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1

Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Australian National University Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems provides information about photovoltaics and solar thermal energy technology. Links are provided to energy information and research sites.

Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSES)

2

Environmental sustainability of cellulosic energy cropping systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The environmental sustainability of bioenergy production depends on both direct and indirect effects of the production systems to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This chapter evaluates what is known about the environmental sustainability of cellulosic bioenergy crop production for the types of produc...

3

Research directions in energy-sustainable cyber–physical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of sustainable computing is provided and different approaches towards design and verification of energy-sustainable computing (i.e., sustainable computing from energy consumption perspective) are discussed for cyber–physical systems (CPSs), i.e., systems with strong coupling between computing components and non-computing processes in physical environment. A major issue in this regard is the inter-dependencies of the non-computing processes on the computing

Sandeep K. S. Gupta; Tridib Mukherjee; Georgios Varsamopoulos; Ayan Banerjee

2011-01-01

4

Sustainable systems for the storage and conversion of energy are dependent on interconnected  

E-print Network

framework, the development of new sustainable energy technologies for applications including high systems, and sustainable energy portfolios has resulted in over 20 archival journal and conferenceSEMTE abstract Sustainable systems for the storage and conversion of energy are dependent

Reisslein, Martin

5

STRATEGIC FOCUS: Sustainable Systems  

E-print Network

in solar power generation, controls, and management as well as in alternate and new energy re- sources1010 STRATEGIC FOCUS: Sustainable Systems Biology doctoral student Tanya Lubansky uses quan and quantitative ecologists. Sustainable Systems in NJIT's Educational Programs Educational offerings

6

Nonregenerative natural resources in a sustainable system of energy supply.  

PubMed

Following the lead of the European Union in introducing binding measures to promote the use of regenerative energy forms, it is not unreasonable to assume that the global demand for combustible raw materials for energy generation will be reduced considerably in the second half of this century. This will not only have a favourable effect on the CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere, but will also help preserve fossil fuels-important as raw materials in the chemical industry-for future generations. Nevertheless, associated with the concomitant massive shift to regenerative energy forms, there will be a strong demand for other exhaustible raw materials, in particular metals, some of which are already regarded as scarce. After reviewing the debate on mineral depletion between "cornucopians" and "pessimists", we discuss the meaning of mineral "scarcity", particularly in the geochemical sense, and mineral "exhaustion". The expected drastic increase in demand for mineral resources caused by demographic and societal pressures, that is, due to the increase in in-use stock, is emphasised. Whilst not discussing the issue of "strong" versus "weak" sustainability in detail, we conclude that regenerative energy systems-like nearly all resource-consuming systems in our society-do not necessarily satisfy generally accepted sustainability criteria. In this regard, we discuss some current examples, namely, lithium and cobalt for batteries, rare earth-based permanent magnets for wind turbines, cadmium and tellurium for solar cells and copper for electrical power distribution. PMID:22351622

Bradshaw, Alex M; Hamacher, Thomas

2012-03-12

7

SOLARCAP: Super Capacitor Buffering of Solar Energy for Self-Sustainable Field Systems  

E-print Network

SOLARCAP: Super Capacitor Buffering of Solar Energy for Self-Sustainable Field Systems Amal Fahad of the conventional battery-based energy storage, this paper argues that the super capacitor buffering of solar energy approach to self-sustainable field systems through the use of the super-capacitor-based solar energy

Shen, Kai

8

Environmental Sustainability & Green Energy  

E-print Network

Environmental Sustainability & Green Energy With escalating concerns about global energy shortages in research related to energy deficits, sustainability and pollution. Biofuels and Alternative Energy contaminants in air, water and soil through advanced oxidation Environmental Remediation · Focus on sustainable

Denham, Graham

9

Measuring Energy Sustainability  

E-print Network

20 Measuring Energy Sustainability David L. Greene Abstract For the purpose of measurement, energy sustainability is defined as ensuring that future generations have energy resources that enable them to achieve that there are valid, more comprehensive understandings of sustainability and that energy sustainability as de- fined

10

Sustainability Assessment of Residential Building Energy System in Belgrade  

E-print Network

of harmful substances. Multi-criteria method is a basic tool for the sustainability assessment in metropolitan cities. The design of potential options is the first step in the evaluation of buildings. The selection of a number of residential buildings...

Vucicevic, B.; Bakic, V.; Jovanovic, M.; Turanjanin, V.

2010-01-01

11

Grid connected DC distribution system for efficient integration of sustainable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, some of the aspects related to the design and implementation of grid connected DC microgrids are investigated. A prototype system has been designed and implemented to address these aspects. The described system is dependent mainly on sustainable energy sources. Hence, a special care has been given to dealing with these kinds of sources while designing different components

M. Elshaer; A. Mohamed; O. Mohammed

2011-01-01

12

Towards sustainable energy: are there lessons from the history of the early factory system?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of sustainable energy has been slow. We compare it with a historical example of rapid innovation – the first factory system. The first factory system in the English Derwent Valley mills in the eighteenth century was based not on new technology like the steam engine, but on the familiar water mill. The locale was less prosperous than others in

Paul Bellaby; Rob Flynn; Miriam Ricci

2010-01-01

13

Chapter 2: Sustainable and Unsustainable Developments in the U.S. Energy System  

SciTech Connect

Over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the United States developed a wealthy society on the basis of cheap and abundant fossil fuel energy. As fossil fuels have become ecologically and economically expensive in the twenty-first century, America has shown mixed progress in transitioning to a more sustainable energy system. From 2000 to 2006, energy and carbon intensity of GDP continued favorable long-term trends of decline. Energy end-use efficiency also continued to improve; for example, per-capita electricity use was 12.76 MWh per person per year in 2000 and again in 2006, despite 16 percent GDP growth over that period. Environmental costs of U.S. energy production and consumption have also been reduced, as illustrated in air quality improvements. However, increased fossil fuel consumption, stagnant efficiency standards, and expanding corn-based ethanol production have moved the energy system in the opposite direction, toward a less sustainable energy system. This chapter reviews energy system developments between 2000 and 2006 and presents policy recommendations to move the United States toward a more sustainable energy system.

Levine, Mark; Levine, Mark D.; Aden, Nathaniel T.

2008-05-01

14

Sustainable aquaculture systems  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this paper is to examine and assess the technical feasibility of the integration of plant and/or animal aquaculture systems into a sustainable agriculture. Although most researchers tend to avoid a precise definition of sustainable aquaculture, the implication that one gets from `reading between the lines` is that a sustainable agro-ecosystem is one which recycles materials at maximum energy efficiency. The `unspoken` standard against which comparisons of sustainability are often made is that of a mature natural ecosystem at a steady state. Cost comparisons of alternative systems will be used whenever possible, however, in many cases, conventional cost/benefit analysis will be of limited value in such an analysis. For aquaculture, such an analysis can best be conducted by analyzing the possibilities of integrating nutrients, water, and energy flow from aquaculture systems both to and from, conventional agricultural systems. The various aquaculture options are then qualitatively compared as their potential, limitations, environmental soundness, productivity, socio-economic viability and the availability of supporting technology. It is important to realize that the usefulness or applicability of any sustainable or integrated aquaculture practice is highly site specific.

Brune, D.E.

1994-08-01

15

Sustainable Energy Coalition Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sustainable Energy Coalition brings together business, environmental, and consumer organizations that advocate federal energy policies that will lead to "a cleaner environment, safe reliable energy technologies, and a secure, prosperous future for all Americans."

2008-08-18

16

A Collaborative Model for a Sustainable Management System for Energy at Small to Medium Industrial Enterprises  

E-print Network

A Collaborative Model for a Sustainable Management System for Energy at Small to Medium Industrial Enterprises Mark Imel Technical Manager ? Energy Services Burns & McDonnell Kansas City, MO Michael Gromacki Vice President ? Engineering...- efficiency footprint and their global competitiveness. This systematic and collaborative approach can serve as a model for other small to medium size industrial firms. INTRODUCTION Escalating energy costs and the environmental and climate...

Imel, M.; Gromacki, M.; Magoon, D.

17

Modeling environmental and social impacts of energy systems with the goal-sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

In a time when global problems concerning environmental pollution are recognized as climate changes, greenhouse effect, or global warming and when the global energy consumption will increase, a very important issue for any country is to construct an efficient and sustainable energy supply system, which will assure the energy demands for the country. Environmental impacts of energy systems are one of the goals of technology assessment (TA). For several years the interest on technology assessment has increased, as a possibility to solve problems concerning sustainable development of regions and countries. The realization of TA-studies, which are sustainable feasibility studies, is characterized by the modeling of interactions between technical systems and their environment. In the present paper, after a short theoretical description of the EPR-model, a concrete application for this model in a region of Romania will be presented. A word model will be obtained, which will be solved using a method based on fuzzy logic. The method based on fuzzy logic permits to work with highly aggregated entities. Based on a phase diagram results are to be discussed and conclusions concerning the assurance of a sustainable development of regions will be drawn. In this way the important role of scientific research in the decision making process will be expressed. This is also the role of technology assessment.

Tulbure, I. [Technical Univ. of Petrosani (Romania)

1996-12-31

18

The Sustainable Energy Challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependence on oil and fossil fuels for over 80% of our energy and the continued emission of carbon dioxide threatening stable climate are captured in a single term: sustainability. Although we generally agree that sustainability is valuable, there is less agreement on how much sustainability is necessary or desirable. In this talk, three criteria describing increasingly strict features of sustainability will be presented and applied to evaluate the alternatives to oil and carbon dioxide emission, such as tapping unused energy flows in sunlight and wind, producing electricity without carbon emissions from clean coal and high efficiency nuclear power plants, and replacing oil with biofuels or electricity. Implementing these more sustainable alternatives requires new materials of increasing complexity and functionality that control the transformation of energy between light, electrons and chemical bonds at the nanoscale. Challenges and opportunities for developing the complex materials and controlling the chemical changes that enable greater sustainability will be presented. )

Crabtree, George

2010-02-01

19

Sustainable energy systems and economics of energy services: Case of special economic zones of People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main approach to elaborating the dissertational thesis is interdisciplinary re- search. We will carefully examine the interlinkages between complementary areas of economy, energy systems and environment within predefined geographic zones. Gener- ally speaking, we will focus on those aspects of sustainable development in China, which are relevant to its energy complex. Therefore, we will try to connect the commonalities

Radoslav Mizera

2008-01-01

20

Sustainable Energy Management Programs  

E-print Network

Sustainable Energy Management Programs Steve Hanner Allen ISD/TEMA . ESL-KT-14-11-45 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Starting an Energy Management Program • Recognize need, Elicit District Commitment... • Appoint Energy Manager • Analyze Existing Conditions • Develop Plan • Implement and Monitor Program ESL-KT-14-11-45 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Sustainable Programs Feature – District Commitment...

Hanner, S.

2014-01-01

21

Prospects for Sustainable Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fossil fuels are a finite resource, and their continued use as the world's dominant energy supply is damaging the environment. Future use of alternative methods of energy supply is inescapable. This book offers a critical assessment of all possible sustainable energy technologies and energy storage. Coverage explores the historical origins, technical features, marketability, and environmental impacts of the complete range of sustainable energy technologies: solar, biomass, wind, hydropower, geothermal power, ocean-energy sources, solar-derived hydrogen fuel, and energy storage. The aim is to inform policy analysts and decision makers of the options available for sustainable energy production. This accessible volume will be a valuable resource for a broad group of academics and researchers with a wide range of backgrounds and scientific training. It will also be an ideal supplementary next for advanced courses in environmental studies, energy economics and policy, and engineering.

Cassedy, Edward S., Jr.

2000-04-01

22

"Sustainable energy is critical to Canada's economic future." carleton.ca/sustainable-energy  

E-print Network

component: public policy for those specializing in sustainable energy engineering and engineering for those of energy conversion methods and systems. The MASc and MEng degrees in Efficient Electrical Energy Systems"Sustainable energy is critical to Canada's economic future." carleton.ca/sustainable-energy

Dawson, Jeff W.

23

Sustainable Biomass Supply Systems  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) aims to displace 30% of the 2004 gasoline use (60 billion gal/yr) with biofuels by 2030 as outlined in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which will require 700 million tons of biomass to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually. Lignocellulosic biomass will make an important contribution towards meeting DOE’s ethanol production goals. For the biofuels industry to be an economically viable enterprise, the feedstock supply system (i.e., moving the biomass from the field to the refinery) cannot contribute more that 30% of the total cost of the biofuel production. The Idaho National Laboratory in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of California, Davis and Kansas State University are developing a set of tools for identifying economical, sustainable feedstocks on a regional basis based on biorefinery siting.

Erin Searcy; Dave Muth; Erin Wilkerson; Shahab Sokansanj; Bryan Jenkins; Peter Titman; Nathan Parker; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson

2009-04-01

24

A self-sustaining energy system for a rural community in India  

SciTech Connect

A large segment of the world's population is poor and undernourished. They essentially earn their meager income from agriculture. Their future is tied up with the economics of agriculture, which in turn is strongly related to energy. So is true of a vast majority of the population in India, who live in over 560,000 villages. A large number of these villages are inaccessible to commercial supplies. An autonomous and self-sustaining energy system comprising of three renewable energy sources: sun, wind and biomass cam make a significant contribution to their economy. Appropriate combinations of these three energy resources is needed to make it economical, viable and compatibel with rural economy. The paper discusses one such system, highlighting the major characteristics of the three components.

Gupta, M.C.

1983-12-01

25

Campus Sustainability Goals Energy & Climate  

E-print Network

Campus Sustainability Goals Energy & Climate By 2014, reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 and water consumption and wastewater production; incorporate sustainable design principles into capital levels. Food & Dining By 2020, increase sustainable food purchases by campus foodservice providers

Jacobs, Lucia

26

Energy Solutions for Sustainable Development  

E-print Network

Energy Solutions for Sustainable Development Proceedings Risø International Energy Conference 2007 Larsen Title: Energy Solutions for Sustainable Development Proceedings Risø International Energy&D Priorities 371 List of Participants 398 #12;Preface Energy Solutions for Sustainable Development The world

27

High-Fidelity Nuclear Energy System Optimization towards an Environmentally Benign, Sustainable, and Secure Energy Source  

E-print Network

revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. In this dissertation, a Nuclear Energy System (NES) configuration was developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling...

Ames, David E.

2011-10-21

28

Implementation of global energy sustainability  

SciTech Connect

The term energy sustainability emerged from the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio 1992, when Agenda 21 was formulated and the Global Energy Charter proclaimed. Emission reductions, total energy costing, improved energy efficiency, and sustainable energy systems are the four fundamental principles of the charter. These principles can be implemented in the proposed financial, legal, technical, and education framework. Much has been done in many countries toward the implementation of the Global Energy Charter, but progress has not been fast enough to ease the disastrous effects of the too many ill-conceived energy systems on the environment, climate, and health. Global warming is accelerating, and pollution is worsening, especially in developing countries with their hunger for energy to meet the needs of economic development. Asian cities are now beating all pollution records, and greenhouse gases are visibly changing the climate with rising sea levels, retracting glaciers, and record weather disasters. This article presents why and how energy investments and research money have to be rechanneled into sustainable energy, rather than into the business-as-usual of depleting, unsustainable energy concepts exceeding one trillion dollars per year. This largest of all investment sectors needs much more attention.

Grob, G.R. [CMDC, Zurich (Switzerland)

1998-02-01

29

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 1.0: Networked Monitoring and Control of Small Interconnected Wind Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

EXECUTIVE SUMARRY This report presents accomplishments, results, and future work for one task of five in the Wichita State University Sustainable Energy Solutions Project: To develop a scale model laboratory distribution system for research into questions that arise from networked control and monitoring of low-wind energy systems connected to the AC distribution system. The lab models developed under this task are located in the Electric Power Quality Lab in the Engineering Research Building on the Wichita State University campus. The lab system consists of four parts: 1. A doubly-fed induction generator 2. A wind turbine emulator 3. A solar photovoltaic emulator, with battery energy storage 4. Distribution transformers, lines, and other components, and wireless and wired communications and control These lab elements will be interconnected and will function together to form a complete testbed for distributed resource monitoring and control strategies and smart grid applications testing. Development of the lab system will continue beyond this project.

Janet.twomey@wichita.edu

2010-04-30

30

Exploring the sustainability of industrial production and energy generation with a model system  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance and complexity of sustainability has been well recognized and a formal study of sustainability based on system theory approaches is imperative as many of the relationships between the various components of the system could be non-linear, intertwined, and non-intuit...

31

Energy Independence with Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past five years there has been a sea change in the natural gas and petroleum resources that are available in the US and worldwide. We want to take advantage of these resources while also driving toward a sustainable world. This means that we must continue to drive down prices of renewable energy, increase the use of hybrid and all electric vehicles and reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. The substitution of natural gas for coal reduces the amount of CO2 by 50% but we clearly need much larger reductions. I will review some of the initiatives ongoing within the Department of Energy that are driven by the need to drive toward a sustainable solution to the CO2 problem.

Brinkman, W. F.

2012-12-01

32

Smart and sustainable energy systems for developing countries: An Indian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is a highly diverse country with regard to its electrification status, covering all from well developed cities to rural areas without access to electricity. It has identified renew- able energy sources as the long-term solution for future energy and progressing in the direction of electrifying the unreachable pockets. In this context, paper accumulates the prospects of sustainable energy and

V. S. K. Murthy Balijepalli; S. A. Khaparde

2011-01-01

33

High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new high-fidelity integrated system method and analysis approach was developed and implemented for consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles leading to minimized Transuranic (TRU) inventories. The method has been implemented in a developed code system integrating capabilities of Monte Carlo N - Particle Extended (MCNPX) for high-fidelity fuel cycle component simulations. In this report, a Nuclear Energy

Pavel Valeryevich Tsvetkov; Salvador B. Rodriguez; II David E; Gary Eugene Rochau

2010-01-01

34

High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source.  

SciTech Connect

The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental degradation attributed to the affects of energy production and use. Thus, nations strive to increase their energy generation, but are faced with the challenge of doing so with a minimal impact on the environment and in a manner that is self-reliant. Consequently, a revival of interest in nuclear energy has followed, with much focus placed on technologies for transmuting nuclear spent fuel. The performed research investigates nuclear energy systems that optimize the destruction of nuclear waste. In the context of this effort, nuclear energy system is defined as a configuration of nuclear reactors and corresponding fuel cycle components. The proposed system has unique characteristics that set it apart from other systems. Most notably the dedicated High-Energy External Source Transmuter (HEST), which is envisioned as an advanced incinerator used in combination with thermal reactors. The system is configured for examining environmentally benign fuel cycle options by focusing on minimization or elimination of high level waste inventories. Detailed high-fidelity exact-geometry models were developed for representative reactor configurations. They were used in preliminary calculations with Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtented (MCNPX) and Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE) code systems. The reactor models have been benchmarked against existing experimental data and design data. Simulink{reg_sign}, an extension of MATLAB{reg_sign}, is envisioned as the interface environment for constructing the nuclear energy system model by linking the individual reactor and fuel component sub-models for overall analysis of the system. It also provides control over key user input parameters and the ability to effectively consolidate vital output results for uncertainty/sensitivity analysis and optimization procedures. The preliminary analysis has shown promising advanced fuel cycle scenarios that include Pressure Water Reactors Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs) and dedicated HEST waste incineration facilities. If deployed, these scenarios may substantially reduce nuclear waste inventories approaching environmentally benign nuclear energy system characteristics. Additionally, a spent fuel database of the isotopic compositions for multiple design and control parameters has been created for the VHTR-HEST input fuel streams. Computational approaches, analysis metrics, and benchmark strategies have been established for future detailed studies.

Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rodriguez, Salvador B.; Ames, David E., II (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Rochau, Gary Eugene

2009-09-01

35

Efficient and Sustainable Energy: Ecology and Energy Challenges Energy Efficient and Sustainable Buildings M. Kostic  

E-print Network

Efficient and Sustainable Energy: Ecology and Energy Challenges Energy Efficient and Sustainable energy sources, and may house interdisciplinary energy & environmental programs, including Master proven and the "cutting-edge" comprehensive buildings' "green & sustainable" energy technologies

Kostic, Milivoje M.

36

City.Net IES: A sustainability-oriented energy decision support system  

E-print Network

A city's energy system processes, as well as the interactions of the energy system with other systems in a city are imperative in creating a comprehensive energy decision support system due to the interdependencies between ...

Adepetu, Adedamola

37

Policy Strategies and Paths to promote Sustainable Energy Systems- The dynamic Invert Simulation Tool  

SciTech Connect

The European Union has established a number of targetsregarding energy efficiency, Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and CO2reductions as the 'GREEN PAPER on Energy Efficiency', the Directive for'promotion of the use of bio-fuels or other renewable fuels fortransport' or 'Directive of the European Parliament of the Council on thepromotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internalenergy market'. A lot of the according RES and RUE measures are notattractive for investors from an economic point of view. Thereforegovernmentsall over the world have to spend public money to promotethese technologies/measures to bring them into market. These expenditureshave to be adjusted to budget concerns and should be spent mostefficiently. Therefore, the spent money has to be dedicated totechnologies and efficiency measures with the best yield in CO2 reductionwithout wasting money. The core question: "How can public money - forpromoting sustainable energy systems - be spent most efficiently toreduce GHG-emissions?" has been well investigated by the European projectInvert. In course of this project a simulation tool has been designed toanswer this core question. This paper describes the modelling with theInvert simulation tool and shows the key features necessary forsimulating the energy system. A definition of 'Promotion SchemeEfficiency' is given which allows estimating the most cost effectivetechnologies and/or efficiency measures to reduce CO2 emissions.Investigations performed with the Invert simulation tool deliver anoptimum portfolio mix of technologies and efficiency measures for eachselected region. Within Invert seven European regions were simulated andfor the Austrian case study the detailed portfolio mix is shown andpolitical conclusions are derived.

Stadler, Michael; Kranzl, Lukas; Huber, Claus; Haas, Reinhard; Tsioliaridou, Elena

2006-05-01

38

Toward Sustainable Energy Development in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bangladesh is one of the most electricity deprived nations in the world. Despite large potential for renewable energy sources in Bangladesh, currently their contribution to the electricity supply remains insignificant. Use of renewable energy is considered an indispensable component of sustainable energy systems, as renewables emit less greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuel energy systems. However, to advance such

Sk Noim Uddin; Ros Taplin

2008-01-01

39

Energy, environment and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an intimate connection between energy, the environment and sustainable development. A society seeking sustainable development ideally must utilize only energy resources which cause no environmental impact (e.g. which release no emissions to the environment). However, since all energy resources lead to some environmental impact, it is reasonable to suggest that some (not all) of the concerns regarding the

Ibrahim Dincer; Marc A. Rosen

1999-01-01

40

Travel instructions for visiting the Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems at the Australian National University in Canberra  

E-print Network

National University in Canberra The Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems is located in the east wing to the Australian National University. a. From Sydney, drive into Canberra along the Federal Highway and turn right at Barry Drive. b. From south Canberra, drive over Commonwealth Ave. Bridge and turn left at Barry Drive. c

41

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 3.0:Life-Cycle Database for Wind Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The benefits of wind energy had previously been captured in the literature at an overview level with relatively low transparency or ability to understand the basis for that information. This has limited improvement and decision-making to larger questions such as wind versus other electrical sources (such as coal-fired plants). This research project has established a substantially different approach which is to add modular, high granularity life cycle inventory (lci) information that can be used by a wide range of decision-makers, seeking environmental improvement. Results from this project have expanded the understanding and evaluation of the underlying factors that can improve both manufacturing processes and specifically wind generators. The use of life cycle inventory techniques has provided a uniform framework to understand and compare the full range of environmental improvement in manufacturing, hence the concept of green manufacturing. In this project, the focus is on 1. the manufacturing steps that transform materials and chemicals into functioning products 2. the supply chain and end-of-life influences of materials and chemicals used in industry Results have been applied to wind generators, but also impact the larger U.S. product manufacturing base. For chemicals and materials, this project has provided a standard format for each lci that contains an overview and description, a process flow diagram, detailed mass balances, detailed energy of unit processes, and an executive summary. This is suitable for integration into other life cycle databases (such as that at NREL), so that broad use can be achieved. The use of representative processes allows unrestricted use of project results. With the framework refined in this project, information gathering was initiated for chemicals and materials in wind generation. Since manufacturing is one of the most significant parts of the environmental domain for wind generation improvement, this project research has developed a fundamental approach. The emphasis was place on individual unit processes as an organizing framework to understand the life cycle of manufactured products. The rearrangement of unit processes provides an efficient and versatile means of understanding improved manufactured products such as wind generators. The taxonomy and structure of unit process lci were developed in this project. A series of ten unit process lci were developed to sample the major segments of the manufacturing unit process taxonomy. Technical and economic effectiveness has been a focus of the project research in Task three. The use of repeatable modules for the organization of information on environmental improvement has a long term impact. The information developed can be used and reused in a variety of manufacturing plants and for a range of wind generator sizes and designs. Such a modular approach will lower the cost of life cycle analysis, that is often asked questions of carbon footprint, environmental impact, and sustainability. The use of a website for dissemination, linked to NREL, adds to the economic benefit as more users have access to the lci information. Benefit to the public has been achieved by a well-attended WSU conference, as well as presentations for the Kansas Wind Energy Commission. Attendees represented public interests, land owners, wind farm developers, those interested in green jobs, and industry. Another benefit to the public is the start of information flow from manufacturers that can inform individuals about products.

Janet M Twomey, PhD

2010-04-30

42

Renewable Energy: Energy Security and Sustainability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy offers the possibility of providing a complete, sustainable energy infrastructure without anthropogenic emission of CO2. Large-scale implementation of renewable technologies would eliminate the need to develop and implement sequestration systems, by reducing the use of, and ultimately eliminating fossil based energy production. Renewable energy also offers energy security because indigenous resources are sufficient. The major renewable energy systems include phovoltaics (solar cells), solar thermal (electric and thermal), wind, biomass (plants and trees), hydroelectric, ocean, and geothermal. Given the intermittent nature of solar energy, only those energy systems that are coupled to an energy storage technology will be viable. Among the energy storage technologies are hydrogen, batteries, flywheels, superconductivity, ultracapacitors, pumped hydro, molten salts (for thermal storage), and compressed gas. One of the most versatile energy storage systems and the best energy carrier for transportation is hydrogen. This talk will review some of the basic renewable energy systems, present possible pathways for the implementation of hydrogen into the energy infrastructure and offer research areas that need to be addressed to increase the viability of these renewable energy technologies.

Turner, John

2002-03-01

43

Content for Teaching Sustainable Energy Systems in Physics at Upper Secondary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding energy with a focus on sustainable development requires further knowledge beyond traditional conceptual understanding. This paper presents the result from one main investigation and two smaller follow-up studies. The main study (step 1) consists of an interpreting, iterative analysis of statements made by experts on contents for…

Engstrom, Susanne; Gustafsson, Peter; Niedderer, Hans

2011-01-01

44

An analysis of cogeneration system utilized as sustainable energy in the industrial sector in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan is a high energy-importing nation with approximately 98% of our energy supplied by imported fuels in 2004. The energy conservation and\\/or energy efficiency improvement is becoming vital energy issues in the country. In this regard, cogeneration system or combined heat and power system used for the utilization of waste heat from energy and industrial sectors is thus becoming attractive

Wen-Tien Tsai; Kuo-Jung Hsien

2007-01-01

45

Climate stabilization wedges in action: a systems approach to energy sustainability for Hawaii Island.  

PubMed

Pacala and Socolow developed a framework to stabilize global greenhouse gas levels for the next fifty years using wedges of constant size representing an increasing use of existing technologies and approaches for energy efficiency, carbon free generation, renewables, and carbon storage. The research presented here applies their approach to Hawaii Island, with modifications to support local scale analysis and employing a "bottom-up" methodology that allows for wedges of various sizes. A discretely bounded spatial unit offers a testing ground for a holistic approach to improving the energy sector with the identification of local options and limitations to the implementation of a comprehensive energy strategy. Nearly 80% of total primary energy demand across all sectors for Hawaii Island is currently met using petroleum-based fuels.The Sustainable Energy Plan scenario included here presents an internally consistent set of recommendations bounded by local constraints in areas such as transportation efficiency, centralized renewable generation (e.g., geothermal, wind), reduction in transmission losses, and improved building efficiency. This scenario shows thatthe demand for primary energy in 2030 could be reduced by 23% through efficiency measures while 46% could be met by renewable generation, resulting in only 31% of the projected demand being met by fossil fuels. In 2030, the annual releases of greenhouse gases would be 3.2 Mt CO2-eq/year under the Baseline scenario, while the Sustainable Energy Plan would reduce this to 1.2 Mt CO2-eq/year--an annual emissions rate 40% below 2006 levels and 10% below 1990 levels. The total for greenhouse gas emissions during the 24-year study period (2007 to 2030) is 59.9 Mt CO2-eq under the Baseline scenario and 32.5 Mt CO2-eq under the Sustainable Energy Plan scenario. Numerous combinations of efficiency and renewable energy options can be employed in a manner that stabilizes the greenhouse gas emissions of Hawaii Island. PMID:19452868

Johnson, Jeremiah; Chertow, Marian

2009-04-01

46

Cogeneration supply by bio-energy for a sustainable hotel building management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we presented the development of an energy model based on a mixed system of renewable energy, with primary energy sources as solar and biomass. It is a hybrid and autonomous system with solar PV panels and gasification cogeneration technology. Also it is an environment friendly process aiming the reduction of energy demand, costs and emissions. This energy

João Rafael Galvão; Sérgio Augusto Leitão; Salvador Malheiro Silva; Tiago Manuel Gaio

2011-01-01

47

Center for Sustainability Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HyRES) Laboratory  

E-print Network

will feature a hybrid solar-wind energy system and car-home hydrogen interface #12;Competition Mode: Solar. www.vss.psu.edu/GATE/gate_h2vrc.htm Hybrid Car-Home Energy System A hybrid energy system combining of Eastern PA AccuWeather Automated Logic BP Solar Energy solutions for the Next generation · Solar powered

Lee, Dongwon

48

Energy Conversion Chain Analysis of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Transportation Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In general terms there are only three primary energy sources: fossil fuels, renewable energy, and nuclear fission. For fueling road transportation, there has been much speculation about the use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, which would usher in the "hydrogen economy." A parallel situation would use a simple battery to store electricity…

Evans, Robert L.

2008-01-01

49

Physics of Sustainable Energy Berkeley CA  

E-print Network

Physics of Sustainable Energy Berkeley CA March 5-6, 2011 Integra) A Study by the Panel On Public Affairs #12;Physics of Sustainable Energy Berkeley Renewables require a nationally coherent electricity grid #12;Physics of Sustainable Energy Berkeley

Kammen, Daniel M.

50

Efficient and Sustainable EnergyEfficient and Sustainable Energy NIU Energy Initiative  

E-print Network

to alternative (including nuclear) and renewable energy sources (including solar,energy sources (including solar, until alternative and renewable energy infrastructure is developed and maturedinfrastructureEfficient and Sustainable EnergyEfficient and Sustainable Energy NIU Energy Initiative: Efficient

Kostic, Milivoje M.

51

MultiComponent Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System for sustainable growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental harmonization of nuclear energy technology is considered as an absolutely necessary condition in its future successful development for peaceful use. Establishment of Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System, that simultaneously meets four requirements — energy production, fuel production, burning of radionuclides and safety, strongly relies on the neutron excess generation. Implementation of external non-fission based neutron sources into fission energy system

Masaki Saito

2002-01-01

52

High fidelity nuclear energy system optimization towards an environmentally benign, sustainable, and secure energy source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact associated with energy generation and utilization is immeasurable due to the immense, widespread, and myriad effects it has on the world and its inhabitants. The polar extremes are demonstrated on the one hand, by the high quality of life enjoyed by individuals with access to abundant reliable energy sources, and on the other hand by the global-scale environmental

Pavel Valeryevich Tsvetkov; Salvador B. Rodriguez; II David E; Gary Eugene Rochau

2009-01-01

53

Towards sustainable energy systems: integrating renewable energy sources is the key for rural area power supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 1.6 billion people living in the rural areas of the poorest regions of the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia lack access to modern forms of energy services. In addition, currently used sources of energy for cooking and heating (wood, crop residues, charcoal, etc.) are a serious source of indoor pollution, causing environmental and health problems and

Pradeep K Katti; Mohan K Khedkar

2005-01-01

54

SUSTAINABILITY AND COMPLEX SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The important question in sustainability is not whether the world is sustainable, but whether a humanly acceptable regime of the world is sustainable. World commission on environment and development defines sustainability as ?development that meets the needs of the present withou...

55

Energy & Sustainability Manager County of Sonoma, General Services, Energy & Sustainability  

E-print Network

John Haig Energy & Sustainability Manager County of Sonoma, General Services, Energy the County of Sonoma has learned, and how it can help you. #12;A Month of Energy Independence SCEIP opened of FinancingLonger Amortization of Financing #12;The Money $ Sonoma County Treasury Pool- 45 Milli $ BONDS

Kammen, Daniel M.

56

Is bioethanol a sustainable energy source? An energy-, exergy, and emergy-based thermodynamic system analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofuels are widely seen as substitutes for fossil fuels to offset the imminent decline of oil production and to mitigate the emergent increase in GHG emissions. This view is, however, based on too simple an analysis, focusing on only one piece in the whole mosaic of the complex biofuel techno-system, and such partial approaches may easily lead to ideological bias

Wenjie Liao; Reinout Heijungs; Gjalt Huppes

2011-01-01

57

The properties of hydrogen as fuel tomorrow in sustainable energy system for a cleaner planet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global energy system transition from fossil fuel to hydrogen utilization is described. Environmental benefits of the combustion of hydrogen are reported. World carbon emissions from fossil fuel are schematized in connection with the opportunities of using hydrogen. The atomic hydrogen\\/carbon ratio and chemical properties of hydrogen are described. Pollutants of the energy system in our planet and hydrogen production

Magdalena Momirlan; T. N. Veziroglu

2005-01-01

58

A Systems Approach to Corporate Sustainability in Energy Management of Industrial Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a ldquoproof of conceptrdquo system methodology for the energy management of industrial units examining them as socio-technical systems. The cybernetic viable system model (VSM) of Beer is used to consider an industrial unit as a viable organization and through this consideration to diagnose the technical and managerial gaps identifying the Best Interventions Plan according to principles of

Theodora C. Kouloura; P. D. Panagiotakopoulos; A. S. Safigianni

2008-01-01

59

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Francesco Danuso

2008-06-18

60

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

SciTech Connect

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed. SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Joergensen, 1994) in which systems are modeled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Danuso, Francesco (University of Udine) [University of Udine

2008-06-18

61

Knowledge Integration to Make Decisions About Complex Systems: Sustainability of Energy Production from Agriculture  

ScienceCinema

A major bottleneck for improving the governance of complex systems, rely on our ability to integrate different forms of knowledge into a decision support system (DSS). Preliminary aspects are the classification of different types of knowledge (a priori or general, a posteriori or specific, with uncertainty, numerical, textual, algorithmic, complete/incomplete, etc.), the definition of ontologies for knowledge management and the availability of proper tools like continuous simulation models, event driven models, statistical approaches, computational methods (neural networks, evolutionary optimization, rule based systems etc.) and procedure for textual documentation. Following these views at University of Udine, a computer language (SEMoLa, Simple, Easy Modelling Language) for knowledge integration has been developed.  SEMoLa can handle models, data, metadata and textual knowledge; it implements and extends the system dynamics ontology (Forrester, 1968; Jørgensen, 1994) in which systems are modelled by the concepts of material, group, state, rate, parameter, internal and external events and driving variables. As an example, a SEMoLa model to improve management and sustainability (economical, energetic, environmental) of the agricultural farms is presented. The model (X-Farm) simulates a farm in which cereal and forage yield, oil seeds, milk, calves and wastes can be sold or reused. X-Farm is composed by integrated modules describing fields (crop and soil), feeds and materials storage, machinery management, manpower  management, animal husbandry, economic and energetic balances, seed oil extraction, manure and wastes management, biogas production from animal wastes and biomasses.

