste management is discussed in connection with different nuclear energy development scenarios according to the point in time when breeder reactors are started. At the world level, it appears that the optimal handling of today's wastes rests on an early decision to develop tomorrow's breeder reactors.

Loiseaux, Jm; David, S.

2006-05-01

13

Development of sustainable energy systems in Swedish municipalities: A matter of path dependency and power relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case studies of two Swedish municipalities indicate that the general energy area was divided into three independent policy areas: one dealing with supply, one with conservation and one with environmental questions related to the Agenda 21 vision of an ecologically sustainable energy system. However, the dominant energy policy area in the municipalities was supply policy. This article discusses why supply

Jenny Palm

2006-01-01

14

Smart Cities Initiative: how to foster a quick transition towards local sustainable energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Commission has recently launched the Smart Cities Initiative to demonstrate and disseminate how to foster a quick transition towards local sustainable energy systems. Within this initiative, the three main challenges faced by pioneering cities, are to reduce or modify the demand for energy services, to improve the uptake of energy efficient technologies and to improve the uptake of

Leonardo Meeus; Erik Delarue; Isabel Azevedo; Jean-Michel Glachant; Vitor Leal; Eduardo de Oliveira Fernandes

2010-01-01

15

Sustainability Assessment of Residential Building Energy System in Belgrade  

E-print Network

of harmful substances. Multi-criteria method is a basic tool for the sustainability assessment in metropolitan cities. The design of potential options is the first step in the evaluation of buildings. The selection of a number of residential buildings...

Vucicevic, B.; Bakic, V.; Jovanovic, M.; Turanjanin, V.

2010-01-01

16

Engineering sustainability: thermodynamics, energy systems, and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Thermodynamic concepts have been utilized by practitioners in a variety of disciplines with interests in environmental sustainability, including ecology, economics and engineering. Widespread concern about resource depletion and environmental degradation are common to them all. It has been argued that these consequences of human development are reflected in thermodynamic parameters and methods of analysis; they are said to mirror

Geoffrey P. Hammondn

17

Designing resilient, sustainable systems.  

PubMed

Pursuit of sustainable development requires a systems approach to the design of industrial product and service systems. Although many business enterprises have adopted sustainability goals, the actual development of sustainable systems remains challenging because of the broad range of economic, environmental and social factors that need to be considered across the system life cycle. Traditional systems engineering practices try to anticipate and resist disruptions but may be vulnerable to unforeseen factors. An alternative is to design systems with inherent "resilience" bytaking advantage of fundamental properties such as diversity, efficiency, adaptability, and cohesion. Previous work on sustainable design has focused largely upon ecological efficiency improvements. For example, companies have found that reducing material and energy intensity and converting wastes into valuable secondary products creates value for shareholders as well as for society at large. To encourage broader systems thinking, a design protocol is presented that involves the following steps: identifying system function and boundaries, establishing requirements, selecting appropriate technologies, developing a system design, evaluating anticipated performance, and devising a practical means for system deployment. The approach encourages explicit consideration of resilience in both engineered systems and the larger systems in which they are embedded. PMID:14700317

Fiksel, Joseph

2003-12-01

18

Chapter 2: Sustainable and Unsustainable Developments in the U.S. Energy System  

SciTech Connect

Over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the United States developed a wealthy society on the basis of cheap and abundant fossil fuel energy. As fossil fuels have become ecologically and economically expensive in the twenty-first century, America has shown mixed progress in transitioning to a more sustainable energy system. From 2000 to 2006, energy and carbon intensity of GDP continued favorable long-term trends of decline. Energy end-use efficiency also continued to improve; for example, per-capita electricity use was 12.76 MWh per person per year in 2000 and again in 2006, despite 16 percent GDP growth over that period. Environmental costs of U.S. energy production and consumption have also been reduced, as illustrated in air quality improvements. However, increased fossil fuel consumption, stagnant efficiency standards, and expanding corn-based ethanol production have moved the energy system in the opposite direction, toward a less sustainable energy system. This chapter reviews energy system developments between 2000 and 2006 and presents policy recommendations to move the United States toward a more sustainable energy system.

Levine, Mark; Levine, Mark D.; Aden, Nathaniel T.

2008-05-01

19

Sustainable aquaculture systems  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this paper is to examine and assess the technical feasibility of the integration of plant and/or animal aquaculture systems into a sustainable agriculture. Although most researchers tend to avoid a precise definition of sustainable aquaculture, the implication that one gets from `reading between the lines` is that a sustainable agro-ecosystem is one which recycles materials at maximum energy efficiency. The `unspoken` standard against which comparisons of sustainability are often made is that of a mature natural ecosystem at a steady state. Cost comparisons of alternative systems will be used whenever possible, however, in many cases, conventional cost/benefit analysis will be of limited value in such an analysis. For aquaculture, such an analysis can best be conducted by analyzing the possibilities of integrating nutrients, water, and energy flow from aquaculture systems both to and from, conventional agricultural systems. The various aquaculture options are then qualitatively compared as their potential, limitations, environmental soundness, productivity, socio-economic viability and the availability of supporting technology. It is important to realize that the usefulness or applicability of any sustainable or integrated aquaculture practice is highly site specific.

Brune, D.E.

1994-08-01

20

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report An Investigation into Sustainable Energy Storage Systems for Buildings  

E-print Network

into Sustainable Energy Storage Systems for Buildings Jiries Al-Shomali, Jake Davis, Jianxing Niu University;1 An Investigation into Sustainable Energy Storage Systems for Buildings by Jiries Al-Shomali, Jake Davis Paterson #12;2 ABSTRACT This report documents the research that has been done on the use of Energy Storage

21

Sustainable Energy Coalition Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sustainable Energy Coalition brings together business, environmental, and consumer organizations that advocate federal energy policies that will lead to "a cleaner environment, safe reliable energy technologies, and a secure, prosperous future for all Americans."

22

Energy issues affecting corn/soybean systems: Challenges for sustainable production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantifying energy issues associated with agricultural systems, even for a simple two-crop corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) rotation, is not a simple task. It becomes even more complicated if the goal is to include all aspects of sustainability (i.e., economic, environmental, ...

23

CCSF Topical Lunch Summary Systems Approach to Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

controls and markets, how to set price on elementary carbon vs. transformed carbon Antonio Bento Economics; optimization systems, machine learning, inference and Smartgrid Tim Mount Power systems, deregulation

Angenent, Lars T.

24

The Sustainable Energy Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependence on oil and fossil fuels for over 80% of our energy and the continued emission of carbon dioxide threatening stable climate are captured in a single term: sustainability. Although we generally agree that sustainability is valuable, there is less agreement on how much sustainability is necessary or desirable. In this talk, three criteria describing increasingly strict features of sustainability will be presented and applied to evaluate the alternatives to oil and carbon dioxide emission, such as tapping unused energy flows in sunlight and wind, producing electricity without carbon emissions from clean coal and high efficiency nuclear power plants, and replacing oil with biofuels or electricity. Implementing these more sustainable alternatives requires new materials of increasing complexity and functionality that control the transformation of energy between light, electrons and chemical bonds at the nanoscale. Challenges and opportunities for developing the complex materials and controlling the chemical changes that enable greater sustainability will be presented. )

Crabtree, George

2010-02-01

25

Plant Wide Energy Management and Reporting Systems Provide Sustainable Results  

E-print Network

on the operation of individual equipment must be respected in order to provide a robust and reliable powerhouse. The properly automated steam system should be agile enough to meet changing demands and fuel handling difficulties without excessive loss of steam... project and performs the following tasks: 1. Improve boiler combustion efficiency. 2. Improve overall system effectiveness through improving the ?agility? of the boilers and steam distribution system. 3. Develop the interface for the EMRS overlay...

Robinson, J. E.

2007-01-01

26

The role of hydrogen for the long term development of sustainable energy systems—a case study for Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on different current long-term energy scenarios the paper discusses the future perspectives of hydrogen in the German energy system as a representative example for the development of sustainable energy systems. The scenario analysis offers varying outlines of the future energy system that determine the possible role of hydrogen. The paper discusses the possibilities of expanding the share of renewable

Manfred Fischedick; Joachim Nitsch; Stephan Ramesohl

2005-01-01

27

Financing Sustainable EnergyFinancing Sustainable Energy City of Berkeley  

E-print Network

for Sustainable EnergyFramework for Sustainable Energy Financing District · Adopted new Special Tax Financing LawFinancing Sustainable EnergyFinancing Sustainable Energy City of Berkeley #12;Source of Green House) Finance solar and energy efficiency improvements for residential & commercial properties Financing model

Kammen, Daniel M.

28

Towards Design of Sustainable Energy Systems in Developing Countries: Centralized and Localized Options  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy use in developing countries is projected to equal and exceed the demand in developed countries in the next five years. Growing concern about environmental problems, depletion and price fluctuation of fossil fuels pushes the efforts for meeting energy demand in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way. Hence, it is essential to design energy systems consisting of centralized and localized options that generate the optimum energy mix to meet this increasing energy demand in a sustainable manner. In this study, we try to answer the question, "How can the energy demand in Rampura village be met sustainably?" via two centralized clean coal (CCC) technology and three localized energy technology options analyzed. We perform the analysis of these energy technologies through joint use of donor-side analysis technique emergy analysis (EA) and user-side analysis technique life cycle assessment (LCA). Sustainability of such an energy combination depends on its reliance on renewable inputs rather than nonrenewable or purchased inputs. CCC technologies are unsustainable energy systems dependent on purchased external inputs almost 100%. However, increased efficiency and significantly lower environmental impacts of CCC technologies can lead to more environmentally benign utilization of coal as an energy source. CCC technologies supply electricity at a lower price compared to the localized energy options investigated. Localized energy options analyzed include multi-crystalline solar PV, floating drum biogas digester and downdraft biomass gasifier. Solar PV has the lowest water and land use, however, solar electricity has the highest price with a high global warming potential (GWP). Contrary to general opinion, solar electricity is highly non-renewable. Although solar energy is a 100% renewable natural resource, materials utilized in the production of solar panels are mostly non-renewable purchased inputs causing the low renewability of solar electricity. Best sustainability results are obtained for full capacity operation in anaerobic digestion and for single fuel mode (SFM) operation in biomass gasification. For both of the processes, cost of electricity reduces 2-3 times if they are operated properly. However, there is not enough ipomea to run the biomass gasifier in SFM in Rampura, hence optimum operation scheme is ideal dual fuel mode (DFM) operation for the biomass gasifier analyzed. Emergy analysis of Rampura village and its subsystems reveal that sustainability is not achieved both at the village and in the subsystems levels since they are highly dependent on non-renewable material and energy inputs. To improve the overall sustainability in Rampura, dependency on purchased inputs fodder, fertilizer and diesel, non-renewable cooking fuel wood should be reduced. In satisfying energy demand in Rampura, biogas cooking and 70% biogas cooking scenarios perform better than electricity options in all of the objectives considered. Other than minimum land and water use objectives, electricity-RM and electricity-GM scenarios overlap and do not have a significant difference in terms of performance. Based on these results, the best option to meet the energy demand in Rampura would be to meet all the cooking energy with direct use of biogas. However, 70% biogas cooking scenario may be a more practical option since it both satisfies energy demand in an environmentally benign manner and satisfies the cultural needs of Rampura people. When 30% of cooking is performed by utilizing improved biomass cook stoves in the traditional way, the biogas potential becomes enough to meet all the remaining energy demand (70% of cooking, lighting and irrigation) in Rampura, hence energy security and reliability are ensured. Furthermore, utilizing biogas for cooking enables more agricultural residues to be available as fodder and eases the pressure on environment due to excessive woody biomass harvesting. Additionally, CH4 emissions from cow dung are avoided via production of biogas while the sanitation improves in the area. The GHG emissi

Kursun, Berrin

29

Sustainable energy Risindialogue  

E-print Network

and prosperity. A sustainable and reliable energy supply is essential to ensuring that the future energy demand for future energy consumption to be environmentally and socially responsible. Living conditions in the de Academy of Wind Energy. Thus, the re- sources available are many, a particular challenge be- ing, however

30

Measuring Energy Sustainability  

E-print Network

for changes in the relationship between energy services and societal well-being. Energy sustainability must a level of well-being at least as good as that of the current generation. It is recognized of energy into energy services, incorporates technological change and, at least notionally, allows

31

Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

2009-04-01

32

SUSTAINABLE OCEAN SYSTEMS During the twenty-first century, issues concerned with environmental and energy sustainability  

E-print Network

research and teaching universities in the United States, Cornell has played and will continue to play a leading role in analyzing the environmental and energy problems confronting society. Among the environmental sciences represented at Cornell, those focusing on the ocean have received little recognition

Angenent, Lars T.

33

Northeast Sustainable Energy Association  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Northeast Sustainable Energy Association (NSEA), a chapter of the American Solar Energy Society, is an organization for northeastern United States focused on "promoting the understanding, development, and adoption of energy conservation and non-polluting, renewable energy technologies." NSEA promotes the use of electricity produced through sustainable and non-polluting methods, as well as green transportation and building construction and design through advocacy and education. The NSEA Web site offers some useful tools for homeowners and teachers alike. These include Information About Sustainable Transportation, energy conservation tips, and selected articles from the Northeast Sun (published quarterly). Also available are resources and publications for educators; however, some things are not freely available on the Web and must be ordered from the NSEA.

34

A self-sustaining energy system for a rural community in India  

SciTech Connect

A large segment of the world's population is poor and undernourished. They essentially earn their meager income from agriculture. Their future is tied up with the economics of agriculture, which in turn is strongly related to energy. So is true of a vast majority of the population in India, who live in over 560,000 villages. A large number of these villages are inaccessible to commercial supplies. An autonomous and self-sustaining energy system comprising of three renewable energy sources: sun, wind and biomass cam make a significant contribution to their economy. Appropriate combinations of these three energy resources is needed to make it economical, viable and compatibel with rural economy. The paper discusses one such system, highlighting the major characteristics of the three components.

Gupta, M.C.

1983-12-01

35

Sustainable Energy Management Programs  

E-print Network

• Appoint Energy Manager • Analyze Existing Conditions • Develop Plan • Implement and Monitor Program ESL-KT-14-11-45 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Sustainable Programs Feature – District Commitment...: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Energy Awareness Committee • Energy Committee formed to make decisions about Energy Plan design – Members from each campus – Principals/Teachers – Administration – Custodial...

Hanner, S.

2014-01-01

36

Campus Sustainability Goals Energy & Climate  

E-print Network

Campus Sustainability Goals Energy & Climate By 2014, reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 and water consumption and wastewater production; incorporate sustainable design principles into capital levels. Food & Dining By 2020, increase sustainable food purchases by campus foodservice providers

Jacobs, Lucia

37

Water, energy, land use, transportation and socioeconomic nexus: A blue print for more sustainable urban systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation for global movement to urban regions requires a holistic study of infrastructure interactions. The impact of water and energy on one another has been studied to show how they are dependent upon one another. Other infrastructure interactions also are vital to designing more sustainable cities. The primary infrastructures are: water, energy, land use, and transportation. Creating more sustainable cities

Elizabeth A. Minne; John C. Crittenden; Arka Pandit; Hyunju Jeong; Jean-Ann James; Zhongming Lu; Ming Xu; Steve French; Muthukumar Subrahmanyam; Douglas Noonan; Lin-Han Chiang Hsieh; Marilyn Brown; Joy Wang; Reginald Desroches; Bert Bras; Jeff Yen; Miroslav Begovic; Insu Kim; Ke Li; Preethi Rao

2011-01-01

38

Sensitivity analysis of synergistic collaborative scenarios towards sustainable nuclear energy systems  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents results of the study on the role of collaboration among countries towards sustainable global nuclear energy systems. The study explores various market shares for nuclear fuel cycle services, possible scale of collaboration among countries and assesses benefits and issues relevant for collaboration between suppliers and users of nuclear fuel cycle services. The approach used in the study is based on a heterogeneous world model with grouping of the non-personified nuclear energy countries according to different nuclear fuel cycle policies. The methodology applied in the analysis allocates a fraction of future global nuclear energy generation to each of such country-groups as a function of time. The sensitivity studies performed show the impacts of the group shares on the scope of collaboration among countries and on the resulting possible reactor mix and nuclear fuel cycle infrastructure versus time. The study quantitatively demonstrates that the synergistic approach to nuclear fuel cycle has a significant potential for offering a win-win collaborative strategy to both, technology holders and technology users on their joint way to future sustainable nuclear energy systems. The study also highlights possible issues on such a collaborative way. (authors)

Fesenko, G.; Kuznetsov, V. [IAEA, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400, Vienna (Austria); Poplavskaya, E. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

2013-07-01

39

Modeling a Renewable Energy System to Meet University Energy Needs and Promote Regional Sustainable Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planning and feasibility analysis of a renewable energy system for an institution like a university campus requires the development of an overall energy system model. The scope of this model should include biomass production systems and the effects on the producers of biorenewables in the region surrounding the institution should be considered. Student teams from Iowa State University's (ISU) Engineers

Jason Haegele; Brian Steward; Evan Visser; Marisol Martinez; Delly Oliveira; Caio Marcus; Rowena Vieira; Fernando Grilo

40

Implementation of global energy sustainability  

SciTech Connect

The term energy sustainability emerged from the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1992, when Agenda 21 was formulated and the Global Energy Charter proclaimed. Emission reductions, total energy costing, improved energy efficiency, and sustainable energy systems are the four fundamental principles of the charter. These principles can be implemented in the proposed financial, legal, technical, and education framework. Much has been done in many countries toward the implementation of the Global Energy Charter, but progress has not been fast enough to ease the disastrous effects of the too many ill-conceived energy systems on the environment, climate, and health. Global warming is accelerating, and pollution is worsening, especially in developing countries with their hunger for energy to meet the needs of economic development. Asian cities are now beating all pollution records, and greenhouse gases are visibly changing the climate with rising sea levels, retracting glaciers, and record weather disasters. This article presents why and how energy investments and research money have to be rechanneled into sustainable energy, rather than into the business-as-usual of depleting, unsustainable energy concepts exceeding one trillion dollars per year. This largest of all investment sectors needs much more attention.

Grob, G.R. [CMDC, Zurich (Switzerland)

1998-02-01

41

Exploring the sustainability of industrial production and energy generation with a model system  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance and complexity of sustainability has been well recognized and a formal study of sustainability based on system theory approaches is imperative as many of the relationships between the various components of the system could be non-linear, intertwined, and non-intuit...

42

Materials for Sustainable Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global dependence on fossil fuels for energy is among the greatest challenges facing our economic, social and political future. The uncertainty in the cost and supply of oil threatens the global economy and energy security, the pollution of fossil combustion threatens human health, and the emission of greenhouse gases threatens global climate. Meeting the demand for double the current global energy use in the next 50 years without damaging our economy, security, environment or climate requires finding alternative sources of energy that are clean, abundant, accessible and sustainable. The transition to greater sustainability involves tapping unused energy flows such as sunlight and wind, producing electricity without carbon emissions from clean coal and high efficiency nuclear power plants, and using energy more efficiently in solid-state lighting, fuel cells and transportation based on plug-in hybrid and electric cars. Achieving these goals requires creating materials of increasing complexity and functionality to control the transformation of energy between light, electrons and chemical bonds. Challenges and opportunities for developing the complex materials and controlling the chemical changes that enable greater sustainability will be presented.

Crabtree, George

2009-03-01

43

Sustainable Systems Analysis of Production and Transportation Scenarios for Conventional and Bio-based Energy Commodities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International commerce places unique pressures on the sustainability of water resources and marine environments. System impacts include noise, emissions, and chemical and biological pollutants like introduction of invasive species into key ecosystems. At the same time, maritime trade also enables the sustainability ambition of intragenerational equity in the economy through the global circulation of commodities and manufactured goods, including agricultural, energy and mining resources (UN Trade and Development Board 2013). This paper presents a framework to guide the analysis of the multiple dimensions of the sustainable commerce-ocean nexus. As a demonstration case, we explore the social, economic and environmental aspects of the nexus framework using scenarios for the production and transportation of conventional and bio-based energy commodities. Using coupled LCA and GIS methodologies, we are able to orient the findings spatially for additional insight. Previous work on the sustainable use of marine resources has focused on distinct aspects of the maritime environment. The framework presented here, integrates the anthropogenic use, governance and impacts on the marine and coastal environments with the natural components of the system. A similar framework has been highly effective in progressing the study of land-change science (Turner et al 2007), however modification is required for the unique context of the marine environment. This framework will enable better research integration and planning for sustainability objectives including mitigation and adaptation to climate change, sea level rise, reduced dependence on fossil fuels, protection of critical marine habitat and species, and better management of the ocean as an emerging resource base for the production and transport of commodities and energy across the globe. The framework can also be adapted for vulnerability analysis, resilience studies and to evaluate the trends in production, consumption and commerce. To demonstrate the usefulness of the framework, we construct several scenarios as case studies to explore the emerging trends of larger ship deployment and the changing portfolio of energy resources including the increased consumption of bio-based energy. The maritime transportation industry remains heavily reliant on fossil fuels to power transport, while energy, mineral and grain remain the largest bulk commodities shipped. Emerging markets for such commodities, as well as new production methods and locations are considered. We overlay these trends and shifts with ecological areas of concern and biological migration routes. The diversity of governance regimes is also considered to produce a clearer picture of the emerging hot-spots for further study and for the synergies and tradeoffs that must be considered to achieve a sustainable ocean system. References Turner BL, Lambin EF, Reenberg A (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci, (104):20666-20671. UN Trade and Development Board (2013) Recent developments and trends in international maritime transport affecting trade of developing countries, TD/B/C.1/30.

Doran, E. M.; Golden, J. S.; Nowacek, D. P.

2013-12-01

44

Leveraging Human-environment Systems in Residential Buildings for Aggregate Energy Efficiency and Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the energy consumed in the built environment is a key objective in many sustainability initiatives. Existing energy saving methods have consisted of physical interventions to buildings and/or behavioral modifications of occupants. However, such methods may not only suffer from their own disadvantages, e.g. high cost and transient effect, but also lose aggregate energy saving potential due to the oftentimes-associated single-building-focused view and an isolated examination of occupant behaviors. This dissertation attempts to overcome the limitations of traditional energy saving research and practical approaches, and enhance residential building energy efficiency and sustainability by proposing innovative energy strategies from a holistic perspective of the aggregate human-environment systems. This holistic perspective features: (1) viewing buildings as mutual influences in the built environment, (2) leveraging both the individual and contextualized social aspects of occupant behaviors, and (3) incorporating interactions between the built environment and human behaviors. First, I integrate three interlinked components: buildings, residents, and the surrounding neighborhood, and quantify the potential energy savings to be gained from renovating buildings at the inter-building level and leveraging neighborhood-contextualized occupant social networks. Following the confirmation of both the inter-building effect among buildings and occupants' interpersonal influence on energy conservation, I extend the research further by examining the synergy that may exist at the intersection between these "engineered" building networks and "social" peer networks, focusing specifically on the additional energy saving potential that could result from interactions between the two components. Finally, I seek to reach an alignment of the human and building environment subsystems by matching the thermostat preferences of each household with the thermal conditions within their apartment, and develop the Energy Saving Alignment Strategy to be considered in public housing assignment policy. This strategy and the inter-building level energy management strategies developed in my preceding research possess large-scale cost-effectiveness and may engender long-lasting influence compared with existing energy saving approaches. Building from the holistic framework of coupled human-environment systems, the findings of this research will advance knowledge of energy efficiency in the built environment and lead to the development of novel strategies to conserve energy in residential buildings.

Xu, Xiaoqi

45

CALTECH SUSTAINABILITY CALTECH ENERGY PORTFOLIO  

E-print Network

-site natural gas combine heat and power system; 2) on-site solar photovoltaic arrays; 3) on-site Bloom fuel (enough to power 2,300 California homes every year), meeting approximately 17% of campus energy demand? See this video. #12;CALTECH SUSTAINABILITY CALTECH SOLAR POWER Aerial view of the Holliston Solar

Faraon, Andrei

46

Harnessing the sun: Developing capacity to sustain local solar energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of solar photovoltaic (PV) and other renewable sources to meet rising electricity demand by a growing world population has gained traction in many countries in recent years. In rural Sub-Saharan Africa, where 86 percent of the populace has no access to electricity, solar energy systems represent partial solutions to demand, especially in support of rural development initiatives to supply potable water, health care services and education. Unfortunately, development of human and organizational capacity to maintain solar technology has not kept pace with the rate of installation, causing many to fall into disrepair and disuse. This has stimulated interest in capacity development processes required to make solar systems sustainable. To cast light on the practical meanings and challenges of capacity development for solar energy, this study compares the experiences of two rural projects, one in Lagos State (Nigeria) that disregarded the importance of capacity development, and the other in Texas (United States) that, in contrast, made such development the centerpiece of its operations. Based largely on interviews with 60 key actors, findings underscore the crucial importance of sustained investment in capacity development to assurance of durable power supply from renewable sources.

Olarewaju, Olufemi

2011-12-01

47

Diversification and localization of energy systems for sustainable development and energy security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominance of a single-energy system inevitably leads to excessive burden on, and eventually weakening, a particular aspect of the environment, and can cause environmental fatigue and failure (permanent damage) or even catastrophe if dominated for too long; thus it inevitably poses the health and environmental risk. This is the case for our currently fossil-fuel-based energy systems. In fact, each

Xianguo Li

2005-01-01

48

Hopi Sustainable Energy Plan  

SciTech Connect

The Hopi Tribal Government as part of an initiative to ?Regulate the delivery of energy and energy services to the Hopi Reservation and to create a strategic business plan for tribal provision of appropriate utility, both in a manner that improves the reliability and cost efficiency of such services,? established the Hopi Clean Air Partnership Project (HCAPP) to support the Tribe?s economic development goals, which is sensitive to the needs and ways of the Hopi people. The Department of Energy (DOE) funded, Formation of Hopi Sustainable Energy Program results are included in the Clean Air Partnership Report. One of the Hopi Tribe?s primary strategies to improving the reliability and cost efficiency of energy services on the Reservation and to creating alternative (to coal) economic development opportunities is to form and begin implementation of the Hopi Sustainable Energy Program. The Hopi Tribe through the implementation of this grant identified various economic opportunities available from renewable energy resources. However, in order to take advantage of those opportunities, capacity building of tribal staff is essential in order for the Tribe to develop and manage its renewable energy resources. As Arizona public utilities such as APS?s renewable energy portfolio increases the demand for renewable power will increase. The Hopi Tribe would be in a good position to provide a percentage of the power through wind energy. It is equally important that the Hopi Tribe begin a dialogue with APS and NTUA to purchase the 69Kv transmission on Hopi and begin looking into financing options to purchase the line.

Norman Honie, Jr.; Margie Schaff; Mark Hannifan

2004-08-01

49

From wind-solar energy educational demo system (WISE) to sustainable energy research facility (SERF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes education, outreach, and research activities on residential use of wind and solar energy performed at Frostburg State University (FSU). A residential size wind and solar energy demonstration system named ldquoWISErdquo consisting of a 2-kW solar (PV) array and 1.8-kW wind turbine was constructed on FSU campus. A broad range of community outreach presentations have been offered to

O. A. Soysal; H. S. Soysal

2009-01-01

50

A Collaborative Model for a Sustainable Management System for Energy at Small to Medium Industrial Enterprises  

E-print Network

towards a sustainable energy management program for CCP which incorporates the Plan-Do- Check-Act continual improvement cycle. They have collaborated on this work with government, industry and other partners and are now working towards certification... improve energy efficiency at US manufacturing plants. A key initiative of the SEP is development of the Plant Energy?Efficiency Certification Program. The purpose of the Plant Certification program is to promote greater energy efficiency...

Imel, M.; Gromacki, M.; Magoon, D.

51

Policy Strategies and Paths to promote Sustainable Energy Systems- The dynamic Invert Simulation Tool  

SciTech Connect

The European Union has established a number of targetsregarding energy efficiency, Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and CO2reductions as the 'GREEN PAPER on Energy Efficiency', the Directive for'promotion of the use of bio-fuels or other renewable fuels fortransport' or 'Directive of the European Parliament of the Council on thepromotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internalenergy market'. A lot of the according RES and RUE measures are notattractive for investors from an economic point of view. Thereforegovernmentsall over the world have to spend public money to promotethese technologies/measures to bring them into market. These expenditureshave to be adjusted to budget concerns and should be spent mostefficiently. Therefore, the spent money has to be dedicated totechnologies and efficiency measures with the best yield in CO2 reductionwithout wasting money. The core question: "How can public money - forpromoting sustainable energy systems - be spent most efficiently toreduce GHG-emissions?" has been well investigated by the European projectInvert. In course of this project a simulation tool has been designed toanswer this core question. This paper describes the modelling with theInvert simulation tool and shows the key features necessary forsimulating the energy system. A definition of 'Promotion SchemeEfficiency' is given which allows estimating the most cost effectivetechnologies and/or efficiency measures to reduce CO2 emissions.Investigations performed with the Invert simulation tool deliver anoptimum portfolio mix of technologies and efficiency measures for eachselected region. Within Invert seven European regions were simulated andfor the Austrian case study the detailed portfolio mix is shown andpolitical conclusions are derived.

Stadler, Michael; Kranzl, Lukas; Huber, Claus; Haas, Reinhard; Tsioliaridou, Elena

2006-05-01

52

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project research has developed a fundamental approach. The emphasis was place on individual unit processes as an organizing framework to understand the life cycle of manufactured products. The rearrangement of unit processes provides an efficient and versatile means of understanding improved manufactured products such as wind generators. The taxonomy and structure of unit process lci were developed in this project. A series of ten unit process lci were developed to sample the major segments of the manufacturing unit process taxonomy. Technical and economic effectiveness has been a focus of the project research in Task three. The use of repeatable modules for the organization of information on environmental improvement has a long term impact. The information developed can be used and reused in a variety of manufacturing plants and for a range of wind generator sizes and designs. Such a modular approach will lower the cost of life cycle analysis, that is often asked questions of carbon footprint, environmental impact, and sustainability. The use of a website for dissemination, linked to NREL, adds to the economic benefit as more users have access to the lci information. Benefit to the public has been achieved by a well-attended WSU conference, as well as presentations for the Kansas Wind Energy Commission. Attendees represented public interests, land owners, wind farm developers, those interested in green jobs, and industry. Another benefit to the public is the start of information flow from manufacturers that can inform individuals about products.

Janet M Twomey, PhD

2010-04-30

53

Energy, environment and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an intimate connection between energy, the environment and sustainable development. A society seeking sustainable development ideally must utilize only energy resources which cause no environmental impact (e.g. which release no emissions to the environment). However, since all energy resources lead to some environmental impact, it is reasonable to suggest that some (not all) of the concerns regarding the

Ibrahim Dincer; Marc A. Rosen

1999-01-01

54

Content for Teaching Sustainable Energy Systems in Physics at Upper Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding energy with a focus on sustainable development requires further knowledge beyond traditional conceptual understanding. This paper presents the result from one main investigation and two smaller follow-up studies. The main study (step 1) consists of an interpreting, iterative analysis of statements made by experts on contents for…

Engstrom, Susanne; Gustafsson, Peter; Niedderer, Hans

2011-01-01

55

Opportunity to undertake an MSc(Eng) in Energy Optimisation A postgraduate studentship is available from the Sustainable Electrical Energy Systems  

E-print Network

of very high, variable renewable energy sources and flexible consumer demand. Stochastic and RobustOpportunity to undertake an MSc(Eng) in Energy Optimisation A postgraduate studentship is available from the Sustainable Electrical Energy Systems Strategic Research Cluster (SFI/ 09/SRC/E1780

56

Climate stabilization wedges in action: a systems approach to energy sustainability for Hawaii Island.  

PubMed

Pacala and Socolow developed a framework to stabilize global greenhouse gas levels for the next fifty years using wedges of constant size representing an increasing use of existing technologies and approaches for energy efficiency, carbon free generation, renewables, and carbon storage. The research presented here applies their approach to Hawaii Island, with modifications to support local scale analysis and employing a "bottom-up" methodology that allows for wedges of various sizes. A discretely bounded spatial unit offers a testing ground for a holistic approach to improving the energy sector with the identification of local options and limitations to the implementation of a comprehensive energy strategy. Nearly 80% of total primary energy demand across all sectors for Hawaii Island is currently met using petroleum-based fuels.The Sustainable Energy Plan scenario included here presents an internally consistent set of recommendations bounded by local constraints in areas such as transportation efficiency, centralized renewable generation (e.g., geothermal, wind), reduction in transmission losses, and improved building efficiency. This scenario shows thatthe demand for primary energy in 2030 could be reduced by 23% through efficiency measures while 46% could be met by renewable generation, resulting in only 31% of the projected demand being met by fossil fuels. In 2030, the annual releases of greenhouse gases would be 3.2 Mt CO2-eq/year under the Baseline scenario, while the Sustainable Energy Plan would reduce this to 1.2 Mt CO2-eq/year--an annual emissions rate 40% below 2006 levels and 10% below 1990 levels. The total for greenhouse gas emissions during the 24-year study period (2007 to 2030) is 59.9 Mt CO2-eq under the Baseline scenario and 32.5 Mt CO2-eq under the Sustainable Energy Plan scenario. Numerous combinations of efficiency and renewable energy options can be employed in a manner that stabilizes the greenhouse gas emissions of Hawaii Island. PMID:19452868

Johnson, Jeremiah; Chertow, Marian

2009-04-01

57

Energy Conversion Chain Analysis of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Transportation Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In general terms there are only three primary energy sources: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear fission. For fueling road transportation, there has been much speculation about the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, which would usher in the "hydrogen economy." A parallel situation would use a simple battery to store electricity…

Evans, Robert L.

