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Sample records for sustaining incompatible intentions

  1. Supporting Sustainable Food Consumption: Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) Aligns Intentions and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Loy, Laura S; Wieber, Frank; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    With growing awareness that sustainable consumption is important for quality of life on earth, many individuals intend to act more sustainably. In this regard, interest in reducing meat consumption is on the rise. However, people often do not translate intentions into actual behavior change. To address this intention-behavior gap, we tested the self-regulation strategy of mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). Here, people identify and imagine a desired future and current obstacles standing in its way. They address the obstacles with if-then plans specifying when, where, and how to act differently. In a 5-week randomized controlled experimental study, we compared an information + MCII intervention with an information-only control intervention. As hypothesized, only MCII participants' intention of reducing their meat consumption was predictive of their actual reduction, while no correspondence between intention and behavior change was found for control participants. Participants with a moderate to strong intention to reduce their meat consumption reduced it more in the MCII than in the control condition. Thus, MCII helped to narrow the intention-behavior gap and supported behavior change for those holding moderate and strong respective intentions. PMID:27199840

  2. Supporting Sustainable Food Consumption: Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) Aligns Intentions and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Loy, Laura S.; Wieber, Frank; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    With growing awareness that sustainable consumption is important for quality of life on earth, many individuals intend to act more sustainably. In this regard, interest in reducing meat consumption is on the rise. However, people often do not translate intentions into actual behavior change. To address this intention-behavior gap, we tested the self-regulation strategy of mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). Here, people identify and imagine a desired future and current obstacles standing in its way. They address the obstacles with if-then plans specifying when, where, and how to act differently. In a 5-week randomized controlled experimental study, we compared an information + MCII intervention with an information-only control intervention. As hypothesized, only MCII participants’ intention of reducing their meat consumption was predictive of their actual reduction, while no correspondence between intention and behavior change was found for control participants. Participants with a moderate to strong intention to reduce their meat consumption reduced it more in the MCII than in the control condition. Thus, MCII helped to narrow the intention-behavior gap and supported behavior change for those holding moderate and strong respective intentions. PMID:27199840

  3. The influence of ethical values and food choice motivations on intentions to purchase sustainably sourced foods.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Kylie; Burke, Karena J

    2013-10-01

    This study examined a three-step adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) applied to the intention of consumers to purchase sustainably sourced food. The sample consisted of 137 participants, of which 109 were female, who were recruited through a farmers market and an organic produce outlet in an Australian capital city. Participants completed an online questionnaire containing the TPB scales of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention; measures of positive moral attitude and ethical self identity; and food choice motives. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the predictive utility of the TPB in isolation (step 1) and the TPB expanded to include the constructs of moral attitude and ethical self-identity (step 2). The results indicated the expansion of the TPB to include these constructs added significantly to the predictive model measuring intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. The third step in the adaptation utilised this expanded TPB model and added a measure of retail channel (where consumers reported buying fresh produce) and 9 food choice motives, in order to assess the predictive utility of the inclusion of choice motivations in this context. Of the 8 food choice motives examined, only health and ethical values significantly predicted intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. However, with the addition of food choice motives, ethical self-identity was no longer a significant predictor of intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. Overall the adapted TPB model explained 76% of the variance in intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. PMID:23770118

  4. College and University Dining Services Administrators' Intention to Adopt Sustainable Practices: Results from US Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Jung; Gregoire, Mary B.; Arendt, Susan; Shelley, Mack C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine college and university dining services administrators' (CUDSAs) intention to adopt sustainable practices. Design/methodology/approach: The theory of planned behavior (TPB) including constructs of subjective norm (SN), attitude, perceived behavior control, and personal norm (PN), formed the…

  5. An Expectancy-Value Model for Sustained Enrolment Intentions of Senior Secondary Physics Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Jessy; Barker, Katrina

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the predictive influences of achievement motivational variables that may sustain students' engagement in physics and influence their future enrolment plans in the subject. Unlike most studies attempting to address the decline of physics enrolments through capturing students' intention to enrol in physics before ever studying the subject, this study is novel because it captures the perceptions of students currently enrolled in senior secondary physics and their subsequent enrolment intentions after completing modules from the physics curriculum. Participants comprised of senior secondary students in year 11 completing their first year of physics in Australia across nine high schools in New South Wales. The Sustained Enrolment Models for Physics (SEMP), which drew upon the Expectancy-Value (EV) theoretical foundation, proposed predictive relations among students' achievement motivation, sustained engagement, and enrolment intentions in relation to physics. The data showed a good fit to the theoretically developed model for all four physics topics from the year 11 curriculum. The path coefficients of the models demonstrated the strength of relationships among the variables for each of the topics. The topic specificity of SEMPs allowed the mapping of students' motivational patterns at a more sensitive level than the domain-specific level and suggested that the relative influence of motivational precursors can vary by topic. This study advanced the EV research knowledge that, while values may be significant, it is the expectancies that largely predict students' sustained choice intentions in relation to physics. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  6. An Expectancy-Value Model for Sustained Enrolment Intentions of Senior Secondary Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Jessy; Barker, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive influences of achievement motivational variables that may sustain students' engagement in physics and influence their future enrolment plans in the subject. Unlike most studies attempting to address the decline of physics enrolments through capturing students' intention to enrol in physics before ever…

  7. Evaluation of the impact of Brazil's sustainability on the behavioral intentions of stakeholders toward the country.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, Janaina de Moura Engracia

    2016-02-01

    This paper examines the influence of sustainability as a dimension of country image on behavioral intentions (so-called conations) of stakeholders toward Brazil. In addition, sustainable consumption, a moderating variable of the country-of-origin effect (not been identified in other studies), and consumers' gender and familiarity with the country are investigated as moderating variables. The empirical research is of a descriptive nature, and in terms of data collection, a survey method has been used on a sample of undergraduate students from foreign institutions. In total, 427 questionnaires have been considered in the analysis. The results of a multiple regression analyses show that the dimensions of country image (affective, political, technical and sustainability) are reliable factors that have a positive influence on conations toward Brazil, with the affective dimension exerting the strongest influence. Further comparisons show that the sustainability dimension is more important in shaping the conations of female respondents and those with low familiarity with Brazil, whereas the political dimension is more relevant in shaping the conations of male respondents and those with high familiarity with Brazil. Finally, the sustainability dimension has a minor influence on individuals with higher levels of sustainable consumption. PMID:26195177

  8. Sustaining Young People's Enrolment Intentions in Relation to Physics: Development and Validation of a Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Jessy; Barker, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is a need for measures to examine the issue of sustaining students' enrolment intentions over an extended period of study in physics, a subject which is generally perceived as hard and demanding by students. This paper addresses this gap in research by describing the development and the assessment of psychometric properties of…

  9. Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…

  10. Disrupting Neoliberal Discourse in Critical Sustainability Education: A Qualitative Analysis of Intentional Language Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachelin, Adrienne; Rose, Jeff; Paisley, Karen

    2015-01-01

    While education for sustainability is a critical task that is gaining ground in a plethora of educational contexts, it is frequently rendered ineffective in the face of neoliberal practice and discourse. Here we examine the pervasive impacts of neoliberalism on education for sustainability, looking specifically at discursive formations that shape…

  11. Home Economics Teachers' Intentions and Engagement in Teaching Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapala, Irja; Biggs, Simon; Cederberg, Riitta; Kosonen, Anna-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Home Economics (HE) teachers can have a central role in teaching sustainable development (SD) to young adolescents through everyday household management and the promotion of personally and globally sustainable well-being. How well the teachers cope with this task is not well known. The objective of this study was to survey Finnish HE…

  12. Moving beyond Legislation to Create and Sustain Intentionality in Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, S. Michael; Smith, Lawrence L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2009-01-01

    Current legislation has exerted tremendous influence on the instructional methods used by reading teachers. Historically, however, neither mandated curriculum nor forced change has proven consistently successful in helping sustain long-term change in teachers' instructional practices or student achievement gains. Using theories of motivation and…

  13. An invitation to quantum incompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Miyadera, Takayuki; Ziman, Mário

    2016-03-01

    In the context of a physical theory, two devices, A and B, described by the theory are called incompatible if the theory does not allow the existence of a third device C that would have both A and B as its components. Incompatibility is a fascinating aspect of physical theories, especially in the case of quantum theory. The concept of incompatibility gives a common ground for several famous impossibility statements within quantum theory, such as ‘no-cloning’ and ‘no information without disturbance’ these can be all seen as statements about incompatibility of certain devices. The purpose of this paper is to give a concise overview of some of the central aspects of incompatibility.

  14. Self-incompatibility in Brassicaceae crops: lessons for interspecific incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nasrallah, June B.

    2014-01-01

    Most wild plants and some crops of the Brassicaceae express self-incompatibility, which is a mechanism that allows stigmas to recognize and discriminate against “self” pollen, thus preventing self-fertilization and inbreeding. Self-incompatibility in this family is controlled by a single S locus containing two multiallelic genes that encode the stigma-expressed S-locus receptor kinase and its pollen coat-localized ligand, the S-locus cysteine-rich protein. Physical interaction between receptor and ligand encoded in the same S locus activates the receptor and triggers a signaling cascade that results in inhibition of “self” pollen. Sequence information for many S-locus haplotypes in Brassica species has spurred studies of dominance relationships between S haplotypes and of S-locus structure, as well as the development of methods for S genotyping. Furthermore, molecular genetic studies have begun to identify genes that encode putative components of the self-incompatibility signaling pathway. In parallel, standard genetic analysis and QTL analysis of the poorly understood interspecific incompatibility phenomenon have been initiated to identify genes responsible for the inhibition of pollen from other species by the stigma. Herewith, we review recent studies of self-incompatibility and interspecific incompatibility, and we propose a model in which a universal pollen-inhibition pathway is shared by these two incompatibility systems. PMID:24987288

  15. Self-incompatibility in Brassicaceae crops: lessons for interspecific incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nasrallah, June B

    2014-05-01

    Most wild plants and some crops of the Brassicaceae express self-incompatibility, which is a mechanism that allows stigmas to recognize and discriminate against "self" pollen, thus preventing self-fertilization and inbreeding. Self-incompatibility in this family is controlled by a single S locus containing two multiallelic genes that encode the stigma-expressed S-locus receptor kinase and its pollen coat-localized ligand, the S-locus cysteine-rich protein. Physical interaction between receptor and ligand encoded in the same S locus activates the receptor and triggers a signaling cascade that results in inhibition of "self" pollen. Sequence information for many S-locus haplotypes in Brassica species has spurred studies of dominance relationships between S haplotypes and of S-locus structure, as well as the development of methods for S genotyping. Furthermore, molecular genetic studies have begun to identify genes that encode putative components of the self-incompatibility signaling pathway. In parallel, standard genetic analysis and QTL analysis of the poorly understood interspecific incompatibility phenomenon have been initiated to identify genes responsible for the inhibition of pollen from other species by the stigma. Herewith, we review recent studies of self-incompatibility and interspecific incompatibility, and we propose a model in which a universal pollen-inhibition pathway is shared by these two incompatibility systems. PMID:24987288

  16. Plates with Incompatible Prestrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Lewicka, Marta; Schäffner, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    We study effective elastic behavior of the incompatibly prestrained thin plates, where the prestrain is independent of thickness and uniform through the plate's thickness h. We model such plates as three-dimensional elastic bodies with a prescribed pointwise stress-free state characterized by a Riemannian metric G, and seek the limiting behavior as {h to 0}. We first establish that when the energy per volume scales as the second power of h, the resulting {Γ} -limit is a Kirchhoff-type bending theory. We then show the somewhat surprising result that there exist non-immersible metrics G for whom the infimum energy (per volume) scales smaller than h 2. This implies that the minimizing sequence of deformations carries nontrivial residual three-dimensional energy but it has zero bending energy as seen from the limit Kirchhoff theory perspective. Another implication is that other asymptotic scenarios are valid in appropriate smaller scaling regimes of energy. We characterize the metrics G with the above property, showing that the zero bending energy in the Kirchhoff limit occurs if and only if the Riemann curvatures R 1213, R 1223 and R 1212 of G vanish identically. We illustrate our findings with examples; of particular interest is an example where {G_{2 × 2}}, the two-dimensional restriction of G, is flat but the plate still exhibits the energy scaling of the Föppl-von Kármán type. Finally, we apply these results to a model of nematic glass, including a characterization of the condition when the metric is immersible, for {G = Id3 + γ n ⊗ n} given in terms of the inhomogeneous unit director field distribution { n in R^3}.

  17. Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management. PMID:27620092

  18. Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Zhang, Gong; Yang, Xiahua; You, Shao-Hong

    2015-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2014 publications on the focus of the following sections: • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management. PMID:26420087

  19. Sustaining "Truth": Changes in Youth Tobacco Attitudes and Smoking Intentions after 3 Years of a National Antismoking Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Davis, Kevin C.; Duke, Jennifer; Messeri, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the American Legacy Foundation's "truth[R]" campaign and Philip Morris's "Think. Don't Smoke" (TDS) campaign have influenced youth's tobacco-related attitudes, beliefs and intentions during the first 3 years of the truth campaign. We use data from eight nationally representative cross-sectional telephone surveys of 35,074…

  20. Integrating Sustainable Consumption into Environmental Education: A Case Study on Environmental Representations, Decision Making and Intention to Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch.; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Ioannou, Hara; Georgiou, Yiannis; Manoli, Constantinos C.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, current consumption patterns have been recurrently blamed for rendering both the environment and our lifestyles unsustainable. Young children are considered a critical group in the effort to make a shift towards sustainable consumption (environmentally friendly consumption). However, young people should be able to consider…

  1. The Influence of Situational Emotions on the Intention for Sustainable Consumer Behaviour in a Student-Centred Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fröhlich, Gabriele; Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Within the curriculum guidelines for Bavaria, we designed a hands-on educational programme for teaching sustainability with regard to agriculture, food and consumerism, partly implemented on a farm as an out-of-school learning setting. The participants were fifth graders ("N"?=?176). The research followed a quasi-experimental design and…

  2. Plant Reproduction: Self-Incompatibility to Go.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Mendez, Alejandro; McClure, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    In a new study, the Papaver rhoeas (poppy family) self-incompatibility system has been transferred into Arabidopsis thaliana, a distantly related plant with a very different floral structure. The simple poppy self-incompatibility system may finally make it possible to introduce this potentially valuable trait into any plant. PMID:26859267

  3. A Genetic Incompatibility Accelerates Adaptation in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Bui, Duyen T; Dine, Elliot; Anderson, James B; Aquadro, Charles F; Alani, Eric E

    2015-07-01

    During mismatch repair (MMR) MSH proteins bind to mismatches that form as the result of DNA replication errors and recruit MLH factors such as Mlh1-Pms1 to initiate excision and repair steps. Previously, we identified a negative epistatic interaction involving naturally occurring polymorphisms in the MLH1 and PMS1 genes of baker's yeast. Here we hypothesize that a mutagenic state resulting from this negative epistatic interaction increases the likelihood of obtaining beneficial mutations that can promote adaptation to stress conditions. We tested this by stressing yeast strains bearing mutagenic (incompatible) and non-mutagenic (compatible) mismatch repair genotypes. Our data show that incompatible populations adapted more rapidly and without an apparent fitness cost to high salt stress. The fitness advantage of incompatible populations was rapid but disappeared over time. The fitness gains in both compatible and incompatible strains were due primarily to mutations in PMR1 that appeared earlier in incompatible evolving populations. These data demonstrate a rapid and reversible role (by mating) for genetic incompatibilities in accelerating adaptation in eukaryotes. They also provide an approach to link experimental studies to observational population genomics. PMID:26230253

  4. Widespread Genomic Incompatibilities in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Snoek, L. Basten; Orbidans, Helen E.; Stastna, Jana J.; Aartse, Aafke; Rodriguez, Miriam; Riksen, Joost A.G.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Harvey, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    In the Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model of speciation, incompatibilities emerge from the deleterious interactions between alleles that are neutral or advantageous in the original genetic backgrounds, i.e., negative epistatic effects. Within species such interactions are responsible for outbreeding depression and F2 (hybrid) breakdown. We sought to identify BDM incompatibilities in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by looking for genomic regions that disrupt egg laying; a complex, highly regulated, and coordinated phenotype. Investigation of introgression lines and recombinant inbred lines derived from the isolates CB4856 and N2 uncovered multiple incompatibility quantitative trait loci (QTL). These QTL produce a synthetic egg-laying defective phenotype not seen in CB4856 and N2 nor in other wild isolates. For two of the QTL regions, results are inconsistent with a model of pairwise interaction between two loci, suggesting that the incompatibilities are a consequence of complex interactions between multiple loci. Analysis of additional life history traits indicates that the QTL regions identified in these screens are associated with effects on other traits such as lifespan and reproduction, suggesting that the incompatibilities are likely to be deleterious. Taken together, these results indicate that numerous BDM incompatibilities that could contribute to reproductive isolation can be detected and mapped within C. elegans. PMID:25128438

  5. Incompatible measurements on quantum causal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlák, Michal; Reitzner, Daniel; Chiribella, Giulio; Ziman, Mário

    2016-05-01

    The existence of incompatible measurements, epitomized by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, is one of the distinctive features of quantum theory. So far, quantum incompatibility has been studied for measurements that test the preparation of physical systems. Here we extend the notion to measurements that test dynamical processes, possibly consisting of multiple time steps. Such measurements are known as testers and are implemented by interacting with the tested process through a sequence of state preparations, interactions, and measurements. Our first result is a characterization of the incompatibility of quantum testers, for which we provide necessary and sufficient conditions. Then we propose a quantitative measure of incompatibility. We call this measure the robustness of incompatibility and define it as the minimum amount of noise that has to be added to a set of testers in order to make them compatible. We show that (i) the robustness is lower bounded by the distinguishability of the sequence of interactions used by the tester and (ii) maximum robustness is attained when the interactions are perfectly distinguishable. The general results are illustrated in the concrete example of binary testers probing the time evolution of a single-photon polarization.

  6. Sustain

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-20

    Current building energy simulation technology requires excessive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, excessive computational time for accurate simulations and difficulties with the interpretation of the results. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. To prove this hypothesis, we developed an experimental test bed for building energy simulation. This novel test bed environment offers an easy-to-use interactive graphical interface, provides access to innovative simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphics visualization methods to interpret simulation results. Our system offers the promise of dramatic ease of use in comparison with currently available building energy simulation tools. Its modular structure makes it suitable for early stage building design, as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are demonstrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules. The incorporation of these modern graphical techniques should advance the state of the art in the domain of whole building energy analysis and building performance simulation, particularly at the conceptual design stage when decisions have the greatest impact. More importantly, these better simulation tools will enable the transition from prescriptive to performative energy codes, resulting in better, more efficient designs for our future built environment.

  7. Sustain

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-08-20

    Current building energy simulation technology requires excessive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, excessive computational time for accurate simulations and difficulties with the interpretation of the results. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. To prove this hypothesis, we developed an experimental test bed for building energy simulation. This novel test bed environment offers an easy-to-use interactivemore » graphical interface, provides access to innovative simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphics visualization methods to interpret simulation results. Our system offers the promise of dramatic ease of use in comparison with currently available building energy simulation tools. Its modular structure makes it suitable for early stage building design, as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are demonstrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules. The incorporation of these modern graphical techniques should advance the state of the art in the domain of whole building energy analysis and building performance simulation, particularly at the conceptual design stage when decisions have the greatest impact. More importantly, these better simulation tools will enable the transition from prescriptive to performative energy codes, resulting in better, more efficient designs for our future built environment.« less

  8. [Prevention of ABO-incompatible transfusion].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yasuhiko

    2011-01-01

    "Identification error between patient and blood product" is the main cause of ABO-incompatible blood transfusion, but "Phlebotomy error" also has serious consequences. In order to prevent ABO-incompatible transfusion, it is important to establish a management system of blood transfusion in the hospital, including a hospital transfusion committee and a responsible medical doctor. In addition, in large hospitals routinely carrying out a considerable number of blood transfusions, it is important to employ specialists in blood banking. More than 50 ml of ABO-incompatible blood transfusion (major ABO mismatch) causes a severe acute hemolytic reaction. Because there is little residual plasma in leukocyte-reduced red cell concentrate (RCC-LR), acute hemolysis is not detected on minor ABO mismatch blood transfusion. In the case of emergent blood transfusion, concerning the risk of acute hemolytic reaction, type-O RCC-LR blood transfusion is safer than ABO-identical RCC-LR when the blood of the patient is tested only once. When red cell antibody screening is not performed, there is a risk of hemolysis due to incompatible blood transfusion irrespective of the ABO blood group system, including a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction. PMID:21348250

  9. Incompatible Sets of Gradients and Metastability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, J. M.; James, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    We give a mathematical analysis of a concept of metastability induced by incompatibility. The physical setting is a single parent phase, just about to undergo transformation to a product phase of lower energy density. Under certain conditions of incompatibility of the energy wells of this energy density, we show that the parent phase is metastable in a strong sense, namely it is a local minimizer of the free energy in an L 1 neighbourhood of its deformation. The reason behind this result is that, due to the incompatibility of the energy wells, a small nucleus of the product phase is necessarily accompanied by a stressed transition layer whose energetic cost exceeds the energy lowering capacity of the nucleus. We define and characterize incompatible sets of matrices, in terms of which the transition layer estimate at the heart of the proof of metastability is expressed. Finally we discuss connections with experiments and place this concept of metastability in the wider context of recent theoretical and experimental research on metastability and hysteresis.

  10. ColE1 plasmid incompatibility: localization and analysis of mutations affecting incompatibility.

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto-Gotoh, T; Inselburg, J

    1979-01-01

    Deletion mutants of plasmid ColE1 that involve the replication origin and adjacent regions of the plasmid have been studied to determine the mechanism by which those mutations affect the expression of plasmid incompatibility. It was observed that (i) a region of ColE1 that is involved in the expression of plasmid incompatibility lies between base pairs -185 and -684; (ii) the integrity of at least part of the region of ColE1 DNA between base pairs -185 and -572 is essential for the expression of ColE1 incompatibility; (iii) the expression of incompatibility is independent of the ability of the ColE1 genome to replicate autonomously; (iv) plasmid incompatibility is affected by plasmid copy number; and (v) ColE1 plasmid-mediated DNA replication of the lambda phage-ColE1 chimera lambda imm434 Oam29 Pam3 ColE1 is inhibited by ColE1-incompatible but not by ColE1-compatible plasmids. Images PMID:378980

  11. Shared Intentionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael; Carpenter, Malinda

    2007-01-01

    We argue for the importance of processes of shared intentionality in children's early cognitive development. We look briefly at four important social-cognitive skills and how they are transformed by shared intentionality. In each case, we look first at a kind of individualistic version of the skill--as exemplified most clearly in the behavior of…

  12. Is Eucalyptus Cryptically Self-incompatible?

    PubMed Central

    Horsley, Tasmien N.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The probability that seeds will be fertilized from self- versus cross-pollen depends strongly on whether plants have self-incompatibility systems, and how these systems influence the fate of pollen tubes. Methods In this study of breeding systems in Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis, epifluorescence microscopy was used to study pollen tube growth in styles following self- and cross-pollinations. Key Results Pollen tubes from self-pollen took significantly longer than those from cross-pollen to grow to the base of the style in both E. urophylla (120 h vs. 96 h) and E. grandis (96 h vs. 72 h). In addition, both species exhibited reduced seed yields following self-pollination compared with cross-pollination. Conclusions The present observations suggest that, in addition to a late-acting self-incompatibility barrier, cryptic self-incompatibility could be a mechanism responsible for the preferential out-crossing system in these two eucalypt species. PMID:17881341

  13. Geometric incompatibility in a fault system.

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielov, A; Keilis-Borok, V; Jackson, D D

    1996-01-01

    Interdependence between geometry of a fault system, its kinematics, and seismicity is investigated. Quantitative measure is introduced for inconsistency between a fixed configuration of faults and the slip rates on each fault. This measure, named geometric incompatibility (G), depicts summarily the instability near the fault junctions: their divergence or convergence ("unlocking" or "locking up") and accumulation of stress and deformations. Accordingly, the changes in G are connected with dynamics of seismicity. Apart from geometric incompatibility, we consider deviation K from well-known Saint Venant condition of kinematic compatibility. This deviation depicts summarily unaccounted stress and strain accumulation in the region and/or internal inconsistencies in a reconstruction of block- and fault system (its geometry and movements). The estimates of G and K provide a useful tool for bringing together the data on different types of movement in a fault system. An analog of Stokes formula is found that allows determination of the total values of G and K in a region from the data on its boundary. The phenomenon of geometric incompatibility implies that nucleation of strong earthquakes is to large extent controlled by processes near fault junctions. The junctions that have been locked up may act as transient asperities, and unlocked junctions may act as transient weakest links. Tentative estimates of K and G are made for each end of the Big Bend of the San Andreas fault system in Southern California. Recent strong earthquakes Landers (1992, M = 7.3) and Northridge (1994, M = 6.7) both reduced K but had opposite impact on G: Landers unlocked the area, whereas Northridge locked it up again. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:11607673

  14. Geometric incompatibility in a fault system.

    PubMed

    Gabrielov, A; Keilis-Borok, V; Jackson, D D

    1996-04-30

    Interdependence between geometry of a fault system, its kinematics, and seismicity is investigated. Quantitative measure is introduced for inconsistency between a fixed configuration of faults and the slip rates on each fault. This measure, named geometric incompatibility (G), depicts summarily the instability near the fault junctions: their divergence or convergence ("unlocking" or "locking up") and accumulation of stress and deformations. Accordingly, the changes in G are connected with dynamics of seismicity. Apart from geometric incompatibility, we consider deviation K from well-known Saint Venant condition of kinematic compatibility. This deviation depicts summarily unaccounted stress and strain accumulation in the region and/or internal inconsistencies in a reconstruction of block- and fault system (its geometry and movements). The estimates of G and K provide a useful tool for bringing together the data on different types of movement in a fault system. An analog of Stokes formula is found that allows determination of the total values of G and K in a region from the data on its boundary. The phenomenon of geometric incompatibility implies that nucleation of strong earthquakes is to large extent controlled by processes near fault junctions. The junctions that have been locked up may act as transient asperities, and unlocked junctions may act as transient weakest links. Tentative estimates of K and G are made for each end of the Big Bend of the San Andreas fault system in Southern California. Recent strong earthquakes Landers (1992, M = 7.3) and Northridge (1994, M = 6.7) both reduced K but had opposite impact on G: Landers unlocked the area, whereas Northridge locked it up again. PMID:11607673

  15. Determinism, independence, and objectivity are incompatible.

    PubMed

    Ionicioiu, Radu; Mann, Robert B; Terno, Daniel R

    2015-02-13

    Hidden-variable models aim to reproduce the results of quantum theory and to satisfy our classical intuition. Their refutation is usually based on deriving predictions that are different from those of quantum mechanics. Here instead we study the mutual compatibility of apparently reasonable classical assumptions. We analyze a version of the delayed-choice experiment which ostensibly combines determinism, independence of hidden variables on the conducted experiments, and wave-particle objectivity (the assertion that quantum systems are, at any moment, either particles or waves, but not both). These three ideas are incompatible with any theory, not only with quantum mechanics. PMID:25723195

  16. Determinism, Independence, and Objectivity are Incompatible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionicioiu, Radu; Mann, Robert B.; Terno, Daniel R.

    2015-02-01

    Hidden-variable models aim to reproduce the results of quantum theory and to satisfy our classical intuition. Their refutation is usually based on deriving predictions that are different from those of quantum mechanics. Here instead we study the mutual compatibility of apparently reasonable classical assumptions. We analyze a version of the delayed-choice experiment which ostensibly combines determinism, independence of hidden variables on the conducted experiments, and wave-particle objectivity (the assertion that quantum systems are, at any moment, either particles or waves, but not both). These three ideas are incompatible with any theory, not only with quantum mechanics.

  17. Approximating incompatible von Neumann measurements simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Jivulescu, Maria Anastasia; Reitzner, Daniel; Ziman, Mario

    2010-09-15

    We study the problem of performing orthogonal qubit measurements simultaneously. Since these measurements are incompatible, one has to accept additional imprecision. An optimal joint measurement is the one with the least possible imprecision. All earlier considerations of this problem have concerned only joint measurability of observables, while in this work we also take into account conditional state transformations (i.e., instruments). We characterize the optimal joint instrument for two orthogonal von Neumann instruments as being the Lueders instrument of the optimal joint observable.

  18. The Use of Paradoxical Intention in the Treatment of Panic Attacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dattilio, Frank M.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the counseling use of paradoxical intention, in which clients are told to perform responses that seem incompatible with the goal for which they are seeking help. The use of paradoxical intention in the treatment of panic attacks is described and a case example is included. The nature and implementation of the technique are discussed.…

  19. Genetic analysis of interspecific incompatibility in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Udagawa, H; Ishimaru, Y; Li, F; Sato, Y; Kitashiba, H; Nishio, T

    2010-08-01

    In interspecific pollination of Brassica rapa stigmas with Brassica oleracea pollen grains, pollen tubes cannot penetrate stigma tissues. This trait, called interspecific incompatibility, is similar to self-incompatibility in pollen tube behaviors of rejected pollen grains. Since some B. rapa lines have no interspecific incompatibility, genetic analysis of interspecific incompatibility was performed using two F(2) populations. Analysis with an F(2) population between an interspecific-incompatible line and a self-compatible cultivar 'Yellow sarson' having non-functional alleles of S-locus genes and MLPK, the stigmas of which are compatible with B. oleracea pollen grains, revealed no involvement of the S locus and MLPK in the difference of their interspecific incompatibility phenotypes. In QTL analysis of the strength of interspecific incompatibility, three peaks of LOD scores were found, but their LOD scores were as high as the threshold value, and the variance explained by each QTL was small. QTL analysis using another F(2) population derived from selected parents having the highest and lowest levels of interspecific incompatibility revealed five QTLs with high LOD scores, which did not correspond to those found in the former population. The QTL having the highest LOD score was found in linkage group A02. The effect of this QTL on interspecific incompatibility was confirmed by analyzing backcrossed progeny. Based on synteny of this QTL region with Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 5, a possible candidate gene, which might be involved in interspecific incompatibility, is discussed. PMID:20414635

  20. The Incompatibility of Living Systems: Characterizing Growth-Induced Incompatibilities in Expanded Skin.

    PubMed

    Buganza Tepole, Adrian; Gart, Michael; Purnell, Chad A; Gosain, Arun K; Kuhl, Ellen

    2016-05-01

    Skin expansion is a common surgical technique to correct large cutaneous defects. Selecting a successful expansion protocol is solely based on the experience and personal preference of the operating surgeon. Skin expansion could be improved by predictive computational simulations. Towards this goal, we model skin expansion using the continuum framework of finite growth. This approach crucially relies on the concept of incompatible configurations. However, aside from the classical opening angle experiment, our current understanding of growth-induced incompatibilities remains rather vague. Here we visualize and characterize incompatibilities in living systems using skin expansion in a porcine model: We implanted and inflated two expanders, crescent, and spherical, and filled them to 225 cc throughout a period of 21 days. To quantify the residual strains developed during this period, we excised the expanded skin patches and subdivided them into smaller pieces. Skin growth averaged 1.17 times the original area for the spherical and 1.10 for the crescent expander, and displayed significant regional variations. When subdivided into smaller pieces, the grown skin patches retracted heterogeneously and confirmed the existence of incompatibilities. Understanding skin growth through mechanical stretch will allow surgeons to improve-and ultimately personalize-preoperative treatment planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. PMID:26416721

  1. Incompatible quantum measurements admitting a local-hidden-variable model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintino, Marco Túlio; Bowles, Joseph; Hirsch, Flavien; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    The observation of quantum nonlocality, i.e., quantum correlations violating a Bell inequality, implies the use of incompatible local quantum measurements. Here we consider the converse question. That is, can any set of incompatible measurements be used in order to demonstrate Bell inequality violation? Our main result is to construct a local hidden variable model for an incompatible set of qubit measurements. Specifically, we show that if Alice uses this set of measurements, then for any possible shared entangled state and any possible dichotomic measurements performed by Bob, the resulting statistics are local. This represents significant progress towards proving that measurement incompatibility does not imply Bell nonlocality in general.