Francesco Danuso

2010-01-08

62

Sustainable futures using nuclear energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the role of nuclear energy in a sustainable future. This addresses the social, economic and environmental concerns of us all. Nuclear energy today avoids the emission of nearly two billion tonnes of greenhouse gases (GHGs) each year, thanks to over 400 reactors operating worldwide.Nevertheless, there is no real recognition of real incentives for large-scale non-emitters like nuclear energy

Romney B. Duffey

2005-01-01

63

Briggs & Stratton Sustainable Energy Efficiency  

E-print Network

?s largest producer of gasoline engines for outdoor power equipment. ? North America?s number one manufacturer of portable generators and pressure washers. ? Leading designer, manufacturer and marketer of lawn and garden and turf care through our...Briggs & Stratton Sustainable Energy Efficiency Richard Feustel Corporate Energy Manager ESL-IE-13-05-22 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 2 Briggs & Stratton ? World...

Feustel, R.

2013-01-01

64

Smart power flow control in DC distribution systems involving sustainable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a detailed description of a proposed technique for power flow control in DC distribution systems has been presented. The DC system under study is assumed mainly dependent on renewable energy sources. The proposed topology utilizes a controlled series current compensator (CSCC) technique for connection and power flow control among buses. The proposed topology allows full power flow

A. Mohamed; O. Mohammed

2010-01-01

65

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY Andrew Blakers  

E-print Network

of collectors, technical diversity (using many different forms of renewable energy), storage (e.g. pumped hydro includes both direct radiation and indirect forms such as biomass, wind, hydro, ocean thermal, ocean. Geothermal energy has its origins in the decay of radioactive elements within the Earth. Heat associated

66

Sustainability: a matter of energy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper sets out to explore the concepts involved in sustainability by investigating the basic meanings of the terms, the primary principles involved and their application to practices of development. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A perspective founded in natural science is adopted relating to energy and matter. Issues of pragmatism and human behaviour are considered to determine how the basic

Richard Fellows

2006-01-01

67

Assessing the Sustainability of Buildings From Energy Certificate to Sustainability Report  

E-print Network

) Department of Economics & Business Engineering Sustainable Management of Housing & Real Estate Kaiserstr. 12 76128 Karlsruhe 00 49 72 1/ 6 08 83 40 thomas.luetzkendorf@wiwi.uka.de Assessing the Sustainability of Buildings - From Energy Certificate... to Sustainability Report In its current work on the development, testing and implementation of a national system to describe, evaluate and certify sustainable buildings (DGNB ? Deutsches G?tesiegel Nachhaltiges Bauen), Germany is focussed on the current state...

Lutzkendorf, T.

2008-01-01

68

Solving the Meteorological Challenges of Creating a Sustainable Energy System (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global energy demand is projected to double from 13 TW at the start of this century to 28 TW by the middle of the century. This translates into obtaining 1000 MW (1 GW, the amount produced by an average nuclear or coal power plant) of new energy every single day for the next 40 years. The U.S. Department of Energy has conducted three feasibility studies in the last two years identifying the costs, challenges, impacts, and benefits of generating large portions of the nation’s electricity from wind and solar energy, in the new two decades. The 20% Wind by 2030 report found that the nation could meet one-fifth of its electricity demand from wind energy by 2030. The second report, the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study, considered similar costs, challenges, and benefits, but considered 20% wind energy in the Eastern Interconnect only, with a target date of 2024. The third report, the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, considered the operational impact of up to 35% penetration of wind, photovoltaics (PVs) and, concentrating solar power (CSP) on the power system operated by the WestConnect group, with a target date of 2017. All three studies concluded that it is technically feasible to obtain these high penetration levels of renewable energy, but that increases in the balancing area cooperation or coordination, increased utilization of transmission and building of transmission in some cases, and improved weather forecasts are needed. Current energy systems were designed for dispatchable fuels, such as coal, natural gas and nuclear energy. Fitting weather-driven renewable energy into today's energy system is like fitting a square peg into a round hole. If society chooses to meet a significant portion of new energy demand from weather-driven renewable energy, such as wind and solar energy, a number of obstacles must be overcome. Some of these obstacles are meteorological and climatological issues that are amenable to scientific research. For variable renewable energy sources to reach high penetration levels, electric system operators and utilities need better atmo¬spheric observations, models, and forecasts. Current numerical weather prediction models have not been optimized to help the nation use renewable energy. Improved meteorological observations (e.g., wind turbine hub-height wind speeds, surface direct and diffuse solar radiation), as well as observations through a deeper layer of the atmosphere for assimilation into NWP models, are needed. Particularly urgent is the need for improved forecasts of ramp events. Longer-term predictions of renewable resources, on the seasonal to decadal scale, are also needed. Improved understanding of the variability and co-variability of wind and solar energy, as well as their correlations with large-scale climate drivers, would assist decision-makers in long-term planning. This talk with discuss the feasibility and benefits of developing enhanced weather forecasts and climate information specific to the needs of a growing renewable energy infrastructure.

Marquis, M.

2010-12-01

69

Sustainable Energy Crop Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biofuels currently supply a small portion of the world’s energy needs but this is increasing due to mandates intended to reduce use of fossil fuels and the associated environmental impacts. However, the potentials of plant based feedstocks to substitute for fossil fuels and mitigate environmental im...

70

Sustainable Economy for Sustainable Energy (SExSE): How the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms implemented at local level and Tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (TRECs) system could help the implementation of Renewable Energy (RE) on the ground at cities level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of 5.2% from developed countries as required by t he Kyoto Protocol it is the important starting point to prevent the climate change and to start to imple ment new Sustainable Energy policy for Sustainable Economy (SExSE). At local level (from Region to Cities) lower cost\\/ri sk energy portfolios can be developed by adjusting the conventional mix and

Aldo Iacomelli; Emanuele Piccinno; Daniele Villoresi

71

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative 2009 Prof. David Cahen Scientific Director #12;Alternative and Sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI) Weizmann Institute of Science 1 thousands of strains of algae, analyzing their Alternative and Sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI

Maoz, Shahar

72

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

Report of the Alternative Sustainable Energy Research Initiative 2010 Prof. David Cahen Scientific Director #12;Alternative and sustainable Energy Research Initiative (AERI) Weizmann Institute of Science Designer Cellulosomes 28 SSC2010: Solar Student Conference 2010 30 #12;Alternative and sustainable Energy

Maoz, Shahar

73

Systems analyses and the sustainable transfer of renewable energy technologies: A focus on remote areas of Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable energy provision is regarded as one of the most significant challenges facing the realm of development, especially in Africa where large proportions of the population still lack access to energy services. Although there have been much efforts to address these problems with renewable energy technologies, there have also been substantial failures and problems. The Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG)

Alan C. Brent; Wikus J. L. Kruger

2009-01-01

74

Achieving Sustainability, Energy Savings, and Occupant Comfort  

E-print Network

Sustainability, energy savings, and occupant comfort are not mutually exclusive objectives, as buildings can be designed that incorporate all of these features. Sustainability is often defined as meeting the needs of the present without compromising...

Fisher, D.; Bristow, G.

75

Knowledge systems for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge of meeting human development needs while pro- tecting the earth's life support systems confronts scientists, tech- nologists, policy makers, and communities from local to global levels. Many believe that science and technology (S&T) must play a more central role in sustainable development, yet little system- atic scholarship exists on how to create institutions that effectively harness S&T for

David W. Cash; William C. Clark; Frank Alcock; Nancy M. Dickson; Noelle Eckley; David H. Guston; Jill Jager; Ronald B. Mitchelli

2003-01-01

76

Nuclear Power Trends Energy Economics and Sustainability  

E-print Network

Nuclear Power Trends Energy Economics and Sustainability L. H. Tsoukalas Purdue University Nuclear;National Research Council of Greece, May 8, 2008 Outline · The Problem · Nuclear Energy Trends · Energy Economics · Life Cycle Analysis · Nuclear Sustainability · Nuclear Energy in Greece? #12;National Research

77

Strategic Partnership for Sustainable Energy Innovation  

E-print Network

ecando Strategic Partnership for Sustainable Energy Innovation and Climate Change Mitigation www.eit-energy: Sustainable energy solutions independent of nuclear energy Highly qualified innovators that will be global citizen, eCANDO will have the right package of services for you to help you change towards a climate

78

Sustainable roofs with real energy savings  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the general concept of sustainability and relates it to the building owner`s selection of a low-slope roof. It offers a list of performance features of sustainable roofs. Experiences and data relevant to these features for four unique roofs are then presented which include: self-drying systems, low total equivalent warming foam insulation, roof coatings and green roofs. The paper concludes with a list of sustainable roofing features worth considering for a low-slope roof investment. Building owners and community developers are showing more interest in investing in sustainability. The potential exists to design, construct, and maintain roofs that last twice as long and reduce the building space heating and cooling energy loads resulting from the roof by 50% (based on the current predominant design of a 10-year life and a single layer of 1 to 2 in. (2.5 to 5.1 cm) of insulation). The opportunity to provide better low-slope roofs and sell more roof maintenance service is escalating. The general trend of outsourcing services could lead to roofing companies` owning the roofs they install while the traditional building owner owns the rest of the building. Such a situation would have a very desirable potential to internalize the costs of poor roof maintenance practices and high roof waste disposal costs, and to offer a profit for installing roofs that are more sustainable. 14 refs., 12 figs.

Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

1996-12-31

79

4th International Symposium on Energy & Environment: ACCESS Abundant Clean Cost-effective Energy Systems for Sustainability  

E-print Network

water resources and water quality. Technology and Policy related aspects will be covered. Bioenergy automobiles to jet planes. Approaches of integration to coal systems and utilization of solar energy will exchange best practices. Due to significant growth of universities in Asia and other parts of the world

Subramanian, Venkat

80

Sustainable development of rural energy and its appraising system in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local biomass resources have been used in rural China for quite a long time, which has a close connection with and will inevitably affect the environment. In recent years, China has experienced rapid economic growth and equally rapid increases in energy use, especially commercial energy, in rural areas. As a result, energy induced environmental degradation has also increased in

Wang Xiaohua; Feng Zhenmin

2002-01-01

81

Sustainable EnergiesSustainable Energies & Their Environmental Impacts& Their Environmental Impacts  

E-print Network

) #12;Environmental Impacts of Hydroelectricity Ecosystem Damage (North America) ­ TemperatureSustainable EnergiesSustainable Energies & Their Environmental Impacts& Their Environmental Impacts percentage of wind, biomass, solar or other sustainable energy sources All credit to EIA (U.S. Energy

Budker, Dmitry

82

CALTECH SUSTAINABILITY CALTECH ENERGY PORTFOLIO  

E-print Network

natural gas combine heat and power system; 2) on-site solar photovoltaic arrays; 3) on-site Bloom fuel.4%. This system meets approximately 60% of the campus energy demand. Technical · 10 MW Solar Mars gas turbine credits for solar energy facilities for which we would not otherwise be eligible. These PV arrays

Faraon, Andrei

83

The MSc programme in Environomical Pathways for Sustainable Energy Systems (SELECT) is a cooperation bet-ween seven top universities in Europe.It is a two year master programme including compulsory mobility for the  

E-print Network

The MSc programme in Environomical Pathways for Sustainable Energy Systems (SELECT Description Sustainable energy service is one of the key issues for humanity and central to the SELECT footprint for the services delivered. SELECT starts form the concept of basic renewable energy sources

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica

84

Thermodynamic & Kinetic Data for Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

thermodynamic and diffusion mobility databases for use in the development of new sustainable energy sourcesThermodynamic & Kinetic Data for Sustainable Energy METALS This project will establish and Customers · Higher efficiency energy sources will require the development of new materials. Thermodynamic

Perkins, Richard A.

85

Energy revolution: policies for a sustainable future  

SciTech Connect

The book examines the policy options for mitigating or removing the entrenched advantages held by fossil fuels and speeding the transition to a more sustainable energy future, one based on improved efficiency and a shift to renewable sources such as solar, wind, and bioenergy. The book: examines today's energy patterns and trends and their consequences; describes the barriers to a more sustainable energy future and how those barriers can be overcome; provides ten case studies of integrated strategies that have been effective in different parts of the world examines international policies and institutions and recommends ways they could be improved; reviews global trends that suggest that the transition to renewables and increased efficiency is underway and is achievable. The core of the book are presentations of Clean Energy scenarios for the US and Brazil. His US scenario has 10 policies. These include: Adopt voluntary agreements to reduce industrial energy use; Provide tax incentives for innovative renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies; Expand federal R & D and deployment programs; Remove barriers to combined heat and power systems; and Strengthen emissions standards on coal-fired plants. Geller calculates that the impact of his ten policies would be a $600 billion cost and a $1200 billion savings, for a net savings of $600 billion compared to a baseline scenario of continued promotion of fossil fuels.

Howard Geller [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project, Boulder, CO (United States)

2002-07-01

86

Turning community wastes into sustainable energy  

SciTech Connect

On October 6, 1995, a unique public/private partnership of local, state, federal, and corporate stakeholders started construction of the world`s first wastewater-to-electricity system in Lake County, California. A rare example of a genuinely {open_quotes}sustainable{close_quotes} energy system, three Lake County communities will recycle their wastewater effluent through the Geysers geothermal steamfield to produce enough power to meet their electricity needs for decades to come. Known as the Southeast Geysers Effluent Pipeline Project, this $45 million effort has become a national model of geothermal resource management distinguished by the following accomplishments: (1) Turning the rhetoric of sustainability into functional infrastructure that sustains electric generation with a combination of community wastes and geothermal energy. (2) Creating an inclusive partnership of eleven public and private stakeholders to undertake the project. (3) Integrating the project`s environmental review with its engineering design to avoid rather than mitigate impacts. (4) Using consensus decision-making among stakeholders during project development to insure eventual support for implementation. When construction is completed in 1997, the project will begin an expected 25-year operating life that will provide the Lake County communities with not only all of their electricity needs, but also sufficient wastewater disposal capacity to accommodate regional growth to 2022.

Dellinger, M.

1996-04-10

87

Renewable energy sources for clean and sustainable energy policies in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is an essential factor to achieve sustainable development. So, countries striving to this end are seeking to reassess their energy systems with a view towards planning energy programmes and strategies in line with sustainable development goals and objectives. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental

Ibrahim Yuksel; Kamil Kaygusuz

2011-01-01

88

Energy for Me: Sustaining My Community with Renewable Energy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this problem-based learning unit, learners explore the possibilities of sustainable energy, and engage in a project to provide electricity for their city using alternative energy sources. Instructions to access NASA data are provided along with additional resources and activities. This module was developed to be used in the Earth System Science Education Alliance (ESSEA) courses for middle and high school teachers and is also available to teachers to adapt for general classroom use.

89

ON ENERGY AND SUSTAINABILITY (PERSONAL COLUMN)  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of energy is a major and desirable feature of modern human existence, but it has significant impact on the planetary environment. It is, therefore, an important issue in the quest for sustainability. The search for viable policies leading to energy sustainability falls ...

90

Sustainable Rural Energy Development in Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Under the Luz Para Todos ('Lights for All') Program, the Government of Brazil (GOB) seeks to provide basic electricity services to all its citizens by 2008. An estimated 2.5 million rural households (over 12 million Brazilians) currently lack electric service, with approximately 80% of them located in rural areas. Since many of these households are too geographically isolated to be connected to the national grid, they will receive distributed energy systems, and the government hopes to maximize the use of local renewable resources to service them. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with the GOB and a variety of local partners to identify and implement sustainable off-grid solutions to meet Brazil's rural energy needs. Focused in the Amazon region, these collaborative activities are, on one hand, using field-based activities to build local technical capacity and design replicable models for rural energy development, while on the other hand helping to develop the institutional structures that will be necessary to sustain distributed renewable energy development on a large-scale in Brazil.

Ghandour, A.

2005-01-01

91

Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage.  

PubMed

Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed. PMID:25515886

Larcher, D; Tarascon, J-M

2015-01-01

92

Towards greener and more sustainable batteries for electrical energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever-growing energy needs and depleting fossil-fuel resources demand the pursuit of sustainable energy alternatives, including both renewable energy sources and sustainable storage technologies. It is therefore essential to incorporate material abundance, eco-efficient synthetic processes and life-cycle analysis into the design of new electrochemical storage systems. At present, a few existing technologies address these issues, but in each case, fundamental and technological hurdles remain to be overcome. Here we provide an overview of the current state of energy storage from a sustainability perspective. We introduce the notion of sustainability through discussion of the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, considering elemental abundance, toxicity, synthetic methods and scalability. With the same themes in mind, we also highlight current and future electrochemical storage systems beyond lithium-ion batteries. The complexity and importance of recycling battery materials is also discussed.

Larcher, D.; Tarascon, J.-M.

2015-01-01

93

A sustained-arc ignition system for internal combustion engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sustained-arc ignition system was developed for internal combustion engines. It produces a very-long-duration ignition pulse with an energy in the order of 100 millijoules. The ignition pulse waveform can be controlled to predetermined actual ignition requirements. The design of the sustained-arc ignition system is presented in the report.

Birchenough, A. G.

1977-01-01

94

Fostering The Use of Low Impact Renewable Energy Technologies with Integrated Operation Is The Key for Sustainable Energy System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low impact renewable energy technologies offer important benefits compared to conventional energy sources, such as fossil fuels or nuclear power. Renewable-energy resources are abundant; worldwide, and are unevenly distributed. They are capable of producing around one-thousand-times more energy than is released today by all fossil fuels consumed. However due to their uncertainty different kinds of renewable-energy resources need to be

Pradeep K Katti; M. K. Khedkar

2008-01-01

95

Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development. Such strategies typically involve three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, large-scale renewable energy implementation plans must

Henrik Lund

2007-01-01

96

Geothermal energy in Turkey: the sustainable future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is an energy importing nation with more than half of our energy requirements met by imported fuels. Air pollution is becoming a significant environmental concern in the country. In this regard, geothermal energy and other renewable energy sources are becoming attractive solution for clean and sustainable energy future for Turkey. Turkey is the seventh richest country in the world

Kamil Kaygusuz; Abdullah Kaygusuz

2004-01-01

97

The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy  

SciTech Connect

Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

Hurry, S.

1997-12-01

98

Carbon Capture and Storage: Sustainability in the UK energy mix yryfasyfrtsayfsaytrsyfysa 1 UK Energy Research Centre  

E-print Network

Carbon Capture and Storage: Sustainability in the UK energy mix yryfasyfrtsayfsaytrsyfysa 1 UK within UKERC's Future Sources of Energy them e, with project colleague Jon Gibbins at I mperial College information and leadership, on sustainable energy systems. UKERC undertakes world-class research addressing

99

Energy Sustainability and the Green Campus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of campus energy sustainability, explaining that both demand- and supply-side strategies are required. Suggests that on the demand side, an aggressive campus energy conservation program can reduce campus energy consumption by 30 percent or more. Asserts that addressing the supply side of the energy equation means shifting…

Simpson, Walter

2003-01-01

100

Executive Director Carleton Sustainable Energy Research Centre  

E-print Network

of activities including: public events, external communications, funding initiatives, Centreled research proposals, professional courses, and relations with internal and external stakeholders. The Executive of recent Carleton initiatives in the area of sustainable energy. The Executive Director

Dawson, Jeff W.

101

A Landscape Perspective on Sustainability of Agricultural Systems  

SciTech Connect

Landscape sustainability of agricultural systems considers effects of farm activities on social, economic, and ecosystem services at local and regional scales. Sustainable agriculture entails: defining sustainability, developing easily measured indicators of sustainability, moving toward integrated agricultural systems, and offering incentives or imposing regulations to affect farmer behavior. A landscape perspective is useful because landscape ecology provides theory and methods for dealing with spatial heterogeneity, scaling, integration, and complexity. To implement agricultural sustainability, we propose adopting a systems perspective, recognizing spatial heterogeneity, addressing the influences of context, and integrating landscape-design principles. Topics that need further attention at local and regional scales include (1) protocols for quantifying material and energy flows; (2) effects of management practices; (3) incentives for enhancing social, economic, and ecosystem services; (4) integrated landscape planning and management; (5) monitoring and assessment; (6) effects of societal demand; and (7) consistent and holistic policies for promoting agricultural sustainability.

Dale, Virginia H [ORNL] [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaffka, Stephen R [University of California, Davis] [University of California, Davis; Langeveld, J.W.A. [Wageningen University, Netherlands] [Wageningen University, Netherlands

2013-01-01

102

Exploring the possibilities for setting up sustainable energy systems for the long term: two visions for the Dutch energy system in 2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, two long-term visions of the Dutch future energy system are composed, analysed and evaluated. Both visions were set up to meet the requirement to reduce the GHG emissions with 80% in 2050 in comparison to 1990. The two visions start from very different perspectives and contexts. Quantitative analysis shows that when economic growth and energy use follow

D. J. Treffers; J. Spakman; A. Seebregts

2005-01-01

103

Sustainable Energy Policy University Facilities (UF)  

E-print Network

Sustainable Energy Policy University Facilities (UF) POLICY 10 Effective Date: August 11, 2008 Last. Alternative energy sources such as passive solar heating and heat recovery shall be considered, as well of the University depends on having energy-intensive lab, classroom, and office space available to learn, study

Duchowski, Andrew T.

104

Sustainable Energy Revolving Loan Fund PROJECT APPLICATION  

E-print Network

1 Sustainable Energy Revolving Loan Fund PROJECT APPLICATION I. Project Administration 1. Project No Other funding sources. Provide source name, fund or index number if applicable. Exclude possible Energy will be combined with funding sources (other than BETC and Energy Trust) for a total project cost higher than

Escher, Christine

105

An Operational Excellence Approach to Sustainable Energy Management  

E-print Network

An Operational Excellence Approach to Sustainable Energy Management Andrew McMullan, KBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. Abstract With the advent of persistently high energy costs, many organizations have renewed efforts to reduce energy use... has developed an Operational Excellence- based (OpX) approach to energy management ? the Engage program. Engage delivers a strategic plan for improving energy efficiency along with the tools, Best Practices, management systems and work processes...

McMullan, A.

106

Adaptive Resource Management in Sustainable Energy Powered Wireless Mesh Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next generation communication networks are anticipated to make use of renewable energy sources, e.g., solar and wind power, to reduce carbon footprints and achieve an environmentally sustainable system. However, renewable energy sources have the limitation of unstable availability and capacity, which introduces new challenges for network planning and resource management. In this paper, adaptive resource management is introduced for wireless

Lin X. Cai; Yongkang Liu; Tom H. Luan; Xuemin Shen; Jon W. Mark; H. Vincent Poor

2011-01-01

107

Introduction to Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this course model on renewable and sustainable technology. The course emphasizes energy consumption, efficiency, and conservation. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Kox, Amy L.

2011-05-03

108

Renewable energy and sustainable development in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving solutions to environmental problems that we face today requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions. So clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life for Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use

Kamil Kaygusuz; Abdullah Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

109

|Sustainable energy choices: comparing the options  

E-print Network

with an ethical distaste for resource waste. Nuclear power emits no air pollu- tants or greenhouse gases is to be considered sustainable. Energy-emissions' contributions to poor indoor air quality, polluted urban air, acid impacts from energy-related activities must be prevented from causing permanent destruction of habitat

110

Toward Knowledge Systems for Sustainability Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Managing ecosystems for the outcomes of agricultural productivity and resilience will require fundamentally different knowledge management systems. In the industrial paradigm of the 20th century, land was considered an open, unconstrained system managed for maximum yield. While dramatic increases in yield occurred in some crops and locations, unintended but often foreseeable consequences emerged. While productivity remains a key objective, we must develop analytic systems that can identify better management options for the full range of monetized and non-monetized inputs, outputs and outcomes that are captured in the following framing question: How much valued service (e.g. food, materials, energy) can we draw from a landscape while maintaining adequate levels of other valued or necessary services (e.g. biodiversity, water, climate regulation, cultural services) including the long-term productivity of the land? This question is placed within our contemporary framing of valued services, but structured to illuminate the shifts required to achieve long-term sufficiency and planetary resilience. This framing also highlights the need for fundamentally new knowledge systems including information management infrastructures, which effectively support decision-making on landscapes. The purpose of this initiative by authors from diverse fields across government and academic science is to call attention to the need for a vision and investment in sustainability science for landscape management. Substantially enhanced capabilities are needed to compare and integrate information from diverse sources, collected over time that link choices made to meet our needs from landscapes to both short and long term consequences. To further the goal of an information infrastructure for sustainability science, three distinct but interlocking domains are best distinguished: 1) a domain of data, information and knowledge assets; 2) a domain that houses relevant models and tools in a curated space; and 3) a domain that includes decision support tools and systems tailored toward frame particular trade-offs, which may focus on inputs or outputs and may range in scale from local to global. An information infrastructure for sustainability science is best built be built and maintained as a modular, open source, open standard, open access, open content platform. We have defined the scope of this challenge, managing choices within agroecosystems, recognizing that any decision on a landscape involves multidimensional tradeoffs. An effort to address this challenge will need a cohesive, coherent and targeted approach toward an integrated knowledge management infrastructure for sustainability science applied to land management is essential to move more rapidly toward sustainable, productive, and resilient landscapes.

Zaks, D. P.; Jahn, M.

2011-12-01

111

Track 2: Sustainable Energy I. Renewable Energy: Wind and Wave  

E-print Network

1 Track 2: Sustainable Energy I. Renewable Energy: Wind and Wave II. Renewable Energy: Solar III. Biomass: Waste to Fuel IV. Biomass Energy Recovery Optimization 1. Renewable Energy Wind & Wave: Speakers, operates in shallow water, has no visual impact, and does not threaten wildlife.!!!! Wave Energy Proving

112

Advanced Decentralized Water/Energy Network Design for Sustainable Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to provide a water infrastructure that is more sustainable into and beyond the 21st century, drinking water distribution systems and wastewater collection systems must account for our diminishing water supply, increasing demands, climate change, energy cost and availabil...

113

Threshold Concepts, Systems and Learning for Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a framework for understanding the role that systems theory might play in education for sustainability (EfS). It offers a sketch and critique of Land and Meyer's notion of a "threshold concept", to argue that seeing systems as a threshold concept for sustainability is useful for understanding the processes of…

Sandri, Orana Jade

2013-01-01

114

Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia  

SciTech Connect

Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

Watson, R.K.

1995-12-31

115

RISNEWS JUNE 2007 NO Energy, climate and sustainable development in  

E-print Network

RISÃ?NEWSNO 12007PAGE1 RISÃ?NEWS JUNE 2007 NO 1 Energy, climate and sustainable development in the global fight for sustainable development ..................................................4 New partnerships encourage sustainable development

116

Sustainable Energy Development in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy, and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues

S. Karagoz; K. Bakirci

2009-01-01

117

Energy and sustainable development in North American Sunbelt cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of sustainable development are often misunderstood and variously applied. Sustainability as an urban goal is hindered by the lack of a consensus definition of sustainable development. The failure to focus on energy in cities as a means of achieving urban sustainability is one reason that successful empirical examples of implementing sustainable development are rare. The paradox is that

Stephen A. Roosa

2004-01-01

118

CREST: Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for Renewable Energy and Sustainable Technology, a 501(c)(3) organization in Washington, DC, announces Solstice, a file server with state-of-the-art information on renewable energy, energy efficiency, the environment, and sustainable community development.

119

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

contract number DE-AC36-08GO28308. #12;iv Abstract The electric power system in North America is linked & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013

120

Energy, environment and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globally, buildings are responsible for approximately 40% of the total world annual energy consumption. Most of this energy is for the provision of lighting, heating, cooling, and air conditioning. Increasing awareness of the environmental impact of CO2 and NOx emissions and CFCs triggered a renewed interest in environmentally friendly cooling, and heating technologies. Under the 1997 Montreal Protocol, governments agreed

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

2008-01-01

121

Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Research  

E-print Network

have a "portfolio" approach with multiple solutions Fuel Alternatives · Hydrogen · Biofuels-in hybrids Fossil Fuels Bus. as usual Low-carbon fuels (incl. CCS) Consumer Demand & Behavior Infrastructure · Fuel cell electric Climate change, Air quality, Energy security A comprehensive energy strategy should

Handy, Susan L.

122

Integrating Sustainable Development into Existing Management Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations are under increasing pressure from both outside and within to apply the principles of sustainable development to their operations. Although a variety of initiatives have been undertaken, many organizations have struggled with the implementation of the concept in practice. This paper addresses this issue by providing a framework for the integration of sustainable development into mainstream business systems. The

Miguel Rocha; Cory Searcy; Stanislav Karapetrovic

2007-01-01

123

Guidelines for Energy-Efficient Sustainable Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These guidelines present optional strategies to be considered in designing schools to be more energy efficient and sustainable. The guidelines are organized by the following design and construction process: site selection; selection of A & E design team; programming and goal setting; schematic design; design development; construction documents;…

Nicklas, Michael; Bailey, Gary; Rosemain, Pascale; Olin, Samuel

124

Sustainable bioreactor systems for producing hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of Hawaii`s BioHydrogen Program is to generate hydrogen from water using solar energy and microalgae under sustainable conditions. Specific bioprocess engineering objectives include the design, construction, testing and validation of a sustainable photobioreactor system. Specific objectives relating to biology include investigating and optimizing key physiological parameters of cyanobacteria of the genus Arthrospira (Spirulina), the organism selected for initial process development. Another objective is to disseminate the Mitsui-Miami cyanobacteria cultures, now part of the Hawaii Culture Collection (HCC), to other research groups. The approach is to use a single organisms for producing hydrogen gas from water. Key stages are the growth of the biomass, the dark induction of hydrogenase, and the subsequent generation of hydrogen in the light. The biomass production stage involves producing dense cultures of filamentous, non-heterocystous cyanobacteria and optimizing biomass productivity in innovative tubular photobioreactors. The hydrogen generation stages entail inducing the enzymes and metabolic pathways that enable both dark and light-driven hydrogen production. The focus of Year 1 has been on the construction and operation of the outdoor photobioreactor for the production of high-density mass cultures of Arthrospira. The strains in the Mitsui-Miami collection have been organized and distributed to other researchers who are beginning to report interesting results. The project is part of the International Energy Agency`s biohydrogen program.

Zaborsky, O.R.; Radway, J.C.; Yoza, B.A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Molecular Biology; Tredici, M.R. [Univ. of Florence (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze e Tecnologie Alimentari e Microbiogiche

1998-08-01

125

Request for Proposals in Organic & Sustainability Systems Research, Teaching & Outreach  

E-print Network

Request for Proposals in Organic & Sustainability Systems Research, Teaching & Outreach Proposal, teaching and extension/outreach projects involving organics and sustainability in farm and food systems and expand organic and sustainability systems knowledge and information through educator enrichment within

Pawlowski, Wojtek

126

Request for Proposals in Organic & Sustainability Systems Research, Teaching & Outreach  

E-print Network

Request for Proposals in Organic & Sustainability Systems Research, Teaching & Outreach Proposal involving organics and sustainability in farm and food systems, and managed landscapes including gardens knowledge about organic and sustainable gardening, farming, and landscaping. Encourage and support systems

Pawlowski, Wojtek

127

China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency  

SciTech Connect

China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various industries, and developing a multi-year program for standards and for optimizing the industrial motor systems in China. Past work has included a comprehensive study of China's oil refining sector. Cross-Cutting--analysis and research focused on multisector, policy, and long-term development issues. Current cross-cutting policy and analysis research includes work on government procurement programs; energy service companies; a national energy policy assessment including the National Energy Strategy released by the government in early 2005; energy efficiency policy; an analysis of past trends in energy consumption in China as well as of future scenarios; and our China Energy Databook accompanied by chapter summaries and analysis of recent trends.

Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

2006-03-20

128

Sustainable Energy-Without the Hot Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have an addiction to fossil fuels, and it's not sustainable. The devel-oped world gets 80% of its energy from fossil fuels; Britain, 90%. And this is unsustainable for three reasons. First, easily-accessible fossil fuels will at some point run out, so we'll eventually have to get our energy from someplace else. Second, burning fossil fuels is having a measurable

David J. C. Mackay; David Hafemeister

2010-01-01

129

A review on energy scenario and sustainable energy in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundant and economical energy is the life blood of modern civilizations. Global energy consumption in 2009 is expected to slightly increase to about 11428.1Mtoe and around 88% are from fossil fuels. Fossil fuel will become rare and a serious shortage in the near future has triggered the awareness to find alternative energy as their sustainable energy sources. Development and economic

H. C. Ong; T. M. I. Mahlia; H. H. Masjuki

2011-01-01

130

Sustainable Energy Development: The Key to a Stable Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the use of sustainable energy systems based on solar and biomass technologies to provide solutions to utility challenges in Nigeria and acute water shortage both in rural and urban areas of that country. The paper highlights the paradoxes of oil-rich Nigeria and the stark reality of social infrastructure deprivations in that country. Perennial power outages over many

Kalu Uduma; Tomasz Arciszewski

2010-01-01

131

Sustainable energy options for Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of the year 2008, Pakistan faces a gap of 4500MW between the demand and supply of electricity, registering a shortfall of 40%. The article provides an overview of the key dimensions of the crisis, i.e. growing gap between demand and supply, diminishing indigenous oil and gas reserves, rising energy cost and security concerns. It also explores hydropower,

M. Asif

2009-01-01

132

Solar hydrogen energy: The European–Maghreb connection. A new way of excellence for a sustainable energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The global sustainability is a key word of the future energy system for human beings. It should be friendly to our earth. Hydrogen energy is a critical resource to sustainable energy development. Over the coming decades, rapid economic growth will necessitate expanded and diversified energy supplies. This study is proposed to illustrate the attention to the opportunities and possibilities of

Abdel-Nasser Cherigui; Bouziane Mahmah; Farid Harouadi; Maïouf Belhamel; Samira Chader; Abdelhamid M'Raoui; Claude Etievant

2009-01-01

133

SEMS: System for Environmental Monitoring and Sustainability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of this project was to establish a computational and data management system, SEMS, building on our existing system and MTPE-related research. We proposed that the new system would help support Washington University's efforts in environmental sustainability through use in: (a) Problem-based environmental curriculum for freshmen and sophomores funded by the Hewlett Foundation that integrates scientific, cultural, and policy perspectives to understand the dynamics of wetland degradation, deforestation, and desertification and that will develop policies for sustainable environments and economies; (b) Higher-level undergraduate and graduate courses focused on monitoring the environment and developing policies that will lead to sustainable environmental and economic conditions; and (c) Interdisciplinary research focused on the dynamics of the Missouri River system and development of policies that lead to sustainable environmental and economic floodplain conditions.