2008-01-01

58

MultiComponent Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System for sustainable growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental harmonization of nuclear energy technology is considered as an absolutely necessary condition in its future successful development for peaceful use. Establishment of Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System, that simultaneously meets four requirements — energy production, fuel production, burning of radionuclides and safety, strongly relies on the neutron excess generation. Implementation of external non-fission based neutron sources into fission energy system

Masaki Saito

2002-01-01

59

Efficient and Sustainable EnergyEfficient and Sustainable Energy NIU Energy Initiative  

E-print Network

to alternative (including nuclear) and renewable energy sources (including solar,energy sources (including solar, until alternative and renewable energy infrastructure is developed and maturedinfrastructureEfficient and Sustainable EnergyEfficient and Sustainable Energy NIU Energy Initiative: Efficient

Kostic, Milivoje M.

60

SUSTAINABILITY AND COMPLEX SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The important question in sustainability is not whether the world is sustainable, but whether a humanly acceptable regime of the world is sustainable. World commission on environment and development defines sustainability as ?development that meets the needs of the present withou...

61

Energy Realpolitik: Towards a Sustainable Energy Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term strategy based on existing technological, ecological, economical, and geopolitical realities is urgently needed to develop a sustainable energy economy, which should be designed with adaptability to unpredicted changes in any of these aspects. While only a highly diverse energy portfolio and conservation can ultimately guarantee optimum sustainability, based on a comparison of current primary energy generation methods, it

W. Udo Schroeder

2008-01-01

62

Energy Realpolitik : Towards a Sustainable Energy Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term strategy based on existing technological, ecological, economical, and geopolitical realities is urgently needed to develop a sustainable energy economy, which should be designed with adaptability to unpredicted changes in any of these aspects. While only a highly diverse energy portfolio and conservation can ultimately guarantee optimum sustainability, based on a comparison of current primary energy generation methods ,

W. Udo Schröder

63

Towards Energy Sustainability: A Quest of Global Proportions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability is a critically important goal for human activity and development. Sustainability in the area of energy is of great importance to any plans for overall sustainability given 1) the pervasiveness of energy use, 2) its importance in economic development and living standards, and 3) the significant impacts that energy processes and systems have had, and continue to have, on

Marc A. Rosen

64

Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Research  

E-print Network

· Fuel cell electric Climate change, Air quality, Energy security A comprehensive energy strategy should EFFICIENCY (ICEVS 2X +) SOURCE: Heywood (2007).1 #12;CURRENT FUEL/VEHICLE PATHWAYS (ROAD VEH.) #12;FUTURE Fuel Cell) Source: IEA Energy Technology Perspectives (2012) #12;TRENDS FOR SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION

Handy, Susan L.

65

The properties of hydrogen as fuel tomorrow in sustainable energy system for a cleaner planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global energy system transition from fossil fuel to hydrogen utilization is described. Environmental benefits of the combustion of hydrogen are reported. World carbon emissions from fossil fuel are schematized in connection with the opportunities of using hydrogen. The atomic hydrogen\\/carbon ratio and chemical properties of hydrogen are described. Pollutants of the energy system in our planet and hydrogen production

Magdalena Momirlan; T. N. Veziroglu

2005-01-01

66

Energy Realpolitik: Towards a Sustainable Energy Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term strategy based on existing technological, ecological, economical,\\u000aand geopolitical realities is urgently needed to develop a sustainable energy\\u000aeconomy, which should be designed with adaptability to unpredicted changes in\\u000aany of these aspects. While only a highly diverse energy portfolio and\\u000aconservation can ultimately guarantee optimum sustainability, based on a\\u000acomparison of current primary energy generation methods, it

W. Udo Schroeder

2008-01-01

67

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY Andrew Blakers  

E-print Network

, including photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity, solar heat, wind, geothermal, bio energy, hydro, ocean includes both direct radiation and indirect forms such as biomass, wind, hydro, ocean thermal, ocean currents and waves. Most of these energy forms will be part of the energy mix when solar energy becomes

68

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

ScienceCinema

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Francesco Danuso

2010-01-08

69

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed. SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Joergensen, 1994) in which systems are modeled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Danuso, Francesco (University of Udine) [University of Udine

2008-06-18

70

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Francesco Danuso

2008-06-18

71

Center for Sustainability Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HyRES) Laboratory  

E-print Network

: MorningStar Home is powered by 100% solar energy and is off-the-grid. Surplus power used to charge is powered by a redundant hybrid system including solar and wind power, and is grid connected. Net metering of Eastern PA AccuWeather Automated Logic BP Solar Energy solutions for the Next generation · Solar powered

Lee, Dongwon

72

PETER GLASER LECTURE: SPACE AND A SUSTAINABLE 21 ST CENTURY ENERGY SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Independent of the current high oil and gas prices, that might eventually fall again, with world population increasing toward 9 billion, and living standards of large parts of the world increasing accordingly energy demand will increase rapidly, straining the entire supply chain from exploration to refining. In addition, environmental problems associated with our current fossil fuel based energy system gain

Franco Ongaro; Leopold Summerer

73

Sustainable futures using nuclear energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the role of nuclear energy in a sustainable future. This addresses the social, economic and environmental concerns of us all. Nuclear energy today avoids the emission of nearly two billion tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) each year, thanks to over 400 reactors operating worldwide.Nevertheless, there is no real recognition of real incentives for large-scale non-emitters like nuclear energy

Romney B. Duffey

2005-01-01

74

Vehicle-to-grid systems for sustainable development: An integrated energy analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) systems represent a means by which power capacity in parked vehicles can be used to generate electricity for the grid. This paper describes the first detailed and global analysis of the potential of V2G technologies over the long-term (to 2100) using a comprehensive energy-systems model. In this analysis we explore the potential for V2G systems to supply a

Hal Turton; Filipe Moura

2008-01-01

75

Assessing the Sustainability of Buildings From Energy Certificate to Sustainability Report  

E-print Network

) Department of Economics & Business Engineering Sustainable Management of Housing & Real Estate Kaiserstr. 12 76128 Karlsruhe 00 49 72 1/ 6 08 83 40 thomas.luetzkendorf@wiwi.uka.de Assessing the Sustainability of Buildings - From Energy Certificate... to Sustainability Report In its current work on the development, testing and implementation of a national system to describe, evaluate and certify sustainable buildings (DGNB ? Deutsches G?tesiegel Nachhaltiges Bauen), Germany is focussed on the current state...

Lutzkendorf, T.

2008-01-01

76

Solving the Meteorological Challenges of Creating a Sustainable Energy System (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global energy demand is projected to double from 13 TW at the start of this century to 28 TW by the middle of the century. This translates into obtaining 1000 MW (1 GW, the amount produced by an average nuclear or coal power plant) of new energy every single day for the next 40 years. The U.S. Department of Energy has conducted three feasibility studies in the last two years identifying the costs, challenges, impacts, and benefits of generating large portions of the nation’s electricity from wind and solar energy, in the new two decades. The 20% Wind by 2030 report found that the nation could meet one-fifth of its electricity demand from wind energy by 2030. The second report, the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study, considered similar costs, challenges, and benefits, but considered 20% wind energy in the Eastern Interconnect only, with a target date of 2024. The third report, the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, considered the operational impact of up to 35% penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs) and, concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group, with a target date of 2017. All three studies concluded that it is technically feasible to obtain these high penetration levels of renewable energy, but that increases in the balancing area cooperation or coordination, increased utilization of transmission and building of transmission in some cases, and improved weather forecasts are needed. Current energy systems were designed for dispatchable fuels, such as coal, natural gas and nuclear energy. Fitting weather-driven renewable energy into today's energy system is like fitting a square peg into a round hole. If society chooses to meet a significant portion of new energy demand from weather-driven renewable energy, such as wind and solar energy, a number of obstacles must be overcome. Some of these obstacles are meteorological and climatological issues that are amenable to scientific research. For variable renewable energy sources to reach high penetration levels, electric system operators and utilities need better atmo¬spheric observations, models, and forecasts. Current numerical weather prediction models have not been optimized to help the nation use renewable energy. Improved meteorological observations (e.g., wind turbine hub-height wind speeds, surface direct and diffuse solar radiation), as well as observations through a deeper layer of the atmosphere for assimilation into NWP models, are needed. Particularly urgent is the need for improved forecasts of ramp events. Longer-term predictions of renewable resources, on the seasonal to decadal scale, are also needed. Improved understanding of the variability and co-variability of wind and solar energy, as well as their correlations with large-scale climate drivers, would assist decision-makers in long-term planning. This talk with discuss the feasibility and benefits of developing enhanced weather forecasts and climate information specific to the needs of a growing renewable energy infrastructure.

Marquis, M.

2010-12-01

77

A VIABILITY ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE IMPLEMENTATION OF ENERGY PRODUCTION SYSTEMS USING BIOMASS IN CATALONIA (SPAIN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioenergy is very important for implementing the Kyoto agreement to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by replacing fossil fuels. The viability of implementing energy production systems using biomass in Catalonia (Spain) needs to be analysed due to Catalonia's particular and diverse geographical and climate characteristics. Forestry wastes are the main biomass source, although three more types of biomass have been included

N. Puy; S. Martínez; J. Bartrolí; Almera I; M. Rigola II

78

Sustainable Energy Crop Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofuels currently supply a small portion of the world’s energy needs but this is increasing due to mandates intended to reduce use of fossil fuels and the associated environmental impacts. However, the potentials of plant based feedstocks to substitute for fossil fuels and mitigate environmental im...

79

Measure it, See it, Manage it: Using Real Time Data to Benchmark,Optimize, and Sustain System Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Even after years of training and awareness building at thestate and national level, industrial cross-cutting systems (motor-driven,steam, process heating) continue to offer significant opportunities forenergy savings. The US Department of Energy estimates these remainingsavings at more than 7 percent of all industrial energy use. This paperpresents a different approach to promoting industrial system energyefficiency -- providing plant personnel with ready access to data uponwhich to base energy management decisions.In 2005, a Del Monte Foodsfruit processing plant in Modesto, California worked with LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)to specify and purchase permanentinstrumentation for monitoring their compressed air system. This work,completed as part of a demonstration project under a State TechnologiesAdvancement Collaborative (STAC) grant, was designed to demonstrate theeffectiveness of enterprise energy management (EEM), which is predicatedon the assumption that the energy efficiency of existing, cross-cuttingindustrial systems (motor-driven, steam) can be improved by providingmanagement and operating personnel with real-time data on energy use. Theinitial STAC grant provided for the installation and some initialanalyses, but did not address the larger issue of integrating these newdata into an ongoing energy management program for the compressed airsystem.The California Energy Commission (CEC) decided to support furtheranalysis to identify potential for air system optimization. Through theCEC's Energy in Agriculture Program, a compressed air system audit wasperformed by Tom Taranto to: Measure and document the system's baselineand CASE Index of present operation; Establish methods to sustain anongoing CASE Index measure of performance; Use AIRMaster+ to analyzesupply side performance as compared to the CASE Index; Identify demandside opportunities for efficiency and performance improvement; Assesssupply / demand balance and energy reduction opportunities; Evaluate thepresent air compressor control strategy and potential improvement, andCollect data to benchmark parameters for compressed air systems atsimilar facilities.This paper addresses the benefits and limitations ofboth continuous and targeted measurement in benchmarking, optimizing, andsustaining an efficient compressed air system. Included are methods usedin applying both of these measurements to a complex industrial system.Further, this paper will describe the results of these additionalanalyses and the plant response to them.

Taranto, Thomas; McKane, Aimee; Amon, Ricardo; Maulhardt, Michael

2007-07-02

80

SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY  

EPA Science Inventory

While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) namely development that "meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future," it is import...

81

Smart Shelter: A Sustainable Power System Design Using Micro-Energy Harvesting Techniques  

E-print Network

and the transmitter. Rf Energy Harvesting The history of harvesting RF energy goes back all the way to the end of the 19th century, with Nikola Tesla’s experiment with transmitting power using his magnifying transmitter; the long term goal of which was worldwide... system [2], [3]. Tesla’s final experiment involving wireless broadcasting, communications, and power transmission; but it never came to fruition due to issues with funding [4]. Wireless power was then abandoned by the world, until after World War II...

Hilton, Benjamin D

2013-09-25

82

Ecological and genetic systems underlying sustainable horticulture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agriculture in the 21st century will face unprecedented challenges due to rising energy costs, global climate change, and increasingly scarce production resources. It will become imperative for producers to adopt sustainable systems that rely on natural system processes and use inputs as efficientl...

83

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative 2009 Prof. David Cahen Scientific Director #12;Alternative and Sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI) Weizmann Institute of Science 1 thousands of strains of algae, analyzing their Alternative and Sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI

Maoz, Shahar

84

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative 2010 Prof. David Cahen Scientific Director #12;Alternative and sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI) Weizmann Institute of Science Designer Cellulosomes 28 SSC2010: Solar Student Conference 2010 30 #12;Alternative and sustainable Energy

Maoz, Shahar

85

Energy Realpolitik: Towards a Sustainable Energy Strategy  

E-print Network

A long-term strategy based on existing technological, ecological, economical, and geopolitical realities is urgently needed to develop a sustainable energy economy, which should be designed with adaptability to unpredicted changes in any of these aspects. While only a highly diverse energy portfolio and conservation can ultimately guarantee optimum sustainability, based on a comparison of current primary energy generation methods, it is argued that future energy strategy has to rely heavily on expanded coal and nuclear energy sectors. A comparison of relative potentials, merits and risks associated with fossil-fuel, renewable, and nuclear technologies suggests that the balance of technologies should be shifted in favor of new-generation, safe nuclear methods to produce electricity, while clean-coal plants should be assigned to transportation fuel. Novel nuclear technologies exploit fission of uranium and thorium as primary energy sources with fast-spectrum and transmutation (burner) reactors. A closed fuel cy...

Schroeder, W Udo

2008-01-01

86

Efficient and Sustainable Energy: Ecology and Energy Challenges Energy Efficient and Sustainable Buildings M. Kostic  

E-print Network

initiatives. Proposal Rational: We are in 'energy transition era' from fossil fuels to alternative (including viable option in initial and mid-range period, until alternative and renewable energy infrastructureEfficient and Sustainable Energy: Ecology and Energy Challenges Energy Efficient and Sustainable

Kostic, Milivoje M.

87

ONLINE LEARNING Managing energy for a sustainable future  

E-print Network

performance green buildings; alternative energy systems; boilers and fired systems; cogenera- tion and HVAC systems, natural gas purchasing, opportunities in the spot market, thermal energy storage, alternativeONLINE LEARNING Managing energy for a sustainable future The Energy Resource Management Certificate

California at Davis, University of

88

Sustainable roofs with real energy savings  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

1996-12-31

89

Nuclear Power Trends Energy Economics and Sustainability  

E-print Network

Nuclear Power Trends Energy Economics and Sustainability L. H. Tsoukalas Purdue University Nuclear;National Research Council of Greece, May 8, 2008 Outline · The Problem · Nuclear Energy Trends · Energy Economics · Life Cycle Analysis · Nuclear Sustainability · Nuclear Energy in Greece? #12;National Research

90

structure. Integrating sustainable energy sys-tems into the infrastructure would allow rapid  

E-print Network

N T Hybrid Cars Now, Fuel Cell Cars L of electrical energy, reduce environmental emissions, and provide a transportation fuel. This goal is clearly from the electricity. 16. These figures are from the Energy Information Ad- ministration, available

Deutch, John

91

Sustainable development of rural energy and its appraising system in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local biomass resources have been used in rural China for quite a long time, which has a close connection with and will inevitably affect the environment. In recent years, China has experienced rapid economic growth and equally rapid increases in energy use, especially commercial energy, in rural areas. As a result, energy induced environmental degradation has also increased in

Wang Xiaohua; Feng Zhenmin

2002-01-01

92

Deriving efficient policy portfolios promoting sustainable energy systems—Case studies applying Invert simulation tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within recent years, energy policies have imposed a number of targets at European and national level for rational use of energy (RUE), renewable energy sources (RES) and related CO2 reductions. As a result, a wide variety of policy instruments is currently implemented and hence the question arises: how can these instruments be designed in a way to reach the maximum

Lukas Kranzl; Michael Stadler; Claus Huber; Reinhard Haas; Mario Ragwitz; Anselm Brakhage; Adam Gula; Arkadiusz Figorski

2006-01-01

93

The Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) Model for Energy Service Delivery  

E-print Network

to finance, market, and deliver sustainable energy services to energy end-users. This study outlines the concept of a new third-party administrative model, a sustainable energy utility (SEU), with the potential95 The Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) Model for Energy Service Delivery Jason Houck San Francisco

Delaware, University of

94

First Western Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability  

E-print Network

First Western Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability University of California, Santa Barbara John R/Business Support for Comprehensive Energy/Water Program Objective: Support development of water sustainability ­ boils down to economics. Water drives technology and price of energy." "Looking to move to dry or hybrid

Keller, Arturo A.

95

Sustainable Energy Education and Training (SEET)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sustainable Energy Education and Training (SEET) Project is being developed by the Advanced Technology Environmental Education Center (ATEEC) and partners to help build the capacity of energy and environmental technicians to meet the challenges of energy sustainability in the 21st century workplace. The SEET project is providing professional development training for 50 upper level high school and community college technology instructors. Training focuses on the areas of sustainable energy and energy efficiency, delivered through two ten-day intensive annual workshops at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and continued through online networking activities. Om this site, visitors will find information about the workshops, the topics they cover, the program's partner institutions, and sustainable energy education instructional materials, which are available from ATEEC's Sustainable Energy resource clearinghouse for free.

96

Achieving Sustainability, Energy Savings, and Occupant Comfort  

E-print Network

the ability of future generations to do the same. Reducing the demand for energy produced from depletable resources and generating energy from renewable sources leaves more resources available for future use. Therefore, energy savings and sustainability go...

Fisher, D.; Bristow, G.

97

Integrated Renewable Energy and Campus Sustainability Initiative  

SciTech Connect

Renewable energy, energy conservation, and other sustainability initiatives have long been a central focus of Luther College. The DOE funded Integrated Renewable Energy and Campus Sustainability Initiative project has helped accelerate the College’s progress toward carbon neutrality. DOE funds, in conjunction with institutional matching funds, were used to fund energy conservation projects, a renewable energy project, and an energy and waste education program aimed at all campus constituents. The energy and waste education program provides Luther students with ideas about sustainability and conservation guidelines that they carry with them into their future communities.

Uthoff, Jay; Jensen, Jon; Bailey, Andrew

2013-09-25

98

Sustainability. Systems integration for global sustainability.  

E-print Network

Global water crisis and future food security in an era ofhealth-water nexus, and energy-national security nexus.water scarcity and puts forth actionable strategies for mitigation (16). Coupling global energy security

2015-01-01

99

Steps towards the development of a certification system for sustainable bio-energy trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is expected that international biomass trade will significantly increase in the coming years because of the possibly lower costs of imported biomass, the better supply security through diversification and the support by energy and climate policies of various countries. Concerns about potential negative effects of large-scale biomass production and export, like deforestation or the competition between food and biomass

I. M. Lewandowski

2006-01-01

100

Solar Cooling Using Variable Geometry Ejectors Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems  

E-print Network

then produced a moderate vacuum. It was a natural progression for steam based ejectors to be used to draw vapour. Dennis 2 greenhouse gas emissions associated with electrically driven cooling have led researchers The ejector is a thermally driven compressor. In a heat pump system, the ejector takes the place

101

Second Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability: Increasing Resource Productivity  

E-print Network

Second Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability: Increasing Resource Productivity April 10, 2009 on Energy & Water Sustainability in 2007 successfully brought together policy-makers, researchers, energy of energy and water sustainability, considering the important linkages between these two resources

Keller, Arturo A.

102

A sustained-arc ignition system for internal combustion engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sustained-arc ignition system was developed for internal combustion engines. It produces a very-long-duration ignition pulse with an energy in the order of 100 millijoules. The ignition pulse waveform can be controlled to predetermined actual ignition requirements. The design of the sustained-arc ignition system is presented in the report.

Birchenough, A. G.

1977-01-01

103

Strategic Partnership for Sustainable Energy Innovation  

E-print Network

: Sustainable energy solutions independent of nuclear energy Highly qualified innovators that will be global eCANDO is ready to start operations beginning 2010. eCANDO has identified a "starting grid" of lead

104

Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage.  

PubMed

Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed. PMID:25515886

Larcher, D; Tarascon, J-M

2015-01-01

105

Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed.

Larcher, D.; Tarascon, J.-M.

2015-01-01

106

Territory and energy sustainability: the challenge of renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of energy production is assuming an ever more pivotal role in the most recent international debate on sustainable development. In particular, the development of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is seen as a great opportunity to achieve sustainability objectives and targets. This consideration reinforces the great debate on the active role of the local dimension in achieving sustainability objectives.

Marco Bagliani; Egidio Dansero; Matteo Puttilli

2010-01-01

107

Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must

Henrik Lund

2007-01-01

108

Sustainable infrastructure system modeling under uncertainties and dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrastructure systems support human activities in transportation, communication, water use, and energy supply. The dissertation research focuses on critical transportation infrastructure and renewable energy infrastructure systems. The goal of the research efforts is to improve the sustainability of the infrastructure systems, with an emphasis on economic viability, system reliability and robustness, and environmental impacts. The research efforts in critical transportation

Yongxi Huang

2010-01-01

109

TOWARD A THEORY OF SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

While there is tremendous interest in sustainability, a fundamental theory of sustainability does not exist. We present our efforts at constructing such a theory using Physics, Information Theory, Economics and Ecology. We discuss the state of complex sustainable systems that i...

110

The coming sustainable energy transition: History, strategies, and outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facing global climate change and scarce petroleum supplies, the world must switch to sustainable energy systems. While historical transitions between major energy sources have occurred, most of these shifts lasted over a century or longer and were stimulated by resource scarcity, high labor costs, and technological innovations. The energy transition of the 21st century will need to be more rapid.

Barry D. Solomon; Karthik Krishna

2011-01-01

111

Energy Sustainability and the Green Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of campus energy sustainability, explaining that both demand- and supply-side strategies are required. Suggests that on the demand side, an aggressive campus energy conservation program can reduce campus energy consumption by 30 percent or more. Asserts that addressing the supply side of the energy equation means shifting…

Simpson, Walter

2003-01-01

112

Progress on linking gender and sustainable energy  

SciTech Connect

The field of gender and energy has been identified as critical in global sustainable energy development and is increasingly important to decision makers. The theme of women and energy was of significance at the 1998 World Renewable Energy Congress in Florence, Italy. This paper traces further developments in this field by summarizing selected programmatic initiatives, meetings, and publications over the past 18 months.

Farhar, B.

2000-04-05

113

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National ...........................................................................................................................................3 3 Planning and Operating the Transmission System

114

Energy storage — a key technology for global energy sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of life today is dependent upon access to a bountiful supply of cheap energy. For a sustainable future, the energy should be derived from non-fossil sources; ideally, it should also be reliable and safe, flexible in use, affordable, and limitless. This paper examines the present global use of energy in its various forms, and considers projections for the year 2020 with particular attention to the harnessing of 'clean' and renewable forms of energy for electricity generation and road transportation. The incorporation of renewables is constrained in many instances by the variable and intermittent nature of their output. This calls for the practical application of energy-storage systems. An evaluation is made of the prospects of the candidate storage technologies — pumped-hydro, flywheels, hydrogen (for use in fuel cells), batteries — for application in centralized and distributed electricity supplies, and in electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The discussion concludes with the developments foreseen over the next 20 years.

Dell, R. M.; Rand, D. A. J.

115

Threshold Concepts, Systems and Learning for Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework for understanding the role that systems theory might play in education for sustainability (EfS). It offers a sketch and critique of Land and Meyer's notion of a "threshold concept", to argue that seeing systems as a threshold concept for sustainability is useful for understanding the processes of…

Sandri, Orana Jade

2013-01-01

116

Towards sustainable-energy buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption in the residential and tertiary sectors is especially high in developed countries. There is a great potential for energy savings in these sectors. Energy conservation measures are developed for newly constructed buildings and for buildings under refurbishment. However, to achieve a significant reduction in energy consumption apart from the standard energy-efficiency methods, innovative technologies should be implemented, including

Dorota Chwieduk

2003-01-01

117

Wisconsin Agricultural and Food Systems Network: Dairy Systems Sustainability Metrics  

E-print Network

Wisconsin Agricultural and Food Systems Network: Dairy Systems Sustainability Metrics Request for proposals We are pleased to announce a request for proposals that evaluate sustainability practices of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection (DATCP), Wisconsin Cheese Makers Association, Wisconsin Milk

Bohnhoff, David

118

Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Mission-Systems Architecture (MSA), based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering.

Graham O'Neil; James K. Orr

2005-01-01

119

Sustainable biomass production for energy in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims to estimate the land availability for biomass production, identify and evaluate the biomass production options by yieldha?1 and financial viability, estimate the sustainable biomass production for energy, and estimate the energy potential of biomass production. Two scenarios are considered to estimate the land availability for biomass production by 2010, namely Scenario 1 (S1) and Scenario 2 (S2).

Li Junfeng; Hu Runqing

2003-01-01

120

Renewable energy and sustainable development in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving solutions to environmental problems that we face today requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions. So clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life for Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use

Kamil Kaygusuz; Abdullah Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

121

Introduction to Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this course model on renewable and sustainable technology. The course emphasizes energy consumption, efficiency, and conservation. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Kox, Amy L.

122

Approaches to Sustainable Energy Consumption Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsustainable consumption mostly refers to energy resources and materials’ utilization, fostered by human activity. Therefore,\\u000a energy consumption represents a major challenge when approaching sustainable development issues. Despite many environmental\\u000a strategies relying on improvements in energy and material efficiency, the World’s energy demand is likely to increase in line\\u000a with its population. In addition, cultural patterns of human activities are closely

Damjan Krajnc; Rebeka Lukman; Peter Glavic

123

Advanced Decentralized Water/Energy Network Design for Sustainable Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to provide a water infrastructure that is more sustainable into and beyond the 21st century, drinking water distribution systems and wastewater collection systems must account for our diminishing water supply, increasing demands, climate change, energy cost and availabil...

124

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY UTILITY DESIGN: OPTIONS  

E-print Network

........................................................................................12 2.3 Vermont ­ A Third Party-led Model ..................................................................25 3.4.3 Green Energy Fund

Delaware, University of

125

ENERGY TECHNOLOGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

Boyle Published : OXFORD 2004 2. Renewable Energy : Its physics, engineering, environmental impacts be energetic and kinetic (able to perform a desired chemical transformation, for instance splitting water joules = energy of the Sun supplied to Earth in 1.5 days The amount of energy humans use annually: 4.6 x

Chen, Yang-Yuan

126

Briggs & Stratton Sustainable Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

manufacture are Made in the USA of US and global parts ESL-IE-13-05-22 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 3 Engine Power Products Power Products ProductsESL-IE-13-05-22 Proceedings... Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 11 The Best Renewable Energy ? Briggs & Stratton has saved $3,735,574 through energy efficiency --- ENERGY EFFICIENCY --- ? Upgrade to energy efficient lighting ? Fix compressed air & steam leaks ? Use LEDs for exit...

Feustel, R.

2013-01-01

127

Magnetic Materials in sustainable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new energy paradigm, consisting of greater reliance on renewable energy sources and increased concern for energy efficiency in the total energy lifecycle, has accelerated research in energy-related technologies. Due to their ubiquity, magnetic materials play an important role in improving the efficiency and performance of devices in electric power generation, conversion and transportation. Magnetic materials are essential components of energy applications (i.e. motors, generators, transformers, actuators, etc.) and improvements in magnetic materials will have significant impact in this area, on par with many ``hot'' energy materials efforts. The talk focuses on the state-of-the-art hard and soft magnets and magnetocaloric materials with an emphasis on their optimization for energy applications. Specifically, the impact of hard magnets on electric motor and transportation technologies, of soft magnetic materials on electricity generation and conversion technologies, and of magnetocaloric materials for refrigeration technologies, will be discussed. The synthesis, characterization, and property evaluation of the materials, with an emphasis on structure-property relationships, will be examined in the context of their respective markets as well as their potential impact on energy efficiency. Finally, considering future bottle-necks in raw materials and in the supply chain, options for recycling of rare-earth metals will be analyzed.ootnotetextO. Gutfleisch, J.P. Liu, M. Willard, E. Bruck, C. Chen, S.G. Shankar, Magnetic Materials and Devices for the 21st Century: Stronger, Lighter, and More Energy Efficient (review), Adv. Mat. 23 (2011) 821-842.

Gutfleisch, Oliver

2012-02-01

128

CREST: Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology, a 501(c)(3) organization in Washington, DC, announces Solstice, a file server with state-of-the-art information on renewable energy, energy efficiency, the environment, and sustainable community development.

129

Driving Water and Wastewater Utilities to More Sustainable Energy Management  

E-print Network

of the future. While it is not practical for all wastewater treatment plants to become energy positive or neutral, all can take steps towards increasing energy sustainability. Financial viability for energy management sustainability is crucial for success...

Ferrel, L.; Liner, B.

2013-01-01

130

ECE 465: Realistic Sustainable Energy -Energy use in transportation,  

E-print Network

. - Energy Transport costs for both freight and people. Hybrid Electric truck, bus and car issues - EnergyECE 465: Realistic Sustainable Energy - Energy use in transportation, HVAC and electric generation is detailed in units of kW-Hr - Alternative Energy sources for fuels and electric generation are covered

Schumacher, Russ

131

Sustainable bioreactor systems for producing hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of Hawaii`s BioHydrogen Program is to generate hydrogen from water using solar energy and microalgae under sustainable conditions. Specific bioprocess engineering objectives include the design, construction, testing and validation of a sustainable photobioreactor system. Specific objectives relating to biology include investigating and optimizing key physiological parameters of cyanobacteria of the genus Arthrospira (Spirulina), the organism selected for initial process development. Another objective is to disseminate the Mitsui-Miami cyanobacteria cultures, now part of the Hawaii Culture Collection (HCC), to other research groups. The approach is to use a single organisms for producing hydrogen gas from water. Key stages are the growth of the biomass, the dark induction of hydrogenase, and the subsequent generation of hydrogen in the light. The biomass production stage involves producing dense cultures of filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria and optimizing biomass productivity in innovative tubular photobioreactors. The hydrogen generation stages entail inducing the enzymes and metabolic pathways that enable both dark and light-driven hydrogen production. The focus of Year 1 has been on the construction and operation of the outdoor photobioreactor for the production of high-density mass cultures of Arthrospira. The strains in the Mitsui-Miami collection have been organized and distributed to other researchers who are beginning to report interesting results. The project is part of the International Energy Agency`s biohydrogen program.

Zaborsky, O.R.; Radway, J.C.; Yoza, B.A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Molecular Biology; Tredici, M.R. [Univ. of Florence (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiogiche

1998-08-01

132

Energy, environment and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of the total world annual energy consumption. Most of this energy is for the provision of lighting, heating, cooling, and air conditioning. Increasing awareness of the environmental impact of CO2 and NOx emissions and CFCs triggered a renewed interest in environmentally friendly cooling, and heating technologies. Under the 1997 Montreal Protocol, governments agreed

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

2008-01-01

133

Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Research  

E-print Network

· Battery electric · Fuel cell electric Climate change, Air quality, Energy security A comprehensive energy Oil supply security Climate Change · Search for solutions by policymakers, industry Innovative) · Water, land, materials constraints #12;FUEL SECTOR IS IMPORTANT · Direct combustion of fuels

Handy, Susan L.

134

Energy Solutions for Sustainable Development  

E-print Network

11 ­ Low Level CO2 Strategies for Developing Countries 258 Session 12 ­ Carbon Capture and Storage to achieve low-level stabilization at, for example, 500 ppm CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere · Local energy technologies such as clean coal technologies · Providing renewable energy for the transport sector

135

Planning for Sustainable Urban Development Using Alternative Energy Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of sustainable development has recently generated significant attention within urban governments. What is sustainable development? What aspects of “sustainable development” agendas have implications for urban areas and for planning? Can energy conservation and energy efficiency be tools to implement sustainable activities in urban areas? By what means might they be achieved? There is an active debate concerning the

Stephen A. Roosa

2004-01-01

136

Recent Advances in AI for Computational Sustainability AI and Sustainability Department, IEEE Intelligent Systems  

E-print Network

Recent Advances in AI for Computational Sustainability AI and Sustainability., "Computing and AI for a Sustainable Future," IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 27, no. 4, July/Aug 2012. Though research at the intersection of AI

Fisher, Douglas H.

137

Guidelines for Energy-Efficient Sustainable Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These guidelines present optional strategies to be considered in designing schools to be more energy efficient and sustainable. The guidelines are organized by the following design and construction process: site selection; selection of A & E design team; programming and goal setting; schematic design; design development; construction documents;…

Nicklas, Michael; Bailey, Gary; Rosemain, Pascale; Olin, Samuel

138

First Western Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability  

E-print Network

Provide Service Which Meets Our Customers' Expectations Maximize Use of Renewable Water Supplies AchieveFirst Western Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability March 22, 2007 WATER PLAN: 2000-2050 CITY Reclaimed Wastewater The Need to Shift to Renewable Water Supplies #12;A B C D C Outcomes A B C D One

Keller, Arturo A.

139

SEMS: System for Environmental Monitoring and Sustainability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to establish a computational and data management system, SEMS, building on our existing system and MTPE-related research. We proposed that the new system would help support Washington University's efforts in environmental sustainability through use in: (a) Problem-based environmental curriculum for freshmen and sophomores funded by the Hewlett Foundation that integrates scientific, cultural, and policy perspectives to understand the dynamics of wetland degradation, deforestation, and desertification and that will develop policies for sustainable environments and economies; (b) Higher-level undergraduate and graduate courses focused on monitoring the environment and developing policies that will lead to sustainable environmental and economic conditions; and (c) Interdisciplinary research focused on the dynamics of the Missouri River system and development of policies that lead to sustainable environmental and economic floodplain conditions.