  2. Incompatible Trace Element Abundances in Hawaiian Olivines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G.; Huang, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    2009-12-01

    Our understanding of trace elements partitioning between olivine and silicate melt is clouded by large variations in values of partition coefficients presented in the literature. In general, partition coefficients from phenocryst-matrix results are higher than those from experimental equilibration and in-situ measurements (such as LA-ICP-MS and Ion-probe) (Blard and Farley, 2008; Lee et al., 2007). This discrepancy is possibly caused by the presence of melt or micromineral inclusions in the analyzed phenocrysts, or contamination of grain boundaries by enriched glasses or accessory phases or uranium pick up from alteration of olivines. To further investigate why analysis of natural phenocrysts usually results in relative high apparent D’s for incompatible trace elements, six aliquots of olivine grains from a single sediment sample of Waimea river watershed, on the western side of the island of Kauai, Hawaii, were analyzed by solution ICP-MS at Harvard University for trace element concentrations. Two aliquots of olivines were leached in 1% oxalic acid for 45-60 min at 90 OC before dissolution. Leached and unleached olivines mostly show positive linear correlations in plots of incompatible trace elements versus La, which possibly indicates mixing lines between olivine and one end-member with higher incompatible element concentration (possibly melt inclusion). Assuming La concentration in olivine is zero, we estimate concentration of other incompatible elements in olivines using intercepts of these mixing lines. We obtain that U and Th concentration in the olivines to be about 1 ppb and 0.1 ppb respectively, corresponding to apparent DUol/melt and DThol/melt of 0.003 and 0.0001 if host lave has U of 0.3 ppm and Th of 1ppm (Gayer et al.,2008). Recently, helium isotopic measurements were made in these olivines (Gayer et al., 2008) and the results yield a basin-wide average erosion rate of 0.056 mma-1 for Waimea river watershed. Gayer et al. (2008) argued that

  3. 40 CFR 264.257 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.257 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. (a) Incompatible... placed in the same pile, unless § 264.17(b) is complied with. (b) A pile of hazardous waste that...

  4. 40 CFR 264.257 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.257 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. (a) Incompatible... placed in the same pile, unless § 264.17(b) is complied with. (b) A pile of hazardous waste that...

  5. 40 CFR 265.177 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT... waste must not be placed in an unwashed container that previously held an incompatible waste or material... hazardous waste that is incompatible with any waste or other materials stored nearby in other...

  6. 40 CFR 265.199 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT...) Incompatible wastes, or incompatible waste and materials, must not be placed in the same tank system, unless § 265.17(b) is complied with. (b) Hazardous waste must not be placed in a tank system that has not...

  7. 40 CFR 264.313 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.313 Section 264.313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.313 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. Incompatible...

  8. 46 CFR 98.30-29 - Piping incompatible products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping incompatible products. 98.30-29 Section 98.30-29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Piping incompatible products. No person may pipe a portable tank with another tank that contains...

  9. 46 CFR 98.30-29 - Piping incompatible products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping incompatible products. 98.30-29 Section 98.30-29 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Piping incompatible products. No person may pipe a portable tank with another tank that contains...

  10. A genomic approach to identify hybrid incompatibility genes

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jacob C.; Phadnis, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uncovering the genetic and molecular basis of barriers to gene flow between populations is key to understanding how new species are born. Intrinsic postzygotic reproductive barriers such as hybrid sterility and hybrid inviability are caused by deleterious genetic interactions known as hybrid incompatibilities. The difficulty in identifying these hybrid incompatibility genes remains a rate-limiting step in our understanding of the molecular basis of speciation. We recently described how whole genome sequencing can be applied to identify hybrid incompatibility genes, even from genetically terminal hybrids. Using this approach, we discovered a new hybrid incompatibility gene, gfzf, between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans, and found that it plays an essential role in cell cycle regulation. Here, we discuss the history of the hunt for incompatibility genes between these species, discuss the molecular roles of gfzf in cell cycle regulation, and explore how intragenomic conflict drives the evolution of fundamental cellular mechanisms that lead to the developmental arrest of hybrids. PMID:27230814

  11. Evolution and Molecular Control of Hybrid Incompatibility in Plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; E, Zhiguo; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation (RI) plays an important role in speciation. According to the stage at which it functions and the symptoms it displays, postzygotic RI can be called hybrid inviability, hybrid weakness or necrosis, hybrid sterility, or hybrid breakdown. In this review, we summarized new findings about hybrid incompatibilities in plants, most of which are from studies on Arabidopsis and rice. Recent progress suggests that hybrid incompatibility is a by-product of co-evolution either with "parasitic" selfish elements in the genome or with invasive microbes in the natural environment. We discuss the environmental influences on the expression of hybrid incompatibility and the possible effects of environment-dependent hybrid incompatibility on sympatric speciation. We also discuss the role of domestication on the evolution of hybrid incompatibilities. PMID:27563306

  12. Evolution and Molecular Control of Hybrid Incompatibility in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; E, Zhiguo; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation (RI) plays an important role in speciation. According to the stage at which it functions and the symptoms it displays, postzygotic RI can be called hybrid inviability, hybrid weakness or necrosis, hybrid sterility, or hybrid breakdown. In this review, we summarized new findings about hybrid incompatibilities in plants, most of which are from studies on Arabidopsis and rice. Recent progress suggests that hybrid incompatibility is a by-product of co-evolution either with “parasitic” selfish elements in the genome or with invasive microbes in the natural environment. We discuss the environmental influences on the expression of hybrid incompatibility and the possible effects of environment-dependent hybrid incompatibility on sympatric speciation. We also discuss the role of domestication on the evolution of hybrid incompatibilities. PMID:27563306

  13. Is phosphorus predictably incompatible in igneous processes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Barnes, S.

    1984-01-01

    Siderophile element abundances are central to recent models for core formation in the Earth and Moon and the origin of the Moon. It is important to identify siderophile elements whose behavior in igneous processes is predictable, so that primary mantle abundances can be deduced by subtracting out the effects of igneous processes. Newsom's model for core formation in the Moon requires subchondritic P, and suggests that P was depleted due to volatility. Experiments were conducted to determine P olivine/liquid distribution coefficients. Preliminary results indicate that P can be compatible with olivine during rapid cooling, but is not during isothermal crystallization with long growth times, and tends to be expelled during annealing. It is therefore not likely that P is compatible under any widespread igneous conditions, and the incompatible behavior of P in lunar crustal rocks can be safety assumed. In addition, low fO2 is insufficient to cause P compatibility, so it is unlikely that P-rich silicates formed during the early evolution of the Earth or Moon. These results indicate that P is depleted in the Moon.

  14. Evolution of Wolbachia cytoplasmic incompatibility types.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Stephen L

    2004-10-01

    The success of obligate endosymbiotic Wolbachia infections in insects is due in part to cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), whereby Wolbachia bacteria manipulate host reproduction to promote their invasion and persistence within insect populations. The observed diversity of CI types raises the question of what the evolutionary pathways are by which a new CI type can evolve from an ancestral type. Prior evolutionary models assume that Wolbachia exists within a host individual as a clonal infection. While endosymbiotic theory predicts a general trend toward clonality, Wolbachia provides an exception in which there is selection to maintain diversity. Here, evolutionary trajectories are discussed that assume that a novel Wolbachia variant will co-exist with the original infection type within a host individual as a superinfection. Relative to prior models, this assumption relaxes requirements and allows additional pathways for the evolution of novel CI types. In addition to describing changes in the Wolbachia infection frequency associated with the hypothesized evolutionary events, the predicted impact of novel CI variants on the host population is also described. This impact, resulting from discordant evolutionary interests of symbiont and host, is discussed as a possible cause of Wolbachia loss from the host population or host population extinction. The latter is also discussed as the basis for an applied strategy for the suppression of insect pest populations. Model predictions are discussed relative to a recently published Wolbachia genome sequence and prior characterization of CI in naturally and artificially infected insects. PMID:15562682

  15. ABO incompatible renal transplants: Good or bad?

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, Masaki; Gonzalez, Hector Daniel; Cacciola, Roberto; Aikawa, Atsushi; Yaqoob, Magdi M; Puliatti, Carmelo

    2014-01-01

    ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) was previously considered to be an absolute contraindication for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) due to hyperacute rejection related to blood type barrier. Since the first successful series of ABOi-KT was reported, ABOi-KT is performed increasingly all over the world. ABOi-KT has led to an expanded donor pool and reduced the number of patients with ESKD awaiting deceased kidney transplantation (KT). Intensified immunosuppression and immunological understanding has helped to shape current desensitization protocols. Consequently, in recent years, ABOi-KT outcome is comparable to ABO compatible KT (ABOc-KT). However, many questions still remain unanswered. In ABOi-KT, there is an additional residual immunological risk that may lead to allograft damage, despite using current diverse but usually intensified immunosuppressive protocols at the expense of increasing risk of infection and possibly malignancy. Notably, in ABOi-KT, desensitization and antibody reduction therapies have increased the cost of KT. Reassuringly, there has been an evolution in ABOi-KT leading to a simplification of protocols over the last decade. This review provides an overview of the history, outcome, protocol, advantages and disadvantages in ABOi-KT, and focuses on whether ABOi-KT should be recommended as a therapeutic option of KT in the future. PMID:24669364

  16. Decoding Intention at Sensorimotor Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Salvaris, Mathew; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The ability to decode an individual's intentions in real time has long been a ‘holy grail’ of research on human volition. For example, a reliable method could be used to improve scientific study of voluntary action by allowing external probe stimuli to be delivered at different moments during development of intention and action. Several Brain Computer Interface applications have used motor imagery of repetitive actions to achieve this goal. These systems are relatively successful, but only if the intention is sustained over a period of several seconds; much longer than the timescales identified in psychophysiological studies for normal preparation for voluntary action. We have used a combination of sensorimotor rhythms and motor imagery training to decode intentions in a single-trial cued-response paradigm similar to those used in human and non-human primate motor control research. Decoding accuracy of over 0.83 was achieved with twelve participants. With this approach, we could decode intentions to move the left or right hand at sub-second timescales, both for instructed choices instructed by an external stimulus and for free choices generated intentionally by the participant. The implications for volition are considered. PMID:24523855

  17. Intent Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating the implications of using abstractions based on intent rather than the aggregation and information-hiding abstractions commonly used in software en- gineering: Cognitive psychologists have shown that intent abstraction is consistent with human problem-solving processes. We believe that new types of specifications and designs based on this concept can assist in understanding and specifying requirements, capturing the most important design rationale information in an efficient and economical way, and supporting the process of identifying and analyzing required changes to minimize the introduction of errors. The goal of hierarchical abstraction is to allow both top-down and bottom-up reasoning about a complex system. In computer science, we have made much use of (1) part-whole abstractions where each level of a hierarchy represents an aggregation of the components at a lower level and of (2) information-hiding abstractions where each level contains the same conceptual information but hides some details about the concepts, that is, each level is a refinement of the information at a higher level.

  18. Unilateral Incompatibility in Capsicum (Solanaceae): Occurrence and Taxonomic Distribution

    PubMed Central

    ONUS, A. NACI; PICKERSGILL, BARBARA

    2004-01-01

    • Background and aims Unilateral incompatibility (UI) occurs when pollinations between species are successful in one direction but not in the other. Self-incompatible (SI) species frequently show UI with genetically related, self-compatible (SC) species, as pollen of SI species is compatible on the SC pistil, but not vice versa. Many examples of unilateral incompatibility, and all those which have been studied most intensively, are found in the Solanaceae, particularly Lycopersicon, Solanum, Nicotiana and Petunia. The genus Capsicum is evolutionarily somewhat distant from Lycopersicon and Solanum and even further removed from Nicotiana and Petunia. Unilateral incompatibility has also been reported in Capsicum; however, this is the first comprehensive study of crosses between all readily available species in the genus. • Methods All readily available (wild and domesticated) species in the genus are used as plant material, including the three genera from the Capsicum pubescens complex plus eight other species. Pollinations were made on pot-grown plants in a glasshouse. The number of pistils pollinated per cross varied (from five to 40 pistils per plant), depending on the numbers of flowers available. Pistils were collected 24 h after pollination and fixed for 3–24 h. After staining, pistils were mounted in a drop of stain, squashed gently under a cover slip and examined microscopically under ultra-violet light for pollen tube growth. • Key results Unilateral incompatibility is confirmed in the C. pubescens complex. Its direction conforms to that predominant in the Solanaceae and other families, i.e. pistils of self-incompatible species, or self-compatible taxa closely related to self-incompatible species, inhibit pollen tubes of self-compatible species. • Conclusions Unilateral incompatibility in Capsicum does not seem to have arisen to prevent introgression of self-compatibility into self-incompatible taxa, but as a by-product of divergence of the C

  19. Incompatibility Groups and the Classification of fi− Resistance Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chabbert, Y. A.; Scavizzi, M. R.; Witchitz, J. L.; Gerbaud, G. R.; Bouanchaud, D. H.

    1972-01-01

    Incompatibility between R factors has been reported by several authors, and four incompatibility groups have already been described by Datta and Hedges among Rfi− factors. The stability of 12 plasmids in pairs was studied after 116 crosses, and five new groups were found, designated 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. Each plasmid studied belongs to one single group. Incompatibility between plasmids in pairs is a clear-cut phenomenon, is easy to observe, and can provide a reliable method for recognizing and classifying resistance factors, and for tracing their spread among bacterial species. PMID:4628744

  20. Quantitative relations between measurement incompatibility, quantum steering, and nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Skrzypczyk, P.

    2016-05-01

    The certification of Bell nonlocality or quantum steering implies the use of incompatible measurements. Here we make this connection quantitative. We show how to strengthen robustness-based steering and nonlocality quantifiers in order that they give strong lower bounds to previously proposed incompatibility quantifiers. Our results can be seen from two perspectives. On the one hand, they can be used to estimate how much steering or nonlocality can be demonstrated with a given set of measurements. On the other hand, they give one-sided device-independent and device-independent ways of estimating measurement incompatibility.

  1. Arrow physicians: are economics and medicine philosophically incompatible?

    PubMed

    Tsang, Sandro

    2015-06-01

    Economics is en route to its further expansion in medicine, but many in the medical community remain unconvinced that its impact will be positive. Thus, a philosophical enquiry into the compatibility of economics and medicine is necessary to resolve the disagreements. The fundamental mission of medicine obliges physicians to practise science and compassion to serve the patient's best interests. Conventional (neoclassical) economics assumes that individuals are self-interested and that competitive markets will emerge optimal states. Economics is seemingly incompatible with the emphasis of putting patients' interests first. This idea is refuted by Professor Kenneth Arrow's health economics seminal paper. Arrow emphasizes that medical practice involves agency, knowledge, trust and professionalism, and physician-patient relation critically affects care quality. The term Arrow Physician is used to mean a humanistic carer who has a concern for the patient and acts on the best available evidence with health equity in mind. To make this practice sustainable, implementing appropriate motivations, constitutions and institutions to enable altruistic agency is critical. There is substantial evidence that polycentric governance can encourage building trust and reciprocity, so as to avoid depletion of communal resources. This paper proposes building trusting institutions through granting altruistic physicians adequate autonomy to direct resources based on patients' technical needs. It also summarizes the philosophy bases of medicine and economics. It, therefore, contributes to developing a shared language to facilitate intellectual dialogues, and will encourage trans-disciplinary research into medical practice. This should lead to medicine being reoriented to care for whole persons again. PMID:25850973

  2. Breaking Gaussian incompatibility on continuous variable quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Kiukas, Jukka; Schultz, Jussi

    2015-08-15

    We characterise Gaussian quantum channels that are Gaussian incompatibility breaking, that is, transform every set of Gaussian measurements into a set obtainable from a joint Gaussian observable via Gaussian postprocessing. Such channels represent local noise which renders measurements useless for Gaussian EPR-steering, providing the appropriate generalisation of entanglement breaking channels for this scenario. Understanding the structure of Gaussian incompatibility breaking channels contributes to the resource theory of noisy continuous variable quantum information protocols.

  3. Noise robustness of the incompatibility of quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Kiukas, Jukka; Reitzner, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The existence of incompatible measurements is a fundamental phenomenon having no explanation in classical physics. Intuitively, one considers given measurements to be incompatible within a framework of a physical theory, if their simultaneous implementation on a single physical device is prohibited by the theory itself. In the mathematical language of quantum theory, measurements are described by POVMs (positive operator valued measures), and given POVMs are by definition incompatible if they cannot be obtained via coarse-graining from a single common POVM; this notion generalizes noncommutativity of projective measurements. In quantum theory, incompatibility can be regarded as a resource necessary for manifesting phenomena such as Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality violations or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering which do not have classical explanation. We define operational ways of quantifying this resource via the amount of added classical noise needed to render the measurements compatible, i.e., useless as a resource. In analogy to entanglement measures, we generalize this idea by introducing the concept of incompatibility measure, which is monotone in local operations. In this paper, we restrict our consideration to binary measurements, which are already sufficient to explicitly demonstrate nontrivial features of the theory. In particular, we construct a family of incompatibility monotones operationally quantifying violations of certain scaled versions of the CHSH Bell inequality, prove that they can be computed via a semidefinite program, and show how the noise-based quantities arise as special cases. We also determine maximal violations of the new inequalities, demonstrating how Tsirelson's bound appears as a special case. The resource aspect is further motivated by simple quantum protocols where our incompatibility monotones appear as relevant figures of merit.

  4. The effect of Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility on host population size in natural and manipulated systems.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Stephen L; Fox, Charles W; Jiggins, Francis M

    2002-03-01

    Obligate, intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia often behave as reproductive parasites by manipulating host reproduction to enhance their vertical transmission. One of these reproductive manipulations, cytoplasmic incompatibility, causes a reduction in egg-hatch rate in crosses between individuals with differing infections. Applied strategies based upon cytoplasmic incompatibility have been proposed for both the suppression and replacement of host populations. As Wolbachia infections occur within a broad range of invertebrates, these strategies are potentially applicable to a variety of medically and economically important insects. Here, we examine the interaction between Wolbachia infection frequency and host population size. We use a model to describe natural invasions of Wolbachia infections, artificial releases of infected hosts and releases of sterile males, as part of a traditional sterile insect technique programme. Model simulations demonstrate the importance of understanding the reproductive rate and intraspecific competition type of the targeted population, showing that releases of sterile or incompatible individuals may cause an undesired increase in the adult number. In addition, the model suggests a novel applied strategy that employs Wolbachia infections to suppress host populations. Releases of Wolbachia-infected hosts can be used to sustain artificially an unstable coexistence of multiple incompatible infections within a host population, allowing the host population size to be reduced, maintained at low levels, or eliminated. PMID:11886634

  5. Cytoplasmic Incompatibility and Bacterial Density in Nasonia Vitripennis

    PubMed Central

    Breeuwer, JAJ.; Werren, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    Cytoplasmically (maternally) inherited bacteria that cause reproductive incompatibility between strains are widespread among insects. In the parasitoid wasp Nasonia, incompatibility results in improper condensation and fragmentation of the paternal chromosomes in fertilized eggs. Some form of genome imprinting may be involved. Because of haplodiploidy, incompatibility results in conversion of (diploid) female eggs into (haploid) males. Experiments show that bacterial density is correlated with compatibility differences between male and female Nasonia. Males from strains with high bacterial numbers are incompatible with females from strains with lower numbers. Temporal changes in compatibility of females after tetracycline treatment are generally correlated with decreases in bacterial levels in eggs. However, complete loss of bacteria in mature eggs precedes conversion of eggs to the ``asymbiont'' compatibility type by 3-4 days. This result is consistent with a critical ``imprinting'' period during egg maturation, when cytoplasmic bacteria determine compatibility. Consequent inheritance of reduced bacterial numbers in F(1) progeny has different effects on compatibility type of subsequent male vs. female progeny. In some cases, partial incompatibility occurs which results in reduced offspring numbers, apparently due to incomplete paternal chromosome elimination resulting in aneuploidy. PMID:8244014

  6. Rural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of

  7. Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Across ABO-Incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Yu-Chao; Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Wu, Tsung-Han; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Wu, Ting-Jung; Chan, Kun-Ming; Lee, Ching-Song; Lee, Wei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of adult ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). ABO-incompatible LDLT is an aggressive treatment that crosses the blood-typing barrier for saving lives from liver diseases. Although graft and patient survival have been improved recently by various treatments, the results of adult ABO-incompatible LDLT require further evaluation. Two regimens were designed based on isoagglutinin IgG and IgM titers and the time course of immunological reactions at this institute. When isoagglutinin IgG and IgM titers were ≤64, liver transplantation was directly performed and rituximab (375 mg/m2) was administrated on postoperative day 1 (regimen I). When isoagglutinin titers were >64, rituximab (375 mg/m2) was administered preoperatively with or without plasmapheresis and boosted on postoperative day 1 (regimen II). Immunosuppression was achieved by administration of mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and steroids. Forty-six adult ABO-incompatible and 340 ABO-compatible LDLTs were performed from 2006 to 2013. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores for ABO-incompatible recipients ranged from 7 to 40, with a median of 14. The graft-to-recipient weight ratio ranged from 0.61% to 1.61% with a median of 0.91%. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 81.7%, 75.7%, and 71.0%, respectively, for ABO-incompatible LDLT recipients, compared to 81.0%, 75.2%, and 71.5% for ABO-C recipients (P = 0.912). The biliary complication rate was higher in ABO-incompatible LDLT recipients than in the ABO-compatible recipients (50.0% vs 29.7%, P = 0.009). In the rituximab era, the blood type barrier can be crossed to achieve adult ABO-incompatible LDLT with survival rates comparable to those of ABO-compatible LDLT, but with more biliary complications. PMID:26496313

  8. Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Across ABO-Incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Yu-Chao; Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Wu, Tsung-Han; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Wu, Ting-Jung; Chan, Kun-Ming; Lee, Ching-Song; Lee, Wei-Chen

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of adult ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).ABO-incompatible LDLT is an aggressive treatment that crosses the blood-typing barrier for saving lives from liver diseases. Although graft and patient survival have been improved recently by various treatments, the results of adult ABO-incompatible LDLT require further evaluation.Two regimens were designed based on isoagglutinin IgG and IgM titers and the time course of immunological reactions at this institute. When isoagglutinin IgG and IgM titers were ≤64, liver transplantation was directly performed and rituximab (375 mg/m) was administrated on postoperative day 1 (regimen I). When isoagglutinin titers were >64, rituximab (375 mg/m) was administered preoperatively with or without plasmapheresis and boosted on postoperative day 1 (regimen II). Immunosuppression was achieved by administration of mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and steroids.Forty-six adult ABO-incompatible and 340 ABO-compatible LDLTs were performed from 2006 to 2013. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores for ABO-incompatible recipients ranged from 7 to 40, with a median of 14. The graft-to-recipient weight ratio ranged from 0.61% to 1.61% with a median of 0.91%. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 81.7%, 75.7%, and 71.0%, respectively, for ABO-incompatible LDLT recipients, compared to 81.0%, 75.2%, and 71.5% for ABO-C recipients (P = 0.912). The biliary complication rate was higher in ABO-incompatible LDLT recipients than in the ABO-compatible recipients (50.0% vs 29.7%, P = 0.009).In the rituximab era, the blood type barrier can be crossed to achieve adult ABO-incompatible LDLT with survival rates comparable to those of ABO-compatible LDLT, but with more biliary complications. PMID:26496313

  9. 40 CFR 264.199 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.199 Section 264.199 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 264.199 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. (a)...

  10. 40 CFR 264.177 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.177 Section 264.177 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.177 Special requirements for incompatible...

  11. Variance-based uncertainty relations for incompatible observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Cao, Ning-Ping; Fei, Shao-Ming; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-06-01

    We formulate uncertainty relations for arbitrary finite number of incompatible observables. Based on the sum of variances of the observables, both Heisenberg-type and Schrödinger-type uncertainty relations are provided. These new lower bounds are stronger in most of the cases than the ones derived from some existing inequalities. Detailed examples are presented.

  12. 40 CFR 264.199 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...(b) is complied with. (b) Hazardous waste must not be placed in a tank system that has not been decontaminated and that previously held an incompatible waste or material, unless § 264.17(b) is complied with....

  13. 40 CFR 264.282 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.282 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. The owner or... part for examples), in or on the same treatment zone, unless § 264.17(b) is complied with....

  14. 40 CFR 264.313 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special requirements for incompatible wastes. 264.313 Section 264.313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE,...

  15. 40 CFR 264.282 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.282 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. The owner or... part for examples), in or on the same treatment zone, unless § 264.17(b) is complied with....

  16. 40 CFR 264.313 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special requirements for incompatible wastes. 264.313 Section 264.313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE,...

  17. 40 CFR 264.177 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND... be placed in the same container, unless § 264.17(b) is complied with. (b) Hazardous waste must not be placed in an unwashed container that previously held an incompatible waste or material. (c) A...

  18. 40 CFR 265.230 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.230 Special requirements for incompatible... be placed in the same surface impoundment, unless § 265.17(b) is complied with....

  19. 40 CFR 264.230 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.230 Special requirements for incompatible wastes... be placed in the same surface impoundment, unless § 264.17(b) is complied with....

  20. 40 CFR 264.230 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.230 Special requirements for incompatible wastes... be placed in the same surface impoundment, unless § 264.17(b) is complied with....

  1. 40 CFR 265.230 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 265.230 Special requirements for incompatible... be placed in the same surface impoundment, unless § 265.17(b) is complied with....

  2. 30 CFR 57.16012 - Storage of incompatible substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 57.16012 Section 57.16012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  3. 30 CFR 56.16012 - Storage of incompatible substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 56.16012 Section 56.16012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  4. 30 CFR 56.16012 - Storage of incompatible substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 56.16012 Section 56.16012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  5. 30 CFR 57.16012 - Storage of incompatible substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 57.16012 Section 57.16012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  6. 30 CFR 57.16012 - Storage of incompatible substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 57.16012 Section 57.16012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  7. 30 CFR 56.16012 - Storage of incompatible substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 56.16012 Section 56.16012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16012 Storage...

  8. 30 CFR 57.16012 - Storage of incompatible substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 57.16012 Section 57.16012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  9. 30 CFR 56.16012 - Storage of incompatible substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 56.16012 Section 56.16012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  10. 30 CFR 56.16012 - Storage of incompatible substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substances, where such contact could cause a violent reaction or the liberation of harmful fumes or gases. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 56.16012 Section 56.16012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL...

  11. 30 CFR 57.16012 - Storage of incompatible substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substances, where such contact could cause a violent reaction or the liberation of harmful fumes or gases. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Storage of incompatible substances. 57.16012 Section 57.16012 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL...

  12. 40 CFR 264.282 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.282 Section 264.282 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.282 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. The owner...

  13. 40 CFR 264.177 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.177 Section 264.177 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.177 Special requirements for incompatible...

  14. 40 CFR 264.230 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.230 Section 264.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.230 Special requirements for incompatible...

  15. 40 CFR 264.257 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.257 Section 264.257 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.257 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 264.199 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.199 Section 264.199 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 264.199 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. (a)...

  17. Information complementarity: A new paradigm for decoding quantum incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2015-01-01

    The existence of observables that are incompatible or not jointly measurable is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics, which lies at the root of a number of nonclassical phenomena, such as uncertainty relations, wave—particle dual behavior, Bell-inequality violation, and contextuality. However, no intuitive criterion is available for determining the compatibility of even two (generalized) observables, despite the overarching importance of this problem and intensive efforts of many researchers. Here we introduce an information theoretic paradigm together with an intuitive geometric picture for decoding incompatible observables, starting from two simple ideas: Every observable can only provide limited information and information is monotonic under data processing. By virtue of quantum estimation theory, we introduce a family of universal criteria for detecting incompatible observables and a natural measure of incompatibility, which are applicable to arbitrary number of arbitrary observables. Based on this framework, we derive a family of universal measurement uncertainty relations, provide a simple information theoretic explanation of quantitative wave—particle duality, and offer new perspectives for understanding Bell nonlocality, contextuality, and quantum precision limit. PMID:26392075

  18. Genetic incompatibility drives mate choice in a parasitic wasp

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Allelic incompatibility between individuals of the same species should select for mate choice based on the genetic make-up of both partners at loci that influence offspring fitness. As a consequence, mate choice may be an important driver of allelic diversity. A complementary sex determination (CSD) system is responsible for intraspecific allelic incompatibility in many species of ants, bees, and wasps. CSD may thus favour disassortative mating and in this, resembles the MHC of the vertebrate immune system, or the self-incompatibility (SI) system of higher plants. Results Here we show that in the monogamous parasitic wasp Bracon brevicornis (Wesmael), females are able to reject partners with incompatible alleles. Forcing females to accept initially rejected partners resulted in sex ratio distortion and partial infertility of offspring. Conclusions CSD-disassortative mating occurred independent of kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance in our experiment. The fitness consequences of mate choice are directly observable, not influenced by environmental effects, and more severe than in comparable systems (SI or MHC), on individuals as well as at the population level. Our results thus demonstrate the strong potential of female mate choice for maintaining high offspring fitness in this species. PMID:23895372

  19. Information complementarity: A new paradigm for decoding quantum incompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2015-09-01

    The existence of observables that are incompatible or not jointly measurable is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics, which lies at the root of a number of nonclassical phenomena, such as uncertainty relations, wave—particle dual behavior, Bell-inequality violation, and contextuality. However, no intuitive criterion is available for determining the compatibility of even two (generalized) observables, despite the overarching importance of this problem and intensive efforts of many researchers. Here we introduce an information theoretic paradigm together with an intuitive geometric picture for decoding incompatible observables, starting from two simple ideas: Every observable can only provide limited information and information is monotonic under data processing. By virtue of quantum estimation theory, we introduce a family of universal criteria for detecting incompatible observables and a natural measure of incompatibility, which are applicable to arbitrary number of arbitrary observables. Based on this framework, we derive a family of universal measurement uncertainty relations, provide a simple information theoretic explanation of quantitative wave—particle duality, and offer new perspectives for understanding Bell nonlocality, contextuality, and quantum precision limit.