Arvidson, Raymond E.

1998-01-01

134

Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

2007-01-01

135

Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable md sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (8) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, end verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered systems are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are made to refine model details.

O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

2005-01-01

136

Distributed energy generation and sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventionally, power plants have been large, centralized units. A new trend is developing toward distributed energy generation, which means that energy conversion units are situated close to energy consumers, and large units are substituted by smaller ones. A distributed energy system is an efficient, reliable and environmentally friendly alternative to the traditional energy system. In this article, we will first

Kari Alanne; Arto Saari

2006-01-01

137

Small hydropower for sustainable energy development in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate amount of energy generation in a sustainable manner is a major challenge in the present energy scenario. Fast depleting fossils fuels and their environmental effects forces to look towards renewable sources for sustainable development. Among all renewable sources, small hydropower (SHP) is one of the promising sources for sustainable water and energy development. The geography of India supports the

Himanshu Nautiyal; S. K. Singal; Varun; Aashish Sharma

2011-01-01

138

Alternative Energy Sources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy [book review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book presents a large amount of data dealing with the conventional and alternate energy resources and how they are used. The book is comprised of ten chapters and covers some of the following topics: a discussion about fossil fuels, including coal-fired power plants; sustainable development, and the role of natural gas; environmental impacts of energy consumption; nuclear energy; and

Saifur Rahman

2007-01-01

139

An ecological based sustainability assessing system for cropping system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of sustainability in cropping system is an important issue for natural resources management and environmental protection. Incorporating the geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technologies, an initial idea of the crop sustainability assessing system was thus proposed, based on ecosystem services value (ESV) assessing criterions. The system is basically constituted by two major parts, which were

Jingcheng Zhang; Jihua Wang; Xiaohe Gu; Juhua Luo; Wenjiang Huang; Kun Wang

2011-01-01

140

Sustainability Science: Sustainable Energy for Mobility and Its Use in Policy Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1980s sustainability has clearly become the challenge of the 21st century. In a process toward a sustainable society it is crucial that different stakeholders start collaboration and exchange ideas with technicians and academics. To finalize the policy decisions on important issues such as energy sustainability, collaboration between policy makers, academia and the private sector is important. This work

Fabio Orecchini; Adriano Santiangeli; Valeria Valitutti

2011-01-01

141

Sustainable Supply of Energy from Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study concerns sustainable supply of primary energy from biomass and considers the interrelation between the amount of energy captured in biomass by photosynthesis and the total land area under perennial species grown for the purpose. The authors analyse available experimental data statistically relevant to natural growths comprising a large number of individual trees of grey alder (Alnus incana), a well-known fast-growing species broadly spread in Latvia and for centuries being used as firewood. By graphical approximation of the growth-rate data available for growths up to 50 years of age the optimum age for harvesting dependent on the age at which the maximum growth-rate of biomass is reached is shown to be 18 years confirming traditional popular knowledge. With account for long-term sustainable supply of energy under condition of 18-year rotation, the average yield of energy from highest quality sites of the total land area permanently occupied by alder is calculated to be ca. 85 GJ/ha and the required land equivalent - slightly less than 12 ha per TJ of primary energy from photosynthesis.

Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

2010-01-01

142

Small hydropower projects and sustainable energy development in Sri Lanka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development has evolved to encompass three major viewpoints: economic, social and environmental. Given the wide-ranging potential impacts of energy on national sustainable development, we review the linkages between these two topics. In the Sri Lanka case study presented here, the Sustainomics framework is used to assess the role of small hydroelectric power projects in sustainable energy development. Key variables

Risa Morimoto; Mohan Munasinghe

2005-01-01

143

Energy Security: A Key Requirement forSustainable Development  

E-print Network

1 Energy Security: A Key Requirement forSustainable Development Perspective and Action Plan Robert Card Under Secretary US Department of Energy August 30, 2002 Session One: Maintaining Energy Security WSSD Side Event Energy for Sustainable Development IEA/UNEP/Eskom #12;2 Energy Security is a Key

144

Low-cost sustainable wall construction system  

SciTech Connect

Houses with no wall cavities, such as those made of adobe, stone, brick, or block, have poor thermal properties but are rarely insulated because of the cost and difficulty of providing wall insulation. A simple, low-cost technique using loose-fill indigenous materials has been demonstrated for the construction of highly insulated walls or the retrofit of existing walls in such buildings. Locally available pumice, in sandbags stacked along the exterior wall of an adobe house in New Mexico, added a thermal resistance (R) of 16 F{sm{underscore}bullet}ft{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}h/Btu (2.8 m{sup 2}{sm{underscore}bullet}K/W). The total cost of the sandbag insulation wall retrofit was $3.76 per square foot ($40.50/m{sup 2}). Computer simulations of the adobe house using DOE 2.1E show savings of $275 per year, corresponding to 50% reduction in heating energy consumption. The savings-to-investment ratio ranges from 1.1 to 3.2, so the cost of conserved energy is lower than the price of propane, natural gas and electric heat, making the system cost-effective. Prototype stand-alone walls were also constructed using fly ash and sawdust blown into continuous polypropylene tubing, which was folded between corner posts as it was filled to form the shape of the wall. Other materials could also be used. The inexpensive technique solves the problem of insulating solid-wall hours and constructing new houses without specialized equipment and skills, thereby saving energy, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and improving comfort for people in many countries. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has filed patent applications on this technology, which is part of a DOE initiative on sustainable building envelope materials and systems.

Vohra, A.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

1998-07-01

145

Geothermal energy: sustainability and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geothermal resources can be considered renewable on the time-scales of technological\\/societal systems and do not require the geological times of fossil fuel reserves such as coal, oil, and gas. The recovery of high-enthalpy reservoirs is accomplished at the same site from which the fluid or heat is extracted. Moreover, truly sustainable production can be achieved in doublet and heat pump

Ladislaus Rybach

2003-01-01

146

Pathways to a more sustainable production of energy: sustainable hydrogen—a research objective for Shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Towards a sustainable energy supply is a clear direction for exploratory research in Shell. Examples of energy carriers, which should be delivered to the envisaged sustainable energy markets, are bio-fuels, produced from biomass residues, and hydrogen (or electricity), produced from renewable sources. In contrast to the readily available ancient sunlight stored in fossil fuels, the harvesting of incident sunlight will

J. W. Gosselink

2002-01-01

147

SUSTAINABLE BIOFUEL SYSTEMS FOR UNDEVELOPED REGIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

We evaluated our findings based on the level of integration of sustainable methods, feasibility of implementation within the target community, and the quantity of energy produced in relation to community needs. Particular emphasis was placed on development of a production meth...

148

Sustainable multipurpose tree production systems for Nepal  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory is developing methods for producing reforestation plating stock, fuel, and fodder in a sustainable manner in Nepal. This project, in cooperation with the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation of Nepal, is sponsored by the US Agency for International Development (AID). Several production systems are being evaluated for the Mid-Hills Region of Nepal. To provide sustainable biomass production and ecological management of the fragile Mid-Hills Region, the production systems must simultaneously satisfy the physiological requirements of the plants, the symbiotic requirements of the plant and the microorganisms in its rhizosphere, the physicochemical requirements of nutrient and water cycling, and the climatic and topographic constraints.

Shen, S.Y.; Kilpatrick, K.J.

1988-03-01

149

Driving Water and Wastewater Utilities to More Sustainable Energy Management  

E-print Network

The Water Environment Federation (WEF) and industry leaders have identified the need for an energy roadmap to guide utilities of all sizes down the road to sustainable energy management through increased renewable energy production, energy...

Ferrel, L.; Liner, B.

2013-01-01

150

Integration of Ecological and Thermodynamic Concepts in the Design of Sustainable Energy Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource depletion and climate change motivate a transition to sustainable energy systems that make effective use of renewable sources. Whereas nature presents strategies to sustain on the basis of renewables, the Laws of Thermodynamics can help to increase efficiency in energy use. In previous papers we have identified a number of ecological and thermodynamic concepts that are of special relevance

Sven Stremke; Jusuck Koh

2011-01-01

151

Integration of ecological and thermodynamic concepts in the design of sustainable energy landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource depletion and climate change motivate a transition to sustainable energy systems that make effective use of renewable sources. Whereas nature presents strategies to sustain on the basis of renewables, the Laws of Thermodynamics can help to increase efficiency in energy use. In previous papers we have identified a number of ecological and thermodynamic concepts that are of special relevance

Sven Stremke; Jusuck Koh

2011-01-01

152

Renewable Energy Strategies for Sustainable Development Henrik Lund*  

E-print Network

Renewable Energy Strategies for Sustainable Development Henrik Lund* Department of Development of renewable energy (wind, solar, wave and biomass) in the making of strategies for a sustainable development improvements in the energy production, and replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy

Hansen, René Rydhof

153

Preparation and Characterization of Nanomaterials for Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

. Therefore, it is necessary to de- velop a suite of sustainable energy sources and energy-storage materialsPreparation and Characterization of Nanomaterials for Sustainable Energy Production Chang-jun Liu the primary source of energy in the world. In this respect, new catalysts are required to deal with changes

Wang, Zhong L.

154

Renewable Energy and the Sustainable Campus Boyd and Dethier  

E-print Network

1 GEOS 206 Renewable Energy and the Sustainable Campus Boyd and Dethier 5/19/09 "With Grumbling of energy has severe and costly environmental impacts. In addition, many current sources of energy institutions are engaged with the subject of energy and sustainability. Interestingly, new national fuel

Aalberts, Daniel P.

155

Energy autarky: A conceptual framework for sustainable regional development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy autarky is presented as a conceptual framework for implementing sustainable regional development based on the transformation of the energy subsystem. It is conceptualized as a situation in which the energy services used for sustaining local consumption, local production and the export of goods and services are derived from locally renewable energy resources. Technically, the implementation of higher degrees of

Matthias Otto Müller; Adrian Stämpfli; Ursula Dold; Thomas Hammer

2011-01-01

156

Designing Systems for Environmental Sustainability  

EPA Science Inventory

Dr. Smith will describe his U.S. EPA research which involves elements of design, from systems as diverse as biofuel supply chains to recycling systems and chemical processes. Design uses models that rate performance as part of a synthesis approach, where steps of analysis and sy...

157

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

of megawatt-scale renewable energy systems. NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) in Golden and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. NATIONAL WIND TECHNOLOGY CENTER for the energy industry that will save time and resources while minimizing integration issues, improving

158

Biorefinery systems – potential contributors to sustainable innovation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable biorefineries have a critical role to play in our common future. The need to provide more goods using renewable resources, combined with advances in science and technology, has provided a receptive environment for biorefinery systems development. Biorefineries offer the promise of using fewer non-renewable resources, reducing CO2 emissions, creating new employment, and spurring innovation using clean and efficient technologies.

Maria Wellisch; Gerfried Jungmeier; Adrian Karbowski; Martin K Patel; Magdalena Rogulska

2010-01-01

159

Ecology in Sustainable Agriculture Practices and Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable and productive agroecosystems must be developed that will meet today's needs for food and other products, as well as preserving the vital natural resource base that will allow future generations to meet their needs. To increase production efficiency, to improve farming strategies based on local resources, and to design systems that are resilient in the face of changing climate

C. A. Francis; P. Porter

2011-01-01

160

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH (SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Systems Analysis Branch (SAB)is organized under the Sustainable Technology Division of the National Risk Management Research Laboratory. The mission of SAB is to develop and demonstrate cost-effective decision making tools for use by the private and public sectors. Such tools...

161

Energy policies for sustainable livelihoods and sustainable development of poor areas in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focusing on the sustainable livelihoods of rural households and regional sustainable development, this research takes Yan’an at the upper reaches of Yellow River and Zhaotong at mid-upper reaches of the Yangtze River as the study areas, extracts the central affecting factors of energy consumption and characteristic indexes of energy zoning based on 1560 rural household questionnaires of 85 villages in

Jie Fan; Yu-tian Liang; An-jun Tao; Ke-rong Sheng; Hai-Long Ma; Yong Xu; Chuan-Sheng Wang; Wei Sun

2011-01-01

162

The Contribution of Renewable Energies to a Sustainable Energy Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ince the beginning of industrialization, energy consumption has increased considerably more rapidly than the world population. In addition to the limited resources, exhaust gases resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels have adverse effects on the world climate and the health of its population. Sustainable and socially acceptable develop- ment is, therefore, only possible if more rational and technologically advanced

H. Müller-Steinhagen; J. Nitsch

2005-01-01

163

Creating a Pathway to Sustainability IIT Wanger Institute for Sustainable Energy Research  

E-print Network

Recycling Solutions Indoor Air Quality Power Programs Energy/Environment/Economics Program Gas Engineering Program #12;[ 1 ] Energy and Sustainability, Environment, and Economics (E3 ) program. During this time, educational specializations in E3 at both

Heller, Barbara

164

Waste-to-energy: A way from renewable energy sources to sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, energy is key consideration in discussions of sustainable development. So, sustainable development requires a sustainable supply of clean and affordable renewable energy sources that do not cause negative societal impacts. Energy sources such as solar radiation, the winds, waves and tides are generally considered renewable and, therefore, sustainable over the relatively long term. Wastes and biomass fuels are usually

Richa Kothari; V. V. Tyagi; Ashish Pathak

2010-01-01

165

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Strategic Energy Analysis-centric, inefficient energy system to one that emphasizes efficiency and draws from diverse energy sources ­ including on foreign sources. Economy RE/EE development and deployment are stimulating clean energy companies and job

166

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. #12;Realizing a Clean Energy Future2 Table of Contents Profound Energy System Transformation is Underway

167

China's sustainable energy future: Scenarios of energy and carbonemissions (Summary)  

SciTech Connect

China has ambitious goals for economic development, and mustfind ways to power the achievement of those goals that are bothenvironmentally and socially sustainable. Integration into the globaleconomy presents opportunities for technological improvement and accessto energy resources. China also has options for innovative policies andmeasures that could significantly alter the way energy is acquired andused. These opportunities andoptions, along with long-term social,demographic, and economic trends, will shape China s future energysystem, and consequently its contribution to emissions of greenhousegases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). In this study, entitled China sSustainable Energy Future: Scenarios of Energy and Carbon Emissions, theEnergy Research Institute (ERI), an independent analytic organizationunder China's Na tional Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), soughtto explore in detail how China could achieve the goals of the TenthFive-Year Plan and its longer term aims through a sustainable developmentstrategy. China's ability to forge a sustainable energy path has globalconsequences. China's annual emissions of greenhouse gases comprisenearly half of those from developing countries, and 12 percent of globalemissions. Most of China's greenhouse gas emissions are in the form ofCO2, 87 percent of which came from energy use in 2000. In that year,China's carbon emissions from energy use and cement production were 760million metric tons (Mt-C), second only to the 1,500 Mt-C emitted by theUS (CDIAC, 2003). As China's energy consumption continues to increase,greenhouse gas emissions are expected to inevitably increase into thefuture. However, the rate at which energy consumption and emissions willincrease can vary significantly depending on whether sustainabledevelopment is recognized as an important policy goal. If the ChineseGovernment chooses to adopt measures to enhance energy efficiency andimprove the overall structure of energy supply, it is possible thatfuture economic growth may be supported by a relatively lower increase inenergy consumption. Over the past 20 years, energy intensity in China hasbeen reduced partly through technological and structural changes; currentannual emissions may be as much as 600 Mt-C lower than they would havebeen without intensity improvements. China must take into account itsunique circumstances in considering how to achieve a sustainabledevelopment path. This study considers the feasibility of such anachievement, while remaining open to exploring avenues of sustainabledevelopment that may be very different from existing models. Threescenarios were prepared to assist the Chinese Government to explore theissues, options and uncertainties that it confronts in shaping asustainable development path compatible with China's uniquecircumstances. The Promoting Sustainability scenario offers a systematicand complete interpretation of the social and economic goals proposed inthe Tenth Five-Year Plan. The possibility that environmentalsustainability would receive low priority is covered in the OrdinaryEffort scenario. Aggressive pursuit of sustainable development measuresalong with rapid economic expansion is featured in the Green Growthscenario. The scenarios differ in the degree to which a common set ofenergy supply and efficiency policies are implemented. In cons ultationwith technology and policy experts domestically and abroad, ERI developedstrategic scenarios and quantified them using an energy accounting model.The scenarios consider, in unprecedented detail, changes in energy demandstructure and technology, as well as energy supply, from 1998 to 2020.The scenarios in this study are an important step in estimating realistictargets for energy efficiency and energy supply development that are inline with a sustainable development strategy. The scenarios also helpanalyze and explore ways in which China might slow growth in greenhousegas emissions. The key results have important policy implications:Depending on how demand for energy services is met, China could quadrupleits gross domesti

Zhou, Dadi; Levine, Mark; Dai, Yande; Yu, Cong; Guo, Yuan; Sinton, Jonathan E.; Lewis, Joanna I.; Zhu, Yuezhong

2004-03-10

168

Renewable energy and sustainable development: a crucial review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Achieving solutions to environmental problems that we face today requires long-term potential actions for sustainable development. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions. That is why there is an intimate connection between renewable energy and sustainable development. Anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental impacts (focussing on

Ibrahim Dincer

2000-01-01

169

Sustainable energy production and consumption in Turkey: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this century, energy has been the driving force of the global economy and it will, for sure, continue to be one of the most important element for the sustainable socio-economic development for the coming centuries. Therefore, energy producers and governors have a vital duty to provide enough energy in good quality continuously with low cost for the sustainable development.

Hakan S. Soyhan

2009-01-01

170

Engaging Reluctant Americans into Energy Efficiency and Sustainability  

E-print Network

Gain a sustainable advantage CATEE December 18, 2012 But I don’t want to! Engaging reluctant Americans (almost all of them) into energy efficiency and sustainability ESL-KT-13-12-58 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San... Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Gain a sustainable advantage ESL-KT-13-12-58 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Gain a sustainable advantage ESL-KT-13-12-58 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

Shelton, S.

2013-01-01

171

Key Factors in Planning a Sustainable Energy Future Including Hydrogen and Fuel Cells  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, a number of future energy visions, especially those basing the energy systems on hydrogen, are discussed. Some often missing comparisons between alternatives, from a sustainability perspective, are identified and then performed for energy storage, energy transportation, and energy use in vehicles. It is shown that it is important…

Hedstrom, Lars; Saxe, Maria; Folkesson, Anders; Wallmark, Cecilia; Haraldsson, Kristina; Bryngelsson, Marten; Alvfors, Per

2006-01-01

172

Sustainable-energy managment practices in an energy economy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economic survival of any nation depends upon its ability to produce and manage sufficient supplies of low-cost safe energy. The world's consumption of fossil fuel resources currently increasing at 3% per annum is found to be unsustainable. Projections of this trend show that mankind will exhaust all known reserves in the second half of the coming century. Governments, industrialists, commercial organizations, public sector departments and the general public have now become aware of the urgent requirements for the efficient management of resources and energy-consuming activities. Most organizations in the materials, manufacturing and retail sectors and in the service industries have also created energy management departments, or have employed consultants, to monitor energy consumption and to reduce wastage. Conversely, any sustained attempt to reduce rates of energy consumption even by as little as 0.1% per annum ensures relatively an eternal future supply as well as reduction on environmental and ecological effect. Thus, there is no long- term solution to energy flow problem other than systematic and effective energy management and the continuous application of the techniques of energy management. Essential energy management strategies in support of a sustainable energy- economy are discussed.

Darkwa, K.

2001-10-01

173

Introduction to Lean: Sustainable Quality Systems Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an abstract of the following book- access may be gained via a free login. This book presents the notion that sustainable quality systems theory is a function of five integrated prerequisite leadership skills.: 1. Dr. Walter A. Shewhart's theory of sustainable quality articulated in his three-step inquiry learning process; probability science is vital in each step. 2. Dr. W. Edwards Deming's systems theory and his Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycle for accumulating infinitesimal units of knowledge. 3. Kiichiro Toyoda's concepts of Just In Time are essential prerequisites. 4. Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa's Quality Control Circle curriculum provides an education development plan for shop floor teams. 5. Dr. W. Edwards Deming's System of Profound Knowledge Theory.

Hall, Arlie

174

FISHER INFORMATION AS A METRIC FOR SUSTAINABLE SYSTEM REGIMES  

EPA Science Inventory

The important question in sustainability is not whether the world is sustainable, but whether a humanly acceptable regime of the world is sustainable. We propose Fisher Information as a metric for the sustainability of dynamic regimes in complex systems. The quantity now known ...

175

THE PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE TO ASSESS ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging field of sustainability science recognizes the important role of technologies in reaching the conditional goals of sustainable development. Research in sustainable te chnologies requires transdisciplinarity to determin e the resilience, adaptive capacity, and complexity of social-ecological syste ms to assess the potential of such technologies for increasing the carrying capacity and improving the resilience of social-eco logical systems,

ALAN C BRENT

176

NASA Johnson Space Center's Energy and Sustainability Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the efforts that NASA is making to assure a sustainable environment and energy savings at the Johnson Space Center. Sustainability is defined as development that meets the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The new technologies that are required for sustainable closed loop life support for space exploration have uses on the ground to reduce energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and water use. Some of these uses are reviewed.

Ewert, Michael K.

2008-01-01

177

Energy-efficient control of a smart grid with sustainable homes based on distributing risk  

E-print Network

The goal of this thesis is to develop a distributed control system for a smart grid with sustainable homes. A central challenge is how to enhance energy efficiency in the presence of uncertainty. A major source of uncertainty ...

Ono, Masahiro, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

178

Wood Energy Production, Sustainable Farming Livelihood and Multifunctionality in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change and the projected depletion of fossil energy resources pose multiple global challenges. Innovative technologies offer interesting possibilities to achieve more sustainable outcomes in the energy production sector. Local, decentralized alternatives have the potential to sustain livelihoods in rural areas. One example of such a…

Huttunen, Suvi

2012-01-01

179

UNEP Ris Centre Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development  

E-print Network

UNEP Risø Centre ­ Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development International and Danish research policies including sustainable development, costing, energy technologies. ·Climate Change Impacts and governments in more than 30 developing countries and with a large number of international institutions, NGO

180

Sustainable Schools: Making Energy Efficiency a Lifestyle Priority  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Promoting efficient energy use in schools that consequently reduces greenhouse gas emissions is the purpose of a residential Energy Efficiency in Schools (EEIS) program reported on in this paper. Research on this program aligns with one of the "key "overarching" sustainability issues", set out in the "Learning for Sustainability: NSW Environmental…

Purnell, Ken; Sinclair, Mark; Gralton, Anna

2004-01-01

181

Embedding sustainability in the design of water supply and drainage systems for buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addressing sustainability issues for the built environment, focus is often directed towards minimising energy consumption and material use. Often forgotten however, is the potential for the integration of sustainable solutions when designing water and waste management systems for buildings. The fundamental functions of such systems are clearly recognised, but traditional design principles often constrain opportunities for performance enhancement and

L. B. Jack; J. A. Swaffield

2009-01-01

182

Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) Vermont Highlight (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Case study on Vermont's innovative strategy for helping low-income families save energy through its Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) program. The DOE Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) granted Vermont to give its weatherization clients access to solar energy systems and one-on-one assistance from energy efficiency coaches to help clients achieve meaningful and long-lasting reductions in their energy bills. Vermont-SERC is administered by the Vermont Office of Economic Opportunity and is carried out by five local weatherization agencies. The purpose of the program is to identify technologies and new approaches-in this case, solar energy and energy efficiency coaches-that can improve weatherization services to low-income clients. The program selects households that have previously received weatherization services. This has several advantages. First, the clients already understand how weatherization works and are willing to strive for additional energy savings. Second, the weatherization agencies are working with clients who have previously had weatherization and therefore have complete energy usage data from utility bills collected during the first energy upgrade installation. This allows the agencies to select the best potential candidates for solar energy. Agencies have existing knowledge of the homes and can pre-screen them for potential structural problems or lack of south-facing exposure.

Not Available

2012-01-01

183

Key Assets for a Sustainable Low Carbon Energy Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of the 21st century, concerns of energy security and climate change gave rise to energy policies focused on energy conservation and diversified low-carbon energy sources. Provided lessons of Fukushima accident are evidently accounted for, nuclear energy will probably be confirmed in most of today's nuclear countries as a low carbon energy source needed to limit imports of oil and gas and to meet fast growing energy needs. Future challenges of nuclear energy are then in three directions: i) enhancing safety performance so as to preclude any long term impact of severe accident outside the site of the plant, even in case of hypothetical external events, ii) full use of Uranium and minimization long lived radioactive waste burden for sustainability, and iii) extension to non-electricity energy products for maximizing the share of low carbon energy source in transportation fuels, industrial process heat and district heating. Advanced LWRs (Gen-III) are today's best available technologies and can somewhat advance nuclear energy in these three directions. However, breakthroughs in sustainability call for fast neutron reactors and closed fuel cycles, and non-electric applications prompt a revival of interest in high temperature reactors for exceeding cogeneration performances achievable with LWRs. Both types of Gen-IV nuclear systems by nature call for technology breakthroughs to surpass LWRs capabilities. Current resumption in France of research on sodium cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs) definitely aims at significant progress in safety and economic competitiveness compared to earlier reactors of this type in order to progress towards a new generation of commercially viable sodium cooled fast reactor. Along with advancing a new generation of sodium cooled fast reactor, research and development on alternative fast reactor types such as gas or lead-alloy cooled systems (GFR & LFR) is strategic to overcome technical difficulties and/or political opposition specific to sodium. In conclusion, research and technology breakthroughs in nuclear power are needed for shaping a sustainable low carbon future. International cooperation is key for sharing costs of research and development of the required novel technologies and cost of first experimental reactors needed to demonstrate enabling technologies. At the same time technology breakthroughs are developed, pre-normative research is required to support codification work and harmonized regulations that will ultimately apply to safety and security features of resulting innovative reactor types and fuel cycles.

Carre, Frank

2011-10-01

184

Reporting Systems for Sustainability: What Are They Measuring?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dominance of the neoliberal discourse in the sustainability debate has tended to privilege the economy over environment and social dimensions with implications for what is measured by sustainability monitoring systems. Moreover, systems to measure sustainability, including those influenced by neoliberal discourse, lack robust definitions and…

Davidson, Kathryn M.

2011-01-01

185

A New Approach in Renewable Energies and Sustainability  

E-print Network

#12;6 A. Shakouri 10/17/2008 Energy Waste in Cars #12;7 A. Shakouri 10/17/2008 DOE, Energy Information Thot (K) 0.5 EnergyConversionEfficiency 3 1 2 Carnot Solar/ Rankine Geothermal/ Organic Rankine ZTavgA New Approach in Renewable Energies and Sustainability Ali Shakouri Director, Thermionic Energy

Lee, Herbie

186

Sustainable Development and Energy Geotechnology Potential Roles for Geotechnical Engineering  

SciTech Connect

The world is facing unprecedented challenges related to energy resources, global climate change, material use, and waste generation. Failure to address these challenges will inhibit the growth of the developing world and will negatively impact the standard of living and security of future generations in all nations. The solutions to these challenges will require multidisciplinary research across the social and physical sciences and engineering. Although perhaps not always recognized, geotechnical engineering expertise is critical to the solution of many energy and sustainability-related problems. Hence, geotechnical engineers and academicians have opportunity and responsibility to contribute to the solution of these worldwide problems. Research will need to be extended to non-standard issues such as thermal properties of soils; sediment and rock response to extreme conditions and at very long time scales; coupled hydro-chemo-thermo-bio-mechanical processes; positive feedback systems; the development of discontinuities; biological modification of soil properties; spatial variability; and emergent phenomena. Clearly, the challenges facing geotechnical engineering in the future will require a much broader knowledge base than our traditional educational programs provide. The geotechnical engineering curricula, from undergraduate education through continuing professional education, must address the changing needs of a profession that will increasingly be engaged in alternative/renewable energy production; energy efficiency; sustainable design, enhanced and more efficient use of natural resources, waste management, and underground utilization.

FragaszyProgram Dire, Dr. R. J. [National Science Foundation; Santamarina, Carlos [Georgia Institute of Technology; Espinoza, N. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jang, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jung, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

2011-01-01

187

Energy Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Posters are provided for several different energy conversion systems. Students are provided with cards that give the name and a description of each of the components in an energy system. They match these with the figures on the diagram. Since the groups look at different systems, they also describe their results to the class to share their knowledge.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

188

Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewability and sustainability aspects of nuclear energy have been presented on the basis of two different technologies: (1) Conventional nuclear technology; CANDU reactors. (2) Emerging nuclear technology; fusion/fission (hybrid) reactors. Reactor grade (RG) plutonium, 233U fuels and heavy water moderator have given a good combination with respect to neutron economy so that mixed fuel made of (ThO2/RG-PuO2) or (ThC/RG-PuC) has lead to very high burn up grades. Five different mixed fuel have been selected for CANDU reactors composed of 4 % RG-PuO2 + 96 % ThO2; 6 % RG-PuO2 + 94 % ThO2; 10 % RG-PuO2 + 90 % ThO2; 20 % RG-PuO2 + 80 % ThO2; 30 % RG-PuO2 + 70 % ThO2, uniformly taken in each fuel rod in a fuel channel. Corresponding operation lifetimes have been found as ˜ 0.65, 1.1, 1.9, 3.5, and 4.8 years and with burn ups of ˜ 30 000, 60 000, 100 000, 200 000 and 290 000 MW.d/ton, respectively. Increase of RG-PuO2 fraction in radial direction for the purpose of power flattening in the CANDU fuel bundle has driven the burn up grade to 580 000 MW.d/ton level. A laser fusion driver power of 500 MWth has been investigated to burn the minor actinides (MA) out of the nuclear waste of LWRs. MA have been homogenously dispersed as carbide fuel in form of TRISO particles with volume fractions of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 % in the Flibe coolant zone in the blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. Tritium breeding for a continuous operation of the fusion reactor is calculated as TBR = 1.134, 1.286, 1.387, 1.52 and 1.67, respectively. Fission reactions in the MA fuel under high energetic fusion neutrons have lead to the multiplication of the fusion energy by a factor of M = 3.3, 4.6, 6.15 and 8.1 with 2, 3, 4 and 5 % TRISO volume fraction at start up, respectively. Alternatively with thorium, the same fusion driver would produce ˜160 kg 233U per year in addition to fission energy production in situ, multiplying the fusion energy by a factor of ˜1.3.

?ahin, Sümer

2014-09-01

189

Sustainable Energy without the hot air  

E-print Network

.withouthotair.com #12;3 So far, this book's question has been `how can we live without fossil fuels?' Because Britain currently gets 90% of its energy from fossil fuels, it's no surprise that getting off fossil fuels requires than fossil fuel power systems ­ I am worried that we won't actually get off fossil fuels when we need

MacKay, David J.C.

190

Sustainable Rural Energy: Traditional Water Wheels in Padang (PWW) Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable and sustainable energy is increasingly gaining interest in current research circles due to the debates on renewable energy resources. It is essential for scientists and researchers to search for solutions in renewable energy resources, with effective technologies, and low cost in operation and maintenance. Hydro resources can be considered a potential renewable energy resource. The traditional water wheel with simple construction coupled with a basic concept of technology can be utilised as a renewable and sustainable rural energy system. This paper discusses the case of the water wheel as a renewable energy system employed in Padang, Indonesia. The Padang water wheel is constructed from hardwood material with a diameter of 300 cm and width of 40 cm. It is built on a river using water flow to generate the movement of the wheel. The water wheel application in the area showed that it is suitable to be utilised to elevate and distribute water to rice fields located at a higher level than the water level of the river. The water wheel capacity is about 100-120 liters/min. It could continuously irrigate ±5 ha. of the rice fields. One of the advantages of this water wheel type is to function as a green technology concept promising no negative effect on the environment. The traditional water wheel has also a big economic impact on the rural economy, increasing the productivity of the rice fields. The people of Padang live in a water landscape encompassing the water wheel as an ubiquitous part of their lives, hence they relate to it and the technology of fabrication as well as the utilisation, making it an amenable and effective technology, finding relevance in the modern world.

Ibrahim, Gusri Akhyar; Haron, Che Hassan Che; Azhari, Che Husna

2010-06-01

191

Occupational Entropy and Mind Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A concept of occupational entropy is developed and related to the efficient use of mental (cognitive, emotional, and moral) resources and capacities. The corresponding “mind” indicators and pertinent response actions have proven essential for monitoring the state and projecting the behavior changes toward energy sustainability, as well as sustainable development in general. Contributed by the Organizing Committee for the First

Jordan Pop-Jordanov; Natasa Markovska; Nada Pop-Jordanova; Silvana Markovska Simoska

2004-01-01

192

Teaching Energy as Part of Education for Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how energy issues and education for sustainable development (ESD) are part of the agenda for two current European projects, CoDeS and SUSTAIN. The latter is mainly concerned with the development of inquiry-based primary and lower secondary science education while the former is a network that aims to learn more about…

Tas, Maarten; McKeon, Frankie; Charnley, Fiona; Fleming, Margaret

2014-01-01

193

The silver bullet myth of sustainable energy savings  

SciTech Connect

Especially in the U.S., people like to think that solving problems just requires finding the proper ''silver bullet.'' Such fixes are not sustainable. Any utility company wanting sustainable long-term savings in personal energy demand requires a more thorough commitment that might be referred to as ''head'' (education), ''heart'' (motivation), and ''hands'' (action). (author)

Pasqualetti, Martin J.; Tabbert, Michael K.; Boscamp, Robert L.

2010-10-15

194

Natural treatment systems as sustainable ecotechnologies for the developing countries.  