Arvidson, Raymond E.

1998-01-01

140

Sustainable Urban Water Service Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consistent with the principle of 'living within our means', we propose two maxims for time- dependent actions to move toward sustainability. Our first maxim, 'Picking the low hanging fruit', is an essential step, likely to produce results in the short term, and deliver marginal changes in how water is used. In terms of planning for the future, it is most

Cynthia Mitchell; Stuart White

2003-01-01

141

China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency  

SciTech Connect

China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various industries, and developing a multi-year program for standards and for optimizing the industrial motor systems in China. Past work has included a comprehensive study of China's oil refining sector. Cross-Cutting--analysis and research focused on multisector, policy, and long-term development issues. Current cross-cutting policy and analysis research includes work on government procurement programs; energy service companies; a national energy policy assessment including the National Energy Strategy released by the government in early 2005; energy efficiency policy; an analysis of past trends in energy consumption in China as well as of future scenarios; and our China Energy Databook accompanied by chapter summaries and analysis of recent trends.

Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

2006-03-20

142

Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable md sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (8) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, end verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered systems are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are made to refine model details.

O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

2005-01-01

143

Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

2007-01-01

144

The Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) Model for Energy Service Delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change, energy price spikes, and concerns about energy security have reignited interest in state and local efforts to promote end-use energy efficiency, customer-sited renewable energy, and energy conservation. Government agencies and utilities have historically designed and administered such demand-side measures, but innovative third-party administrative models present new options to finance, market, and deliver sustainable energy services to energy end-users.

Jason Houck; Wilson Rickerson

2009-01-01

145

DELAWARE TECHNICAL & COMMUNITY COLLEGE Sustainable Energy Management Plan  

E-print Network

DELAWARE TECHNICAL & COMMUNITY COLLEGE Sustainable Energy Management Plan Office of the President science, economics, sociology, geography, philosophy, urban planning, environmental studies, history and collaborative research and supports graduate instruction in energy, environmental, and sustainable development

Delaware, University of

146

Energy technology progress for sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

Energy security is a fundamental part of a country`s national security. Access to affordable, environmentally sustainable energy is a stabilizing force and is in the world community`s best interest. The current global energy situation however is not sustainable and has many complicating factors. The primary goal for government energy policy should be to provide stability and predictability to the market. This paper differentiates between short-term and long-term issues and argues that although the options for addressing the short-term issues are limited, there is an opportunity to alter the course of long-term energy stability and predictability through research and technology development. While reliance on foreign oil in the short term can be consistent with short-term energy security goals, there are sufficient long-term issues associated with fossil fuel use, in particular, as to require a long-term role for the federal government in funding research. The longer term issues fall into three categories. First, oil resources are finite and there is increasing world dependence on a limited number of suppliers. Second, the world demographics are changing dramatically and the emerging industrialized nations will have greater supply needs. Third, increasing attention to the environmental impacts of energy production and use will limit supply options. In addition to this global view, some of the changes occurring in the US domestic energy picture have implications that will encourage energy efficiency and new technology development. The paper concludes that technological innovation has provided a great benefit in the past and can continue to do so in the future if it is both channels toward a sustainable energy future and if it is committed to, and invested in, as a deliberate long-term policy option.

Arvizu, D.E.; Drennen, T.E.

1997-03-01

147

Modelling Sustainable Development Scenarios of Croatian Power System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of power system sustainable development is to provide the security of electricity supply required to underpin economic growth and increase the quality of living while minimizing adverse environmental impacts. New challenges such as deregulation, liberalization of energy markets, increased competition on energy markets, growing demands on security of supply, price insecurities and demand to cut CO2 emissions, are calling for better understanding of electrical systems modelling. Existing models are not sufficient anymore and planners will need to think differently in order to face these challenges. Such a model, on the basis on performed simulations, should enable planner to distinguish between different options and to analyze sustainability of these options. PLEXOS is an electricity market simulation model, used for modeling electrical system in Croatia since 2005. Within this paper, generation expansion scenarios until 2020 developed for Croatian Energy Strategy and modeled in PLEXOS. Development of sustainable Croatian energy scenario was analyzed in the paper - impacts of CO2 emission price and wind generation. Energy Strategy sets goal for 1200 MW from wind power plants in 2020. In order to fully understand its impacts, intermittent nature of electricity generation from wind power plant was modeled. We conclude that electrical system modelling using everyday growing models has proved to be inevitable for sustainable electrical system planning in complex environment in which power plants operate today.

Paši?ko, Robert; Stani?, Zoran; Debrecin, Nenad

2010-05-01

148

Work in progress - an innovative sustainable energy engineering graduate curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable energy engineering is an important emerging area. A survey of sustainable energy engineering curricula shows a number of programs in Europe and Australia, but very few in the United States. We have started to offer a new sustainable energy certificate program in the College of Engineering at Villanova University and are in the process of developing this into a

P. Singh; R. Suri; A. Ortega; B. Lorenz

2008-01-01

149

Energy/Water Sustainability and the Electric Power  

E-print Network

Energy/Water Sustainability and the Electric Power Industry Robert Goldstein, Kent Zammit, Chuck McGowin and Eladio Knipping (rogoldst@epri.com) Second Forum on Energy and Water Sustainability Santa Barbara, CA- related · Energy/water sustainability is a real and high priority issue for United States #12;4© 2009

Keller, Arturo A.

150

Energy in the Developing World Physics of Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

to 2025 · All to be provided with housing, energy, water, transportaPon, and other energy services Rural populaPon Urban populaPon #12;Phases of LBNLEnergy in the Developing World Physics of Sustainable Energy 2011 ­ UC

Kammen, Daniel M.

151

Energy for sustainable development in developing countries  

SciTech Connect

Energy is required both for industrial development and sustenance of technology. Petroleum oil is the main source of energy for several applications including power production and transportation because of its cheapness and availability. However, since the unprecedented hike in the price of oil in the 70`s, the supply of cheap oil could no longer be guaranteed. Increases in the cost of oil affected the developing countries, especially the non-oil producing ones. Consequently, this paper presents a critical survey of energy options that have benign effects on the environment and which can guarantee sustainable development in the developing countries. The fiction of renewable energy resources is of particular interest, and is thus, given prominence in this investigation. The importance of research, documentation and development in applied energy is highlighted.

Oladiran, M.T. [Univ. of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31

152

Low-cost sustainable wall construction system  

SciTech Connect

Houses with no wall cavities, such as those made of adobe, stone, brick, or block, have poor thermal properties but are rarely insulated because of the cost and difficulty of providing wall insulation. A simple, low-cost technique using loose-fill indigenous materials has been demonstrated for the construction of highly insulated walls or the retrofit of existing walls in such buildings. Locally available pumice, in sandbags stacked along the exterior wall of an adobe house in New Mexico, added a thermal resistance (R) of 16 F{sm{underscore}bullet}ft{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}h/Btu (2.8 m{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}K/W). The total cost of the sandbag insulation wall retrofit was $3.76 per square foot ($40.50/m{sup 2}). Computer simulations of the adobe house using DOE 2.1E show savings of $275 per year, corresponding to 50% reduction in heating energy consumption. The savings-to-investment ratio ranges from 1.1 to 3.2, so the cost of conserved energy is lower than the price of propane, natural gas and electric heat, making the system cost-effective. Prototype stand-alone walls were also constructed using fly ash and sawdust blown into continuous polypropylene tubing, which was folded between corner posts as it was filled to form the shape of the wall. Other materials could also be used. The inexpensive technique solves the problem of insulating solid-wall hours and constructing new houses without specialized equipment and skills, thereby saving energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving comfort for people in many countries. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has filed patent applications on this technology, which is part of a DOE initiative on sustainable building envelope materials and systems.

Vohra, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

1998-07-01

153

Sustaining Operational Efficiency of a CHP System  

SciTech Connect

This chapter provides background information on why sustaining operations of combined cooling, heating and power systems is important, provides the algorithms for CHP system performance monitoring and commissioning verification, and concludes with a discussion on how these algorithms can be deployed.

Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.

2010-01-04

154

The Center for Agroecology & Sustainable Food Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Center for Agroecology & Sustainable Food Systems at the University of California, Santa Cruz is "to research, develop and advance sustainable food and agricultural systems that are environmentally sound, economically viable, socially responsible, nonexploitative, and that serve as a foundation for future generations." First-time visitors to the site may wish to start by reading through their newsletter, "The Cultivar", and then proceeding to their "Research" area where they can learn more about their ongoing investigations into the sociology of sustainable food systems and the agroecology of farm landscapes. Most visitors will want to look at the "Publications" area as well. Here they can learn more about organic gardening through primers that cover garlic, apple trees, peas, and more. Additionally, this section of the site also has factsheets on building fertile soil, making compost, and non-chemical snail and slug control.

155

SUSTAINABLE BIOFUEL SYSTEMS FOR UNDEVELOPED REGIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

We evaluated our findings based on the level of integration of sustainable methods, feasibility of implementation within the target community, and the quantity of energy produced in relation to community needs. Particular emphasis was placed on development of a production meth...

156

Energy Security: A Key Requirement forSustainable Development  

E-print Network

1 Energy Security: A Key Requirement forSustainable Development Perspective and Action Plan Robert Card Under Secretary US Department of Energy August 30, 2002 Session One: Maintaining Energy Security WSSD Side Event Energy for Sustainable Development IEA/UNEP/Eskom #12;2 Energy Security is a Key

157

RISNEWS JUNE 2007 NO Energy, climate and sustainable development in  

E-print Network

....................................................................10 Web tools from UNEP Risø Centre help developing countries gain access to Carbon FinanceRISØNEWSNO 12007PAGE1 RISØNEWS JUNE 2007 NO 1 Energy, climate and sustainable development in the global fight for sustainable development

158

Pathways to a more sustainable production of energy: sustainable hydrogen—a research objective for Shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Towards a sustainable energy supply is a clear direction for exploratory research in Shell. Examples of energy carriers, which should be delivered to the envisaged sustainable energy markets, are bio-fuels, produced from biomass residues, and hydrogen (or electricity), produced from renewable sources. In contrast to the readily available ancient sunlight stored in fossil fuels, the harvesting of incident sunlight will

J. W. Gosselink

2002-01-01

159

Multilateral Assessment of the Fast Reactor System as a Component of the Future Sustainable Nuclear Energy and Paths for the System Deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews main findings of the Joint Assessment Study on a Nuclear Energy System (NES) based on a Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle with Fast Reactors (CNFC-FRs) that was performed within the IAEA project INPRO.

Baldev RAJ; Alfredo VASILE; Vladimir KAGRAMANIAN; Mi XU; Ryodai NAKAI; Young-In KIM; Vladimir USANOV; Alexander STANCULESCU

2011-01-01

160

Designing Systems for Environmental Sustainability  

EPA Science Inventory

Dr. Smith will describe his U.S. EPA research which involves elements of design, from systems as diverse as biofuel supply chains to recycling systems and chemical processes. Design uses models that rate performance as part of a synthesis approach, where steps of analysis and sy...

161

Montana State University 1 Sustainable Food Systems  

E-print Network

Thought/Mgmt 4 PSCI 436 Politics of Food & Hunger 3 SFBS 346 SFBS Field Course 2 #12;Montana State University 1 Sustainable Food Systems Option Health and Human Development Algebra 3 SFBS 146 - Intro Sust Food/Bioenergy Sys 3 Choose one of the following: 3 SFBS 296 - Practicum

Maxwell, Bruce D.

162

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH (SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Systems Analysis Branch (SAB)is organized under the Sustainable Technology Division of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory. The mission of SAB is to develop and demonstrate cost-effective decision making tools for use by the private and public sectors. Such tools...

163

Identifying Constraints to Potato Cropping System Sustainability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato yield in the Northeast U.S. has remained constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. Consequently, a key question is: What is limiting potato system sustainability? We established Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressiv...

164

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. NATIONAL WIND TECHNOLOGY CENTER of megawatt-scale renewable energy systems. NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) in Golden available in field testing. The renewable energy industry now has a platform on which to ensure

165

An Emergy Systems View of Sustainability: Emergy Evaluation of the San Luis Basin, Colorado  

EPA Science Inventory

Energy Systems Theory (EST) was used to provide a context for understanding and interpreting sustainability. We propose that ?what is sustainable? for a system at any given level of organization is determined by the cycles of change originating in the next larger system. Furtherm...

166

Waste-to-energy: A way from renewable energy sources to sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, energy is key consideration in discussions of sustainable development. So, sustainable development requires a sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy sources that do not cause negative societal impacts. Energy sources such as solar radiation, the winds, waves and tides are generally considered renewable and, therefore, sustainable over the relatively long term. Wastes and biomass fuels are usually

Richa Kothari; V. V. Tyagi; Ashish Pathak

2010-01-01

167

Introduction to Lean: Sustainable Quality Systems Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an abstract of the following book- access may be gained via a free login. This book presents the notion that sustainable quality systems theory is a function of five integrated prerequisite leadership skills.: 1. Dr. Walter A. Shewhart's theory of sustainable quality articulated in his three-step inquiry learning process; probability science is vital in each step. 2. Dr. W. Edwards Deming's systems theory and his Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycle for accumulating infinitesimal units of knowledge. 3. Kiichiro Toyoda's concepts of Just In Time are essential prerequisites. 4. Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa's Quality Control Circle curriculum provides an education development plan for shop floor teams. 5. Dr. W. Edwards Deming's System of Profound Knowledge Theory.

Hall, Arlie

168

Sustainable decision making: the role of decision support systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable decision making stands for decision making which contributes to the transition to a sustainable society. It raises a number of challenging problems for which existing decision support systems (DSS) may not be equipped. The role of DSS in sustainable decision making is considered. The different models of decision making and their appropriateness in sustainable decision making are discussed. Examples

Marion A. Hersh

1999-01-01

169

REVIEW ARTICLE Transforum system innovation towards sustainable food.  

E-print Network

and approaches is likely to provide the best way forward. Keywords Sustainable agriculture . InnovationREVIEW ARTICLE Transforum system innovation towards sustainable food. A review Arnout R. H. Fischer in the agri-food sector are needed to create a sustainable food supply. Sustainable food supply requires

Boyer, Edmond

170

FISHER INFORMATION AS A METRIC FOR SUSTAINABLE SYSTEM REGIMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The important question in sustainability is not whether the world is sustainable, but whether a humanly acceptable regime of the world is sustainable. We propose Fisher Information as a metric for the sustainability of dynamic regimes in complex systems. The quantity now known ...

171

Physics of Sustainable Energy --California State Policy  

E-print Network

in California California Solar Initiative (CSI) (Million Solar Roofs) CSI-Thermal ­ solar hot water systems Self-Generation Incentive Program (wind, fuel cells, storage systems New Solar Homes Programs Solar Roofs 1% Renewables 13% Cap and Trade 20% Energy 29% Transportation 33% Energy Efficiency 15

Kammen, Daniel M.

172

Engaging Reluctant Americans into Energy Efficiency and Sustainability  

E-print Network

Gain a sustainable advantage CATEE December 18, 2012 But I don’t want to! Engaging reluctant Americans (almost all of them) into energy efficiency and sustainability ESL-KT-13-12-58 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San... Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Gain a sustainable advantage ESL-KT-13-12-58 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Gain a sustainable advantage ESL-KT-13-12-58 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

Shelton, S.

2013-01-01

173

Renewable energy and sustainable development: a crucial review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving solutions to environmental problems that we face today requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions. That is why there is an intimate connection between renewable energy and sustainable development. Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impacts (focussing on

Ibrahim Dincer

2000-01-01

174

Sustainable energy development (May 2011) with some game-changers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the opening talk that briefly surveys the present (May 2011) situation in sustainable energy development. Recent estimates and forecasts of the oil, gas, coal resources and their reserve\\/production ratio, nuclear and renewable energy potential, and energy uses are surveyed. A brief discussion of the status, sustainability (economic, environmental and social impact), and prospects of fossil, nuclear and

Noam Lior

175

Climate Change, Sustainable Energy, and Caron Finance: The Kyoto Bond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kyoto Protocol requires a 5.2% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from developed countries. This is an important starting point both to prevent climate change and to start to implement new Sustainable Energy policy for a Sustainable Economy. At the local level (from regions to cities) lower cost\\/risk energy portfolios can be developed by adjusting the conventional mix of energy

Aldo Iacomellia; Emanuele Piccinno; Daniele Villoresi

176

Renewable Energy Strategies for Sustainable Development Henrik Lund*  

E-print Network

Renewable Energy Strategies for Sustainable Development Henrik Lund* Department of Development of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency

Hansen, René Rydhof

177

China's sustainable energy future: Scenarios of energy and carbonemissions (Summary)  

SciTech Connect

China has ambitious goals for economic development, and mustfind ways to power the achievement of those goals that are bothenvironmentally and socially sustainable. Integration into the globaleconomy presents opportunities for technological improvement and accessto energy resources. China also has options for innovative policies andmeasures that could significantly alter the way energy is acquired andused. These opportunities andoptions, along with long-term social,demographic, and economic trends, will shape China s future energysystem, and consequently its contribution to emissions of greenhousegases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). In this study, entitled China sSustainable Energy Future: Scenarios of Energy and Carbon Emissions, theEnergy Research Institute (ERI), an independent analytic organizationunder China's Na tional Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), soughtto explore in detail how China could achieve the goals of the TenthFive-Year Plan and its longer term aims through a sustainable developmentstrategy. China's ability to forge a sustainable energy path has globalconsequences. China's annual emissions of greenhouse gases comprisenearly half of those from developing countries, and 12 percent of globalemissions. Most of China's greenhouse gas emissions are in the form ofCO2, 87 percent of which came from energy use in 2000. In that year,China's carbon emissions from energy use and cement production were 760million metric tons (Mt-C), second only to the 1,500 Mt-C emitted by theUS (CDIAC, 2003). As China's energy consumption continues to increase,greenhouse gas emissions are expected to inevitably increase into thefuture. However, the rate at which energy consumption and emissions willincrease can vary significantly depending on whether sustainabledevelopment is recognized as an important policy goal. If the ChineseGovernment chooses to adopt measures to enhance energy efficiency andimprove the overall structure of energy supply, it is possible thatfuture economic growth may be supported by a relatively lower increase inenergy consumption. Over the past 20 years, energy intensity in China hasbeen reduced partly through technological and structural changes; currentannual emissions may be as much as 600 Mt-C lower than they would havebeen without intensity improvements. China must take into account itsunique circumstances in considering how to achieve a sustainabledevelopment path. This study considers the feasibility of such anachievement, while remaining open to exploring avenues of sustainabledevelopment that may be very different from existing models. Threescenarios were prepared to assist the Chinese Government to explore theissues, options and uncertainties that it confronts in shaping asustainable development path compatible with China's uniquecircumstances. The Promoting Sustainability scenario offers a systematicand complete interpretation of the social and economic goals proposed inthe Tenth Five-Year Plan. The possibility that environmentalsustainability would receive low priority is covered in the OrdinaryEffort scenario. Aggressive pursuit of sustainable development measuresalong with rapid economic expansion is featured in the Green Growthscenario. The scenarios differ in the degree to which a common set ofenergy supply and efficiency policies are implemented. In cons ultationwith technology and policy experts domestically and abroad, ERI developedstrategic scenarios and quantified them using an energy accounting model.The scenarios consider, in unprecedented detail, changes in energy demandstructure and technology, as well as energy supply, from 1998 to 2020.The scenarios in this study are an important step in estimating realistictargets for energy efficiency and energy supply development that are inline with a sustainable development strategy. The scenarios also helpanalyze and explore ways in which China might slow growth in greenhousegas emissions. The key results have important policy implications:Depending on how demand for energy services is met, China could quadrupleits gross domesti

Zhou, Dadi; Levine, Mark; Dai, Yande; Yu, Cong; Guo, Yuan; Sinton, Jonathan E.; Lewis, Joanna I.; Zhu, Yuezhong

2004-03-10

178

Key Factors in Planning a Sustainable Energy Future Including Hydrogen and Fuel Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, a number of future energy visions, especially those basing the energy systems on hydrogen, are discussed. Some often missing comparisons between alternatives, from a sustainability perspective, are identified and then performed for energy storage, energy transportation, and energy use in vehicles. It is shown that it is important…

Hedstrom, Lars; Saxe, Maria; Folkesson, Anders; Wallmark, Cecilia; Haraldsson, Kristina; Bryngelsson, Marten; Alvfors, Per

2006-01-01

179

Efficient use of land to meet sustainable energy needs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deployment of renewable energy systems, such as solar energy, to achieve universal access to electricity, heat and transportation, and to mitigate climate change is arguably the most exigent challenge facing humans today. However, the goal of rapidly developing solar energy systems is complicated by land and environmental constraints, increasing uncertainty about the future of the global energy landscape. Here, we test the hypothesis that land, energy and environmental compatibility can be achieved with small- and utility-scale solar energy within existing developed areas in the state of California (USA), a global solar energy hotspot. We found that the quantity of accessible energy potentially produced from photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) within the built environment (`compatible’) exceeds current statewide demand. We identify additional sites beyond the built environment (`potentially compatible’) that further augment this potential. Areas for small- and utility-scale solar energy development within the built environment comprise 11,000-15,000 and 6,000 TWh yr-1 of PV and CSP generation-based potential, respectively, and could meet the state of California’s energy consumptive demand three to five times over. Solar energy within the built environment may be an overlooked opportunity for meeting sustainable energy needs in places with land and environmental constraints.

Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Hoffacker, Madison K.; Field, Christopher B.

2015-04-01

180

Education in Sustainable Energy by European Projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our schools have been involved in several European projects having with the primary objective of educating the young generation to find ways for saving energy and for using the renewable energy. Small changes in our behaviour can lead to significant energy savings and a major reduction in emissions. In our presentation we will refer to three of them: - The Comenius 1 project "Energy in the Consumers' Hands" tried to improve the quality of education for democratic citizenship in all participant schools by creating a model of curricula concerning the integrative teaching of democratic citizenship using the topic approaches based on key concept - energy as important element of the community welfare. The students studied on the following topics: • Sources of energy • The clean use of fossil based resources; • The rational use of energyEnergy and the environment - The project "Solar Schools Forum" (SSF) focuses on environmental education in schools, in particular addressing the topics of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE). The youth need to become more aware of energy-related problems, and how they can change their own lifestyles to limit environmental damage caused by the daily use of energy. As the decision-makers of tomorrow we need to empower them to make the right choices. The SSF is aimed at improving knowledge about RE and EE among children and young people, using a fun approach and aimed at generating greater enthusiasm for clean energy. The youth will also be encouraged to help raise awareness and so act as multipliers in their own communities, starting with their families and friends. As a result of this project we involved in developing and implementing an optional course for high school students within the Solar Schools Forum project. The optional course entitled "Sustainable energy and the environment" had a great deal of success, proof of this success being the fact that it is still taught even today, three years after its completion. Students also show a great deal of interest towards this course. More information are available on www.school4energy.net/ , www.ises.org/schools/ - The newest is the project "Intelligent Use of Energy in School", starting in this school year. This European project is part of Intelligent Energy program, aims to promote a more efficient way of using energy in every day life among secondary schools students and teachers. IUSES will show secondary school students the basic principles of energy efficiency and give a comprehensive guide to saving energy in their everyday lives. IUSES is currently developing a behaviour-oriented educational kit including: handbooks, multimedia animations and experiment tool-kit. The educational kit will be freely available for downloading on this web site. The project will also include the launch of the European Energy Saving Award in 14 different countries which will reward schools and students that improve their energy efficiency. More information is available on www.iuses.eu or www.iuses.ro

Stanescu, Corina; Stefureac, Crina

2010-05-01

181

MIT: Global System for Sustainable Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Global System for Sustainable Development (GSSD) is a project of the Global Accords Consortium for Sustainable Development that is "dedicated to internationalization of knowledge access, provision & sharing for 'reducing the gap between knowledge & policy.'" Housed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), GSSD is "a multi-dimensional knowledge networking system" that combines public and private networks to provide a continually evolving cross-referenced knowledge base for informing decision-making and policy in the domain of "sustainable development." The Using GSSD section of the website provides information on the organizing principles used to develop the database, demonstrates the functionality and architecture of the system and other aspects of the project, such as the multiple mirror sites that are in languages other than English. Reports and working papers from the GSSD are also posted. Visitors can search the holdings of the database using a text search or based on other parameters, such as issue area or industry type, and are invited to submit websites to be considered for inclusion.

182

Sustainable energy in china: the closing window of opportunity  

SciTech Connect

China's remarkable economic growth has been supported by a generally adequate and relatively low-cost supply of energy, creating the world's largest coal industry, its second-largest oil market, and an eclectic power business that is adding capacity at an unprecedented rate. If energy requirements continue to double every decade, China will not be able to meet the energy demands of the present without seriously compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own energy needs. This title uses historical data from 1980 and alternative scenarios through 2020 to assess China's future energy requirements and the resources to meet them. It calls for a high-level commitment to develop and implement an integrated, coordinated, and comprehensive energy policy. The authors recommend eight building blocks to reduce energy consumption growth well below the targeted rate of economic growth, to use national resources on an economically and environmentally sound basis, and to establish a robust energy system that can better ensure the security of a diverse supply of competitively priced energy forms. Sustainability calls for persistence of effort, greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, and better standards enforcement. Achieving these goals will require policy initiatives that restrict demand and create a 'resources-conscious society', reconcile energy needs with environmental imperatives, rationalize pricing, and tackle supply security. While the challenges are daunting, China has a unique opportunity to position itself as a world leader in the application of cutting-edge energy developments to create a sustainable energy sector effectively supporting a flourishing economy and society.

Fei Feng; Roland Priddle; Leiping Wang; Noureddine Berrah

2007-03-15

183

NASA Johnson Space Center's Energy and Sustainability Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the efforts that NASA is making to assure a sustainable environment and energy savings at the Johnson Space Center. Sustainability is defined as development that meets the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The new technologies that are required for sustainable closed loop life support for space exploration have uses on the ground to reduce energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. Some of these uses are reviewed.

Ewert, Michael K.

2008-01-01

184

Sustainable Energy - Without the hot air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reader John Roeder writes about a website associated with David MacKay's book Sustainable Energy-Without the hot air. The book is a freely downloadable PDF (or purchasable) book describing an analysis detailing a low-carbon renewable energy transformation route for a large, modern first world industrial country (the United Kingdom). Written for the layman, the work uses vernacular language, e.g., energy consumption and production in a series of bar charts detailing the impacts of necessary strategies such as population reduction, lifestyle changes, and technology changes. MacKay notes that most reasonable plans have large nuclear and ``clean coal'' or other carbon capture components, lots of pumped heat, wind, and much efficiency improvement. He debunks some sacred cows (roof-mounted micro-turbines; hydrogen-powered cars) while pointing out simple effective technologies such as roof-mounted solar water heaters. Similar modest changes in the U.S. (painting roofs white in the southern half of the country) have strong impacts. MacKay claims that he ``doesn't advocate any particular plan or technology,'' but ``tells you how many bricks are in the lego box, and how big each brick is'' so readers can start making planning decisions.

MacIsaac, Dan

2009-11-01

185

Energy-efficient control of a smart grid with sustainable homes based on distributing risk  

E-print Network

The goal of this thesis is to develop a distributed control system for a smart grid with sustainable homes. A central challenge is how to enhance energy efficiency in the presence of uncertainty. A major source of uncertainty ...

Ono, Masahiro, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

186

What makes closed ecological systems sustainable?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A closed ecosystem has some properties that an open systems lacks. Let us consider the ones that increase the sustainability of an ecosystem. The common feature of biological and physicochemical life support systems is that basically they are both catalytic. There are two fundamental properties distinguishing biological systems: 1) they are auto-catalytic: their catalysts - enzymes of protein nature - are continuously reproduced when the system functions; 2) the program of every process performed by enzymes and the program of their reproduction are inherent in the biological system itself - in the totality of genomes of the species involved in the functioning of the ecosystem. Actually, one cell with the genome capable of the phenotypic realization is enough for the self- restoration of the function performed by the cells of this species in the ecosystem. The multi-cellular organisms with stem cells are constantly ready to repair themselves by intensifying the continuous process of regeneration. We (Gitelson) have made a quantitative investigation of this process by studying the regeneration and reparation of erythrocytes in mammals. The continuous microalgal culture of Chlorella vulgaris was taken to investigate quantitatively the similar functional process of self-restoration in unicellular algae (Rodicheva). Based on the data obtained, we proposed a mathematical model of the restoration process in the cell population that has suffered an acute radiation damage. Besides these general biological mechanisms responsible for their sustainability, closed systems also possess specific features enhancing their stability. They are as follows: 1. Nutrients cannot leave the system. 2. The metabolic pathways of the material cycling are closed. 3. The rates of interlink metabolism are in conformity with each other due to their mutual limitation. We present the data obtained in the Bios-3 experiments that prove the efficiency of this mechanism as a factor of the sustainability. The factors that reduce the sustainability of a CES are as follows: the range of ambient physicochemical parameters compatible with life is rather narrow and it takes rather a long time for the system to restore itself if damage is done to its relatively long-lived species, such as higher plants. A specific property of a small CES is that humans inhabiting it must perform a deterministic control. Our experiments in Bios-3 proved that this control is quite feasible and that it effectively increases the stability of the system. Thus, we can predict that humanity may perform the function of control in the Earth's biosphere in the course of its transformation into the noosphere. * "This work was made possible in part by Award No. REC-002 of the U.S. Civilian Research &Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Union (CRDF) and RF Ministry of Education."

Gitelson, I.; Degermendzhy, A.; Rodicheva, E.

187

Wood Energy Production, Sustainable Farming Livelihood and Multifunctionality in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change and the projected depletion of fossil energy resources pose multiple global challenges. Innovative technologies offer interesting possibilities to achieve more sustainable outcomes in the energy production sector. Local, decentralized alternatives have the potential to sustain livelihoods in rural areas. One example of such a…

Huttunen, Suvi

2012-01-01

188

Sustainable Schools: Making Energy Efficiency a Lifestyle Priority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promoting efficient energy use in schools that consequently reduces greenhouse gas emissions is the purpose of a residential Energy Efficiency in Schools (EEIS) program reported on in this paper. Research on this program aligns with one of the "key "overarching" sustainability issues", set out in the "Learning for Sustainability: NSW Environmental…

Purnell, Ken; Sinclair, Mark; Gralton, Anna

2004-01-01

189

Towards a sustainable energy future—exploring current barriers and potential solutions in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy is considered an indispensable basis of sustainable energy systems as electricity generation from renewable\\u000a sources results in low emissions of greenhouse gases compared to fossil fuel based electricity and contributes to sustainable\\u000a development. However, effective strategies and conducive institutional settings are needed for advancement of such clean electricity\\u000a systems. Although Thailand, as a nation, has a huge potential

Sk Noim Uddin; Ros Taplin; Xiaojiang Yu

2010-01-01

190

Sustainability of Organic, Integrated and Conventional Farming Systems in Tuscany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of Organic, Integrated and Conventional Farming Systems (OFS, IFS, and CFS, respectively) at farm and more detailed spatial scales. This is achieved applying

Cesare Pacini; G. W. J. Giesen; V. Vazzana; Ada Wossink

2002-01-01

191

Reporting Systems for Sustainability: What Are They Measuring?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dominance of the neoliberal discourse in the sustainability debate has tended to privilege the economy over environment and social dimensions with implications for what is measured by sustainability monitoring systems. Moreover, systems to measure sustainability, including those influenced by neoliberal discourse, lack robust definitions and…

Davidson, Kathryn M.

2011-01-01

192

Sustainability principles of the Asian Development Bank's (ADB's) energy  

E-print Network

Sustainability principles of the Asian Development Bank's (ADB's) energy policy: An opportunity Development Bank (ADB) energy projects to determine how they address the energy sector challenges facing) improving energy efficiency; (2) promoting renewable energy; (3) reducing energy poverty; and (4) enhancing

Chaudhuri, Sanjay

193

A version of this paper will be presented at the Fifth Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems in Dubrovnik, Croatia, September  

E-print Network

, and politicians a clearer understanding of the jurisdiction's energy mix and the state of its energy security Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems in Dubrovnik, Croatia, September 2009. ERG/200906 Quantifying energy security: An Analytic Hierarchy Process approach Larry Hughes, PhD Energy Research Group

Hughes, Larry

194

Key Assets for a Sustainable Low Carbon Energy Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of the 21st century, concerns of energy security and climate change gave rise to energy policies focused on energy conservation and diversified low-carbon energy sources. Provided lessons of Fukushima accident are evidently accounted for, nuclear energy will probably be confirmed in most of today's nuclear countries as a low carbon energy source needed to limit imports of oil and gas and to meet fast growing energy needs. Future challenges of nuclear energy are then in three directions: i) enhancing safety performance so as to preclude any long term impact of severe accident outside the site of the plant, even in case of hypothetical external events, ii) full use of Uranium and minimization long lived radioactive waste burden for sustainability, and iii) extension to non-electricity energy products for maximizing the share of low carbon energy source in transportation fuels, industrial process heat and district heating. Advanced LWRs (Gen-III) are today's best available technologies and can somewhat advance nuclear energy in these three directions. However, breakthroughs in sustainability call for fast neutron reactors and closed fuel cycles, and non-electric applications prompt a revival of interest in high temperature reactors for exceeding cogeneration performances achievable with LWRs. Both types of Gen-IV nuclear systems by nature call for technology breakthroughs to surpass LWRs capabilities. Current resumption in France of research on sodium cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs) definitely aims at significant progress in safety and economic competitiveness compared to earlier reactors of this type in order to progress towards a new generation of commercially viable sodium cooled fast reactor. Along with advancing a new generation of sodium cooled fast reactor, research and development on alternative fast reactor types such as gas or lead-alloy cooled systems (GFR & LFR) is strategic to overcome technical difficulties and/or political opposition specific to sodium. In conclusion, research and technology breakthroughs in nuclear power are needed for shaping a sustainable low carbon future. International cooperation is key for sharing costs of research and development of the required novel technologies and cost of first experimental reactors needed to demonstrate enabling technologies. At the same time technology breakthroughs are developed, pre-normative research is required to support codification work and harmonized regulations that will ultimately apply to safety and security features of resulting innovative reactor types and fuel cycles.