  20. 40 CFR 265.406 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special requirements for incompatible wastes. 265.406 Section 265.406 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES...

  1. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Preester, Helena

    2002-09-01

    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  2. Covalent Fusion of layered Incompatible Gels in Immiscible Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Santidan; Singh, Awaneesh; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna C.

    We carry out dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations to model a two layered stackable gel where the gels are incompatible and are present in immiscible solvent. The bottom layer of the gel is created first and then a solution of new initiators, monomers and cross-linkers is introduced on top of it. These components then undergo polymerization and form the second gel layer. We study all possible combinations of free radical polymerization (FRP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) mechanisms with the two layers of the gel. For example, the bottom layer gel is created via ATRP, whereas the top layer gel follows FRP. Our focus is to do a systematic study of all these combinations and find out the factors responsible for combining two incompatible gels in immiscible solvents.

  3. Resolving the scale incompatibility dilemma in river basin management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Jim; Easter, K. William

    2004-08-01

    This study illustrates how integrated river basin management can conflict with our increased emphasis on decentralizing water resources decision making. For over a decade, water and environmental decision making in many countries has been shifting from national levels to state/province and local levels. At the same time we have increasingly found that it is critical to consider how individual water resource decisions impact the river basin. We provide detailed examples of this incompatibility dilemma from the United States and Turkey as well as smaller examples from Japan and Macedonia. We argue that new institutional models are required for effective river basin management and that implementation of such models can be evaluated through the use of transaction costs. This study concludes with examples of institutional arrangements that can help bridge the incompatibility gap.

  4. Drug incompatibilities in the adult intensive care unit of a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Marsilio, Naiane Roveda; da Silva, Daiandy; Bueno, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to identify the physical and chemical incompatibilities among the drugs administered intravenously to patients admitted to an adult intensive care unit. We also aimed to establish pharmaceutical guidelines for administering incompatible drugs. Methods This cross-sectional, prospective, and quantitative study was conducted from July to September 2015. Drug incompatibilities were identified based on an analysis of the patient prescriptions available in the hospital online management system. A pharmaceutical intervention was performed using the guidelines on the preparation and administration of incompatible drugs. Adherence to those guidelines was subsequently assessed among the nursing staff. Results A total of 100 prescriptions were analyzed; 68 were incompatible with the intravenous drugs prescribed. A total of 271 drug incompatibilities were found, averaging 4.0 ± 3.3 incompatibilities per prescription. The most commonly found drug incompatibilities were between midazolam and hydrocortisone (8.9%), between cefepime and midazolam (5.2%), and between hydrocortisone and vancomycin (5.2%). The drugs most commonly involved in incompatibilities were midazolam, hydrocortisone, and vancomycin. The most common incompatibilities occurred when a drug was administered via continuous infusion and another was administered intermittently (50%). Of the 68 prescriptions that led to pharmaceutical guidelines, 45 (66.2%) were fully adhered to by the nursing staff. Conclusion Patients under intensive care were subjected to a high rate of incompatibilities. Drug incompatibilities can be identified and eliminated by the pharmacist on the multidisciplinary team, thereby reducing undesirable effects among patients. PMID:27410410

  5. Identification of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) Self-Incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fan; Zhang, Feng-Jiao; Chen, Fa-Di; Fang, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    There has been a heated argument over self-incompatibilityof chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) among chrysanthemum breeders. In order to solve the argument, we investigated pistil receptivity, seed set, and compatible index of 24 chrysanthemum cultivars. It was found that the 24 cultivars averagely had 3.7–36.3 pollen grains germinating on stigmas at 24 hours after self-pollination through the fluorescence microscope using aniline blue staining method. However, only 10 of them produced self-pollinated seeds, and their seed sets and compatible indexes were 0.03–56.50% and 0.04–87.50, respectively. The cultivar “Q10-33-1” had the highest seed set (56.50%) and compatible index (87.50), but ten of its progeny had a wide range of separation in seed set (0–37.23%) and compatible index (0–68.65). The results indicated that most of chrysanthemum cultivars were self-incompatible, while a small proportion of cultivars were self-compatible. In addition, there is a comprehensive separation of self-incompatibility among progeny from the same self-pollinated self-compatible chrysanthemum cultivar. Therefore, it is better to emasculate inflorescences during chrysanthemum hybridization breeding when no information concerning its self-incompatibility characteristics is available. However, if it is self-incompatible and propagated by vegetative methods, it is unnecessary to carry out emasculation when it is used as a female plant during hybridization breeding. PMID:24592176

  6. Interventions to reduce risks associated with vehicle incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Vernick, Jon S; Tung, Gregory J; Kromm, Jonathan N

    2012-01-01

    Occupants of smaller, lighter passenger cars are more likely to be killed or injured in collisions with larger, heavier sport utility vehicles and light trucks than in collisions with other cars. Interventions are needed to reduce this vehicle "incompatibility" and its consequences. The authors conducted a systematic literature review to identify evaluations of interventions to reduce incompatibility. They reviewed engineering, biomedical, and other technical literature. To be included, a study must have 1) evaluated an intervention to reduce vehicle incompatibility, or its consequences, in a crash; 2) reported new research; and 3) been published in English from 1990 to 2010. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Interventions were designed to reduce the aggressivity of larger vehicles or improve the crashworthiness of smaller vehicles. Effective interventions included 1) modified bumper heights, 2) improved side strength of smaller vehicles, 3) side-impact air bags, 4) changes to vehicle stiffness, and 5) modifications of other front-end structures. Some of the interventions shown to be effective are now in wide use. However, others have yet to be required by regulators or voluntarily agreed to by manufacturers. If larger, heavier vehicles remain on the nation's roads, countermeasures will be needed to reduce risks for occupants of other vehicles. PMID:21926064

  7. Allelic genealogies in sporophytic self-incompatibility systems in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Christiansen, F B

    1998-01-01

    Expectations for the time scale and structure of allelic genealogies in finite populations are formed under three models of sporophytic self-incompatibility. The models differ in the dominance interactions among the alleles that determine the self-incompatibility phenotype: In the SSIcod model, alleles act codominantly in both pollen and style, in the SSIdom model, alleles form a dominance hierarchy, and in SSIdomcod, alleles are codominant in the style and show a dominance hierarchy in the pollen. Coalescence times of alleles rarely differ more than threefold from those under gametophytic self-incompatibility, and transspecific polymorphism is therefore expected to be equally common. The previously reported directional turnover process of alleles in the SSIdomcod model results in coalescence times lower and substitution rates higher than those in the other models. The SSIdom model assumes strong asymmetries in allelic action, and the most recessive extant allele is likely to be the most recent common ancestor. Despite these asymmetries, the expected shape of the allele genealogies does not deviate markedly from the shape of a neutral gene genealogy. The application of the results to sequence surveys of alleles, including interspecific comparisons, is discussed. PMID:9799270

  8. Semiosis stems from logical incompatibility in organic nature: Why biophysics does not see meaning, while biosemiotics does.

    PubMed

    Kull, Kalevi

    2015-12-01

    We suggest here a model of the origin of the phenomenal world via the naturalization of logical conflict or incompatibility (which is broader than, but includes logical contradiction). Physics rules out the reality of meaning because of the method of formalization, which requires that logical conflicts cannot be part of the model. We argue that (a) meaning-making requires a logical conflict; (b) logical conflict assumes a phenomenal present; (c) phenomenological specious present occurs in living systems as widely as meaning-making; (d) it is possible to provide a physiological description of a system in which the phenomenal present appears and choices are made; (e) logical conflict, or incompatibility itself, is the mechanism of intentionality; (f) meaning-making is assured by scaffolding, which is a product of earlier choices, or decision-making, or interpretation. This model can be seen as a model of semiosis. It also allows putting physiology and phenomenology (or physics and semiotics) into a natural connection. PMID:26260779

  9. The interplay between goal intentions and implementation intentions.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, Paschal; Webb, Thomas L; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    Two studies tested whether action control by implementation intentions is sensitive to the activation and strength of participants' underlying goal intentions. In Study 1, participants formed implementation intentions (or did not) and their goal intentions were measured. Findings revealed a significant interaction between implementation intentions and the strength of respective goal intentions. Implementation intentions benefited the rate of goal attainment when participants had strong goal intentions but not when goal intentions were weak. Study 2 activated either a task-relevant or a neutral goal outside of participants' conscious awareness and found that implementation intentions affected performance only when the relevant goal had been activated. These findings indicate that the rate of goal attainment engendered by implementation intentions takes account of the state (strength, activation) of people's superordinate goal intentions. PMID:15574664

  10. Dynamics of incompatibility of quantum measurements in open systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addis, Carole; Heinosaari, Teiko; Kiukas, Jukka; Laine, Elsi-Mari; Maniscalco, Sabrina

    2016-02-01

    The nonclassical nature of quantum states, often illustrated using entanglement measures or quantum discord, constitutes a resource for quantum information protocols. However, the nonclassicality of a quantum system cannot be seen as a property of the state alone, as the set of available measurements used to extract information on the system is typically restricted. In this work we study how the nonclassicality of quantum measurements, quantified via their incompatibility, is influenced by quantum noise and how a non-Markovian environment can be useful for maintaining the measurement resources.

  11. An intentional interpretive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    To the extent that the concept of intention has been addressed within behavior analysis, descriptions of intention have been general and have not specifically included important distinctions that differentiate a behavior-analytic approach from vernacular definitions of intention. A fundamental difference between a behavior-analytic approach and most other psychological approaches is that other approaches focus on the necessity of intentions to explain behavior, whereas a behavior-analytic approach is directed at understanding the interplay between behavior and environment. Behavior-analytic interpretations include the relations between the observer's behavior and the environment. From a behavior-analytic perspective, an analysis of the observer's interpretations of an individual's behavior is inherent in the subsequent attribution of intention. The present agenda is to provide a behavior-analytic account of attributing intention that identifies the establishing conditions for speaking of intention. Also addressed is the extent to which we speak of intentions when the observed individual's behavior is contingency shaped or under instructional control. PMID:22478417

  12. Self-incompatibility-induced programmed cell death in field poppy pollen involves dramatic acidification of the incompatible pollen tube cytosol.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Katie A; Bosch, Maurice; Haque, Tamanna; Teng, Nianjun; Poulter, Natalie S; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2015-03-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important genetically controlled mechanism to prevent inbreeding in higher plants. SI involves highly specific interactions during pollination, resulting in the rejection of incompatible (self) pollen. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an important mechanism for destroying cells in a precisely regulated manner. SI in field poppy (Papaver rhoeas) triggers PCD in incompatible pollen. During SI-induced PCD, we previously observed a major acidification of the pollen cytosol. Here, we present measurements of temporal alterations in cytosolic pH ([pH]cyt); they were surprisingly rapid, reaching pH 6.4 within 10 min of SI induction and stabilizing by 60 min at pH 5.5. By manipulating the [pH]cyt of the pollen tubes in vivo, we show that [pH]cyt acidification is an integral and essential event for SI-induced PCD. Here, we provide evidence showing the physiological relevance of the cytosolic acidification and identify key targets of this major physiological alteration. A small drop in [pH]cyt inhibits the activity of a soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase required for pollen tube growth. We also show that [pH]cyt acidification is necessary and sufficient for triggering several key hallmark features of the SI PCD signaling pathway, notably activation of a DEVDase/caspase-3-like activity and formation of SI-induced punctate actin foci. Importantly, the actin binding proteins Cyclase-Associated Protein and Actin-Depolymerizing Factor are identified as key downstream targets. Thus, we have shown the biological relevance of an extreme but physiologically relevant alteration in [pH]cyt and its effect on several components in the context of SI-induced events and PCD. PMID:25630437

  13. Proteomics analysis of compatibility and incompatibility in grafted cucumber seedlings.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Guo, Shi-Rong; Li, Lin; An, Ya-Hong; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin

    2016-08-01

    Graft compatibility between rootstock and scion is the most important factor influencing the survival of grafted plants. In this study, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) to investigate differences in leaf proteomes of graft-compatible and graft-incompatible cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)/pumpkin (Cucurbita L.) combinations. Cucumber seedlings were used as the scions and two pumpkin cultivars with strongly contrasting grafting compatibilities were used as the rootstocks. Non-grafted and self-grafted cucumber seedlings served as control groups. An average of approximately 500 detectable spots were observed on each 2-DE gel. A total of 50 proteins were differentially expressed in response to self-grafting, compatible-rootstock grafting, and incompatible-rootstock grafting and were all successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The regulation of Calvin cycle, photosynthetic apparatus, glycolytic pathway, energy metabolism, protein biosynthesis and degradation, and reactive oxygen metabolism will probably contribute to intensify the biomass and photosynthetic capacity in graft-compatible combinations. The improved physiological and growth characteristics of compatible-rootstock grafting plants are the result of the higher expressions of proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and protein metabolism. At the same time, the compatible-rootstock grafting regulation of stress defense, amino acid metabolism, and other metabolic functions also plays important roles in improvement of plant growth. PMID:27070289

  14. The different mechanisms of sporophytic self-incompatibility.

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Simon J; Tabah, David A

    2003-01-01

    Flowering plants have evolved a multitude of mechanisms to avoid self-fertilization and promote outbreeding. Self-incompatibility (SI) is by far the most common of these, and is found in ca. 60% of flowering plants. SI is a genetically controlled pollen-pistil recognition system that provides a barrier to fertilization by self and self-related pollen in hermaphrodite (usually co-sexual) flowering plants. Two genetically distinct forms of SI can be recognized: gametophytic SI (GSI) and sporophytic SI (SSI), distinguished by how the incompatibility phenotype of the pollen is determined. GSI appears to be the most common mode of SI and can operate through at least three different mechanisms, two of which have been characterized extensively at a molecular level in the Solanaceae and Papaveraceae. Because molecular studies of SSI have been largely confined to species from the Brassicaceae, predominantly Brassica species, it is not yet known whether SSI, like GSI, can operate through different molecular mechanisms. Molecular studies of SSI are now being carried out on Ipomoea trifida (Convolvulaceae) and Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae) and are providing important preliminary data suggesting that SSI in these two families does not share the same molecular mechanism as that of the Brassicaceae. Here, what is currently known about the molecular regulation of SSI in the Brassicaceae is briefly reviewed, and the emerging data on SSI in I. trifida, and more especially in S. squalidus, are discussed. PMID:12831470

  15. Darwin and the origin of interspecific genetic incompatibilities.

    PubMed

    Presgraves, Daven C

    2010-12-01

    Darwin's Origin of Species is often criticized for having little to say about speciation. The complaint focuses in particular on Darwin's supposed failure to explain the evolution of the sterility and inviability of interspecific hybrids. But in his chapter on hybridism, Darwin, working without genetics, got as close to the modern understanding of the evolution of hybrid sterility and inviability as might reasonably be expected. In particular, after surveying what was then known about interspecific crosses and the resulting hybrids, he established two facts that, while now taken for granted, were at the time radical. First, the sterility barriers between species are neither specially endowed by a creator nor directly favored by natural selection but rather evolve as incidental by-products of interspecific divergence. Second, the sterility of species hybrids results when their development is "disturbed by two organizations having been compounded into one." Bateson, Dobzhansky, and Muller later put Mendelian detail to Darwin's inference that the species-specific factors controlling development (i.e., genes) are sometimes incompatible. In this article, I highlight the major developments in our understanding of these interspecific genetic incompatibilities--from Darwin to Muller to modern theory--and review comparative, genetic, and molecular rules that characterize the evolution of hybrid sterility and inviability. PMID:21043780

  16. Products of weak values: Uncertainty relations, complementarity, and incompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Michael J. W.; Pati, Arun Kumar; Wu, Junde

    2016-05-01

    The products of weak values of quantum observables are shown to be of value in deriving quantum uncertainty and complementarity relations, for both weak and strong measurement statistics. First, a "product representation formula" allows the standard Heisenberg uncertainty relation to be derived from a classical uncertainty relation for complex random variables. We show this formula also leads to strong uncertainty relations for unitary operators and underlies an interpretation of weak values as optimal (complex) estimates of quantum observables. Furthermore, we show that two incompatible observables that are weakly and strongly measured in a weak measurement context obey a complementarity relation under the interchange of these observables, in the form of an upper bound on the product of the corresponding weak values. Moreover, general tradeoff relations between weak purity, quantum purity, and quantum incompatibility, and also between weak and strong joint probability distributions, are obtained based on products of real and imaginary components of weak values, where these relations quantify the degree to which weak probabilities can take anomalous values in a given context.

  17. Is Sustainability Sustainable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonevac, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The most important concept in current environmental thinking is "sustainability". Environmental policies, economic policies, development, resource use--all of these things, according to the consensus, ought to be sustainable. But what is sustainability? What is its ethical foundation? There is little consensus about how these questions ought to be…

  18. Potentiation of mycovirus transmission by zinc compounds via attenuation of heterogenic incompatibility in Rosellinia necatrix.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kenichi; Inoue, Kanako; Kida, Chiaki; Uwamori, Takahiro; Sasaki, Atsuko; Kanematsu, Satoko; Park, Pyoyun

    2013-06-01

    Heterogenic incompatibility is considered a defense mechanism against deleterious intruders such as mycovirus. Rosellinia necatrix shows strong heterogenic incompatibility. In the heterogenic incompatibility reaction, the approaching hyphae hardly anastomosed, a distinctive barrage line formed, and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled hyphae quickly lost their fluorescence when encountering incompatible hyphae. In this study, transmission of a hypovirulence-conferring mycovirus to strains with different genetic backgrounds was attempted. Various chemical reagents considered to affect the programmed cell death pathway or cell wall modification were examined. Treatment with zinc compounds was shown to aid in transmission of mycoviruses to strains with different genetic backgrounds. In incompatible pairings, treatment with zinc compounds accelerated hyphal anastomosis; moreover, cytosolic GFP was transmitted to the newly joined hyphae. These results suggest that zinc compounds not only increase hyphal anastomosis but also attenuate heterogenic incompatibility. PMID:23563943

  19. Sustainability Base: The Self-guided "Tour"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grymes, Rosalind; Poll, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This series of 6 information sheets was designed to familiarize readers with the performance capabilities of Sustainability Base. The set described the design intentions and operational characteristics of this LEED Platinum facility

  20. Is Quantum Mechanics Incompatible with Newton's First Law?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinowitz, Mario

    2008-04-01

    Quantum mechanics (QM) clearly violates Newton’s First Law of Motion (NFLM) in the quantum domain for one of the simplest problems, yielding an effect in a force-free region much like the Aharonov-Bohm effect. In addition, there is an incompatibility between the predictions of QM in the classical limit, and that of classical mechanics (CM) with respect to NFLM. A general argument is made that such a disparity may be found commonly for a wide variety of quantum predictions in the classical limit. Alternatives to the Schrödinger equation are considered that might avoid this problem. The meaning of the classical limit is examined. Critical views regarding QM by Schrödinger, Bohm, Bell, Clauser, and others are presented to provide a more complete perspective.

  1. Method for applying photographic resists to otherwise incompatible substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhr, W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method for applying photographic resists to otherwise incompatible substrates, such as a baking enamel paint surface, is described wherein the uncured enamel paint surface is coated with a non-curing lacquer which is, in turn, coated with a partially cured lacquer. The non-curing lacquer adheres to the enamel and a photo resist material satisfactorily adheres to the partially cured lacquer. Once normal photo etching techniques are employed the lacquer coats can be easily removed from the enamel leaving the photo etched image. In the case of edge lighted instrument panels, a coat of uncured enamel is placed over the cured enamel followed by the lacquer coats and the photo resists which is exposed and developed. Once the etched uncured enamel is cured, the lacquer coats are removed leaving an etched panel.

  2. Effect of vehicle incompatibility on child occupant injury risk.

    PubMed

    Kallan, Michael J; Arbogast, Kristy B; Durbin, Dennis R

    2005-01-01

    With the vehicle fleet of family transportation in the United States continuing to evolve primarily through the increasing number of light truck vehicles (LTV), studying the effects of vehicle incompatibility has become increasingly important. Using data collected from a population-based sample of child-involved crashes in insured vehicles, we explored the effect of variations in crash partner vehicle type on child occupant injury risk, stratified by direction of impact. Children in passenger cars and LTVs involved in onside collisions were at an increased risk of serious injury if struck by a LTV as compared to a passenger vehicle (passenger cars and minivans). Though smaller in magnitude, this trend was also present in offside and rear crashes as well. PMID:16179154

  3. Achieving incompatible transplantation through desensitization: current perspectives and future directions.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Stanley C; Choi, Jua; Vo, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The application of life-saving transplantation is severely limited by the shortage of organs, and histoincompatibility. To increase transplant rates in sensitized patients, new protocols for HLA and blood type incompatible (ABOi) desensitization have emerged. These approaches require significant desensitization using intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab and plasma exchange. In addition, the development of donor-specific antibody responses post transplant is the major cause of allograft failure with return to dialysis. This increases patient morbidity/mortality and cost. Immunotherapeutic agents used for desensitization evolved from drug development in oncology and autoimmune diseases. Currently, there is a renaissance in development of novel drugs likely to improve antibody reduction in transplantation. These include agents that inactivate IgG molecules, anticytokine antibodies, costimulatory molecule blockade, anticomplement agents and therapies aimed at the plasma cell. PMID:25917629

  4. Percolation on fitness landscapes: effects of correlation, phenotype, and incompatibilities

    PubMed Central

    Gravner, Janko; Pitman, Damien; Gavrilets, Sergey

    2009-01-01

    We study how correlations in the random fitness assignment may affect the structure of fitness landscapes, in three classes of fitness models. The first is a phenotype space in which individuals are characterized by a large number n of continuously varying traits. In a simple model of random fitness assignment, viable phenotypes are likely to form a giant connected cluster percolating throughout the phenotype space provided the viability probability is larger than 1/2n. The second model explicitly describes genotype-to-phenotype and phenotype-to-fitness maps, allows for neutrality at both phenotype and fitness levels, and results in a fitness landscape with tunable correlation length. Here, phenotypic neutrality and correlation between fitnesses can reduce the percolation threshold, and correlations at the point of phase transition between local and global are most conducive to the formation of the giant cluster. In the third class of models, particular combinations of alleles or values of phenotypic characters are “incompatible” in the sense that the resulting genotypes or phenotypes have zero fitness. This setting can be viewed as a generalization of the canonical Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller model of speciation and is related to K- SAT problems, prominent in computer science. We analyze the conditions for the existence of viable genotypes, their number, as well as the structure and the number of connected clusters of viable genotypes. We show that analysis based on expected values can easily lead to wrong conclusions, especially when fitness correlations are strong. We focus on pairwise incompatibilities between diallelic loci, but we also address multiple alleles, complex incompatibilities, and continuous phenotype spaces. In the case of diallelic loci, the number of clusters is stochastically bounded and each cluster contains a very large sub-cube. Finally, we demonstrate that the discrete NK model shares some signature properties of models with high

  5. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  6. Epstein-Barr virus-positive multiple myeloma following an ABO incompatible second renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kirushnan, B.; Subbarao, B.; Prabhu, P.

    2016-01-01

    ABO incompatible kidney transplant recipients receive higher dose of immunosuppression. Previous data indicate that the incidence of malignancy is not higher in these patients. Compared to the general population, renal transplant recipients are at 4.4-fold higher risk of developing myeloma. We describe a case of posttransplant multiple myeloma in an ABO incompatible renal transplant recipient of a second graft. PMID:27512301

  7. Supervisee Incompatibility and Its Influence on Triadic Supervision: An Examination of Doctoral Student Supervisors' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Serge F.; Lawson, Gerard; Rodriguez, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to explore supervisors' experiences of supervisee incompatibility in triadic supervision. In-depth interviews were completed with 9 doctoral student supervisors in a counselor education program, and a whole-text analysis generated 3 categories. Supervisee incompatibility took a wide variety of forms and negatively…

  8. Geographic Distribution and Inheritance of Three Cytoplasmic Incompatibility Types in Drosophila Simulans

    PubMed Central

    Montchamp-Moreau, C.; Ferveur, J. F.; Jacques, M.

    1991-01-01

    Wolbachia-like microorganisms have been implicated in unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility between strains of Drosophila simulans. Reduced egg eclosion occurs when females from uninfected strains (type W) are crossed with males from infected strains (type R). Here we characterize a third incompatibility type (type S) which is also correlated with the presence of Wolbachia-like microorganisms. Despite the fact that the symbionts cannot be morphologically distinguished, we observed complete bidirectional incompatibility between R and S strains. This indicates that the determinants of incompatibility are different in the two infected types. S/W incompatibility is unidirectional and similar to R/W incompatibility. A worldwide survey of D. simulans strains showed that type S incompatibility was found only in insular populations which harbor the mitochondrial type SiI. Both W and R types were found among mainland and island populations harboring the worldwide mitochondrial type SiII. Type S incompatibility could be involved in the reinforcement of the geographical isolation of SiI populations. PMID:1743484

  9. A fine-scale genetic analysis of hybrid incompatibilities in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Presgraves, Daven C

    2003-01-01

    The sterility and inviability of species hybrids is thought to evolve by the accumulation of genes that cause generally recessive, incompatible epistatic interactions between species. Most analyses of the loci involved in such hybrid incompatibilities have suffered from low genetic resolution. Here I present a fine-resolution genetic screen that allows systematic counting, mapping, and characterizing of a large number of hybrid incompatibility loci in a model genetic system. Using small autosomal deletions from D. melanogaster and a hybrid rescue mutation from D. simulans, I measured the viability of hybrid males that are simultaneously hemizygous for a small region of the D. simulans autosomal genome and hemizygous for the D. melanogaster X chromosome. These hybrid males are exposed to the full effects of any recessive-recessive epistatic incompatibilities present in these regions. A screen of approximately 70% of the D. simulans autosomal genome reveals 20 hybrid-lethal and 20 hybrid-semilethal regions that are incompatible with the D. melanogaster X. In further crosses, I confirm the epistatic nature of hybrid lethality by showing that all of the incompatibilities are rescued when the D. melanogaster X is replaced with a D. simulans X. Combined with information from previous studies, these results show that the number of recessive incompatibilities is approximately eightfold larger than the number of dominant ones. Finally, I estimate that a total of approximately 191 hybrid-lethal incompatibilities separate D. melanogaster and D. simulans, indicating extensive functional divergence between these species' genomes. PMID:12663535

  10. Epstein-Barr virus-positive multiple myeloma following an ABO incompatible second renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kirushnan, B; Subbarao, B; Prabhu, P

    2016-01-01

    ABO incompatible kidney transplant recipients receive higher dose of immunosuppression. Previous data indicate that the incidence of malignancy is not higher in these patients. Compared to the general population, renal transplant recipients are at 4.4-fold higher risk of developing myeloma. We describe a case of posttransplant multiple myeloma in an ABO incompatible renal transplant recipient of a second graft. PMID:27512301

  11. Current progress in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Yang, Jaeseok

    2015-01-01

    ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi KT) was introduced to expand the donor pool and minimize shortage of kidneys for transplantation. Because improved outcomes of ABOi KT were reported in Japan in the early 2000s, the number of ABOi KTs has been increasing worldwide. In addition, a better understanding of immune pathogenesis and subsequent aggressive immunosuppression has helped to make effective desensitization protocols. Current strategies of ABOi KT consist of pretransplant antibody removal using plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption to prevent hyperacute rejection and potent maintenance immunosuppression, such as tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil, to inhibit antibody-mediated rejection. Recent outcomes of ABOi KT are comparable with ABO-compatible KT. However, there are still many problems to be resolved. Very high anti-ABO antibody producers are difficult to desensitize. In addition, ABOi KT is associated with an increased risk of infection and possibly malignancy due to aggressive immunosuppression. Optimization of desensitization and patient-tailored immunosuppression protocols are needed to achieve better outcomes of ABOi KT. This review provides an overview of the history, immune mechanism, immunosuppressive protocol, outcomes, current obstacles, and future perspectives in ABOi KT. PMID:26484043

  12. [Alternative and natural science therapy forms: incompatible contrast].

    PubMed

    Turnheim, Klaus

    2002-12-30

    In spite of the accomplishments of science-oriented medicine, we are still confronted with a multitude of "alternative" or "complementary" therapies which claim to heal "holistically" without adverse effects. Common to alternative treatment methods, which are several or many centuries old, is the notion that a special force ("vis vitalis", "entelechy", "spiritual bioforce", etc.) is responsible for life that, ultimately, cannot be investigated. According to this perception, which is termed "vitalism", diseases are a result of changes in the immaterial force of life. Therefore, treatments have to be directed at this central regulator ("regulatory therapy"). The medicine that is based on the natural sciences, in contrast, presumes that all expressions of life including diseases are amenable to critical and rational analysis. According to this school of thought, a causal therapy can be derived only from a detailed knowledge of the various body functions down to the molecular level and the effects of drugs on these functions. Corresponding therapeutic theories have to be verified or falsified experimentally, excluding bias as much as possible. Using such "objective" methods, a statistical assessment of the beneficial and adverse effects of a treatment may be possible ("evidence-based medicine"). In the final analysis, an incompatibility of scientific concepts is at the heart of the controversy between alternative treatment methods and the medicine based on natural sciences. PMID:12635461

  13. Population replacement in Culex fatigans by means of cytoplasmic incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, C. F.