PubMed

The purpose of natural treatment systems is the re-establishment of disturbed ecosystems and their sustainability for benefits to human and nature. The working of natural treatment systems on ecological principles and their sustainability in terms of low cost, low energy consumption, and low mechanical technology is highly desirable. The current review presents pros and cons of the natural treatment systems, their performance, and recent developments to use them in the treatment of various types of wastewaters. Fast population growth and economic pressure in some developing countries compel the implementation of principles of natural treatment to protect natural environment. The employment of these principles for waste treatment not only helps in environmental cleanup but also conserves biological communities. The systems particularly suit developing countries of the world. We reviewed information on constructed wetlands, vermicomposting, role of mangroves, land treatment systems, soil-aquifer treatment, and finally aquatic systems for waste treatment. Economic cost and energy requirements to operate various kinds of natural treatment systems were also reviewed. PMID:23878819

Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zaffar, Habiba; Yaqoob, Hajra; Waseem, Muhammad; Zahidullah; Afsheen, Sumera

2013-01-01

195

Sustainable Energy - Without the Hot Air  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In his book, MacKay explores our populationâs addiction to fossil fuels and the problems faced with sustainability. Two issues faced with fossil fuels are they will eventually run out and they are harming our environment during use. McKay does not give one simple solution to the problem, but contrast various advanced technologies and how they may be applied to improve our environment and sustainability. More information may be found at http://www.withouthotair.com/.

Cambridge, University O.

196

Ubiquitous Computing for Sustainable Energy (UCSE2010) Ubicomp 2010 Workshop  

E-print Network

instead of 3 cars) can massively re- duce energy consumption. Here we see that ubiquitous com- puting- tunities for saving energy. With many renewable energy resources such as solar power and wind powerUbiquitous Computing for Sustainable Energy (UCSE2010) Ubicomp 2010 Workshop Albrecht Schmidt

197

Renewable and sustainable energy use in Turkey: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey is an energy importing nation with more than half of our energy requirements met by imported fuels. Air pollution is becoming a significant environmental concern in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources are becoming attractive for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution mitigation in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of

Kamil Kaygusuz

2002-01-01

198

Engineering for Environmental Sustainability http://engineering.tufts.edu/ Integrated Data Center Energy Management  

E-print Network

Engineering for Environmental Sustainability http://engineering.tufts.edu/ Integrated Data Center the other building energy systems. In short, the energy management is not integrated and hence solutions Energy Management What is the problem? Data centers consisting of large numbers of closely packed

Tufts University

199

Designing sustainable work systems: the need for a systems approach.  

PubMed

There is a growing discussion concerning sustainability. While this discussion was at first mainly focused on a society level--and sometimes regarding especially environmental problems, one can now see that this topic is of increasing relevance for companies worldwide and even the social dimension of this three pillar approach is gaining more and more importance. This leads to some questions: Is sustainability already a part of human factors thinking or do we have to further develop our discipline? How can we define sustainable work systems? What are the topics we have to consider? Do we need a new systems ergonomics perspective regarding whole value creation chains and a life-cycle perspective concerning products (and work systems)? How can we deal with potential contradictions about social, ecological, and economic goals? PMID:23608710

Zink, Klaus J

2014-01-01

200

Sustainability of Animal Production Systems: An Ecological Perspective1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of sustainability of agricultural production and the use of natural resources has become a popular topic. Most scientists agree that current systems are generally non-sus- tainable. Current rates of resource extraction will lead us to a depleted earth in the future. Sustainability is defined in many ways. For this paper sustainability should be considered the overlap of what

Martin Vavra

201

Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management  

SciTech Connect

Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today’s waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous longterm management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by externalintrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the longterm success of the prescribed system. In fact, given that society has become more reliant on and confident of engineered controls, there may be a growing tendency to be even less concerned with institutional controls.

Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

2004-06-01

202

TOWARD A THEORY OF SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

While there is tremendous interest in the topic of sustainability, a fundamental theory of sustainability does not exist. We present our efforts at constructing such a theory starting with Information Theory and ecological models. We discuss the state of complex sustainable syste...

203

Advanced Materials for Sustainable, Clean Energy Future  

SciTech Connect

The current annual worldwide energy consumption stands at about 15 terawatts (TW, x1012 watts). Approximately 80% of it is supplied from fossil fuels: oil (34 %), coal (25 %), and natural gas (21 %). Biomass makes up 8% of the energy supply, nuclear energy accounts for 6.5 %, hydropower has a 2% share and other technologies such as wind and solar make up the rest. Even with aggressive conservation and new higher efficiency technology development, worldwide energy demand is predicted to double to 30 TW by 2050 and triple to 46 TW by the end of the century. Meanwhile oil and natural gas production is predicted to peak over the next few decades. Abundant coal reserves may maintain the current consumption level for longer period of time than the oil and gas. However, burning the fossil fuels leads to a serious environmental consequence by emitting gigantic amount of green house gases, particularly CO2 emissions which are widely considered as the primary contributor to global warming. Because of the concerns over the greenhouse gas emission, many countries, and even some states and cities in the US, have adopted regulations for limiting CO2 emissions. Along with increased CO2 regulations, is an emerging trend toward carbon “trading,” giving benefits to low “carbon footprint” industries, while making higher emitting industries purchase carbon “allowances”. There have been an increasing number of countries and states adopting the trade and cap systems.

Yang, Zhenguo

2009-04-01

204

Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation  

E-print Network

1 Advanced Controls and Sustainable Systems for Residential Ventilation William J.N. Turner & Iain..................................................................................................................... 8 Residential Ventilation Standards..........................................................................................9 Passive and Hybrid Ventilation

205

Sustainable Practices Policy Sections II, III.I. and V.I. Sustainable Water Systems  

E-print Network

Sustainable Practices Policy Sections II, III.I. and V.I. ­ Sustainable Water Systems Revenue is Outpatient Revenue + Newborn Revenue + Inpatient Revenue. Domestic Water: Potable and non-potable water provided for domestic indoor (e.g., toilets, urinals, showers, and faucets) and outdoor (e

California at Santa Cruz, University of

206

Fostering sustained energy behavior change and increasing energy literacy in a student housing energy challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed the Kukui Cup challenge to foster energy conservation and increase energy literacy. Based on a review of the literature, the challenge combined a variety of elements into an overall game experience, including: real-time energy feedback, goals, commitments, competition, and prizes. We designed a software system called Makahiki to provide the online portion of the Kukui Cup challenge. Energy use was monitored by smart meters installed on each floor of the Hale Aloha residence halls on the University of Hawai'i at Manoa campus. In October 2011, we ran the UH Kukui Cup challenge for the over 1000 residents of the Hale Aloha towers. To evaluate the Kukui Cup challenge, I conducted three experiments: challenge participation, energy literacy, and energy use. Many residents participated in the challenge, as measured by points earned and actions completed through the challenge website. I measured the energy literacy of a random sample of Hale Aloha residents using an online energy literacy questionnaire administered before and after the challenge. I found that challenge participants' energy knowledge increased significantly compared to non-challenge participants. Positive self-reported energy behaviors increased after the challenge for both challenge participants and non-participants, leading to the possibility of passive participation by the non-challenge participants. I found that energy use varied substantially between and within lounges over time. Variations in energy use over time complicated the selection of a baseline of energy use to compare the levels during and after the challenge. The best team reduced its energy use during the challenge by 16%. However, team energy conservation did not appear to correlate to participation in the challenge, and there was no evidence of sustained energy conservation after the challenge. The problems inherent in assessing energy conservation using a baseline call into question this common practice. My research has generated several contributions, including: a demonstration of increased energy literacy as a result of the challenge, the discovery of fundamental problems with the use of baselines for assessing energy competitions, the creation of two open source software systems, and the creation of an energy literacy assessment instrument.

Brewer, Robert Stephen

207

STYRIAN AcADEmY FoR SUSTAINABlE ENERGIES INTERNATIoNAl WINTER School 2011  

E-print Network

climate, hazardous nuclear technologies, high investment costs for modernizing the energy system of climate change it is essential that we cease overexploiting land and wasting resources. These issuesSTYRIAN AcADEmY FoR SUSTAINABlE ENERGIES INTERNATIoNAl WINTER School 2011 "SUSTAINABlE SmART c

208

Sustainability and Energy Efficiency in the Automotive Sector  

E-print Network

Since this year there can be no doubt that "sustainability" has become the top issue in the automotive sector. Volkswagen's CEO Prof. Dr. Martin Winterkorn attacked incumbents like BMW Group (so far the "most sustainable car manufacturer" for the 8th consecutive year) or Toyota (producer of the famous "Prius") head-on by boldly stating to become "the most profitable and most sustainable car manufacturer worldwide by 2018" . This announcement clearly shows that "sustainability" and "profitability" no longer are considered as conflicting targets. On the contrary, to Prof. Dr. Winterkorn : "climate protection is a driver for economic growth". To prime discussions, the plenary talk will give a brief overview of the entire range of energy efficiency in the automotive sector: based on the multiple drivers behind energy efficiency, practical examples are presented along the entire life-cycle of cars (R&D, production, usage and recycling). These "cases" include big automobile producers as well as their respectiv...

CERN. Geneva

2013-01-01

209

Energy justice and foundations for a sustainable sociology of energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation proposes an approach to energy that transcends the focus on energy as a mere technical economic or engineering problem, is connected to sociological theory as a whole, and takes issues of equality and ecology as theoretical starting points. In doing so, the work presented here puts ecological and environmental sociological theory, and the work of environmental justice scholars, feminist ecologists, and energy scholars, in a context in which they may complement one another to broaden the theoretical basis of the current sociology of energy. This theoretical integration provides an approach to energy focused on energy justice. Understanding energy and society in the terms outlined here makes visible energy injustice, or the interface between social inequalities and ecological depredations accumulating as the social and ecological debts of the modern energy regime. Systems ecology is brought into this framework as a means for understanding unequal exchange, energy injustice more generally, and the requirements for long-term social and ecological reproduction in ecological terms. Energy developments in Ecuador and Cuba are used here as case studies in order to further develop the idea of energy justice and the theory of unequal ecological exchange. The point is to broaden the framework of the contemporary critical sociology of energy, putting energy justice at its heart. This dissertation contains previously published and unpublished co-authored material.

Holleman, Hannah Ann

210

Addressing challenges to sustainable development with innovative energy technologies in a competitive electric industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radical change in the energy system is essential in the decades immediately ahead in order to address effectively the multiple economic, social, environmental, and insecurity challenges posed by conventional energy. This can come about only through a concerted international effort to speed up the rate of technological innovation worldwide for technologies that offer promise in addressing sustainable development objectives -

Robert H. Williams

2001-01-01

211

Sustainable energy development in Austria until 2020: Insights from applying the integrated model “e3.at”  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on the Austrian research project “Renewable energy in Austria: Modeling possible development trends until 2020”. The project investigated possible economic and ecological effects of a substantially increased use of renewable energy sources in Austria. Together with stakeholders and experts, three different scenarios were defined, specifying possible development trends for renewable energy in Austria. The scenarios were simulated for the period 2006–2020, using the integrated environment–energy–economy model “e3.at”. The modeling results indicate that increasing the share of renewable energy sources in total energy use is an important but insufficient step towards achieving a sustainable energy system in Austria. A substantial increase in energy efficiency and a reduction of residential energy consumption also form important cornerstones of a sustainable energy policy. PMID:21976785

Stocker, Andrea; Großmann, Anett; Madlener, Reinhard; Wolter, Marc Ingo

2011-01-01

212

Smart energy management system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

2010-04-01

213

Sustainable Energy Future in China's Building Sector  

E-print Network

This article investigates the potentials of energy-saving and mitigation of green-house gas (GHG) emission offered by implementation of building energy efficiency policies in China. An overview of existing literature regarding long-term energy...

Li, J.

2007-01-01

214

Ph.D. Positions in "ICT for Sustainable Energy Management"  

E-print Network

management, in particular smart grids supporting the integration of renewable energy and cutting systems, smart grids, renewable energy, energy efficiency, energy storage, power systems, green computing, smart grids, renewable energy, green computing, etc. Prior exposure to and experience in research

Teschner, Matthias

215

Water and Energy Sustainability: A Balance of Government Action and Industry Innovation  

SciTech Connect

By completing the tasks and subtasks of the project, the Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC) through its state regulatory agency members and oil and gas industry partners, will bring attention to water quality and quantity issues and make progress toward water and energy sustainability though enhanced water protection and conservation thus enhancing the viability of the domestic fossil fuel industry. The project contains 4 major independent Tasks. Task 1 - Work Plan: Water-Energy Sustainability: A Symposium on Resource Viability. Task 2 - Work Plan: A Regional Assessment of Water and Energy Sustainability. Task 3 - Work Plan: Risk Based Data Management System-Water Water and Energy Module. Task 4 - Work Plan: Identification and Assessment of States Regulatory Programs Regarding Geothermal Heating and Cooling Systems. Each task has a specific scope (details given).

Ben Grunewald

2009-12-31

216

Placing Ecosystem Sustainability Within the Context of Dynamic Earth Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Because the concept of ecosystem sustainability and the practice of sustainable land management both have long-term foci, it is necessary to view these from the perspective of dynamic rather than static systems. In addition to the typical static system approach for assessing ecos...

217

CONSTRUCTING A GENERAL SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainability atracts enormous interest in the minds of the public and the scientific and engineering community because it holds the promise of a long-term solution to environmental problems. Sustainability, however, is mathematically loosely defined. There is no widely accepted...

218

CONSTRUCTING A GENERAL SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS THEORY  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainability attracts enormous interest in the minds of the public and the scientific and engineering community because it holds the promise of a long-tem solution to environmental problems. Sustainability, however, is mathematically loosely defined. There is no widely accepted...

219

Sustaining Action and Optimizing Entropy: Coupling Efficiency for Energy and the Sustainability of Global Ecosystems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consideration of the property of action is proposed to provide a more meaningful definition of efficient energy use and sustainable production in ecosystems. Action has physical dimensions similar to angular momentum, its magnitude varying with mass, spatial configuration and relative motion. In this article, the relationship of action to…

Rose, Michael T.; Crossan, Angus N.; Kennedy, Ivan R.

2008-01-01

220

Developing a sustainability framework for the assessment of bioenergy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for biomass to contribute to energy supply in a low-carbon economy is well recognised. However, for the sector to contribute fully to sustainable development in the UK, specific exploitation routes must meet the three sets of criteria usually recognised as representing the tests for sustainability: economic viability in the market and fiscal framework within which the supply chain

Lucia Elghali; Roland Clift; Philip Sinclair; Calliope Panoutsou; Ausilio Bauen

2007-01-01

221

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers  

E-print Network

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers Edited by Joan Ogden and Lorraine Anderson #12;Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis One TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS PART 1: INDIVIDUAL FUEL/VEHICLE PATHWAYS PART 2 Chapter 5: Comparing

California at Davis, University of

222

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers  

E-print Network

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers Edited by Joan Ogden and Lorraine Anderson #12;Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis One TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS PART 3: SCENARIOS FOR A LOW-CARBON TRANSPORTATION FUTURE PART 3 Part 3: Scenarios

California at Davis, University of

223

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers  

E-print Network

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers Edited by Joan Ogden and Lorraine Anderson #12;Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis One TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS CHAPTER 8: SCENARIOS FOR DEEP REDUCTIONS IN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS PART 3

California at Davis, University of

224

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers  

E-print Network

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS A Research Summary for Decision Makers Edited by Joan Ogden and Lorraine Anderson #12;Institute of Transportation Studies University of California, Davis One TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS PART 3 CHAPTER 10: OPTIMIZING THE TRANSPORTATION CLIMATE MITIGATION WEDGE Chapter

California at Davis, University of

225

Office of Sustainability 2013-2014 Energy Ambassador Student Internship*  

E-print Network

Office of Sustainability 2013-2014 Energy Ambassador Student Internship* Organization in a team setting. The internship is open to all majors. To apply, please submit a resume and cover letter explaining why you are a good fit for the energy ambassador internship to Ayrel Clark-Proffitt, outreach

Tipple, Brett

226

Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems  

SciTech Connect

Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

Van Passel, Steven, E-mail: Steven.vanpassel@uhasselt.be [Hasselt University, Faculty of Business Economics, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan, Building D, 3590, Diepenbeek (Belgium); University of Antwerp, Department Bioscience Engineering, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Meul, Marijke [University College Ghent, Department of Biosciences and Landscape Architecture, Campus Schoonmeersen, Building C, Schoonmeersstraat 52, 9000, Gent (Belgium)

2012-01-15

227

Investigation of sustainable development potential for Ulubey Aquifer System, Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates sustainable development potential for Ulubey aquifer system which serves as an important water supply for Usak province (Turkey). In recent years, growing population, accelerating industrial activities and decreasing rainfall, as well as contamination of the surface water resources, made groundwater indispensable to meet the freshwater demands of Usak province. Therefore, a sustainable groundwater development plan has to be set up by determining the sustainable yield of the system, which is the aim of this study. To achieve this goal, a mathematical groundwater flow model is constructed in order to test the alternative development scenarios. Results show that the system preserves equilibrium conditions under present stresses. The future effects of possible increases in stresses are also simulated and based on the dynamic responses of the system to changing stresses; sustainable yield and sustainable pumping rate of the aquifer are determined and compared with the safe yield of the system.

Burcu, U.; Hasan, Y.

2014-09-01

228

Renewable and sustainable energy replacement sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration of ecological energy sources is a major global task this paper considers two ways of harnessing natural sources of energy. (1) Converting the thermal energy of the earth to electric energy, by utilizing the natural temperature gradient of soil (2) Adapting the electrical aspect of photosynthesis in plants for the same purpose. The first approach is based on Seebeck's

Mark Krinker; A. Goykadosh

2010-01-01

229

Nuclear energy and sustainability: Understanding ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deregulation and new environmental requirements combined with the growing scarcity of fossil resources and the increasing world energy demand lead to a renewal of the debate on tomorrow's energies. Specifically, nuclear energy, which has undeniable assets, faces new constraints. On the one hand, nuclear energy is very competitive and harmless to greenhouse effect. From this point, it seems to be

Karine Fiore

2006-01-01

230

Investigating the potential for a self-sustaining slow pyrolysis system under varying operating conditions.  

PubMed

This work aimed to investigate the impact of highest treatment temperature (HTT), heating rate, carrier gas flow rate and feedstock on the composition and energy content of pyrolysis gas to assess whether a self-sustained system could be achieved through the combustion of the gas fraction alone, leaving other co-products available for alternative high-value uses. Calculations based on gas composition showed that the pyrolysis process could be sustained by the energy contained within the pyrolysis gases alone. The lower energy limit (6% biomass higher heating value (HHV)) was surpassed by pyrolysis at ?450°C while only a HTT of 650°C consistently met the upper energy limit (15% biomass HHV). These findings fill an important gap in literature related to the energy balance of the pyrolysis systems for biochar production, and show that, at least from an energy balance perspective; self-sustained slow pyrolysis for co-production of biochar and liquid products is feasible. PMID:24747394

Crombie, Kyle; Mašek, Ond?ej

2014-06-01

231

An energy management and charge sustaining strategy for a parallel hybrid vehicle with CVT  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy management control system for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented. The proposed system incorporates an optimization scheme to assess the amount of engine torque for generating propulsive power (torque distribution task) as well as a charge sustaining scheme to ensure that battery's state of charge is maintained at sufficiently high level. In order to accomplish the torque

Jong-Seob Won; Reza Langari; Mehrdad Ehsani

2005-01-01

232

Innovative paths for providing green energy for sustainable global economic growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to United Nation, world population may reach 10.1 billion by the year 2100. The fossil fuel based global economy is not sustainable. For sustainable global green energy scenario we must consider free fuel based energy conversion, environmental concerns and conservation of water. Photovoltaics (PV) offers a unique opportunity to solve the 21st century's electricity generation because solar energy is essentially unlimited and PV systems provide electricity without any undesirable impact on the environment. Innovative paths for green energy conversion and storage are proposed in areas of R and D, manufacturing and system integration, energy policy and financing. With existing silicon PV system manufacturing, the implementation of new innovative energy policies and new innovative business model can provide immediately large capacity of electricity generation to developed, emerging and underdeveloped economies.

Singh, Rajendra; Alapatt, G. F.

2012-10-01

233

Energy Systems Integration A Convergence of Ideas  

E-print Network

Energy Systems Integration A Convergence of Ideas July 2012 Ben Kroposki, Bobi Garrett, Stuart Macmillan, Brent Rice, and Connie Komomua National Renewable Energy Laboratory Mark O'Malley University of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy

234

Building Urban Resilience and Sustainability (BURST): Integrating Adaptive Infrastructure Systems with Institutional and Ecological Functions  

E-print Network

Building Urban Resilience and Sustainability (BURST): Integrating Adaptive Infrastructure Systems with the sustainability paradigm. It is organized around the principle that resilient and sustainable infrastructures both research and pedagogical strengths in the area of Urban Sustainability and Resilience at UIC

Illinois at Chicago, University of

235

Don't Waste Your Energy: Modelling the Sustainability of Direct Use at Tauranga Low-Temperature Geothermal System, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tauranga geothermal system is located on the north coast of the North Island of New Zealand, and is used by the more than 120,000 inhabitants for direct heating and cooling, bathing and aquaculture. With warm waters of up to 60°C at 500 m depth it has been monitored as a groundwater system, but increasing demands on the field and awareness of the fragility of geothermal systems has led to a call to assess the potential long-term effects of withdrawing and reinjecting fluid. Here, we create a numerical simulation of the field to determine if currently approved usage rates are sustainable, and if not to provide some constraints for future management of the area. We created a geological model of the Tauranga area covering 70 km by 130 km down to 2 km depth using Leapfrog Geothermal, and used this as the basis for a TOUGH2 model of fluid and heat flow. We calibrated the model against well temperatures measured between 0 and 759 m depth, showing that the surficial sedimentary layer was not a major control on fluid and heat flow, but that the underlying volcanoclastic rocks must have a slightly higher bulk thermal conductivity and lower permeability than had been previously measured. The model allowed us to better constrain the extent of the heat source at depth, as well as to assess its distribution. The system is primarily conductive, with the onset of convection above the main heat source in the centre of the system where modelled heat input is up to 300 mW/m2. Modelling a range of take and reinjection scenarios based on permitted values allows us to determine the capacity of the field and if its use needs to be limited to ensure that it is maintained for future generations.

Pearson, S. C.; Alcaraz, S.

2012-12-01

236

Sustainable System Management with Fisher Information based Objectives  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainable ecosystem management that integrates ecological, economic and social perspectives is a complex task where simultaneous persistence of human and natural components of the system must be ensured. Given the complexity of this task, systems theory approaches based on soun...

237

Sustainable infrastructure system modeling under uncertainties and dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrastructure systems support human activities in transportation, communication, water use, and energy supply. The dissertation research focuses on critical transportation infrastructure and renewable energy infrastructure systems. The goal of the research efforts is to improve the sustainability of the infrastructure systems, with an emphasis on economic viability, system reliability and robustness, and environmental impacts. The research efforts in critical transportation infrastructure concern the development of strategic robust resource allocation strategies in an uncertain decision-making environment, considering both uncertain service availability and accessibility. The study explores the performances of different modeling approaches (i.e., deterministic, stochastic programming, and robust optimization) to reflect various risk preferences. The models are evaluated in a case study of Singapore and results demonstrate that stochastic modeling methods in general offers more robust allocation strategies compared to deterministic approaches in achieving high coverage to critical infrastructures under risks. This general modeling framework can be applied to other emergency service applications, such as, locating medical emergency services. The development of renewable energy infrastructure system development aims to answer the following key research questions: (1) is the renewable energy an economically viable solution? (2) what are the energy distribution and infrastructure system requirements to support such energy supply systems in hedging against potential risks? (3) how does the energy system adapt the dynamics from evolving technology and societal needs in the transition into a renewable energy based society? The study of Renewable Energy System Planning with Risk Management incorporates risk management into its strategic planning of the supply chains. The physical design and operational management are integrated as a whole in seeking mitigations against the potential risks caused by feedstock seasonality and demand uncertainty. Facility spatiality, time variation of feedstock yields, and demand uncertainty are integrated into a two-stage stochastic programming (SP) framework. In the study of Transitional Energy System Modeling under Uncertainty, a multistage stochastic dynamic programming is established to optimize the process of building and operating fuel production facilities during the transition. Dynamics due to the evolving technologies and societal changes and uncertainty due to demand fluctuations are the major issues to be addressed.

Huang, Yongxi

238

Clean and sustainable energy policies in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is essential to life and human society cannot surviva without a continuous supply of energy. However, although energy has brought about significant changes in standards and life-styles, its generation, processing and consumption is also a source of both localized pollution and a major contributor to global climate change. In this context, at the international level, the challenges related to

?. Kotcio?lu

239

Preliminary Analysis Framework for State Sustainable Transportation system  

E-print Network

Sustainable practices have become the cornerstone of the transportation sector, and widely adopted by many states' transportation agencies. The nerve center of the economic development today circles around resource utilization and energy use...

Naganathan, Hariharan

2013-12-31

240

A version of this paper will be presented at the Fifth Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems in Dubrovnik, Croatia, September  

E-print Network

. Greenhouse gases can be expressed in terms of their global warming potential, while the carbon intensities be measured quantitatively in terms of their global warming potential and total emissions. The same cannot Development of Energy, Water, and Environment Systems in Dubrovnik, Croatia, September 2009. ERG/200906

Hughes, Larry

241

Actualizing sustainability: environmental policy for resilience in ecological systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Society benefits from ecological systems in many ways. These benefits are often referred to as ecosystem services (MA 2005). Because these services matter to humans, they are critical to sustainability. Sustainability has many definitions, but for this chapter, we link our defi...

242

Supply Chain Network Design of a Sustainable Blood Banking System  

E-print Network

Governments (2003)). Thus, minimizing the amount of medical waste throughout the health care supply chainsSupply Chain Network Design of a Sustainable Blood Banking System Anna Nagurney and Amir H. Masoumi In: Sustainable Supply Chains: Models, Methods and Public Policy Implications T. Boone, V. Jayaraman

Nagurney, Anna

243

MODELLING A SUSTAINABLE URBAN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Emmanuel Dufrasnes1  

E-print Network

MODELLING A SUSTAINABLE URBAN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Emmanuel Dufrasnes1 Catherine Buhé2 Etienne Wurtz1 developing a methodological framework to model actions taken collectively and individually by the project the criteria for sustainable development. The need to evaluate the policies applied involves public officials

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

244

Sustainable Capture: Concepts for Managing Stream-Aquifer Systems.  

PubMed

Most surface water bodies (i.e., streams, lakes, etc.) are connected to the groundwater system to some degree so that changes to surface water bodies (either diversions or importations) can change flows in aquifer systems, and pumping from an aquifer can reduce discharge to, or induce additional recharge from streams, springs, and lakes. The timescales of these interactions are often very long (decades), making sustainable management of these systems difficult if relying only on observations of system responses. Instead, management scenarios are often analyzed based on numerical modeling. In this paper we propose a framework and metrics that can be used to relate the Theis concepts of capture to sustainable measures of stream-aquifer systems. We introduce four concepts: Sustainable Capture Fractions, Sustainable Capture Thresholds, Capture Efficiency, and Sustainable Groundwater Storage that can be used as the basis for developing metrics for sustainable management of stream-aquifer systems. We demonstrate their utility on a hypothetical stream-aquifer system where pumping captures both streamflow and discharge to phreatophytes at different amounts based on pumping location. In particular, Capture Efficiency (CE) can be easily understood by both scientists and non-scientist alike, and readily identifies vulnerabilities to sustainable stream-aquifer management when its value exceeds 100%. PMID:25406597

Davids, Jeffrey C; Mehl, Steffen W

2014-11-18

245

Sams Energy Academy: Education for sustainable development  

E-print Network

, biomass for district heating etc. #12;· From importing to exporting energy · International magnet aims to: · Cut energy demand by 30% for households and 5% for industry by 2020 · Develop a flexible.0 by the European Commission on June 20th, 2012. 12 of 20 #12;13 of 20 You can lead a horse to water, but you can

Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

246

Energy systems transformation.  

PubMed

The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

2013-02-12

247

Sustaining Performance Improvements in Energy Intensive Industries  

E-print Network

Experience has shown that significant opportunity for performance improvements exists in energy intensive operations. Often, efforts to improve efficiency focus on vendor-led initiatives to improve operations of particular equipment. This approach...

Moore, D. A.

2005-01-01

248

Sustainable Water Use System of Artesian Water in Alluvial Fan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional water use system, developed with the intelligence of the local residents, usually takes advantage of local natural resources and is considered as a sustainable system, because of its energy saving(only forces of nature). For this reason, such kind of water use system is also recommended in some strategic policies for the purpose of a symbiosis between nature and human society. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between human activities and water use systems. This study aims to clarify the mechanism of traditional water use processes in alluvial fan, and in addition, to investigate the important factors which help forming a sustainable water use system from the aspects of natural conditions and human activities. The study area, an alluvial fan region named Adogawa, is located in Shiga Prefecture, Japan and is in the west of Biwa Lake which is the largest lake in Japan. In this alluvial region where the land use is mainly occupied by settlements and paddy fields, a groundwater flowing well system is called "kabata" according to local tradition. During field survey, we took samples of groundwater, river water and lake water as well as measured the potential head of groundwater. The results showed that the upper boundary of flowing water was approximately 88m amsl, which is basically the same as the results reported by Kishi and Kanno (1966). In study area, a rapid increase of water pumping for domestic water use and melting snow during last 50 years, even if the irrigation area has decreased about 30% since 1970, and this fact may cause a decrease in recharge rate to groundwater. However, the groundwater level didn't decline based on the observed results, which is probably contributed by some water conservancy projects on Biwa Lake which maintained the water level of the lake. All the water samples are characterized by Ca-HCO3 type and similar stable isotopic value of ?D and ?18O. Groundwater level in irrigation season is higher than that in non-irrigation season, which indicates that groundwater level is apparently influenced by surface water. Some communities and NPOs working in this area maintain the "kabata" and canal for environment conservation. There are many rules for the local residents when using the water resources. For example, the use of detergents is prohibited for "kabata" users. The residents living upstream also should think of other groundwater users downstream. For this reason, it can be considered that the "kabata" water use method contributed to a symbiosis between ecosystem and human activity The study area case showed that the traditional water use system is useful for forming a sustainable groundwater flowing well use system.

Kishi, K.; Tsujimura, M.; Tase, N.

2013-12-01

249

Energy/Water Sustainability and the Electric Power  

E-print Network

Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Water Use Efficiency (steam cycle plantsEnergy/Water Sustainability and the Electric Power Industry Robert Goldstein, Kent Zammit, Chuck Mc April 10, 2009 #12;2© 2009 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Topics · Nature

Keller, Arturo A.

250

Wind as a Sustainable Energy Source in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study is to review the technology for wind energy generation and to then apply previously uncovered statis- tics to measure the feasibility of applying the technology to a specific location, in this case the continent and country of Austra- lia. Aside from a purely numerical analysis, an assessment of sustainability impact will also be considered. Based

Jules Chiavaroli

2008-01-01

251

SUSTAINABLE GENERATION AND UTILIZATION OF ENERGY THE CASE OF ICELAND.  

E-print Network

SUSTAINABLE GENERATION AND UTILIZATION OF ENERGY THE CASE OF ICELAND. PRODUCTION ET UTILISATION DE, THORKELL3 ; INGIMARSSON, JON4 ; THORODDSSON, GUDMUNDUR5 ; SOPHUSSON, FRIDRIK6 1. Introduction Iceland capita. During the course of the 20th century a remarkable transition has taken place in Iceland. From

Valfells, Ágúst

252

DARS Authorization Form Certificate in Engineering for Energy Sustainability  

E-print Network

DARS Authorization Form Certificate in Engineering for Energy Sustainability College of Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison This form must be used for one of the following purposes: 1. Any course form for each design project, independent study, internship, honors thesis, etc. that will count toward

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

253

NextSTEPS (Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways) PROGRAM SUMMARY  

E-print Network

fuels, "smart growth" land use, and low carbon options for heavy duty trucks, air, and marine transportNextSTEPS (Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways) PROGRAM SUMMARY Institute of Transportation associated with the transition to new fuels and vehicles, the UC Davis Institute of Transportation Studies

California at Davis, University of

254

High Economic Growth, Equity and Sustainable Energy Development of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has been experiencing sustained high economic growth in the recentyears. However, there exists substantial amount of unacceptable poverty among the people in the country. The expressions of symptoms of such poverty include among others inadequate educational and health attainment of the people and lack of access to basic amenities like modern clean energy, safe water and sanitation which are

Ramprasad Sengupta

2007-01-01

255

NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to configure the rocket for the mission. The SLS affordability plan includes streamlining interfaces, applying risk-based insight into contracted work, centralizing systems engineering and integration, and nurturing a learning culture where the question Why? is often asked and the answer "Because we've always done it that way" is rarely heard. The SLS Program will deliver affordable space transportation solutions for the Orion Multi-Purpose Cargo Vehicle s first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021. As this briefing will show, the SLS will offer a global infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations.

May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

256

Sustainable agriculture: how to sustain a production system in a changing environment.  

PubMed

During the past 10-15 years, sustainable agriculture has progressed from a focus primarily on a low-input, organic farming approach with a major emphasis on small fruit or vegetable production farms, often described as Low Input Sustainable Agriculture, to the current situation where sustainability is an important part of mainstream animal and plant production units. The US Department of Agriculture programmes cover a broad range of activities, including conserving the natural resource base, enhancing environmental quality, and sustaining productivity of the nation's farms. The use of Geographic Information Systems technology to direct application of fertilisers, pesticides, and herbicides is one example of a rapidly emerging technology that can reduce use of external inputs, protect the agricultural environment, and improve economic returns. This Geographic Information Systems technology also is being used to localise animal pest and disease problems, assist in regulatory or control measures, and identify high risk areas that might need different management systems or should be avoided as sites for animal production. Use of intensive grazing systems also has increased markedly over the past 5-6 years. These systems will allow longer grazing seasons in southern parts of the USA, provide more efficient use of the forages being produced and reduce labour costs in the typical dairy operation. Major animal and plant production agriculture-oriented programmes at the US Department of Agriculture focus on integrated production systems, use of Integrated Pest Management techniques, and development of alternative methods to manage pests and diseases that reduce or avoid the use of drugs and chemicals. The US Department of Agriculture has a programme for sustainable agriculture, the Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education programme, which emphasises alternative approaches for animal and plant production systems. PMID:10048813

Wagner, W C

1999-01-01

257

SIMULATED EXPERIMENTS WITH COMPLEX SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The concept of sustainability is associated with the statement from the World Commission on Environment and Development: "Development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future." But the construction of practi...