Carre, Frank

2011-10-01

195

Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Vermont Highlight (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Case study on Vermont's innovative strategy for helping low-income families save energy through its Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) program. The DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) granted Vermont to give its weatherization clients access to solar energy systems and one-on-one assistance from energy efficiency coaches to help clients achieve meaningful and long-lasting reductions in their energy bills. Vermont-SERC is administered by the Vermont Office of Economic Opportunity and is carried out by five local weatherization agencies. The purpose of the program is to identify technologies and new approaches-in this case, solar energy and energy efficiency coaches-that can improve weatherization services to low-income clients. The program selects households that have previously received weatherization services. This has several advantages. First, the clients already understand how weatherization works and are willing to strive for additional energy savings. Second, the weatherization agencies are working with clients who have previously had weatherization and therefore have complete energy usage data from utility bills collected during the first energy upgrade installation. This allows the agencies to select the best potential candidates for solar energy. Agencies have existing knowledge of the homes and can pre-screen them for potential structural problems or lack of south-facing exposure.

Not Available

2012-01-01

196

Sustainability Analysis of Innovative Transport System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of the research is to develop a new approach to transport solution based on the use of a conveyortype system and to compare the environmental impact of the new system with the existing ones. The new transport system consists of a conveyor driven by an electric motor, with a wind power plant supplying electricity, hydrogen storage and a fuel cell for matching the wind power production with the motor load. The research tasks included the evaluation of the consumption of fossil fuels and the associated environmental impact of existing transport system and a comparison with energy consumption and associated environmental impact of the new system. The energy balance of the conveyor transport system was modelled on an hourly basis by using the EnergyPLAN computer program [1] which allows to analyze a combination of intermittent renewable energy technologies, storage and transport systems. The results show that the existing transport system has greater impact on the environment than the proposed one.

Meiere, Ieva; Bazbauers, Gatis

2011-01-01

197

ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Environmental Systems Management is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects. This is importa...

198

Sustainable Development and Energy Geotechnology Potential Roles for Geotechnical Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The world is facing unprecedented challenges related to energy resources, global climate change, material use, and waste generation. Failure to address these challenges will inhibit the growth of the developing world and will negatively impact the standard of living and security of future generations in all nations. The solutions to these challenges will require multidisciplinary research across the social and physical sciences and engineering. Although perhaps not always recognized, geotechnical engineering expertise is critical to the solution of many energy and sustainability-related problems. Hence, geotechnical engineers and academicians have opportunity and responsibility to contribute to the solution of these worldwide problems. Research will need to be extended to non-standard issues such as thermal properties of soils; sediment and rock response to extreme conditions and at very long time scales; coupled hydro-chemo-thermo-bio-mechanical processes; positive feedback systems; the development of discontinuities; biological modification of soil properties; spatial variability; and emergent phenomena. Clearly, the challenges facing geotechnical engineering in the future will require a much broader knowledge base than our traditional educational programs provide. The geotechnical engineering curricula, from undergraduate education through continuing professional education, must address the changing needs of a profession that will increasingly be engaged in alternative/renewable energy production; energy efficiency; sustainable design, enhanced and more efficient use of natural resources, waste management, and underground utilization.

FragaszyProgram Dire, Dr. R. J. [National Science Foundation; Santamarina, Carlos [Georgia Institute of Technology; Espinoza, N. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jang, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jung, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2011-01-01

199

Energy Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posters are provided for several different energy conversion systems. Students are provided with cards that give the name and a description of each of the components in an energy system. They match these with the figures on the diagram. Since the groups look at different systems, they also describe their results to the class to share their knowledge.

Office of Educational Partnerships,

200

A version of this paper will be presented at the Fifth Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems in Dubrovnik, Croatia, September  

E-print Network

-being, many people, policymakers, and politicians have difficulty understanding these energy challenges for efficient and effective energy policies that are understandable to the public, policymakers, and politicians Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems in Dubrovnik, Croatia, September 2009. ERG/200905 Energy

Hughes, Larry

201

School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Urban Energy Monitoring to Support Sustainable Energy Planning  

E-print Network

systematic integrated mechanisms to assist urban managers in their sustainable energy planning decision Sustainable Energy Planning Lead: Professor Benachir Medjdoub This project is part of a research portfolio decision making for a sustainable energy monitoring and planning. We will welcome research proposals

Evans, Paul

202

Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

2009-01-01

203

Towards a sustainable system of drug development.  

PubMed

Drug development has become the exclusive activity of large pharmaceutical companies. However, the output of new drugs has been decreasing for the past decade and the prices of new drugs have risen steadily, leading to access problems for many patients. By analyzing the history of drug development and the pharmaceutical industry, we identified the main factors causing this system failure. Although many solutions have been suggested to fix the drug development system, we believe that a combination of reforms of the regulatory and patent systems is necessary to make drug development sustainable. These reforms must be combined with a larger, open-access role for public research institutes in the discovery, clinical evaluation and safety evaluation of new drugs. PMID:24657626

Moors, Ellen H M; Cohen, Adam F; Schellekens, Huub

2014-11-01

204

Designing sustainable work systems: the need for a systems approach.  

PubMed

There is a growing discussion concerning sustainability. While this discussion was at first mainly focused on a society level--and sometimes regarding especially environmental problems, one can now see that this topic is of increasing relevance for companies worldwide and even the social dimension of this three pillar approach is gaining more and more importance. This leads to some questions: Is sustainability already a part of human factors thinking or do we have to further develop our discipline? How can we define sustainable work systems? What are the topics we have to consider? Do we need a new systems ergonomics perspective regarding whole value creation chains and a life-cycle perspective concerning products (and work systems)? How can we deal with potential contradictions about social, ecological, and economic goals? PMID:23608710

Zink, Klaus J

2014-01-01

205

Developing sustainability criteria for urban infrastructure systems1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the area of sustainable urban infrastructure reflects the need to design and manage engineering systems in light of both environmental and socioeconomic considerations. A principal challenge for the engineer is the development of practical tools for measuring and enhancing the sustainability of urban infrastructure over its life cycle. The present study develops such a framework for the sustainability

Halla R. Sahel; Christopher A. Kennedy; Barry J. Adams

206

Natural Treatment Systems as Sustainable Ecotechnologies for the Developing Countries  

PubMed Central

The purpose of natural treatment systems is the re-establishment of disturbed ecosystems and their sustainability for benefits to human and nature. The working of natural treatment systems on ecological principles and their sustainability in terms of low cost, low energy consumption, and low mechanical technology is highly desirable. The current review presents pros and cons of the natural treatment systems, their performance, and recent developments to use them in the treatment of various types of wastewaters. Fast population growth and economic pressure in some developing countries compel the implementation of principles of natural treatment to protect natural environment. The employment of these principles for waste treatment not only helps in environmental cleanup but also conserves biological communities. The systems particularly suit developing countries of the world. We reviewed information on constructed wetlands, vermicomposting, role of mangroves, land treatment systems, soil-aquifer treatment, and finally aquatic systems for waste treatment. Economic cost and energy requirements to operate various kinds of natural treatment systems were also reviewed. PMID:23878819

Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zaffar, Habiba; Yaqoob, Hajra; Waseem, Muhammad; Zahidullah

2013-01-01

207

Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy have been presented on the basis of two different technologies: (1) Conventional nuclear technology; CANDU reactors. (2) Emerging nuclear technology; fusion/fission (hybrid) reactors. Reactor grade (RG) plutonium, 233U fuels and heavy water moderator have given a good combination with respect to neutron economy so that mixed fuel made of (ThO2/RG-PuO2) or (ThC/RG-PuC) has lead to very high burn up grades. Five different mixed fuel have been selected for CANDU reactors composed of 4 % RG-PuO2 + 96 % ThO2; 6 % RG-PuO2 + 94 % ThO2; 10 % RG-PuO2 + 90 % ThO2; 20 % RG-PuO2 + 80 % ThO2; 30 % RG-PuO2 + 70 % ThO2, uniformly taken in each fuel rod in a fuel channel. Corresponding operation lifetimes have been found as ˜ 0.65, 1.1, 1.9, 3.5, and 4.8 years and with burn ups of ˜ 30 000, 60 000, 100 000, 200 000 and 290 000 MW.d/ton, respectively. Increase of RG-PuO2 fraction in radial direction for the purpose of power flattening in the CANDU fuel bundle has driven the burn up grade to 580 000 MW.d/ton level. A laser fusion driver power of 500 MWth has been investigated to burn the minor actinides (MA) out of the nuclear waste of LWRs. MA have been homogenously dispersed as carbide fuel in form of TRISO particles with volume fractions of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % in the Flibe coolant zone in the blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. Tritium breeding for a continuous operation of the fusion reactor is calculated as TBR = 1.134, 1.286, 1.387, 1.52 and 1.67, respectively. Fission reactions in the MA fuel under high energetic fusion neutrons have lead to the multiplication of the fusion energy by a factor of M = 3.3, 4.6, 6.15 and 8.1 with 2, 3, 4 and 5 % TRISO volume fraction at start up, respectively. Alternatively with thorium, the same fusion driver would produce ˜160 kg 233U per year in addition to fission energy production in situ, multiplying the fusion energy by a factor of ˜1.3.

?ahin, Sümer

2014-09-01

208

Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy  

SciTech Connect

Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy have been presented on the basis of two different technologies: (1) Conventional nuclear technology; CANDU reactors. (2) Emerging nuclear technology; fusion/fission (hybrid) reactors. Reactor grade (RG) plutonium, {sup 233}U fuels and heavy water moderator have given a good combination with respect to neutron economy so that mixed fuel made of (ThO{sub 2}/RG?PuO{sub 2}) or (ThC/RG-PuC) has lead to very high burn up grades. Five different mixed fuel have been selected for CANDU reactors composed of 4 % RG?PuO{sub 2} + 96 % ThO{sub 2}; 6 % RG?PuO{sub 2} + 94 % ThO{sub 2}; 10 % RG?PuO{sub 2} + 90 % ThO{sub 2}; 20 % RG?PuO{sub 2} + 80 % ThO{sub 2}; 30 % RG?PuO{sub 2} + 70 % ThO{sub 2}, uniformly taken in each fuel rod in a fuel channel. Corresponding operation lifetimes have been found as ? 0.65, 1.1, 1.9, 3.5, and 4.8 years and with burn ups of ? 30 000, 60 000, 100 000, 200 000 and 290 000 MW.d/ton, respectively. Increase of RG?PuO{sub 2} fraction in radial direction for the purpose of power flattening in the CANDU fuel bundle has driven the burn up grade to 580 000 MW.d/ton level. A laser fusion driver power of 500 MW{sub th} has been investigated to burn the minor actinides (MA) out of the nuclear waste of LWRs. MA have been homogenously dispersed as carbide fuel in form of TRISO particles with volume fractions of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % in the Flibe coolant zone in the blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. Tritium breeding for a continuous operation of the fusion reactor is calculated as TBR = 1.134, 1.286, 1.387, 1.52 and 1.67, respectively. Fission reactions in the MA fuel under high energetic fusion neutrons have lead to the multiplication of the fusion energy by a factor of M = 3.3, 4.6, 6.15 and 8.1 with 2, 3, 4 and 5 % TRISO volume fraction at start up, respectively. Alternatively with thorium, the same fusion driver would produce ?160 kg {sup 233}U per year in addition to fission energy production in situ, multiplying the fusion energy by a factor of ?1.3.

?ahin, Sümer, E-mail: ssahin@atilim.edit.tr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, ATILIM University, 06836 ?ncek, Gölba??, Ankara (Turkey)

2014-09-30

209

Renewable energy in Iran: Challenges and opportunities for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around the globe, developing countries have reported different cases of successfully implemented Renewable Energy (RE) program supported by bilateral or multilateral funding. In developing countries subsidy has played a big role in RE program marketing and whether this will lead to sustainable development is yet to be determined. The adoption of implementation strategies that will support sustainable development and overcoming

F. Atabi

210

Sustainable Rural Energy: Traditional Water Wheels in Padang (PWW) Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable and sustainable energy is increasingly gaining interest in current research circles due to the debates on renewable energy resources. It is essential for scientists and researchers to search for solutions in renewable energy resources, with effective technologies, and low cost in operation and maintenance. Hydro resources can be considered a potential renewable energy resource. The traditional water wheel with simple construction coupled with a basic concept of technology can be utilised as a renewable and sustainable rural energy system. This paper discusses the case of the water wheel as a renewable energy system employed in Padang, Indonesia. The Padang water wheel is constructed from hardwood material with a diameter of 300 cm and width of 40 cm. It is built on a river using water flow to generate the movement of the wheel. The water wheel application in the area showed that it is suitable to be utilised to elevate and distribute water to rice fields located at a higher level than the water level of the river. The water wheel capacity is about 100-120 liters/min. It could continuously irrigate ±5 ha. of the rice fields. One of the advantages of this water wheel type is to function as a green technology concept promising no negative effect on the environment. The traditional water wheel has also a big economic impact on the rural economy, increasing the productivity of the rice fields. The people of Padang live in a water landscape encompassing the water wheel as an ubiquitous part of their lives, hence they relate to it and the technology of fabrication as well as the utilisation, making it an amenable and effective technology, finding relevance in the modern world.

Ibrahim, Gusri Akhyar; Haron, Che Hassan Che; Azhari, Che Husna

2010-06-01

211

Biofuels, land and water : a systems approach to sustainability.  

SciTech Connect

There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the sustainability of biofuels, especially because of the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Sustainability will be a strong factor in the regulatory environment and investments in biofuels. Biomass feedstock production is an important contributor to environmental, social, and economic impacts from biofuels. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy, and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and environmental liabilities are used as recoverable resources for biomass feedstock production. We focus on efficient use of land and water resources. We conducted a spatial analysis evaluating marginal land and degraded water resources to improve feedstock productivity with concomitant environmental restoration for the state of Nebraska. Results indicate that utilizing marginal land resources such as riparian and roadway buffer strips, brownfield sites, and marginal agricultural land could produce enough feedstocks to meet a maximum of 22% of the energy requirements of the state compared to the current supply of 2%. Degraded water resources such as nitrate-contaminated groundwater and wastewater were evaluated as sources of nutrients and water to improve feedstock productivity. Spatial overlap between degraded water and marginal land resources was found to be as high as 96% and could maintain sustainable feedstock production on marginal lands. Other benefits of implementing this strategy include feedstock intensification to decrease biomass transportation costs, restoration of contaminated water resources, and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, M. C.; Wang, M.; Wu, M.; Snyder, S. W.; LaFreniere, L.

2009-08-01

212

Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today’s waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous longterm management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by externalintrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the longterm success of the prescribed system. In fact, given that society has become more reliant on and confident of engineered controls, there may be a growing tendency to be even less concerned with institutional controls.

Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

2004-06-01

213

Information systems for engineering sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

The ability of a country to follow sustainable development paths is determined to a large extent by the capacity or capabilities of its people and its institutions. Specifically, capacity-building in the UNCED terminology encompasses the country's human, scientific, technological, organizational, institutional, and resource capabilities. A fundamental goal of capacity-building is to enhance the ability to pose, evaluate and address crucial questions related to policy choices and methods of implementation among development options. As a result the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Agenda 21 planning process has identified the need for better methods by which information can be transferred between industrialized nations and developing nations. The reasons for better methods of information transfer include facilitating decisions related to sustainable development and building the capacity of developing nations to better plan their future in both an economical and environmentally sound manner. This paper is a discussion on mechanisms for providing information and technologies available for presenting the information to a variety of cultures and levels of technical literacy. Consideration is given to access to information technology as well as to the cost to the user. One concept discussed includes an Engineering Partnership'' which brings together the talents and resources of private consulting engineers, corporations, non-profit professional organizations, government agencies and funding institution which work in partnership with each other and associates in developing countries. Concepts which are related to information technologies include a hypertext based, user configurable cultural translator and information navigator and the use of multi-media technologies to educate engineers about the concepts of sustainability, and the adaptation of the concept of metabolism to creating industrial systems.

Leonard, R.S.

1992-02-27

214

Information systems for engineering sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

The ability of a country to follow sustainable development paths is determined to a large extent by the capacity or capabilities of its people and its institutions. Specifically, capacity-building in the UNCED terminology encompasses the country`s human, scientific, technological, organizational, institutional, and resource capabilities. A fundamental goal of capacity-building is to enhance the ability to pose, evaluate and address crucial questions related to policy choices and methods of implementation among development options. As a result the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Agenda 21 planning process has identified the need for better methods by which information can be transferred between industrialized nations and developing nations. The reasons for better methods of information transfer include facilitating decisions related to sustainable development and building the capacity of developing nations to better plan their future in both an economical and environmentally sound manner. This paper is a discussion on mechanisms for providing information and technologies available for presenting the information to a variety of cultures and levels of technical literacy. Consideration is given to access to information technology as well as to the cost to the user. One concept discussed includes an ``Engineering Partnership`` which brings together the talents and resources of private consulting engineers, corporations, non-profit professional organizations, government agencies and funding institution which work in partnership with each other and associates in developing countries. Concepts which are related to information technologies include a hypertext based, user configurable cultural translator and information navigator and the use of multi-media technologies to educate engineers about the concepts of sustainability, and the adaptation of the concept of metabolism to creating industrial systems.

Leonard, R.S.

1992-02-27

215

Sustainable Energy - Without the Hot Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his book, MacKay explores our population’s addiction to fossil fuels and the problems faced with sustainability. Two issues faced with fossil fuels are they will eventually run out and they are harming our environment during use. McKay does not give one simple solution to the problem, but contrast various advanced technologies and how they may be applied to improve our environment and sustainability. More information may be found at http://www.withouthotair.com/.

2013-06-27

216

TOWARD A THEORY OF SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

While there is tremendous interest in the topic of sustainability, a fundamental theory of sustainability does not exist. We present our efforts at constructing such a theory starting with Information Theory and ecological models. We discuss the state of complex sustainable syste...

217

Impact of Sustainable Cool Roof Technology on Building Energy Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly reflective roofing systems have been analyzed over several decades to evaluate their ability to meet sustainability goals, including reducing building energy consumption and mitigating the urban heat island. Studies have isolated and evaluated the effects of climate, surface reflectivity, and roof insulation on energy savings, thermal load mitigation and also ameliorating the urban heat island. Other sustainable roofing systems, like green-roofs and solar panels have been similarly evaluated. The motivation for the present study is twofold: the first goal is to present a method for simultaneous evaluation and inter-comparison of multiple roofing systems, and the second goal is to quantitatively evaluate the realized heating and cooling energy savings associated with a white roof system compared to the reduction in roof-top heat flux. To address the first research goal a field experiment was conducted at the International Harvester Building located in Portland, OR. Thermal data was collected for a white roof, vegetated roof, and a solar panel shaded vegetated roof, and the heat flux through these roofing systems was compared against a control patch of conventional dark roof membrane. The second research goal was accomplished using a building energy simulation program to determine the impact of roof area and roof insulation on the savings from a white roof, in both Portland and Phoenix. The ratio of cooling energy savings to roof heat flux reduction from replacing a dark roof with a white roof was 1:4 for the month of July, and 1:5 annually in Portland. The COP of the associated chillers ranges from 2.8-4.2, indicating that the ratio of cooling energy savings to heat flux reduction is not accounted for solely by the COP of the chillers. The results of the building simulation indicate that based on energy savings alone, white roofs are not an optimal choice for Portland. The benefits associated with cooling energy savings relative to a black roof are offset by the winter-time penalty, and the net benefit from adopting white roof technology in Portland is small. That said, there are other potential benefits of white roofing such as impact on urban heat islands and roof life that must also be considered.

Vuppuluri, Prem Kiran

218

Sustainability of Rainwater Harvesting System in terms of Water Quality  

PubMed Central

Water is considered an everlasting free source that can be acquired naturally. Demand for processed supply water is growing higher due to an increasing population. Sustainable use of water could maintain a balance between its demand and supply. Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the most traditional and sustainable method, which could be easily used for potable and nonpotable purposes both in residential and commercial buildings. This could reduce the pressure on processed supply water which enhances the green living. This paper ensures the sustainability of this system through assessing several water-quality parameters of collected rainwater with respect to allowable limits. A number of parameters were included in the analysis: pH, fecal coliform, total coliform, total dissolved solids, turbidity, NH3–N, lead, BOD5, and so forth. The study reveals that the overall quality of water is quite satisfactory as per Bangladesh standards. RWH system offers sufficient amount of water and energy savings through lower consumption. Moreover, considering the cost for installation and maintenance expenses, the system is effective and economical. PMID:24701186

Khan, M. T. R.; Akib, Shatirah; Din, Nazli Bin Che; Biswas, S. K.; Shirazi, S. M.

2014-01-01

219

Economic growth, public welfare and sustainability: an empirical system analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the relationships between economic activity and sustainability, growth, and welfare. The issues regarding the nature of the relationships were framed by Ekins in questions which are addressed empirically across countries and the states of the US. The sustainability issue is addressed by comparing nonrenewable energy throughput, a surrogate for impacts, to the renewable energy throughput in the

Paul H. Templet

1996-01-01

220

Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation  

E-print Network

1 Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation William J.N. Turner & Iain..................................................................................................................... 8 Residential Ventilation Standards..........................................................................................9 Passive and Hybrid Ventilation

221

Current energy usage and sustainable energy in Kazakhstan: A review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kazakhstan has abundant natural resources. The country has enough coal to supply its energy needs for the next 150 years, and has the world's largest deposits of uranium, substantial quantities of natural gas and petroleum deposits. However, despite such energy riches, due to the size of the territory, its geography, and the country's economic structure, distribution of electricity in Kazakhstan is not uniform. As a result, Kazakhstani rural and remote areas suffer from serious electricity deficits. According to the latest estimates from the Ministry of Industry and New Technologies, about 25-30% of the Kazakhstani population lives in rural communities, where access to affordable energy (for heating, cooling, cooking, refrigeration, lighting, household as well as IT use) is limited. Furthermore, with the main electricity production infrastructure concentrated in the main urban areas, a high amount of electricity is therefore lost during transmission. Moreover, the consumption of poor quality coal as the main source of power generation creates a significant amount of environmental pollution. To illustrate this development, fuel combustion from coal has produced around 75% of carbon dioxide emissions in Kazakhstan. Thus, in order to address the country's electricity and environmental challenges, the Kazakhstani government is taking initiatives to promote renewable energy resources. However, so far, the outcome of these initiatives remains negligible. The current contribution of renewable energy to the total energy consumption is less than 1% (with 90% provided by hydropower) despite the significant potential for renewable energy in the country. As yet, no comprehensive study has been published on the energy scenario and on the potential for renewable energy resources in Kazakhstan. This comprehensive review aims to present an overview of the country's energy resources, supply and demand as the current energy scenario, while discussing the potential for renewable energy resources such as wind, solar, small hydro and biomass as alternative energy supplies in this country. Our analysis shows that wind and solar energy can become major contributors towards renewable energy in Kazakhstan. The biomass of agricultural residues, municipal solid waste and wood residues could be used for energy purposes too. Therefore, Kazakhstan should optimize energy consumption and take active and effective measures to increase the contribution of renewables in energy supply to make the country's energy mix environmentally sustainable.

Karatayev, Marat; Islam, Tofazzal; Salnikov, Vitaliy

2014-05-01

222

SEARCHING FOR SUSTAINABILITY: KENYA'S ENERGY PAST AND FUTURE, NOVEMBER 2006 SEARCHING FOR SUSTAINABILITY  

E-print Network

not only by leaders in wealthy countries; it gained a great deal of traction in the context of rural world leaders convened in Nairobi to discuss pathways to sustainability in the world's energy supply [1 and Renewable Sources of Energy. World leaders came together for the first time to discuss potential pathways

Kammen, Daniel M.

223

Sustainable Practices Policy Sections II, III.I. and V.I. Sustainable Water Systems  

E-print Network

Sustainable Practices Policy Sections II, III.I. and V.I. ­ Sustainable Water Systems Revenue is Outpatient Revenue + Newborn Revenue + Inpatient Revenue. Domestic Water: Potable and non-potable water provided for domestic indoor (e.g., toilets, urinals, showers, and faucets) and outdoor (e

California at Santa Cruz, University of

224

Advanced Materials for Sustainable, Clean Energy Future  

SciTech Connect

The current annual worldwide energy consumption stands at about 15 terawatts (TW, x1012 watts). Approximately 80% of it is supplied from fossil fuels: oil (34 %), coal (25 %), and natural gas (21 %). Biomass makes up 8% of the energy supply, nuclear energy accounts for 6.5 %, hydropower has a 2% share and other technologies such as wind and solar make up the rest. Even with aggressive conservation and new higher efficiency technology development, worldwide energy demand is predicted to double to 30 TW by 2050 and triple to 46 TW by the end of the century. Meanwhile oil and natural gas production is predicted to peak over the next few decades. Abundant coal reserves may maintain the current consumption level for longer period of time than the oil and gas. However, burning the fossil fuels leads to a serious environmental consequence by emitting gigantic amount of green house gases, particularly CO2 emissions which are widely considered as the primary contributor to global warming. Because of the concerns over the greenhouse gas emission, many countries, and even some states and cities in the US, have adopted regulations for limiting CO2 emissions. Along with increased CO2 regulations, is an emerging trend toward carbon “trading,” giving benefits to low “carbon footprint” industries, while making higher emitting industries purchase carbon “allowances”. There have been an increasing number of countries and states adopting the trade and cap systems.

Yang, Zhenguo

2009-04-01

225

Conducting Sustainable Energy Projects in Secondary Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how sixth through twelfth grade science teachers can engage their students in the design and implementation of sustainable energy projects as part of a unit of study on energy. The project challenges students to engage in an energy project that gives them the opportunity to make a difference in their local community and the…

Toolin, Regina; Watson, Anne

2010-01-01

226

Renewable Energy & Sustainability Prof. Martin J. (Mike) Pasqualetti  

E-print Network

Renewable Energy & Sustainability Prof. Martin J. (Mike) Pasqualetti Professor, School depletion for the next 1000 years (in 100,000 TWh/year) #12;We Have Many Renewable Energy Resources At Our Disposal Reality #4 #12;#12;Renewable Energy is Minor at Present Source: U.S. EIA http://www.eia.gov/cneaf/solar.renewables

Rhoads, James

227

An Operational Excellence Approach to Sustainable Energy Management  

E-print Network

interest wanes when energy prices are lower. With today’s high energy prices and growing interest in reducing CO2 emissions, energy management must become a core business activity and be implemented in a sustainable fashion as an embedded work process...

McMullan, A.

228

Implementing an Energy Management System at TOTAL Prot Arthur Refinery: The process to improving and sustaining energy efficiency performance at a facility.  

E-print Network

for P3 May 2013 ESL-IE-13-05-14 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 PROPRIETARY INFORMATION 9 Phase 2: Plan ? Opportunity development ? ProSteam utility software and Petro... refinery away from a fuel gas containment limit Example opportunity in the BTX Plant May 2013 BTX Plant Modeled in Petro-SIM ESL-IE-13-05-14 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013...

Hoyle, A.

2013-01-01

229

Development of a system of indicators for sustainable port management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1998 project ECOPORT, “Towards A Sustainable Transport Network”, developed by the Valencia Port Authority (VPA), established the bases for implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) in industrial harbours. The use of data and information shall always be required to develop an efficient EMS. The objective of the present research (INDAPORT) study is to propose a system of sustainable environmental

E. Peris-Mora; J. M. Diez Orejas; A. Subirats; S. Ibáñez; P. Alvarez

2005-01-01

230

Placing Ecosystem Sustainability Within the Context of Dynamic Earth Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Because the concept of ecosystem sustainability and the practice of sustainable land management both have long-term foci, it is necessary to view these from the perspective of dynamic rather than static systems. In addition to the typical static system approach for assessing ecos...

231

Request for Proposals in Organic & Sustainability Systems Research, Teaching & Outreach  

E-print Network

Submission Deadline: Dec. 9, 2013 The Department of Horticulture at Cornell's College of Agriculture and Life investigator or co-PI, in order for us to allocate TSF funds. Graduate student-led proposals are welcome sustainability of horticulture and food systems. Improve and expand organic and sustainability systems knowledge

Pawlowski, Wojtek

232

Fostering sustained energy behavior change and increasing energy literacy in a student housing energy challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed the Kukui Cup challenge to foster energy conservation and increase energy literacy. Based on a review of the literature, the challenge combined a variety of elements into an overall game experience, including: real-time energy feedback, goals, commitments, competition, and prizes. We designed a software system called Makahiki to provide the online portion of the Kukui Cup challenge. Energy use was monitored by smart meters installed on each floor of the Hale Aloha residence halls on the University of Hawai'i at Manoa campus. In October 2011, we ran the UH Kukui Cup challenge for the over 1000 residents of the Hale Aloha towers. To evaluate the Kukui Cup challenge, I conducted three experiments: challenge participation, energy literacy, and energy use. Many residents participated in the challenge, as measured by points earned and actions completed through the challenge website. I measured the energy literacy of a random sample of Hale Aloha residents using an online energy literacy questionnaire administered before and after the challenge. I found that challenge participants' energy knowledge increased significantly compared to non-challenge participants. Positive self-reported energy behaviors increased after the challenge for both challenge participants and non-participants, leading to the possibility of passive participation by the non-challenge participants. I found that energy use varied substantially between and within lounges over time. Variations in energy use over time complicated the selection of a baseline of energy use to compare the levels during and after the challenge. The best team reduced its energy use during the challenge by 16%. However, team energy conservation did not appear to correlate to participation in the challenge, and there was no evidence of sustained energy conservation after the challenge. The problems inherent in assessing energy conservation using a baseline call into question this common practice. My research has generated several contributions, including: a demonstration of increased energy literacy as a result of the challenge, the discovery of fundamental problems with the use of baselines for assessing energy competitions, the creation of two open source software systems, and the creation of an energy literacy assessment instrument.

Brewer, Robert Stephen

233

Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems  

SciTech Connect

Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: Steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Department Bioscience Engineering, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Meul, Marijke [University College Ghent, Department of Biosciences and Landscape Architecture, Campus Schoonmeersen, Building C, Schoonmeersstraat 52, 9000, Gent (Belgium)

2012-01-15

234

Investigation of sustainable development potential for Ulubey Aquifer System, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates sustainable development potential for Ulubey aquifer system which serves as an important water supply for Usak province (Turkey). In recent years, growing population, accelerating industrial activities and decreasing rainfall, as well as contamination of the surface water resources, made groundwater indispensable to meet the freshwater demands of Usak province. Therefore, a sustainable groundwater development plan has to be set up by determining the sustainable yield of the system, which is the aim of this study. To achieve this goal, a mathematical groundwater flow model is constructed in order to test the alternative development scenarios. Results show that the system preserves equilibrium conditions under present stresses. The future effects of possible increases in stresses are also simulated and based on the dynamic responses of the system to changing stresses; sustainable yield and sustainable pumping rate of the aquifer are determined and compared with the safe yield of the system.

Burcu, U.; Hasan, Y.

2014-09-01

235

Addressing challenges to sustainable development with innovative energy technologies in a competitive electric industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radical change in the energy system is essential in the decades immediately ahead in order to address effectively the multiple economic, social, environmental, and insecurity challenges posed by conventional energy. This can come about only through a concerted international effort to speed up the rate of technological innovation worldwide for technologies that offer promise in addressing sustainable development objectives -

Robert H. Williams

2001-01-01

236

Developing a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for biomass to contribute to energy supply in a low-carbon economy is well recognised. However, for the sector to contribute fully to sustainable development in the UK, specific exploitation routes must meet the three sets of criteria usually recognised as representing the tests for sustainability: economic viability in the market and fiscal framework within which the supply chain

Lucia Elghali; Roland Clift; Philip Sinclair; Calliope Panoutsou; Ausilio Bauen

2007-01-01

237

An introduction to the life cycle assessment (LCA) of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for sustainable energy and product generation: Relevance and key aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are devices capable of converting organic waste fraction present in wastewaters into useful energy vectors such as electricity or hydrogen. In recent years a large amount of research has been done on these unique systems in order to improve their performance both in terms of waste treatment as well as electric current production. Already there are plans

Deepak Pant; Anoop Singh; Gilbert Van Bogaert; Yolanda Alvarez Gallego; Ludo Diels; Karolien Vanbroekhoven

2011-01-01

238

Water and Energy Sustainability: A Balance of Government Action and Industry Innovation  

SciTech Connect

By completing the tasks and subtasks of the project, the Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC) through its state regulatory agency members and oil and gas industry partners, will bring attention to water quality and quantity issues and make progress toward water and energy sustainability though enhanced water protection and conservation thus enhancing the viability of the domestic fossil fuel industry. The project contains 4 major independent Tasks. Task 1 - Work Plan: Water-Energy Sustainability: A Symposium on Resource Viability. Task 2 - Work Plan: A Regional Assessment of Water and Energy Sustainability. Task 3 - Work Plan: Risk Based Data Management System-Water Water and Energy Module. Task 4 - Work Plan: Identification and Assessment of States Regulatory Programs Regarding Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems. Each task has a specific scope (details given).