    1976-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out in field cages to test the principle of “transport” of a desirable gene or chromosome into a wild Culex fatigans population as a result of the sterility in cross-matings associated with cytoplasmic incompatibility. Cycling populations of Delhi origin were established in the cages and daily releases were made of the IS31B strain, which has Paris cytoplasm and carries a male-linked translocation. It was shown that, if sufficient releases were made to establish a majority of the Paris cytoplasmic type, complete replacement by this cytoplasmic type subsequently occurred. However, as a result of partial compatibility of males of the Delhi population with Paris females, “recombinant” males with Paris cytoplasm and no translocation were produced. In an experiment in which a continuous low rate of “immigration” of a strain of Delhi origin was simulated, a gradual increase of the Paris cytoplasm nontranslocated type occurred, and renewed IS31B releases were necessary after 5 months to restore the predominance of this type. The results are compared with computer predictions and discussed in relation to the transport of genes for filaria refractoriness or chromosome translocations into wild populations. PMID:1085660

  14. Current progress in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Yang, Jaeseok

    2015-09-01

    ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi KT) was introduced to expand the donor pool and minimize shortage of kidneys for transplantation. Because improved outcomes of ABOi KT were reported in Japan in the early 2000s, the number of ABOi KTs has been increasing worldwide. In addition, a better understanding of immune pathogenesis and subsequent aggressive immunosuppression has helped to make effective desensitization protocols. Current strategies of ABOi KT consist of pretransplant antibody removal using plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption to prevent hyperacute rejection and potent maintenance immunosuppression, such as tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil, to inhibit antibody-mediated rejection. Recent outcomes of ABOi KT are comparable with ABO-compatible KT. However, there are still many problems to be resolved. Very high anti-ABO antibody producers are difficult to desensitize. In addition, ABOi KT is associated with an increased risk of infection and possibly malignancy due to aggressive immunosuppression. Optimization of desensitization and patient-tailored immunosuppression protocols are needed to achieve better outcomes of ABOi KT. This review provides an overview of the history, immune mechanism, immunosuppressive protocol, outcomes, current obstacles, and future perspectives in ABOi KT. PMID:26484043

  15. Beyond Good Intentions.

    PubMed

    Feder, Ellen K

    2015-01-01

    Ethical questions in medicine tend to emphasize the intentions of researchers and physicians. Questions concerning harm have more often been addressed in terms of legal culpability. This commentary proposes that normalizing interventions for atypical sex anatomies, both historical and ongoing, be recognized as a kind of medical error, and that attention be focused not simply on prevention, but on repair. PMID:26300145

  16. A Sustainable Evaluation Framework and Its Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Robert B.; Stern, Marc J.; Ardoin, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a framework for developing internally sustainable evaluation systems for environmental education organizations, although the framework can be applied to other types of organizations. The authors developed a sustainable evaluation framework (SEF) with the intent of creating an evaluation system that could be self-administered…

  17. An Examination of Maryland Community College Trustees' Intentions to Promote Succession Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Daphne Renee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Maryland community college trustees' intentions to promote succession planning. This study focused on community college trustees' understandings of their roles and responsibilities related to sustainability of institutions, their knowledge of the leadership crisis, and their intentions to promote…

  18. Life history mediates mate limitation and population viability in self-incompatible plant species

    PubMed Central

    Thrall, Peter H; Encinas-Viso, Francisco; Hoebee, Susan E; Young, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    Genetically controlled self-incompatibility systems represent links between genetic diversity and plant demography with the potential to directly impact on population dynamics. We use an individual-based spatial simulation to investigate the demographic and genetic consequences of different self-incompatibility systems for plants that vary in reproductive capacity and lifespan. The results support the idea that, in the absence of inbreeding effects, populations of self-incompatible species will often be smaller and less viable than self-compatible species, particularly for shorter-lived organisms or where potential fecundity is low. At high ovule production and low mortality, self-incompatible and self-compatible species are demographically similar, thus self-incompatibility does not automatically lead to reduced mate availability or population viability. Overall, sporophytic codominant self-incompatibility was more limiting than gametophytic or sporophytic dominant systems, which generally behaved in a similar fashion. Under a narrow range of conditions, the sporophytic dominant system maintained marginally greater mate availability owing to the production of S locus homozygotes. While self-incompatibility reduces population size and persistence for a broad range of conditions, the actual number of S alleles, beyond that required for reproduction, is important for only a subset of life histories. For these situations, results suggest that addition of new S alleles may result in significant demographic rescue. PMID:24683451

  19. 46 CFR 150.130 - Loading a cargo on vessels carrying cargoes with which it is incompatible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... it is incompatible. 150.130 Section 150.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... carrying cargoes with which it is incompatible. Except as described in § 150.160, the person in charge of a... any cargo in table I with which it is incompatible by two barriers such as formed by a: (1)...

  20. Selection at Work in Self-Incompatible Arabidopsis lyrata: Mating Patterns in a Natural Population

    PubMed Central

    Schierup, Mikkel H.; Bechsgaard, Jesper S.; Nielsen, Lene H.; Christiansen, Freddy B.

    2006-01-01

    Identification and characterization of the self-incompatibility genes in Brassicaceae species now allow typing of self-incompatibility haplotypes in natural populations. In this study we sampled and mapped all 88 individuals in a small population of Arabidopsis lyrata from Iceland. The self-incompatibility haplotypes at the SRK gene were typed for all the plants and some of their progeny and used to investigate the realized mating patterns in the population. The observed frequencies of haplotypes were found to change considerably from the parent generation to the offspring generation around their deterministic equilibria as determined from the known dominance relations among haplotypes. We provide direct evidence that the incompatibility system discriminates against matings among adjacent individuals. Multiple paternity is very common, causing mate availability among progeny of a single mother to be much larger than expected for single paternity. PMID:16157671

  1. Against the Quantitative-Qualitative Incompatibility Thesis or Dogmas Die Hard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    1988-01-01

    Employs a pragmatic philosophical perspective to argue that there is no incompatibility at either the level of practice or that of epistemology between qualitative and quantitative methods of educational research. (FMW)

  2. Species-wide Genetic Incompatibility Analysis Identifies Immune Genes as Hotspots of Deleterious Epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Eunyoung; Bomblies, Kirsten; Kim, Sang-Tae; Karelina, Darya; Zaidem, Maricris; Ossowski, Stephan; Martín-Pizarro, Carmen; Laitinen, Roosa A. E.; Rowan, Beth A.; Tenenboim, Hezi; Lechner, Sarah; Demar, Monika; Habring-Müller, Anette; Lanz, Christa; Rätsch, Gunnar; Weigel, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    Summary Intraspecific genetic incompatibilities prevent the assembly of specific alleles into single genotypes and influence genome- and species-wide patterns of sequence variation. A common incompatibility in plants is hybrid necrosis, characterized by autoimmune responses due to epistatic interactions between natural genetic variants. By systematically testing thousands of F1 hybrids of Arabidopsis thaliana strains, we identified a small number of incompatibility hotspots in the genome, often in regions densely populated by NLR immune receptor genes. In several cases, these immune receptor loci interact with each other, suggestive of conflict within the immune system. A particularly dangerous locus is a highly variable cluster of NLR genes, DANGEROUS MIX2 (DM2), which causes multiple, independent incompatibilities with genes that encode a range of biochemical functions, including NLRs. Our findings suggest that deleterious interactions of immune receptors at the front lines of host-pathogen co-evolution limit the combinations of favorable disease resistance alleles accessible to plant genomes. PMID:25467443

  3. Experimental investigation of the stronger uncertainty relations for all incompatible observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kunkun; Zhan, Xiang; Bian, Zhihao; Li, Jian; Zhang, Yongsheng; Xue, Peng

    2016-05-01

    The Heisenberg-Robertson uncertainty relation quantitatively expresses the impossibility of jointly sharp preparation of incompatible observables. However, it does not capture the concept of incompatible observables because it can be trivial even for two incompatible observables. We experimentally demonstrate that the new stronger uncertainty relations proposed by Maccone and Pati [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 260401 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.260401] relating to the sum of variances are valid in a state-dependent manner and that the lower bound is guaranteed to be nontrivial when two observables are incompatible on the state of the system being measured. The behavior we find agrees with the predictions of quantum theory and obeys the new uncertainty relations even for the special states which trivialize the Heisenberg-Robertson relation. We realize a direct measurement model and perform an experimental investigation of the strengthened relations.

  4. The intentionality bias in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Peyroux, Elodie; Strickland, Brent; Tapiero, Isabelle; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-11-30

    The tendency to over-interpret events of daily life as resulting from voluntary or intentional actions is one of the key aspects of schizophrenia with persecutory delusions. Here, we ask whether this characteristic may emerge from the abnormal activity of a basic cognitive process found in healthy adults and children: the intentionality bias, which refers to the implicit and automatic inclination to interpret human actions as intentional (Rosset, 2008, Cognition 108, 771-780). In our experiment, patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls were shown sentences describing human actions in various linguistic contexts, and were asked to indicate whether the action was intentional or not. The results indicated that people with schizophrenia exhibited a striking bias to over attribute intentionality regardless of linguistic context, contrary to healthy controls who did not exhibit such a general intentionality bias. Moreover, this study provides some insight into the cognitive mechanisms underlying this bias: an inability to inhibit the automatic attribution of intentionality. PMID:25042425

  5. Molecular characterization of the S locus in two self-incompatible Brassica napus lines.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, K; Schafer, U; Glavin, T L; Goring, D R; Rothstein, S J

    1996-01-01

    In Brassica species, self-incompatibility has been mapped genetically to a single chromosomal location. In this region, there are two closely linked genes coding for the S locus glycoprotein (SLG) and S locus receptor kinase (SRK). They appear to comprise the pistil component of the self-incompatibility reaction. SLG and SRK are thought to recognize an unknown pollen component on the incompatible pollen, and the gene encoding this pollen component must also be linked to the SLG and SRK genes. To further our understanding of self-incompatibility, the chromosomal region carrying the SLG and SRK genes has been studied. The physical region between the SLG-910 and the SRK-910 genes in the Brassica napus W1 line was cloned, and a search for genes expressed in the anther revealed two additional S locus genes located downstream of the SLG-910 gene. Because these two genes are novel and are conserved at other S alleles, we designated them as SLL1 and SLL2 (for S locus-linked genes 1 and 2, respectively). The SLL1 gene is S locus specific, whereas the SLL2 gene is not only present at the S locus but is also present in other parts of the genomes in both self-incompatible and self-compatible Brassica ssp lines. Expression of the SLL1 gene is only detectable in anthers of self-incompatible plants and is developmentally regulated during anther development, whereas the SLL2 gene is expressed in anthers and stigmas in both self-incompatible and self-compatible plants, with the highest levels of expression occurring in the stigmas. Although SLL1 and SLL2 are linked to the S locus region, it is not clear whether these genes function in self-incompatibility or serve some other cellular roles in pollen-pistil functions. PMID:8989888

  6. Degradation of glyoxalase I in Brassica napus stigma leads to self-incompatibility response.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian; Jamshed, Muhammad; Samuel, Marcus A

    2015-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (rejection of 'self'-pollen) is a reproductive barrier that allows hermaphroditic flowering plants to prevent inbreeding, to promote outcrossing and hybrid vigour. The self-incompatibility response in Brassica involves allele-specific interaction between the pollen small cysteine-rich, secreted protein ligand (SCR/SP11) and the stigmatic S-receptor kinase (SRK), which leads to the activation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase ARC1 (Armadillo repeat-containing 1), resulting in proteasomal degradation of compatibility factors needed for successful pollination. Despite this, targets of ARC1 and the intracellular signalling network that is regulated by these targets, have remained elusive. Here we show that glyoxalase I (GLO1), an enzyme that is required for the detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG, a cytotoxic by-product of glycolysis), is a stigmatic compatibility factor required for pollination to occur and is targeted by the self-incompatibility system. Suppression of GLO1 was sufficient to reduce compatibility, and overexpression of GLO1 in self-incompatible Brassica napus stigmas resulted in partial breakdown of the self-incompatibility response. ARC1-mediated destruction of GLO1 after self-pollination results in increased MG levels and a concomitant increase in MG-modified proteins (including GLO1), which are efficiently targeted for destruction in the papillary cells, leading to pollen rejection. Our findings demonstrate the elegant nature of plants to use a metabolic by-product to regulate the self-incompatibility response. PMID:27251720

  7. Expression and inheritance of sporophytic self-incompatibility in synthetic allohexaploid Senecio cambrensis (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Brennan, Adrian C; Hiscock, Simon J

    2010-04-01

    Allopolyploid speciation is common in plants and is frequently associated with shifts from outcrossing, for example self-incompatibility, to inbreeding (i.e. selfing). Senecio cambrensis is a recently evolved allohexaploid species that formed following hybridization between diploid self-incompatible S. squalidus and tetraploid self-compatible S. vulgaris. Studies of reproduction in wild populations of S. cambrensis have concluded that it is self-compatible. Here, we investigated self-compatibility in synthetic lines of S. cambrensis generated via hybridization and colchicine-induced polyploidization and wild S. cambrensis using controlled crossing experiments. Synthetic F(1)S. cambrensis individuals were all self-compatible but, in F(2) and later generations, self-incompatible individuals were identified at frequencies of 6.7-9.2%. Self-incompatibility was also detected in wild sampled individuals at a frequency of 12.2%. The mechanism and genetics of self-incompatibility were tested in synthetic S. cambrensis and found to be similar to those of its paternal parent S. squalidus (i.e. sporophytic). These results show, for the first time, that functional sporophytic self-incompatibility can be inherited and expressed in allopolyploids as early as the second (F(2)) generation. Wild S. cambrensis should therefore be considered as possessing a mixed mating system with the potential for evolution towards either inbreeding or outcrossing. PMID:19895670

  8. ABO-incompatible living donor kidney transplantation without post-transplant therapeutic plasma exchange.

    PubMed

    Yabu, Julie M; Fontaine, Magali J

    2015-12-01

    Blood group incompatibility remains a significant barrier to kidney transplantation. Approximately, one-third of donors are blood group incompatible with their intended recipient. Options for these donor-recipient pairs include blood group incompatible transplantation or kidney paired donation. However, the optimal protocol for blood group incompatible transplantation is unknown. Protocols differ in techniques to remove ABO antibodies, titer targets, and immunosuppression regimens. In addition, the mechanisms of graft accommodation to blood group antigens remain poorly understood. We describe a blood group incompatible protocol using pretransplant therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, and rituximab in addition to prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus. In this protocol, we do not exclude patients based on a high initial titer and do not implement post-transplant TPE. All 16 patients who underwent this protocol received a living donor transplant with 100% patient and graft survival, and no reported episodes of antibody-mediated rejection to date with a median follow-up of 2.6 years (range 0.75-4.7 years). We conclude that blood group incompatible transplantation can be achieved without post-transplant TPE. PMID:25739580

  9. Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Drosophila Simulans: Dynamics and Parameter Estimates from Natural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Turelli, M.; Hoffmann, A. A.

    1995-01-01

    In Drosophila simulans, cytoplasmically transmitted Wolbachia microbes cause reduced egg hatch when infected males mate with uninfected females. A Wolbachia infection and an associated mtDNA variant have spread northward through California since 1986. PCR assays show that Wolbachia infection is prevalent throughout the continental US and Central and South America, but some lines from Florida and Ecuador that are PCR-positive for Wolbachia do not cause incompatibility. We estimate from natural populations infection frequencies and the transmission and incompatibility parameter values that affect the spread of the infection. On average, infected females from nature produce 3-4% uninfected ova. Infected females with relatively low fidelity of maternal transmission show partial incompatibility with very young infected laboratory males. Nevertheless, crosses between infected flies in nature produce egg-hatch rates indistinguishable from those produced by crosses between uninfected individuals. Incompatible crosses in nature produce hatch rates 30-70% as high as those from compatible crosses. Wild-caught infected and uninfected females are equally fecund in the laboratory. Incompatibility decreases with male age, and age-specific incompatibility levels suggest that males mating in nature may often be 2 or 3 weeks old. Our parameter estimates accurately predict the frequency of Wolbachia infection in California populations. PMID:7498773

  10. Contrasting levels of variability between cytoplasmic genomes and incompatibility types in the mosquito Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Guillemaud, T; Pasteur, N; Rousset, F

    1997-02-22

    Reproductive incompatibilities called cytoplasmic incompatibilities are known to affect a large number of arthropod species and are mediated by Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted microorganism. The crossing relationships between strains of potential hosts define their incompatibility types and it is generally assumed that differences between strains of Wolbachia induce different crossing types. Among all the described host species, the mosquito, Culex pipiens, displays the greatest variability of cytoplasmic incompatibility crossing types. We analysed mitochondrial and bacterial DNA variability in Culex pipiens in order to investigate some possible causes of incompatibility crossing type variability. We sequenced fragments of the ftsZ gene, and the A + T-rich control region of the mtDNA. We also sequenced the second subunit of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COII) gene, in Culex pipiens and a closely related species, C. torrentium, in order to verify the usefulness of the A + T-rich region for the present purposes. No variability was found in the Wolbachia ftsZ gene fragment, and very limited variation of the mitochondrial marker whatever the compatibility type or the origin of the host. A low variability was found in the A + T-rich region and comparison of divergence of the A + T-rich region and COII gene between C. pipiens and C. torrentium did not reveal any special constraints affecting this region. In contrast to observations in other host species, variability of incompatibility crossing types is not due to multiple infections by distantly related Wolbachia strains. PMID:9061971

  11. The evolution of polyandry II: post-copulatory defenses against genetic incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Zeh, J. A.; Zeh, D. W.

    1997-01-01

    Fundamental to the recently-proposed hypothesis that females mate with more than one male as a hedge against genetic incompatibility is the premise that mechanisms are available to polyandrous females which enable them to safeguard their reproductive investment against the threat of incompatibility between maternal and paternal genomes. Accumulation of sperm from several males shifts the arena for sexual selection from the external environment to the female reproductive tract where, we suggest, interactions at the molecular and cellular levels provide females with direct mechanisms for assessing genetic compatibility. We present examples from the literature to illustrate how sperm competition and female choice of sperm can enable polyandrous females to minimize the risk of fertilization by genetically-incompatible sperm. Polyandry and multiple paternity also create the opportunity to reduce the cost of genetic incompatibility by reallocation of maternal resources from defective to viable offspring. This is likely to be a critically important post-copulatory mechanism for viviparous females whose intimate immunological relationship with developing embryos makes them particularly vulnerable to genetic incompatibility arising from intragenomic conflict and other processes acting at the suborganismal level.

  12. Intention seekers: conspiracist ideation and biased attributions of intentionality.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Robert; French, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Conspiracist beliefs are widespread and potentially hazardous. A growing body of research suggests that cognitive biases may play a role in endorsement of conspiracy theories. The current research examines the novel hypothesis that individuals who are biased towards inferring intentional explanations for ambiguous actions are more likely to endorse conspiracy theories, which portray events as the exclusive product of intentional agency. Study 1 replicated a previously observed relationship between conspiracist ideation and individual differences in anthropomorphisation. Studies 2 and 3 report a relationship between conspiracism and inferences of intentionality for imagined ambiguous events. Additionally, Study 3 again found conspiracist ideation to be predicted by individual differences in anthropomorphism. Contrary to expectations, however, the relationship was not mediated by the intentionality bias. The findings are discussed in terms of a domain-general intentionality bias making conspiracy theories appear particularly plausible. Alternative explanations are suggested for the association between conspiracism and anthropomorphism. PMID:25970175

  13. Intention Seekers: Conspiracist Ideation and Biased Attributions of Intentionality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspiracist beliefs are widespread and potentially hazardous. A growing body of research suggests that cognitive biases may play a role in endorsement of conspiracy theories. The current research examines the novel hypothesis that individuals who are biased towards inferring intentional explanations for ambiguous actions are more likely to endorse conspiracy theories, which portray events as the exclusive product of intentional agency. Study 1 replicated a previously observed relationship between conspiracist ideation and individual differences in anthropomorphisation. Studies 2 and 3 report a relationship between conspiracism and inferences of intentionality for imagined ambiguous events. Additionally, Study 3 again found conspiracist ideation to be predicted by individual differences in anthropomorphism. Contrary to expectations, however, the relationship was not mediated by the intentionality bias. The findings are discussed in terms of a domain-general intentionality bias making conspiracy theories appear particularly plausible. Alternative explanations are suggested for the association between conspiracism and anthropomorphism. PMID:25970175

  14. Children's Understanding of Drivers' Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foot, Hugh C.; Thomson, James A.; Tolmie, Andrew K.; Whelan, Kirstie M.; Morrison, Sheila; Sarvary, Penelope

    2006-01-01

    To become more skilled as pedestrians, children need to acquire a view of the traffic environment as one in which road users are active agents with different intentions and objectives. This paper describes a simulation study designed to explore children's understanding of drivers' intentions. It also investigated the effect of training children's…

  15. Determination of self-incompatibility groups of sweet cherry genotypes from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ipek, A; Gulen, H; Akcay, M E; Ipek, M; Ergin, S; Eris, A

    2011-01-01

    Determination of S-allele combinations of sweet cherry genotypes and cultivars has importance for both growers and breeders. We determined S-allele combinations of 40 local Turkish sweet cherry genotypes using a PCR-based method. Ten different S-alleles were detected. Although the most common S-allele was S3, as also found in Western genotypes and cultivars, there were some differences in the frequencies of some S-alleles between Turkish and Western sweet cherry genotypes. According to their S-allele compositions, 30 local Turkish sweet cherry genotypes were assigned to 10 previously identified incompatibility groups. For the remaining genotypes, whose S-allele combinations did not fit to any previous incompatibility groups, three more incompatibility groups, XLII, XLIII and XLIV, were proposed. Results obtained from this study will help both sweet cherry growers and breeders to better manage these local Turkish sweet cherry genotypes in their orchards. PMID:21341217

  16. Plasma exchange in small intestinal transplantation between ABO-incompatible individuals: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, QIUHUI; HU, XINGBIN; XIA, AIJUN; YI, JING; AN, QUNXING; ZHANG, XIANQING

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the application of plasma exchange in small intestinal transplantation between ABO blood type-incompatible patients. A small intestinal transplantation case between ABO-incompatible individuals is hereby presented and analyzed. The main treatment included plasma exchange, splenectomy and immunosuppression. The patient undergoing small intestinal transplantation exhibited stable vital signs. A mild acute rejection reaction developed ~2 weeks after the surgery, which the patient successfully overcame. The subsequent colonoscopy and pathological examination revealed no signs of acute rejection. In conclusion, plasma exchange in combination with anti-immune rejection therapy proved to be an effective scheme for the management of small intestinal transplantation between ABO-incompatible patients. PMID:24649066

  17. Chromosome-Wide Impacts on the Expression of Incompatibilities in Hybrids of Tigriopus californicus

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Christopher S.; Lima, Thiago G.; Kovaleva, Inna; Hatfield, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome rearrangements such as inversions have been recognized previously as contributing to reproductive isolation by maintaining alleles together that jointly contribute to deleterious genetic interactions and postzygotic reproductive isolation. In this study, an impact of potential incompatibilities merely residing on the same chromosome was found in crosses of populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus. When genetically divergent populations of this copepod are crossed, hybrids show reduced fitness, and deviations from expected genotypic ratios can be used to determine regions of the genome involved in deleterious interactions. In this study, a set of markers was genotyped for a cross of two populations of T. californicus, and these markers show widespread deviations from Mendelian expectations, with entire chromosomes showing marked skew. Despite the importance of mtDNA/nuclear interactions in incompatibilities in this system in previous studies, in these crosses the expected patterns stemming from these interactions are not widely apparent. Females lack recombination in this species, and a striking difference is observed between male and female backcrosses. This suggests that the maintenance of multiple loci on individual chromosomes can enable some incompatibilities, perhaps playing a similar role in the initial rounds of hybridization to chromosomal rearrangements in preserving sets of alleles together that contribute to incompatibilities. Finally, it was observed that candidate pairs of incompatibility regions are not consistently interacting across replicates or subsets of these crosses, despite the repeatability of the deviations at many of the single loci themselves, suggesting that more complicated models of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities may need to be considered. PMID:27172190

  18. Chromosome-Wide Impacts on the Expression of Incompatibilities in Hybrids of Tigriopus californicus.

    PubMed

    Willett, Christopher S; Lima, Thiago G; Kovaleva, Inna; Hatfield, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome rearrangements such as inversions have been recognized previously as contributing to reproductive isolation by maintaining alleles together that jointly contribute to deleterious genetic interactions and postzygotic reproductive isolation. In this study, an impact of potential incompatibilities merely residing on the same chromosome was found in crosses of populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus When genetically divergent populations of this copepod are crossed, hybrids show reduced fitness, and deviations from expected genotypic ratios can be used to determine regions of the genome involved in deleterious interactions. In this study, a set of markers was genotyped for a cross of two populations of T. californicus, and these markers show widespread deviations from Mendelian expectations, with entire chromosomes showing marked skew. Despite the importance of mtDNA/nuclear interactions in incompatibilities in this system in previous studies, in these crosses the expected patterns stemming from these interactions are not widely apparent. Females lack recombination in this species, and a striking difference is observed between male and female backcrosses. This suggests that the maintenance of multiple loci on individual chromosomes can enable some incompatibilities, perhaps playing a similar role in the initial rounds of hybridization to chromosomal rearrangements in preserving sets of alleles together that contribute to incompatibilities. Finally, it was observed that candidate pairs of incompatibility regions are not consistently interacting across replicates or subsets of these crosses, despite the repeatability of the deviations at many of the single loci themselves, suggesting that more complicated models of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities may need to be considered. PMID:27172190

  19. Natural Variation of Heterokaryon Incompatibility Gene het-c in Podospora anserina Reveals Diversifying Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaans, Eric; Debets, Alfons J.M.; Aanen, Duur K.; van Diepeningen, Anne D.; Saupe, Sven J.; Paoletti, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, allorecognition takes the form of heterokaryon incompatibility, a cell death reaction triggered when genetically distinct hyphae fuse. Heterokaryon incompatibility is controlled by specific loci termed het-loci. In this article, we analyzed the natural variation in one such fungal allorecognition determinant, the het-c heterokaryon incompatibility locus of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina. The het-c locus determines an allogenic incompatibility reaction together with two unlinked loci termed het-d and het-e. Each het-c allele is incompatible with a specific subset of the het-d and het-e alleles. We analyzed variability at the het-c locus in a population of 110 individuals, and in additional isolates from various localities. We identified a total of 11 het-c alleles, which define 7 distinct incompatibility specificity classes in combination with the known het-d and het-e alleles. We found that the het-c allorecognition gene of P. anserina is under diversifying selection. We find a highly unequal allele distribution of het-c in the population, which contrasts with the more balanced distribution of functional groups of het-c based on their allorecognition function. One explanation for the observed het-c diversity in the population is its function in allorecognition. However, alleles that are most efficient in allorecognition are rare. An alternative and not exclusive explanation for the observed diversity is that het-c is involved in pathogen recognition. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a homolog of het-c is a pathogen effector target, supporting this hypothesis. We hypothesize that the het-c diversity in P. anserina results from both its functions in pathogen-defense, and allorecognition. PMID:24448643

  20. Natural variation of heterokaryon incompatibility gene het-c in Podospora anserina reveals diversifying selection.

    PubMed

    Bastiaans, Eric; Debets, Alfons J M; Aanen, Duur K; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Saupe, Sven J; Paoletti, Mathieu

    2014-04-01

    In filamentous fungi, allorecognition takes the form of heterokaryon incompatibility, a cell death reaction triggered when genetically distinct hyphae fuse. Heterokaryon incompatibility is controlled by specific loci termed het-loci. In this article, we analyzed the natural variation in one such fungal allorecognition determinant, the het-c heterokaryon incompatibility locus of the filamentous ascomycete Podospora anserina. The het-c locus determines an allogenic incompatibility reaction together with two unlinked loci termed het-d and het-e. Each het-c allele is incompatible with a specific subset of the het-d and het-e alleles. We analyzed variability at the het-c locus in a population of 110 individuals, and in additional isolates from various localities. We identified a total of 11 het-c alleles, which define 7 distinct incompatibility specificity classes in combination with the known het-d and het-e alleles. We found that the het-c allorecognition gene of P. anserina is under diversifying selection. We find a highly unequal allele distribution of het-c in the population, which contrasts with the more balanced distribution of functional groups of het-c based on their allorecognition function. One explanation for the observed het-c diversity in the population is its function in allorecognition. However, alleles that are most efficient in allorecognition are rare. An alternative and not exclusive explanation for the observed diversity is that het-c is involved in pathogen recognition. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a homolog of het-c is a pathogen effector target, supporting this hypothesis. We hypothesize that the het-c diversity in P. anserina results from both its functions in pathogen-defense, and allorecognition. PMID:24448643

  1. Evaluation of physicochemical incompatibilities during parenteral drug administration in a paediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Gikic, M; Di Paolo, E R; Pannatier, A; Cotting, J

    2000-06-01

    Patients in paediatric intensive care units (PICU) often receive numerous medications by the parenteral route. Frequently two or more drugs are delivered simultaneously through the same line and the risk of physicochemical incompatibilities is thus important. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify prospectively the combinations of injectable drugs administered in the PICU of our university hospital and 2) to analyze them according to information found in the literature. The data were collected by a pharmacist over a 30-day period and classified in three categories: compatible, incompatible and undocumented. Nineteen patients were included in the study with a median age of 3.2 years. The mean number (+/- SD) of injectable drugs per patient and per day was 6.5 (+/- 2.8), for a total of 26 drugs and 7 solutes. 64 combinations of drugs were observed with 2 (31.3%), 3 (45.3%), 4 (10.9%) or 5 (12.5%) drugs. 81 drug-drug and 94 drug-solute combinations were recorded. Among these, 151 (86.3%) were compatible, 6 (3.4%) incompatible and 18 (10.3%) undocumented. The incompatibilities included furosemide (Lasix), a drug in alkaline solution and Vamina-Glucose, a total parenteral nutrition solution. No clinical consequences resulting from drug incompatibilities were shown in this study. We suggest that in vitro compatibility tests on standard drug combinations, as well as a training program for nurses on drug incompatibility problems would sensitively increase the security of parenteral drug administration. PMID:11028261

  2. Effect of ABO incompatibility on the fate in vivo of 111-Indium granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, J.; Clay, M.; Loken, M.; Hurd, D.

    1988-07-01

    The effect of ABO incompatibility on the in vivo fate of 111-Indium granulocytes was determined. The intravascular recovery and survival (t1/2) and extravascular migration into a skin window of normal-donor granulocytes did not differ in 15 subjects from the values obtained in four controls who received ABO-compatible granulocytes. Nor was the correlation between the ABO antibody titers and the in vivo measurements strongly positive. It is concluded that ABO incompatibility did not alter the in vivo fate of granulocytes.