258

DESIGN OF SUSTAINABLE, RESILIENT INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rising world populations and consumption are inexorably increasing human demand for infrastructure services. Population and wealth along with other global stressors will have a direct and significant impact on the sustainability goals, technology selection, and governance strategies that are related to infrastructure quality and density. This paper will explore infrastructure and governance challenges and opportunities in addressing human service needs

Julie Beth Zimmerman

259

An Analysis of Hybrid Life Support Systems for Sustainable Habitats  

E-print Network

The design of sustainable habitats on Earth, on other planetary surfaces, and in space, has motivated strategic planning with respect to life support (LS) system technology development and habitat design. Such planning ...

Shaw, Margaret Miller

2014-01-01

260

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR Sustainable Vegetable Production and Nutrition Systems  

E-print Network

quality/human nutrition. The successful candidate will establish innovative research and outreach programsASSISTANT PROFESSOR Sustainable Vegetable Production and Nutrition Systems The Department will develop a nationally and internationally recognized program in vegetable crop nutrition and soil fertility

Isaacs, Rufus

261

SYSTEMS ANALYSIS BRANCH RESEARCH (SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGY DIVISION, NRMRL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The major technical efforts under the management of NRMRL's Sustainable Technology Division's Systems Analysis Branch (SAB) are organized under research programs. Listed below are the SAB research programs and brief descriptions of their function. Simulation & Design -- This pro...

262

Smart vector-decoupling control of three phase rectifiers for grid connectivity of sustainable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, some of the aspects related to the connectivity of DC microgrids to the main grid are investigated. The system under study is dependent mainly on sustainable energy sources. A fully controlled rectifier has been designed to tie the DC grid with the AC one. A vector decoupling controlled sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM) technique has been used

Ahmed Mohamed; Osama A. Mohammed

2011-01-01

263

A Systems Approach to Develop Sustainable Water Supply Infrastructure and Management  

EPA Science Inventory

In a visit to Zhejiang University, China, Dr. Y. Jeffrey Yang will discuss in this presentation the system approach for urban water infrastructure sustainability. Through a system analysis, it becomes clear at an urban scale that the energy and water efficiencies of a water supp...

264

Sustainability and Resilience in Resource Systems: Indicator Frameworks & Policy Directions  

E-print Network

Sustainability and Resilience in Resource Systems: Indicator Frameworks & Policy Directions Tony of these components... #12;Resilience in Resource SystemsResilience in Resource Systems ·· Resilience is a propertyResilience to the systemshocks to the system #12;Resilience ComponentsResilience Components ·· Ingredients of a resilient natural

Charles, Anthony

265

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The UBC Food System: Indicators in the Measurement of Sustainability The  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The UBC Food System: Indicators in the Measurement of Sustainability The Sustainability of UBC Food System Collaborative Project System: Indicators in the Measurement of Sustainability The Sustainability of UBC Food System

266

Operationalizing sustainability in urban coastal systems: a system dynamics analysis.  

PubMed

We propose a system dynamics approach for Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD) in urban coastal systems. A systematic analysis based on theoretical considerations, policy analysis and experts' knowledge is followed in order to define the concept of ESD. The principles underlying ESD feed the development of a System Dynamics Model (SDM) that connects the pollutant loads produced by urban systems' socioeconomic activities with the ecological condition of the coastal ecosystem that it is delineated in operational terms through key biological elements defined by the EU Water Framework Directive. The receiving waters of the Athens Metropolitan area, which bears the elements of typical high population density Mediterranean coastal city but which currently has also new dynamics induced by the ongoing financial crisis, are used as an experimental system for testing a system dynamics approach to apply the concept of ESD. Systems' thinking is employed to represent the complex relationships among the components of the system. Interconnections and dependencies that determine the potentials for achieving ESD are revealed. The proposed system dynamics analysis can facilitate decision makers to define paths of development that comply with the principles of ESD. PMID:24200010

Mavrommati, Georgia; Bithas, Kostas; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis

2013-12-15

267

Sustainable Energy - without the hot air  

E-print Network

.chemlink.com.au/conversions.htm This means that when the price of oil is $100 per barrel, oil energy costs 6c per kWh. If there were a carbon tax of $250 per ton of CO2 on fossil fuels, that tax would increase the price of a barrel of oil by $100. Gallons The gallon would be a fine human... .” For example, Richard Branson says that if Virgin Trains’ Voyager fleet switched to 20% biodiesel – incidentally, don’t you feel it’s outrageous to call a train a “green biodie- sel-powered train” when it runs on 80% fossil fuels and just 20% biodiesel? – sorry...

MacKay, David

2008-12-02

268

Role of ruminant livestock in sustainable agricultural systems.  

PubMed

Ruminants have served and will continue to serve a valuable role in sustainable agricultural systems. They are particularly useful in converting vast renewable resources from rangeland, pasture, and crop residues or other by-products into food edible for humans. With ruminants, land that is too poor or too erodable to cultivate becomes productive. Also, nutrients in by-products are utilized and do not become a waste-disposal problem. The need to maintain ruminants to utilize these humanly inedible foodstuffs and convert them into high-quality foods for human consumption has been a characteristic of advanced societies for several thousand years. Further, ruminant livestock production is entirely consistent with proper agronomy practices in which forages are grown on 25% of arable land to minimize water and soil erosion. Questions have been asked, however, about the use of humanly edible foodstuffs (grains, protein sources, etc.) in ruminant diets. Does their use create a net loss of nutrients for human consumption? What level of their use is necessary or desirable? Does the use of some of these improve the nutrient (e.g. protein) quality or product value? Too often the opponents of animal agriculture evaluate the desirability of animal production on gross calorie or protein intake/output values. However, in many cases the feeds used in animal production are not consumable by humans, and in order to properly evaluate animal production, humanly consumable energy and protein intake should be used for efficiency comparisons. Analysis of the costs/returns of humanly edible energy and protein for a variety of dairy and beef cattle production systems shows that food value is increased with ruminant products, and that net returns of humanly edible nutrients are dependent on the production system used. The efficiency with which ruminants convert humanly edible energy and protein into meat or milk is highly dependent on diet, and hence, on regional production practices. Previous studies suggest that in the United States, dairy production efficiency ranges from 96 to 276% on a humanly consumable protein basis. Beef production efficiency is very dependent on the time spent in the feedlot and digestible energy and protein efficiencies range from 28 to 59% and 52 to 104%, respectively. However, beef production can add to the humanly consumable protein pool depending on the feeding schedule. In addition, the protein resulting from ruminant livestock production is of higher quality with a greater biological value than protein in the substrate feeds. The evidence that ruminant livestock belong in sustainable livestock production systems is convincing. PMID:8791215

Oltjen, J W; Beckett, J L

1996-06-01

269

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY AND URBAN FORM IN CHINA: THE RELEVANCE OF COMMUNITY ENERGY MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

institutional and policy issues involved in land use planning, site and building design, alternative energy favorable to CEM objectives. · Programs to encourage energy supply and energy efficiency need to takeSUSTAINABLE ENERGY AND URBAN FORM IN CHINA: THE RELEVANCE OF COMMUNITY ENERGY MANAGEMENT by Bryn

270

Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean  

SciTech Connect

There is a marked difference between the perception of the sustainable development problem in the industrialized countries and that prevailing in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C). Whereas the industrialized countries seem concerned about the sustainability of their development in view of global climate change, developing countries in LA&C are looking for a sustainable development course that will lead them out of poverty and away from the destruction of the local environment. The industrialized countries perspective is apparent in the titles of the papers being presented at the IAEE Conference under the topic: Harmonizing Energy Policy, Environment, and Sustainable Economic Growth. A great number of titles and sessions focus on the apparent antagonism between economic growth and the environment. By environment one seems to primarily mean emissions into the air, especially greenhouse gas emissions. Probably the majority of the energy community of the industrial countries regards Latin America, on the one hand, as a holder of a large CO{sub 2} sink in danger of extinction and, on the other hand, as a potential new large contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.

Suding, P.H.

1995-12-31

271

Stoked nondynamos: sustaining field in magnetically non-closed systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much effort has gone into identifying and classifying systems that might be capable of dynamo action, i.e. capable of generating and sustaining magnetic field indefinitely against dissipative effects in a conducting fluid. However, it is difficult, if not almost technically impossible, to derive a method of determining in both an absolutely conclusive and a pragmatic manner whether a system is a dynamo or not in the nonlinear regime. This problem has generally been examined only for closed systems, despite the fact that most realistic situations of interest are not strictly closed. Here we examine the even more complex problem of whether a known nondynamo closed system can be distinguished pragmatically from a true dynamo when a small input of magnetic field to the system is allowed. We call such systems ‘stoked nondynamos’ owing to the ‘stoking’ or augmentation of the magnetic field in the system. It may seem obvious that magnetic energy can be sustained in such systems since there is an external source, but crucial questions remain regarding what level is maintained and whether such nondynamo systems can be distinguished from a true dynamo. In this paper, we perform 3D nonlinear numerical simulations with time-dependent ABC forcing possessing known dynamo properties. We find that magnetic field can indeed be maintained at a significant stationary level when stoking a system that is a nondynamo when not stoked. The maintained state results generally from an eventual rough balance of the rates of input and decay of magnetic field. We find that the relevance of this state is dictated by a parameter ? representing the correlation of the resultant field with the stoking forcing function. The interesting regime is where ? is small but non-zero, as this represents a middle ground between a state where the stoking has no effect on the pre-existing nondynamo properties and a state where the effect of stoking is easily detectable. We find that in this regime, (a) the saturated state is somewhat unexpectedly enhanced by a bias resulting from the random fluctuating statistics of the decay process, and (b) the state is indistinguishable from a true dynamo except via ? itself. Such results make the pragmatic identification of dynamos in real situations even more difficult than had previously been thought.

Byington, B. M.; Brummell, N. H.; Stone, J. M.; Gough, D. O.

2014-08-01

272

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

& Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308, and Alicen Kandt National Renewable Energy Laboratory John Glassmire and Peter Lilienthal HOMER Energy LLC of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy

273

Sustainable Deforestation Evaluation Model and System Dynamics Analysis  

PubMed Central

The current study used the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to construct a sustainable deforestation development evaluation system and evaluation model, which has refined a diversified system to evaluate the theory of sustainable deforestation development. Leveraging the visual image of the system dynamics causal and power flow diagram, we illustrated here that sustainable forestry development is a complex system that encompasses the interaction and dynamic development of ecology, economy, and society and has reflected the time dynamic effect of sustainable forestry development from the three combined effects. We compared experimental programs to prove the direct and indirect impacts of the ecological, economic, and social effects of the corresponding deforest techniques and fully reflected the importance of developing scientific and rational ecological harvesting and transportation technologies. Experimental and theoretical results illustrated that light cableway skidding is an ecoskidding method that is beneficial for the sustainable development of resources, the environment, the economy, and society and forecasted the broad potential applications of light cableway skidding in timber production technology. Furthermore, we discussed the sustainable development countermeasures of forest ecosystems from the aspects of causality, interaction, and harmony. PMID:25254225

Feng, Huirong; Lim, C. W.; Chen, Liqun; Zhou, Xinnian; Zhou, Chengjun; Lin, Yi

2014-01-01

274

Sustainability of energy and carbon capture and storage for Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study, as study herein, is intended to approach a different way to provide sustainability of energy and environment by different aspects for Turkey. This study investigates the potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey for non-emissions of GHG and elaborates on a carbon capture and storage technology by creating a roadmap for Turkey. The main purpose of this study is to make a roadmap about carbon capture and storage (CCS) for Turkey to use as it proceeds. As one of the members of International Panel of Climate Change, which signed Kyoto protocol, it must adapt its acts and regulations. In addition, this study concentrates on the sustainable energy potential of Turkey, although the study investigated only the alternative energy resources suitable for Turkey: solar, wind, geothermal, bio-energy, and hydropower. There are huge numbers of potential renewable energy sources, and given Turkey's total energy demand of 106.3 million tons equivalent petroleum in 2010, only solar potential would be able to eventually supply the total demand, but energy from the wind and hydropower are sufficient to provide partial amounts. This study might help policy makers in their decisions regarding CCS technology. Currently, there are various technical and non-technical economic and social challenges that prevent CCS from become an extensively used commercial technology. This document discusses them and presents goals for each research pathway.

Alpsar, Cengiz

275

How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development paradigm; first, the heavy reliance on modern science leads to a failure to use local knowledge and practices which can be more sustainable to sustainability; second, the acceptance of the international capitalist system as the basis for project implementation results in little or no long-term sustainability commitment; and third, the compatibility of economic growth with environmental sustainability, which appears unlikely in the context of global economic inequality. As an alternative, this dissertation suggests several policies for promoting energy systems for rural sustainable development in the Global South.

Yamaguchi, Hideka

276

Sustainable agriculture and the production of biomass for energy use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern bioenergy is seen as a promising option to curb greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, a potential competition\\u000a for land and water between bioenergy and food crops. Another question is whether biomass for energy use can be produced in\\u000a a sustainable manner given the current conventional agricultural production practices. Other than the land and water competition,\\u000a this question is

Adrian Muller

2009-01-01

277

Energy Security, Innovation & Sustainability Initiative Prioritize.A 100-Day Energy Action Plan  

E-print Network

Energy Security, Innovation & Sustainability Initiative Prioritize.A 100-Day Energy Action Plan recognizes that energy will be a defining challenge for the new Administration--for economic competitiveness, national security and long-term environmental sus- tainability. Energy price and supply volatility impact

278

Nuclear energy option for energy security and sustainable development in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is facing great challenges in its economic development due to the impact on climate change. Energy is the important driver of economy. At present Indian energy sector is dominated by fossil fuel. Due to international pressure for green house gas reduction in atmosphere there is a need of clean energy supply for energy security and sustainable development. The nuclear

Subhash Mallah

2011-01-01

279

The interaction of energy, population and sustainable development  

SciTech Connect

The relationships among, energy, population growth, and sustainable economic development will be of critical importance during the next half century. In previous papers, the authors have modeled the interactions among energy, population and economic development. These studies have shown that the increased availability of economic alternatives, improved health conditions, and sustainable energy supplies have a direct interaction with the rate of population growth. Conversely, their studies and others have shown that poverty, poor health conditions, and the lack of economic alternatives contribute to a vicious cycle in which rapid population growth continues, poverty prevails, and health conditions deteriorate further. Reducing population growth to a sustainable steady state value is, in part, a product of the improved health and living conditions brought on by a well-considered industrialization. Improving the availability and reliability of the electric supply is an integral part of that industrialization. Free trade zones surrounding major ports are becoming a major vehicle for development and gateways to the global economy. By providing the needed electricity to power these enterprise zones, US technology could furnish a vital link in development. Many current projects for providing power to preindustrial countries involve the construction of large, centralized projects. The construction of conventional fossil and nuclear plants requires that the developing countries first develop an infrastructure for both the construction and operation of such plants. Both hydro and steam plants require significant capital investment, either by the host country or by outside development agencies, before the first kilowatt-hour is delivered.

Mills, J.I.; Herring, J.S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1995-12-31

280

The role of energy sector in sustainable development in Iran  

E-print Network

Generally speaking, both supply and use of energy in Iran are unsustainable. The unsustainable energy supply and use coupled with an unreliable and unsecure energy system have striking and lasing impacts on economic, social ...

Golabi, Zanyar

2011-01-01

281

A developing country perspective on implementing sustainable energy programs  

SciTech Connect

Bangladesh is a developing country faced with many challenges such as high population growth rate, low literacy levels, and poverty. One of its most difficult tasks is providing the infrastructure necessary to sustain a growing population with a finite resource base. There is a need to develop a long term energy strategy that relies on sustainable resources while reducing environmental harm. Solar energy has the potential to meet these requirements and presents a highly attractive energy source for Bangladesh. Bangladesh is fortunate enough to have a significant amount of solar irradiance. A number of projects have been started in Bangladesh to exploit renewable energy resources. This paper will highlight the current status of these projects. Major interest and activity is directed towards development of photovoltaic and wind resources. The market for renewable technologies is vast in Bangladesh where a significant portion of the population is off-grid and in need of energy. Although this is not an affluent market technology costs have come down sufficiently such that it is becoming accessible to rural populations with credit schemes. While developing sustainable energy is a worthwhile goal and much encouraged by donor agencies, Bangladesh`s perspective on attempting to develop this sector suggests that it is not an easy road to follow, due to numerous internal and external barriers. A discussion of the barriers to the commercialization of renewables will be included in this paper. The objective of this paper is to shed some light on these issues and to stimulate discussions on how to overcome the barriers and encourage the dissemination of renewables in developing countries.

Ul Haq, Z.; James, J.A. [Princeton Economic Research, Inc., Rockville, MD (United States); Kamal, S. [International Consortium for Energy Development, Boston, MA (United States)

1997-12-31

282

The Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) Model for Energy Service Delivery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Climate change, energy price spikes, and concerns about energy security have reignited interest in state and local efforts to promote end-use energy efficiency, customer-sited renewable energy, and energy conservation. Government agencies and utilities have historically designed and administered such demand-side measures, but innovative…

Houck, Jason; Rickerson, Wilson

2009-01-01

283

A review on energy scenario and sustainable energy in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy has a key role in social-economic development of countries. Fossil fuels which have a large contribution in energy consumption in the world, are depleting and it seems necessary to find alternative energy sources. Today, energy consumption in Iran is increasing due to population growth and economic development. This study presents an overview of the energy resources, supply and demand

M. Mohammadnejad; M. Ghazvini; T. M. I. Mahlia; A. Andriyana

2011-01-01

284

Energy production and sustainable energy policies in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. Turkey's energy production meets nearly 28% of its total primary energy consumption. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production

Ibrahim Yüksel

2010-01-01

285

Indicators to support environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems  

SciTech Connect

Indicators are needed to assess environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Effective indicators will help in the quantification of benefits and costs of bioenergy options and resource uses. We identify 19 measurable indicators for soil quality, water quality and quantity, greenhouse gases, biodiversity, air quality, and productivity, building on existing knowledge and on national and international programs that are seeking ways to assess sustainable bioenergy. Together, this suite of indicators is hypothesized to reflect major environmental effects of diverse feedstocks, management practices, and post-production processes. The importance of each indicator is identified. Future research relating to this indicator suite is discussed, including field testing, target establishment, and application to particular bioenergy systems. Coupled with such efforts, we envision that this indicator suite can serve as a basis for the practical evaluation of environmental sustainability in a variety of bioenergy systems.

Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Eaton, Laurence M [ORNL; McBride, Allen [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Schweizer, Peter E [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2011-01-01

286

Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

Sahid, E. J. M.; Siang, C. Ch; Peng, L. Y.

2013-06-01

287

Modeling the performance of residential building envelope: The role of sustainable energy performance indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of modeling the sustainable performance of the residential building envelope will be to a great extent associated to the sustainable energy performance indicators used. The sustainable energy performance indicators that these building assessment models are developed around should be chosen by taking into account the targeted objectives. However, it is very common to find building performance assessment models

Abraham Mwasha; Rupert G. Williams; Joseph Iwaro

2011-01-01

288

Evaluating the prospects for sustainable energy development in a sample of Chinese villages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the methods used to evaluate the potential for achieving sustainable energy development in six Chinese villages included in the Sustainable Users’ Concepts for China Engaging Scientific Scenarios (SUCCESS) Project by examining energy efficiency potential and local renewable energy prospects. The approaches needed to obtain and analyse information on possible energy efficiency measures and renewable energy resources are

Nigel D. Mortimer; John F. Grant

2008-01-01

289

Energy Research at the UW Crea ng sustainable energy sources  

E-print Network

environmental- impact materials and natural processes Energy harves ng: powering small devices from/hydrokine cs: energy from dal currents Wind: energy from the mo on of the wind Storage Storing and transpor ng informa on Ligh ng and display: illumina ng our lives Impacts Learning how energy use and policy choices

Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

290

Advanced separation processes for sustainable nuclear systems  

SciTech Connect

In the frame of the French national waste management 1991 act, the CEA had launched research and development studies on the separation of the minor actinides - i.e. neptunium, americium and curium - from high active waste issuing from nuclear spent fuel reprocessing. In compliance with the 2006 deadline specified by this act, tests of the main processes developed were realized in 2005 in ATALANTE. As shown by the results summarized in this paper, the feasibility of the processes selected for partitioning was demonstrated. In June 2006, a new act on sustainable management of radioactive waste has been voted by the French parliament with a national plan (PNG-MDR). This plan specifies a step by step programme of HLLL waste management, with, for partitioning-transmutation, a program in tight connection with the 4. generation reactors development in which transmutation of minor actinides could be operated. In this frame, the next important 2012 milestone is the evaluation of the two possible transmutation roads: homogeneous recycling of all the actinides together or minor actinides heterogeneous recycling in UO{sub 2} assemblies in core blankets. The last step could be the building of a small partitioning workshop (micro-pilot) dedicated to the production of fuel assemblies containing minor actinides. (authors)

Baron, P.; Masson, M.; Rostaing, C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique DEN/VRH/DRCP, BP 17 171 30207 Bagnols/Ceze Cedex (France); Boullis, B. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique DEN/SAC/DDIN, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

2007-07-01

291

Alternative Energy Sources for Oil - Rich Countries: (Middle East - Iran) Pathway to Sustainable Energy Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy sustainability and environmental policies play significant roles in energy development and planning in developed and developing countries. The present study is being conducted as part of the Energy, Environment, and Economics Program (E3) at the Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT). The main objective of this study is to analyze and present alternative

J. Nouri; H. Arastoopour; S. Al-Hallaj

292

Selecting sustainable renewable energy source for energy assistance to North Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy (RE) is the best sustainable energy solution South Korea can provide to assist North Korea in overcoming its chronic energy shortage. Designed as a follow-on research to Sin et al. [1], a survey was conducted with a panel of experts consisting of various disciplines and affiliations using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with benefit, opportunity, cost, and risk

Sul-Ki Yi; Hwa-Young Sin; Eunnyeong Heo

2011-01-01

293

Prospective energy needs in Mediterranean offshore aquaculture: Renewable and sustainable energy solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Offshore aquaculture industry is considered among the fastest growing industries worldwide. However, further expansion of this industry requires larger breeding installations positioned even further from shore. These installations inevitably would require substantial automation powered by appropriate energy sources. Thus, this paper investigates appropriate sustainable renewable energy generation solutions to meet anticipated needs. Firstly, an account of energy requirements of a

Michalis Menicou; Vassos Vassiliou

2010-01-01

294

Environmentally Sustainable Supplies of Energy with Specific Reference to Geothermal Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although energy is the key element for improving the quality of life, ever increasing use of fossil fuels cannot be the basis for sustainable development. These have unexpected environmental consequences in local and global scale. The need to increase energy supply in a developing country like India is unquestionable. To meet the proposed energy needs, India must produce nearly double

MRINAL GHOSE

2004-01-01

295

75 FR 29933 - Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Buildings AGENCY: Office of Energy...performance standards for the construction of new Federal buildings and major renovations...Efficiency and Sustainable Design Standards for New Federal Commercial and Multi- Family...

2010-05-28

296

Industrial Energy Systems Laboratory Gnie mcanique  

E-print Network

Industrial Energy Systems Laboratory SECTION DE Génie mécanique Intelligent Generation of Eco-District Solutions by an Energetic Approach Author Davide A. Cattaneo Supervisor Dr. MER Francois Maréchal planning to achieve a sustainable energy consumption management. Low energy standards for buildings

297

Sustainable Transportation: Accelerating Widespread Adoption of Energy Efficient Vehicles & Fuels (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

While energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously slash oil consumption and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a truly sustainable solution will require more than just putting drivers behind the wheels of new fuel-efficient cars. As the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) accelerates widespread adoption of high-performance, low-emission, energy-efficient passenger and freight vehicles, as well as alternative fuels and related infrastructure. Researchers collaborate closely with industry, government, and research partners, using a whole-systems approach to design better batteries, drivetrains, and engines, as well as thermal management, energy storage, power electronic, climate control, alternative fuel, combustion, and emission systems. NREL's sustainable transportation research, development, and deployment (RD&D) efforts are not limited to vehicles, roads, and fueling stations. The lab also explores ways to save energy and reduce GHGs by integrating transportation technology advancements with renewable energy generation, power grids and building systems, urban planning and policy, and fleet operations.

Not Available

2014-12-01

298

Programming models for energy-aware systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real-world Java programs.

Zhu, Haitao

299

Long-Lasting, Self-Sustaining, and Energy-Harvesting System-in-Package (SiP) Wireless Micro-Sensor Solution  

E-print Network

-mora@ieee.org, http://www.rincon-mora.com} Keywords: Energy harvesting, lithium-ion battery charger, micro- compatible micro-battery technologies, like micro-fuel cells and thin-film lithium-ion batteries it to the micro-battery. Since only a finite amount of energy is delivered, the load application must consume

Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

300

Wind energy systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

Stewart, H. J.

1978-01-01

301

Placing ecosystem sustainability within the context of dynamic earth systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the concept of ecosystem sustainability and the practice of sustainable land management both have long-term foci, it is necessary to view these from the perspective of dynamic rather than static systems. In addition to the typical static system approach for assessing ecosystem sustainability, three additional perspectives are presented. These are resilient systems, systems where tipping points occur, and systems subject to episodic geophysical resetting. Ecosystem resilience accommodates both natural and anthropogenic stressors and should be considered to properly frame many ecosystem assessments. A more complex problem emerges when stressors push systems to tipping points, causing a regime shift. Both chronic anthropogenic activities (e.g., over-grazing, forest conversion, poor irrigation practices) and natural changes (e.g., climate anomalies, geochemical weathering, tectonic uplift, vegetative succession) can exhaust ecosystem resilience leading to a rapid change in state. Anthropogenic perturbations can also lower the initiation threshold and increase the magnitude and frequency of certain natural disasters, increasing the likelihood of ecosystem change. Furthermore, when major episodic geophysical events (e.g., large earthquakes, tsunami, and floods; widespread volcanic activity and landslides) exceed thresholds of ecosystem resilience they may reset the attributes of entire systems or landscapes. Large disasters can initiate a cascade of linked events, as in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, where tsunami, fires, landslides, artificial fillslope collapses, radioactive releases, and associated health effects occurred. Understanding the potential for natural change (both chronic and episodic) in ecosystems is essential not only to the environmental aspect of sustainability but also to economic and social aspects. Examples are presented for: (1) ecosystems vulnerable to tipping points (Yunnan, China) and (2) ecosystems reset by earthquakes and tsunami (Papua New Guinea and eastern Japan). While these geophysical perturbations and shifts in ecosystems are individually recognized, they are not fully embraced by contemporary sustainability thinking or decision management.

Sidle, R. C.

2013-12-01

302

DYNAMIC CROPPING SYSTEMS FOR SUSTAINABLE CROP PRODUCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improved soil and water conservation practices have resulted in more intensive and diverse cropping systems in the Northern Great Plains. Developing crop sequences for diverse cropping systems to take advantage of synergism among crops can be a problem. No-till field research was conducted 11 km sou...

303

The NERSC Sustained System Performance (SSP) Metric  

SciTech Connect

Most plans and reports recently discuss only one of four distinct purposes benchmarks are used. The obvious purpose is selection of a system from among its competitors, something that is the main focus of this paper. This purpose is well discussed in many workshops and reports. The second use of benchmarks is validating the selected system actually works the way expected once it arrives. This purpose may be more important than the first reason. The second purpose is particularly key when systems are specified and selected based on performance projections rather than actual runs on the actual hardware. The third use of benchmarks, seldom mentioned, is to assure the system performs as expected throughout its lifetime1, (e.g. after upgrades, changes, and regular use.) Finally, benchmarks are used to guide system designs, something covered in detail in a companion paper from Berkeley's Institute for Performance Studies (BIPS).

Kramer, William; Shalf, John; Strohmaier, Erich

2005-09-18

304

Applying Sustainable Systems Development Approach to Educational Technology Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information technology (IT) is an essential part of modern education. The roles and contributions of technology to education have been thoroughly documented in academic and professional literature. Despite the benefits, the use of educational technology systems (ETS) also creates a significant impact on the environment, primarily due to energy…

Huang, Albert

2012-01-01

305

Reorienting land degradation towards sustainable land management: Linking sustainable livelihoods with ecosystem services in rangeland systems.  

PubMed

This paper identifies new ways of moving from land degradation towards sustainable land management through the development of economic mechanisms. It identifies new mechanisms to tackle land degradation based on retaining critical levels of natural capital whilst basing livelihoods on a wider range of ecosystem services. This is achieved through a case study analysis of the Kalahari rangelands in southwest Botswana. The paper first describes the socio-economic and ecological characteristics of the Kalahari rangelands and the types of land degradation taking place. It then focuses on bush encroachment as a way of exploring new economic instruments (e.g. Payments for Ecosystem Services) designed to enhance the flow of ecosystem services that support livelihoods in rangeland systems. It does this by evaluating the likely impacts of bush encroachment, one of the key forms of rangeland degradation, on a range of ecosystem services in three land tenure types (private fenced ranches, communal grazing areas and Wildlife Management Areas), before considering options for more sustainable land management in these systems. We argue that with adequate policy support, economic mechanisms could help reorient degraded rangelands towards more sustainable land management. PMID:25617787

Reed, M S; Stringer, L C; Dougill, A J; Perkins, J S; Atlhopheng, J R; Mulale, K; Favretto, N

2015-03-15

306

Western China energy development and west to east energy transfer: Application of the Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is striving for coordinated regional economic development and to solve the energy shortage in eastern China through a western China development plan with one focus being energy development and west to east energy transfer. This paper describes Western China Sustainable Energy Development Model (WSED) to evaluate various energy development scenarios for western China. The model includes a Western China

Wenying Chen; Hualin Li; Zongxin Wu

2010-01-01

307

Thematic note to substantiate Ris's strategy impact on society Impact on society: Sustainable energy supply  

E-print Network

, hydrogen and biogas. Unlike electricity-based sustainable energy resources, such as wind and solar energyThematic note to substantiate Risø's strategy ­ impact on society Bioenergy Impact on society: Sustainable energy supply Introduction Biomass (wood, energy crops, by-products and organic waste from

308

SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics  

EPA Science Inventory

The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

309

Carbon Footprint and Sustainability of Agricultural Production Systems in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agriculture sector, which accounts for about 52% of the total workforce despite a steady decline of its share in the gross domestic product (GDP), is still the largest economic sector that plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic development of India. Sustainability of agricultural production systems depends on their carbon (C) footprint and the C output-input ratio. Thus,

H. P. Maheswarappa; V. Srinivasan; R. Lal

2011-01-01

310

MONET indicator system: the Swiss road to measuring sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the question of how to build a system of sustainable development indicators that takes into account the needs of users but nevertheless adheres to the principles of impartiality, independence and transparency of public statistics. The approach used in Switzerland on a national level to face this challenge is a three-step process: establishing a frame of reference, developing

Andre De Montmollin; Andrea Scheller

2007-01-01

311

Global Energy Scenarios forGlobal Energy Scenarios for Sustainable DevelopmentSustainable Development  

E-print Network

Evolution of Global Primary EnergyEvolution of Global Primary Energy #12;Global Mean Temperature ChangeGlobal Mean Temperature Change INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC) #12;s Global Mean Temperature ChangeGlobal Mean Temperature Change Six illustrative SRES scenarios, full rangeSix illustrative SRES

312

A fuzzy decision making energy management system for a PV\\/Wind renewable energy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a smart energy management consist of Photovoltaic\\/Wind (PV\\/W) renewable energy resources is studied. Since the operation performances of such sources are not the same for different hours of a day as well as different seasons of a year, an Energy Management System is required to a sustainable energy supply for users. An EMS using a Fuzzy Decision

Onur Ozdal Mengi; Ismail Hakki Altas

2011-01-01

313

Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

2012-01-01

314

Nanoscale triboelectric-effect-enabled energy conversion for sustainably powering portable electronics.  

PubMed

Harvesting energy from our living environment is an effective approach for sustainable, maintenance-free, and green power source for wireless, portable, or implanted electronics. Mechanical energy scavenging based on triboelectric effect has been proven to be simple, cost-effective, and robust. However, its output is still insufficient for sustainably driving electronic devices/systems. Here, we demonstrated a rationally designed arch-shaped triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) by utilizing the contact electrification between a polymer thin film and a metal thin foil. The working mechanism of the TENG was studied by finite element simulation. The output voltage, current density, and energy volume density reached 230 V, 15.5 ?A/cm(2), and 128 mW/cm(3), respectively, and an energy conversion efficiency as high as 10-39% has been demonstrated. The TENG was systematically studied and demonstrated as a sustainable power source that can not only drive instantaneous operation of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) but also charge a lithium ion battery as a regulated power module for powering a wireless sensor system and a commercial cell phone, which is the first demonstration of the nanogenerator for driving personal mobile electronics, opening the chapter of impacting general people's life by nanogenerators. PMID:23130843

Wang, Sihong; Lin, Long; Wang, Zhong Lin

2012-12-12

315

Toward Standards for Dynamics in Electric Energy Systems  

E-print Network

Toward Standards for Dynamics in Electric Energy Systems Future Grid Initiative White Paper Power Systems Engineering Research Center Empowering Minds to Engineer the Future Electric Energy System #12;Toward Standards for Dynamics In Electric Energy Systems The Future Grid to Enable Sustainable Energy

316

Sustaining high performance: dynamic balancing in an otherwise unbalanced system.  