Ben Grunewald

2009-12-31

239

Energy justice and foundations for a sustainable sociology of energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation proposes an approach to energy that transcends the focus on energy as a mere technical economic or engineering problem, is connected to sociological theory as a whole, and takes issues of equality and ecology as theoretical starting points. In doing so, the work presented here puts ecological and environmental sociological theory, and the work of environmental justice scholars, feminist ecologists, and energy scholars, in a context in which they may complement one another to broaden the theoretical basis of the current sociology of energy. This theoretical integration provides an approach to energy focused on energy justice. Understanding energy and society in the terms outlined here makes visible energy injustice, or the interface between social inequalities and ecological depredations accumulating as the social and ecological debts of the modern energy regime. Systems ecology is brought into this framework as a means for understanding unequal exchange, energy injustice more generally, and the requirements for long-term social and ecological reproduction in ecological terms. Energy developments in Ecuador and Cuba are used here as case studies in order to further develop the idea of energy justice and the theory of unequal ecological exchange. The point is to broaden the framework of the contemporary critical sociology of energy, putting energy justice at its heart. This dissertation contains previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

Holleman, Hannah Ann

240

Sustainable energy development in Austria until 2020: Insights from applying the integrated model “e3.at”  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on the Austrian research project “Renewable energy in Austria: Modeling possible development trends until 2020”. The project investigated possible economic and ecological effects of a substantially increased use of renewable energy sources in Austria. Together with stakeholders and experts, three different scenarios were defined, specifying possible development trends for renewable energy in Austria. The scenarios were simulated for the period 2006–2020, using the integrated environment–energy–economy model “e3.at”. The modeling results indicate that increasing the share of renewable energy sources in total energy use is an important but insufficient step towards achieving a sustainable energy system in Austria. A substantial increase in energy efficiency and a reduction of residential energy consumption also form important cornerstones of a sustainable energy policy. PMID:21976785

Stocker, Andrea; Großmann, Anett; Madlener, Reinhard; Wolter, Marc Ingo

2011-01-01

241

Sustained-Release Delivery Systems for Treatment of Dental Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustained-release delivery systems allow the effective targeting of drugs for treating dental and periodontal diseases. Since dental diseases are chronic, the therapeutic agents used should persist in the oral cavity for as long as possible. Implanting fluoride, chlorhexidine, and other antiseptic agents embedded into sustained-release polymeric matrices into the oral cavity prevents cariogenic plaque accumulation. Both fibers and slab-like sustained-delivery

Michael Friedman; Doron Steinberg

1990-01-01

242

Sustaining Action and Optimizing Entropy: Coupling Efficiency for Energy and the Sustainability of Global Ecosystems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consideration of the property of action is proposed to provide a more meaningful definition of efficient energy use and sustainable production in ecosystems. Action has physical dimensions similar to angular momentum, its magnitude varying with mass, spatial configuration and relative motion. In this article, the relationship of action to…

Rose, Michael T.; Crossan, Angus N.; Kennedy, Ivan R.

2008-01-01

243

Sustainable Energy Future in China's Building Sector  

E-print Network

This article investigates the potentials of energy-saving and mitigation of green-house gas (GHG) emission offered by implementation of building energy efficiency policies in China. An overview of existing literature regarding long-term energy...

Li, J.

2007-01-01

244

Investigating the potential for a self-sustaining slow pyrolysis system under varying operating conditions.  

PubMed

This work aimed to investigate the impact of highest treatment temperature (HTT), heating rate, carrier gas flow rate and feedstock on the composition and energy content of pyrolysis gas to assess whether a self-sustained system could be achieved through the combustion of the gas fraction alone, leaving other co-products available for alternative high-value uses. Calculations based on gas composition showed that the pyrolysis process could be sustained by the energy contained within the pyrolysis gases alone. The lower energy limit (6% biomass higher heating value (HHV)) was surpassed by pyrolysis at ?450°C while only a HTT of 650°C consistently met the upper energy limit (15% biomass HHV). These findings fill an important gap in literature related to the energy balance of the pyrolysis systems for biochar production, and show that, at least from an energy balance perspective; self-sustained slow pyrolysis for co-production of biochar and liquid products is feasible. PMID:24747394

Crombie, Kyle; Mašek, Ond?ej

2014-06-01

245

Operationalizing Sustainable Development Suncor Energy Inc: A critical case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of Sustainable Development is often understood as a framework within which organizations are able to move forward in a successful and beneficial manner. However, it is also seen as an ambiguous notion with little substance beyond a hopeful dialogue. If we are to base organizational action upon the concepts of Sustainable Development, it is vital that we comprehend the implications of how the concept is understood at a behavioral level. Industry leaders, competitors, shareholders, and stakeholders recognize Suncor Energy Inc as a leading organization within the Oil and Gas energy field. In particular it has a reputation for proactive thinking and action within the areas of environmental and social responsibility. Through attempting to integrate the ideas of Sustainable Development at a foundational level into the strategic plan, the management of Suncor Energy Inc has committed the organization to be a sustainable energy company. To achieve this vision the organization faces the challenge of converting strategic goals into operational behaviors, a process critical for a successful future. This research focuses on understanding the issues found with this conversion process. Through exploring a critical case, this research illuminates the reality of a best-case scenario. The findings thus have implications for both Suncor Energy Inc and more importantly all other organizations attempting to move in a Sustainable Development direction.

Fergus, Andrew

246

Sustainable System Management with Fisher Information based Objectives  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainable ecosystem management that integrates ecological, economic and social perspectives is a complex task where simultaneous persistence of human and natural components of the system must be ensured. Given the complexity of this task, systems theory approaches based on soun...

247

Energy Sustainability: It's Easier (and Cheaper) than You Think  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this economy, it's hard to implement any kind of school facility improvement plan with tight budgets and rising energy costs. The following strategies and suggestions are just some of the many ways schools can reach toward sustainability. In creating this presentation, our objective was to point out what you can do to save energy right now with…

Smith, Molly; Peterson, David

2010-01-01

248

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers  

E-print Network

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers Edited by Joan Ogden and Lorraine Anderson #12;Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis One TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS PART 3 CHAPTER 10: OPTIMIZING THE TRANSPORTATION CLIMATE MITIGATION WEDGE Chapter

California at Davis, University of

249

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers  

E-print Network

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers Edited by Joan Ogden and Lorraine Anderson #12;Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis One TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS CHAPTER 8: SCENARIOS FOR DEEP REDUCTIONS IN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS PART 3

California at Davis, University of

250

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers  

E-print Network

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers Edited by Joan Ogden and Lorraine Anderson #12;Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis One TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS PART 3: SCENARIOS FOR A LOW-CARBON TRANSPORTATION FUTURE PART 3 Part 3: Scenarios

California at Davis, University of

251

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers  

E-print Network

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers Edited by Joan Ogden and Lorraine Anderson #12;Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis One TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS PART 1: INDIVIDUAL FUEL/VEHICLE PATHWAYS PART 2 Chapter 5: Comparing

California at Davis, University of

252

General Electric Company Evaluation of Sustainable Energy Options  

E-print Network

General Electric Company Evaluation of Sustainable Energy Options for the Big Island of Hawaii-West Rd, Post 109 Honolulu, HI 96822 Phone: 808-956-8346 e-mail: rochelea@hawaii.edu General Electric by General Electric Company (GE) as an account of work sponsored by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI

253

Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability: Lessons From China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural electrification is now and will remain an essential element for rural development in China and other developing countries. With more than half of the world’s population living in rural communities, lessons for rural renewable energy applications and assessment from China can be very helpful in defining a global sustainable development strategy. This paper describes energy needs in rural China,

Aiming Zhou; John Byrne

2002-01-01

254

Office of Sustainability 2013-2014 Energy Ambassador Student Internship*  

E-print Network

Office of Sustainability 2013-2014 Energy Ambassador Student Internship* Organization in a team setting. The internship is open to all majors. To apply, please submit a resume and cover letter explaining why you are a good fit for the energy ambassador internship to Ayrel Clark-Proffitt, outreach

Tipple, Brett

255

Macrolevel integrated renewable energy production schemes for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of renewable clean energy is a prime necessity for the sustainable future existence of our planet. However, because of the resource-intensive nature, and other challenges associated with these new generation renewable energy sources, novel industrial frameworks need to be co-developed. Integrated renewable energy production schemes with foundations on resource sharing, carbon neutrality, energy-efficient design, source reduction, green processing

Bobban G. Subhadra

2011-01-01

256

Energy engineering students on their way to expertise in sustainable energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy engineering is facing new challenges in educating experts in sustainable energy. The aim of this paper is to characterise expertise related to sustainability in higher education. Future challenges and required skills are explored through recent studies, which have listed key competencies that engineers need in their working life. Sustainability and expertise are discussed on the basis of literature and energy curricula are explored on universities' internet pages.

Malkki, Helena; Alanne, Kari; Hirsto, Laura

2012-11-01

257

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY 1 Risk-Constrained Microgrid Reconfiguration  

E-print Network

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SUSTAINABLE ENERGY 1 Risk-Constrained Microgrid Reconfiguration Using Group reconfiguration task is considered for existing power distribution systems and microgrids, in the pres- ence of renewable-based generation and load foresting errors. The system topology is obtained by solving a chance

Giannakis, Georgios

258

Don't Waste Your Energy: Modelling the Sustainability of Direct Use at Tauranga Low-Temperature Geothermal System, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tauranga geothermal system is located on the north coast of the North Island of New Zealand, and is used by the more than 120,000 inhabitants for direct heating and cooling, bathing and aquaculture. With warm waters of up to 60°C at 500 m depth it has been monitored as a groundwater system, but increasing demands on the field and awareness of the fragility of geothermal systems has led to a call to assess the potential long-term effects of withdrawing and reinjecting fluid. Here, we create a numerical simulation of the field to determine if currently approved usage rates are sustainable, and if not to provide some constraints for future management of the area. We created a geological model of the Tauranga area covering 70 km by 130 km down to 2 km depth using Leapfrog Geothermal, and used this as the basis for a TOUGH2 model of fluid and heat flow. We calibrated the model against well temperatures measured between 0 and 759 m depth, showing that the surficial sedimentary layer was not a major control on fluid and heat flow, but that the underlying volcanoclastic rocks must have a slightly higher bulk thermal conductivity and lower permeability than had been previously measured. The model allowed us to better constrain the extent of the heat source at depth, as well as to assess its distribution. The system is primarily conductive, with the onset of convection above the main heat source in the centre of the system where modelled heat input is up to 300 mW/m2. Modelling a range of take and reinjection scenarios based on permitted values allows us to determine the capacity of the field and if its use needs to be limited to ensure that it is maintained for future generations.

Pearson, S. C.; Alcaraz, S.

2012-12-01

259

Nuclear energy and sustainability: Understanding ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulation and new environmental requirements combined with the growing scarcity of fossil resources and the increasing world energy demand lead to a renewal of the debate on tomorrow's energies. Specifically, nuclear energy, which has undeniable assets, faces new constraints. On the one hand, nuclear energy is very competitive and harmless to greenhouse effect. From this point, it seems to be

Karine Fiore

2006-01-01

260

SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY: ECOLOGICAL AND OTHER ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987), namely development that "meets the needs and asperations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of t...

261

SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY: ECOLOGICAL AND OTHER ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987), namely development that "meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those...

262

SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY: ECOLOGICAL AND OTHER ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

While sustainability is generally associated with the definition given by the Brundtland Commission (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987), namely development that "meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of t...

263

Sustainable infrastructure system modeling under uncertainties and dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrastructure systems support human activities in transportation, communication, water use, and energy supply. The dissertation research focuses on critical transportation infrastructure and renewable energy infrastructure systems. The goal of the research efforts is to improve the sustainability of the infrastructure systems, with an emphasis on economic viability, system reliability and robustness, and environmental impacts. The research efforts in critical transportation infrastructure concern the development of strategic robust resource allocation strategies in an uncertain decision-making environment, considering both uncertain service availability and accessibility. The study explores the performances of different modeling approaches (i.e., deterministic, stochastic programming, and robust optimization) to reflect various risk preferences. The models are evaluated in a case study of Singapore and results demonstrate that stochastic modeling methods in general offers more robust allocation strategies compared to deterministic approaches in achieving high coverage to critical infrastructures under risks. This general modeling framework can be applied to other emergency service applications, such as, locating medical emergency services. The development of renewable energy infrastructure system development aims to answer the following key research questions: (1) is the renewable energy an economically viable solution? (2) what are the energy distribution and infrastructure system requirements to support such energy supply systems in hedging against potential risks? (3) how does the energy system adapt the dynamics from evolving technology and societal needs in the transition into a renewable energy based society? The study of Renewable Energy System Planning with Risk Management incorporates risk management into its strategic planning of the supply chains. The physical design and operational management are integrated as a whole in seeking mitigations against the potential risks caused by feedstock seasonality and demand uncertainty. Facility spatiality, time variation of feedstock yields, and demand uncertainty are integrated into a two-stage stochastic programming (SP) framework. In the study of Transitional Energy System Modeling under Uncertainty, a multistage stochastic dynamic programming is established to optimize the process of building and operating fuel production facilities during the transition. Dynamics due to the evolving technologies and societal changes and uncertainty due to demand fluctuations are the major issues to be addressed.

Huang, Yongxi

264

Innovative paths for providing green energy for sustainable global economic growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to United Nation, world population may reach 10.1 billion by the year 2100. The fossil fuel based global economy is not sustainable. For sustainable global green energy scenario we must consider free fuel based energy conversion, environmental concerns and conservation of water. Photovoltaics (PV) offers a unique opportunity to solve the 21st century's electricity generation because solar energy is essentially unlimited and PV systems provide electricity without any undesirable impact on the environment. Innovative paths for green energy conversion and storage are proposed in areas of R and D, manufacturing and system integration, energy policy and financing. With existing silicon PV system manufacturing, the implementation of new innovative energy policies and new innovative business model can provide immediately large capacity of electricity generation to developed, emerging and underdeveloped economies.

Singh, Rajendra; Alapatt, G. F.

2012-10-01

265

Carbon Capture and Storage: Sustainability in the UK energy mix yryfasyfrtsayfsaytrsyfysa 1 UK Energy Research Centre  

E-print Network

Carbon Capture and Storage: Sustainability in the UK energy mix yryfasyfrtsayfsaytrsyfysa 1 UK Energy Research Centre CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE: SUSTAI NABI LI TY I N THE UK ENERGY MI X WorkshopSciences, University of Edinburgh Event organised and sponsored by: #12;Carbon Capture and Storage: Sustainability

266

Energy Systems Integration A Convergence of Ideas  

E-print Network

Energy Systems Integration A Convergence of Ideas July 2012 Ben Kroposki, Bobi Garrett, Stuart Macmillan, Brent Rice, and Connie Komomua National Renewable Energy Laboratory Mark O'Malley University of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy

267

Actualizing sustainability: environmental policy for resilience in ecological systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Society benefits from ecological systems in many ways. These benefits are often referred to as ecosystem services (MA 2005). Because these services matter to humans, they are critical to sustainability. Sustainability has many definitions, but for this chapter, we link our defi...

268

MODELLING A SUSTAINABLE URBAN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Emmanuel Dufrasnes1  

E-print Network

MODELLING A SUSTAINABLE URBAN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Emmanuel Dufrasnes1 Catherine Buhé2 Etienne Wurtz1 developing a methodological framework to model actions taken collectively and individually by the project the criteria for sustainable development. The need to evaluate the policies applied involves public officials

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

269

Embodied connections: sustainability, food systems and community gardens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community gardens have been identified as providing a model for promoting sustainable urban living. They can also contribute to individual and community reconnection to the socio-cultural importance of food, thus helping facilitate broader engagement with the food system. Such processes may offer pathways to developing a deep engagement and long-term commitment to sustainable living practices predicated on the development of

Bethaney Turner

2011-01-01

270

A generalized environmental sustainability index for agricultural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and development of an Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) and describes a case study used to evaluate the performance of the index. The objective of the index was to provide a modelling-based, quantitative measure of sustainability from an environmental perspective, comprising both on- and off-site environmental effects associated with agricultural systems. A performance approach was utilized

Gary R. Sands; Terence H. Podmore

2000-01-01

271

Understanding and Advancing Campus Sustainability Using a Systems Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: University campuses behave as complex systems, and sustainability in higher education is best seen as an emergent quality that arises from interactions both within an institution and between the institution and the environmental and social contexts in which it operates. A framework for strategically prioritizing campus sustainability work…

Posner, Stephen M.; Stuart, Ralph

2013-01-01

272

Welfare and Generational Equity in Sustainable Unfunded Pension Systems  

E-print Network

Welfare and Generational Equity in Sustainable Unfunded Pension Systems Alan J. Auerbach Economics #10-P- 98363-1-02 to the National Bureau of Economic Research as part of the SSA Retirement Research several actual and hypothetical sustainable PAYGO pension structures, including: (1) versions of the US

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

273

Sustainable Energy Policy University Facilities (UF)  

E-print Network

of this policy is to create a realistic and comprehensive document that identifies energy and water conservation, HVAC, lab services, other) in order to determine how much and where energy is being consumed. CSustainable Energy Policy University Facilities (UF) POLICY 10 Effective Date: August 11, 2008 Last

Duchowski, Andrew T.

274

World energy: Building a sustainable future  

SciTech Connect

As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world's major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

1992-04-01

275

World energy: Building a sustainable future  

SciTech Connect

As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world`s major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

1992-04-01

276

GSSD: Global System for Sustainable Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A project of the Global Accords Consortium for Sustainable Development (located at MIT), this site offers a collection of over 2,500 abstracted, indexed, and cross-referenced online resources on sustainable development. Users have four options for searching the index: text (keyword and advanced) and three graphical browsers, one indexing all holdings (organized by subject and problems and solutions), the others covering industry related topics and the Alliance for Global Sustainability (AGS), respectively. Initial search returns include title, "slice" (subject), and "ring" (problem area). Item titles link to further information, including an abstract and the resource itself. GSSD also features a modest selection of full-text reports on "scientific developments and/or policy deliberations." The Consortium plans to make the entire knowledge base available in at least nine additional languages in the future.

277

Food Systems Planning and Sustainable Cities and Regions: The Role of the Firm in Sustainable Food Capitalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Donald B. Food systems planning and sustainable cities and regions: the role of the firm in sustainable food capitalism, Regional Studies. This paper takes stock of the growing food systems planning movement in North American cities, regions and towns as a possibility for sustainable regional development through the lens of new directions in everyday food practices. Drawing upon theoretical insights

Betsy Donald

2008-01-01

278

Sustainable Water Use System of Artesian Water in Alluvial Fan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional water use system, developed with the intelligence of the local residents, usually takes advantage of local natural resources and is considered as a sustainable system, because of its energy saving(only forces of nature). For this reason, such kind of water use system is also recommended in some strategic policies for the purpose of a symbiosis between nature and human society. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between human activities and water use systems. This study aims to clarify the mechanism of traditional water use processes in alluvial fan, and in addition, to investigate the important factors which help forming a sustainable water use system from the aspects of natural conditions and human activities. The study area, an alluvial fan region named Adogawa, is located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan and is in the west of Biwa Lake which is the largest lake in Japan. In this alluvial region where the land use is mainly occupied by settlements and paddy fields, a groundwater flowing well system is called "kabata" according to local tradition. During field survey, we took samples of groundwater, river water and lake water as well as measured the potential head of groundwater. The results showed that the upper boundary of flowing water was approximately 88m amsl, which is basically the same as the results reported by Kishi and Kanno (1966). In study area, a rapid increase of water pumping for domestic water use and melting snow during last 50 years, even if the irrigation area has decreased about 30% since 1970, and this fact may cause a decrease in recharge rate to groundwater. However, the groundwater level didn't decline based on the observed results, which is probably contributed by some water conservancy projects on Biwa Lake which maintained the water level of the lake. All the water samples are characterized by Ca-HCO3 type and similar stable isotopic value of ?D and ?18O. Groundwater level in irrigation season is higher than that in non-irrigation season, which indicates that groundwater level is apparently influenced by surface water. Some communities and NPOs working in this area maintain the "kabata" and canal for environment conservation. There are many rules for the local residents when using the water resources. For example, the use of detergents is prohibited for "kabata" users. The residents living upstream also should think of other groundwater users downstream. For this reason, it can be considered that the "kabata" water use method contributed to a symbiosis between ecosystem and human activity The study area case showed that the traditional water use system is useful for forming a sustainable groundwater flowing well use system.

Kishi, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Tase, N.

2013-12-01

279

ECONOMIC AND RISK ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE CROPPING SYSTEMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper evaluates the profitability and economic risks associated with six cropping systems for the Sustainable Agriculture Demonstration site at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Maryland. The six systems are: (1) no-tillage system, (2) corn/soybean system, (3) cover crop system, (...

280

Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†  

PubMed Central

Background In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. Method This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers:changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages,impacts associated with climate change on human health,progress in better understanding wind energy potential through resource assessments and new tools for detailed feasibility and project planning,need for comprehensive monitoring and data analysis, andstate funding requirements and opportunity costs. Conclusion The energy policy choices ahead for Alaska will have important implications for Arctic population health, especially for those villages whose relatively small size and remote locations make energy a key component of subsistence lifestyles and community sustainability. Wind generation can contribute to meeting renewable energy goals and is a particularly important resource for rural and remote Alaskan communities currently dependent on diesel fuel for generating electricity and heat. PMID:23971014

Konkel, R. Steven

2013-01-01

281

Energy systems transformation  

PubMed Central

The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO2 emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the “Success to the Successful” mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy—the largest business on Earth—expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

Dangerman, A. T. C. Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

2013-01-01

282

Energy systems transformation.  

PubMed

The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

2013-02-12

283

NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to configure the rocket for the mission. The SLS affordability plan includes streamlining interfaces, applying risk-based insight into contracted work, centralizing systems engineering and integration, and nurturing a learning culture where the question Why? is often asked and the answer "Because we've always done it that way" is rarely heard. The SLS Program will deliver affordable space transportation solutions for the Orion Multi-Purpose Cargo Vehicle s first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021. As this briefing will show, the SLS will offer a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations.

May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

284

Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy future.  

PubMed

Access to clean, affordable and reliable energy has been a cornerstone of the world's increasing prosperity and economic growth since the beginning of the industrial revolution. Our use of energy in the twenty-first century must also be sustainable. Solar and water-based energy generation, and engineering of microbes to produce biofuels are a few examples of the alternatives. This Perspective puts these opportunities into a larger context by relating them to a number of aspects in the transportation and electricity generation sectors. It also provides a snapshot of the current energy landscape and discusses several research and development opportunities and pathways that could lead to a prosperous, sustainable and secure energy future for the world. PMID:22895334

Chu, Steven; Majumdar, Arun

2012-08-16

285

Scientific challenges in sustainable energy technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe and evaluate the technical, political, and economic challenges involved with widespread adoption of renewable energy technologies. First, we estimate fossil fuel resources and reserves and, together with the current and projected global primary power production rates, estimate the remaining years of oil, gas, and coal. We then compare the conventional price of fossil energy with that from renewable

Nathan Lewis

2006-01-01

286

An Analysis of Hybrid Life Support Systems for Sustainable Habitats  

E-print Network

The design of sustainable habitats on Earth, on other planetary surfaces, and in space, has motivated strategic planning with respect to life support (LS) system technology development and habitat design. Such planning ...

Shaw, Margaret Miller

2014-01-01

287

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH RESEARCH (SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The major technical efforts under the management of NRMRL's Sustainable Technology Division's Systems Analysis Branch (SAB) are organized under research programs. Listed below are the SAB research programs and brief descriptions of their function. Simulation & Design -- This pro...

288

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Sustainable Vegetable Production and Nutrition Systems  

E-print Network

quality/human nutrition. The successful candidate will establish innovative research and outreach programsASSISTANT PROFESSOR Sustainable Vegetable Production and Nutrition Systems The Department will develop a nationally and internationally recognized program in vegetable crop nutrition and soil fertility

Isaacs, Rufus

289

Sustainable Development, Systems Thinking and Professional Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the impact of the sustainable development (SD) agenda on the occupational and professional needs of those who have undergone educational and training programmes in the environmental field either at the undergraduate or the postgraduate level or through relevant professional institutions' continuing professional development…

Martin, Stephen

2008-01-01

290

SIMULATED EXPERIMENTS WITH COMPLEX SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The concept of sustainability is associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development: "Development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future." But the construction of practi...

291

SYSTEMS METRICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT FOR SUSTAINABILITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The concept of sustainability is often associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "... development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future ...". Hence, sus...

292

Toward a sustainable regional electricity system: The case of Kangwaon Province in Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Korea's exceptional economic growth for the last three decades has been accompanied by a rapid growth in commercial energy use. While the world increased its total primary energy consumption by 1.7 percent annually during the period between 1971 and 1994, Korea expanded its consumption level by 8.5 percent during the same period. The first quarter of the twenty-first century will be a period when energy consumption in Korea escalates even further, particularly in electricity consumption. This projection raises potential conflicts between Korea's economic growth and Korea's participation in international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Noh, 1991). A sustainable energy system is likely to promote sustainable development. However, Korea's current electricity system mainly comprised of fossil fuels and nuclear power is unsustainable in the context of energy, environment, and economy (E3). As a means of addressing the problem, this study introduces the country's electricity system shaped by the actions of local regions. How a local region, such as Kangwon Province in Korea, might take steps to mitigate the problems associated with Korea's current electricity system? Reducing regional electricity requirements through end-use efficiency improvements in electric appliances, buildings, and industrial processes is fundamentally important. Decentralized and renewable-oriented electricity supply options are also important to the success of region-based sustainable electricity systems. This dissertation compares environmental and economic benefits between the conventional and sustainable electricity systems to meet electricity requirements in Kangwon Province in the year 2010. The results clearly indicate that the region-based sustainable electricity system gives significant benefits to the Province in terms of energy, economy, and environment. In the final chapter, policy guidelines are developed to implement region-based sustainable electricity plans.

Jung, Inwhan

293

Plasma and Technology Programme National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

1 Plasma and Technology Programme National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy Technical University METHODS OF OZONE GENERATION BY MICRO-PLASMA CONCEPT Authors A. Fateev, A. Chiper, W. Chen and E. Stamate-1-6365 project devoted to plasma-assisted DeNOx. Ozone is as a key agent in plasma NOx reduction because

294

Sustainable development of hydropower and biomass energy in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with policies to meet the increasing energy demand for electricity and domestic heating in Turkey. Air pollutant emissions due to power generation and their harmful effects on the environment are also presented. We also argue in favor of small scale dams for sustainable development. Turkey has a total gross hydropower potential of 433 GW, but only 125

K Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

295

Sustainable biomass production for energy in selected Asian countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a synthesis of assessment of sustainable biomass production potential in six Asian countries—China, India, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand, and is based on the detailed studies carried out in these countries under the Asian Regional Research Programme in Energy, Environment and Climate (ARRPEEC). National level studies were undertaken to estimate land availability for biomass production, identify

S. C. Bhattacharya; P. Abdul Salam; H. L. Pham; N. H. Ravindranath

2003-01-01

296

Is nuclear fusion a sustainable energy form? A. M. Bradshaw  

E-print Network

Is nuclear fusion a sustainable energy form? A. M. Bradshaw Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics million years. The fuels for nuclear fusion ­ lithium and deuterium ­ satisfy this condition because multipliers foreseen for fusion power plants, in particular beryllium, represent a major supply problem

297

High Economic Growth, Equity and Sustainable Energy Development of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has been experiencing sustained high economic growth in the recentyears. However, there exists substantial amount of unacceptable poverty among the people in the country. The expressions of symptoms of such poverty include among others inadequate educational and health attainment of the people and lack of access to basic amenities like modern clean energy, safe water and sanitation which are

Ramprasad Sengupta

2007-01-01

298

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers  

E-print Network

's stubborn dominance as a transportation fuel, a new policy instrument known as a low-carbon fuel standard to encourage low-carbon fuels must address. First, an accounting of the climate impacts of biofuels should and pollutants such as aerosols and black carbon. Third, more #12;250 SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS

California at Davis, University of

299

NextSTEPS (Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways) PROGRAM SUMMARY  

E-print Network

fuels, "smart growth" land use, and low carbon options for heavy duty trucks, air, and marine transportNextSTEPS (Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways) PROGRAM SUMMARY Institute of Transportation associated with the transition to new fuels and vehicles, the UC Davis Institute of Transportation Studies

California at Davis, University of

300

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers  

E-print Network

low-carbon fuels should consider addressing. First, instead of treating emissions that occurSUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers Edited by Joan Ogden and Lorraine Anderson #12;Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis One

California at Davis, University of

301

Sustaining Performance Improvements in Energy Intensive Industries  

E-print Network

Experience has shown that significant opportunity for performance improvements exists in energy intensive operations. Often, efforts to improve efficiency focus on vendor-led initiatives to improve operations of particular equipment. This approach...

Moore, D. A.

2005-01-01

302

Decision support system for the sustainable forest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the methodological component of a decision support system being developed for the sustainable forest management at the forest management unit level. A geographic information system-based multi-criteria evaluation technique for measuring sustainability of forest management is under development. It integrates and utilises spatial and temporal data on diverse ecological, economic and social variables, while handling data and decision-rule

Vivek K. Varma; Ian Ferguson; Ian Wild

2000-01-01

303

Renewable energy for an environmentally sustainable energy future  

SciTech Connect

One of the major objectives of the renewable energy program is to allow the employment of environmentally benign energy technologies based upon the sun. Other objectives include national energy independence and industrial competitiveness in future energy technology markets. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (formerly SERI) in Golden, Colorado, has for 15 years been the lead U.S. laboratory in research on photovoltaics, wind energy systems, and ethanol from biomass. During this period, substantional cost reductions were achieved and efficiencies improved. NREL also works closely with industry to facilitate the commercialization of these and related technologies. As much as 50% of NREL funding goes to industry in cost-shared contracts for research and development, planned with industry representatives and the U.S. Department of Energy. Besides lessening dependence on fossil fuels and their short-term environmental impacts, these technologies will also alleviate the impact on the potential global warming issue. Other direct environmental research at NREL is the solar-detox program, in which solar radiation is employed to destroy hazardous organic materials in ground water and other waste streams.

Sunderman, D.N. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

1993-12-31

304

Systems approaches for the design of sustainable agro-ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of agricultural systems and the need to fulfil multiple objectives in sustainable agro-ecosystems call for interdisciplinary analyzes and input from a wide variety of disciplines in order to better understand the complete agronomic production system. Systems approaches have been developed to support these interdisciplinary studies; their development and use have increased strongly in the past decades. Agronomic systems

M. J. Kropff; J. Bouma; J. W. Jones

2001-01-01

305

A Systems Approach to Develop Sustainable Water Supply Infrastructure and Management  

EPA Science Inventory

In a visit to Zhejiang University, China, Dr. Y. Jeffrey Yang will discuss in this presentation the system approach for urban water infrastructure sustainability. Through a system analysis, it becomes clear at an urban scale that the energy and water efficiencies of a water supp...

306

Sustainability evaluation of Sicily's lemon and orange production: an energy, economic and environmental analysis.  

PubMed

The island of Sicily has a long standing tradition in citrus growing. We evaluated the sustainability of orange and lemon orchards, under organic and conventional farming, using an energy, environmental and economic analysis of the whole production cycle by using a life cycle assessment approach. These orchard systems differ only in terms of a few of the inputs used and the duration of the various agricultural operations. The quantity of energy consumption in the production cycle was calculated by multiplying the quantity of inputs used by the energy conversion factors drawn from the literature. The production costs were calculated considering all internal costs, including equipment, materials, wages, and costs of working capital. The performance of the two systems (organic and conventional), was compared over a period of fifty years. The results, based on unit surface area (ha) production, prove the stronger sustainability of the organic over the conventional system, both in terms of energy consumption and environmental impact, especially for lemons. The sustainability of organic systems is mainly due to the use of environmentally friendly crop inputs (fertilizers, not use of synthetic products, etc.). In terms of production costs, the conventional management systems were more expensive, and both systems were heavily influenced by wages. In terms of kg of final product, the organic production system showed better environmental and energy performances. PMID:23850762

Pergola, M; D'Amico, M; Celano, G; Palese, A M; Scuderi, A; Di Vita, G; Pappalardo, G; Inglese, P

2013-10-15

307

Educational buildings stocks refurbishment, a double opportunity: massive energy savings, education of youngsters about sustainable development  

E-print Network

information to define the book of specifications of the building energy management system. Our work on the educational buildings stock is also a way to inform and thus to educate teaching team and young people to sustainable development by showing them a...

Couillaud, N.

308

Sustainable Water and Energy in Gaza Strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shortage of fresh water is a common problem in different areas of the world including the Middle East. Desalination of seawater and brackish water is the cheapest way to obtain fresh water in many regions. This research focuses on the situation in Gaza Strip where there is a severe shortage in the energy and water supply. The depletion of fresh water supplies and lack of wastewater treatments result in environmental problems. A solar powered cogeneration plant producing water and energy is proposed to be a suitable solution for Gaza Strip. Solar energy, using Concentrating Solar thermal Power (CSP) technologies, is used to produce electricity by a steam cycle power plant. Then the steam is directed to a desalination plant where it is used to heat the seawater to obtain freshwater. The main objective of this research is to outline a solution for the water problems in Gaza Strip, which includes a cogeneration (power and water) solar powered plant. The research includes four specific objectives: 1- an environmental and economic comparison between solar and fossil fuel energies; 2- technical details for the cogeneration plant; 3- cost and funding, 4- the benefits.

Hamdan, L.; Zarei, M.; Chianelli, R.; Gardner, E.

2007-12-01

309

A Robust Strategy for Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

as a com- modity is running out. Just six or seven years ago the world seemed awash in oil, yet today many pundits predict the end of oil and indeed the end of the fossil-fuel era.1 With its recent merger Even if the world's oil resources are indeed plentiful, world energy supply remains very much

310

Sustainable Production of Switchgrass for Biomass Energy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 grass native to the North American tallgrass prairies, which historically extended from Mexico to Canada. It is the model perennial warm-season grass for biomass energy. USDA-ARS in Lincoln, NE has studied switchgrass continuously since 1936. Plot-scale rese...