  3. Sustainability Frontiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces Sustainability Frontiers, a newly formed, international, not-for-profit alliance of sustainability and global educators dedicated to challenging and laying bare the assumptions, exposing the blind spots, and transgressing the boundaries of mainstream understandings of sustainability-related education. Among the orthodoxies…

  4. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making. PMID:26299597

  5. Molecular and quantitative signatures of biparental inbreeding depression in the self-incompatible tree species Prunus avium.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, C; Rogge, M; Degen, B

    2013-05-01

    Genetic diversity strongly influences populations' adaptability to changing environments and therefore survival. Sustainable forest management practices have multiple roles including conservation of genetic resources and timber production. In this study, we aimed at better understanding the variation in genetic diversity among adult and offspring individuals, and the effects of mating system on offspring survival and growth in wild cherry, Prunus avium. We analysed adult trees and open pollinated seed-families from three stands in Germany at eight microsatellite loci and one incompatibility system locus and conducted paternity analyses. Seed viability testing and seed sowing in a nursery allowed further testing for the effects of pollen donor diversity and genetic similarity between mates on the offspring performance at the seed and seedling stages. Our results were contrasting across stands. Loss of genetic diversity from adult to seedling stages and positive effect of mate diversity on offspring performance occurred in one stand only, whereas biparental inbreeding depression and significant decrease in fixation index from adults to seedlings was detected in two stands. We discussed the effects of stand genetic diversity on the magnitude of biparental inbreeding depression at several life-stages and its consequences on the management of genetic resources in P. avium. PMID:23211795

  6. Identification of differentially expressed genes involved in self-incompatibility in Theobroma cacao L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing yield, quality and disease resistance are important objectives for cacao breeding programs. However, self-incompatibility (SI) often restricts progress, as crosses between certain cacao germplasm accessions and breeding lines are only partially successful. Various events are involved in t...

  7. Expression analysis of self-incompatibility-associated genes in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Wang, C; Ge, T T; Wang, J J; Liu, T K; Hou, X L; Li, Y

    2014-01-01

    In Brassicaceae, a self-incompatibility (SI) system mediates pollen-pistil interactions. Self-pollen could be recognized and rejected by incompatible pistils. Several components involved in the SI response have been determined, including S-locus receptor kinase (SRK), S-locus cysteine-rich protein/S-locus protein 11, and arm repeat-containing protein 1 (ARC1). However, the components involved in the SI system of Brassicaceae are not fully understood. Here, we detected expression patterns of 24 SI-related genes in non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris ssp chinensis Makino) after compatible and incompatible pollination, and potential interaction relationships of these genes were predicted. SRK and ARC1 transcripts increased initially 0.25 h after incompatible pollination, while kinase-associated protein phosphatase had an expression pattern that was opposite that of SRK transcripts during self-pollination. Plant U-box 8 was not required in the SI response of non-heading Chinese cabbage. Our results showed that the SI signal of non-heading Chinese cabbage could occur within 0.25 h after self-pollination. The hypothetical interaction relationships indicated that plastid-lipid-associated protein and malate dehydrogenase could be negatively regulated by chaperonin 10, glutathione transferase, cytidylate kinase/uridylate kinase, and methionine synthase by indirect interactions. Our findings could be helpful to better understand potential roles of these components in the SI system of non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:25062491

  8. Self-incompatibility involved in the level of acetylcholine and cAMP.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Takafumi; Akita, Isamu; Yoshino, Natsuko

    2007-11-01

    Elongation of pollen tubes in pistils after self-pollination of Lilium longiflorum cv. Hinomoto exhibiting strong gametophytic self-incompatibility was promoted by cAMP and also promoted by some metabolic modulators, namely, activators (forskolin and cholera toxin) of adenylate cyclase and inhibitors (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and pertussis) of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. Moreover, the elongation was promoted by acetylcholine (ACh) and other choline derivatives, such as acetylthiocholine, L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine and chlorocholinechloride [CCC; (2-chloroethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride]. A potent inhibitor (neostigmine) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as well as acetylcholine also promoted the elongation. cAMP enhanced choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity and suppressed AChE activity in the pistils, suggesting that the results are closely correlated with self-incompatibility in L. longiflorum. In short, it came to light that cAMP modulates ChAT (acetylcholine-forming enzyme) and AChE (acetylchoine-decomposing enzyme) activities to enhance the level of ACh in the pistils of L. logiflorum after self-incompatible pollination. These results indicate that the self-incompatibility on self-pollination is caused by low levels of ACh and/or cAMP. PMID:19704589

  9. Female house mice avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males in a mate choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Manser, A; König, B; Lindholm, A K

    2015-01-01

    The t haplotype in house mice is a well-known selfish genetic element with detrimental, nonadditive fitness consequences to its carriers: recessive lethal mutations cause t/t homozygotes to perish in utero. Given the severe genetic incompatibility imposed by the t haplotype, we predict females to avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males. Indeed, some of the strongest evidence for compatibility mate choice is related to the t haplotype in house mice. However, all previous evidence for compatibility mate choice in this system is based on olfactory preference. It is so far unknown how general these preferences are and whether they are relevant in an actual mating context. Here, we assess female compatibility mate choice related to t haplotypes in a setting that--for the first time--allowed females to directly interact and mate with males. This approach enabled us to analyse female behaviour during the testing period, and the resulting paternity success and fitness consequences of a given choice. We show that genetic incompatibilities arising from the t haplotype had severe indirect fitness consequences and t females avoided fertilization by t incompatible males. The results are inconclusive whether this avoidance of t fertilization by t females was caused by pre- or post-copulatory processes. PMID:25494878

  10. A bacterial symbiont in the Bacteroidetes induces cytoplasmic incompatibility in the parasitoid wasp Encarsia pergandiella.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Martha S; Perlman, Steve J; Kelly, Suzanne E

    2003-01-01

    Vertically transmitted symbionts of arthropods have been implicated in several reproductive manipulations of their hosts. These include cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), parthenogenesis induction in haplodiploid species (PI), feminization and male killing. One symbiont lineage in the alpha-Proteobacteria, Wolbachia, is the only bacterium known to cause all of these effects, and has been thought to be unique in causing CI, in which the fecundity of uninfected females is reduced after mating with infected males. Here, we provide evidence that an undescribed symbiont in the Bacteroidetes group causes CI in a sexual population of the parasitic wasp Encarsia pergandiella. Wasps were crossed in all four possible combinations of infected and uninfected individuals. In the cross predicted to be incompatible, infected (I) males x uninfected (U) females, progeny production was severely reduced, with these females producing only 12.6% of the number of progeny in other crosses. The incompatibility observed in this haplodiploid species was the female mortality type; dissections showed that most progeny from the incompatible cross died as eggs. The 16S rDNA sequence of this symbiont is 99% identical to a parthenogenesis-inducing symbiont in other Encarsia, and 96% identical to a feminizing symbiont in haplodiploid Brevipalpus mites. Thus, this recently discovered symbiont lineage is capable of inducing three of the four principal manipulations of host reproduction known to be caused by Wolbachia. PMID:14561283

  11. 40 CFR 265.17 - General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes. 265.17 Section 265.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 264 - Examples of Potentially Incompatible Waste

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples of Potentially Incompatible Waste V Appendix V to Part 264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 264, App. V Appendix...

  13. 40 CFR 267.17 - What are the requirements for managing ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for managing ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes? 267.17 Section 267.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE FACILITIES OPERATING UNDER...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 265 - Examples of Potentially Incompatible Waste

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Examples of Potentially Incompatible Waste V Appendix V to Part 265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 265,...

  15. 40 CFR 264.17 - General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes. 264.17 Section 264.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 265 - Examples of Potentially Incompatible Waste

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Examples of Potentially Incompatible Waste V Appendix V to Part 265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 265,...

  17. 40 CFR 264.17 - General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes. 264.17 Section 264.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix V to Part 264 - Examples of Potentially Incompatible Waste

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Examples of Potentially Incompatible Waste V Appendix V to Part 264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Pt. 264, App. V Appendix...

  19. 40 CFR 265.17 - General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General requirements for ignitable, reactive, or incompatible wastes. 265.17 Section 265.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND...

  20. Simple Biophysical Model Predicts Faster Accumulation of Hybrid Incompatibilities in Small Populations Under Stabilizing Selection

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Bhavin S.; Goldstein, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Speciation is fundamental to the process of generating the huge diversity of life on Earth. However, we are yet to have a clear understanding of its molecular-genetic basis. Here, we examine a computational model of reproductive isolation that explicitly incorporates a map from genotype to phenotype based on the biophysics of protein–DNA binding. In particular, we model the binding of a protein transcription factor to a DNA binding site and how their independent coevolution, in a stabilizing fitness landscape, of two allopatric lineages leads to incompatibilities. Complementing our previous coarse-grained theoretical results, our simulations give a new prediction for the monomorphic regime of evolution that smaller populations should develop incompatibilities more quickly. This arises as (1) smaller populations have a greater initial drift load, as there are more sequences that bind poorly than well, so fewer substitutions are needed to reach incompatible regions of phenotype space, and (2) slower divergence when the population size is larger than the inverse of discrete differences in fitness. Further, we find longer sequences develop incompatibilities more quickly at small population sizes, but more slowly at large population sizes. The biophysical model thus represents a robust mechanism of rapid reproductive isolation for small populations and large sequences that does not require peak shifts or positive selection. Finally, we show that the growth of DMIs with time is quadratic for small populations, agreeing with Orr’s model, but nonpower law for large populations, with a form consistent with our previous theoretical results. PMID:26434721

  1. Hybrid incompatibilities are affected by dominance and dosage in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia

    PubMed Central

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Koevoets, Tosca; Morales, Hernán E.; Ferber, Steven; van de Zande, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Study of genome incompatibilities in species hybrids is important for understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation and speciation. According to Haldane's rule hybridization affects the heterogametic sex more than the homogametic sex. Several theories have been proposed that attribute asymmetry in hybridization effects to either phenotype (sex) or genotype (heterogamety). Here we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid genome incompatibility in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia using the powerful features of haploid males and sex reversal. We separately investigate the effects of heterozygosity (ploidy level) and sex by generating sex reversed diploid hybrid males and comparing them to genotypically similar haploid hybrid males and diploid hybrid females. Hybrid effects of sterility were more pronounced than of inviability, and were particularly strong in haploid males, but weak to absent in diploid males and females, indicating a strong ploidy level but no sex specific effect. Molecular markers identified a number of genomic regions associated with hybrid inviability in haploid males that disappeared under diploidy in both hybrid males and females. Hybrid inviability was rescued by dominance effects at some genomic regions, but aggravated or alleviated by dosage effects at other regions, consistent with cytonuclear incompatibilities. Dosage effects underlying Bateson–Dobzhansky–Muller (BDM) incompatibilities need more consideration in explaining Haldane's rule in diploid systems. PMID:25926847

  2. Objective Work-Nonwork Conflict: From Incompatible Demands to Decreased Work Role Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Sascha; Steinmetz, Holger; Dormann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Research on work-nonwork conflict (WNC) is based on the assumption that incompatible demands from the work and the nonwork domain hamper role performance. This assumption implies that role demands from both domains interact in predicting role performance, but research has been largely limited to main effects. In this multi-source study, we analyze…

  3. Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia with cellulitis after ABO-incompatible living-donor liver transplantation: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Kohei; Obara, Hideaki; Sugita, Kayoko; Shinoda, Masahiro; Kitago, Minoru; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Kentaro; Mori, Takehiko; Takano, Yaoko; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Itano, Osamu; Hasegawa, Naoki; Iwata, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter cinaedi (H. cinaedi), a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium, is an enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species. We report the first case of H. cinaedi bacteremia with cellulitis after liver transplantation. A 48-year-old male, who had been a dog breeder for 15 years, underwent ABO-incompatible living-donor liver transplantation for hepatitis C virus-induced decompensated cirrhosis using an anti-hepatitis B core antibody-positive graft. The patient was preoperatively administered rituximab and underwent plasma exchange twice to overcome blood type incompatibility. After discharge, he had been doing well with immunosuppression therapy comprising cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid according to the ABO-incompatible protocol of our institution. However, 7 mo after transplantation, he was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of recurrent cellulitis on the left lower extremity, and H. cinaedi was detected by both blood culture and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Antibiotics improved his symptoms, and he was discharged at day 30 after admission. Clinicians should be more aware of H. cinaedi in immunocompromised patients, such as ABO-incompatible transplant recipients. PMID:26167092

  4. Female house mice avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males in a mate choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Manser, A; König, B; Lindholm, A K

    2015-01-01

    The t haplotype in house mice is a well-known selfish genetic element with detrimental, nonadditive fitness consequences to its carriers: recessive lethal mutations cause t/t homozygotes to perish in utero. Given the severe genetic incompatibility imposed by the t haplotype, we predict females to avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males. Indeed, some of the strongest evidence for compatibility mate choice is related to the t haplotype in house mice. However, all previous evidence for compatibility mate choice in this system is based on olfactory preference. It is so far unknown how general these preferences are and whether they are relevant in an actual mating context. Here, we assess female compatibility mate choice related to t haplotypes in a setting that – for the first time – allowed females to directly interact and mate with males. This approach enabled us to analyse female behaviour during the testing period, and the resulting paternity success and fitness consequences of a given choice. We show that genetic incompatibilities arising from the t haplotype had severe indirect fitness consequences and t females avoided fertilization by t incompatible males. The results are inconclusive whether this avoidance of t fertilization by t females was caused by pre- or post-copulatory processes. PMID:25494878

  5. Regulation of gene expression during the vegetative incompatibility reaction in Podospora anserina. Characterization of three induced genes.

    PubMed Central

    Bourges, N; Groppi, A; Barreau, C; Clavé, C; Bégueret, J

    1998-01-01

    Vegetative incompatibility in fungi limits the formation of viable heterokaryons. It results from the coexpression of incompatible genes in the heterokaryotic cells and leads to a cell death reaction. In Podospora anserina, a modification of gene expression takes place during this reaction, including a strong decrease of total RNA synthesis and the appearance of a new set of proteins. Using in vitro translation of mRNA and separation of protein products by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we have shown that the mRNA content of cells is qualitatively modified during the progress of the incompatibility reaction. Thus, gene expression during vegetative incompatibility is regulated, at least in part, by variation of the mRNA content of specific genes. A subtractive cDNA library enriched in sequences preferentially expressed during incompatibility was constructed. This library was used to identify genomic loci corresponding to genes whose mRNA is induced during incompatibility. Three such genes were characterized and named idi genes for genes induced during incompatibility. Their expression profiles suggest that they may be involved in different steps of the incompatibility reaction. The putative IDI proteins encoded by these genes are small proteins with signal peptides. IDI-2 protein is a cysteine-rich protein. IDI-2 and IDI-3 proteins display some similarity in a tryptophan-rich region. PMID:9755195

  6. Apple (Malus x domestica) transcriptome in response to the compatible pathogen Erwinia amylovora and the incompatible pathogen Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infiltration of Erwinia amylovora (Ea) into host leaves induces an oxidative burst similar to that observed during incompatible reactions associated with Hypersensitive Response (HR). However, the subsequent progressive development of necrosis in apple and other hosts is unlike an incompatible reac...

  7. Counterfactual Thinking Facilitates Behavioral Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Smallman, Rachel; Roese, Neal J.

    2009-01-01

    People often ponder what might have been, and these counterfactual inferences have been linked to behavior regulation. Counterfactuals may enhance performance by either a content-specific pathway (via shift in behavioral intentions) and/or a content-neutral pathway (via mindsets or motivation). Three experiments provided new specification of the content-specific pathway. A sequential priming paradigm revealed that counterfactual judgments facilitated RTs to complete behavioral intention judgments relative to control judgments and to a no-judgment baseline (Experiment 1). This facilitation effect was found only for intention judgments that matched the information content of the counterfactual (Experiment 2) and only for intention judgments as opposed to a different judgment that nevertheless focused on the same information content (Experiment 3). These findings clarify the content-specific pathway by which counterfactuals influence behavior. PMID:20161221

  8. Evil intent and design responsibility.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Bart

    2004-04-01

    Mass casualty attacks in recent years have demonstrated the need to include "evil intent" as a design consideration. Three recent actual or potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks did not involve nuclear bombs or other devices designed as weapons, but rather benign objects used with evil intent. Just as unplanned events such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, and user misuse have been codified into design requirements based on the likelihood and potential impact of the event, "evil intent" has to become part of the design process for buildings, vehicles, equipment, and other items. The endstate should be reasonable additions to existing codes and standards such that it is clear what is and is not designed for. In the absence of specific design guidance, professionals with appropriate expertise can assess potential for "evil intent" and provide recommendations to design out or warn against this potential harm to public safety, particularly when codified requirements are not present. PMID:15152856

  9. Late antibody-mediated rejection after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation during Gram-negative sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The major challenge in ABO-incompatible transplantation is to minimize antibody-mediated rejection. Effective reduction of the anti-ABO blood group antibodies at the time of transplantation has made ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation a growing practice in our hospital and in centers worldwide. ABO antibodies result from contact with A- and B-like antigens in the intestines via nutrients and bacteria. We demonstrate a patient with fulminant antibody-mediated rejection late after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation, whose anti-A antibody titers rose dramatically following Serratia marcescens sepsis. Case presentation A 58-year-old woman underwent an ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation for end-stage renal disease secondary to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. It concerned a blood group A1 to O donation. Pre-desensitization titers were 64 for anti-blood group A IgM and 32 for anti-blood group A IgG titers. Desensitization treatment consisted of rituximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, immunoadsorption and intravenous immunoglobulines. She was readmitted to our hospital 11 weeks after transplantation for S. marcescens urosepsis. Her anti-A IgM titer rose to >5000 and she developed a fulminant antibody-mediated rejection. We hypothesized that the (overwhelming) presence in the blood of S. marcescens stimulated anti-A antibody formation, as S. marcescens might share epitopes with blood group A antigen. Unfortunately we could not demonstrate interaction between blood group A and S. marcescens in incubation experiments. Conclusion Two features of this post-transplant course are remarkably different from other reports of acute rejection in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation: first, the late occurrence 12 weeks after kidney transplantation and second, the very high anti-A IgM titers (>5000), suggesting recent boosting of anti-A antibody formation by S. marcescens. PMID:24517251

  10. Design intent tool: User guide

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan; Abell, Daniel; Bell, Geoffrey; Faludi, Jeremy; Greenberg, Steve; Hitchcock, Rob; Piette, Mary Ann; Sartor, Dalei; Stum, Karl

    2002-08-23

    This database tool provides a structured approach to recording design decisions that impact a facility's design intent in areas such as energy efficiency.Owners and de signers alike can plan, monitor and verify that a facility's design intent is being met during each stage of the design process. Additionally, the Tool gives commissioning agents, facility operators and future owners and renovators an understanding of how the building and its subsystems are intended to operate, and thus track and benchmark performance.

  11. Neural substrates underlying intentional empathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Yang, Xuedong; Wang, Xiaoying; Northoff, Georg; Han, Shihui

    2012-01-01

    Although empathic responses to stimuli with emotional contents may occur automatically, humans are capable to intentionally empathize with other individuals. Intentional empathy for others is even possible when they do not show emotional expressions. However, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms of this intentionally controlled empathic process. To investigate the neuronal substrates underlying intentional empathy, we scanned 20 healthy Chinese subjects, using fMRI, when they tried to feel inside the emotional states of neutral or angry faces of familiar (Asian) and unfamiliar (Caucasian) models. Skin color evaluation of the same stimuli served as a control task. Compared to a baseline condition, the empathy task revealed a network of established empathy regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral inferior frontal cortex and bilateral anterior insula. The contrast of intentional empathy vs skin color evaluation, however, revealed three regions: the bilateral inferior frontal cortex, whose hemodynamic responses were independent of perceived emotion and familiarity and the right-middle temporal gyrus, whose activity was modulated by emotion but not by familiarity. These findings extend our understanding of the role of the inferior frontal cortex and the middle temporal gyrus in empathy by demonstrating their involvement in intentional empathy. PMID:21511824

  12. Naturally Occurring Incompatibilities between Different Culex pipiens pallens Populations as the Basis of Potential Mosquito Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Zhu, Changliang; Zhang, Donghui

    2013-01-01

    Background Vector-borne diseases remain a threat to public health, especially in tropical countries. The incompatible insect technique has been explored as a potential control strategy for several important insect vectors. However, this strategy has not been tested in Culex pipiens pallens, the most prevalent mosquito species in China. Previous works used introgression to generate new strains that matched the genetic backgrounds of target populations while harboring a new Wolbachia endosymbiont, resulting in mating competitiveness and cytoplasmic incompatibility. The generation of these incompatible insects is often time-consuming, and the long-term stability of the newly created insect-Wolbachia symbiosis is uncertain. Considering the wide distribution of Cx. pipiens pallens and hence possible isolation of different populations, we sought to test for incompatibilities between natural populations and the possibility of exploiting these incompatibilities as a control strategy. Methodology/Principal Findings Three field populations were collected from three geographic locations in eastern China. Reciprocal cross results showed that bi-directional patterns of incompatibility existed between some populations. Mating competition experiments indicated that incompatible males could compete with cognate males in mating with females, leading to reduced overall fecundity. F1 offspring from incompatible crosses maintained their maternal crossing types. All three populations tested positive for Wolbachia. Removal of Wolbachia by tetracycline rendered matings between these populations fully compatible. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that naturally occurring patterns of cytoplasmic incompatibility between Cx. pipiens pallens populations can be the basis of a control strategy for this important vector species. The observed incompatibilities are caused by Wolbachia. More tests including field trials are warranted to evaluate the feasibility of this strategy as a

  13. Intentional Schools: Living in the Moment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bockern, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Schools with good intentions are not the same as schools being intentional. Sometimes the best intentions--a result of valuing efficiency, standard procedure (tradition), obedience, or the latest educational fad--create unintended consequences that are not necessarily in the best interest of children. Intentional schools develop a culture of…

  14. Runaway Climate Change as Challenge to the "Closing Circle" of Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, David; Kagawa, Fumiyo

    2010-01-01

    Education for sustainable development (ESD) is the latest and thickest manifestation of the "closing circle" of policy-driven environmental education. Characterised by definitional haziness, a tendency to blur rather than lay bare inconsistencies and incompatibilities, and a cozy but ill-considered association with the globalisation agenda, the…

  15. Family medicine residents’ practice intentions

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Lawrence E.M.; Fowler, Nancy; Kwan, Matthew Y.W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess residents’ practice intentions since the introduction of the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s Triple C curriculum, which focuses on graduating family physicians who will provide comprehensive care within traditional and newer models of family practice. Design A survey based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour was administered on 2 occasions. Setting McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont. Participants Residents (n = 135) who were enrolled in the Department of Family Medicine Postgraduate Residency Program at McMaster University in July 2012 and July 2013; 54 of the 60 first-year residents who completed the survey in 2012 completed it again in 2013. Main outcome measures The survey was modeled so as to measure the respondents’ intentions to practise with a comprehensive scope; determine the degree to which their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control about comprehensive practice influence those intentions; and investigate how these relationships change as residents progress through the curriculum. The survey also queried the respondents about their intentions with respect to particular medical services that underpin comprehensive practice. Results The responses indicate that the factors modeled by the theory of planned behaviour survey account for 60% of the variance in the residents’ intentions to adopt a comprehensive scope of practice upon graduation, that there is room for curricular improvement with respect to encouraging residents to practise comprehensive care, and that targeting subjective norms about comprehensive practice might have the greatest influence on improving resident intentions. Conclusion The theory of planned behaviour presents an effective approach to assessing curricular effects on resident practice intentions while also providing meaningful information for guiding further program evaluation efforts in the Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University. PMID:26889508

  16. Sustainability 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, David

    2008-01-01

    Sustainability is one of the leading issues of this time. Climate change is real, and widespread commitment and creativity are needed to combat its negative effects. Higher education is the seedbed of the sustainability movement. Much climate research and environmental science takes place on college and university campuses, which are, by their…

  17. Sustainable Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…

  18. Localized graft incompatibility in pear/quince (Pyrus communis/Cydonia oblonga) combinations: multivariate analysis of histological data from 5-month-old grafts.

    PubMed

    Ermel, F. F.; Kervella, J.; Catesson, A. M.; Poëssel, J. L.

    1999-08-01

    To characterize the structural events associated with incompatibility of graft development, we conducted a histological study of compatible and incompatible pear/pear and pear/quince grafts that had been grown for five months in a greenhouse. Multivariate analysis of histological data describing the structure of the graft union allowed us to discriminate between compatible and incompatible combinations before either macroscopic examination or qualitative microscopic examination differences between graft combinations became evident. The histological variables responsible for the discrimination between incompatible and compatible unions were related to three typical symptoms of graft incompatibility: bark discontinuity, which was the main feature; cambial dysfunction; and accumulation of starch in the scion. Little cell necrosis was observed at the interface of incompatible grafts at the 5-month stage of graft development. Multivariate analysis of histological data provides a new tool for studying early structural events resulting from the graft incompatibility response and for diagnosing early graft incompatibility. PMID:12651320

  19. Beyond human intentions and emotions

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Elsa; Frum, Chris; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Wang, Yi-Wen; Lewis, James W.; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neural basis of action observation and intention understanding in the last few decades by studies demonstrating the involvement of a specific brain network (action observation network; AON), these have been largely based on experimental studies in which people have been considered as strictly isolated entities. However, we, as social species, spend much more of our time performing actions interacting with others. Research shows that a person's position along the continuum of perceived social isolation/bonding to others is associated with a variety of physical and mental health effects. Thus, there is a crucial need to better understand the neural basis of intention understanding performed in interpersonal and emotional contexts. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis using of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies over the past decade that examined brain and cortical network processing associated with understanding the intention of others actions vs. those associated with passionate love for others. Both overlapping and distinct cortical and subcortical regions were identified for intention and love, respectively. These findings provide scientists and clinicians with a set of brain regions that can be targeted for future neuroscientific studies on intention understanding, and help develop neurocognitive models of pair-bonding. PMID:23543838

  20. Physiological and Cytological Similarities between Disease Resistance and Cellular Incompatibility Responses.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, J; Daniels, D; Davis, W C; Eddy, R; Hadwiger, L A

    1974-11-01

    Excised pea pods responded similarly to both the invasion of plant pathogenic fungi and the presence of bean tissue, bean pollen, and mouse tumor cells by synthesizing pisatin and by developing a characteristic yellow-green fluorescence. Both responses were dependent on RNA and protein synthesis. Conversely, the foreign pollen and incompatible fungi were sensitive to the pea pod tissue and were subject to abnormal development.The induction of pisatin and the yellow-green fluorescence development were mediated by multiple compounds of varying sizes released by fungi or mouse tumor cells. The incompatibility between a bean pathogen, Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli, and pea pod tissue was hypothesized to occur as a result of the cross contamination of such inducing compounds. PMID:16658953

  1. Genetic analysis of barrage line formation during mycelial incompatibility in Rosellinia necatrix.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kenichi; Inoue, Kanako; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Hamanaka, Taiki; Ohta, Tatsuro; Kitazawa, Hirotomo; Kida, Chiaki; Kanematsu, Satoko; Park, Pyoyun

    2011-01-01

    When mycelia of Rosellinia necatrix encounter mycelia of a different genetic strain, distinct barrage lines are formed between the two. These barrages have variable features such as pigmented pseudosclerotia structures, a clear zone, fuzzy hair-like mycelia, or tuft-like mycelia, suggesting that mycelial incompatibility triggers a number of cellular reactions. In this study, to evaluate cellular reactions we performed genetic analysis of mycelial incompatibility of R. nectarix, using 20 single ascospore isolates from single perithecia. Mycelial interaction zones were removed by spatula and cellular reactions studied on oatmeal agar media. The interaction zones were categorized into types such as sharp or wide lines, with or without melanin, and combinations of these. Although various reaction types were observed, we were able to identify a single genetic factor that appears to be responsible for the barrage line formation within oatmeal agar medium. DNA polymorphism analysis identified parental isolates and revealed that R. necatrix has a heterothallic life cycle. PMID:21215958

  2. Morality, Intentionality, and Intergroup Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Melanie; Rizzo, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Morality is at the core of what it means to be social. Moral judgments require the recognition of intentionality, that is, an attribution of the target’s intentions towards another. Most research on the origins of morality has focused on intragroup morality, which involves applying morality to individuals in one’s own group. Yet, increasingly, there has been new evidence that beginning early in development, children are able to apply moral concepts to members of an outgroup as well, and that this ability appears to be complex. The challenges associated with applying moral judgments to members of outgroups includes understanding group dynamics, the intentions of others who are different from the self, and having the capacity to challenge stereotypic expectations of others who are different from the ingroup. Research with children provides a window into the complexities of moral judgment and raises new questions, which are ripe for investigations into the evolutionary basis of morality. PMID:25717199

  3. The mating system of the fungus Cryphonectria parasitica: selfing and self-incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Marra, R E; Milgroom, M G

    2001-02-01

    Although the genetic components of mating systems in fungi are well understood as laboratory phenomena, surprisingly little is known about their function in nature or about their role in determining mating patterns and population genetic structure. Our study of the mating system of the haploid ascomycete fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, resulted in the following. (1) Laboratory crosses among 20 isolates, chosen randomly from North America and China, resolved into two incompatibility groups (occurring on both continents), confirming that C. parasitica has a diallelic, bipolar sexual self-incompatibility system, typical of other self-incompatible Ascomycetes, in which mating is only successful between isolates of opposite mating type. (2) PCR-based markers for mating-type alleles correlated perfectly with mating-type phenotypes of individual isolates. (3) Three genotypes, isolated from natural populations in Virginia and West Virginia, were inoculated onto chestnut trees in two sites in West Virginia and were confirmed to have self-fertilized and outcrossed in both sites. (4) Ten isolates, of a total of over 200 assayed, were confirmed to have self-fertilized in the laboratory, albeit at very low frequency. Five of these 10 isolates were ramets of a single genet, suggesting a genetic basis underlying the proclivity to self-fertilize in the laboratory. (5) Self-fertilization could not be induced in the laboratory with exudates (ostensibly containing pheromones) from isolates of opposite mating type. These results demonstrate that, a sexual self-incompatibility system notwithstanding, self-fertilization occurs under both laboratory and field conditions in C. parasitica. The disparity between observations of frequent selfing in nature and rare selfing in the laboratory suggests that the mating system is under ecological as well as genetic control. PMID:11380658

  4. Cryptic self-incompatibility and distyly in Hedyotis acutangula Champ. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Wu, X; Li, A; Zhang, D