PubMed

As Ovid said, "There is nothing in the whole world which is permanent." It is this very premise that frames the discoveries in this chapter and the compelling paradox it has raised. What began as a question of how performance is sustained, unveiled a collection of core organizational paradoxes. The findings ultimately suggest that sustained high performance is not a permanent state an organization achieves, but rather it is through perpetual movement and dynamic balance that sustainability occurs. The idea of sustainability as movement is predicated on the ability of organizational members to move beyond the experience of paradox as an impediment to progress. Through holding three critical "movements"--agile/consistency, collective/individualism, and informative/inquiry--not as paradoxical, but as active polarities, the organizations in the study were able to transcend paradox, and take active steps to continuous achievement in outperforming their peers. The study, focused on a collection of hospitals across the Unites States, reveals powerful stories of care and service, of the profound grace of human capacity, and of clear actions taken to create significant results. All of this was achieved in an environment of great volatility, in essence an unbalanced system. It was the discovery of movement and ultimately of dynamic balancing that allowed the organizations to in this study to move beyond stasis to the continuous "state" of sustaining high performance. PMID:21887955

Wolf, Jason A

2011-01-01

317

Current energy usage and sustainable energy in Malaysia: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malaysia has a good mix of energy resources like oil, natural gas, coal and renewable energies such as biomass, solar and hydro. In spite of this plenty of resources, the country is dependent on fossil fuel for industrial and transportation sector. In 2009, 94.5% of electricity is generated by using fossil fuel such as natural gas, coal, diesel oil and

S. M. Shafie; T. M. I. Mahlia; H. H. Masjuki; A. Andriyana

2011-01-01

318

The role of nuclear energy in establishing sustainable energy paths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear energy remains a controversial issue for public policies on energy and the environment because of arguments concerning radioactive waste, reactor accidents, nuclear proliferation and economic competitiveness. The issues of climate change and supply security have provided a new rationale for its reappearance on the international political agenda. Recent national policy directions in some countries show that such a comeback

J. J. C. Bruggink; B. C. C. der van Zwaan

2002-01-01

319

Energy for the future with Ris from nuclear power to sustainable energy Ris NatioNal laboRatoRy foR sustaiNable eNeRgy  

E-print Network

Energy for the future ­ with Risø from nuclear power to sustainable energy Risø NatioNal laboRatoRy foR sustaiNable eNeRgy edited by MoRteN JastRup #12;Energy for the future #12;Energy for the future ­ with Risø from nuclear power to sustainable energy Translated from 'Energi til fremtiden ­ med Risø fra

320

Identifying Constraints to Potato System Sustainability: Soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Potato yield in the Northeast U.S. has remained constant for over 50 years, despite increased inputs of pesticides, nutrients, and water. We established Status Quo, Soil Conserving, Soil Improving, and Disease Suppressive cropping systems under both irrigated and rainfed management to identify and q...

321

Data Acquisition System(DAS) Sustaining Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents general information describing the Data Acquisition System contract, a summary of objectives, tasks performed and completed. The hardware deliverables which are comprised of: 1) Two ground DAS units; 2) Two flight DAS units; 3) Logistic spares; and 4) Shipping containers are described. Also included are the data requirements and scope of the contract.

1998-01-01

322

Creating a Sustainable American Higher Education System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College presidents need to get a handle on the actual dimension of higher education today. They must locate themselves firmly in the context of a world that is radically different from the one that created the current systems of American colleges and universities. Without a more honest depiction, and absent an ability to accurately define,…

Mellow, Gail O.

2008-01-01

323

Expenditures and Sustainability in Systems of Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from three sites, a study examined service use and expenditures under systems-of-care. The sites provided children with a full range of mental health services. Per-child expenditures were high, but for two sites, those expenditures were within the range of expenditures in other innovative attempts at service delivery. (Contains…

Foster, E. Michael; Kelsch, Christopher C.; Kamradt, Bruce; Sosna, Todd; Yang, Zijin

2001-01-01

324

A SUSTAINABLE URBAN TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM: THE \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis examines an innovative approach to transportation policy in Curitiba, Brazil. Curitiba is a city of 1.6 million residents that has grown fourfold in the last 30 years. Unlike many cities, quality of life and transportation has not been a casualty of growth. Curitiba's transportation system actively helps residents obtain the benefits of growth, including access to jobs, homes,

Jonas Rabinovitch; John P. Hoehn

1995-01-01

325

Electrolysis: The important energy transformer in a world of sustainable energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world of sustainable energy supply, the latter will be predominantly generated, distributed and consumed in the form of electric power and hydrogen. In order to balance supply and demand, for storage purposes and to meet the specific requirements of the different end users, we need powerful energy transformers in both directions—fuel cells and electrolyzers.Though based upon a simple

W. Kreuter; H. Hofmann

1998-01-01

326

Energy for sustainable development: Key issues and challenges  

SciTech Connect

Energy generation and use are strongly linked to all elements of sustainable development such as economic, social, and environmental. The history of human development rests on the availability and use of energy, the transformation from the early use of fire and animal power that improved lives, to the present world with use of electricity and clean fuels for a multitude of purposes. Energy is the neglected issue of the development debate. The lack of access to reliable and clean energy supplies is a major barrier to improving human well-being around the globe. There are an estimated 1.6 billion people living in the rural areas of developing countries who lack access to electricity, and so dependence on fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels produces large amounts of CO{sub 2}, an important greenhouse gas. In response to increasing concern about the effect of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on global climate, international action has been agreed to reduce these emissions. On the other hand, renewable energy is the great, barely tapped solution to the two great challenges of the coming century such as poverty and global warming. Not only can renewable energy provide a clean, flexible power source for homes, schools and hospitals, at the micro-to-medium scale it has huge potential to create meaningful and useful jobs.

Kaygusuz, K. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

2007-07-01

327

An Index of Regional Sustainability: A GIS-based multiple criteria analysis decision support system for progressing sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

GIS (Geographical Information Systems) based decision support tools will be useful in helping guide regions to sustainability. These tools need to be simple but effective at identifying, for regional managers, areas most in need of initiatives to progress sustainability. Multiple criteria analysis (MCA) has been used as a decision support tool for a wide number of applications, as it provides

Michelle L. M. Graymore; Anne M. Wallis; Anneke J. Richards

2009-01-01

328

From Dust Devil to Sustainable Swirling Wind Energy  

PubMed Central

Dust devils are common but meteorologically unique phenomena on Earth and on Mars. The phenomenon produces a vertical vortex motion in the atmosphere boundary layer and often occurs in hot desert regions, especially in the afternoons from late spring to early summer. Dust devils usually contain abundant wind energy, for example, a maximum swirling wind velocity of up to 25?m/s, with a 15?m/s maximum vertical velocity and 5?m/s maximum near-surface horizontal velocity can be formed. The occurrences of dust devils cannot be used for energy generation because these are generally random and short-lived. Here, a concept of sustained dust-devil-like whirlwind is proposed for the energy generation. A prototype of a circular shed with pre-rotation vanes has been devised to generate the whirlwind flow by heating the air inflow into the circular shed. The pre-rotation vanes can provide the air inflow with angular momentum. The results of numerical simulations and experiment illustrate a promising potential of the circular shed for generating swirling wind energy via the collection of low-temperature solar energy. PMID:25662574

Zhang, Mingxu; Luo, Xilian; Li, Tianyu; Zhang, Liyuan; Meng, Xiangzhao; Kase, Kiwamu; Wada, Satoshi; Yu, Chuck Wah; Gu, Zhaolin

2015-01-01

329

Sustainability of hydropower as source of renewable and clean energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroelectric energy has been in recent times placed as an important future source of renewable and clean energy. The advantage of hydropower as a renewable energy is that it produces negligible amounts of greenhouse gases, it stores large amounts of electricity at low cost and it can be adjusted to meet consumer demand. This noble vision however is becoming more challenging due to rapid urbanization development and increasing human activities surrounding the catchment area. Numerous studies have shown that there are several contributing factors that lead towards the loss of live storage in reservoir, namely geology, ground slopes, climate, drainage density and human activities. Sediment deposition in the reservoir particularly for hydroelectric purposes has several major concerns due to the reduced water storage volume which includes increase in the risk of flooding downstream which directly effects the safety of human population and properties, contributes to economic losses not only in revenue for power generation but also large capital and maintenance cost for reservoir restorations works. In the event of functional loss of capabilities of a hydropower reservoir as a result of sedimentation or siltation could lead to both economical and environmental impact. The objective of this paper is aimed present the importance of hydropower as a source of renewable and clean energy in the national energy mix and the increasing challenges of sustainability.

Luis, J.; Sidek, L. M.; Desa, M. N. M.; Julien, P. Y.

2013-06-01

330

From dust devil to sustainable swirling wind energy.  

PubMed

Dust devils are common but meteorologically unique phenomena on Earth and on Mars. The phenomenon produces a vertical vortex motion in the atmosphere boundary layer and often occurs in hot desert regions, especially in the afternoons from late spring to early summer. Dust devils usually contain abundant wind energy, for example, a maximum swirling wind velocity of up to 25?m/s, with a 15?m/s maximum vertical velocity and 5?m/s maximum near-surface horizontal velocity can be formed. The occurrences of dust devils cannot be used for energy generation because these are generally random and short-lived. Here, a concept of sustained dust-devil-like whirlwind is proposed for the energy generation. A prototype of a circular shed with pre-rotation vanes has been devised to generate the whirlwind flow by heating the air inflow into the circular shed. The pre-rotation vanes can provide the air inflow with angular momentum. The results of numerical simulations and experiment illustrate a promising potential of the circular shed for generating swirling wind energy via the collection of low-temperature solar energy. PMID:25662574

Zhang, Mingxu; Luo, Xilian; Li, Tianyu; Zhang, Liyuan; Meng, Xiangzhao; Kase, Kiwamu; Wada, Satoshi; Yu, Chuck Wah; Gu, Zhaolin

2015-01-01

331

Ecological sustainability of energy cane as a biofuel feedstock Assess the ecological sustainability of deploying energy cane on land previously used for  

E-print Network

Ecological sustainability of energy cane as a biofuel feedstock Objective Assess the ecological to the ecological sustainability of the wide-scale deployment of biofuel feedstocks. Key among these issues are how replacing current land use with biofuel feedstocks will affect the fluxes of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N20

DeLucia, Evan H.

332

Sustainable nanocomposites toward electrochemical energy storage and environmental remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy shortage and environmental pollution are the two most concerns right now for the long term sustainable development of human society. New technology developments are the key solutions to these challenges, which strongly rely on the continuous upgrading of advanced material performance. In this dissertation, sustainable nanocomposites with multifunctionalities are designed and fabricated targeting to the applications in high energy/power density capacitor electrodes and efficient heavy metal adsorbent for polluted water purification. Contrary to the helical carbon structure from pure cotton fabrics under microwave heating and radical oxidized ignition of nanoparticles from conventional heating, magnetic carbon tubular nanocomposite fabrics decorated with unifromally dispersed Co-Co3O4 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a microwave heating process using cotton fabric and inorganic salt as precursors, which have shown better anti-corrosive performance and demonstrated great potential as novel electrochemical pseudocapacitor electrode. Polyaniline nanofibers (PANI-NFs)/graphite oxide (GO) nanocomposites with excellent interfacial interaction and elongated fiber structure were synthesized via a facile interfacial polymerization method. The PANI-NFs/GO hybrid materials showed orders of magnitude enhancement in capacitance and energy density than that of individual GO and PANI-NF components. At the same weight loading of PANI in the composites, fibrous PANI demonstrated higher energy density and long term stability than that of particle-shaped PANI at higher power density. Besides the efforts focusing on the inside of the capacitor including new electrodes, electrolyte materials, and capacitor configuration designs. A significant small external magnetic field (720 Gauss) induced capacitance enhancement is reported for graphene and graphene nanocomposite electrodes. The capacitance of Fe2O3/graphene nanocomposites increases by 154.6% after appling magnetic field. Without any modification of the inside of the electrochemical capacitance cell, the reported magnetic field enhanced capacitance with both improved energy density and power density will have a great impact on the electrochemical energy storage field. A facile thermodecomposition process to synthesize magnetic graphene nanocomposites (MGNCs) is reported. The MGNCs demonstrate an extremely fast Cr(VI) removal from the wastewater with a high removal efficiency and with an almost complete removal of Cr(VI) within 5 min. The large saturation magnetization (96.3 emu/g) of the synthesized nanoparticles allows fast separation of the MGNCs from liquid suspension. By using a permanent magnet, the recycling process of both the MGNC adsorbents and the adsorbed Cr(VI) is more energetically and economically sustainable. The significantly reduced treatment time required to remove the Cr(VI) and the applicability in treating the solutions with low pH make MGNCs promising for the efficient removal of heavy metals from the wastewater. A waste-free process to recycle Fe Fe2O3/ polypropylene (PP) polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) is introduced to synthesize magnetic carbon nanocomposites (MCNCs) and simultaneously produce useful chemical species which can be utilized as a feedstock in petrochemical industry. The magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are found to have an effective catalytic activity on the pyrolysis of PP. The coked solid waste from the conventional process has been utilized as a carbon source to form a protective carbon shell surrounding the magnetic NPs. The magnetic carbon nanocomposites (MCNCs) pyrolyzed from PNCs containing 20.0 wt% NPs demonstrate extremely fast Cr(VI) removal from wastewater with the almost complete removal of Cr(VI) within 10 min. The large saturation magnetization (32.5 emu g-1) of these novel magnetic carbon nanocomposites allows fast recycling of both the adsorbents and the adsorbed Cr(VI) from the liquid suspension in a more energetically and economically sustainable way by simply applying a permanent magnet.

Zhu, Jiahua

333

Industrial sustainability of competing wood energy options in Canada.  

PubMed

The amount of sawmill residue available in Canada to support the emerging cellulosic ethanol industry was examined. A material flow analysis technique was employed to determine the amount of sawmill residue that could possibly be available to the ethanol industry per annum. A combination of two key trends--improved efficiency of lumber recovery and increased uptake of sawmill residues for self-generation and for wood pellet production--have contributed to a declining trend of sawmill residue availability. Approximately 2.3?x?10? bone-dry tons per year of sawmill residue was estimated to be potentially available to the cellulosic ethanol industry in Canada, yielding 350 million liters per year of cellulosic ethanol using best practices. An additional 2.7 billion liters of cellulosic ethanol might be generated from sawmill residue that is currently used for competing wood energy purposes, including wood pellet generation. Continued competition between bioenergy options will reduce the industrial sustainability of the forest industry. Recommendations for policy reforms towards improved industrial sustainability practices are provided. PMID:20533096

Ackom, Emmanuel K; Mabee, Warren E; Saddler, John N

2010-12-01

334

Agricultural biodiversity, social-ecological systems and sustainable diets.  

PubMed

The stark observation of the co-existence of undernourishment, nutrient deficiencies and overweight and obesity, the triple burden of malnutrition, is inviting us to reconsider health and nutrition as the primary goal and final endpoint of food systems. Agriculture and the food industry have made remarkable advances in the past decades. However, their development has not entirely fulfilled health and nutritional needs, and moreover, they have generated substantial collateral losses in agricultural biodiversity. Simultaneously, several regions are experiencing unprecedented weather events caused by climate change and habitat depletion, in turn putting at risk global food and nutrition security. This coincidence of food crises with increasing environmental degradation suggests an urgent need for novel analyses and new paradigms. The sustainable diets concept proposes a research and policy agenda that strives towards a sustainable use of human and natural resources for food and nutrition security, highlighting the preeminent role of consumers in defining sustainable options and the importance of biodiversity in nutrition. Food systems act as complex social-ecological systems, involving multiple interactions between human and natural components. Nutritional patterns and environment structure are interconnected in a mutual dynamic of changes. The systemic nature of these interactions calls for multidimensional approaches and integrated assessment and simulation tools to guide change. This paper proposes a review and conceptual modelling framework that articulate the synergies and tradeoffs between dietary diversity, widely recognised as key for healthy diets, and agricultural biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, crucial resilience factors to climate and global changes. PMID:25068204

Allen, Thomas; Prosperi, Paolo; Cogill, Bruce; Flichman, Guillermo

2014-11-01

335

Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and sustainable carbon sink will be developed. Clean energy production from biomass (such as ethanol, biodiesel, producer gas, bio-methane) could be viable option to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Electricity generation from biomass is increasing throughout the world. Co-firing of biomass with coal and biomass combustion in power plant and CHP would be a viable option for clean energy development. Biomass can produce less emission in the range of 14% to 90% compared to emission from fossil for electricity generation. Therefore, biomass could play a vital role for generation of clean energy by reducing fossil energy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The main barriers to expansion of power generation from biomass are cost, low conversion efficiency and availability of feedstock. Internationalization of external cost in power generation and effective policies to improve energy security and carbon dioxide reduction is important to boost up the bio-power. In the long run, bio-power will depend on technological development and on competition for feedstock with food production and arable land use.

Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

2012-06-01

336

Perspectives on achieving sustainable energy production and use  

EPA Science Inventory

The traditional definition of sustainability calls for polices and strategies that meet society's present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Achieving operational sustainability requires three critical elements: advances in scien...

337

Rethinking assessment of drought impacts: a systemic approach towards sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although impacting primarily economic sectors, droughts may also initiate dynamic mechanisms that have socio-environmental\\u000a consequences on sustainability of the impacted areas. To date, most research has dealt with the economic impacts of droughts,\\u000a with minimal attention being paid to the dynamics of damaging mechanisms associated with socio-environmental impacts. Using\\u000a a systemic approach, this paper develops a method of identifying the

Mohammadreza Shahbazbegian; Ali Bagheri

2010-01-01

338

ECE 465: Realistic Sustainable Energy -Energy use in transportation,  

E-print Network

- Wave and tidal power generation possibilities - Role of heat pipes in modern HVAC systems - Recycling power to achieve 24/7/365 operation coverage includes: nuclear, and all hydrocarbon sources, - Concepts that are cost effective without subsidies or mandates Tools: - Use of Power Point and Word to prepare semester

Schumacher, Russ

339

Sustainable Energy Solutions Task 2.0: Wind Turbine Reliability and Maintainability Enhancement through System-wide Structure Health Monitoring and Modifications to Rotating Components  

SciTech Connect

EXECUTIVE SUMARRY An evaluation of nondestructive structural health monitoring methods was completed with over 132 documents, 37 specifically about wind turbines, summarized into a technology matrix. This matrix lists the technology, what can be monitored with this technology, and gives a short summary of the key aspects of the technology and its application. Passive and active acoustic emission equipment from Physical Acoustics Corp. and Acellent Technologies have been evaluated and selected for use in experimental state loading and fatigue tests of composite wind turbine blade materials. Acoustic Emission (AE) and Active Ultrasonic Testing (AUT), were applied to composite coupons with both simulated and actual damage. The results found that, while composites are more complicated in nature, compared to metallic structures, an artificial neural network analysis could still be used to determine damage. For the AE system, the failure mode could be determined (i.e. fiber breakage, delamination, etc.). The Acellent system has been evaluated to work well with composite materials. A test-rig for reliability testing of the rotating components was constructed. The research on the types of bearings used in the wind turbines indicated that in most of the designs, the main bearings utilized to support the shaft are cylindrical roller bearings. The accelerated degradation testing of a population of bearings was performed. Vibration and acoustic emission data was collected and analyzed in order to identify a representative degradation signal for each bearing to identify the initiation of the degradation process in the bearings. Afterwards, the RMS of the vibration signal from degradation initiation up to the end of the useful life of the bearing was selected to predict the remaining useful life of the bearing. This step included fitting Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models to the degradation signals and approximating the probability distribution function (PDF) of remaining useful life based on the results of Monte-Carlo simulation of the ARMA models. This step was performed for different percentages of the degradation signal of each bearing. The accuracy of the proposed approach then was assessed by comparing the actual life of the bearing and the estimated life of the bearing from the developed models. The results were impressive and indicated that the accuracy of the models improved as more data was utilized in developing the ARMA models (we get closer to the end of the life of the bearing).

Janet M Twomey, PhD

2010-04-30

340

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (Solar Energy Technologies Office and Strategic Programs Office

341

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency

342

Nuclear Energy - Hydrogen Production - Fuel Cell: A Road Towards Future China's Sustainable Energy Strategy  

SciTech Connect

Sustainable development of Chinese economy in 21. century will mainly rely on self-supply of clean energy with indigenous natural resources. The burden of current coal-dominant energy mix and the environmental stress due to energy consumptions has led nuclear power to be an indispensable choice for further expanding electricity generation capacity in China and for reducing greenhouse effect gases emission. The application of nuclear energy in producing substitutive fuels for road transportation vehicles will also be of importance in future China's sustainable energy strategy. This paper illustrates the current status of China's energy supply and the energy demand required for establishing a harmonic and prosperous society in China. In fact China's energy market faces following three major challenges, namely (1) gaps between energy supply and demand; (2) low efficiency in energy utilization, and (3) severe environmental pollution. This study emphasizes that China should implement sustainable energy development policy and pay great attention to the construction of energy saving recycle economy. Based on current forecast, the nuclear energy development in China will encounter a high-speed track. The demand for crude oil will reach 400-450 million tons in 2020 in which Chinese indigenous production will remain 180 million tons. The increase of the expected crude oil will be about 150 million tons on the basis of 117 million tons of imported oil in 2004 with the time span of 15 years. This demand increase of crude oil certainly will influence China's energy supply security and to find the substitution will be a big challenge to Chinese energy industry. This study illustrates an analysis of the market demands to future hydrogen economy of China. Based on current status of technology development of HTGR in China, this study describes a road of hydrogen production with nuclear energy. The possible technology choices in relation to a number of types of nuclear reactors are compared and assessed. The analysis shows that only high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) and sodium fast breed reactor might be available in China in 2020 for hydrogen production. Further development of very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) and gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) is necessary to ensure China's future capability of hydrogen production with nuclear energy as the primary energy. It is obvious that hydrogen production with high efficient nuclear energy will be a suitable strategic technology road, through which future clean vehicles burning hydrogen fuel cells will become dominant in future Chinese transportation industry and will play sound role in ensuring future energy security of China and the sustainable prosperity of Chinese people. (author)

Zhiwei Zhou [Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

2006-07-01

343

Applicability and methodology of determining sustainable yield in groundwater systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is currently a need for a review of the definition and methodology of determining sustainable yield. The reasons are: (1) current definitions and concepts are ambiguous and non-physically based so cannot be used for quantitative application, (2) there is a need to eliminate varying interpretations and misinterpretations and provide a sound basis for application, (3) the notion that all groundwater systems either are or can be made to be sustainable is invalid, (4) often there are an excessive number of factors bound up in the definition that are not easily quantifiable, (5) there is often confusion between production facility optimal yield and basin sustainable yield, (6) in many semi-arid and arid environments groundwater systems cannot be sensibly developed using a sustained yield policy particularly where ecological constraints are applied. Derivation of sustainable yield using conservation of mass principles leads to expressions for basin sustainable, partial (non-sustainable) mining and total (non-sustainable) mining yields that can be readily determined using numerical modelling methods and selected on the basis of applied constraints. For some cases there has to be recognition that the groundwater resource is not renewable and its use cannot therefore be sustainable. In these cases, its destiny should be the best equitable use.

Kalf, Frans R. P.; Woolley, Donald R.

2005-03-01

344

Energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions and assessment of sustainability index in corn agroecosystems of Iran.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to assess the energy flow, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, global warming potential (GWP) and sustainability of corn production systems in Kermanshah province, western Iran. The data were collected from 70 corn agroecosystems which were selected based on randomly sampled method in the summer of 2011. The results indicated that total input and output energy were 50,485 and 134,946 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest share of total input energy in corn production systems was recorded for N fertilizer, electricity power and diesel fuel with 35, 25 and 20%, respectively. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were 2.67 and 0.18 kg MJ(-1), respectively. Also agrochemical energy ratio was estimated as 40%. Applying chemical inputs produced the following emissions of greenhouse gases: 2994.66 kg CO2, 31.58 kg N2O and 3.82 kg CH4 per hectare. Hence, total GWP was 12,864.84 kg Co2eq ha(-1) in corn production systems. In terms of CO2 equivalents 23% of the GWPs came from CO2, 76% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this study input and output C equivalents per total GHG and Biomass production were 3508.59 and 10,696.34 kg Cha(-1). Net carbon and sustainability indexes in corn production systems were 7187.75 kg Cha(-1) and 2.05. Accordingly, efficient use of energy is essential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact in corn agroecosystems. PMID:24951890

Yousefi, Mohammad; Damghani, Abdolmajid Mahdavi; Khoramivafa, Mahmud

2014-09-15

345

Evaluating the Sustained Performance of COTS-based Messaging Systems  

SciTech Connect

Messaging systems, which include message brokers built on top of message-oriented middleware, have been used as middleware components in many enterprise application integration projects. There are many COTS-based messaging systems on the market, but there is little concrete understanding in the software industry on the performance of these different technologies. The authors have carried out a scenario-based evaluation of three leading messaging systems to provide insight into performance issues. The evaluation process includes a study of the sustained performance of the system under load. The result of this study is used to derive a generic metric for quantifying a messaging systems performance. The paper describes a synthetic transactional scenario, which is used for load tests and performance measurement. The results from executing this test scenario with three messaging systems are then presented and explained.

Tran, Phong; Gosper, Jeff; Gorton, Ian

2003-12-01

346

Indicators for assessing socioeconomic sustainability of bioenergy systems: A short list of practical measures.  

SciTech Connect

Indicators are needed to assess both socioeconomic and environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Effective indicators can help to identify and quantify the sustainability attributes of bioenergy options. We identify 16 socioeconomic indicators that fall into the categories of social well-being, energy security, trade, profitability, resource conservation, and social acceptability. The suite of indicators is predicated on the existence of basic institutional frameworks to provide governance, legal, regulatory and enforcement services. Indicators were selected to be practical, sensitive to stresses, unambiguous, anticipatory, predictive, calibrated with known variability, and sufficient when considered collectively. The utility of each indicator, methods for its measurement, and applications appropriate for the context of particular bioenergy systems are described along with future research needs. Together, this suite of indicators is hypothesized to reflect major socioeconomic effects of the full supply chain for bioenergy, including feedstock production and logistics, conversion to biofuels, biofuel logistics and biofuel end uses. Ten of those 16 indicators are proposed to be the minimum list of practical measures of socioeconomic aspects of bioenergy sustainability. Coupled with locally-prioritized environmental indicators, we propose that these socioeconomic indicators can provide a basis to quantify and evaluate sustainability of bioenergy systems across many regions in which they will be deployed.

Davis, Maggie R [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Hilliard, Michael R [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Langholtz, Matthew H [ORNL; Leiby, Paul Newsome [ORNL; Oladosu, Gbadebo A [ORNL

2013-01-01

347

A renewable perspective for sustainable energy development in Turkey: The case of small hydropower plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renewable energy resources provide a large share of the total energy consumption of many developing countries. Turkey's renewable sources are the second largest source for energy production after coal. About two-thirds of the renewable energy produced is obtained from biomass, while the rest is mainly from hydroelectric energy. Hydropower is today the most important kind of renewable and sustainable energy.

Havva Balat

2007-01-01

348

RACE ROCKS SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Race Rocks is a small archipelago located just Southwest of Victoria, British Columbia in the Juan de Fuca Strait. An important Beacon for Coastal Navigation in this busy area is located on Race Rocks, which is also home to a stunning variety of marine mammals and birds. The Race Rocks site has become Canada's first Marine Protected environment and is

T. Niet; G. McLean

2001-01-01

349

Energy Systems Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PRESTO, a COSMIC program, handles energy system specifications and predicts design efficiency of cogeneration systems. These systems allow a company to use excess energy produced to generate electricity. PRESTO is utilized by the Energy Systems Division of Thermo Electron Corporation in the custom design of cogeneration systems.

1986-01-01

350

Indicators to support environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems1 Authors: Allen C. McBridea  

E-print Network

1 Indicators to support environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems1 2 Authors: Allen C. Mc: 1-865-576-3989, dalevh@ornl.gov7 8 a Center for Bioenergy Sustainability, Environmental Sciences to assess environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems.11 Effective indicators will help

Jager, Henriette I.

351

Connecting Local to Global: Geographic Information Systems and Ecological Footprints as Tools for Sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tools that support public engagement with sustainability are essential for local sustainability planning. This research investigates the ability of two geographic information system (GIS)-based tools to promote discussion of sustainability in a suburban context. A local ecological footprint tool and a community environmental atlas (an environmentally themed online mapping system) were created for seven suburban boroughs of Montreal. Variations of

Sonja Klinsky; Renée Sieber; Thom Meredith

2010-01-01

352

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE UBC FOOD SYSTEM  

E-print Network

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report THE SUSTAINABILITY towards a more sustainable, interconnected system. Through the Stages of Change Model this transition of a project/report". #12;2 THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE UBC FOOD SYSTEM GROUP 16 Mariette Macrander Catherine

353

Hydrogen and the materials of a sustainable energy future  

SciTech Connect

The National Educator`s Workshop (NEW): Update 96 was held October 27--30, 1996, and was hosted by Los Alamos National Laboratory. This was the 11th annual conference aimed at improving the teaching of material science, engineering and technology by updating educators and providing laboratory experiments on emerging technology for teaching fundamental and newly evolving materials concepts. The Hydrogen Education Outreach Activity at Los Alamos National Laboratory organized a special conference theme: Hydrogen and the Materials of a Sustainable Energy Future. The hydrogen component of the NEW:Update 96 offered the opportunity for educators to have direct communication with scientists in laboratory settings, develop mentor relationship with laboratory staff, and bring leading edge materials/technologies into the classroom to upgrade educational curricula. Lack of public education and understanding about hydrogen is a major barrier for initial implementation of hydrogen energy technologies and is an important prerequisite for acceptance of hydrogen outside the scientific/technical research communities. The following materials contain the papers and view graphs from the conference presentations. In addition, supplemental reference articles are also included: a general overview of hydrogen and an article on handling hydrogen safely. A resource list containing a curriculum outline, bibliography, Internet resources, and a list of periodicals often publishing relevant research articles can be found in the last section.

Zalbowitz, M. [ed.

1997-02-01

354

10.391J / 1.818J / 2.65J / 3.564J / 11.371J / 22.811J / ESD.166J Sustainable Energy, Spring 2003  

E-print Network

Assessment of current and potential energy systems, covering extraction, conversion and end-use, with emphasis on meeting regional and global energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner. Examination of energy ...

Tester, Jefferson W.

355

Whole systems thinking for sustainable water treatment design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology could provide a low cost alternative to conventional aerated wastewater treatment, however there has been little comparison between MFC and aeration treatment using real wastewater substrate. This study attempts to directly compare the wastewater treatment efficiency and energy consumption and generation among three reactor systems, a traditional aeration process, a simple submerged MFC configuration, and a control reactor acting similar as natural lagoons. Results showed that all three systems were able to remove >90% of COD, but the aeration used shorter time (8 days) then the MFC (10 days) and control reactor (25 days). Compared to aeration, the MFC showed lower removal efficiency in high COD concentration but much higher efficiency when the COD is low. Only the aeration system showed complete nitrification during the operation, reflected by completed ammonia removal and nitrate accumulation. Suspended solid measurements showed that MFC reduced sludge production by 52-82% as compared to aeration, and it also saved 100% of aeration energy. Furthermore, though not designed for high power generation, the MFC reactor showed a 0.3 Wh/g COD/L or 24 Wh/m3 (wastewater treated) net energy gain in electricity generation. These results demonstrate that MFC technology could be integrated into wastewater infrastructure to meet effluent quality and save operational cost. The high cost and life-cycle impact of electrode materials is one major barrier to the large scale application of microbial fuel cells (MFC). We also demonstrate that biomass-derived black carbon (biochar), could be a more cost effective and sustainable alternative to granular activated carbon (GAC) and graphite granule (GG) electrodes. In a comparison study, two biochar materials made from lodgepole pine sawdust pellets (BCp) and lodgepole pine woodchips (BCc), gassified at a highest heat temperature (HHT) of 1000°C under a heating rate of 16°C/min, showed a satisfactory power density of 532 +/- 18 mW/m-2 and 457 +/- 20 mW/m-2 respectively, compared to GAC with 674 +/- 10 mW/m-2 and GG with 566 +/- 5 mW/m-2 (normalized to cathode projected surface area), as an anode material in a two-chamber MFC. BCc and BCp had BET-N2 surface area measurements of 429 cm2 g -1 and 470 cm2 g-1 respectively, lower than industrial GAC with 1248 cm2 g-1 but several orders of magnitude higher that GG with 0.44 cm2 g-1 . BCc and BCp had a lower surface resistance of 3+/-1? mm -1 and 6+/-1 ? mm-1 than 8+/-2? mm -1 for GAC, but higher that GG with 0.4+/-0.5 ? mm -1. We also investigated the life-cycle impact and estimated cost of biochar as an electrode material. Although there is no well-established market price for biochar, conservative estimates place the costs around 51-356 US/tonne, up to ten times cheaper that GAC (500-2500 US/tonne) and GGs (500-800 US$/tonne) with significantly greater life-cycle advantages.

Huggins, Mitchell Tyler

356

2009 AFHVS presidential address: the steering question: challenges to achieving food system sustainability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this address I examine the challenges of achieving food system sustainability. Starting from the position that most people\\u000a want a food system that is “sustainable” and that we have a great reservoir of unapplied technical knowledge applicable to\\u000a increasing sustainability, I argue that the big issue is collective decision-making to accomplish the goal of sustainability.\\u000a Using the metaphor of

Gilbert W. Gillespie Jr

2010-01-01

357

Sustainable Uses of FGD Gypsum in Agricultural Systems: Introduction.  

PubMed

Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil and water quality has recently increased. Abundant supply and availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of scrubbing sulfur from combustion gases at coal-fired power plants, in major agricultural producing regions within the last two decades has attributed to this interest. Currently, published data on the long-term sustainability of FGD gypsum use in agricultural systems is limited. This has led to organization of the American Society of Agronomy's Community "By-product Gypsum Uses in Agriculture" and a special collection of nine technical research articles on various issues related to FGD gypsum uses in agricultural systems. A brief review of FGD gypsum, rationale for the special collection, overviews of articles, knowledge gaps, and future research directions are presented in this introductory paper. The nine articles are focused in three general areas: (i) mercury and other trace element impacts, (ii) water quality impacts, and (iii) agronomic responses and soil physical changes. While this is not an exhaustive review of the topic, results indicate that FGD gypsum use in sustainable agricultural production systems is promising. The environmental impacts of FGD gypsum are mostly positive, with only a few negative results observed, even when applied at rates representing cumulative 80-year applications. Thus, FGD gypsum, if properly managed, seems to represent an important potential input into agricultural systems. PMID:25602557

Watts, Dexter B; Dick, Warren A

2014-01-01

358

Towards a sustainable modular robot system for planetary exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates multiple perspectives of developing an unmanned robotic system suited for planetary terrains. In this case, the unmanned system consists of unit-modular robots. This type of robot has potential to be developed and maintained as a sustainable multi-robot system while located far from direct human intervention. Some characteristics that make this possible are: the cooperation, communication and connectivity among the robot modules, flexibility of individual robot modules, capability of self-healing in the case of a failed module and the ability to generate multiple gaits by means of reconfiguration. To demonstrate the effects of high flexibility of an individual robot module, multiple modules of a four-degree-of-freedom unit-modular robot were developed. The robot was equipped with a novel connector mechanism that made self-healing possible. Also, design strategies included the use of series elastic actuators for better robot-terrain interaction. In addition, various locomotion gaits were generated and explored using the robot modules, which is essential for a modular robot system to achieve robustness and thus successfully navigate and function in a planetary environment. To investigate multi-robot task completion, a biomimetic cooperative load transportation algorithm was developed and simulated. Also, a liquid motion-inspired theory was developed consisting of a large number of robot modules. This can be used to traverse obstacles that inevitably occur in maneuvering over rough terrains such as in a planetary exploration. Keywords: Modular robot, cooperative robots, biomimetics, planetary exploration, sustainability.