311

Sustainable humanosphere with energy from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humanospheric science is very important for human future. Humanospheric science is defined as an interdisciplinary science to conduct research concerning the humanosphere. To maintain human welfare and current living standards, or even to avoid perishing disaster during this century, issues on energy, food and the environment should be seriously discussed and solved. The increasing demand for electricity, on the other

H. Matsumoto; N. Shinohara

2005-01-01

312

An operational system for evaluating sustainability of organic, integrated and conventional farming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural researchers widely recognise the importance of sustainable agricultural production systems and the need to develop appropriate methods to measure sustainability. The principal purpose of this paper is to evaluate the financial and environmental aspects of sustainability of Organic, Integrated and Conventional Farming Systems (OFS, IFS, and CFS, respectively) at farm and more detailed spatial scales. This is achieved applying

C. Pacini; G. Lazzerini; C. Vazzana; G. Giesen; G. A. A. Wossink

2002-01-01

313

ExxonMobil Global Energy Management System  

E-print Network

of our refineries and chemical plants. The system builds on international best practices and benchmarking to identify energy efficiencies. Launched in 2000, it utilizes a common methodology to identify performance gaps, implement closure plans, sustain...

Roberto, F.

314

Towards a sustainable energy future: realities and opportunities.  

PubMed

My purpose in this paper is threefold. First, I would like to examine why the world needs us to produce more energy. Second, I will look at the range of energy sources available for a sustainable future. A number of myths have grown up around the various energy sources and their relative contribution to addressing the global energy challenge: I will seek to dispel some of those. Third, I want to highlight what I see as an urgent need: for more informed decision making and more action in this complex area. PMID:21464076

Armstrong, Lynda

2011-05-13

315

Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis  

PubMed Central

The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony. PMID:25254225

Feng, Huirong; Lim, C. W.; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

2014-01-01

316

Sustainable deforestation evaluation model and system dynamics analysis.  

PubMed

The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony. PMID:25254225

Feng, Huirong; Lim, C W; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

2014-01-01

317

Stoked nondynamos: sustaining field in magnetically non-closed systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much effort has gone into identifying and classifying systems that might be capable of dynamo action, i.e. capable of generating and sustaining magnetic field indefinitely against dissipative effects in a conducting fluid. However, it is difficult, if not almost technically impossible, to derive a method of determining in both an absolutely conclusive and a pragmatic manner whether a system is a dynamo or not in the nonlinear regime. This problem has generally been examined only for closed systems, despite the fact that most realistic situations of interest are not strictly closed. Here we examine the even more complex problem of whether a known nondynamo closed system can be distinguished pragmatically from a true dynamo when a small input of magnetic field to the system is allowed. We call such systems ‘stoked nondynamos’ owing to the ‘stoking’ or augmentation of the magnetic field in the system. It may seem obvious that magnetic energy can be sustained in such systems since there is an external source, but crucial questions remain regarding what level is maintained and whether such nondynamo systems can be distinguished from a true dynamo. In this paper, we perform 3D nonlinear numerical simulations with time-dependent ABC forcing possessing known dynamo properties. We find that magnetic field can indeed be maintained at a significant stationary level when stoking a system that is a nondynamo when not stoked. The maintained state results generally from an eventual rough balance of the rates of input and decay of magnetic field. We find that the relevance of this state is dictated by a parameter ? representing the correlation of the resultant field with the stoking forcing function. The interesting regime is where ? is small but non-zero, as this represents a middle ground between a state where the stoking has no effect on the pre-existing nondynamo properties and a state where the effect of stoking is easily detectable. We find that in this regime, (a) the saturated state is somewhat unexpectedly enhanced by a bias resulting from the random fluctuating statistics of the decay process, and (b) the state is indistinguishable from a true dynamo except via ? itself. Such results make the pragmatic identification of dynamos in real situations even more difficult than had previously been thought.

Byington, B. M.; Brummell, N. H.; Stone, J. M.; Gough, D. O.

2014-08-01

318

AFFORDABLE, SUSTAINABLE SOLAR ENERGY HEATER FOR THE DEVELOPING WORLD  

EPA Science Inventory

The proposed research project question is: ?What is an optimum, low-cost, and sustainable system for basic home water heating in underdeveloped areas of the planet?? In the United States, the availability of hot water is taken for granted. A knob is turned and hot water appea...

319

Sustainable tourism systems: The example of sustainable rural tourism in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of what is required of a sustainable tourism system with its two main aspects, demand and supply, and the meeting?places between them. The term tourism refers to leisure travel away from home. As regards the demand side, the paper gives an overview of the motives for and restrictions on travel;

Lars Aronsson

1994-01-01

320

Sustainable Energy without the hot air  

E-print Network

of the public to say `no' to wind farms, `no' to nuclear power, `no' to tidal barrages ­ `no' to anything other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 17 Osmotic power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 18 Technology systems; and a ten- or twenty-fold increase in wind power and nuclear power, for example. Given

MacKay, David J.C.

321

Proceedings of ES2008 Energy Sustainability 2008  

E-print Network

advantages of using an internal combustion (IC) engine in lieu of an electric motor for a heat pump system the advantages of using waste heat from a combustion engine are well recognized, the wide range of options2008-54110 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A GAS-ENGINE-DRIVEN HEAT PUMP Isaac Y. Mahderekal; Team Consulting

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

322

Strategies for Enhancing Sustainability of Urban Water Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Operation of existing urban water systems can be enhanced by implementing sustainability strategies. Two types of such strategies\\u000a were examined: rainwater harvesting and use, and sustainable wastewater management. The first strategy contributes to reduced\\u000a imports of source water into urban areas and reduced runoff from urban areas, the second one promotes pollution prevention\\u000a and recovery of resources, including reclaimed water,

Jiri Marsalek

323

Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation  

E-print Network

Is Not Enough For the past quarter century, the energy efficiency community has worked hard to focus on energy1 Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Siderius ABSTRACT We argue that a primary focus on energy efficiency may not be sufficient to slow (and

Diamond, Richard

324

Sustainability of energy and carbon capture and storage for Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study, as study herein, is intended to approach a different way to provide sustainability of energy and environment by different aspects for Turkey. This study investigates the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey for non-emissions of GHG and elaborates on a carbon capture and storage technology by creating a roadmap for Turkey. The main purpose of this study is to make a roadmap about carbon capture and storage (CCS) for Turkey to use as it proceeds. As one of the members of International Panel of Climate Change, which signed Kyoto protocol, it must adapt its acts and regulations. In addition, this study concentrates on the sustainable energy potential of Turkey, although the study investigated only the alternative energy resources suitable for Turkey: solar, wind, geothermal, bio-energy, and hydropower. There are huge numbers of potential renewable energy sources, and given Turkey's total energy demand of 106.3 million tons equivalent petroleum in 2010, only solar potential would be able to eventually supply the total demand, but energy from the wind and hydropower are sufficient to provide partial amounts. This study might help policy makers in their decisions regarding CCS technology. Currently, there are various technical and non-technical economic and social challenges that prevent CCS from become an extensively used commercial technology. This document discusses them and presents goals for each research pathway.

Alpsar, Cengiz

325

Interlocal collaboration on energy efficiency, sustainability and climate change issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interlocal energy collaboration builds upon network structures among local policy actors dealing with energy, climate change and sustainability issues. Collaboration efforts overcome institutional collective action (ICA) dilemmas, and cope with the problems spanning jurisdictional boundaries, externalities, and free-rider problems. Interlocal energy collaboration emerges as the agreements in greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction, pollution control, land use, purchasing, retrofits, transportation, and so forth. Cities work collaboratively through contractual mechanisms (i.e. formal/informal agreements) and collective mechanisms (i.e. regional partnerships or membership organizations) on a variety of energy issues. What factors facilitate interlocal energy collaboration? To what extent is collaboration through interlocal contractual mechanisms different from collective mechanisms? This dissertation tries to answer these questions by examining: city goal priority on energy related issues as well as other ICA explanatory factors. Research data are drawn mainly from the 2010 national survey "Implementation of energy efficiency and sustainability program" supported by National Science Foundation and the IBM Endowment for the Business of Government. The research results show that city emphasis on common pool resource, scale economies and externality issues significantly affect individual selection of tools for energy collaboration. When expected transaction costs are extremely high or low, the contractual mechanism of informal agreement is more likely to be selected to preserve most local autonomy and flexibility; otherwise, written and formal tools for collaboration are preferred to impose constraints on individual behavior and reduce the risks of defection.

Chen, Ssu-Hsien

326

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

& Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308, and Alicen Kandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory John Glassmire and Peter Lilienthal HOMER Energy LLC of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy

327

Hydropower as a renewable and sustainable energy resource meeting global energy challenges in a reasonable way  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central and State Governments in many countries have enacted laws and regulations to promote renewable energy and to encourage sustainable technologies. In doing so, they had to define what they meant by “renewable” and “sustainable”, and they had to decide which particular technologies or organizations would be eligible for subsidies and tax concessions, and which others would be excluded. Not

Gary W. Frey; Deborah M. Linke

2002-01-01

328

Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

2003-01-01

329

High efficiency nonequilibrium air plasmas sustained by high energy electrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Plasma Ramparts MURI goal is to sustain a volume-filling, nonequilibrium plasma with an electron number density of 1013 electrons\\/cm3 in atmospheric pressure air at temperatures at or below 2000 K, with the minimum expenditure of power. That minimum depends directly on the energy cost of ionization. In this paper, approaches to minimize the cost of ionization are examined.

R. B. Miles; S. O. Macheret; M. N. Shneider

2001-01-01

330

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and  

E-print Network

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Maximizing Thermal Efficiency data to advance efficiency for improving system- level operation of energy infrastructure. This data

331

What is a Hurricane? Tropical system with maximum sustained  

E-print Network

· Abnormal rise in sea level accompanying a hurricane. #12;Storm Surge Flooding-Katrina #12;HurricaneHurricane 101 #12;What is a Hurricane? · Tropical system with maximum sustained surface wind of 74 mph or greater. A hurricane is the worst and the strongest of all tropical systems. · Also known

Meyers, Steven D.

332

Environmental impacts and sustainability of egg production systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As part of a systemic assessment toward social sustainability of egg production, we have reviewed current knowledge about the environmental impacts of egg production systems and identified topics requiring further research. Currently, we know that 1) high-rise cage houses generally have poorer air q...

333

Sustainability, Complexity and Learning: Insights from Complex Systems Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore core contributions from two different approaches to complexity management in organisations aiming to improve their sustainability,: the Viable Systems Model (VSM), and the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). It is proposed to perform this by summarising the main insights each approach offers to…

Espinosa, A.; Porter, T.

2011-01-01

334

Energy Security, Innovation & Sustainability Initiative Prioritize.A 100-Day Energy Action Plan  

E-print Network

Energy Security, Innovation & Sustainability Initiative Prioritize.A 100-Day Energy Action Plan recognizes that energy will be a defining challenge for the new Administration--for economic competitiveness, national security and long-term environmental sus- tainability. Energy price and supply volatility impact

335

Proceedings of ASME 2010 4th International Conference on Energy Sustainability May 17-22, 2010 Phoenix, Arizona, USA  

E-print Network

systems (the Native American Energy Analysis Tool, or NAEPA), the new homes are predicted to emit less at the multiple objectives of financing, construction emissions, and use-phase energy consumption [31 Proceedings of ASME 2010 4th International Conference on Energy Sustainability ES2010 May 17

Agogino, Alice M.

336

Assessment of renewable energy technology and a case of sustainable energy in mobile telecommunication sector.  

PubMed

The rapid growth of the mobile telecommunication sectors of many emerging countries creates a number of problems such as network congestion and poor service delivery for network operators. This results primarily from the lack of a reliable and cost-effective power solution within such regions. This study presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles of the renewable energy technology (RET) with the objective of ensuring a reliable and cost-effective energy solution for a sustainable development in the emerging world. The grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system incorporating a power conversion and battery storage unit has been proposed based on the availability, dynamism, and technoeconomic viability of energy resources within the region. The proposed system's performance validation applied a simulation model developed in MATLAB, using a practical load data for different locations with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Results indicate that, apart from being environmentally friendly, the increase in the overall energy throughput of about 4 kWh/$ of the proposed system would not only improve the quality of mobile services, by making the operations of GSM base stations more reliable and cost effective, but also better the living standards of the host communities. PMID:24578673

Okundamiya, Michael S; Emagbetere, Joy O; Ogujor, Emmanuel A

2014-01-01

337

Assessment of Renewable Energy Technology and a Case of Sustainable Energy in Mobile Telecommunication Sector  

PubMed Central

The rapid growth of the mobile telecommunication sectors of many emerging countries creates a number of problems such as network congestion and poor service delivery for network operators. This results primarily from the lack of a reliable and cost-effective power solution within such regions. This study presents a comprehensive review of the underlying principles of the renewable energy technology (RET) with the objective of ensuring a reliable and cost-effective energy solution for a sustainable development in the emerging world. The grid-connected hybrid renewable energy system incorporating a power conversion and battery storage unit has been proposed based on the availability, dynamism, and technoeconomic viability of energy resources within the region. The proposed system's performance validation applied a simulation model developed in MATLAB, using a practical load data for different locations with varying climatic conditions in Nigeria. Results indicate that, apart from being environmentally friendly, the increase in the overall energy throughput of about 4?kWh/$ of the proposed system would not only improve the quality of mobile services, by making the operations of GSM base stations more reliable and cost effective, but also better the living standards of the host communities. PMID:24578673

Okundamiya, Michael S.; Emagbetere, Joy O.; Ogujor, Emmanuel A.

2014-01-01

338

Indicators to support environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems  

SciTech Connect

Indicators are needed to assess environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Effective indicators will help in the quantification of benefits and costs of bioenergy options and resource uses. We identify 19 measurable indicators for soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse gases, biodiversity, air quality, and productivity, building on existing knowledge and on national and international programs that are seeking ways to assess sustainable bioenergy. Together, this suite of indicators is hypothesized to reflect major environmental effects of diverse feedstocks, management practices, and post-production processes. The importance of each indicator is identified. Future research relating to this indicator suite is discussed, including field testing, target establishment, and application to particular bioenergy systems. Coupled with such efforts, we envision that this indicator suite can serve as a basis for the practical evaluation of environmental sustainability in a variety of bioenergy systems.

Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; McBride, Allen [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2011-01-01

339

Evaluating the sustainability of a regional system using Fisher information in the San Luis Basin, Colorado.  

PubMed

This paper describes the theory, data, and methodology necessary for using Fisher information to assess the sustainability of the San Luis Basin (SLB) regional system over time. Fisher information was originally developed as a measure of the information content in data and is an important method in information theory. Our adaptation of Fisher information provides a means of monitoring the variables of a system to characterize dynamic order, and, therefore, its regimes and regime shifts. This work is part of the SLB Sustainability Metrics Project, which aimed to evaluate movement over time towards or away from regional sustainability. One of the key goals of this project was to use readily available data to assess the sustainability of the system including its environmental, social and economic aspects. For this study, Fisher information was calculated for fifty-three variables which characterize the consumption of food and energy, agricultural production, environmental characteristics, demographic properties and changes in land use for the SLB system from 1980 to 2005. Our analysis revealed that while the system displayed small changes in dynamic order over time with a slight decreasing trend near the end of the period, there is no indication of a regime shift. Therefore, the SLB system is stable with very slight movement away from sustainability in more recent years. PMID:21930337

Eason, Tarsha; Cabezas, Heriberto

2012-02-01

340

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Stationary and Portable Fuel Cell Systems Codes and Standards Citations  

E-print Network

and Ventilation Exhaust Systems · 1.12.1 Manual Valves · 1.12.2 Automatic Valves · 1.12.3 Pressure Regulators or regulations. Learn about codes and standards basics at www International Fire Code (International Code Council 2009) · 2703.2.2 Piping, Tubing, Valves, and Fittings · 2703

341

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

& Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Clean.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303

342

The Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) Model for Energy Service Delivery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change, energy price spikes, and concerns about energy security have reignited interest in state and local efforts to promote end-use energy efficiency, customer-sited renewable energy, and energy conservation. Government agencies and utilities have historically designed and administered such demand-side measures, but innovative…

Houck, Jason; Rickerson, Wilson

2009-01-01

343

Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport currently represents approximately 19% of the global energy demand and accounts for about 23% of the global carbon dioxide emissions (IEA 2009). As the demand for mobility is expected to continue to increase in the coming decades, the stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels will require the evolution of transport, along with power generation, building design and manufacturing. The continued development of these sectors will need to include changes in energy sources, energy delivery, materials, infrastructure and human behavior. Pathways to reducing carbon from the transport sector have unique challenges and opportunities that are inherent to the human choices and behavioral patterns that mold the transportation systems and the associated energy needs. Technology, government investment, and regulatory policies have a significant impact on the formulation of transportation infrastructure; however, the role of human behavior and public acceptance on the efficiency and effectiveness of transport systems should not be underestimated. Although developed, rapidly developing, and underdeveloped nations face different challenges in the establishment of transport infrastructure that can meet transport needs while achieving sustainable carbon dioxide emissions, the constraints that establish the domain of possibilities are closely related for all nations. These constraints include capital investment, fuel supplies, power systems, and human behavior. Throughout the world, there are considerable efforts directed at advancing and optimizing the financing of sustainable infrastructures, the production of low carbon fuels, and the production of advanced power systems, but the foundational work on methods to understand human preferences and behavior within the context of transport and the valuation of reductions in carbon dioxide emissions is greatly lagging behind. These methods and the associated understanding of human behavior and the willingness to pay for reduced carbon emissions are central to the design and optimization of future low carbon transport systems. Gaker et al (2011) suggest a framework, and provide insight into the willingness of transport consumers to pay for emission reductions of carbon dioxide from their personal transport choices within the context of other attributes of transport variables. The results of this study, although limited to a small demographic segment of the US population, demonstrate that people can integrate information on greenhouse gas emissions with other transport attributes including cost and time. Likewise, the research shows that the study group was willing to pay for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions associated with their transport choices. The study examined auto purchase choice, transport mode choice and transport route choice, which represent key decisions associated with transport that impact greenhouse gas emissions. Interestingly, they found that the study group was willing to pay for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at a relatively consistent price across these transport choices. Clearly, the study results may not broadly apply to all demographics of users of transport, even in the study domain, due to the small demographic segment that was examined and the fact that the study was conducted in the laboratory. However, the methods used by Gaker et al (2011) are cause for optimism that future studies can obtain much needed mapping of transport preferences and willingness to pay for greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with personal transport choices. Although the Gaker et al (2011) study is directed at understanding the promotion of low carbon transport in the context of existing infrastructures, the ability of these studies to elucidate human behavior and preferences within the trade-offs of transport are critical to the design of future transport systems that seek to meet transport demand with constrained greenhouse gas emissions. Additional studies of this nature that examine broader demographic groups in real world conditions are greatly need

Schauer, James J.

2011-09-01

344

Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

Sahid, E. J. M.; Siang, C. Ch; Peng, L. Y.

2013-06-01

345

CONTRIBUCIÓN DE LA ENERGÍA AL DESARROLLO DE COMUNIDADES AISLADAS NO INTERCONECTADAS: UN CASO DE APLICACIÓN DE LA DINÁMICA DE SISTEMAS Y LOS MEDIOS DE VIDA SOSTENIBLES EN EL SUROCCIDENTE COLOMBIANO CONTRIBUTION OF THE ENERGY AT DEVELOPMENT OF ISLATED COMMUNITIES IN NOT INTERCONNECTED ZONES: A CASE OF APPLICATION OF THE SYSTEMS DYNAMICS AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS IN THE COLOMBIAN SOUTHWEST  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the problem of rural energization in isolated regions of Colombia (Not interconnected zones - NIS). Using the sustainable livelihood approach we assess the situation of the isolated communities before and after energization. System dynamics is used for simulation and evaluated energy policies. We apply our approach to the municipality of Jambaló in the Cauca department.

CARLOS FRANCO; ISAAC DYNER; SANTIAGO HOYOS

2008-01-01

346

Opportunities for GEOGLAM to contribute to Food Systems Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEO-GLAM) community of practice was formed, there has been much interest in how this community can be leveraged to address a series of challenges that has received recognition from a variety of stakeholder groups across acacemia, government, the private sector and multilateral international organizations. This talk will review the collaborative network that has formed around the on-going and planned activities of GEOGLAM, and how future research and development activities within and around GEOGLAM can contribute to the innovation ecosystem around agricultural monitoring and how monitoring activities can contribute to informing decision processes from stakeholders ranging from farmers to policy-makers and other key stakeholders. These collaborative activities revolve around sharing data, information, knowledge, analytics, improved reflections of risks, and opportunities related to humanity's sustainable provisioning at the land/water/energy nexus. The goal of extending GEOGLAMs collaborative activities is to mobilize aligned assets and commitments to set up more ordered approaches to describing and managing the dynamics of food systems, viewed more holistically as sets of nested geospatially and temporally explicit processes. A special focus will be given to how information assets originating from within GEOGLAM can be used to support a coherent visualization of the world's food systems along with improving representation of the resource bases upon which our survival depends

LeZaks, D.; Jahn, M.

2013-12-01

347

Placing ecosystem sustainability within the context of dynamic earth systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the concept of ecosystem sustainability and the practice of sustainable land management both have long-term foci, it is necessary to view these from the perspective of dynamic rather than static systems. In addition to the typical static system approach for assessing ecosystem sustainability, three additional perspectives are presented. These are resilient systems, systems where tipping points occur, and systems subject to episodic geophysical resetting. Ecosystem resilience accommodates both natural and anthropogenic stressors and should be considered to properly frame many ecosystem assessments. A more complex problem emerges when stressors push systems to tipping points, causing a regime shift. Both chronic anthropogenic activities (e.g., over-grazing, forest conversion, poor irrigation practices) and natural changes (e.g., climate anomalies, geochemical weathering, tectonic uplift, vegetative succession) can exhaust ecosystem resilience leading to a rapid change in state. Anthropogenic perturbations can also lower the initiation threshold and increase the magnitude and frequency of certain natural disasters, increasing the likelihood of ecosystem change. Furthermore, when major episodic geophysical events (e.g., large earthquakes, tsunami, and floods; widespread volcanic activity and landslides) exceed thresholds of ecosystem resilience they may reset the attributes of entire systems or landscapes. Large disasters can initiate a cascade of linked events, as in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, where tsunami, fires, landslides, artificial fillslope collapses, radioactive releases, and associated health effects occurred. Understanding the potential for natural change (both chronic and episodic) in ecosystems is essential not only to the environmental aspect of sustainability but also to economic and social aspects. Examples are presented for: (1) ecosystems vulnerable to tipping points (Yunnan, China) and (2) ecosystems reset by earthquakes and tsunami (Papua New Guinea and eastern Japan). While these geophysical perturbations and shifts in ecosystems are individually recognized, they are not fully embraced by contemporary sustainability thinking or decision management.

Sidle, R. C.

2013-12-01

348

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

& Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. A Survey of State-Level Cost. Flores-Espino1 , K. Kuskova-Burns1 , and R. Wiser2 1 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 2, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC

349

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

& Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 · www

350

Generating sustainable towns from Chinese villages: a system modeling approach.  

PubMed

The great majority of China's developing towns will be extensions of already existing villages. With the prospect of hundreds of millions of Chinese farmers projected to leave their villages to become industrial workers in new and expanded towns within the next few years, new challenges will be faced. As expansion and modernization progress, this development moves from the traditional village model that operates not far from resource sustainability to increasingly unsustainable patterns of commerce, urban development, and modern life. With such an unprecedented mass migration and transformation, how can Chinese culture survive? What is to become of the existing million plus agricultural villages? How can these massively unsustainable new industrial towns survive? In the European Commission sponsored research program SUCCESS, researchers worked from the scale of the Chinese village to find viable answers to these questions. To address these issues, the Center for Sustainable Cities, one of the SUCCESS teams, studied the metabolism of several small villages. In these studies, system dynamics models of a village's metabolism were created and then modified so that inherently unsustainable means were eliminated from the model (fossil fuels, harmful agricultural chemicals, etc.) and replaced by sustainability-oriented means. Small Chinese farming villages are unlikely to survive in anything like their present form or scale, not least because they are too small to provide the range of life opportunities to which the young generation of educated Chinese aspires. As a response to this realization as well as to the many other threats to the Chinese village and its rural way of life, it was proposed that one viable path into the future would be to enlarge the villages to become full service towns with sufficient diversity of opportunity to be able to attract and keep many of the best and brightest young people who are now migrating to the larger cities. Starting with the village in its sustainability-oriented model form, the village model would be enlarged both quantitatively and qualitatively through many trial iterations. A research program is described whereby an operational definition of the sustainable city is developed as a means of creating these enlarged models through citizen participation assisted by outside experts using software under development called the Sustainability Engine to guide the process and provide feedback as to the consequences of various proposals that are brought to the table. As this process is continued, the village would be incrementally enlarged and made more diverse and more complex through a variety of scenarios until it would emerge as a modern, sustainable town or city. In this way, through a participatory, balance-seeking civil society process involving villagers and scientists in what the Center for Sustainable Cities calls the Sustainable City Game, the villages can become the DNA for generating future sustainable Chinese towns and cities. As an extension of this discussion, a new urban model, the Sustainable City-as-a-Hill, is presented that responds to both the qualities of the traditional Chinese village as well as to the modern demands of industrial and post-industrial economies and, in particular, to the need for sustainable urban patterns. In addition a new concept, the Sustainable Area Budget (SAB) is introduced which definitively creates the boundary condition for both modeling the sustainable city and presenting the quest for the sustainable city-region as a coherent, scientific design process. PMID:17854975

Levine, Richard S; Hughes, Michael T; Ryan Mather, Casey; Yanarella, Ernest J

2008-04-01

351

Alternative Energy Sources for Oil - Rich Countries: (Middle East - Iran) Pathway to Sustainable Energy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy sustainability and environmental policies play significant roles in energy development and planning in developed and developing countries. The present study is being conducted as part of the Energy, Environment, and Economics Program (E3) at the Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). The main objective of this study is to analyze and present alternative

J. Nouri; H. Arastoopour; S. Al-Hallaj

352

Prospective energy needs in Mediterranean offshore aquaculture: Renewable and sustainable energy solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore aquaculture industry is considered among the fastest growing industries worldwide. However, further expansion of this industry requires larger breeding installations positioned even further from shore. These installations inevitably would require substantial automation powered by appropriate energy sources. Thus, this paper investigates appropriate sustainable renewable energy generation solutions to meet anticipated needs. Firstly, an account of energy requirements of a

Michalis Menicou; Vassos Vassiliou

2010-01-01

353

The NERSC Sustained System Performance (SSP) Metric  

SciTech Connect

Most plans and reports recently discuss only one of four distinct purposes benchmarks are used. The obvious purpose is selection of a system from among its competitors, something that is the main focus of this paper. This purpose is well discussed in many workshops and reports. The second use of benchmarks is validating the selected system actually works the way expected once it arrives. This purpose may be more important than the first reason. The second purpose is particularly key when systems are specified and selected based on performance projections rather than actual runs on the actual hardware. The third use of benchmarks, seldom mentioned, is to assure the system performs as expected throughout its lifetime1, (e.g. after upgrades, changes, and regular use.) Finally, benchmarks are used to guide system designs, something covered in detail in a companion paper from Berkeley's Institute for Performance Studies (BIPS).

Kramer, William; Shalf, John; Strohmaier, Erich

2005-09-18

354

Sustainable Transportation: Accelerating Widespread Adoption of Energy Efficient Vehicles & Fuels (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

While energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously slash oil consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a truly sustainable solution will require more than just putting drivers behind the wheels of new fuel-efficient cars. As the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) accelerates widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. Researchers collaborate closely with industry, government, and research partners, using a whole-systems approach to design better batteries, drivetrains, and engines, as well as thermal management, energy storage, power electronic, climate control, alternative fuel, combustion, and emission systems. NREL's sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts are not limited to vehicles, roads, and fueling stations. The lab also explores ways to save energy and reduce GHGs by integrating transportation technology advancements with renewable energy generation, power grids and building systems, urban planning and policy, and fleet operations.

Not Available

2014-12-01

355

Multiple conceptions of sustainable urban water systems: problem or asset?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines various conceptions that researchers and practitioners in the sector have about sustainable urban water systems, to discern what these conceptions are and whether they are complementary or divergent. The study is based on a literature review and field studies, including semi-structured interviews. The results show that the conceptions held by the various actors are largely complementary, the

Ulrika Palme

2009-01-01

356

MONET indicator system: the Swiss road to measuring sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the question of how to build a system of sustainable development indicators that takes into account the needs of users but nevertheless adheres to the principles of impartiality, independence and transparency of public statistics. The approach used in Switzerland on a national level to face this challenge is a three-step process: establishing a frame of reference, developing

Andre De Montmollin; Andrea Scheller

2007-01-01

357

Intermittent or Sustained Systemic Inflammation (ISSI) and the Preterm Brain  

PubMed Central

Exposure to perinatal infection and inflammation is associated with an increased risk for neonatal brain damage and developmental disabilities. In this integrated mechanism review, we discuss evidence in support of the contention that the preterm newborn is capable of intermittent or sustained systemic inflammation (ISSI), which appears to contribute more to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants than does shorter duration inflammation. PMID:24429547

Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan

2014-01-01

358

Role of Ruminant Livestock in Sustainable Agricultural Systems 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ruminants have served and will continue to serve a valuable role in sustainable agricultural systems. They are particularly useful in converting vast renewable resources from rangeland, pasture, and crop residues or other by-products into food edible for humans. With ruminants, land that is too poor or too erodable to cultivate becomes produc- tive. Also, nutrients in by-products are utilized and

J. W. Oltjen; J. L. Beckett

1996-01-01

359

Request for Proposals in Organic & Sustainability Systems Research, Teaching & Outreach  

E-print Network

Submission Deadline: Dec. 8, 2014 The Horticulture Section in the School of Integrative Plant Science as county-based Cornell Cooperative Extension educators. Student-led proposals are welcome for regional efficiency, social equality, and local or regional sustainability of horticulture and food systems. Improve

Pawlowski, Wojtek

360

A decision support system for urban groundwater resource sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the development of a computer based software tool to generate groundwater contaminant data; that can be utilised in the sustainable management of water resources; in urban areas reliant on groundwater. The tool incorporates several models, including a model for simulation of the integrated urban water system within an urban area to estimate contaminant loads, a model that

S. Burn; D. DeSilva; M. Ambrose; S. Meddings; C. Diaper; R. Correll; R. Miller

361

Sustainability of Rainwater Harvesting Systems in Multistorey Residential Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: The urban water supply systems in Australian large cities, which generally depend on large surface water reservoirs, are highly stressed due to rapid urban growth and severe drought conditions during the current decade . To ensure the long term sustainability of urban water supply, various alternative water sources inc luding rainwater tanks, grey water, wastewater and desalination plants

A. Rahman; J. Dbais; M. Imteaz

362

SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics  

EPA Science Inventory

The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

363

Reconciling sustainability, systems theory and discounting Alexey Voinova,, Joshua Farleyb  

E-print Network

-level systems, such as global climate change, many economists question the suitability of discounting future on the opportunity cost of capital, and even lower discount rates for society. For issues affecting even higher and recognition of the exact meaning being implied. Just like biodiversity (Ghilarov, 1996) sustainability has

Vermont, University of

364

Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: Linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.  

PubMed

This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. PMID:25617787

Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

2015-03-15

365

Programming models for energy-aware systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real-world Java programs.

Zhu, Haitao

366

Applying Sustainable Systems Development Approach to Educational Technology Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information technology (IT) is an essential part of modern education. The roles and contributions of technology to education have been thoroughly documented in academic and professional literature. Despite the benefits, the use of educational technology systems (ETS) also creates a significant impact on the environment, primarily due to energy

Huang, Albert

2012-01-01

367

Long-Lasting, Self-Sustaining, and Energy-Harvesting System-in-Package (SiP) Wireless Micro-Sensor Solution  

E-print Network

of this research is to harness, store, and deliver energy from the environment in situ, i.e., in the package be harnessed from the surrounding environment and stored in situ? State-of-the-art micro scarce, thereby shortening operation life. Furthermore, stored energy in state-of-the-art, chip

Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

368

Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

2012-01-01

369

Sustained currents in coupled diffusive systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupling two diffusive systems may give rise to a nonequilibrium stationary state (NESS) with a non-trivial persistent, circulating current. We study a simple example that is exactly soluble, consisting of random walkers with different biases towards a reflecting boundary, modelling, for example, Brownian particles with different charge states in an electric field. We obtain analytical expressions for the concentrations and currents in the NESS for this model, and exhibit the main features of the system by numerical simulation.

Larralde, Hernán; Sanders, David P.

2014-08-01

370

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. #12;Realizing a Clean Energy Future2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Renewable Energy Technical Potential is Enormous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 NREL Financial Analysis Reduces Investment Risk and Helps Mobilize Capital for Renewable Energy

371

Wind energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

Stewart, H. J.

1978-01-01

372

A system approach for reducing the environmental impact of manufacturing and sustainability improvement of nano-scale manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation develops an effective and economical system approach to reduce the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach is developed by using a process-based holistic method for upstream analysis and source reduction of the environmental impact of manufacturing. The system approach developed consists of three components of a manufacturing system: technology, energy and material, and is useful for sustainable

Yingchun Yuan

2009-01-01

373

Energy Policy 29 (2001) 55}65 Sustainable energy and urban form in China: the relevance of  

E-print Network

Energy Policy 29 (2001) 55}65 Sustainable energy and urban form in China: the relevance, increasingly, urban transportation uses. Community energy management (CEM) is a sustainable energy strategy-use planning, urban transportation and residential energy, and then suggests CEM strategies that would

374

Sustainable Energy for Development The evolution of technologies provides remote, non-grid  

E-print Network

Sustainable Energy for Development GOALS: The evolution of technologies provides remote, non and enhancement of developing nations. The participatory students will gain an excellent understanding of energy usage/availability in the developing world context, energy storage technologies, energy economics

Mottram, Nigel

375

Oxygen electrochemistry as a cornerstone for sustainable energy conversion.  