    2010-05-01

    Distyly, floral polymorphism frequently associated with reciprocal herkogamy, self- and intramorph incompatibility and secondary dimorphism, constitutes an important sexual system in the Rubiaceae. Here we report an unusual kind of distyly associated with self- and/or intramorph compatibility in a perennial herb, Hedyotis acutangula. Floral morphology, ancillary dimorphisms and compatibility of the two morphs were studied. H. acutangula did not exhibit precise reciprocal herkogamy, but this did not affect the equality of floral morphs in the population, as usually found in distylous plants. Both pin and thrum pollen retained relatively high viability for 8 h. The pollen to ovule ratio was 72.5 in pin flowers and 54.4 in thrum flowers. Pistils of pin flowers remained receptive for longer than those of thrum flowers. No apparent difference in the germination rate of pin and thrum pollen grains was observed when cultured in vitro, although growth of thrum pollen tubes was much faster than that of pin pollen tubes. Artificial pollination revealed that pollen tube growth in legitimate intermorph crosses was faster than in either intramorph crosses or self-pollination, suggesting the occurrence of cryptic self-incompatibility in this species. Cryptic self-incompatibility functioned differently in the two morphs, with pollen tube growth rates after legitimate and illegitimate pollination much more highly differentiated in pin flowers than in thrum flowers. No fruit was produced in emasculated netted flowers, suggesting the absence of apomixis. Our results indicate that H. acutangula is distylous, with a cryptic self-incompatibility breeding system. PMID:20522185

  5. Living donor transplant options in end-stage renal disease patients with ABO incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Waigankar, Santosh S.; Kamat, Madhav H.; Joshi, Shriram; Gandhi, Bhupendra V.; Bahadur, Madan; Deshpande, Rushi V.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The options available to CKD 5 patients with donor shortage due to incompatibilities is to either get enlisted in cadaver transplant program or opt for three other alternatives viz; ABO-incompatible transplant (ABO-I), ABO-incompatible transplant with Rituximab (ABO-R) or paired-kidney exchange transplant (PKE). At our institute we have performed ABO-I, ABO-R and PKE transplants and we are presenting the results of these transplants performed at our institution. Here, we report our experiences of living donor kidney transplantation in highly sensitized patients. Objective: To review the options available to CKD 5 patients with incompatible donor. Materials and Methods: Between January 2008 and June 2011, 7 PKE, 26 ABO-I and 7 ABO-R transplants were carried out at our institute. Evaluation of both the recipients and donors involved biochemical, serological and radiological investigations. In case of PKE, recipients were operated simultaneously in different operation theaters. In ABO-I splenectomy was done while in ABO-R was given. Post-transplant the recipient management protocol remained the same. Expenditure following each transplant was calculated. Results: The graft and patient survival of ABO-I, ABO-R and PKE transplants 12-18 months after transplant were 78.9%:80%, 85.7%:85.7% and 100%:100%, respectively. Conclusions: The inclusion of Rituximab in the transplant protocol appears promising. The existing donor shortage could be addressed by encouraging other options like PKE. The limiting factor for ABO-R and PKE transplants is time and cost, respectively. The decision depends on the informed consent between the patient and the nephrologists. PMID:23956512

  6. Multiple infections and diversity of cytoplasmic incompatibility in a haplodiploid species.

    PubMed

    Mouton, L; Henri, H; Boulétreau, M; Vavre, F

    2005-02-01

    Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is a sperm-egg incompatibility commonly induced by the intracellular endosymbiont bacterium Wolbachia that, in diploid species, results in embryo mortality. In haplodiploid species, two types of CI exist depending on whether the incompatible fertilized eggs develop into males (male development (MD)) or abort (female mortality (FM)). CI allows multiple infections to be maintained in host populations, and thus allows interactions to occur between co-infecting strains. In Leptopilina heterotoma, three Wolbachia strains coexist naturally (wLhet1, wLhet2, wLhet3). When these three strains are all present, they induce a CI of FM type, whereas wLhet1 alone expresses a CI phenotype intermediate between MD and FM. Here, we compare CI effects in crosses involving insect lines sharing the same nuclear background, but harboring different mixtures of strains. Mating experiments showed that: (i) wLhet2 and wLhet3 also induce an intermediate CI when acting alone, and show a bidirectional incompatibility; (ii) there is no interaction between the co-infecting strains in CI expression; (iii) the diversity of Wolbachia present within a male host influences the expression of CI: an increase in the number of strains is correlated with a decrease in the proportion of the MD type, which is also correlated with an increase in bacterial density. All these data suggest that the CI of FM type results from a stronger effect than the MD type, which conflicts with the conventional hypotheses used to explain CI diversity in haplodiploids, and could provide some new information about CI mechanisms in insects. PMID:15562287

  7. Cytomechanical Properties of Papaver Pollen Tubes Are Altered after Self-Incompatibility Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Geitmann, Anja; McConnaughey, William; Lang-Pauluzzi, Ingeborg; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E.; Emons, Anne Mie C.

    2004-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) in Papaver rhoeas triggers a ligand-mediated signal transduction cascade, resulting in the inhibition of incompatible pollen tube growth. Using a cytomechanical approach we have demonstrated that dramatic changes to the mechanical properties of incompatible pollen tubes are stimulated by SI induction. Microindentation revealed that SI resulted in a reduction of cellular stiffness and an increase in cytoplasmic viscosity. Whereas the former cellular response is likely to be the result of a drop in cellular turgor, we hypothesize that the latter is caused by as yet unidentified cross-linking events. F-actin rearrangements, a characteristic phenomenon for SI challenge in Papaver, displayed a spatiotemporal gradient along the pollen tube; this suggests that signal propagation occurs in a basipetal direction. However, unexpectedly, local application of SI inducing S-protein did not reveal any evidence for localized signal perception in the apical or subapical regions of the pollen tube. To our knowledge this represents the first mechanospatial approach to study signal propagation and cellular responses in a well-characterized plant cell system. Our data provide the first evidence for mechanical changes induced in the cytoplasm of a plant cell stimulated by a defined ligand. PMID:15111444

  8. Study on Incompatibility of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Evidence from Formula Network, Chemical Space, and Metabolism Room

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Jin, Jin; Yu, Guang-Yun; He, Xin; Wang, Hao; Shen, Xiu; Zhou, Ze-Wei; Liu, Pei-Xun; Fan, Sai-Jun

    2013-01-01

    A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula network including 362 TCM formulas was built by using complex network methodologies. The properties of this network were analyzed including network diameter, average distance, clustering coefficient, and average degree. Meanwhile, we built a TCM chemical space and a TCM metabolism room under the theory of chemical space. The properties of chemical space and metabolism room were calculated and analyzed. The properties of the medicine pairs in “eighteen antagonisms and nineteen mutual inhibitors,” an ancient rule for TCM incompatibility, were studied based on the TCM formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room. The results showed that the properties of these incompatible medicine pairs are different from those of the other TCM based on the analysis of the TCM formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room. The lines of evidence derived from our work demonstrated that the ancient rule of TCM incompatibility, “eighteen antagonisms and nineteen mutual inhibitors,” is probably scientifically based. PMID:24369478

  9. Tropical Drosophila pandora carry Wolbachia infections causing cytoplasmic incompatibility or male killing.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kelly M; Schiffer, Michele; Griffin, Philippa C; Lee, Siu F; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2016-08-01

    Wolbachia infections have been described in several Drosophila species, but relatively few have been assessed for phenotypic effects. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common phenotypic effect that has been detected, while some infections cause male killing or feminization, and many Wolbachia infections have few host effects. Here, we describe two new infections in a recently described species, Drosophila pandora, one of which causes near-complete CI and near-perfect maternal transmission (the "CI" strain). The other infection is a male killer (the "MK" strain), which we confirm by observing reinitiation of male production following tetracycline treatment. No incompatibility was detected in crosses between CI strain males and MK strain females, and rare MK males do not cause CI. Molecular analyses indicate that the CI and MK infections are distantly related and the CI infection is closely related to the wRi infection of Drosophila simulans. Two population surveys indicate that all individuals are infected with Wolbachia, but the MK infection is uncommon. Given patterns of incompatibility among the strains, the infection dynamics is expected to be governed by the relative fitness of the females, suggesting that the CI infection should have a higher fitness. This was evidenced by changes in infection frequencies and sex ratios in population cages initiated at different starting frequencies of the infections. PMID:27282489

  10. Single gene control of postzygotic self-incompatibility in poke milkweed, Asclepias exaltata L.

    PubMed Central

    Lipow, S R; Wyatt, R

    2000-01-01

    Most individuals of Asclepias exaltata are self-sterile, but all plants lack prezygotic barriers to self-fertilization. To determine whether postzygotic rejection of self-fertilized ovules is due to late-acting self-incompatibility or to extreme, early acting inbreeding depression, we performed three diallel crosses among self-sterile plants related as full-sibs. The full-sibs segregated into four compatibility classes, suggesting that late acting self-incompatibility is controlled by a single gene (S-locus). Crosses between plants sharing one or both alleles at the S-locus are incompatible. An additional diallel cross was done among full-sib progeny from a cross of a self-sterile and a self-fertile plant. These progeny grouped into two compatibility classes, and plants within classes displayed varying levels of self-fertility. This suggests that the occasional self-fertility documented in natural pollinations is caused by pseudo-self-fertility alleles that alter the functioning of the S-locus. PMID:10655239

  11. High-resolution mapping reveals hundreds of genetic incompatibilities in hybridizing fish species

    PubMed Central

    Schumer, Molly; Cui, Rongfeng; Powell, Daniel L; Dresner, Rebecca; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is increasingly being recognized as a common process in both animal and plant species. Negative epistatic interactions between genes from different parental genomes decrease the fitness of hybrids and can limit gene flow between species. However, little is known about the number and genome-wide distribution of genetic incompatibilities separating species. To detect interacting genes, we perform a high-resolution genome scan for linkage disequilibrium between unlinked genomic regions in naturally occurring hybrid populations of swordtail fish. We estimate that hundreds of pairs of genomic regions contribute to reproductive isolation between these species, despite them being recently diverged. Many of these incompatibilities are likely the result of natural or sexual selection on hybrids, since intrinsic isolation is known to be weak. Patterns of genomic divergence at these regions imply that genetic incompatibilities play a significant role in limiting gene flow even in young species. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02535.001 PMID:24898754

  12. Population size and relatedness affect fitness of a self-incompatible invasive plant.

    PubMed

    Elam, Diane R; Ridley, Caroline E; Goodell, Karen; Ellstrand, Norman C

    2007-01-01

    One of the lingering paradoxes in invasion biology is how founder populations of an introduced species are able to overcome the limitations of small size and, in a "reversal of fortune," proliferate in a new habitat. The transition from colonist to invader is especially enigmatic for self-incompatible species, which must find a mate to reproduce. In small populations, the inability to find a mate can result in the Allee effect, a positive relationship between individual fitness and population size or density. Theoretically, the Allee effect should be common in founder populations of self-incompatible colonizing species and may account for the high rate of failed introductions, but little supporting evidence exists. We created a field experiment to test whether the Allee effect affects the maternal fitness of a self-incompatible invasive species, wild radish (Raphanus sativus). We created populations of varying size and relatedness. We measured maternal fitness in terms of both fruit set per flower and seed number per fruit. We found that both population size and the level of genetic relatedness among individuals influence maternal reproductive success. Our results explicitly define an ecological genetic obstacle faced by populations of an exotic species on its way to becoming invasive. Such a mechanistic understanding of the invasions of species that require a mate can and should be exploited for both controlling current outbreaks and reducing their frequency in the future. PMID:17197422

  13. Effect of temperature on Wolbachia density and impact on cytoplasmic incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Mouton, L; Henri, H; Bouletreau, M; Vavre, F

    2006-01-01

    The outcome and the evolution of host-symbiont associations depend on environmental constraints, but responses are difficult to predict since they arise from a complex interaction between the host, the parasite and the environment. The situation can be even more complex when multiple parasite genotypes, with potentially different responses to environmental changes, coexist within a single host. In this paper, we investigated the effect of the temperature (from 14 to 26 degrees C) during the host development on the density of 3 strains of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia that coexist within the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma. In this species, Wolbachia induces cytoplasmic incompatibility, a sperm-egg incompatibility that allows it to spread and persist in host populations. Using real-time quantitative PCR we found that (i) Wolbachia density is temperature-specific and highest at 26 degrees C; (ii) the order of the abundance of the 3 Wolbachia strains does not vary with temperature changes; (iii) the response of bacterial density to temperature occurs within a single insect generation, during the egg-to-adult developmental period; (iv) in this species, temperature-related changes in Wolbachia density do not influence cytoplasmic incompatibility. PMID:16393353

  14. A conserved role for the ARC1 E3 ligase in Brassicaceae self-incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Indriolo, Emily; Goring, Daphne R

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitination plays essential roles in the regulation of many processes in plants including pollen rejection in self-incompatible species. In the Brassicaceae (mustard family), self-incompatibility drives the rejection of self-pollen by preventing pollen hydration following pollen contact with the stigmatic surface. Self-pollen is recognized by a ligand-receptor pair: the pollen S-locus cysteine rich/S-locus protein 11 (SCR/SP11) ligand and the pistil S receptor kinase (SRK). Following self-pollen contact, the SCR/SP11 ligand on the pollen surface binds to SRK on the pistil surface, and the SRK-activated signaling pathway is initiated. This pathway includes the armadillo repeat containing 1 (ARC1) protein, a member of the plant U-box (PUB) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. ARC1 is a functional E3 ligase and is required downstream of SRK for the self-incompatibility response. This mini review highlights our recent progress in establishing ARC1's conserved role in self-pollen rejection in Brassica and Arabidopsis species and discusses future research directions in this field. PMID:24847339

  15. Some Comments on the Distinction Between Intention and Intentionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The topic of intention has recently received attention from behavior analysts (Hineline, 2003; Neuman, 2004). From a behavior-analytic perspective, it is important to identify the circumstances in which people utter such terms, and to identify the potential circumstances that maintain such utterances. It follows that from a behavior-analytic…

  16. ABO incompatibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Transfusion and Donation Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ... must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  17. Rh incompatibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... affected unless the mother had past miscarriages or abortions that sensitized her immune system. This because it ... injections: During every pregnancy After a miscarriage or abortion After prenatal tests such as amniocentesis and chorionic ...

  18. Rh incompatibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cross into the mother's blood through the placenta. If the mother is Rh-negative, her immune ... cells. These antibodies may cross back through the placenta into the developing baby. They destroy the baby's ...

  19. ABO incompatibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... important when a patient needs to receive blood (transfusion) or have an organ transplant. The blood types ... receive type O blood. Both blood and plasma transfusions must be matched to avoid an immune reaction. ...

  20. Rh Incompatibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Blood and Marrow Stem Cell Transplant Heart Failure Hemolytic Anemia Send a link to NHLBI to someone by ... baby's red blood cells. This can lead to hemolytic anemia (HEE-moh-lit-ick uh-NEE-me-uh) ...

  1. Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Discusses South African national development priorities, sustainable development, and the future of agriculture and presents three scenarios of possible national action: production for sale and export, household food security, and conservation of natural resources. (MKR)

  2. Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmandt, Jurgen; Ward, C. H.; Marilu Hastings, Assisted By

    2000-04-01

    Demographers predict that the world population will double during the first half of the 21st century before it will begin to level off. In this volume, a group of prominent authors examine what societal changes must occur to meet this challenge to the natural environment and the transformational changes that we must experience to achieve sustainability. Frances Cairncross, Herman E. Daly, Stephen H. Schneider and others provide a broad discussion of sustainable development. They detail economic and environmental, as well as spiritual and religious, corporate and social, scientific and political factors. Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Transition offers many insightful policy recommendations about how business, government, and individuals must change their current values, priorities, and behavior to meet present and future challenges. It will appeal to scholars and decision makers interested in global change, environmental policy, population growth, and sustainable development, and also to corporate environmental managers.

  3. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  4. Entrepreneurial Intention as Developmental Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2010-01-01

    What predicts adults' entrepreneurial intentions? Utilizing a cross-sectional sample of 496 German scientists, we investigated a path model for the effects of entrepreneurial personality (Big Five profile), control beliefs, and recalled early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence (early inventions, leadership, commercial activities) on two…

  5. Models of College Persistence Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Donald W.

    2010-01-01

    While withdrawal from higher education may be the result of many reasons both within and beyond the control of the student or the institution, the intent of not returning to higher education indicates the acceptance of a permanent disassociation with the pursuit of the higher education endeavor. It is of paramount importance in understanding the…

  6. Infants Infer Intentions from Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakkalou, Elena; Gattis, Merideth

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine infants' ability to discern intentions from lexical and prosodic cues. Two groups of 14-18-month-olds participated in these studies. In both studies, infants watched an adult perform a sequence of two-step actions on novel toys that produced an end-result. In the first study actions were marked intentionally…

  7. Curing Both Virulent Mega-Plasmids from Bacillus anthracis Wild-Type Strain A16 Simultaneously Using Plasmid Incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongshu; Gao, Zhiqi; Wang, Huagui; Feng, Erling; Zhu, Li; Liu, Xiankai; Wang, Hengliang

    2015-10-28

    Plasmid-cured derivative strains of Bacillus anthracis are frequently used in laboratory studies. Plasmid incompatibility, which does not increase the risk of chromosomal mutation, is a useful method for plasmid curing. However, in bacteria containing multiple plasmids, it often requires the sequential introduction of multiple, specific incompatibility plasmids. This lengthy process renders the traditional plasmid incompatibility method inefficient and mutation-prone. In this study, we successfully cured plasmids pXO1 and pXO2 from B. anthracis A16 simultaneously using only one recombinant incompatible plasmid, pKORT, to obtain a plasmid-free strain, designated A16DD. This method may also be useful for the simultaneous, one-step curing of multiple plasmids from other bacteria, including Bacillus thuringiensis and Yersinia pestis. PMID:26059513

  8. The Type III Secretion System of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA122 Mediates Symbiotic Incompatibility with Rj2 Soybean Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tsukui, Takahiro; Eda, Shima; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sato, Shusei; Okazaki, Shin; Kakizaki-Chiba, Kaori; Itakura, Manabu; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Yamashita, Akifumi; Terasawa, Kimihiro

    2013-01-01

    The rhcJ and ttsI mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA122 for the type III protein secretion system (T3SS) failed to secrete typical effector proteins and gained the ability to nodulate Rj2 soybean plants (Hardee), which are symbiotically incompatible with wild-type USDA122. This suggests that effectors secreted via the T3SS trigger incompatibility between these two partners. PMID:23204412

  9. Intent v. Impact: The Standard of Proof Necessary to Establish a Prima Facie Case of Race Discrimination under 42 U.S.C. Section 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Considers action's impact and intent as proof; analyzes language, purpose, and legislative history of civil rights statutes; and concludes that the Supreme Court will likely require proof of intent to sustain a prima facie case of discrimination. Available from San Diego Law Review Association, University of San Diego School of Law, San Diego,…

  10. Neonatal BO Incompatibility Is Associated With a Positive Cord Blood Direct Antiglobulin Test in Infants of Black Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Özgönenel, Bülent; Kukreja, Geetika; O'Malley, Barbara; Bluth, Martin H

    2015-11-01

    ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn occurs almost exclusively in infants of blood group A and B who are born to group O mothers. Positive Direct Antiglobulin Test (DAT) can identify those infants who are at risk of developing the ABO hemolytic disease. Earlier studies have suggested that BO incompatibility is associated with a positive DAT in black infants. In this study we sought to determine whether ABO incompatibility type could be associated with a higher rate of DAT positivity or clinical hemolytic disease. We reviewed the electronic medical records of all ABO-incompatible births over a 2-year period. There were 1537 ABO-incompatible births during the study period. DAT was more commonly positive among BO incompatible (21.5% in BO vs. 14.8% in AO, P=0.001) and black (18.8% in blacks vs. 10.8% in nonblacks, P=0.003) infants. DAT positivity was significantly associated with both severe hyperbilirubinemia (P=0.028) and hemolytic anemia (P<0.001). BO incompatibility was significantly associated with hemolytic anemia, but not severe hyperbilirubinemia, in the infants tested. PMID:26422285

  11. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  12. Automatic Intention Recognition in Conversation Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of many theories of conversation is that comprehension of a speaker's utterance involves recognition of the speaker's intention in producing that remark. However, the nature of intention recognition is not clear. One approach is to conceptualize a speaker's intention in terms of speech acts [Searle, J. (1969). "Speech…

  13. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-09-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro-macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings--which remains to be proven by future research--is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives. PMID:26047540

  14. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence☆

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro–macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings—which remains to be proven by future research—is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives. PMID:26047540

  15. Sustainable developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Hundreds of diplomats, along with industry, finance, environment, and labor leaders from around the world met from April 20 to May 1 for the sixth session of the United Nations Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD), an annual follow-up conference to track the Agenda 21 program of action adopted at the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit.During the session, which focused on freshwater management concerns and the role of industry in sustainable development, the participants discussed a number of issues about development and parity among northern and southern hemisphere countries.

  16. Sylvian fissure epidermoid cyst presenting with intention tremor

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Abhidha; Makkiyah, Feda; Goel, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid tumors are benign tumors which contain keratin, cellular debris, and cholesterol, and are lined with stratified squamous epithelium. They grow in discreet silence sustained over a multitude of years. The tumors most commonly present with headache and seizures. We report the case of a 24-year-old male with a large sylvian fissure epidermoid tumor who presented with intention tremor. The patient was operated, and a near-total excision of the tumor was performed with a resolution of the tremor. PMID:27057232

  17. Temperature Affects the Tripartite Interactions between Bacteriophage WO, Wolbachia, and Cytoplasmic Incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Bordenstein, Sarah R.; Bordenstein, Seth R.

    2011-01-01

    Wolbachia infections are a model for understanding intracellular, bacterial symbioses. While the symbiosis is often studied from a binary perspective of host and bacteria, it is increasingly apparent that additional trophic levels can influence the symbiosis. For example, Wolbachia in arthropods harbor a widespread temperate bacteriophage, termed WO, that forms virions and rampantly transfers between coinfections. Here we test the hypothesis that temperatures at the extreme edges of an insect's habitable range alter bacteriophage WO inducibility and in turn, Wolbachia densities and the penetrance of cytoplasmic incompatibility. We report four key findings using the model wasp, Nasonia vitripennis: First, both cold treatment at 18 C and heat treatment at 30 C reduce Wolbachia densities by as much as 74% relative to wasps reared at 25 C. Second, in all cases where Wolbachia densities decline due to temperature changes, phage WO densities increase and inversely associate with Wolbachia densities. Heat has a marked effect on phage WO, yielding phage densities that are 552% higher than the room temperature control. Third, there is a significant affect of insect family on phage WO and endoysmbiont densities. Fourth, at extreme temperatures, there was a temperature-mediated adjustment to the density threshold at which Wolbachia cause complete cytoplasmic incompatibility. Taken together, these results demonstrate that temperature simultaneously affects phage WO densities, endosymbiont densities, and the penetrance of cytoplasmic incompatibility. While temperature shock enhances bacteriophage inducibility and the ensuing bacterial mortality in a wide range of medically and industrially-important bacteria, this is the first investigation of the associations in an obligate intracellular bacteria. Implications to a SOS global sensing feedback mechanism in Wolbachia are discussed. PMID:22194999

  18. Adding Perches for Cross-Pollination Ensures the Reproduction of a Self-Incompatible Orchid

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Qiang; Rao, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Ting; Tang, Guang-Da; Huang, Lai-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Outcrossing is known to carry genetic advantages in comparison with inbreeding. In many cases, flowering plants develop a self-incompatibility mechanism, along with a floral component adaptation mechanism, to avoid self-pollination and to promote outbreeding. Orchids commonly have a lip in their flower that functions as the a visiting plate for insect pollinators. Aside from the lip, however, many species (including Coelogyne rigida) have sheaths around the axis of inflorescence. The function of these sheaths remains unknown, and has long been a puzzle to researchers. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the function of these sheaths in relation to the lip and the pollinators, as well as their role in the modes of pollination and reproduction of Coelogyne rigida in 30 flowering populations of orchids in the limestone area of Southeast Yunnan, China. We found that self-incompatible C. rigida developed specialized bird perches around the basal axis of inflorescence to attract sunbirds and to complement their behavioral tendency to change foraging locations frequently. This self-incompatibility mechanism operates separately from the floral component adaptation mechanism. This mechanism thus prevents bees from repeatedly visiting the floral lip of the same plant which, in turn, results in autogamy. In this way, instead of preventing autogamy, C. rigida responds to these negative effects through a highly efficient cross-pollination method that successfully transfers pollen to different plants. Conclusions The proposed method ensures reproductive success, while offsetting the infertile self-pollination by insects, thereby reducing mating costs and addressing the lack of cross-pollination. The adaptation provides a novel and striking example of structural adaptation that promotes cross-pollination in angiosperms. PMID:23308277

  19. A novel peptide inhibitor of classical and lectin complement activation including ABO incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Mauriello, Clifford T.; Pallera, Haree K.; Sharp, Julia A.; Woltmann, Jon L.; Qian, Shizhi; Hair, Pamela S.; van der Pol, Pieter; van Kooten, Cees; Thielens, Nicole M.; Lattanzio, Frank A.; Cunnion, Kenji M.; Krishna, Neel K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous experiments from our laboratories have identified peptides derived from the human astrovirus coat protein (CP) that bind C1q and mannose binding lectin (MBL) inhibiting activation of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, respectively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the function of these coat protein peptides (CPPs) in an in vitro model of complement-mediated disease (ABO incompatibility), preliminarily assess their in vivo complement suppression profile and develop more highly potent derivatives of these molecules. E23A, a 30 amino acid CPP derivative previously demonstrated to inhibit classical pathway activation was able to dose-dependently inhibit lysis of AB erythrocytes treated with mismatched human O serum. Additionally, when injected into rats, E23A inhibited the animals’ serum from lysing antibody-sensitized erythrocytes, providing preliminary in vivo functional evidence that this CPP can cross the species barrier to inhibit serum complement activity in rodents. A rational drug design approach was implemented to identify more potent CPP derivatives, resulting in the identification and characterization of a 15 residue peptide (Polar Assortant (PA)), which demonstrated both superior inhibition of classical complement pathway activation and robust binding to C1q collagen-like tails. PA also inhibited ABO incompatibility in vitro and demonstrated in vivo complement suppression up to 24 hours post-injection. CPP’s ability to inhibit ABO incompatibility in vitro, proof of concept in vivo inhibitory activity in rats and the development of the highly potent PA derivative set the stage for preclinical testing of this molecule in small animal models of complement-mediated disease. PMID:22906481

  20. Intention Concepts and Brain-Machine Interfacing

    PubMed Central

    Thinnes-Elker, Franziska; Iljina, Olga; Apostolides, John Kyle; Kraemer, Felicitas; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Ball, Tonio

    2012-01-01

    Intentions, including their temporal properties and semantic content, are receiving increased attention, and neuroscientific studies in humans vary with respect to the topography of intention-related neural responses. This may reflect the fact that the kind of intentions investigated in one study may not be exactly the same kind investigated in the other. Fine-grained intention taxonomies developed in the philosophy of mind may be useful to identify the neural correlates of well-defined types of intentions, as well as to disentangle them from other related mental states, such as mere urges to perform an action. Intention-related neural signals may be exploited by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are currently being developed to restore speech and motor control in paralyzed patients. Such BMI devices record the brain activity of the agent, interpret (“decode”) the agent’s intended action, and send the corresponding execution command to an artificial effector system, e.g., a computer cursor or a robotic arm. In the present paper, we evaluate the potential of intention concepts from philosophy of mind to improve the performance and safety of BMIs based on higher-order, intention-related control signals. To this end, we address the distinction between future-, present-directed, and motor intentions, as well as the organization of intentions in time, specifically to what extent it is sequential or hierarchical. This has consequences as to whether these different types of intentions can be expected to occur simultaneously or not. We further illustrate how it may be useful or even necessary to distinguish types of intentions exposited in philosophy, including yes- vs. no-intentions and oblique vs. direct intentions, to accurately decode the agent’s intentions from neural signals in practical BMI applications. PMID:23162504

  1. Creationism and intelligent design are incompatible with scientific progress: A response to Shanta and Vêdanta

    PubMed Central

    Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a recent opinion paper, B.K. Shanta claims science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness, and in doing so, attacks both origin of life and evolutionary research. He claims Vêdanta, one of the 6 orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, offers an explanation: “the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute.” Here I discuss how the pseudoscience of these creationist views, which are aligned with Intelligent Design, are incompatible with scientific progress and should not be published in scientific journals. PMID:27066185

  2. Performance/microstructure relationship of blends of asphalts with two incompatible polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Lenoble, C. )

    1990-07-01

    Asphaltic binders highly modified with two incompatible polymers, a Styrene Butadiene Styrene triblock copolymer and an Atactic Polypropylene were studied. Using UV fluorescence reflexion microscopy it was shown that natural segregation of the polymers occurred in the binders and in order to obtain maximum effectiveness of both polymers there was an optimum in the polydispersity and mean value of the particle size distribution of the swollen SBS polymer. The fineness of the dispersion of the polymers and the cohesion at the asphalt/polymer phase were highly dependent upon the chemical composition of the asphalt.

  3. Creationism and intelligent design are incompatible with scientific progress: A response to Shanta and Vêdanta.

    PubMed

    Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    In a recent opinion paper, B.K. Shanta claims science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness, and in doing so, attacks both origin of life and evolutionary research. He claims Vêdanta, one of the 6 orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, offers an explanation: "the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute." Here I discuss how the pseudoscience of these creationist views, which are aligned with Intelligent Design, are incompatible with scientific progress and should not be published in scientific journals. PMID:27066185

  4. Wolbachia symbiont infections induce strong cytoplasmic incompatibility in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans.