Hossain, S. G. M.

359

Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction  

SciTech Connect

The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

2012-06-30

360

Optimal energy options under Clean Development Mechanism: Renewable energy projects for sustainable development and carbon emission reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses two distinct objectives; designing cost-effective renewable energy powered projects including seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), aquaculture, and ice-making plant, and analyzing the cost-effectiveness of these projects in achieving low abatement costs and promoting sustainable developments under the Clean Development Mechanism. The results of SWRO analysis show that a wind powered system is the least expensive and a PV powered system the most expensive, with finished water costs of about 0.50 /m3 and 1.00 /m3, respectively. By international standards, these costs are competitive. The results of renewable energy powered commercial tilapia production indicate that a wind-diesel system has high potential for intensive tilapia production as well as carbon dioxide emission reductions. The study also investigates aeration failures in renewable energy powered tilapia production systems. With respect to the ice-making plant, unlike previous studies which consider nighttime operation only, we have found that a nighttime PV powered ice-making system is more expensive (1/kWh) than daytime ice-making system (0.70/kWh). Our optimal energy options analysis at project scale which includes SWRO, ice-making plant and household energy consumption for about 100 households shows that compared to diesel only energy option, PV-D, W-D, and PV-W-D hybrids are very cost-effective energy options. Moreover, energy options with high levels of renewable energy including 100% renewables have the lowest net present cost and they are already cost-effective without CDM. On the other hand, while the removal of about 87% carbon dioxide emissions could be achieved at negative cost, initial investment could increase by a factor of 40, which is one of the primary barriers hindering wider renewable energy applications in developing countries. Thus in order to increase developing countries' participation in the carbon market, CDM policy should shift from a purely market oriented approach to investigating how to facilitate renewable energy projects through barrier removal. Thus, we recommend that further research should focus on how to efficiently remove renewable energy implementation barriers as a means to improve developing countries participation in meaningful emission reduction while at the same time meeting the needs of sustainable economic development.

Gilau, Asmerom M.

361

Using models to manage systems subject to sustainability indicators  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mathematical and numerical models can provide insight into sustainability indicators using relevant simulated quantities, which are referred to here as predictions. To be useful, many concerns need to be considered. Four are discussed here: (a) mathematical and numerical accuracy of the model; (b) the accuracy of the data used in model development, (c) the information observations provide to aspects of the model important to predictions of interest as measured using sensitivity analysis; and (d) the existence of plausible alternative models for a given system. The four issues are illustrated using examples from conservative and transport modelling, and using conceptual arguments. Results suggest that ignoring these issues can produce misleading conclusions.

Hill, M.C.

2006-01-01

362

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Energy & Buildings: Sustainable Strategies for Ponderosa Hub  

E-print Network

ENERGY & BUILDINGS: SUSTAINABLE STRATEGIES FOR PONDEROSA HUB #12;1 TABLE OF CONTENTS I.0 Background 1.1 Current dominant sources of Energy at UBC 1.2 Current infrastructure for energy at UBC 1.0 BACKGROUND BRIEF 1.1 CURRENT DOMINANT SOURCES OF ENERGY AT UBC The current dominant sources of energy

363

Research in Energy Systems Integration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory  

E-print Network

and are changing the energy landscape towards a sustainable future. As the penetration of these technologies, flexible, and efficient systems that enable utilization of diverse energy sources while maintainingResearch in Energy Systems Integration at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory Speaker: Dr

364

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable's (DOE's) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The authors thank the technology

365

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

and Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Energy Analysis Introduction renewable energy credits [SRECs] and clean energy credits [CECs]). 1 The contact information for the federal.gov/femp/financing/espcs_financingspecial- ists.html. Series on Financing Renewable Energy Projects Funding Solar Projects at Federal Agencies

366

Energy Control Systems: Energy Savings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The installation of proper control systems is estimated as saving up to 25 percent of the energy used in schools. Other potential energy-saving areas are transmission (heat loss or gain through walls, especially ceilings); internal load (heat from students, lights, and machinery); ventilation; and equipment maintenance. (Author/MLF)

School Business Affairs, 1980

1980-01-01

367

Protective sustainability of ecosystems using Department of Energy buffer lands as a case study.  

PubMed

State and federal agencies are faced with protecting human health and the environment for a range of hazardous sites, including nuclear waste storage facilities. At some sites, nuclear materials must be stored for the foreseeable future because no technology currently exists for safe treatment and disposal. Using Department of Energy (DOE) lands as a case study, this article examines the meaning of protective sustainability for ecosystems and proposes a tiered approach to such protection with stakeholder participation during all phases. The approach includes: (1) governmental, institutional and public support to maintain the system, (2) agreement on the ecosystem to sustain, (3) agreement on the goods and services that the ecosystem should provide, (4) methods of monitoring the status of the ecosystem (usually involving bioindicators), (5) methods of evaluating the trends and changes within that system, and (6) methods of managing or restoring components of the ecosystem (response and corrective actions). The latter three steps are those normally considered for management and maintenance of healthy ecosystems, and figure prominently in natural resource damage assessment (NRDA). However, the former three are necessary components for sustainability. Regardless of technologies or technical expertise, the ecosystem will not be protected sustainably unless there is governmental, institutional, and public support for its protection, as well as consensus about the features of the ecosystem to be protected. While the selection of a preferred ecosystem at DOE sites will likely occur as part of remediation/restoration/NRDA, decisions about ecosystem services and human use on buffer lands can be revisited periodically. Monitoring is an integral part of evaluating continued health and safety of the ecosystem and its component parts, and such data should then be used to evaluate status and trends. These evaluations, however, will be most useful when they include hypothesis testing, tribal involvement stakeholder involvement, and comanagement among all the interested and affected parties. The tiered approach for ecosystem protection described here can be used for any ecosystems. PMID:17934954

Burger, Joanna

2007-11-01

368

Communication : S4FE2009 (International Conference on Sustainable Fossil Fuels for Future Energy), Rome, 6 au 10 juillet 2009  

E-print Network

Communication : S4FE2009 (International Conference on Sustainable Fossil Fuels for Future Energy on Sustainable Fossil Fuels for Future Energy), Rome : Italy (2009)" #12;Communication : S4FE2009 (International Conference on Sustainable Fossil Fuels for Future Energy), Rome, 6 au 10 juillet 2009 2 FFiigguurree 11

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

369

Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in evolving sustainable Himalayan livelihoods.

Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.

2014-11-01

370

A decision-support system for sustainable urban metabolism in Europe  

SciTech Connect

Urban metabolism components define the energy and material exchanges within a city and, therefore, can provide valuable information on the environmental quality of urban areas. Assessing the potential impact of urban planning alternatives on urban metabolism components (such as energy, water, carbon and pollutants fluxes) can provide a quantitative estimation of their sustainability performance. Urban metabolism impact assessment can, therefore, contribute to the identification of sustainable urban structures with regards, for example, to building types, materials and layout, as well as to location and capacity of transportation and infrastructural developments. In this way, it enables the formulation of planning and policy recommendations to promote efficient use of resources and enhance environmental quality in urban areas. The European FP7 project BRIDGE (sustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism) has developed a decision-support system (DSS) that systematically integrates urban metabolism components into impact assessment processes with the aim of accurately quantifying the potential effects of proposed planning interventions. The DSS enables integration of multiple spatial and non-spatial datasets (e.g. physical flows of energy and material with variables of social and economic change) in a systematic manner to obtain spatially defined assessment results and to thus inform planners and decision-makers. This multi-criteria approach also enables incorporation of stakeholders' perceptions in order to prioritise decisive assessment criteria. This paper describes the methodological framework used to develop the DSS and critically examines the results of its practical application in five European cities. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Urban metabolism in sustainability assessment of planning alternatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer European FP7 project applied to 5 real life case studies across Europe. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decision support system enables incorporating scientific knowledge into planning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scale, data availability and stakeholder representativeness limit its application.

Gonzalez, Ainhoa, E-mail: ainhoag@yahoo.com [Trinity Centre for Biodiversity Research, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Donnelly, Alison, E-mail: donnelac@tcd.ie [Centre for the Environment, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Jones, Mike, E-mail: mike.jones@tcd.ie [Discipline of Botany, School of Natural Sciences, Trinity College Dublin (Ireland); Chrysoulakis, Nektarios, E-mail: zedd2@iacm.forth.gr [Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics (Greece); Lopes, Myriam, E-mail: myr@ua.pt [Departamento de Ambiente e Ordenamento and CESAM, University of Aveiro (Portugal)

2013-01-15

371

Applying a prism: the spectrum of a sustainable healthcare system.  

PubMed

Initiatives aimed at reducing wait times for surgical and diagnostic procedures and comprehensive chronic disease management programs focus, respectively, on the supply and demand aspects of access to healthcare. Addressing either in isolation can have a salutary health effect for segments of the population and produce system improvement. Approaching healthcare access issues even more broadly, in the context of population health and with a patient-centred perspective, carries the promise of sustainability, the potential for superior health outcomes across a continuum of patient care and the possibility of enhanced system competency through true integration of multiple sectors. A model for comprehensive access to health services includes a plan for a network of primary care providers, appropriate capacity and flow efficiency for the provision of unplanned (emergency) services, operationalization of wait times initiatives to sustain planned services (most surgeries and diagnostic procedures) and a strategy for decreasing demand for care by engaging primary and community care capabilities and a robust chronic disease management strategy. PMID:17595549

Zahn, Catherine

2007-01-01

372

Energetic composite and system with enhanced mechanical sensitivity to initiation of self-sustained reaction  

DOEpatents

An energetic composition and system using amassed energetic multilayer pieces which are formed from the division, such as for example by cutting, scoring, breaking, crushing, shearing, etc., of a mechanically activatable monolithic energetic multilayer(s) (e.g. macro-scale sheets of multilayer films), for enhancing the sensitivity of the energetic composite and system to mechanical initiation of self-sustained reaction. In particular, mechanical initiation of the energetic composition may be achieved with significantly lower mechanical energy inputs than that typically required for initiating the monolithic energetic multilayers from which it is derived.

Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2012-05-29

373

Sustained load performance of adhesive anchor systems in concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stemming from a tragic failure of an adhesive anchor system, this research project investigated the sustained load performance of adhesive anchors in concrete under different installation and in-service conditions. The literature review investigated the current state of art of adhesive anchors. Extensive discussion was devoted to the behavior of adhesive anchors in concrete as well as the many factors that can affect their short-term and sustained load strength. Existing standards and specifications for the testing, design, construction, and inspection of adhesive anchors were covered. Based on the results of the literature review and the experience of the research group, a triage was conducted on many parameters identified as possibly affecting the sustained load performance of adhesive anchors and the highest priority parameters were investigated in this project. A stress versus time-to-failure approach was used to evaluate sensitivity of three ICC-ES AC 308 approved adhesive anchor systems. Of the various parameters investigated, only elevated in-service temperature and manufacturer's cure time was shown to exhibit adverse effects on sustained loads more than that predicted by short-term tests of fully cured adhesive over a reasonable structure lifetime of 75 years. In a related study, various tests were conducted on the adhesive alone (time-temperature superposition, time-stress superposition, and dogbone tensile tests). The results of that study were used to investigate the existence of a correlation with long-term anchor pullout testing in concrete. No consistent correlations were detected for the adhesives in the study. Tests were also conducted on the effect of early-age concrete on adhesive anchor bond strength. On the basis of confined test bond-strength alone, adhesive A (vinyl ester) did not show any significant increase after 14 days (102% of 28 day strength at 14 days), and adhesive B and C (epoxies) did not show any significant increase after 7 days (104% and 93% of 28 days strength at 7 days respectively). The results of this research were used to draft recommended standards and specifications for AASHTO pertaining to testing, design, construction, and inspection of adhesive anchors in concrete for transportation structures. These draft standards were not included in this dissertation.

Davis, Todd Marshall

374

The Center for BioEnergy Sustainability (CBES) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)  

E-print Network

The Center for BioEnergy Sustainability (CBES) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pleased Studies Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center University of Wisconsin-Madison. Co-Leader in Creating Sustainable Bioenergy Practices Jackson's program focuses on structure and function of managed, semi

375

Evaluating Wetlands Sustainability Using a Hierarchical Systems Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hierarchical systems analysis approach, using Geographical Information Systems (GIS)software, is used to integrate and assess the different types of data necessary to characterize the surface and ground-water system as it pertains to the wetlands environment within the landscape context. This hierarchical approach was applied to the Cucumber Gulch wetlands complex, located near Breckenridge, Colorado. The Cucumber Gulch watershed is currently being studied for proposed expansion and development of the existing Breckenridge ski area. The delineated wetland complex is a jurisdictional wetland and is protected under section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The proposed development has the potential to impact the wetlands complex. The various data integrated through the hierarchical systems analysis include climate, topography, geomorphology, geology, vegetation, hydrology, and anthropogenic influences to the natural system. A three-dimensional solid computer model of the surface and sub-surface geology was constructed. Through analysis and integration of these various layers, the surface and ground-water hydrological framework and flow models were developed and calibrated. Throughout the process the ground-water modeling performed to assess the sustainability of the wetland was reconciled with the hydrological framework developed from the "soft" data layers, and with the hydrologic system conceptual model developed from the hierarchical systems analysis. This hierarchical systems approach to modeling provided the Town of Breckenridge with means of assessing the validity of the computer models and potential impact to the wetland complex. Computer modeling was continually refined in response to this process.

Allen, L. E.; Kolm, K. E.

2002-12-01

376

Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking  

SciTech Connect

INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.

2011-01-01

377

Energy Systems Laboratory Groundbreaking  

ScienceCinema

INL recently broke ground for a research facility that will house research programs for bioenergy, advanced battery systems, and new hybrid energy systems that integrate renewable, fossil and nuclear energy sources. Here's video from the groundbreaking ceremony for INL's new Energy Systems Laboratory. You can learn more about CAES research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

Hill, David; Otter, C.L.; Simpson, Mike; Rogers, J.W.;

2013-05-28

378

A Three Dimensional System Approach for Environmentally Sustainable Manufacturing  

E-print Network

on an emerging nano-manufacturing technology, atomic layerbottom-up nano-scale manufacturing technology, derived fromTechnology improvement for ALD sustainable manufacturing The sustainability performance of ALD nano-

Yuan, Chris; Zhai, Qiang; Dornfield, David

2012-01-01

379

Development of a rating system for sustainable bridges  

E-print Network

One of the latest trends in engineering is sustainable design, which is designing so that resources are available for many generations to come. Sustainable design considers the ecological, economic, and socio-cultural ...

Hunt, Lauren R., 1982-

2005-01-01

380

Smart energy management system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on

Aniruddha Desai; Jugdutt Singh

2010-01-01

381

Carbon Footprint and Sustainability of Agricultural Production Systems in Punjab, India, and Ohio, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability of agricultural systems depends on their carbon (C) footprint, and the Coutput:Cinput ratio. Thus, this study was conducted with the objectives to: (i) assess the agricultural C emissions in relation to predominant farming systems in Punjab, India, and Ohio, USA; (ii) evaluate C-use efficiency of production systems; and (iii) determine the relative sustainability of agronomic production systems as determined

Anjali Dubey; Rattan Lal

2009-01-01

382

Sustainable PV-powered FPGA-controlled high brightness LED illumination systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a road map for the design and development of sustainable hybrid Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) controlled High Brightness Light Emitting Diode (HB LED) illumination systems. The proposed hybrid system design presents the foundation for future sustainable high efficiency illumination systems. In this system design, an FPGA is used to individually control an array of HB LEDs.

Akram Abu-aisheh; Sameer Khader; Omar Hasan

2012-01-01

383

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Sustained Conditioned Responses in Prelimbic Prefrontal  

E-print Network

measure of conditioned fear in rodents is freezing, which is a sustained response that can outlast the CS be responsible for maintaining freezing responses. This suggests that there are additional structures downstream from LA that show sustained conditioned responses and are responsible for sustaining freezing. To date

Quirk, Gregory J.

384

Sustainable Food Systems in Europe: Policies, Realities and Futures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the food sustainability challenges facing the 27-nation member European Union (EU). It describes the evolution of sustainable development policy in Europe against the background of the EU's evolution and diverse membership, with particular reference to agriculture and food. It argues that while sustainability challenges in agriculture have received considerable policy attention, those facing the powerful manufacturing and

Geof Rayner; David Barling; Tim Lang

2008-01-01

385

R E S U M E Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development of Indonesia and Germany  

E-print Network

R E S U M E Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development of Indonesia and Germany (RESDIG is organizing a two-day seminar on renewable energies and a two-day field-trip to some renewable energy projects of Oldenburg ­ UO and Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember ­ ITS on Post Graduate Program in Renewable Energy

Peinke, Joachim

386

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

of Energy's Geothermal Technology Program, including Jay Nathwani and Angela Crooks, for supportingNREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

387

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

to achieve broad adoption and cost competitiveness with traditional forms of energy generation in the UnitedNREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

388

Pathway to Support the Sustainable National Health Information System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heath information across geographically distributed healthcare centers has been recognized as an essential resource that drives an efficient national health-care plan. There is thus a need for the National Health Information System (NHIS) that provides the transparent and secure access to health information from different healthcare centers both on demand and in a time efficient manner. As healthiness is the ultimate goal of people and nation, we believe that the NHIS should be sustainable by taking the healthcare center and information consumer perspectives into account. Several issues in particular must be resolved altogether: (i) the diversity of health information structures among healthcare centers; (ii) the availability of health information sharing from healthcare centers; (iii) the efficient information access to various healthcare centers; and (iv) the privacy and privilege of heath information. To achieve the sustainable NHIS, this paper details our work which is divided into 3 main phases. Essentially, the first phase focuses on the application of metadata standard to enable the interoperability and usability of health information across healthcare centers. The second phase moves forward to make information sharing possible and to provide an efficient information access to a large number of healthcare centers. Finally, in the third phase, the privacy and privilege of health information is promoted with respect to access rights of information consumers.

Sahavechaphan, Naiyana; Phengsuwan, Jedsada; U-Ruekolan, Suriya; Aroonrua, Kamron; Ponhan, Jukrapong; Harnsamut, Nattapon; Vannarat, Sornthep

389

Evaluating the sustainability of space life support systems: case study on air revitalisation systems ARES and BIORAT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space life support systems can be taken as kinds of miniature models of industrial systems found on Earth. The term "industrial" is employed here in a generic sense, referring to all human technological activities. The time scale as well as the physical scope of space life support systems is reduced compared to most terrestrial systems and so is consequently their complexity. These systems can thus be used as a kind of a "laboratory of sustainability" to examine concerns related to the environmental sustainability of industrial systems and in particular to their resource use. Two air revitalisation systems, ARES and BIORAT, were chosen as the test cases of our study. They represent respectively a physico-chemical and a biological life support system. In order to analyse the sustainability of these systems, we began by constructing a generic system representation applicable to both these systems (and to others). The metabolism of the systems was analysed by performing Material Flow Analyses—MFA is a tool frequently employed on terrestrial systems in the field of industrial ecology. Afterwards, static simulation models were developed for both ARES and BIORAT, focusing, firstly, on the oxygen balances of the systems and, secondly, on the total mass balances. It was also necessary to define sustainability indicators adapted to space life support systems in order to evaluate and to compare the performances of ARES and BIORAT. The defined indicators were partly inspired from concepts used in Material Flow Accounting and they were divided into four broad categories: 1. recycling and material use efficiency, 2. autarky and coverage time, 3. resource use and waste creation, and 4. system mass and energy consumption. The preliminary results of our analyses show that the performance of BIORAT is superior compared to ARES in terms of the defined resource use indicators. BIORAT seems especially effective in reprocessing carbon dioxide created by human metabolism. The performances of ARES and BIORAT are somewhat closer in terms of material use efficiency and resource intensity. However, the excellence of BIORAT in terms of resource use is countered by the fact that its energy consumption is greater than that of ARES by a factor of ten.

Suomalainen, Emilia; Erkman, Suren

390

Naltrexone: a review of existing sustained drug delivery systems and emerging nano-based systems.  

PubMed

Narcotic antagonists such as naltrexone (NTX) have shown some efficiency in the treatment of both opiate addiction and alcohol dependence. A few review articles have focused on clinical findings and pharmacogenetics of NTX, advantages and limitations of sustained release systems as well as pharmacological studies of NTX depot formulations for the treatment of alcohol and opioid dependency. To date, three NTX implant systems have been developed and tested in humans. In this review, we summarize the latest clinical data on commercially available injectable and implantable NTX-sustained release systems and discuss their safety and tolerability aspects. Emphasis is also laid on recent developments in the area of nanodrug delivery such as NTX-loaded micelles and nanogels as well as related research avenues. Due to their ability to increase the therapeutic index and to improve the selectivity of drugs (targeted delivery), nanodrug delivery systems are considered as promising sustainable drug carriers for NTX in addressing opiate and alcohol dependence. PMID:24704710

Goonoo, Nowsheen; Bhaw-Luximon, Archana; Ujoodha, Reetesh; Jhugroo, Anil; Hulse, Gary K; Jhurry, Dhanjay

2014-06-10

391

The Center for BioEnergy Sustainability (CBES) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)  

E-print Network

The Center for BioEnergy Sustainability (CBES) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is pleased Regional Sun Grant Center that advances biomass and bioenergy throughout the region. Dr. Rials was recently

392

Sustainable Energy --without the hot air Version 3.5.2. November 3, 2008.  

E-print Network

not appear in the printed book. low-resolution edition. #12;The quest for safe, secure and sustainable energy and common sense to dispel some myths and slay some sacred cows. The book is an essential reference work

Glashausser, Charles

393

Fuel Cells: Thermodynamic Engine to a Sustainable Energy Future Richard T. Carlin  

E-print Network

9.00am Fuel Cells: Thermodynamic Engine to a Sustainable Energy Future Richard T. Carlin Office. Biography Dr. Richard T. Carlin is Department Head for the Sea Warfare and Weapons Department at the Office

Levi, Anthony F. J.

394

Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship for Los Angeles Unified School District  

SciTech Connect

This Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship states goals, measures progress toward goals and how actions are monitored to achieve continuous improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District.

Walker, A.; Beattie, D.; Thomas, K.; Davis, K.; Sim, M.; Jhaveri, A.

2007-11-01

395

Exergy sustainability.  

SciTech Connect

Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

Robinett, Rush D. III (.; ); Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

2006-05-01

396

Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embed- ded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based, has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of

Vijay Raghunathan; Aman Kansal; Jason Hsu; Jonathan Friedman; Mani B. Srivastava

2005-01-01

397

Approaches for Planning and Implementing Sustainable Energy Growth in a Complex World: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The subject of sustainable energy development has been widely discussed and debated in recent years. However, despite widespread interest, progress toward this goal has been limited. This paper will build on current thinking related to sustainable development, energy forecasting, and complexity theory and show how past roadmapping methodologies fall short. While proposing ways of thinking about our responses to global changes, we consider how we can create and discover the pathways through those unpredictable changes toward high global renewables penetration.

Snyder, N.; Schwab, A.

2012-06-01

398

State Energy Data System  

EIA Publications

The State Energy Data System (SEDS) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) source for comprehensive state energy statistics. Included are estimates of energy production, consumption, prices, and expenditures broken down by energy source and sector. Production and consumption estimates begin with the year 1960 while price and expenditure estimates begin with 1970. The multidimensional completeness of SEDS allows users to make comparisons across states, energy sources, sectors, and over time.

2013-01-01

399

Sustainability of energy sources in nordic countries-case study based on comprehensive analysis of different renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bringing sustainability in overall energy sphere can ensure a strong pathway for the existing economic growth of Nordic countries. Globally, Renewable Energy sources are taken into consideration to formulate a solid energy framework for envisioned carbon emission free world. This paper will convey some ideas on the technical and environomical viabilities of available renewable energy sources in Nordic countries. It

Raza Ali Zaidi

2011-01-01

400

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Food System: Framework for Assessing Sustainability  

E-print Network

. Food system map pg. 6 4. Assumptions pg. 7 5. Indicators of Sustainability pg. 8 6. Model pg. 12 7 Sustainable Resource Strategy Framework Appendix B ­ UBC Food System Map Appendix C ­ Model to assess stateUBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report UBC Food System

401

A real-time service-oriented framework to support sustainable cyber-physical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability is an important issue with a growing interest. Two ICT technologies provide useful support for the sustainability of industrial systems: service-oriented architecture (SOA) and cyber-physical systems (CPS). SOA has been adopted in a variety of industrial systems due to its integration flexibility and process composability. CPS is a new technology to bring computational intelligence to physical devices and to

Kwei-Jay Lin; Mark Panahi

2010-01-01

402

10.391J / 1.818J / 2.65J / 11.371J / 22.811J / ESD.166J Sustainable Energy, January IAP 2007 - Spring 2007  

E-print Network

This course assesses current and potential future energy systems, covers resources, extraction, conversion, and end-use, and emphasizes meeting regional and global energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner. ...

Drake, Elisabeth

2007-01-01

403

Controlled Release System for Localized and Sustained Drug Delivery Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current controlled release formulations has many drawbacks such as excess of initial burst release, low drug efficiency, non-degradability of the system and low reproducibility. The present project aims to offer an alternative by developing a technique to prepare uniform, biodegradable particles ( ˜19 mum ) that can sustainably release a drug for a specific period of time. Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide that has many characteristics to be used for biomedical applications. In the last two decades, there have been a considerable number of studies affirming that chitosan could be used for pharmaceutical applications. However, chitosan suffers from inherent weaknesses such as low mechanical stability and dissolution of the system in acidic media. In the present study, chitosan microparticles were prepared by emulsification process. The model drug chosen was acetylsalicylic acid as it is a small and challenging molecule. The maximum loading capacity obtained for the microparticles was approximately 96%. The parameters for the preparation of uniform particles with a narrow size distribution were identified in a triangular phase diagram. Moreover, chitosan particles were successfully coated with thin layers of poly lactic-coglycolic acid (PLGA) and poly lactic acid (PLA). The performance of different layerswas tested for in vitro drug release and degradation studies. Additionally, the degradability of the system was evaluated by measuring the weight loss of the system when exposed to enzyme and without enzyme. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used to characterize the controlled release system. Additionally, the in vitro drug release was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The results obtained from this project showed that it is possible to prepare biodegradable microparticles with a uniform size distribution and high drug loading efficiency. However, this could only be achieved with a hybrid system consisting of chitosan matrix interior and then exterior coating of PLGA or PLA. A two layer coating of PLGA 50:50 was shown to be optimal with sustainable controlled drug release for almost 5 days and with 91% of degradation (weight loss) in 8 weeks.

Rodriguez, Lidia Betsabe

404

APBI265 Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems Principles and practices necessary to understand practical concerns of sustainable food  

E-print Network

APBI265 Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems Principles and practices necessary to understand in further studies, or with broad career goals based in agriculture, food, human and ecological health. APBI in agriculture, food and human health. Demonstrate solid team-based skills for performance of field and case

Farrell, Anthony P.

405

Nutrient balances as indicators for sustainability of broiler production systems.  

PubMed

1. Flock balances of nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and copper (N, P, Zn, Cu) were calculated in order to evaluate environmental effects of three different broiler production systems (intensive indoor, free range and organic). 2. Nutrient gain in birds per unit nutrient intake (retention) in intensive indoor production was higher than in free range and organic production. 3. Nutrient surplus relative to nutrient retention was higher in organic production than in free range and intensive indoor production. 4. The main reasons for differences in nutrient efficiency between intensive indoor, free range and organic production were duration of growth period, strain of broilers and feeding strategy. 5. The calculation of whole farm indicators (livestock density, N and P excretions per hectare of farmland) demonstrates how defining system boundaries affects the outcome of an evaluation: organic farms had the smallest livestock densities and the lowest N and P excretions per hectare of farmland. 6. In the efforts to reach a more holistic evaluation of agricultural production systems, the definition of adequate system boundaries must be discussed. In addition to nutrient balances, further indicators of sustainability, such as human and ecological toxicity, should be considered. PMID:15222410

Kratz, S; Halle, I; Rogasik, J; Schnug, E

2004-04-01

406

Sustainable systems rating program: Marketing Green'' Building in Austin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Four major resource issues for home construction were identified: water, energy, materials, and waste. A systems flow model was then developed that tracked the resource issues through interactive matrices in the areas of sourcing, processing, using, and disposing or recycling. This model served as the basis for a rating system used in an educational and marketing tool called the Eco-Home Guide.

Not Available

1991-12-01

407

Sustainable systems rating program: Marketing ``Green`` Building in Austin, Texas  

SciTech Connect

Four major resource issues for home construction were identified: water, energy, materials, and waste. A systems flow model was then developed that tracked the resource issues through interactive matrices in the areas of sourcing, processing, using, and disposing or recycling. This model served as the basis for a rating system used in an educational and marketing tool called the Eco-Home Guide.

Not Available

1991-12-01

408

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation

409

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

& Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Preliminary Analysis of the Jobs and Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Projects Supported by the §1603 Treasury Grant Program Daniel Steinberg and Gian Porro National Renewable Energy Laboratory Marshall

410

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

& Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Navajo Generating Station and Clean-Energy Alternatives: Options for Renewables D.J. Hurlbut, S. Haase, C.S. Turchi, and K. Burman National Renewable Energy Laboratory Produced under direction of the U

411

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

& Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Mobilizing Public Markets to Finance Renewable Energy Projects: Insights from Expert Stakeholders Paul Schwabe and Michael Mendelsohn National Renewable Energy Laboratory Felix Mormann Steyer-Taylor Center

412

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC.  

E-print Network

NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market David Hurlbut Technical Report NREL

413

Ris Energy Report 8 The intelligent energy system infrastructure for the future  

E-print Network

Risø Energy Report 8 The intelligent energy system infrastructure for the future Risø-R-1695(EN) September 2009 Edited by Hans Larsen and Leif Sønderberg Petersen #12;Risø Energy Report 8 Edited by Hans Larsen and Leif Sønderberg Petersen, Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy Technical University

414

Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.  

PubMed

We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system. PMID:19209604

Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

2009-01-01

415

Practicing Sustainability in an Urban University: A Case Study of a Behavior Based Energy Conservation Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study of the University of Toronto Sustainability Office's energy conservation project, Rewire, explores the implementation of a social marketing campaign that encourages energy efficient behavior. Energy conservation activities have reached approximately 3,000 students and staff members annually, and have saved electricity, thermal…

Chan, Stuart; Dolderman, Dan; Savan, Beth; Wakefield, Sarah

2012-01-01

416

The Potential for Launching a Postgraduate Course on Sustainable Energy in Saudi Arabia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pressures of a growing global population, compounded by environmental degradation, escalating energy use and the depletion of natural energy resources, have led to sustainable energy (SE) holding a prominent position on the international agenda. In spite of the widespread recognition of the important role of SE education in securing a…

Taleb, Hanan M.

2014-01-01

417

Dynamic earth-contact building: A sustainable low-energy technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable development includes low-energy buildings, which reduce energy consumption, green house gases emission, water usage, etc. The choice of subsurface wall at varying depths for construction of buildings has a direct impact on energy consumption and the environment. This paper includes in its scope all building structures in which a significant area is in direct contact with the earth, and

Rakesh Kumar; Shweta Sachdeva; S. C. Kaushik

2007-01-01

418

Investigating the need of nuclear power plants for sustainable energy in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the decades, the consumption of all types of energy such as electricity increased rapidly in Iran. Therefore, the government decided to redevelop its nuclear program to meet the rising electricity demand and decrease consumption of fossil fuels. In this paper, the effect of this policy in four major aspects of energy sustainability in the country, including energy price, environmental

A. Mazandarani; T. M. I. Mahlia; W. T. Chong; M. Moghavvemi

2011-01-01

419

Moving Sustainability Forward: Energy Efficient Renovations and Solar Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For any goal to be a "smart goal" it needs to be specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time sensitive. This is equally true for sustainability goals for educational facilities. Evidence abounds that "green strategies" greatly impact both the academic and operational performance of a school. Agencies from the U.S. Environmental Protection…

Taylor, Bill

2011-01-01

420

National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sustainability Report FY 2009  

E-print Network

States government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do Program to focus on lab-wide activities such as: enhancing NREL's sustainability policy, implementing operations­incorporating on-site wind and photovoltaic (PV) projects at most of our facilities that produce 5

421

Energy Recovery System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cogeneration system is one in which the energy ordinarily wasted in an industrial process is recovered and reused to create a second form of energy. Such an energy recovery system is in use at Crane Company's plant in Ferguson, KY, which manufactures ceramic bathroom fixtures. Crane's system captures hot stack gases from the company's four ceramic kilns and uses them to produce electrical power for plant operations.

1983-01-01

422

Locomotive energy recovery system  

SciTech Connect

An energy recovery system for a diesel electric locomotive is disclosed. The energy recovery system captures and stores the waste heat generated by the diesel engine of the diesel electric locomotive for use at a remote location at a later time. The energy recovery system also converts the electricity generated by the diesel electric locomotive during dynamic braking into heat, and captures and stores this heat for use at a remote location at a later time.

Williams, T.J.

1982-08-03

423

Using Information Processing Techniques to Forecast, Schedule, and Deliver Sustainable Energy to Electric Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the number of electric vehicles on the road increases, current power grid infrastructure will not be able to handle the additional load. Some approaches in the area of Smart Grid research attempt to mitigate this, but those approaches alone will not be sufficient. Those approaches and traditional solution of increased power production can result in an insufficient and imbalanced power grid. It can lead to transformer blowouts, blackouts and blown fuses, etc. The proposed solution will supplement the ``Smart Grid'' to create a more sustainable power grid. To solve or mitigate the magnitude of the problem, measures can be taken that depend on weather forecast models. For instance, wind and solar forecasts can be used to create first order Markov chain models that will help predict the availability of additional power at certain times. These models will be used in conjunction with the information processing layer and bidirectional signal processing components of electric vehicle charging systems, to schedule the amount of energy transferred per time interval at various times. The research was divided into three distinct components: (1) Renewable Energy Supply Forecast Model, (2) Energy Demand Forecast from PEVs, and (3) Renewable Energy Resource Estimation. For the first component, power data from a local wind turbine, and weather forecast data from NOAA were used to develop a wind energy forecast model, using a first order Markov chain model as the foundation. In the second component, additional macro energy demand from PEVs in the Greater Rochester Area was forecasted by simulating concurrent driving routes. In the third component, historical data from renewable energy sources was analyzed to estimate the renewable resources needed to offset the energy demand from PEVs. The results from these models and components can be used in the smart grid applications for scheduling and delivering energy. Several solutions are discussed to mitigate the problem of overloading transformers, lack of energy supply, and higher utility costs.

Pulusani, Praneeth R.