PubMed

Electrochemistry will play a vital role in creating sustainable energy solutions in the future, particularly for the conversion and storage of electrical into chemical energy in electrolysis cells, and the reverse conversion and utilization of the stored energy in galvanic cells. The common challenge in both processes is the development of-preferably abundant-nanostructured materials that can catalyze the electrochemical reactions of interest with a high rate over a sufficiently long period of time. An overall understanding of the related processes and mechanisms occurring under the operation conditions is a necessity for the rational design of materials that meet these requirements. A promising strategy to develop such an understanding is the investigation of the impact of material properties on reaction activity/selectivity and on catalyst stability under the conditions of operation, as well as the application of complementary in situ techniques for the investigation of catalyst structure and composition. PMID:24339359

Katsounaros, Ioannis; Cherevko, Serhiy; Zeradjanin, Aleksandar R; Mayrhofer, Karl J J

2014-01-01

376

Leadership & Sustainability: System Thinkers in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As agencies have pushed for greater performance and public accountability over the past two decades, some incremental improvements have been seen. All too often experience reveals that these improvements are temporary. This book provides a comprehensive examination of what leaders at all levels of the educational system can do to pave the way for…

Fullan, Michael

2004-01-01

377

Sustainable corn-based bioenergy farming systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Harvesting biomass from agricultural fields can decrease soil productivity if nutrients are not replaced and if biomass removal exceeds the C replacement value needed to maintain soil organic matter. Innovative farming systems that recycle nutrients and add C to soil may increase soil quality and th...

378

A SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM: THE \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis examines an innovative approach to transportation policy in Curitiba, Brazil. Curitiba is a city of 1.6 million residents that has grown fourfold in the last 30 years. Unlike many cities, quality of life and transportation has not been a casualty of growth. Curitiba's transportation system actively helps residents obtain the benefits of growth, including access to jobs, homes,

Jonas Rabinovitch; John P. Hoehn

1995-01-01

379

Rev. 4/1/2009 Second Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability  

E-print Network

Rev. 4/1/2009 Second Forum on Energy & Water Sustainability Bren School of Environmental Science. Melack, Dean Bren School) Session 1: Innovations in Energy & Water Efficiency 8:45 Energy (Tibaquira et al.) 9:45 Energy/Water Sustainability and the Electric Power Industry (R. Goldstein et al.) 10

Keller, Arturo A.

380

Use of EU structural funds for sustainable energy development in new EU member states  

Microsoft Academic Search

More wide use of renewable energy sources (RES) and increase in energy supply and use efficiency can make a valuable contribution to the meeting sustainable energy development targets. The article presents a detailed overview of possibilities to use the EU Structural Funds available for new member states (NMS) to finance sustainable energy projects and to overcome market failures related with

Dalia Streimikiene; Valentinas Klevas; Jolanta Bubeliene

2007-01-01

381

Western China energy development and west to east energy transfer: Application of the Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is striving for coordinated regional economic development and to solve the energy shortage in eastern China through a western China development plan with one focus being energy development and west to east energy transfer. This paper describes Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model (WSED) to evaluate various energy development scenarios for western China. The model includes a Western China

Wenying Chen; Hualin Li; Zongxin Wu

2010-01-01

382

An Index of Regional Sustainability: A GIS-based multiple criteria analysis decision support system for progressing sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

GIS (Geographical Information Systems) based decision support tools will be useful in helping guide regions to sustainability. These tools need to be simple but effective at identifying, for regional managers, areas most in need of initiatives to progress sustainability. Multiple criteria analysis (MCA) has been used as a decision support tool for a wide number of applications, as it provides

Michelle L. M. Graymore; Anne M. Wallis; Anneke J. Richards

2009-01-01

383

Energy for the future with Ris from nuclear power to sustainable energy Ris NatioNal laboRatoRy foR sustaiNable eNeRgy  

E-print Network

Energy for the future ­ with Risø from nuclear power to sustainable energy Risø NatioNal laboRatoRy foR sustaiNable eNeRgy edited by MoRteN JastRup #12;Energy for the future #12;Energy for the future ­ with Risø from nuclear power to sustainable energy Translated from 'Energi til fremtiden ­ med Risø fra

384

SAFE—A hierarchical framework for assessing the sustainability of agricultural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development and the definition of indicators to assess progress towards sustainability have become a high priority in scientific research and on policy agendas. In this paper, we propose a consistent and comprehensive framework of principles, criteria and indicators (PC&I) for sustainability assessment of agricultural systems, referred to as the Sustainability Assessment of Farming and the Environment (SAFE) framework. In

N. Van Cauwenbergh; K. Biala; C. Bielders; V. Brouckaert; L. Franchois; V. Garcia Cidad; M. Hermy; E. Mathijs; B. Muys; J. Reijnders; X. Sauvenier; J. Valckx; M. Vanclooster; B. Van der Veken; E. Wauters; A. Peeters

2007-01-01

385

Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon emission reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV

Asmerom M. Gilau

2006-01-01

386

Electrolysis: The important energy transformer in a world of sustainable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world of sustainable energy supply, the latter will be predominantly generated, distributed and consumed in the form of electric power and hydrogen. In order to balance supply and demand, for storage purposes and to meet the specific requirements of the different end users, we need powerful energy transformers in both directions—fuel cells and electrolyzers.Though based upon a simple

W. Kreuter; H. Hofmann

1998-01-01

387

Agricultural biodiversity, social-ecological systems and sustainable diets.  

PubMed

The stark observation of the co-existence of undernourishment, nutrient deficiencies and overweight and obesity, the triple burden of malnutrition, is inviting us to reconsider health and nutrition as the primary goal and final endpoint of food systems. Agriculture and the food industry have made remarkable advances in the past decades. However, their development has not entirely fulfilled health and nutritional needs, and moreover, they have generated substantial collateral losses in agricultural biodiversity. Simultaneously, several regions are experiencing unprecedented weather events caused by climate change and habitat depletion, in turn putting at risk global food and nutrition security. This coincidence of food crises with increasing environmental degradation suggests an urgent need for novel analyses and new paradigms. The sustainable diets concept proposes a research and policy agenda that strives towards a sustainable use of human and natural resources for food and nutrition security, highlighting the preeminent role of consumers in defining sustainable options and the importance of biodiversity in nutrition. Food systems act as complex social-ecological systems, involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Nutritional patterns and environment structure are interconnected in a mutual dynamic of changes. The systemic nature of these interactions calls for multidimensional approaches and integrated assessment and simulation tools to guide change. This paper proposes a review and conceptual modelling framework that articulate the synergies and tradeoffs between dietary diversity, widely recognised as key for healthy diets, and agricultural biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, crucial resilience factors to climate and global changes. PMID:25068204

Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo; Cogill, Bruce; Flichman, Guillermo

2014-11-01

388

Overview of the US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is focused on the long-term operation of US commercial power plants. It encompasses two facets of long-term operation: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the nuclear industry that support implementation of performance improvement technologies. An important aspect of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is partnering with industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to support and conduct the long-term research needed to inform major component refurbishment and replacement strategies, performance enhancements, plant license extensions, and age-related regulatory oversight decisions. The Department of Energy research, development, and demonstration role focuses on aging phenomena and issues that require long-term research and/or unique Department of Energy laboratory expertise and facilities and are applicable to all operating reactors. This paper gives an overview of the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, including vision, goals, and major deliverables.

K. A. McCarthy; D. L. Williams; R. Reister

2012-05-01

389

Ecological sustainability of energy cane as a biofuel feedstock Assess the ecological sustainability of deploying energy cane on land previously used for  

E-print Network

Ecological sustainability of energy cane as a biofuel feedstock Objective Assess the ecological to the ecological sustainability of the wide-scale deployment of biofuel feedstocks. Key among these issues are how replacing current land use with biofuel feedstocks will affect the fluxes of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N20

DeLucia, Evan H.

390

Alfalfa -- a sustainable crop for biomass energy production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

391

February 22, 2010 Shifting from the Economics of Obesity to Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

of distributed energy services that are competitive, financeable and low/no-carbon in character. One method in Vermont, California and New York. Learning from others and offering new tools for energy sustainabilityPrint February 22, 2010 Shifting from the Economics of Obesity to Sustainable Energy The Potential

Delaware, University of

392

From dust devil to sustainable swirling wind energy.  

PubMed

Dust devils are common but meteorologically unique phenomena on Earth and on Mars. The phenomenon produces a vertical vortex motion in the atmosphere boundary layer and often occurs in hot desert regions, especially in the afternoons from late spring to early summer. Dust devils usually contain abundant wind energy, for example, a maximum swirling wind velocity of up to 25?m/s, with a 15?m/s maximum vertical velocity and 5?m/s maximum near-surface horizontal velocity can be formed. The occurrences of dust devils cannot be used for energy generation because these are generally random and short-lived. Here, a concept of sustained dust-devil-like whirlwind is proposed for the energy generation. A prototype of a circular shed with pre-rotation vanes has been devised to generate the whirlwind flow by heating the air inflow into the circular shed. The pre-rotation vanes can provide the air inflow with angular momentum. The results of numerical simulations and experiment illustrate a promising potential of the circular shed for generating swirling wind energy via the collection of low-temperature solar energy. PMID:25662574

Zhang, Mingxu; Luo, Xilian; Li, Tianyu; Zhang, Liyuan; Meng, Xiangzhao; Kase, Kiwamu; Wada, Satoshi; Yu, Chuck Wah; Gu, Zhaolin

2015-01-01

393

From Dust Devil to Sustainable Swirling Wind Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust devils are common but meteorologically unique phenomena on Earth and on Mars. The phenomenon produces a vertical vortex motion in the atmosphere boundary layer and often occurs in hot desert regions, especially in the afternoons from late spring to early summer. Dust devils usually contain abundant wind energy, for example, a maximum swirling wind velocity of up to 25 m/s, with a 15 m/s maximum vertical velocity and 5 m/s maximum near-surface horizontal velocity can be formed. The occurrences of dust devils cannot be used for energy generation because these are generally random and short-lived. Here, a concept of sustained dust-devil-like whirlwind is proposed for the energy generation. A prototype of a circular shed with pre-rotation vanes has been devised to generate the whirlwind flow by heating the air inflow into the circular shed. The pre-rotation vanes can provide the air inflow with angular momentum. The results of numerical simulations and experiment illustrate a promising potential of the circular shed for generating swirling wind energy via the collection of low-temperature solar energy.

Zhang, Mingxu; Luo, Xilian; Li, Tianyu; Zhang, Liyuan; Meng, Xiangzhao; Kase, Kiwamu; Wada, Satoshi; Yu, Chuck Wah; Gu, Zhaolin

2015-02-01

394

Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

2013-06-01

395

From Dust Devil to Sustainable Swirling Wind Energy  

PubMed Central

Dust devils are common but meteorologically unique phenomena on Earth and on Mars. The phenomenon produces a vertical vortex motion in the atmosphere boundary layer and often occurs in hot desert regions, especially in the afternoons from late spring to early summer. Dust devils usually contain abundant wind energy, for example, a maximum swirling wind velocity of up to 25?m/s, with a 15?m/s maximum vertical velocity and 5?m/s maximum near-surface horizontal velocity can be formed. The occurrences of dust devils cannot be used for energy generation because these are generally random and short-lived. Here, a concept of sustained dust-devil-like whirlwind is proposed for the energy generation. A prototype of a circular shed with pre-rotation vanes has been devised to generate the whirlwind flow by heating the air inflow into the circular shed. The pre-rotation vanes can provide the air inflow with angular momentum. The results of numerical simulations and experiment illustrate a promising potential of the circular shed for generating swirling wind energy via the collection of low-temperature solar energy. PMID:25662574

Zhang, Mingxu; Luo, Xilian; Li, Tianyu; Zhang, Liyuan; Meng, Xiangzhao; Kase, Kiwamu; Wada, Satoshi; Yu, Chuck Wah; Gu, Zhaolin

2015-01-01

396

Sustainable nanocomposites toward electrochemical energy storage and environmental remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy shortage and environmental pollution are the two most concerns right now for the long term sustainable development of human society. New technology developments are the key solutions to these challenges, which strongly rely on the continuous upgrading of advanced material performance. In this dissertation, sustainable nanocomposites with multifunctionalities are designed and fabricated targeting to the applications in high energy/power density capacitor electrodes and efficient heavy metal adsorbent for polluted water purification. Contrary to the helical carbon structure from pure cotton fabrics under microwave heating and radical oxidized ignition of nanoparticles from conventional heating, magnetic carbon tubular nanocomposite fabrics decorated with unifromally dispersed Co-Co3O4 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a microwave heating process using cotton fabric and inorganic salt as precursors, which have shown better anti-corrosive performance and demonstrated great potential as novel electrochemical pseudocapacitor electrode. Polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-NFs)/graphite oxide (GO) nanocomposites with excellent interfacial interaction and elongated fiber structure were synthesized via a facile interfacial polymerization method. The PANI-NFs/GO hybrid materials showed orders of magnitude enhancement in capacitance and energy density than that of individual GO and PANI-NF components. At the same weight loading of PANI in the composites, fibrous PANI demonstrated higher energy density and long term stability than that of particle-shaped PANI at higher power density. Besides the efforts focusing on the inside of the capacitor including new electrodes, electrolyte materials, and capacitor configuration designs. A significant small external magnetic field (720 Gauss) induced capacitance enhancement is reported for graphene and graphene nanocomposite electrodes. The capacitance of Fe2O3/graphene nanocomposites increases by 154.6% after appling magnetic field. Without any modification of the inside of the electrochemical capacitance cell, the reported magnetic field enhanced capacitance with both improved energy density and power density will have a great impact on the electrochemical energy storage field. A facile thermodecomposition process to synthesize magnetic graphene nanocomposites (MGNCs) is reported. The MGNCs demonstrate an extremely fast Cr(VI) removal from the wastewater with a high removal efficiency and with an almost complete removal of Cr(VI) within 5 min. The large saturation magnetization (96.3 emu/g) of the synthesized nanoparticles allows fast separation of the MGNCs from liquid suspension. By using a permanent magnet, the recycling process of both the MGNC adsorbents and the adsorbed Cr(VI) is more energetically and economically sustainable. The significantly reduced treatment time required to remove the Cr(VI) and the applicability in treating the solutions with low pH make MGNCs promising for the efficient removal of heavy metals from the wastewater. A waste-free process to recycle Fe Fe2O3/ polypropylene (PP) polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) is introduced to synthesize magnetic carbon nanocomposites (MCNCs) and simultaneously produce useful chemical species which can be utilized as a feedstock in petrochemical industry. The magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are found to have an effective catalytic activity on the pyrolysis of PP. The coked solid waste from the conventional process has been utilized as a carbon source to form a protective carbon shell surrounding the magnetic NPs. The magnetic carbon nanocomposites (MCNCs) pyrolyzed from PNCs containing 20.0 wt% NPs demonstrate extremely fast Cr(VI) removal from wastewater with the almost complete removal of Cr(VI) within 10 min. The large saturation magnetization (32.5 emu g-1) of these novel magnetic carbon nanocomposites allows fast recycling of both the adsorbents and the adsorbed Cr(VI) from the liquid suspension in a more energetically and economically sustainable way by simply applying a permanent magnet.

Zhu, Jiahua

397

Track 2: Sustainable Energy I. Renewable Energy: Wind and Wave  

E-print Network

-Stream Power Demonstrated Robert Keith Smith, Pulse Tidal!! For more than a year, Pulse Tidal has been operating a grid-connected tidal- stream power demonstration device that delivers cost-effective energy on the technology itself, but the technology must also demonstrate financial viability. Cost-Effective Tidal

398

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. An Analysis of Concentrating Solar Power  

E-print Network

and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. An Analysis of Concentrating Solar concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in a commercial production cost model o historical prices o Cannot perform forwardlooking analysis in a future system o Limited in scope

399

Assessing sustainable land-use practices using geographic information systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many prominent scientists have claimed that we need to develop environmentally sustainable practices otherwise societies may collapse. The use of Geographic Information Systems allows detailed studies that can cross disciplinary boundaries and lead to quantifiable statements as to the change of land use practices that took place in the past and those that may occur in the future. This dissertation focuses on two research topics. One that attempts to quantify the environmental consequences of parking lots located in the Midwest, USA. The other research topic focuses on the land area needed to support ethanol in the United States. In Tippecanoe County, Indiana, it was determined that parking lots occupied approximately 6.6% of the urban areas, that the area devoted to parking lots exceeded the area devoted to urban parks by a factor of 3, and that these parking lots contributed to increased runoff of pollutants. The parking lots of Tippecanoe County were estimated to be responsible for 46.5 thousand pounds of oil and grease released annually in runoff, as well as an increase of 240.6 thousand pounds of suspended solids, and 65.7 pounds of lead released when compared to pre-development conditions. A method that scales up the county wide study was also developed to determine the areal footprint of parking lots with the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Wisconsin. It was estimated that these four states allocate approximately 1260 square km of their land to parking lots and that this accounts for 4.97% of urban land use and over 43 million parking spaces, whereas the number of individuals in age of driving (adults over 18 years old) amounted to just over 25 million. Within the four states studied, states where urban sprawl was considered more prevalent were also states that had a higher proportion of their urban land devoted to parking lots. The second dissertation topic focused on using GIS to locate suitable sites for corn or cellulosic based ethanol production facilities. Since a valuable byproduct of corn ethanol production is Distiller's Grain Solubles (DGS), siting of ethanol plants was considered with regard to both corn production by county within the conterminous United States and head of cattle available to use this output as feed. We found that many counties outside the Midwest could sustain smaller sized ethanol plants, especially when considering that most large production facilities need to redistribute their DGS in dried form sometimes as far as California which has negative impacts on the Net Energy Value of corn based ethanol. The future of ethanol expansion however lies with cellulosic feedstock which is bulkier and thus more costly to transport than corn. Our results indicate that cellulosic ethanol plants should be smaller in capacity, especially when compared to corn ethanol plants where 100 million gallons a year (mgy) plants are more the norm. Only 7 out of 3109 counties in the conterminous United States contain enough wood, switchgrass or crop residue feedstock to sustain plants that produce greater than 40 mgy of biofuel, meaning that larger plants would need to import feedstock from considerable distances and thus incur greater feedstock transport costs. The last section explored co-location options for siting lignocellulosic ethanol plant production facilities.

Davis, Amelie Y.

400

Perspectives on achieving sustainable energy production and use  

EPA Science Inventory

The traditional definition of sustainability calls for polices and strategies that meet society's present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Achieving operational sustainability requires three critical elements: advances in scien...

401

Is Sustainability Achievable? Exploring the Limits of Sustainability with Model Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Successful implementation of sustainability ideas in ecosystem management requires a basic understanding of the often nonlinear and non-intuitive relationships amongst different dimensions of sustainability, particularly the systemwide implications of human actions. This basic un...

402

Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and sustainable carbon sink will be developed. Clean energy production from biomass (such as ethanol, biodiesel, producer gas, bio-methane) could be viable option to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Electricity generation from biomass is increasing throughout the world. Co-firing of biomass with coal and biomass combustion in power plant and CHP would be a viable option for clean energy development. Biomass can produce less emission in the range of 14% to 90% compared to emission from fossil for electricity generation. Therefore, biomass could play a vital role for generation of clean energy by reducing fossil energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The main barriers to expansion of power generation from biomass are cost, low conversion efficiency and availability of feedstock. Internationalization of external cost in power generation and effective policies to improve energy security and carbon dioxide reduction is important to boost up the bio-power. In the long run, bio-power will depend on technological development and on competition for feedstock with food production and arable land use.

Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

2012-06-01

403

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 2.0: Wind Turbine Reliability and Maintainability Enhancement through System-wide Structure Health Monitoring and Modifications to Rotating Components  

SciTech Connect

EXECUTIVE SUMARRY An evaluation of nondestructive structural health monitoring methods was completed with over 132 documents, 37 specifically about wind turbines, summarized into a technology matrix. This matrix lists the technology, what can be monitored with this technology, and gives a short summary of the key aspects of the technology and its application. Passive and active acoustic emission equipment from Physical Acoustics Corp. and Acellent Technologies have been evaluated and selected for use in experimental state loading and fatigue tests of composite wind turbine blade materials. Acoustic Emission (AE) and Active Ultrasonic Testing (AUT), were applied to composite coupons with both simulated and actual damage. The results found that, while composites are more complicated in nature, compared to metallic structures, an artificial neural network analysis could still be used to determine damage. For the AE system, the failure mode could be determined (i.e. fiber breakage, delamination, etc.). The Acellent system has been evaluated to work well with composite materials. A test-rig for reliability testing of the rotating components was constructed. The research on the types of bearings used in the wind turbines indicated that in most of the designs, the main bearings utilized to support the shaft are cylindrical roller bearings. The accelerated degradation testing of a population of bearings was performed. Vibration and acoustic emission data was collected and analyzed in order to identify a representative degradation signal for each bearing to identify the initiation of the degradation process in the bearings. Afterwards, the RMS of the vibration signal from degradation initiation up to the end of the useful life of the bearing was selected to predict the remaining useful life of the bearing. This step included fitting Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models to the degradation signals and approximating the probability distribution function (PDF) of remaining useful life based on the results of Monte-Carlo simulation of the ARMA models. This step was performed for different percentages of the degradation signal of each bearing. The accuracy of the proposed approach then was assessed by comparing the actual life of the bearing and the estimated life of the bearing from the developed models. The results were impressive and indicated that the accuracy of the models improved as more data was utilized in developing the ARMA models (we get closer to the end of the life of the bearing).

Janet M Twomey, PhD

2010-04-30

404

PEPFAR, health system strengthening, and promoting sustainability and country ownership.  

PubMed

Evidence demonstrates that scale-up of HIV services has produced stronger health systems and, conversely, that stronger health systems were critical to the success of the HIV scale-up. Increased access to and effectiveness of HIV treatment and care programs, attention to long-term sustainability, and recognition of the importance of national governance, and country ownership of HIV programs have resulted in an increased focus on structures that compromise the broader health system. Based on a review published literature and expert opinion, the article proposes 4 key health systems strengthening issues as a means to promote sustainability and country ownership of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and other global health initiatives. First, development partners need provide capacity building support and to recognize and align resources with national government health strategies and operational plans. Second, investments in human capital, particularly human resources for health, need to be guided by national institutions and supported to ensure the training and retention of skilled, qualified, and relevant health care providers. Third, a range of financing strategies, both new resources and improved efficiencies, need to be pursued as a means to create more fiscal space to ensure sustainable and self-reliant systems. Finally, service delivery models must adjust to recent advancements in areas of HIV prevention and treatment and aim to establish evidence-based delivery models to reduce HIV transmission rates and the overall burden of disease. The article concludes that there needs to be ongoing efforts to identify and implement strategic health systems strengthening interventions and address the inherent tension and debate over investments in health systems. PMID:22797732

Palen, John; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Phoya, Ann; Imtiaz, Rubina; Einterz, Robert; Quain, Estelle; Blandford, John; Bouey, Paul; Lion, Ann

2012-08-15

405

Site Sustainability Plan FY 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

D RAFT Site Sustainability Plan FY 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy..............................................................35 REGIONAL AND LOCAL PLANNING

406

Evaluating the Sustained Performance of COTS-based Messaging Systems  

SciTech Connect

Messaging systems, which include message brokers built on top of message-oriented middleware, have been used as middleware components in many enterprise application integration projects. There are many COTS-based messaging systems on the market, but there is little concrete understanding in the software industry on the performance of these different technologies. The authors have carried out a scenario-based evaluation of three leading messaging systems to provide insight into performance issues. The evaluation process includes a study of the sustained performance of the system under load. The result of this study is used to derive a generic metric for quantifying a messaging systems performance. The paper describes a synthetic transactional scenario, which is used for load tests and performance measurement. The results from executing this test scenario with three messaging systems are then presented and explained.

Tran, Phong; Gosper, Jeff; Gorton, Ian

2003-12-01

407

Indicators for assessing socioeconomic sustainability of bioenergy systems: A short list of practical measures.  

SciTech Connect

Indicators are needed to assess both socioeconomic and environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Effective indicators can help to identify and quantify the sustainability attributes of bioenergy options. We identify 16 socioeconomic indicators that fall into the categories of social well-being, energy security, trade, profitability, resource conservation, and social acceptability. The suite of indicators is predicated on the existence of basic institutional frameworks to provide governance, legal, regulatory and enforcement services. Indicators were selected to be practical, sensitive to stresses, unambiguous, anticipatory, predictive, calibrated with known variability, and sufficient when considered collectively. The utility of each indicator, methods for its measurement, and applications appropriate for the context of particular bioenergy systems are described along with future research needs. Together, this suite of indicators is hypothesized to reflect major socioeconomic effects of the full supply chain for bioenergy, including feedstock production and logistics, conversion to biofuels, biofuel logistics and biofuel end uses. Ten of those 16 indicators are proposed to be the minimum list of practical measures of socioeconomic aspects of bioenergy sustainability. Coupled with locally-prioritized environmental indicators, we propose that these socioeconomic indicators can provide a basis to quantify and evaluate sustainability of bioenergy systems across many regions in which they will be deployed.

Davis, Maggie R [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Hilliard, Michael R [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Leiby, Paul Newsome [ORNL; Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL

2013-01-01

408

Microalgae as Sustainable Renewable Energy Feedstock for Biofuel Production  

PubMed Central

The world energy crisis and increased greenhouse gas emissions have driven the search for alternative and environmentally friendly renewable energy sources. According to life cycle analysis, microalgae biofuel is identified as one of the major renewable energy sources for sustainable development, with potential to replace the fossil-based fuels. Microalgae biofuel was devoid of the major drawbacks associated with oil crops and lignocelluloses-based biofuels. Algae-based biofuels are technically and economically viable and cost competitive, require no additional lands, require minimal water use, and mitigate atmospheric CO2. However, commercial production of microalgae biodiesel is still not feasible due to the low biomass concentration and costly downstream processes. The viability of microalgae biodiesel production can be achieved by designing advanced photobioreactors, developing low cost technologies for biomass harvesting, drying, and oil extraction. Commercial production can also be accomplished by improving the genetic engineering strategies to control environmental stress conditions and by engineering metabolic pathways for high lipid production. In addition, new emerging technologies such as algal-bacterial interactions for enhancement of microalgae growth and lipid production are also explored. This review focuses mainly on the problems encountered in the commercial production of microalgae biofuels and the possible techniques to overcome these difficulties. PMID:25874216

Yusoff, Fatimah Md.; Shariff, M.

2015-01-01

409

New developments in recirculating aquaculture systems in Europe: A perspective on environmental sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dual objective of sustainable aquaculture, i.e., to produce food while sustaining natural resources is achieved only when production systems with a minimum ecological impact are used. Recirculating aquaculture systems (RASs) provide opportunities to reduce water usage and to improve waste management and nutrient recycling. RAS makes intensive fish production compatible with environmental sustainability. This review aims to summarize the

C. I. M. Martins; E. H. Eding; M. C. J. Verdegem; L. T. N. Heinsbroek; O. Schneider; J. P. Blancheton; E. Roque d’Orbcastel; J. A. J. Verreth

2010-01-01

410

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE UBC FOOD SYSTEM  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report THE SUSTAINABILITY towards a more sustainable, interconnected system. Through the Stages of Change Model this transition of a project/report". #12;2 THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE UBC FOOD SYSTEM GROUP 16 Mariette Macrander Catherine

411

Managing Sustainable Demand-side Infrastructure for Power System Ancillary Services  

E-print Network

Managing Sustainable Demand-side Infrastructure for Power System Ancillary Services by Simon Sustainable Demand-side Infrastructure for Power System Ancillary Services by Simon Christopher Parkinson B highly-distributed sustainable demand- side infrastructure, in the form of heat pumps, electric vehicles

Victoria, University of

412

Three Views of Systems Theories and Their Implications for Sustainability Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Worldwide, there is an emerging interest in sustainability and sustainability education. A popular and promising approach is the use of systems thinking. However, the systems approach to sustainability has neither been clearly defined nor has its practical application followed any systematic rigor, resulting in confounded and underspecified…

Porter, Terry; Cordoba, Jose

2009-01-01

413

Efficiency and sustainability indicators for passenger and commodities transportation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different energy analysis approaches (energy and embodied energy, exergy and emergy analysis) have been applied to the road and railway systems of a medium size district of central Italy, in order to shed light on the dynamics of the local transport sector and develop a tool for analysis capable of taking the system complexity into account. Road and railway

M Federici; S Ulgiati; D Verdesca; R Basosi

2003-01-01

414

Designing sustainable heavy lift launch vehicle architectures adaptability, lock-in, and system evolution  

E-print Network

Long term human space exploration depends on the development of a sustainable heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV). But what exactly is sustainability in the context of launch systems and how can it addressed in the design ...

Silver, Matthew Robin

2005-01-01

415

Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ(-1), respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO2, 31.58 kg N2O and 3.82 kg CH4 per hectare. Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co2eq ha(-1) in corn production systems. In terms of CO2 equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO2, 76% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg Cha(-1). Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg Cha(-1) and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. PMID:24951890

Yousefi, Mohammad; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi; Khoramivafa, Mahmud

2014-09-15

416

Future energy system in environment, economy, and energy problems (2) various nuclear energy system evaluations  

SciTech Connect

Role and potentials of nuclear energy system in the energy options are discussed from the viewpoint of sustainable development with protecting from global warming by using the energy module structure of GRAPE model. They change and are affected dramatically by different sets of energy characteristics, nuclear behavior and energy policy even under the moderate set of presumptions. Introduction of thousands of reactors in the end of the century seems inevitable for better life and cleaner earth, but it will not come without efforts and cost. The analysis suggests the need of long term planning and R and D efforts under the wisdom. (authors)

Matsui, Kazuaki; Ujita, Hiroshi [The Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo, 158-0083 (Japan); Tashimo, Masanori [Energy Think Tank, Co, .Ltd., Tokyo, 162-0067 (Japan)

2006-07-01

417

Fostering Sustained Energy Behavior Change and Increasing Energy Literacy in a Student Housing Energy Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We designed the Kukui Cup challenge to foster energy conservation and increase energy literacy. Based on a review of the literature, the challenge combined a variety of elements into an overall game experience, including: real-time energy feedback, goals, commitments, competition, and prizes. We designed a software system called Makahiki to…

Brewer, Robert Stephen

2013-01-01

418

2009 AFHVS presidential address: the steering question: challenges to achieving food system sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this address I examine the challenges of achieving food system sustainability. Starting from the position that most people\\u000a want a food system that is “sustainable” and that we have a great reservoir of unapplied technical knowledge applicable to\\u000a increasing sustainability, I argue that the big issue is collective decision-making to accomplish the goal of sustainability.\\u000a Using the metaphor of

Gilbert W. Gillespie Jr

2010-01-01

419

Energy Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PRESTO, a COSMIC program, handles energy system specifications and predicts design efficiency of cogeneration systems. These systems allow a company to use excess energy produced to generate electricity. PRESTO is utilized by the Energy Systems Division of Thermo Electron Corporation in the custom design of cogeneration systems.

1986-01-01

420

Whole systems thinking for sustainable water treatment design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology could provide a low cost alternative to conventional aerated wastewater treatment, however there has been little comparison between MFC and aeration treatment using real wastewater substrate. This study attempts to directly compare the wastewater treatment efficiency and energy consumption and generation among three reactor systems, a traditional aeration process, a simple submerged MFC configuration, and a control reactor acting similar as natural lagoons. Results showed that all three systems were able to remove >90% of COD, but the aeration used shorter time (8 days) then the MFC (10 days) and control reactor (25 days). Compared to aeration, the MFC showed lower removal efficiency in high COD concentration but much higher efficiency when the COD is low. Only the aeration system showed complete nitrification during the operation, reflected by completed ammonia removal and nitrate accumulation. Suspended solid measurements showed that MFC reduced sludge production by 52-82% as compared to aeration, and it also saved 100% of aeration energy. Furthermore, though not designed for high power generation, the MFC reactor showed a 0.3 Wh/g COD/L or 24 Wh/m3 (wastewater treated) net energy gain in electricity generation. These results demonstrate that MFC technology could be integrated into wastewater infrastructure to meet effluent quality and save operational cost. The high cost and life-cycle impact of electrode materials is one major barrier to the large scale application of microbial fuel cells (MFC). We also demonstrate that biomass-derived black carbon (biochar), could be a more cost effective and sustainable alternative to granular activated carbon (GAC) and graphite granule (GG) electrodes. In a comparison study, two biochar materials made from lodgepole pine sawdust pellets (BCp) and lodgepole pine woodchips (BCc), gassified at a highest heat temperature (HHT) of 1000°C under a heating rate of 16°C/min, showed a satisfactory power density of 532 +/- 18 mW/m-2 and 457 +/- 20 mW/m-2 respectively, compared to GAC with 674 +/- 10 mW/m-2 and GG with 566 +/- 5 mW/m-2 (normalized to cathode projected surface area), as an anode material in a two-chamber MFC. BCc and BCp had BET-N2 surface area measurements of 429 cm2 g -1 and 470 cm2 g-1 respectively, lower than industrial GAC with 1248 cm2 g-1 but several orders of magnitude higher that GG with 0.44 cm2 g-1 . BCc and BCp had a lower surface resistance of 3+/-1? mm -1 and 6+/-1 ? mm-1 than 8+/-2? mm -1 for GAC, but higher that GG with 0.4+/-0.5 ? mm -1. We also investigated the life-cycle impact and estimated cost of biochar as an electrode material. Although there is no well-established market price for biochar, conservative estimates place the costs around 51-356 US/tonne, up to ten times cheaper that GAC (500-2500 US/tonne) and GGs (500-800 US$/tonne) with significantly greater life-cycle advantages.