    PubMed

    Alam, Uzma; Medlock, Jan; Brelsfoard, Corey; Pais, Roshan; Lohs, Claudia; Balmand, Séverine; Carnogursky, Jozef; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Takac, Peter; Galvani, Alison; Aksoy, Serap

    2011-12-01

    Tsetse flies are vectors of the protozoan parasite African trypanosomes, which cause sleeping sickness disease in humans and nagana in livestock. Although there are no effective vaccines and efficacious drugs against this parasite, vector reduction methods have been successful in curbing the disease, especially for nagana. Potential vector control methods that do not involve use of chemicals is a genetic modification approach where flies engineered to be parasite resistant are allowed to replace their susceptible natural counterparts, and Sterile Insect technique (SIT) where males sterilized by chemical means are released to suppress female fecundity. The success of genetic modification approaches requires identification of strong drive systems to spread the desirable traits and the efficacy of SIT can be enhanced by identification of natural mating incompatibility. One such drive mechanism results from the cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) phenomenon induced by the symbiont Wolbachia. CI can also be used to induce natural mating incompatibility between release males and natural populations. Although Wolbachia infections have been reported in tsetse, it has been a challenge to understand their functional biology as attempts to cure tsetse of Wolbachia infections by antibiotic treatment damages the obligate mutualistic symbiont (Wigglesworthia), without which the flies are sterile. Here, we developed aposymbiotic (symbiont-free) and fertile tsetse lines by dietary provisioning of tetracycline supplemented blood meals with yeast extract, which rescues Wigglesworthia-induced sterility. Our results reveal that Wolbachia infections confer strong CI during embryogenesis in Wolbachia-free (Gmm(Apo)) females when mated with Wolbachia-infected (Gmm(Wt)) males. These results are the first demonstration of the biological significance of Wolbachia infections in tsetse. Furthermore, when incorporated into a mathematical model, our results confirm that Wolbachia can be used

  5. Plasmids of incompatibility group P code for the capacity to propagate bacteriophage IKe.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, R B; Whiteley, M H; Shapley, A J

    1978-01-01

    Seven of eight plasmids of incompatibility group P were found to code for the capacity to propagate bacteriophage IKe in Escherichia coli. Six of the seven plasmids allowed propagation of IKe by one bacterial host (RG172) but not by another (RG176); the other plasmid allowed IKe propagation by both hosts. IKe propagation by a number of E. coli K-12 strains was quite variable. IKeh, an extended host range mutant of IKe, was found to plaque specifically on N+ and P+ strains. PMID:361724

  6. On the Interconnection of Incompatible Solid Finite Element Meshes Using Multipoint Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    Incompatible meshes, i.e., meshes that physically must have a common boundary, but do not necessarily have coincident grid points, can arise in the course of a finite element analysis. For example, two substructures may have been developed at different times for different purposes and it becomes necessary to interconnect the two models. A technique that uses only multipoint constraints, i.e., MPC cards (or MPCS cards in substructuring), is presented. Since the method uses only MPC's, the procedure may apply at any stage in an analysis; no prior planning or special data is necessary.

  7. Decoding intention: A neuroergonomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Grafton, Scott T.; Tipper, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Decoding the intentions of other people based on non-linguistic cues such as their body movement is a major requirement of many jobs. Whether it is maintaining security at an airport or negotiating with locals in a foreign country, there is a need to augment maximize the effectiveness of training or real-time performance in this decoding process. This review considers the potential utility of neuroergonomic solutions, and in particular, of electroencephalographic (EEG) methods for augmenting action understanding. Focus is given to body movements and hand-object interactions, where there is a rapid growth in relevant science. The interpretation of EEG-based signals is reinforced by a consideration of functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments demonstrating underlying brain mechanisms that support goal oriented action. While no EEG method is currently implemented as a practical application for enhancing the understanding of unspoken intentions, there are a number of promising approaches that merit further development. PMID:21651985

  8. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, J.; Poirier, P.; Obrien, M. E.; Gibeson, L.

    1993-05-01

    This document details the feasibility studies conducted for the Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC) project. The short-range limitation arises from the need for low probability of intercept (LPI), low probability of detection (LPD) communication links. The detection of an undecipherable transmission would still provide an enemy with information regarding transmitter location. The technologies being studied are ultraviolet (UV) lamps, UV lasers, infrared (IR) lasers, millimeter waves (MMW), and direct sequence spread spectrum.

  9. Attention, intention, and strategy in preparatory control

    PubMed Central

    Ruge, Hannes; Braver, Todd; Meiran, Nachshon

    2009-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying different forms of preparatory control were examined using event-related fMRI. Preparatory brain activation was monitored in relation to different types of advance information: (1) random task cues indicating which of two possible tasks to perform upon subsequent target presentation, (2) task-ambiguous target stimuli, or 3) targets for which the correct response could be pre-determined. Three types of activation pattern were observed in different brain regions. First, more posterior regions of lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and parietal cortex were activated by both advance task cues and advance targets, but with increased and more sustained activation for the latter. Second, more anterior regions of LPFC and parietal cortex were selectively activated by advance targets. Importantly, in these regions preparatory activation was not further modulated by the availability of advance response information. In contrast, preparatory activation in a third set of brain regions, including medial frontal cortex, reflected the utilization of advance response information, but by only a subset of participants. These results suggest three types of preparatory control: attentional (stimulus-oriented), intentional (action-oriented), and a possibly strategic component that might determine inter-individual differences in response readiness. Notably, the absence of regions selectively or even preferentially activated during cue-based preparation argues against certain conceptualizations of task-selective attention under cued task switching conditions. PMID:19397862

  10. Exergy sustainability.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinett, Rush D. III; Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  11. Slow motion increases perceived intent.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Eugene M; Burns, Zachary C; Converse, Benjamin A

    2016-08-16

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor's intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in "slow motion." Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  12. Slow motion increases perceived intent

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Eugene M.; Burns, Zachary C.; Converse, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor’s intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in “slow motion.” Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  13. Genetic evidence that two independent S-loci control RNase-based self-incompatibility in diploid strawberry.

    PubMed

    Bosković, Radovan I; Sargent, Daniel J; Tobutt, Kenneth R

    2010-03-01

    The self-incompatibility mechanism that reduces inbreeding in many plants of the Rosaceae is attributed to a multi-allelic S locus which, in the Prunoideae and Maloideae subfamilies, comprises two complementary genes, a stylar-expressed S-RNase and a pollen-expressed SFB. To elucidate incompatibility in the subfamily Rosoideae, stylar-specific RNases and self-(in)compatibility status were analysed in various diploid strawberries, especially Fragaria nubicola and F. viridis, both self-incompatible, and F. vesca, self-compatible, and in various progenies derived from them. Unexpectedly, two unlinked RNase loci, S and T, were found, encoding peptides distinct from Prunoideae and Maloideae S-RNases; the presence of a single active allele at either is sufficient to confer self-incompatibility. By contrast, in diploid Maloideae and Prunoideae a single locus encodes S-RNases that share several conserved regions and two active alleles are required for self-incompatibility. Our evidence implicates the S locus in unilateral inter-specific incompatibility and shows that S and T RNases can, remarkably, confer not only allele-specific rejection of cognate pollen but also unspecific rejection of Sn Tn pollen, where n indicates a null allele, consistent with the the presence of the pollen component, SFB, activating the cognitive function of these RNases. Comparison of relevant linkage groups between Fragaria and Prunus suggests that Prunus S-RNases, unique in having two introns, may have resulted from gene conversion in an ancestor of Prunus. In addition, it is shown that there is a non-S locus that is essential for self-incompatibility in diploid Fragaria. PMID:20008462

  14. Analysis of a plant complex resistance gene locus underlying immune-related hybrid incompatibility and its occurrence in nature.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Rubén; von Reth, Marcel; Bautor, Jaqueline; Chae, Eunyoung; Weigel, Detlef; Koornneef, Maarten; Parker, Jane E

    2014-12-01

    Mechanisms underlying speciation in plants include detrimental (incompatible) genetic interactions between parental alleles that incur a fitness cost in hybrids. We reported on recessive hybrid incompatibility between an Arabidopsis thaliana strain from Poland, Landsberg erecta (Ler), and many Central Asian A. thaliana strains. The incompatible interaction is determined by a polymorphic cluster of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine rich repeat (TNL) RPP1 (Recognition of Peronospora parasitica1)-like genes in Ler and alleles of the receptor-like kinase Strubbelig Receptor Family 3 (SRF3) in Central Asian strains Kas-2 or Kond, causing temperature-dependent autoimmunity and loss of growth and reproductive fitness. Here, we genetically dissected the RPP1-like Ler locus to determine contributions of individual RPP1-like Ler (R1-R8) genes to the incompatibility. In a neutral background, expression of most RPP1-like Ler genes, except R3, has no effect on growth or pathogen resistance. Incompatibility involves increased R3 expression and engineered R3 overexpression in a neutral background induces dwarfism and sterility. However, no individual RPP1-like Ler gene is sufficient for incompatibility between Ler and Kas-2 or Kond, suggesting that co-action of at least two RPP1-like members underlies this epistatic interaction. We find that the RPP1-like Ler haplotype is frequent and occurs with other Ler RPP1-like alleles in a local population in Gorzów Wielkopolski (Poland). Only Gorzów individuals carrying the RPP1-like Ler haplotype are incompatible with Kas-2 and Kond, whereas other RPP1-like alleles in the population are compatible. Therefore, the RPP1-like Ler haplotype has been maintained in genetically different individuals at a single site, allowing exploration of forces shaping the evolution of RPP1-like genes at local and regional population scales. PMID:25503786

  15. How Have Self-Incompatibility Haplotypes Diversified? Generation of New Haplotypes during the Evolution of Self-Incompatibility from Self-Compatibility.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Satoki

    2016-08-01

    I developed a gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI) model to study the conditions leading to diversification in SI haplotypes. In the model, the SI system is assumed to be incomplete, and the pollen expressing a given specificity is not fully rejected by the pistils expressing the same specificity. I also assumed that mutations can occur that enhance the rejection of pollen by pistils with the same haplotype variant and reduce rejection by pistils with other variants in the same haplotype. I found that if such mutations occur, the new haplotypes (mutant variants) can stably coexist with the ancestral haplotype in which the mutant arose. This is because pollen bearing the new haplotype is most strongly rejected by pistils bearing the same new haplotype among the pistils in the population; hence, negative frequency-dependent selection prevents their fixation. I also performed simulations and found that the nearly complete SI system evolves from completely self-compatible populations and that SI haplotypes can increase to about 40-50 within a few thousand generations. On the basis of my findings, I propose that diversification of SI haplotypes occurred during the evolution of SI from self-compatibility. PMID:27420782

  16. Successful treatment of severe rhesus D-incompatible pregnancy with repeated double-filtration plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Koushi; Sato, Mai; Ogura, Masao; Ito, Shuichi; Okada, Tomomi; Wada, Seiji; Sago, Haruhiko

    2015-10-01

    Fetal anemia is caused by Rhesus (RhD) sensitization as a result of RhD incompatibility during pregnancy. The severe form of this disease can cause hydrops fetalis leading to intrauterine death. We experienced a highly sensitized 39-year-old woman with B Rh-negative blood. She had a history of three induced abortions and experienced perinatal death associated with hydrops fetalis. During the pregnancy prior to her most recent one, she was treated with double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP), high dose γ-globulin and intrauterine fetal blood transfusion (IUT). For her most recent pregnancy, we performed only weekly or fortnightly DFPP from 13 weeks until delivery. Anti-D antibody titer was maintained between 32 and 256 without any signs of fetal anemia. IUT was not required at any stage of the pregnancy. No adverse events were observed. She successfully delivered a healthy male infant weighing 2,289 g by Cesarean section at 35 weeks. Repeated DFPP may be an effective and safe strategy to reduce antibody titers in highly sensitized women with RhD-incompatible pregnancy, avoiding the need for IUT. PMID:25413689

  17. Smallness of the number of incompatibility loci can facilitate parapatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ryo; Iwasa, Yoh

    2016-09-21

    We studied the time to speciation by geographic isolation for a species living on two islands connected by infrequent migration. Assumptions were that incompatibility was controlled by a finite number of quantitative loci, and individuals differing in loci of more than some threshold fraction do not mix genetically with each other. We also assumed sexual haploid species, each population being nearly monomorphic, and free recombination between loci for within-population processes. The genetic distance (defined as the fraction of loci differing between populations) followed stochastic processes, which were analyzed by means of stochastic differential equations, diffusion equations, and individual-based simulations. The distance increases by the accumulation of novel mutations but decreases by migration and hybridization. It may converge to a quasi-equilibrium around which it fluctuates thereafter. If the threshold fraction of speciation is controlled, the smallness of the number of incompatibility loci enhanced the magnitude of fluctuation around the quasi-equilibrium and shortened the time to speciation considerably. Novel species were created by mutation accumulation and repeated infrequent migration, and the rate of species creation was the fastest for an intermediate rate of migration. A smaller number of loci increased the optimal migration rate and the species creation rate. PMID:26582724

  18. Maintenance of self-incompatibility in peripheral populations of a circumboreal woodland subshrub.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Qin; Xiong, Ying-Ze; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Compared with self-incompatible (SI) species, species that shift to self-compatibility (SC) are more likely to colonize a new habitat. Self-incompatibility and fruit-set failure have been widely reported in European populations of Linnaea borealis (twinflower), whereas at the eastern margin of its North American distribution it showed potential SC. We investigated the breeding system of L. borealis in northwestern China, the eastern margin of the species' distribution in Eurasia. Pollinators, breeding system and pollen limitation were examined in a nature reserve with thousands of L. borealis individuals. To investigate whether fruit set was limited by mating opportunity, we compared fruit set in high-, medium- and low-density patches of L. borealis. To examine whether clonal reproduction resulted in higher fruit-set failure, we compared fruit set among different sizes of clonal ramets. Flies contributed most pollinator visits in the studied population. It was strictly SI and natural fruit set depended on insect visits. Patch density comparisons showed that L. borealis was not pollen limited in low-density patches that had significantly fewer flowers. However, it produced significantly fewer fruits per flower when clonal ramet size increased, suggesting that the high failure of fruit set in larger clones with more flowers may be caused by geitonogamy. Generalist pollinators and clonal reproduction may help L. borealis to colonize in marginal areas without the transition of the breeding system from SI to SC, but experiencing fruit-set failure resulting from geitonogamy within clones. PMID:25336338

  19. Evolution Controversy: A Phenomenon Prompted by the Incompatibility between Science and Religious Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño-C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina

    2016-01-01

    The incompatibility between science and the belief in supernatural causation helps us understand why people do not accept evolution. Belief disrupts, distorts, delays, or stops (3Ds + S) the acceptance of scientific evidence. Here we examine the evolution controversy under three predictions of the incompatibility hypothesis. First, chronological-conflict-and-accommodation, which explains the historical re-emergence of antagonism between evolution and religion when advances in science continue to threaten the belief in supernatural causation; in such situations, creationists’ rejection of and subsequent partial acceptance of the new scientific discoveries are expected. Second, change in evolution's acceptance as function of educational attainment, which explains the positive association between acceptance of evolution and level of education. And third, change in evolution's acceptance as function of religiosity, which explains the negative association between acceptance of evolution and level of religious beliefs. We rely on an ample assessment of the attitudes toward evolution by highly-educated audiences (i.e. research faculty, educators of prospective teachers, and college students in the United States) to characterize the associations among the understanding of science and evolution, personal religious convictions, and conservative ideology. We emphasize that harmonious coexistence between science and religion is illusory. If co-persisting in society, their relationship will fluctuate from moderate to intense antagonism. PMID:26877774

  20. Detection of Self Incompatibility Genotypes in Prunus africana: Characterization, Evolution and Spatial Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nantongo, Judith Ssali; Eilu, Gerald; Geburek, Thomas; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, self-incompatibility is an effective genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization. Most Prunus tree species exhibit a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system, in which the pollen phenotype is encoded by its own haploid genome. To date, no identification of S-alleles had been done in Prunus africana, the only member of the genus in Africa. To identify S-RNase alleles and hence determine S-genotypes in African cherry (Prunus africana) from Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda, primers flanking the first and second intron were designed and these amplified two bands in most individuals. PCR bands on agarose indicated 26 and 8 different S-alleles for second and first intron respectively. Partial or full sequences were obtained for all these fragments. Comparison with published S-RNase data indicated that the amplified products were S-RNase alleles with very high interspecies homology despite the high intraspecific variation. Against expectations for a locus under balancing selection, frequency and spatial distribution of the alleles in a study plot was not random. Implications of the results to breeding efforts in the species are discussed, and mating experiments are strongly suggested to finally prove the functionality of SI in P. africana. PMID:27348423

  1. Self-anastomosing ability and vegetative incompatibility of Tuber borchii isolates.

    PubMed

    Sbrana, Cristiana; Nuti, Marco P; Giovannetti, Manuela

    2007-11-01

    In this work, different mycelial isolates of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Tuber borchii were analysed for their ability to form self-anastomoses, which were monitored by time-lapse live-cell imaging, providing a description of the anastomosis process. Self-fusions were evidenced in three out of five isolates, with frequencies ranging between 50 and 88% of hyphal contacts. Time-lapse video microscopy evidenced that during pre-contact events, hyphae were capable of growth re-orientation functional to hyphal contact: the time elapsed between hyphal growth re-direction and complete fusion ranged from 115 to 200 min. After anastomosis, protoplasmic flow occurred between fused hyphae and nuclei could be detected in fusion bridges. Vegetative incompatibility was also assessed by analysing macroscopic and microscopic hyphal interactions between paired T. borchii mycelia. Both plate-pairing tests and microscopic analyses showed vegetative compatibility only within the same isolate, whereas different degrees of incompatible responses were observed in inter-isolate pairings. The diversity of T. borchii strains revealed by cytomorphological approaches is consistent with their genetic diversity obtained by molecular methods. PMID:17721790

  2. Compartmentalization of incompatible reagents within Pickering emulsion droplets for one-pot cascade reactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hengquan; Fu, Luman; Wei, Lijuan; Liang, Jifen; Binks, Bernard P

    2015-01-28

    It is a dream that future synthetic chemistry can mimic living systems to process multistep cascade reactions in a one-pot fashion. One of the key challenges is the mutual destruction of incompatible or opposing reagents, for example, acid and base, oxidants and reductants. A conceptually novel strategy is developed here to address this challenge. This strategy is based on a layered Pickering emulsion system, which is obtained through lamination of Pickering emulsions. In this working Pickering emulsion, the dispersed phase can separately compartmentalize the incompatible reagents to avoid their mutual destruction, while the continuous phase allows other reagent molecules to diffuse freely to access the compartmentalized reagents for chemical reactions. The compartmentalization effects and molecular transport ability of the Pickering emulsion were investigated. The deacetalization-reduction, deacetalization-Knoevenagel, deacetalization-Henry and diazotization-iodization cascade reactions demonstrate well the versatility and flexibility of our strategy in processing the one-pot cascade reactions involving mutually destructive reagents. PMID:25603470

  3. Defect-induced incompatability of elastic strains: dislocations within the Landau theory of martensitic phase transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Groger, Roman1; Lockman, Turab; Saxena, Avadh

    2008-01-01

    In dislocation-free martensites the components of the elastic strain tensor are constrained by the Saint-Venant compatibility condition which guarantees continuity of the body during external loading. However, in dislocated materials the plastic part of the distortion tensor introduces a displacement mismatch that is removed by elastic relaxation. The elastic strains are then no longer compatible in the sense of the Saint-Venant law and the ensuing incompatibility tensor is shown to be proportional to the gradients of the Nye dislocation density tensor. We demonstrate that the presence of this incompatibility gives rise to an additional long-range contribution in the inhomogeneous part of the Landau energy functional and to the corresponding stress fields. Competition among the local and long-range interactions results in frustration in the evolving order parameter (elastic) texture. We show how the Peach-Koehler forces and stress fields for any distribution of dislocations in arbitrarily anisotropic media can be calculated and employed in a Fokker-Planck dynamics for the dislocation density. This approach represents a self-consistent scheme that yields the evolutions of both the order parameter field and the continuous dislocation density. We illustrate our method by studying the effects of dislocations on microstructure, particularly twinned domain walls, in an Fe-Pd alloy undergoing a martensitic transformation.

  4. Natural Framework for Device-Independent Quantification of Quantum Steerability, Measurement Incompatibility, and Self-Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shin-Liang; Budroni, Costantino; Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the concept of assemblage moment matrices, i.e., a collection of matrices of expectation values, each associated with a conditional quantum state obtained in a steering experiment. We demonstrate how it can be used for quantum states and measurements characterization in a device-independent manner, i.e., without invoking any assumption about the measurement or the preparation device. Specifically, we show how the method can be used to lower bound the steerability of an underlying quantum state directly from the observed correlation between measurement outcomes. Combining such device-independent quantifications with earlier results established by Piani and Watrous [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 060404 (2015)], our approach immediately provides a device-independent lower bound on the generalized robustness of entanglement, as well as the usefulness of the underlying quantum state for a type of subchannel discrimination problem. In addition, by proving a quantitative relationship between steering robustness and the recently introduced incompatibility robustness, our approach also allows for a device-independent quantification of the incompatibility between various measurements performed in a Bell-type experiment. Explicit examples where such bounds provide a kind of self-testing of the performed measurements are provided.

  5. Error-tradeoff and error-disturbance relations for incompatible quantum measurements.

    PubMed

    Branciard, Cyril

    2013-04-23

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is one of the main tenets of quantum theory. Nevertheless, and despite its fundamental importance for our understanding of quantum foundations, there has been some confusion in its interpretation: Although Heisenberg's first argument was that the measurement of one observable on a quantum state necessarily disturbs another incompatible observable, standard uncertainty relations typically bound the indeterminacy of the outcomes when either one or the other observable is measured. In this paper, we quantify precisely Heisenberg's intuition. Even if two incompatible observables cannot be measured together, one can still approximate their joint measurement, at the price of introducing some errors with respect to the ideal measurement of each of them. We present a tight relation characterizing the optimal tradeoff between the error on one observable vs. the error on the other. As a particular case, our approach allows us to characterize the disturbance of an observable induced by the approximate measurement of another one; we also derive a stronger error-disturbance relation for this scenario. PMID:23564344

  6. Natural Framework for Device-Independent Quantification of Quantum Steerability, Measurement Incompatibility, and Self-Testing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shin-Liang; Budroni, Costantino; Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2016-06-17

    We introduce the concept of assemblage moment matrices, i.e., a collection of matrices of expectation values, each associated with a conditional quantum state obtained in a steering experiment. We demonstrate how it can be used for quantum states and measurements characterization in a device-independent manner, i.e., without invoking any assumption about the measurement or the preparation device. Specifically, we show how the method can be used to lower bound the steerability of an underlying quantum state directly from the observed correlation between measurement outcomes. Combining such device-independent quantifications with earlier results established by Piani and Watrous [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 060404 (2015)], our approach immediately provides a device-independent lower bound on the generalized robustness of entanglement, as well as the usefulness of the underlying quantum state for a type of subchannel discrimination problem. In addition, by proving a quantitative relationship between steering robustness and the recently introduced incompatibility robustness, our approach also allows for a device-independent quantification of the incompatibility between various measurements performed in a Bell-type experiment. Explicit examples where such bounds provide a kind of self-testing of the performed measurements are provided. PMID:27367365

  7. Malus pumila 'Spy 227' and Apple stem pitting virus: graft incompatibility and epinasty.

    PubMed

    Brakta, Ajay; Handa, Anil; Thakur, P D; Tomar, Manica; Kumar, Pardeep

    2015-06-01

    Apple stem pitting foveavirus (ASPV) is one of the most important and widespread virus infecting apples in the world. Of late, the virus has been found to be invariably associated with most of the apple plantations of Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh based on DAS-ELISA results. Bioassay of viruses in vegetatively propagated crops including apple is considered to be an essential component in indexing programmes for the production of virus free propagating material. Woody indicator Malus pumila 'Spy 227' was used for the detection of ASPV through double grafting method. Graft incompatibility and epinasty symptoms were observed on Malus pumila Spy 227 indicator plants. Further, molecular identification of the virus isolate was done by cloning and sequencing of the test isolate. Partial sequence analysis of the coat protein gene showed 89 % nucleotide identity in BLASTN analysis with ASPV isolate from China (Accession No. JF895517). This is the first record of ASPV producing Graft incompatibility on Spy 227 indicator plants. PMID:26436128

  8. Incompatibility between Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genomes Contributes to an Interspecies Reproductive Barrier.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong; Marti Gutierrez, Nuria; Morey, Robert; Van Dyken, Crystal; Kang, Eunju; Hayama, Tomonari; Lee, Yeonmi; Li, Ying; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Wolf, Don P; Laurent, Louise C; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2016-08-01

    Vertebrate cells carry two different genomes, nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial (mtDNA), both encoding proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Because of the extensive interactions, adaptive coevolution of the two genomes must occur to ensure normal mitochondrial function. To investigate whether incompatibilities between these two genomes could contribute to interspecies reproductive barriers, we performed reciprocal mtDNA replacement (MR) in zygotes between widely divergent Mus m. domesticus (B6) and conplastic Mus m. musculus (PWD) mice. Transfer of MR1 cybrid embryos (B6nDNA-PWDmtDNA) supported normal development of F1 offspring with reduced male fertility but unaffected reproductive fitness in females. Furthermore, donor PWD mtDNA was faithfully transmitted through the germline into F2 and F3 generations. In contrast, reciprocal MR2 (PWDnDNA-B6mtDNA) produced high embryonic loss and stillborn rates, suggesting an association between mitochondrial function and infertility. These results strongly suggest that functional incompatibility between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes contributes to interspecies reproductive isolation in mammals. PMID:27425585

  9. Detection of Self Incompatibility Genotypes in Prunus africana: Characterization, Evolution and Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nantongo, Judith Ssali; Eilu, Gerald; Geburek, Thomas; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, self-incompatibility is an effective genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization. Most Prunus tree species exhibit a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system, in which the pollen phenotype is encoded by its own haploid genome. To date, no identification of S-alleles had been done in Prunus africana, the only member of the genus in Africa. To identify S-RNase alleles and hence determine S-genotypes in African cherry (Prunus africana) from Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda, primers flanking the first and second intron were designed and these amplified two bands in most individuals. PCR bands on agarose indicated 26 and 8 different S-alleles for second and first intron respectively. Partial or full sequences were obtained for all these fragments. Comparison with published S-RNase data indicated that the amplified products were S-RNase alleles with very high interspecies homology despite the high intraspecific variation. Against expectations for a locus under balancing selection, frequency and spatial distribution of the alleles in a study plot was not random. Implications of the results to breeding efforts in the species are discussed, and mating experiments are strongly suggested to finally prove the functionality of SI in P. africana. PMID:27348423

  10. Evidence for the long-term maintenance of a rare self-incompatibility system in Oleaceae.

    PubMed

    Vernet, Philippe; Lepercq, Pierre; Billiard, Sylvain; Bourceaux, Angélique; Lepart, Jacques; Dommée, Bertrand; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    A rare homomorphic diallelic self-incompatibility (DSI) system discovered in Phillyrea angustifolia (family Oleaceae, subtribe Oleinae) can promote the transition from hermaphroditism to androdioecy. If widespread and stable in Oleaceae, DSI may explain the exceptionally high rate of androdioecious species reported in this plant family. Here, we set out to determine whether DSI occurs in another Oleaceae lineage. We tested for DSI in subtribe Fraxininae, a lineage that diverged from subtribe Oleinae c. 40 million yr ago. We explored the compatibility relationships in Fraxinus ornus using 81 hermaphrodites and 25 males from one natural stand and two naturalized populations using intra- and interspecific stigma tests performed on F. ornus and P. angustifolia testers. We uncovered a DSI system with hermaphrodites belonging to one of two self-incompatibility (SI) groups and males compatible with both groups, making for a truly androdioecious reproductive system. The two human-founded populations contained only one of the two SI groups. Our results provide evidence for the evolutionary persistence of DSI. We discuss how its stability over time may have affected transitions to other sexual systems, such as dioecy. PMID:26833140

  11. Transmission advantage favors selfing allele in experimental populations of self-incompatible Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Judy L.; VanWyk, Emily J.; Hale, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of self-fertilization is one of the most commonly traversed transitions in flowering plants, with profound implications for population genetic structure and evolutionary potential. We investigated factors influencing this transition using Witheringia solanacea, a predominantly self-incompatible species within which self-compatible genotypes have been identified. We showed that self-compatibility in this species segregates with variation at the S-locus as inherited by plants in F1 and F2 generations. To examine reproductive assurance and the transmission advantage of selfing, we placed self-compatible and self-incompatible genotypes in genetically replicated gardens and monitored male and female reproductive success, as well as selfing rates of self-compatible plants. Self-compatibility did not lead to increased fruit or seed set, even under conditions of pollinator scarcity, and the realized selfing rate of self-compatible plants was less than 10%. Self-compatible plants had higher fruit abortion rates, consistent with previous evidence showing strong inbreeding depression at the embryonic stage. Although the selfing allele did not provide reproductive assurance under observed conditions, it also did not cause pollen discounting, so the transmission advantage of selfing should promote its spread. Given observed numbers of S-alleles and selfing rates, self-compatibility should spread even under conditions of exceedingly high initial inbreeding depression. PMID:24713065

  12. Differentiation and functional connection of vascular elements in compatible and incompatible pear/quince internode micrografts.

    PubMed

    Espen, Luca; Cocucci, Maurizio; Sacchi, Gian Attilio

    2005-11-01

    Micrografts of internodes excised from in vitro grown pear plants (Pyrus communis L. cv. 'Bosc' (B) and cv. 'Butirra Hardy' (BH)) and quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill. East Malling clone C (EMC)), were cultured aseptically to test the effectiveness of their functional vascular reconnection in relation to incompatibility-compatibility relationships that these genotypes exhibit in the field. The incompatible heterograft (B/EMC) showed a marked delay in internode cohesion compared with the autografts (both B/B and BH/BH) and the compatible heterograft (BH/EMC). Even when fused, the translocation of [14C]-sorbitol from upper to lower internode was lower in B/EMC micrografts than in the other combinations. Epifluorescence studies performed with carboxyfluorescin, a specific phloem probe, indicated that the limited translocation was caused by a delay in the establishment of functional phloem continuity between the two internodes. In the B/EMC combination, new differentiated tracheary elements (TE) in the parenchyma tissue at the graft interface between the two internodes were not detected until 30 days after grafting, whereas in the BH/EMC heterograft and both autografts, new xylem connections appeared to cross the interface 20 days after grafting. Immunohistochemical detection (terminal nick-end labeling assay) of the number of cells undergoing nuclear DNA fragmentation at the graft interface confirmed that the limited and delayed TE differentiation in B/EMC heterografts was associated with a decrease in the activity of programmed cell death processes involved in the differentiation of TE. PMID:16105809

  13. Multilocus PCR Assays Elucidate Vegetative Incompatibility Gene Profiles of Cryphonectria parasitica in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Short, Dylan P. G.; Double, Mark; Nuss, Donald L.; Stauder, Cameron M.; MacDonald, William

    2015-01-01

    Chestnut blight is a devastating disease of Castanea spp. Mycoviruses that reduce virulence (hypovirulence) of the causative agent, Cryphonectria parasitica, can be used to manage chestnut blight. However, vegetative incompatibility (vic) barriers that restrict anastomosis-mediated virus transmission hamper hypovirulence efficacy. In order to effectively determine the vegetative incompatibility genetic structure of C. parasitica field populations, we have designed PCR primer sets that selectively amplify and distinguish alleles for each of the six known diallelic C. parasitica vic genetic loci. PCR assay results were validated using a panel of 64 European tester strains with genetically determined vic genotypes. Analysis of 116 C. parasitica isolates collected from five locations in the eastern United States revealed 39 unique vic genotypes and generally good agreement between PCR and tester strain coculturing assays in terms of vic diversity and genotyping. However, incongruences were observed for isolates from multiple locations and suggested that the coculturing assay can overestimate diversity at the six known vic loci. The availability of molecular tools for rapid and precise vic genotyping significantly improves the ability to predict and evaluate the efficacy of hypovirulence and related management strategies. PMID:26070681

  14. Lunar prospector measurements of the distribution of incompatible elements gadolinium, samarium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Elphic, R.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Barraclough, B.L.; Maurice, S.; Binder, A.B.; Lucey, P.G.