424

Challenges and opportunities for implementing sustainable energy strategies in coastal communities of Baja California Sur, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation explores the potential of renewable energy and efficiency strategies to solve the energy challenges faced by the people living in the biosphere reserve of El Vizcaino, which is located in the North Pacific region of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. This research setting provides a practical analytical milieu to understand better the multiple problems faced by practitioners and agencies trying to implement sustainable energy solutions in Mexico. The thesis starts with a literature review (chapter two) that examines accumulated international experience regarding the development of renewable energy projects as a prelude to identifying the most salient implementation barriers impeding this type of initiatives. Two particularly salient findings from the literature review include the importance of considering gender issues in energy analysis and the value of using participatory research methods. These findings informed fieldwork design and the analytical framework of the dissertation. Chapter three surveys electricity generation as well as residential and commercial electricity use in nine coastal communities located in El Vizcaino. Chapter three summarizes the fieldwork methodology used, which relies on a mix of qualitative and quantitative research methods that aim at enabling a gender-disaggregated analysis to describe more accurately local energy uses, needs, and barriers. Chapter four describes the current plans of the state government, which are focused in expanding one of the state's diesel-powered electricity grids to El Vizcaino. The Chapter also examines the potential for replacing diesel generators with a combination of renewable energy systems and efficiency measures in the coastal communities sampled. Chapter five analyzes strategies to enable the implementation of sustainable energy approaches in El Vizcaino. Chapter five highlights several international examples that could be useful to inform organizational changes at the federal and state level aimed at fostering renewable energy and efficiency initiatives that enhance energy security, protect the environment, and also increase economic opportunities in El Vizcaino and elsewhere in Mexico. Chapter six concludes the thesis by providing: a summary of all key findings, a broad analysis of the implications of the research, and an overview of future lines of inquiry.

Etcheverry, Jose R.

425

Sensitivity analysis of a hierarchical qualitative model for sustainability assessment of cropping systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity Analysis (SA) was performed on the MASC model (Multi-attribute Assessment of the Sustainability of Cropping systems), a hierarchical qualitative model built to assess the sustainability of cropping systems developed under a decision support tool called DEXi. Three approaches were tested to perform a first-order SA assuming a fixed model structure and no correlation among input variables: (i) factorial designs

Marta Carpani; Jacques-Eric Bergez; Hervé Monod

426

Land Resource Sustainability for Urban Development: Spatial Decision Support System Prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land resource sustainability for urban development characterizes the problem of decision-making with multiplicity and uncertainty. A decision support system prototype aids in the assessment of incremental land development plan proposals put forth within the long-term community priority of a sustainable growth. Facilitating this assessment is the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multicriteria evaluation and decision support system. The decision support

Reza Banai

2005-01-01

427

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center: Sustainable Agriculture Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains the following categories of information related to sustainable agriculture: Bibliographies of articles and research publications, searchable sites and databases, educational resources for elementary, high school, and college instructors, and lists of people and institutions that are involved in researching or promoting sustainable agriculture.

428

ELEMENTS OF A MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The subject of Sustainability has recently attracted enormous interest in the minds of both the public and the scientific and engineering community. The reason for this interest is the fact that the concept of Sustainability holds the promise of a solution to society's long-term ...

429

Using DSR indicator system to evaluate Taiwan's sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few decades, the striking levels of economic growth achieved have been accompanied by environmental degradation. Based on the characteristics of indicators on the Commission on Sustainable Development of the United Nations, this study constructs quantitative approaches to evaluate whether the historical data in Taiwan meets the relationship in DSR (Driving-force-State-Response) indicator framework of sustainable development or not.

Hui-Ling Tung; Hsien-Tang Tsai; Yi-Ming Wei; Duan Wei; Chien-Ming Lee

2004-01-01

430

Noncontact Free-Rotating Disk Triboelectric Nanogenerator as a Sustainable Energy Harvester and Self-Powered Mechanical Sensor  

E-print Network

Noncontact Free-Rotating Disk Triboelectric Nanogenerator as a Sustainable Energy Harvester and sustainable development.1,2 Harvesting energy from the ambient environ- ment is a good choice to solve the energy-related problems without causing unexpected environmental issues.3-6 Among multiple energy sources

Wang, Zhong L.

431

A Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture that Supports a System of Systems Approach to Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mission-systems architecture based on a highly modular "systems of systems" infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is absolutely essential for an affordable and sustainable space exploration program. This architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimum sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the space shuttle program are applied to help define and refine the model.

Watson, Steve; Orr, Jim; O'Neil, Graham

2004-01-01

432

Optimal Renewable Resources Mix for Distribution System Energy Loss Minimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that renewable energy sources are the key to a sustainable energy supply infrastructure since they are both inexhaustible and nonpolluting. A number of renewable energy technologies are now commercially available, the most notable being wind power, photovoltaic, solar thermal systems, biomass, and various forms of hydraulic power. In this paper, a methodology has been proposed for

Y. M. Atwa; E. F. El-Saadany; M. M. A. Salama; R. Seethapathy

2010-01-01

433

Energy-storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy storage may play an important role in any shift towards increased use of coal, uranium, or solar energy. Prospects for energy storage by electric power systems, as well as in cars and commercial and residential structures are explored, including pumped-storage hydroelectric plants (one at Ludington, Michigan generates 2,000 megawatts at full power), compressed air (now successfully operational in Huntorf,

F. R. Kalhammer

1979-01-01

434

Three Factors to Sustainable Service System Excellence: A Case Study of Service Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior service science work defines a service system as dynamic configuration of people, technology, organizations, and shared information from both service providers and clients that co-creates value [1]. Although such an abstraction is important, it does not directly address core issues we face in today's service industry, such as sustainable service excellence. This paper expands such prior service science work

Ying Chen; Jim Spohrer; Ana Lelescu

2008-01-01

435

Potential contribution of biomass to the sustainable energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass is a renewable energy source and its importance will increase as national energy policy and strategy focuses more heavily on renewable sources and conservation. Biomass is considered the renewable energy source with the highest potential to contribute to the energy needs of modern society for both the industrialized and developing countries worldwide. The most important biomass energy sources are

M. Fatih Demirbas; Mustafa Balat; Havva Balat

2009-01-01

436

Biomass as a Renewable Energy Source for Sustainable Fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to establish regenerative energy sources are still being rejected. Only since the oil crises, have regenerative energy sources been included in energy policy discussions. Compared with conventional sources of energy that have been used a much longer period of time, there appears to be a considerable lack of knowledge on regenerative sources of energy. In contrast, renewable sources of

K. Kaygusuz

2009-01-01

437

Towards systemic sustainable performance of TBI care systems: emergency leadership frontiers  

PubMed Central

Background Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) continue as a twenty-first century subterranean and almost invisible scourge internationally. TBI care systems provide a safety net for survival, recovery, and reintegration into social communities from this scourge, particularly in Canada, the European Union, and the USA. Aims This paper examines the underlying issues of systemic performance and sustainability of TBI care systems, in the light of decreasing care resources and increasing demands for services. Methods This paper reviews the extant literature on TBI care systems, systems reengineering, and emergency leadership literature. Results This paper presents a seven care layer paradigm, which forms the essence of systemic performance in the care of patients with TBIs. It also identifies five key strategic drivers that hold promise for the future systemic sustainability of TBI care systems. Conclusions Transformational leadership and engagement from the international emergency medical community is the key to generating positive change. The sustainability/performance care framework is relevant and pertinent for consideration internationally and in the context of other emergency medical populations. PMID:21373305

2010-01-01

438

Creating a Pathway to Sustainability IIT Wanger Institute for Sustainable Energy Research  

E-print Network

Recycling Solutions Indoor Air Quality Power, Environment, and Economics (E3 ) program. During this time, educational specializations in E3 at both, occupied by Arastoopour, and the Max McGraw Chair in Energy, Environment, and Economics. Several clusters

Heller, Barbara

439

Biogas: A Promising Sustainable Energy Source for Rural Based Economy in LDC and MDC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this presentation on biogas. Specifically, the material discusses the economic possibilities the sustainable energy source has for both less developed and more developed countries. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2013-01-01

440

Microalgae as a sustainable energy source for biodiesel production: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the three generations of biodiesel feedstocks described in this paper, food crops, non-food crops and microalgae-derived biodiesel, it was found that the third generation, microalgae, is the only source that can be sustainably developed in the future. Microalgae can be converted directly into energy, such as biodiesel, and therefore appear to be a promising source of renewable energy. This

A. L. Ahmad; N. H. Mat Yasin; C. J. C. Derek; J. K. Lim

2011-01-01

441

Sustainable Energy Technology Exchange Between China and the United Sates: Competition or Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current global energy crises and the intermestic issue of pollution have intertwined the political and environmental fates of the United States and China. This research project will introduce international measures such as the Kyoto protocol, and the upcoming Copenhagen Conference, both aim towards an overall reduction of fossil fuel use. Next, the current implementation of sustainable energy sources within

Matthew Harter

2009-01-01

442

Nanoscale Triboelectric-Effect-Enabled Energy Conversion for Sustainably Powering Portable Electronics  

E-print Network

Nanoscale Triboelectric-Effect-Enabled Energy Conversion for Sustainably Powering Portable , and 128 mW/cm3 , respectively, and an energy conversion efficiency as high as 10-39% has been demonstrated Electronics Sihong Wang,,§ Long Lin,,§ and Zhong Lin Wang,, * School of Materials Science and Engineering

Wang, Zhong L.

443

Feasibility of the green energy production by hybrid solar + hydro power system in Europe and similar climate areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the hybrid solar and hydro (SHE) system as a unique technological concept of the sustainable energy system that can provide continuous electric power and energy supply to its consumers and the possibilities of its implementation in Europe and areas with similar climate. The sustainability of such system is based on solar photovoltaic (PV) and hydroelectric (HE) energy

Jure Margeta; Zvonimir Glasnovic

2010-01-01

444

A Model for Sustainable Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) Using Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) Mechanism for Hotel Buildings in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hotel building is one of the high-energy-consuming building types, and retrofitting hotel buildings is an untapped solution to help cut carbon emissions contributing towards sustainable development. Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) has been promulgated as a market mechanism for the delivery of energy efficiency projects. EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently, and it has not been implemented successfully in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. The aim of this research is to develop a model for achieving the sustainability of Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) in hotel buildings under the Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) mechanism. The objectives include: • To identify a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for measuring the sustainability of BEER in hotel buildings; • To identify Critical Success Factors (CSFs) under EPC mechanism that have a strong correlation with sustainable BEER project; • To develop a model explaining the relationships between the CSFs and the sustainability performance of BEER in hotel building. Literature reviews revealed the essence of sustainable BEER and EPC, which help to develop a conceptual framework for analyzing sustainable BEER under EPC mechanism in hotel buildings. 11 potential KPIs for sustainable BEER and 28 success factors of EPC were selected based on the developed framework. A questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain the importance of selected performance indicators and success factors. Fuzzy set theory was adopted in identifying the KPIs. Six KPIs were identified from the 11 selected performance indicators. Through a questionnaire survey, out of the 28 success factors, 21 Critical Success Factors (CSFs) were also indentified. Using the factor analysis technique, the 21 identified CSFs in this study were grouped into six clusters to help explain project success of sustainable BEER. Finally, AHP/ANP approach was used in this research to develop a model to examine the interrelationships among the identified CSFs, KPIs, and sustainable dimensions of BEER. The findings indicate that the success of sustainable BEER in hotel buildings under the EPC mechanism is mainly decided by project objectives control mechanism, available technology, organizing capacity of team leader, trust among partners, accurate M&V, and team workers' technical skills.

Xu, Pengpeng

445

A comparison of the sustainability of public and private transportation systems: Study of the Greater Toronto Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A macroscopic assessment of the impacts of private and public transportation systems on the sustainability of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) is undertaken from economic, environmental and social perspectives. The methodology draws upon the urban metabolism and sustainability indicators approaches to assessing urban sustainability, but compares modes in terms of passenger-kms. In assessing the economic sustainability of a city, transportation

Christopher A. Kennedy

2002-01-01

446

SUSTAINABILITY: ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND SYSTEMS ASPECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "? development that ?meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future' ?" However, a mathematical theo...

447

The energy trilogy: An integrated sustainability model to bridge wastewater treatment plant energy and emissions gaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An estimated 4% of national energy consumption is used for drinking water and wastewater services. Despite the awareness and optimization initiatives for energy conservation, energy consumption is on the rise owing to population and urbanization expansion and to commercial and industrial business advancement. The principal concern is since energy consumption grows, the higher will be the energy production demand, leading to an increase in CO2 footprints and the contribution to global warming potential. This research is in the area of energy-water nexus, focusing on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) energy trilogy -- the group of three related entities, which includes processes: (1) consuming energy, (2) producing energy, and (3) the resulting -- CO2 equivalents. Detailed and measurable energy information is not readily obtained for wastewater facilities, specifically during facility preliminary design phases. These limitations call for data-intensive research approach on GHG emissions quantification, plant efficiencies and source reduction techniques. To achieve these goals, this research introduced a model integrating all plant processes and their pertinent energy sources. In a comprehensive and "Energy Source-to-Effluent Discharge" pattern, this model is capable of bridging the gaps of WWTP energy, facilitating plant designers' decision-making for meeting energy assessment, sustainability and the environmental regulatory compliance. Protocols for estimating common emissions sources are available such as for fuels, whereas, site-specific emissions for other sources have to be developed and are captured in this research. The dissertation objectives were met through an extensive study of the relevant literature, models and tools, originating comprehensive lists of processes and energy sources for WWTPs, locating estimation formulas for each source, identifying site specific emissions factors, and linking the sources in a mathematical model for site specific CO2 e determination. The model was verified and showed a good agreement with billed and measured data from a base case study. In a next phase, a supplemental computational tool can be created for conducting plant energy design comparisons and plant energy and emissions parameters assessments. The main conclusions drawn from this research is that current approaches are severely limited, not covering plant's design phase and not fully considering the balance of energy consumed (EC), energy produced (EP) and the resulting CO2 e emission integration. Finally their results are not representative. This makes reported governmental and institutional national energy consumption figures incomplete and/or misleading, since they are mainly considering energy consumptions from electricity and some fuels or certain processes only. The distinction of the energy trilogy model over existing approaches is based on the following: (1) the ET energy model is unprecedented, prepared to fit WWTP energy assessment during the design and rehabilitation phases, (2) links the energy trilogy eliminating the need for using several models or tools, (3) removes the need for on-site expensive energy measurements or audits, (4) offers alternatives for energy optimization during plant's life-cycle, and (5) ensures reliable GHG emissions inventory reporting for permitting and regulatory compliance.

Al-Talibi, A. Adhim

448

Simulation of submarine gas hydrate deposits as a sustainable energy source and CO2 storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being aware that conventionally exploitable natural gas resources are limited, research concentrates on the development of new technologies for the extraction of methane from gas hydrate deposits in subsea sediments. The quantity of methane stored in hydrate form is considered to be a promising means to overcome future shortages in energy resources. In combination with storing carbon dioxide (CO2) as hydrates in the deposits chances for sustainable energy supply systems are given. The combustion of hydrate-based natural gas can contribute to the energy supply, but the coupled CO2 emissions cause climate change effects. At present, the possible options to capture and subsequently store CO2 (CCS-Technology) become of particular interest. To develop a sustainable hydrate-based energy supply system, the production of natural gas from hydrate deposits has to be coupled with the storage of CO2. Hence, the simultaneous storage of CO2 in hydrate deposits has to be developed. Decomposition of methane hydrate in combination with CO2 sequestration appears to be promising because CO2 hydrate is stable within a wider range of pressure and temperature than methane hydrate. As methane hydrate provides structural integrity and stability in its natural formation, incorporating CO2 hydrate as substitute for methane hydrate will help to preserve the natural sediments' stability. Regarding the technological implementation, many problems have to be overcome. Especially heat and mass transfer in the deposits are limiting factors causing very long process times. Within the scope of the German research project »SUGAR«, different technological approaches are evaluated and compared by means of dynamic system simulations and analysis. Detailed mathematical models for the most relevant chemical and physical effects are developed. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into simulation programs like CMG STARS and UMSICHT HyReS. By means of abstract scenarios, the effects occurring during gas production and CO2 storage within a hydrate deposit are identified and described. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is discussed and compared for different production strategies: depressurization, CO2 injection after depressurization and simultaneous methane production and CO2 injection.

Janicki, G.; Hennig, T.; Schlüter, S.; Deerberg, G.

2012-04-01

449

Model based approach to Study the Impact of Biofuels on the Sustainability of an Ecological System  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance and complexity of sustainability has been well recognized and a formal study of sustainability based on system theory approaches is imperative as many of the relationships between various components of the ecosystem could be nonlinear, intertwined and non intuitive...

450

On the Sustainability and Management of a Model System with Ecological, Macroeconomic, and Legal Components  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainability is essentially about insuring that human existence can be indefinitely supported by the biological system of the Earth at an appropriate level of civilization. Hence, one of the most fundamental questions in sustainability is the extent to which human activities a...

451

Sustainability - what are the odds? Envisioning the future of our environment, economy and society  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainability ? the word is everywhere these days. Cities, transportation systems, energy producers, agriculture, fisheries, businesses, even mines (!), are making claims or making plans for sustainability. Several formal definitions of sustainability have been offered; here is ...

452

Material Design, Selection, and Manufacturing Methods for System Sustainment  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a material selection and validation process proven to be successful for manufacturing high-reliability long-life product. The National Secure Manufacturing Center business unit of the Kansas City Plant (herein called KCP) designs and manufactures complex electrical and mechanical components used in extreme environments. The material manufacturing heritage is founded in the systems design to manufacturing practices that support the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). Material Engineers at KCP work with the systems designers to recommend materials, develop test methods, perform analytical analysis of test data, define cradle to grave needs, present final selection and fielding. The KCP material engineers typically will maintain cost control by utilizing commercial products when possible, but have the resources and to develop and produce unique formulations as necessary. This approach is currently being used to mature technologies to manufacture materials with improved characteristics using nano-composite filler materials that will enhance system design and production. For some products the engineers plan and carry out science-based life-cycle material surveillance processes. Recent examples of the approach include refurbished manufacturing of the high voltage power supplies for cockpit displays in operational aircraft; dry film lubricant application to improve bearing life for guided munitions gyroscope gimbals, ceramic substrate design for electrical circuit manufacturing, and tailored polymeric materials for various systems. The following examples show evidence of KCP concurrent design-to-manufacturing techniques used to achieve system solutions that satisfy or exceed demanding requirements.

David Sowder, Jim Lula, Curtis Marshall

2010-02-18

453

Sustainable energy policy in Honduras: Diagnosis and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of having a still unexploited potential of natural resources available for clean energy and the possibility of using the regional electricity market in Central America, Honduras has several potential energy sources. The growing dependence on oil and the imminent increase in international prices of fossil fuels, coupled with the necessity of changing the energy sector arrangement, the State

Wilfredo C. Flores; Osvaldo A. Ojeda; Marco A. Flores; Francisco R. Rivas

2011-01-01

454

Energy Smart Schools: Creating a Sustainable Learning Environment in Ohio.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999, the Ohio Energy Project (OEP) was awarded a grant through Rebuild America, under the U.S. Department of Energy, to develop an EnergySmart Schools Program for Ohio. Together with its partners, this program serves to empower students to improve the conditions of their school buildings through education, thus increasing scientific literacy…

Ohio Energy Project, Lewis Center.

455

A real-time recording model of key indicators for energy consumption and carbon emissions of sustainable buildings.  

PubMed

Buildings' sustainability is one of the crucial parts for achieving urban sustainability. Applied to buildings, life-cycle assessment encompasses the analysis and assessment of the environmental effects of building materials, components and assemblies throughout the entire life of the building construction, use and demolition. Estimate of carbon emissions is essential and crucial for an accurate and reasonable life-cycle assessment. Addressing the need for more research into integrating analysis of real-time and automatic recording of key indicators for a more accurate calculation and comparison, this paper aims to design a real-time recording model of these crucial indicators concerning the calculation and estimation of energy use and carbon emissions of buildings based on a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)-based system. The architecture of the RFID-based carbon emission recording/tracking system, which contains four functional layers including data record layer, data collection/update layer, data aggregation layer and data sharing/backup layer, is presented. Each of these layers is formed by RFID or network devices and sub-systems that operate at a specific level. In the end, a proof-of-concept system is developed to illustrate the implementation of the proposed architecture and demonstrate the feasibility of the design. This study would provide the technical solution for real-time recording system of building carbon emissions and thus is of great significance and importance to improve urban sustainability. PMID:24831109

Wu, Weiwei; Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David; Hou, Yanhong; Li, Qiming

2014-01-01

456

An Application of the Methodology for Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment and operationalization of the concept of sustainable air transport system is recognized as an important but complex research, operational and policy task. In the scope of the academic efforts to properly address the problem, this paper aims to assess the sustainability of air transport system. It particular, the paper describes the methodology for assessment of sustainability and its potential application. The methodology consists of the indicator systems, which relate to the air transport system operational, economic, social and environmental dimension of performance. The particular indicator systems are relevant for the particular actors such users (air travellers), air transport operators, aerospace manufacturers, local communities, governmental authorities at different levels (local, national, international), international air transport associations, pressure groups and public. In the scope of application of the methodology, the specific cases are selected to estimate the particular indicators, and thus to assess the system sustainability under given conditions.

Janic, Milan

2003-01-01

457

Global Energy Management System  

E-print Network

- saving the cumulative equivalent of 1.8 billion barrels of oil and reducing carbon dioxide emissions by over 200 million tonnes. In 2000, we redoubled our efforts with deployment of our Global Energy Management System (GEMS), which utilizes international...

Eidt, B. D.

2005-01-01

458

Sustaining neutral beam power supply system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility  

SciTech Connect

In late August 1978, a fixed price procurement contract for $25,000,000 was awarded to Aydin Energy Division, Palo Alto, California, for the design, manufacture, installation and acceptance testing of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) Sustaining Neutral Beam Power Supply System (SNBPSS). This system of 24 power supply sets will provide the conditioned power for the 24 neutral beam source modules. Each set will provide the accel potential the arc power, the filament power, and the suppressor power for its associated neutral beam source module. The design and development of the SNBPSS has progressed through the final design phase and is now in production. Testing of the major sub-assembly power supply is proceeding at Aydin and the final acceptance testing of the first two power supplies at LLNL is expected to be completed this year.

Eckard, R.D.; Wilson, J.H.; Van Ness, H.W.

1980-01-01

459

Inland Water Transport Decision Support System for Sustainable Development Based on Data Warehouse and On-Line Analytical Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the lack of effective evaluation on the sustainable development of inland water transport, an indicator system is designed for evaluation, illustration and checking of inland water transport sustainable development and an inland water transport decision support system for sustainable development is constructed based on data warehouse and online analytical processing (OLAP). The system structure includes 5 layers: application interface

Li Ke; Yang Shanfeng

2009-01-01

460

Comparative Analysis of Sustainable Approaches and Systems for Scientific Data Stewardship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainable data systems are critical components of the cyberinfrastructure needed to provide long-term stewardship of scientific data, including Earth science data, throughout their entire life cycle. A variety of approaches may help ensure the sustainability of such systems, but these approaches must be able to survive the demands of competing priorities and decreasing budgets. Analyzing and comparing alternative approaches can identify viable aspects of each approach and inform decisions for developing, managing, and supporting the cyberinfrastructure needed to facilitate discovery, access, and analysis of data by future communities of users. A typology of sustainability approaches is proposed, and example use cases are offered for comparing the approaches over time. These examples demonstrate the potential strengths and weaknesses of each approach under various conditions and with regard to different objectives, e.g., open vs. limited access. By applying the results of these analyses to their particular circumstances, systems stakeholders can assess their options for a sustainable systems approach along with other metrics and identify alternative strategies to ensure the sustainability of the scientific data and information for which they are responsible. In addition, comparing sustainability approaches should inform the design of new systems and the improvement of existing systems to meet the needs for long-term stewardship of scientific data, and support education and workforce development efforts needed to ensure that the appropriate scientific and technical skills are available to operate and further develop sustainable cyberinfrastructure.

Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

2012-12-01

461

Wind energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the

R. D. Richardson; GERALD M. MCNERNEY

1993-01-01

462

Astronomy in Sustainable Energy: A New Approach to Make It Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of a new approach to teaching non-science students concepts of sustainable energy using astronomy, real life and fictional scenarios. Teaching non-science majors about energy is important because of the challenge that scientific (il)literacy poses for tangible and political problems like energy. We have established a course in which students are involved in critical thinking and the process of scientific reasoning while discovering the nature of energy and its role in our lives and its presentation in the fiction genre. In the course, students construct and apply their knowledge of transformation of energy to understanding of the concepts of the formation of the sun and the planets. Along with these concepts, students learn about ways of harnessing energy for sustaining life on Earth. During the course students transform their "Why do I care?” to "What can I do?” We are achieving this change by starting with a broad introduction of the concepts and physical laws involved in understanding of the Solar Nebular hypothesis during which we discuss the role of different forms of energy involved in the process. In the next step we narrow down the discussion to importance and use of energy on Earth and then we discuss the role of different forms of energy in maintaining our individual lives. Thus students go from intangible notions about energy to making informed decisions on what type of sustainable energy makes sense to use in their houses and how many burgers they want to eat per day. Moving towards sustainable energy technologies requires a public who understands the science behind the issues. The work presented here is aimed at providing a mechanism for increase literacy regarding these issues and testing this mechanism's success.

Ruzhitskaya, Lanika; Speck, A.

2012-01-01

463

Managing Sustainable Demand-side Infrastructure for Power System Ancillary Services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread access to renewable electricity is seen as a viable method to mitigate carbon emissions, although problematic are the issues associated with the integration of the generation systems within current power system configurations. Wind power plants are the primary large-scale renewable generation technology applied globally, but display considerable short-term supply variability that is difficult to predict. Power systems are currently not designed to operate under these conditions, and results in the need to increase operating reserve in order to guarantee stability. Often, operating conventional generation as reserve is both technically and economically inefficient, which can overshadow positive benefits associated with renewable energy exploitation. The purpose of this thesis is to introduce and assess an alternative method of enhancing power system operations through the control of electric loads. In particular, this thesis focuses on managing highly-distributed sustainable demand-side infrastructure, in the form of heat pumps, electric vehicles, and electrolyzers, as dispatchable short-term energy balancing resources. The main contribution of the thesis is an optimal control strategy capable of simultaneously balancing grid- and demand-side objectives. The viability of the load control strategy is assessed through model-based simulations that explicitly track end-use functionality of responsive devices within a power systems analysis typically implemented to observe the effects of integrated wind energy systems. Results indicate that there is great potential for the proposed method to displace the need for increased reserve capacity in systems considering a high penetration of wind energy, thereby allowing conventional generation to operate more efficiently and avoid the need for possible capacity expansions.

Parkinson, Simon Christopher

464

Ammonium as a sustainable proton shuttle in bioelectrochemical systems.  

PubMed

This work examines a pH control method using ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as a sustainable proton shuttle in a CEM-equipped BES. Current generation was sustained by adding NH(3) or ammonium hydroxide (NH(4)OH) to the anolyte, controlling its pH at 7. Ammonium ion migration maintained the catholyte pH at approximately 9.25. Such NH(4)(+)/NH(3) migration accounted for 90±10% of the ionic flux in the BES. Reintroducing the volatilized NH(3) from the cathode into the anolyte maintained a suitable anolyte pH for sustained microbial-driven current generation. Hence, NH(4)(+)/NH(3) acted as a proton shuttle that is not consumed in the process. PMID:21865037

Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; Law, Yingyu; Cheng, Ka Yu

2011-10-01

465

Science for Sustainable Energy: Recommendations of the 2010 BESAC Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In August 2010, DOE's Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee issued a major report on Science for Energy Technology. The report identified opportunities for science to help overcome roadblocks to progress in emerging clean energy technologies and thus to have much needed near-term impact on our energy infrastructure. The report covered diverse areas including solar electricity from photovoltaics, advanced nuclear energy, carbon sequestration, electrochemical energy storage, power grid technologies including power electronics and superconductors, solid state lighting, biofuels, building efficiency, fuel cells and wind power. In addition, mechanisms were suggested to facilitate progress, in particular, by strengthening the link between basic research and industry. The talk will review the highlights of this report.

Malozemoff, Alexis

2012-02-01

466

Ocean energy resource systems  

SciTech Connect

The oceans occupy nearly three-quarters of the Earth`s surface and represent a potentially large source of renewable energy. While many industrialized nations have conducted exploratory research and development, the total power currently available from ocean energy resource systems, with the exception of a French tidal power plant, is less that 100 megawatts. A number of ocean energy conversion technologies are approaching an acceptable stage of development for commercial utilization. Factors important to the design and development of such systems-including wave, tide and thermal gradient sources are discussed.

Bregman, R.; Knapp, R.H.; Takahashi, P.K. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1996-08-01

467

Solar Energy Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

1984-01-01

468

Living Systems Energy Module  

SciTech Connect

The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

NONE

1995-09-26

469

Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability in Developing Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article establishes the benefits of applying renewable energy and analyzes the main difficulties that have stood in the way of more widely successful renewable energy for rural areas in the developing world and discusses why outcomes from these technologies fall short. Although there is substantial recognition of technological, economic,…

Alazraque-Cherni, Judith

2008-01-01

470

Optimization methods applied to renewable and sustainable energy: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is a vital input for social and economic development. As a result of the generalization of agricultural, industrial and domestic activities the demand for energy has increased remarkably, especially in emergent countries. This has meant rapid grower in the level of greenhouse gas emissions and the increase in fuel prices, which are the main driving forces behind efforts to

R. Baños; F. Manzano-Agugliaro; F. G. Montoya; C. Gil; A. Alcayde; J. Gómez

2011-01-01

471

September 2, 2011 Competence Center for Sustainable Energy  

E-print Network

for optimisation and certifying of energy consumption Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) co-generation process for waste of Mechanical Engineering Department of Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (LEA) Prof. Böcker Faculty: EET (Prof. Krauter) Renewable energies (wind power, PV, geothermal) and their integration in existing

Noé, Reinhold

472

Energy conversion system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An energy conversion system is described for the production of power from hot fluid sources which may contain dissolved solutes and undesirable noncondensable gases. Direct heat transfer is utilized by the hot fluid sources to vaporize a working fluid which is then in turn utilized for the production of power. In the given system the working fluid is employed in

Schwartzman

1978-01-01

473

Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy is often known as the catalyst for development. Globally, the per capita consumption of energy is often used as a barometer to measure the level of economic development in a particular country. Realizing the importance of energy as a vital component in economic and social development, the government of Malaysia has been continuously reviewing its energy policy to ensure

Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Keat Teong Lee

2006-01-01

474

Thermochemical energy systems research  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes research at SERI on heat-pumped thermochemical energy systems and thermochemical reduction of CO/sub 2/ to CO for open-loop solar energy transport. Analysis of the NaOH-H/sub 2/O heat-pumped system indicated cost-effectiveness relative to a hot oil solar system with parabolic trough receivers for production of 0.101 MPa saturated steam. Current work is on definition of high-temperature heat-pumped systems. Future work should be experimental with an objective of small-scale validation of high-temperature heat-pumped systems. The thermochemical CO/sub 2/ reduction is an extremely difficult and long-range research problem. Costs are unknown but are suspected to be high because of system complexity. The CO/sub 2/ reduction research should be de-emphasized.

Nix, R.G.

1983-08-01

475

Life cycle assessment for sustainable metropolitan water systems planning.  

PubMed

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is useful as an information tool for the examination of alternative future scenarios for strategic planning. Developing a life cycle assessment for a large water and wastewater system involves making methodological decisions about the level of detail which is retained through different stages of the process. In this article we discuss a methodology tailored to strategic planning needs which retains a high degree of model segmentation in order to enhance modeling of a large, complex system. This is illustrated by a case study of Sydney Water, which is Australia's largest water service provider. A prospective LCA was carried out to examine the potential environmental impacts of Sydney Water's total operations in the year 2021. To our knowledge this is the first study to create an LCA model of an integrated water and wastewater system with this degree of complexity. A "base case" system model was constructed to represent current operating assets as augmented and upgraded to 2021. The base case results provided a basis for the comparison of alternative future scenarios and for conclusions to be drawn regarding potential environmental improvements. The scenarios can be roughly classified in two categories: (1) options which improve the environmental performance across all impact categories and (2) options which improve one indicator and worsen others. Overall environmental improvements are achieved in all categories by the scenarios examining increased demand management, energy efficiency, energy generation, and additional energy recovery from biosolids. The scenarios which examined desalination of seawater and the upgrades of major coastal sewage treatment plants to secondary and tertiary treatment produced an improvement in one environmental indicator but deteriorations in all the other impact categories, indicating the environmental tradeoffs within the system. The desalination scenario produced a significant increase in greenhouse gas emissions due to coal-fired electricity generation for a small increase in water supply. Assessment of a greenfield scenario incorporating water demand management, on-site treatment, local irrigation, and centralized biosolids treatment indicates significant environmental improvements are possible relative to the assessment of a conventional system of corresponding scale. PMID:15296294

Lundie, Sven; Peters, Gregory M; Beavis, Paul C

2004-07-01

476

SUSTAINABILITY: ECOLOGICAL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, AND SYSTEMS PERSPECTIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Sustainability is generally associated with a definition by the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987: "Development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present without compromising the ability to meet those of the future". However, a mathematical theory e...

477

Applicability and methodology of determining sustainable yield in groundwater systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently a need for a review of the definition and methodology of determining sustainable yield. The reasons are: (1) current definitions and concepts are ambiguous and non-physically based so cannot be used for quantitative application, (2) there is a need to eliminate varying interpretations and misinterpretations and provide a sound basis for application, (3) the notion that all

Frans R. P. Kalf; Donald R. Woolley

2005-01-01

478

Systemic sustainability characteristics of organic farming: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agriculture for food production has come to crossroads: while conventional agriculture needs to improve environmental and social performance, organic agriculture needs to increase the production volumes and to re-establish the connectedness between producers and consumers. Through re-localising the food production there is an increasing convergence of the farming practices towards sustainable agriculture acknowledging the prospects, advantages and limitations of the

H. Risku-Norja; M. Mikkola

2009-01-01

479

Utilizing Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Agricultural Education to Promote Sustainable Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding and appreciation of indigenous knowledge systems (IKS) are essential for promoting sustainable agriculture development. IKS provides a cultural basis for nonformal agricultural programs that is absent in technology transfer approaches. (SK)

Williams, David L.; Muchena, Olivia N.

1991-01-01

480

Social and economic sustainability of urban systems: comparative analysis of metropolitan statistical areas in Ohio, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

This article presents a general and versatile methodology for assessing sustainability with Fisher Information as a function of dynamic changes in urban systems. Using robust statistical methods, six Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in Ohio were evaluated to comparatively as...

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