Huggins, Mitchell Tyler

421

Sustainable Uses of FGD Gypsum in Agricultural Systems: Introduction.  

PubMed

Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil and water quality has recently increased. Abundant supply and availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of scrubbing sulfur from combustion gases at coal-fired power plants, in major agricultural producing regions within the last two decades has attributed to this interest. Currently, published data on the long-term sustainability of FGD gypsum use in agricultural systems is limited. This has led to organization of the American Society of Agronomy's Community "By-product Gypsum Uses in Agriculture" and a special collection of nine technical research articles on various issues related to FGD gypsum uses in agricultural systems. A brief review of FGD gypsum, rationale for the special collection, overviews of articles, knowledge gaps, and future research directions are presented in this introductory paper. The nine articles are focused in three general areas: (i) mercury and other trace element impacts, (ii) water quality impacts, and (iii) agronomic responses and soil physical changes. While this is not an exhaustive review of the topic, results indicate that FGD gypsum use in sustainable agricultural production systems is promising. The environmental impacts of FGD gypsum are mostly positive, with only a few negative results observed, even when applied at rates representing cumulative 80-year applications. Thus, FGD gypsum, if properly managed, seems to represent an important potential input into agricultural systems. PMID:25602557

Watts, Dexter B; Dick, Warren A

2014-01-01

422

Towards a sustainable modular robot system for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates multiple perspectives of developing an unmanned robotic system suited for planetary terrains. In this case, the unmanned system consists of unit-modular robots. This type of robot has potential to be developed and maintained as a sustainable multi-robot system while located far from direct human intervention. Some characteristics that make this possible are: the cooperation, communication and connectivity among the robot modules, flexibility of individual robot modules, capability of self-healing in the case of a failed module and the ability to generate multiple gaits by means of reconfiguration. To demonstrate the effects of high flexibility of an individual robot module, multiple modules of a four-degree-of-freedom unit-modular robot were developed. The robot was equipped with a novel connector mechanism that made self-healing possible. Also, design strategies included the use of series elastic actuators for better robot-terrain interaction. In addition, various locomotion gaits were generated and explored using the robot modules, which is essential for a modular robot system to achieve robustness and thus successfully navigate and function in a planetary environment. To investigate multi-robot task completion, a biomimetic cooperative load transportation algorithm was developed and simulated. Also, a liquid motion-inspired theory was developed consisting of a large number of robot modules. This can be used to traverse obstacles that inevitably occur in maneuvering over rough terrains such as in a planetary exploration. Keywords: Modular robot, cooperative robots, biomimetics, planetary exploration, sustainability.

Hossain, S. G. M.

423

A comprehensive life cycle analysis of cofiring algae in a coal power plant as a solution for achieving sustainable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Algae cofiring scenarios in a 360 MW coal power plant were studied utilizing an ecologically based hybrid life cycle assessment methodology. The impacts on the ecological system were calculated in terms of cumulative mass, energy, industrial exergy, and ecological exergy. The environmental performance metrics, including efficiency, loading, and renewability ratios were also quantified to assess the sustainability of cofiring scenarios from

Murat Kucukvar; Omer Tatari

2011-01-01

424

Decentralized energy systems for clean electricity access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Innovative approaches are needed to address the needs of the 1.3 billion people lacking electricity, while simultaneously transitioning to a decarbonized energy system. With particular focus on the energy needs of the underserved, we present an analytic and conceptual framework that clarifies the heterogeneous continuum of centralized on-grid electricity, autonomous mini- or community grids, and distributed, individual energy services. A historical analysis shows that the present day is a unique moment in the history of electrification where decentralized energy networks are rapidly spreading, based on super-efficient end-use appliances and low-cost photovoltaics. We document how this evolution is supported by critical and widely available information technologies, particularly mobile phones and virtual financial services. These disruptive technology systems can rapidly increase access to basic electricity services and directly inform the emerging Sustainable Development Goals for quality of life, while simultaneously driving action towards low-carbon, Earth-sustaining, inclusive energy systems.

Alstone, Peter; Gershenson, Dimitry; Kammen, Daniel M.

2015-04-01

425

A renewable perspective for sustainable energy development in Turkey: The case of small hydropower plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy resources provide a large share of the total energy consumption of many developing countries. Turkey's renewable sources are the second largest source for energy production after coal. About two-thirds of the renewable energy produced is obtained from biomass, while the rest is mainly from hydroelectric energy. Hydropower is today the most important kind of renewable and sustainable energy.

Havva Balat

2007-01-01

426

Biodelignification of lignocellulose substrates: An intrinsic and sustainable pretreatment strategy for clean energy production.  

PubMed

Abstract Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) is a promising sugar feedstock for biofuels and other high-value chemical commodities. The recalcitrance of LB, however, impedes carbohydrate accessibility and its conversion into commercially significant products. Two important factors for the overall economization of biofuel production is LB pretreatment to liberate fermentable sugars followed by conversion into ethanol. Sustainable biofuel production must overcome issues such as minimizing water and energy usage, reducing chemical usage and process intensification. Amongst available pretreatment methods, microorganism-mediated pretreatments are the safest, green, and sustainable. Native biodelignifying agents such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pycnoporous cinnabarinus, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Cyathus stercoreus can remove lignin, making the remaining substrates amenable for saccharification. The development of a robust, integrated bioprocessing (IBP) approach for economic ethanol production would incorporate all essential steps including pretreatment, cellulase production, enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation of the released sugars into ethanol. IBP represents an inexpensive, environmentally friendly, low energy and low capital approach for second-generation ethanol production. This paper reviews the advancements in microbial-assisted pretreatment for the delignification of lignocellulosic substrates, system metabolic engineering for biorefineries and highlights the possibilities of process integration for sustainable and economic ethanol production. PMID:24156399

Chandel, Anuj K; Gonçalves, Bruna C M; Strap, Janice L; da Silva, Silvio S

2013-10-24

427

Hydrogen and the materials of a sustainable energy future  

SciTech Connect

The National Educator`s Workshop (NEW): Update 96 was held October 27--30, 1996, and was hosted by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This was the 11th annual conference aimed at improving the teaching of material science, engineering and technology by updating educators and providing laboratory experiments on emerging technology for teaching fundamental and newly evolving materials concepts. The Hydrogen Education Outreach Activity at Los Alamos National Laboratory organized a special conference theme: Hydrogen and the Materials of a Sustainable Energy Future. The hydrogen component of the NEW:Update 96 offered the opportunity for educators to have direct communication with scientists in laboratory settings, develop mentor relationship with laboratory staff, and bring leading edge materials/technologies into the classroom to upgrade educational curricula. Lack of public education and understanding about hydrogen is a major barrier for initial implementation of hydrogen energy technologies and is an important prerequisite for acceptance of hydrogen outside the scientific/technical research communities. The following materials contain the papers and view graphs from the conference presentations. In addition, supplemental reference articles are also included: a general overview of hydrogen and an article on handling hydrogen safely. A resource list containing a curriculum outline, bibliography, Internet resources, and a list of periodicals often publishing relevant research articles can be found in the last section.

Zalbowitz, M. [ed.

1997-02-01

428

Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

2012-10-01

429

10.391J / 1.818J / 2.65J / 3.564J / 11.371J / 22.811J / ESD.166J Sustainable Energy, Spring 2003  

E-print Network

Assessment of current and potential energy systems, covering extraction, conversion and end-use, with emphasis on meeting regional and global energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner. Examination of energy ...

Tester, Jefferson W.

430

Cloudy Computing: Leveraging Weather Forecasts in Energy Harvesting Sensor Systems  

E-print Network

Cloudy Computing: Leveraging Weather Forecasts in Energy Harvesting Sensor Systems Navin Sharma,gummeson,irwin,shenoy}@cs.umass.edu Abstract--To sustain perpetual operation, systems that harvest environmental energy must carefully regulate their usage to satisfy their demand. Regulating energy usage is challenging if a system's demands

Shenoy, Prashant

431

Using models to manage systems subject to sustainability indicators  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mathematical and numerical models can provide insight into sustainability indicators using relevant simulated quantities, which are referred to here as predictions. To be useful, many concerns need to be considered. Four are discussed here: (a) mathematical and numerical accuracy of the model; (b) the accuracy of the data used in model development, (c) the information observations provide to aspects of the model important to predictions of interest as measured using sensitivity analysis; and (d) the existence of plausible alternative models for a given system. The four issues are illustrated using examples from conservative and transport modelling, and using conceptual arguments. Results suggest that ignoring these issues can produce misleading conclusions.

Hill, M.C.

2006-01-01

432

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Strategic Energy Analysis.S. Energy Department's only national laboratory focused on renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is uniquely positioned to help inform and guide

433

Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction  

SciTech Connect

The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

2012-06-30

434

A Net Energy-based Analysis for a Climate-constrained Sustainable Energy Transition  

E-print Network

The transition from a fossil-based energy economy to one based on renewable energy is driven by the double challenge of climate change and resource depletion. Building a renewable energy infrastructure requires an upfront energy investment that subtracts from the net energy available to society. This investment is determined by the need to transition to renewable energy fast enough to stave off the worst consequences of climate change and, at the same time, maintain a sufficient net energy flow to sustain the world's economy and population. We show that a feasible transition pathway requires that the rate of investment in renewable energy should accelerate approximately by an order of magnitude if we are to stay within the range of IPCC recommendations.

Sgouridis, Sgouris; Csala, Denes

2015-01-01

435

Technology transfer through climate change: Setting a sustainable energy pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change mitigation is considered as a high priority internationally and is placed in the top of the agenda for most politicians and decision makers. The key challenge is that low-carbon sustainable technologies need to be adopted both by developed as well as developing countries, in an effort to avoid past unsustainable practices and being locked into old, less sustainable

Charikleia Karakosta; Haris Doukas; John Psarras

2010-01-01

436

Towards sustainable farming systems: Effectiveness and deficiency of the French procedure of sustainable agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a widespread consensus about the importance of sustainable agriculture. In France, the Farming Orientation Law of July 1999 has set down a precise procedure for the implementation of sustainable agriculture: the contrat territorial d’exploitation – or territorial farm contract (TFC). This paper aims to analyse the TFC effectiveness. An analysis has been made of the TFCs signed in

Mohamed Gafsi; Bruno Legagneux; Geneviève Nguyen; Patrice Robin

2006-01-01

437

Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in evolving sustainable Himalayan livelihoods.

Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.

2014-11-01

438

Sustainable Agricultural Systems Science White Paper U.S. Department of Agriculture  

E-print Network

Sustainable Agricultural Systems Science White Paper U.S. Department of Agriculture Research). Sustainability and its relevance to U.S. agriculture were also discussed in the 1989 "Alternative Agriculture (USDA) a definition of sustainable agriculture to undergird its science programs, and USDA committed

Radcliffe, David

439

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

the station powers a major water delivery project that helps sustain a multistate water agreement. In addition for various courses of action in terms of power supply and prices, water supply and prices, air qualityA N A LYS I S I N S I G H T S MAKING SUSTAINABLE ENERGY CHOICES Insights on the Energy/Water

440

Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon emission reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 /m3 and 1.00 /m3, respectively. By international standards, these costs are competitive. The results of renewable energy powered commercial tilapia production indicate that a wind-diesel system has high potential for intensive tilapia production as well as carbon dioxide emission reductions. The study also investigates aeration failures in renewable energy powered tilapia production systems. With respect to the ice-making plant, unlike previous studies which consider nighttime operation only, we have found that a nighttime PV powered ice-making system is more expensive (1/kWh) than daytime ice-making system (0.70/kWh). Our optimal energy options analysis at project scale which includes SWRO, ice-making plant and household energy consumption for about 100 households shows that compared to diesel only energy option, PV-D, W-D, and PV-W-D hybrids are very cost-effective energy options. Moreover, energy options with high levels of renewable energy including 100% renewables have the lowest net present cost and they are already cost-effective without CDM. On the other hand, while the removal of about 87% carbon dioxide emissions could be achieved at negative cost, initial investment could increase by a factor of 40, which is one of the primary barriers hindering wider renewable energy applications in developing countries. Thus in order to increase developing countries' participation in the carbon market, CDM policy should shift from a purely market oriented approach to investigating how to facilitate renewable energy projects through barrier removal. Thus, we recommend that further research should focus on how to efficiently remove renewable energy implementation barriers as a means to improve developing countries participation in meaningful emission reduction while at the same time meeting the needs of sustainable economic development.

Gilau, Asmerom M.

441

Sustained load performance of adhesive anchor systems in concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stemming from a tragic failure of an adhesive anchor system, this research project investigated the sustained load performance of adhesive anchors in concrete under different installation and in-service conditions. The literature review investigated the current state of art of adhesive anchors. Extensive discussion was devoted to the behavior of adhesive anchors in concrete as well as the many factors that can affect their short-term and sustained load strength. Existing standards and specifications for the testing, design, construction, and inspection of adhesive anchors were covered. Based on the results of the literature review and the experience of the research group, a triage was conducted on many parameters identified as possibly affecting the sustained load performance of adhesive anchors and the highest priority parameters were investigated in this project. A stress versus time-to-failure approach was used to evaluate sensitivity of three ICC-ES AC 308 approved adhesive anchor systems. Of the various parameters investigated, only elevated in-service temperature and manufacturer's cure time was shown to exhibit adverse effects on sustained loads more than that predicted by short-term tests of fully cured adhesive over a reasonable structure lifetime of 75 years. In a related study, various tests were conducted on the adhesive alone (time-temperature superposition, time-stress superposition, and dogbone tensile tests). The results of that study were used to investigate the existence of a correlation with long-term anchor pullout testing in concrete. No consistent correlations were detected for the adhesives in the study. Tests were also conducted on the effect of early-age concrete on adhesive anchor bond strength. On the basis of confined test bond-strength alone, adhesive A (vinyl ester) did not show any significant increase after 14 days (102% of 28 day strength at 14 days), and adhesive B and C (epoxies) did not show any significant increase after 7 days (104% and 93% of 28 days strength at 7 days respectively). The results of this research were used to draft recommended standards and specifications for AASHTO pertaining to testing, design, construction, and inspection of adhesive anchors in concrete for transportation structures. These draft standards were not included in this dissertation.

Davis, Todd Marshall

442

A decision-support system for sustainable urban metabolism in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Urban metabolism components define the energy and material exchanges within a city and, therefore, can provide valuable information on the environmental quality of urban areas. Assessing the potential impact of urban planning alternatives on urban metabolism components (such as energy, water, carbon and pollutants fluxes) can provide a quantitative estimation of their sustainability performance. Urban metabolism impact assessment can, therefore, contribute to the identification of sustainable urban structures with regards, for example, to building types, materials and layout, as well as to location and capacity of transportation and infrastructural developments. In this way, it enables the formulation of planning and policy recommendations to promote efficient use of resources and enhance environmental quality in urban areas. The European FP7 project BRIDGE (sustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism) has developed a decision-support system (DSS) that systematically integrates urban metabolism components into impact assessment processes with the aim of accurately quantifying the potential effects of proposed planning interventions. The DSS enables integration of multiple spatial and non-spatial datasets (e.g. physical flows of energy and material with variables of social and economic change) in a systematic manner to obtain spatially defined assessment results and to thus inform planners and decision-makers. This multi-criteria approach also enables incorporation of stakeholders' perceptions in order to prioritise decisive assessment criteria. This paper describes the methodological framework used to develop the DSS and critically examines the results of its practical application in five European cities. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urban metabolism in sustainability assessment of planning alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer European FP7 project applied to 5 real life case studies across Europe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decision support system enables incorporating scientific knowledge into planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scale, data availability and stakeholder representativeness limit its application.

Gonzalez, Ainhoa, E-mail: ainhoag@yahoo.com [Trinity Centre for Biodiversity Research, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Donnelly, Alison, E-mail: donnelac@tcd.ie [Centre for the Environment, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Jones, Mike, E-mail: mike.jones@tcd.ie [Discipline of Botany, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Chrysoulakis, Nektarios, E-mail: zedd2@iacm.forth.gr [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics (Greece); Lopes, Myriam, E-mail: myr@ua.pt [Departamento de Ambiente e Ordenamento and CESAM, University of Aveiro (Portugal)

2013-01-15

443

Evaluating Wetlands Sustainability Using a Hierarchical Systems Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hierarchical systems analysis approach, using Geographical Information Systems (GIS)software, is used to integrate and assess the different types of data necessary to characterize the surface and ground-water system as it pertains to the wetlands environment within the landscape context. This hierarchical approach was applied to the Cucumber Gulch wetlands complex, located near Breckenridge, Colorado. The Cucumber Gulch watershed is currently being studied for proposed expansion and development of the existing Breckenridge ski area. The delineated wetland complex is a jurisdictional wetland and is protected under section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The proposed development has the potential to impact the wetlands complex. The various data integrated through the hierarchical systems analysis include climate, topography, geomorphology, geology, vegetation, hydrology, and anthropogenic influences to the natural system. A three-dimensional solid computer model of the surface and sub-surface geology was constructed. Through analysis and integration of these various layers, the surface and ground-water hydrological framework and flow models were developed and calibrated. Throughout the process the ground-water modeling performed to assess the sustainability of the wetland was reconciled with the hydrological framework developed from the "soft" data layers, and with the hydrologic system conceptual model developed from the hierarchical systems analysis. This hierarchical systems approach to modeling provided the Town of Breckenridge with means of assessing the validity of the computer models and potential impact to the wetland complex. Computer modeling was continually refined in response to this process.

Allen, L. E.; Kolm, K. E.

2002-12-01

444

Energetic composite and system with enhanced mechanical sensitivity to initiation of self-sustained reaction  

DOEpatents

An energetic composition and system using amassed energetic multilayer pieces which are formed from the division, such as for example by cutting, scoring, breaking, crushing, shearing, etc., of a mechanically activatable monolithic energetic multilayer(s) (e.g. macro-scale sheets of multilayer films), for enhancing the sensitivity of the energetic composite and system to mechanical initiation of self-sustained reaction. In particular, mechanical initiation of the energetic composition may be achieved with significantly lower mechanical energy inputs than that typically required for initiating the monolithic energetic multilayers from which it is derived.

Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2012-05-29

445

Energy Control Systems: Energy Savings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The installation of proper control systems is estimated as saving up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other potential energy-saving areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)

School Business Affairs, 1980

1980-01-01

446

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

Annual operating expenses AWEA American Wind Energy Association BNEF Bloomberg New Energy Finance BOEMNREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 2011

447

GREEN KIT: A MODULAR, VARIABLE APPLICATION SYSTEM FOR SUSTAINABLE COOLING  

EPA Science Inventory

Definition of technical challenge to sustainability One of the challenges to sustainability is to build shelters that provide human comfort (people) using limited resources (prosperity) and minimum environment impact (planet). Current practices in building ...

448

ENGINEERING SYSTEMS SUSTAINABILITY AS AN ORGANIZING DESIGN PRINCIPLE FOR  

E-print Network

in Automotive Aluminum d. Lean Sustainment Initiative (LSI) for the US Air Force: Tracing the Repair, which we will later buttress with case examples and sample field research. Sustainability is not, itself

Entekhabi, Dara

449

Communication : S4FE2009 (International Conference on Sustainable Fossil Fuels for Future Energy), Rome, 6 au 10 juillet 2009  

E-print Network

Communication : S4FE2009 (International Conference on Sustainable Fossil Fuels for Future Energy on Sustainable Fossil Fuels for Future Energy), Rome : Italy (2009)" #12;Communication : S4FE2009 (International Conference on Sustainable Fossil Fuels for Future Energy), Rome, 6 au 10 juillet 2009 2 FFiigguurree 11

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

450

Incorporating sustainable development considerations into energy sector decision-making: Malmö Flintränen district heating facility case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper introduces an on-going doctoral research study aimed at facilitating the operationalisation of sustainable energy systems. The study focuses upon the analysis of existing and development of new methods for the incorporation of socio-environmental considerations into large-scale investment decision-making in the energy sector. The final output of the research study, to be completed by the end of 2001, will

Pepukaye Bardouille; Jan Koubsky

2000-01-01

451

Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System  

E-print Network

Medicinal plants are increasingly recognized worldwide as an alternative source of efficacious and inexpensive medications to synthetic chemo-therapeutic compound. Rapid declining wild stocks of medicinal plants accompanied by adulteration and species substitutions reduce their efficacy, quality and safety. Consequently, the low accessibility to and non-affordability of orthodox medicine costs by rural dwellers to be healthy and economically productive further threaten their life expectancy. Finding comprehensive information on medicinal plants of conservation concern at a global level has been difficult. This has created a gap between computing technologies' promises and expectations in the healing process under complementary and alternative medicine. This paper presents the design and implementation of a Multimedia-based Medicinal Plants Sustainability Management System addressing these concerns. Medicinal plants' details for designing the system were collected through semi-structured interviews and databas...

Omogbadegun, Zacchaeus; Ayo, Charles; Mbarika, Victor; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Otofia, Efe; Chieze, Frank

2011-01-01

452

Welfare and Generational Equity in Sustainable Unfunded Pension Systems  

PubMed Central

Using stochastic simulations we analyze how public pension structures spread the risks arising from demographic and economic shocks across generations. We consider several actual and hypothetical sustainable PAYGO pension structures, including: (1) versions of the US Social Security system with annual adjustments of taxes or benefits to maintain fiscal balance; (2) Sweden’s Notional Defined Contribution system and several variants developed to improve fiscal stability; and (3) the German system, which also includes annual adjustments to maintain fiscal balance. For each system, we present descriptive measures of uncertainty in representative outcomes for a typical generation and across generations. We then estimate expected utility for generations based on simplifying assumptions and incorporate these expected utility calculations in an overall social welfare measure. Using a horizontal equity index, we also compare the different systems’ performance in terms of how neighboring generations are treated. While the actual Swedish system smoothes stochastic fluctuations more than any other and produces the highest degree of horizontal equity, it does so by accumulating a buffer stock of assets that alleviates the need for frequent adjustments. In terms of social welfare, this accumulation of assets leads to a lower average rate of return that more than offsets the benefits of risk reduction, leaving systems with more frequent adjustments that spread risks broadly among generations as those most preferred. PMID:21818166

Auerbach, Alan J.; Lee, Ronald

2011-01-01

453

Sustainable Food Systems in Europe: Policies, Realities and Futures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the food sustainability challenges facing the 27-nation member European Union (EU). It describes the evolution of sustainable development policy in Europe against the background of the EU's evolution and diverse membership, with particular reference to agriculture and food. It argues that while sustainability challenges in agriculture have received considerable policy attention, those facing the powerful manufacturing and

Geof Rayner; David Barling; Tim Lang

2008-01-01

454

Organic farming and the sustainability of agricultural systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The desire for a sustainable agriculture is universal, yet agreement on how to progress towards it remains elusive. The extent to which the concept of sustainable agriculture has any operational meaning is discussed. Sustainability is considered in relation to organic farming — a sector growing rapidly in many countries. The role of regulation and the use of synthetic agrochemicals, the desired

D. Rigby; D. Cáceres

2001-01-01

455

Toward cropping systems that enhance productivity and sustainability  

PubMed Central

The defining features of any cropping system are (i) the crop rotation and (ii) the kind or intensity of tillage. The trend worldwide starting in the late 20th century has been (i) to specialize competitively in the production of two, three, a single, or closely related crops such as different market classes of wheat and barley, and (ii) to use direct seeding, also known as no-till, to cut costs and save soil, time, and fuel. The availability of glyphosate- and insect-resistant varieties of soybeans, corn, cotton, and canola has helped greatly to address weed and insect pest pressures favored by direct seeding these crops. However, little has been done through genetics and breeding to address diseases caused by residue- and soil-inhabiting pathogens that remain major obstacles to wider adoption of these potentially more productive and sustainable systems. Instead, the gains have been due largely to innovations in management, including enhancement of root defense by antibiotic-producing rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria inhibitory to root pathogens. Historically, new varieties have facilitated wider adoption of new management, and changes in management have facilitated wider adoption of new varieties. Although actual yields may be lower in direct-seed compared with conventional cropping systems, largely due to diseases, the yield potential is higher because of more available water and increases in soil organic matter. Achieving the full production potential of these more-sustainable cropping systems must now await the development of varieties adapted to or resistant to the hazards shown to account for the yield depressions associated with direct seeding. PMID:17130454

Cook, R. James

2006-01-01

456

Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking  

ScienceCinema

INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.;

2013-05-28

457

Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking  

SciTech Connect

INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

2011-01-01

458

Evaluating the sustainability of space life support systems: case study on air revitalisation systems ARES and BIORAT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space life support systems can be taken as kinds of miniature models of industrial systems found on Earth. The term "industrial" is employed here in a generic sense, referring to all human technological activities. The time scale as well as the physical scope of space life support systems is reduced compared to most terrestrial systems and so is consequently their complexity. These systems can thus be used as a kind of a "laboratory of sustainability" to examine concerns related to the environmental sustainability of industrial systems and in particular to their resource use. Two air revitalisation systems, ARES and BIORAT, were chosen as the test cases of our study. They represent respectively a physico-chemical and a biological life support system. In order to analyse the sustainability of these systems, we began by constructing a generic system representation applicable to both these systems (and to others). The metabolism of the systems was analysed by performing Material Flow Analyses—MFA is a tool frequently employed on terrestrial systems in the field of industrial ecology. Afterwards, static simulation models were developed for both ARES and BIORAT, focusing, firstly, on the oxygen balances of the systems and, secondly, on the total mass balances. It was also necessary to define sustainability indicators adapted to space life support systems in order to evaluate and to compare the performances of ARES and BIORAT. The defined indicators were partly inspired from concepts used in Material Flow Accounting and they were divided into four broad categories: 1. recycling and material use efficiency, 2. autarky and coverage time, 3. resource use and waste creation, and 4. system mass and energy consumption. The preliminary results of our analyses show that the performance of BIORAT is superior compared to ARES in terms of the defined resource use indicators. BIORAT seems especially effective in reprocessing carbon dioxide created by human metabolism. The performances of ARES and BIORAT are somewhat closer in terms of material use efficiency and resource intensity. However, the excellence of BIORAT in terms of resource use is countered by the fact that its energy consumption is greater than that of ARES by a factor of ten.

Suomalainen, Emilia; Erkman, Suren

459

Ammonia recycling enables sustainable operation of bioelectrochemical systems.  

PubMed

Ammonium (NH4(+)) migration across a cation exchange membrane is commonly observed during the operation of bioelectrochemical systems (BES). This often leads to anolyte acidification (pH <5.5) and complete inactivation of biofilm electroactivity. Without using conventional pH controls (dosage of alkali or pH buffers), the present study revealed that anodic biofilm activity (current) could be sustained if recycling of ammonia (NH3) was implemented. A simple gas-exchange apparatus was designed to enable continuous recycling of NH3 (released from the catholyte at pH >10) from the cathodic headspace to the acidified anolyte. Results indicated that current (110 mA or 688 Am(-3) net anodic chamber volume) was sustained as long as the NH3 recycling path was enabled, facilitating continuous anolyte neutralization with the recycled NH3. Since the microbial current enabled NH4(+) migration against a strong concentration gradient (~10-fold), a novel way of ammonia recovery from wastewaters could be envisaged. PMID:23774293

Cheng, Ka Yu; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

2013-09-01

460

Pathway to Support the Sustainable National Health Information System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heath information across geographically distributed healthcare centers has been recognized as an essential resource that drives an efficient national health-care plan. There is thus a need for the National Health Information System (NHIS) that provides the transparent and secure access to health information from different healthcare centers both on demand and in a time efficient manner. As healthiness is the ultimate goal of people and nation, we believe that the NHIS should be sustainable by taking the healthcare center and information consumer perspectives into account. Several issues in particular must be resolved altogether: (i) the diversity of health information structures among healthcare centers; (ii) the availability of health information sharing from healthcare centers; (iii) the efficient information access to various healthcare centers; and (iv) the privacy and privilege of heath information. To achieve the sustainable NHIS, this paper details our work which is divided into 3 main phases. Essentially, the first phase focuses on the application of metadata standard to enable the interoperability and usability of health information across healthcare centers. The second phase moves forward to make information sharing possible and to provide an efficient information access to a large number of healthcare centers. Finally, in the third phase, the privacy and privilege of health information is promoted with respect to access rights of information consumers.

Sahavechaphan, Naiyana; Phengsuwan, Jedsada; U-Ruekolan, Suriya; Aroonrua, Kamron; Ponhan, Jukrapong; Harnsamut, Nattapon; Vannarat, Sornthep

461

A total system approach to sustainable pest?management  

PubMed Central

A fundamental shift to a total system approach for crop protection is urgently needed to resolve escalating economic and environmental consequences of combating agricultural pests. Pest management strategies have long been dominated by quests for “silver bullet” products to control pest outbreaks. However, managing undesired variables in ecosystems is similar to that for other systems, including the human body and social orders. Experience in these fields substantiates the fact that therapeutic interventions into any system are effective only for short term relief because these externalities are soon “neutralized” by countermoves within the system. Long term resolutions can be achieved only by restructuring and managing these systems in ways that maximize the array of “built-in” preventive strengths, with therapeutic tactics serving strictly as backups to these natural regulators. To date, we have failed to incorporate this basic principle into the mainstream of pest management science and continue to regress into a foot race with nature. In this report, we establish why a total system approach is essential as the guiding premise of pest management and provide arguments as to how earlier attempts for change and current mainstream initiatives generally fail to follow this principle. We then draw on emerging knowledge about multitrophic level interactions and other specific findings about management of ecosystems to propose a pivotal redirection of pest management strategies that would honor this principle and, thus, be sustainable. Finally, we discuss the potential immense benefits of such a central shift in pest management philosophy. PMID:9356432

Lewis, W. J.; van Lenteren, J. C.; Phatak, Sharad C.; Tumlinson, J. H.

1997-01-01

462

Addressing Sustainability: Energy consumption of two Atlantic salmon smolt hatcheries  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercial aquaculture is driven by production costs and economic returns, but conventional economic analyses do not typically include societal costs due to ecological or environmental change, thus actual production costs may be seriously underestimated. Sustainability implies that food production s...

463

Toward sustainable energy development in the Indian power sector: A critique of fifty years of power development in India and an analysis of sustainable energy alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present, the Indian electric power sector (EPS) finds itself in a "triple bind," plagued by a severe resource crunch, adverse environmental impacts and unequal social access to energy services, and a poor record of technical performance in generation and distribution of electricity. The problems of the EPS are seen in this dissertation as manifestations of a larger crisis of unsustainable energy development, rooted in the political economy of power development in India. A theoretical framework is articulated based on a political economy approach constructed for this dissertation. The political economy framework is comprised of three elements: a materialization thesis that describes the core social relations in support of a specific political and economic structure; an institutionalization thesis that describes how these material relations are reproduced; and an ideology thesis which argues that a pervasive ideology exists making intelligible the existence of a particular form of political economy. From the vantage-point of this framework, and through a detailed examination of the political history of the power sector in India, the crisis in the Indian power sector is linked to the contradictions of what is termed as the "conventional model of energy development" (CMED) embraced by Indian planners at the time of independence. It is argued that the crisis in the EPS is caused by the intensive bureaucratization and technicization of the system, all but removing it from social and environmental evaluation. Current policy prescriptions for the Indian EPS, both Western as well as domestic, call for further strengthening the technocratic construct of the EPS. Privatization and restructuring experiments, underway in India, rather than breaking away from the existing approach, actually deepen the institutional hold of the CMED. Sustainable energy development (SED) is examined as an alternative to the CMED. The meaning and relevance of this concept in the context of the Indian EPS are examined, and guideposts to sustainability are identified. Linking SED back to the political economy framework, it is argued that if the concept is to signify a real departure from the current EPS, ideological, material and institutional changes will be required. These changes will result not only in a transformation of technology, but in a reconstruction of the energy system, from its values and philosophy to its social, political, economic, and environmental relations.

Govindarajalu, Chandrasekhar

464

Land-Use Analysis of Croplands for Sustainable Food and Energy Production in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy security and environmental sustainability are major concerns to many in the U.S. Energy from biomass has been proposed as a strategy to help meet future energy needs; however, widespread cultivation for biofuels could have significant impacts on food security and the environment. One solution to minimizing the impacts of biofuel cultivation is to limit production to abandoned croplands where competition from food crops and environmental degradation will be minimized. Here I estimate the spatial distribution of historical U.S. cropland areas from 1850 to 2000 and subsequently calculate abandoned cropland areas for the year 2000. From this data I estimate the potential biomass energy that could be obtained from abandoned croplands. I also estimate the potential for biomass energy to contribute to a renewable energy system consisting of wind and solar power by meeting seasonal energy storage needs that are a result of the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources. Lastly, I use the historical cropland areas result to estimate the ability of U.S. croplands to supply food to local populations at the county level.

Zumkehr, Andrew Lee

465

Moving Towards a More Sustainable and Secure Energy Future  

E-print Network

.4% Wind 9.7% Solar 0.1% Landfill Gas 0.2% Purch Pwr 1.4% Gas 19.9% Coal 35.5% Nuclear 23.6% Demand Reduction 7.3% Wind 10.2% Solar 2.2% Landfill Gas 0.2% Purch Pwr 0.9% *Generation includes energy generated for off-system sales... for the early mothballing of Deely in 2018 - Significantly lower emissions than coal and lower water use - Natural gas supply from Eagle Ford shale fields Renewable Energy Projects Sweetwater 3 & 4 Wind Covel Gardens Landfill...

Stoker, K.

2012-01-01

466

Designing a Real-time Strategy Game about Sustainable Energy Use  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 C. The Bottom Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 D. Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 1. New Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 2. Super Energy Metropolis... This thesis documents the development of a real-time strategy (RTS) video game entitled Super Energy Apocalypse (SEA) that teaches players about sustainable energy use and the intricacies of an energy economy. The game approximates real-world data from...

Doucet, Lars Andreas

2011-08-08

467

Exergy sustainability.  

SciTech Connect

Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

2006-05-01

468