    1999-04-01

    Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (NS) and gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) observations have been used to map out the distribution of incompatible elements on the lunar surface. Specifically, the GRS data provide maps of the distribution of thorium and potassium while the NS data provide information on the distribution of iron and titanium, and the rare earth elements gadolinium and samarium. Using results of analysis of Celementine spectral reflectance (CSR) data, the Fe- and Ti-contributions to the NS data can be removed, leaving primarily rare earth element contributions from Gd and Sm. The Th and K maps correlate with the inferred Gd and Sm maps (r {approximately} 0.93), but there are regions of significant disagreement. One of these is in the KREEP-rich circum-Imbrium ring. No clear explanation has emerged for this disagreement, though Th, K, Gd and Sm have differing degrees of incompatibility. These results clearly are important to discussions of the geochemistry of the Procellarum-Imbrium Th-rich Terrane and the South-Pole-Aitken Terrane.

  15. Comparative proteomic profiling in compatible and incompatible interactions between hop roots and Verticillium albo-atrum.

    PubMed

    Mandelc, Stanislav; Timperman, Isaak; Radišek, Sebastjan; Devreese, Bart; Samyn, Bart; Javornik, Branka

    2013-07-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by the soil borne fungal pathogen Verticillium albo-atrum, is a serious threat to hop (Humulus lupulus L.) production in several hop-growing regions. A proteomic approach was applied to analyse the response of root tissue in compatible and incompatible interactions between hop and V. albo-atrum at 10, 20 and 30 days after inoculation, using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with de novo sequencing of derivatized peptides. Approximately 1200 reproducible spots were detected on the gels, of which 102 were identified. In the compatible interaction, 252 spots showed infection-specific changes in spot abundance and an accumulation of defence-related proteins, such as chitinase, β-glucanase, thaumatin-like protein, peroxidase and germin-like protein, was observed. However, no significant infection-specific changes were detected in the incompatible interaction. The results indicate that resistance in this pathosystem may be conferred by constitutive rather than induced defence mechanisms. The identification and high abundance of two mannose/glucose-specific lectin isoforms present only in the roots of the resistant cultivar suggests function of lectins in hop resistance against V. albo-atrum. PMID:23619241

  16. Exogenous selection rather than cytonuclear incompatibilities shapes asymmetrical fitness of reciprocal Arabidopsis hybrids.

    PubMed

    Muir, Graham; Ruiz-Duarte, Paola; Hohmann, Nora; Mable, Barbara K; Novikova, Polina; Schmickl, Roswitha; Guggisberg, Alessia; Koch, Marcus A

    2015-04-01

    Reciprocal crosses between species often display an asymmetry in the fitness of F1 hybrids. This pattern, referred to as isolation asymmetry or Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule, is a general feature of reproductive isolation in plants, yet factors determining its magnitude and direction remain unclear. We evaluated reciprocal species crosses between two naturally hybridizing diploid species of Arabidopsis to assess the degree of isolation asymmetry at different postmating life stages. We found that pollen from Arabidopsis arenosa will usually fertilize ovules from Arabidopsis lyrata; the reverse receptivity being less complete. Maternal A. lyrata parents set more F1 hybrid seed, but germinate at lower frequency, reversing the asymmetry. As predicted by theory, A. lyrata (the maternal parent with lower seed viability in crosses) exhibited accelerated chloroplast evolution, indicating that cytonuclear incompatibilities may play a role in reproductive isolation. However, this direction of asymmetrical reproductive isolation is not replicated in natural suture zones, where delayed hybrid breakdown of fertility at later developmental stages, or later-acting selection against A. arenosa maternal hybrids (unrelated to hybrid fertility, e.g., substrate adaptation) may be responsible for an excess of A. lyrata maternal hybrids. Exogenous selection rather than cytonuclear incompatibilities thus shapes the asymmetrical postmating isolation in nature. PMID:25937915

  17. On the genetic architecture of cytoplasmic incompatibility: inference from phenotypic data.

    PubMed

    Nor, Igor; Engelstädter, Jan; Duron, Olivier; Reuter, Max; Sagot, Marie-France; Charlat, Sylvain

    2013-07-01

    Numerous insects carry intracellular bacteria that manipulate the insects' reproduction and thus facilitate their own spread. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is a common form of such manipulation, where a (currently uncharacterized) bacterial modification of male sperm induces the early death of embryos unless the fertilized eggs carry the same bacteria, inherited from the mother. The death of uninfected embryos provides an indirect selective advantage to infected ones, thus enabling the spread of the bacteria. Here we use and expand recently developed algorithms to infer the genetic architecture underlying the complex incompatibility data from the mosquito Culex pipiens. We show that CI requires more genetic determinants than previously believed and that quantitative variation in gene products potentially contributes to the observed CI patterns. In line with population genetic theory of CI, our analysis suggests that toxin factors (those inducing embryo death) are present in fewer copies in the bacterial genomes than antitoxin factors (those ensuring that infected embryos survive). In combination with comparative genomics, our approach will provide helpful guidance to identify the genetic basis of CI and more generally of other toxin/antitoxin systems that can be conceptualized under the same framework. PMID:23778233

  18. Maintenance of self-incompatibility in peripheral populations of a circumboreal woodland subshrub

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ai-Qin; Xiong, Ying-Ze; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Compared with self-incompatible (SI) species, species that shift to self-compatibility (SC) are more likely to colonize a new habitat. Self-incompatibility and fruit-set failure have been widely reported in European populations of Linnaea borealis (twinflower), whereas at the eastern margin of its North American distribution it showed potential SC. We investigated the breeding system of L. borealis in northwestern China, the eastern margin of the species' distribution in Eurasia. Pollinators, breeding system and pollen limitation were examined in a nature reserve with thousands of L. borealis individuals. To investigate whether fruit set was limited by mating opportunity, we compared fruit set in high-, medium- and low-density patches of L. borealis. To examine whether clonal reproduction resulted in higher fruit-set failure, we compared fruit set among different sizes of clonal ramets. Flies contributed most pollinator visits in the studied population. It was strictly SI and natural fruit set depended on insect visits. Patch density comparisons showed that L. borealis was not pollen limited in low-density patches that had significantly fewer flowers. However, it produced significantly fewer fruits per flower when clonal ramet size increased, suggesting that the high failure of fruit set in larger clones with more flowers may be caused by geitonogamy. Generalist pollinators and clonal reproduction may help L. borealis to colonize in marginal areas without the transition of the breeding system from SI to SC, but experiencing fruit-set failure resulting from geitonogamy within clones. PMID:25336338

  19. Teaching Sustainability/Teaching Sustainably

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Kirsten Allen, Ed.; Parker, Kelly A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Over the coming decades, every academic discipline will have to respond to the paradigm of more sustainable life practices because students will be living in a world challenged by competition for resources and climate change, and will demand that every academic discipline demonstrate substantial and corresponding relevance. This book takes as its…

  20. The phenolic content and its involvement in the graft incompatibility process of various pear rootstocks (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Hudina, Metka; Orazem, Primoz; Jakopic, Jerneja; Stampar, Franci

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of various rootstocks for pear on the phytochemical composition in the phloem above and below the graft union and the role of phenols in pear graft incompatibility. Assays of phloem with cambium from 4-year-old 'Conference', 'Abate Fetel' and 'Williams' pear trees grafted on different rootstocks: Quince MA, Quince BA 29, Fox 11, Farold 40 (Daygon), seedling Pyrus communis L. and own rooted (P. communis L.) were analyzed with HPLC-MS. The most abundant phenolic compound in phloem above and below the graft union was arbutin, followed by procyanidin B1 and chlorogenic acid. In 'Conference' and 'Abate Fetel', higher arbutin content levels were measured above the graft union, while in the incompatible scion of 'Williams' on quince MA higher arbutin content levels were measured below the graft union. In all three observed cultivars (in 'Conference' the difference was not significant) grafted on Fox 11 rootstock, the highest content of arbutin was measured below the graft union. The results indicate that not only catechin and procyanidin B1, but also arbutin and several flavonols could be involved in graft incompatibility. All cultivars grafted on quince rootstocks had higher levels of epicatechin and procyanidin B2 below the graft union, even though some differences were not significant. It seems that those phenols do not affect pear incompatibility. A severe incompatibility between Fox 11 rootstock and 'Williams' was detected. PMID:24484960

  1. Sustainable NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-29

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory prides itself on not only advancing the renewable energy, but "walking the talk" when it comes to sustainable practices. "When you look at our laboratories, you will see energy efficiency in action, but you'll also see renewable energy. We walk the walk and we talk the talk. We believe in it and we want to live it also."

  2. Sustainable NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory prides itself on not only advancing the renewable energy, but "walking the talk" when it comes to sustainable practices. "When you look at our laboratories, you will see energy efficiency in action, but you'll also see renewable energy. We walk the walk and we talk the talk. We believe in it and we want to live it also."

  3. Network mechanisms of intentional learning.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Adam; Hellyer, Peter J; Parkin, Beth; Hiebert, Nole; MacDonald, Penny; Owen, Adrian M; Leech, Robert; Rowe, James

    2016-02-15

    The ability to learn new tasks rapidly is a prominent characteristic of human behaviour. This ability relies on flexible cognitive systems that adapt in order to encode temporary programs for processing non-automated tasks. Previous functional imaging studies have revealed distinct roles for the lateral frontal cortices (LFCs) and the ventral striatum in intentional learning processes. However, the human LFCs are complex; they house multiple distinct sub-regions, each of which co-activates with a different functional network. It remains unclear how these LFC networks differ in their functions and how they coordinate with each other, and the ventral striatum, to support intentional learning. Here, we apply a suite of fMRI connectivity methods to determine how LFC networks activate and interact at different stages of two novel tasks, in which arbitrary stimulus-response rules are learnt either from explicit instruction or by trial-and-error. We report that the networks activate en masse and in synchrony when novel rules are being learnt from instruction. However, these networks are not homogeneous in their functions; instead, the directed connectivities between them vary asymmetrically across the learning timecourse and they disengage from the task sequentially along a rostro-caudal axis. Furthermore, when negative feedback indicates the need to switch to alternative stimulus-response rules, there is additional input to the LFC networks from the ventral striatum. These results support the hypotheses that LFC networks interact as a hierarchical system during intentional learning and that signals from the ventral striatum have a driving influence on this system when the internal program for processing the task is updated. PMID:26658925

  4. Network mechanisms of intentional learning

    PubMed Central

    Hampshire, Adam; Hellyer, Peter J.; Parkin, Beth; Hiebert, Nole; MacDonald, Penny; Owen, Adrian M.; Leech, Robert; Rowe, James

    2016-01-01

    The ability to learn new tasks rapidly is a prominent characteristic of human behaviour. This ability relies on flexible cognitive systems that adapt in order to encode temporary programs for processing non-automated tasks. Previous functional imaging studies have revealed distinct roles for the lateral frontal cortices (LFCs) and the ventral striatum in intentional learning processes. However, the human LFCs are complex; they house multiple distinct sub-regions, each of which co-activates with a different functional network. It remains unclear how these LFC networks differ in their functions and how they coordinate with each other, and the ventral striatum, to support intentional learning. Here, we apply a suite of fMRI connectivity methods to determine how LFC networks activate and interact at different stages of two novel tasks, in which arbitrary stimulus-response rules are learnt either from explicit instruction or by trial-and-error. We report that the networks activate en masse and in synchrony when novel rules are being learnt from instruction. However, these networks are not homogeneous in their functions; instead, the directed connectivities between them vary asymmetrically across the learning timecourse and they disengage from the task sequentially along a rostro-caudal axis. Furthermore, when negative feedback indicates the need to switch to alternative stimulus–response rules, there is additional input to the LFC networks from the ventral striatum. These results support the hypotheses that LFC networks interact as a hierarchical system during intentional learning and that signals from the ventral striatum have a driving influence on this system when the internal program for processing the task is updated. PMID:26658925

  5. A conceptual model of intentional comfort touch.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ann; Howett, Maeve

    2009-06-01

    This article discusses the application and integration of intentional comfort touch as a holistic nursing practice. A review of the literature on touch and its related concepts is included. Although nurses use touch frequently in patient encounters, it is not always used intentionally or deliberately to enhance care. The article compares and contrasts intentional comfort touch with nonintentional or procedural touch. The use of intentional comfort touch in innovative clinical settings with diverse and at-risk populations is described. Based on clinical experiences and the current literature, a conceptual model of intentional comfort touch is proposed. The application of touch is discussed as is the meaning and importance of intentional touch for students, faculty, and patients. PMID:19443699

  6. Incompatible element variations at Tofua, Kao and Raoul, Tonga-Kermadec arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, T.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Stoffers, P.

    2003-04-01

    Intra-oceanic arc volcanoes represent the simplest expression of subduction-related magmatism, yet stratigraphically controlled studies are few. We present new data from the Tonga-Kermadec arc focusing on the adjacent volcanic islands of Tofua and Kao (19.7^oS), and contrast this with similar data from Raoul (29.3^oS). The key variables being tested are sensitivity of magma genesis to a change in subduction rate from 18 cm/year beneath Tofua to 8 cm/year beneath Raoul, and the expected development of long-term compositional trends at individual centres. All three volcanoes have experienced cycles of cone-building followed by prolonged quiescence, with the most recent cycles commencing at ˜10 ka. Low-K basaltic andesite with strong depletion in conservative incompatible elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf) relative to MORB predominates in most cycles. Lavas from Tofua and Kao are, on average, only marginally more depleted in conservative elements than those from Raoul (e.g., Nb/Yb = 0.11--0.22 vs. 0.13--0.33). Thus, the depleted character of these lavas does not simply correlate with subduction rate. Nor does it correlate with changes in the backarc environment from spreading and eruption of moderately depleted hybrid lavas (behind Tofua-Kao) to slow rifting and eruption of undepleted MORB (behind Raoul). No long-term trends in conservative element depletion relative to MORB are evident at these volcanoes, and only subtle medium-term trends in conservative and non-conservative element ratios are observed. This requires tight coupling between the rate of melt production, rate of induced mantle wedge convection, and the slab-derived flux. Nevertheless, each volcano has a distinct set of incompatible element ratios reflecting local variations in the slab- and mantle-derived components. Crustal assimilation is also an important process beneath Kao, yet negligible at nearby (<10 km) Tofua. The full range of both conservative and non-conservative incompatible element ratios, and Sr

  7. [Diverse sustainability--sustainable diversity].

    PubMed

    Schmeling-Kludas, Christoph; Koch-Gromus, Uwe

    2011-08-01

    In spite of its plenitude, the scientific works of the important German psychologist Ernst August Dölle (1898-1972) are little adapted till today, mostly they are being reduced to his studies about dichotomy and duplicity. But based on his diaries of the year 1968, the authors can verify without doubt, that Dölle far ahead of his time, carried on research about sustainability and diversity. He was the first scientist worldwide to connect these two concepts. PMID:21837611

  8. The Transcriptome of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) with Phytophthora infestans Revealed by DeepSAGE Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gyetvai, Gabor; Sønderkær, Mads; Göbel, Ulrike; Basekow, Rico; Ballvora, Agim; Imhoff, Maren; Kersten, Birgit; Nielsen, Kåre-Lehman; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Understanding the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to late blight is therefore highly relevant for developing resistant cultivars, either by marker-assissted selection or by transgenic approaches. Specific P. infestans races having the Avr1 effector gene trigger a hypersensitive resistance response in potato plants carrying the R1 resistance gene (incompatible interaction) and cause disease in plants lacking R1 (compatible interaction). The transcriptomes of the compatible and incompatible interaction were captured by DeepSAGE analysis of 44 biological samples comprising five genotypes, differing only by the presence or absence of the R1 transgene, three infection time points and three biological replicates. 30.859 unique 21 base pair sequence tags were obtained, one third of which did not match any known potato transcript sequence. Two third of the tags were expressed at low frequency (<10 tag counts/million). 20.470 unitags matched to approximately twelve thousand potato transcribed genes. Tag frequencies were compared between compatible and incompatible interactions over the infection time course and between compatible and incompatible genotypes. Transcriptional changes were more numerous in compatible than in incompatible interactions. In contrast to incompatible interactions, transcriptional changes in the compatible interaction were observed predominantly for multigene families encoding defense response genes and genes functional in photosynthesis and CO2 fixation. Numerous transcriptional differences were also observed between near isogenic genotypes prior to infection with P. infestans. Our DeepSAGE transcriptome analysis uncovered novel candidate genes for plant host pathogen interactions, examples of which are discussed with respect to possible function. PMID:22328937

  9. Evidence for female mortality in Wolbachia-mediated cytoplasmic incompatibility in haplodiploid insects: epidemiologic and evolutionary consequences.

    PubMed

    Vavre, F; Fleury, F; Varaldi, J; Fouillet, P; Boulétreau, M

    2000-02-01

    Until now, only two Wolbachia-mediated cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) types have been described in haplodiploid species, the first in Nasonia (Insect) and the second in Tetranychus (Acari). They both induce a male-biased sex ratio in the incompatible cross. In Nasonia, CI does not reduce fertility since incompatible eggs develop as haploid males, whereas in Tetranychus CI leads to a partial mortality of incompatible eggs, thus reducing the fertility of females. Here, we study Wolbachia infection in a Drosophila parasitoid, Leptopilina heterotoma (Hymenoptera: Figitidae). A survey of Wolbachia infection shows that all natural populations tested are totally infected. Crosses between infected males and cured females show complete incompatibility: almost no females are produced. Moreover, incompatible eggs die early during their development, unlike Nasonia. This early death allows the parasitized Drosophila larva to achieve its development and to emerge. Thus, uninfected females crossed with infected males have reduced offspring production consisting only of males. Evidence of this CI type in insects demonstrates that the difference in CI types of Nasonia and Tetranychus is not due to specific factors of insects or acari. Using theoretical models, we compare the invasion processes of different strategies of Wolbachia: CI in diploid species, the two CI types in haplodiploid species, and parthenogenesis (the classical effect in haplodiploid species). Models show that CI in haplodiploid species is less efficient than in diploid ones. However, the Leptopilina type is advantageous compared to the Nasonia type. Parthenogenesis may be more or less advantageous, depending on the infection cost and on the proportion of fertilized eggs. Finally, we can propose different processes of Wolbachia strategy evolution in haplodiploid species from Nasonia CI type to Leptopilina CI type or parthenogenesis. PMID:10937195

  10. Sustainable Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaha, C.; Goetz, J.; Johnson, T.

    2011-09-01

    Through our International Year of Astronomy outreach effort, we established a sustainable astronomy program and curriculum in the Northfield, Minnesota community. Carleton College offers monthly open houses at Goodsell Observatory and donated its recently "retire" observing equipment to local schools. While public evenings continue to be popular, the donated equipment was underutilized due to a lack of trained student observing assistants. With sponsorship from NASA's IYA Student Ambassador program, the sustainable astronomy project began in 2009 to generate greater interest in astronomy and train middle school and high school students as observing assistants. Carleton physics majors developed curricular materials and instituted regular outreach programs for grades 6-12. The Northfield High School Astronomy Club was created, and Carleton undergraduates taught high school students how to use telescopes and do CCD imaging. During the summer of 2009, Carleton students began the Young Astronomers Summer Experience (YASE) program for middle school students and offered a two-week, astronomy-rich observing and imaging experience at Goodsell Observatory. In concert with NASA's Summer of Innovation initiative, the YASE program was offered again in 2010 and engaged a new group of local middle school students in hands-on scientific experiments and observing opportunities. Members of the high school astronomy club now volunteer as observing assistants in the community and graduates of the YASE programs are eager to continue observing as members of a public service astronomy club when they enter the Northfield High School. These projects are training future scientists and will sustain the public's interest in astronomy long after the end of IYA 2009.

  11. Micro gel column technique is fit for detecting mixed fields post ABO incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-Fang; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Min

    2015-04-01

    How to choose suitable serologic method for assessment of the actual stages of ABO chimera is more important to establish transfusion strategy for patients post-ABO incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We reported ABO phenotypes of a patient post-ABO minor incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from 1+ weak agglutination by tube method was obviously reaffirmed to mixed fields with 4+ positive reaction by micro gel column card. Hence, blood bank technologists must continually work together with hematologist to establish appropriate transfusion strategy, and micro gel column technique can be more appropriate for detecting mixed fields during the whole period of transplantation. PMID:25578650

  12. 46 CFR 119.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION General Provisions § 119.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation...

  13. 46 CFR 120.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Provisions § 120.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation...

  14. Self-incompatibility: Smi silences through a novel sRNA pathway.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, E Jean; Liang, Dacheng; Wang, Ming-Bo

    2011-05-01

    Self-incompatibility in Brassicaceae is determined by the interaction between S-Locus Protein 11 (SP11) on the pollen and S-receptor kinase (SRK) in the stigma. Pollen from heterozygotes generally displays products of both SP11 alleles, but in some heterozygotes SP11 expression is monoallelic, with one allele (SP11(R)) being silenced by promoter methylation. An exciting development in understanding the mechanism behind monoallelic silencing came recently when Y. Tarutani et al. [Nature 2010;466:983-986] identified a 24-nucleotide sRNA (termed Smi) derived from a non-coding gene within the dominant S-haplotype, and suggested that Smi directs promoter methylation. We propose that rather than having a direct effect on DNA methylation, Smi is the first step in a novel cis-acting siRNA pathway that directs widespread monoallelic SP11(R) promoter methylation. PMID:21306936

  15. On a simple triangular Reissner/Mindlin plate element based on incompatible modes and discrete constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batoz, Jean-Louis; Katili, Irwan

    1992-11-01

    In this paper the formulation of a new triangular element based on the Reissner/Mindlin plate theory is presented. The element has three nodes and three d.o.f. per node only. It is based on constant bending modes plus incompatible energy orthogonal higher order bending modes. The transverse shear effects are represented using the moment equilibrium and the constitutive equations. Discrete (collocation) shear constraints are considered on each side to relate the kinematical and the independent shear strains. The element has a proper rank, is completely locking free, passes all constant patch-tests exactly. The detailed numerical evaluation shows that the element, called DST-BK, is a robust and high-performance element for thick and thin plates.

  16. The Beta Problem: The Incompatibility of X-ray and Sunyaev-Zeldovich Model Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Jack O.; Hallman, E.; Motl, P.; Norman, M.

    2006-12-01

    We describe an analysis of a large sample of numerically simulated clusters which demonstrates the effects of using X-ray fitted beta-model parameters with Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) data. There is a fundamental incompatibility between beta-model fits to X-ray surface brightness profiles and those done with SZE profiles. Since observational SZE radial profiles are in short supply, the X-ray parameters are often used in SZE analysis. We show that this leads to biased estimates of the integrated Compton y-parameter inside r500 and the value of the Hubble constant calculated from clusters. We suggest a simple scaling of the X-ray beta-model parameters which brings these calculated quantities into close agreement with the true values.

  17. Maximal incompatibility of locally classical behavior and global causal order in multiparty scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumeler, ńmin; Feix, Adrien; Wolf, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Quantum theory in a global spacetime gives rise to nonlocal correlations, which cannot be explained causally in a satisfactory way; this motivates the study of theories with reduced global assumptions. Oreshkov, Costa, and Brukner [Nat. Commun. 3, 1092 (2012), 10.1038/ncomms2076] proposed a framework in which quantum theory is valid locally but where, at the same time, no global spacetime, i.e., predefined causal order, is assumed beyond the absence of logical paradoxes. It was shown for the two-party case, however, that a global causal order always emerges in the classical limit. Quite naturally, it has been conjectured that the same also holds in the multiparty setting. We show that, counter to this belief, classical correlations locally compatible with classical probability theory exist that allow for deterministic signaling between three or more parties incompatible with any predefined causal order.

  18. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means for insect pest population control

    PubMed Central

    Zabalou, Sofia; Riegler, Markus; Theodorakopoulou, Marianna; Stauffer, Christian; Savakis, Charalambos; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2004-01-01

    Biological control is the purposeful introduction of parasites, predators, and pathogens to reduce or suppress pest populations. Wolbachia are inherited bacteria of arthropods that have recently attracted attention for their potential as new biocontrol agents. Wolbachia manipulate host reproduction by using several strategies, one of which is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) [Stouthamer, R., Breeuwer, J. A. J. & Hurst, G. D. D. (1999) Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53, 71–102]. We established Wolbachia-infected lines of the medfly Ceratitis capitata using the infected cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi as donor. Wolbachia induced complete CI in the novel host. Laboratory cage populations were completely suppressed by single releases of infected males, suggesting that Wolbachia-induced CI could be used as a novel environmentally friendly tool for the control of medfly populations. The results also encourage the introduction of Wolbachia into pest and vector species of economic and hygenic relevance to suppress or modify natural populations. PMID:15469918

  19. Reverse evolution leads to genotypic incompatibility despite functional and active site convergence.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbach, Miriam; Jackson, Colin J; Campbell, Eleanor C; Hollfelder, Florian; Tokuriki, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the extent to which enzyme evolution is reversible can shed light on the fundamental relationship between protein sequence, structure, and function. Here, we perform an experimental test of evolutionary reversibility using directed evolution from a phosphotriesterase to an arylesterase, and back, and examine the underlying molecular basis. We find that wild-type phosphotriesterase function could be restored (>10(4)-fold activity increase), but via an alternative set of mutations. The enzyme active site converged towards its original state, indicating evolutionary constraints imposed by catalytic requirements. We reveal that extensive epistasis prevents reversions and necessitates fixation of new mutations, leading to a functionally identical sequence. Many amino acid exchanges between the new and original enzyme are not tolerated, implying sequence incompatibility. Therefore, the evolution was phenotypically reversible but genotypically irreversible. Our study illustrates that the enzyme's adaptive landscape is highly rugged, and different functional sequences may constitute separate fitness peaks. PMID:26274563

  20. Proteomics changes during the incompatible interaction between cowpea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz.) Penz and Sacc.

    PubMed

    Moura, Hudson Fernando N; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Silva, Fredy D A; Moreno, Frederico B M B; Lobo, Marina D P; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana C O; Moura, Arlindo A; Costa, José H; Oliveira, José Tadeu A

    2014-03-01

    Anthracnose represents an important disease of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp.)] caused by the hemibiothrophic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides that drastically reduces cowpea field production. In this study we investigated some biochemical aspects underlying the incompatible interaction between a resistant cowpea genotype and C. gloeosporioides using a proteomic approach. Analyses of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns and protein identification indicate C. gloeosporioides infection-dependent cowpea leaf proteome changes associated with metabolism, photosynthesis, response to stress, oxidative burst and scavenging, defense signaling, and pathogenesis-related proteins. Moreover the C. gloeosporioides responsive proteins interaction network in cowpea revealed the interconnected modulation of key cellular processes involving particularly antioxidants proteins, photosynthetic apparatus forming proteins and proteins of the energetic metabolism that interact with each other suggesting that their expression changes are also important for resistance of cowpea to C. gloeosporioides. PMID:24467908

  1. Tailor-Made Onion-Like Stereocomplex Crystals in Incompatible Enantiomeric Polylactide Containing Block Copolymer Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Sun,L.; Zhu, L.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.

    2006-01-01

    Stereocomplexes formed by blending enantiomeric PLA block copolymers have demonstrated great potential for applications in biomedical devices. Here, we successfully synthesized well-defined enantiomeric PLA containing block copolymers by living ring-opening polymerization of L- and D-lactides from hydroxyl-terminated hydrophilic [poly(ethylene oxide) or PEO] and hydrophobic [poly(ethylene-co-1,2-butylene) or PEB] oligomers. Quantitative stereocomplex formation was achieved by equimolar mixing of the incompatible PEO-b-PLLA and PEB-b-PDLA. Intriguingly, in the blend of PEB-b-PDLA and PEO-b-PLLA with different PEB and PEO molecular weights, onion-like stereocomplex crystals were observed because of unbalanced surface stresses caused by different PEO and PEB molecular weights.

  2. Dynamics of Cytoplasmic Incompatibility and Mtdna Variation in Natural Drosophila Simulans Populations

    PubMed Central

    Turelli, M.; Hoffmann, A. A.; McKechnie, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    In Drosophila simulans a cytoplasmically transmitted microorganism causes reduced egg hatch when infected males mate with uninfected females. The infection is rapidly spreading northward in California. Data on a specific mtDNA restriction site length polymorphism show that changes in the frequency of mtDNA variants are associated with this spread. All infected flies possess the same mtDNA allele, whereas the uninfected flies are polymorphic. Given that both paternal inheritance of the infection and imperfect maternal transmission have been demonstrated, one might expect instead that both infected and uninfected flies would possess both mtDNA variants. Our data suggest that imperfect female transmission of the infection (and/or the loss of the infection among progeny) is more common in nature than paternal transmission. A simple model of intrapopulation dynamics, with empirically supported parameter values, adequately describes the joint frequencies of the mtDNA variants and incompatibility types. PMID:1468627

  3. Regulation of the S-Locus Receptor Kinase and Self-Incompatibility in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Strickler, Susan R.; Tantikanjana, Titima; Nasrallah, June B.

    2013-01-01

    Intraspecific mate selectivity often is enforced by self-incompatibility (SI), a barrier to self-pollination that inhibits productive pollen-pistil interactions. In the Brassicaceae, SI specificity is determined by two highly-polymorphic proteins: the stigmatic S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and its pollen coat-localized ligand, the S-locus cysteine-rich protein (SCR). Arabidopsis thaliana is self fertile, but several of its accessions can be made to express SI, albeit to various degrees, by transformation with functional SRK-SCR gene pairs isolated from its close self-incompatible relative, Arabidopsis lyrata. Here, we use a newly identified induced mutation that suppresses the SI phenotype in stigmas of SRK-SCR transformants of the Col-0 accession to investigate the regulation of SI and the SRK transgene. This mutation disrupts NRPD1a, a gene that encodes a plant-specific nuclear RNA polymerase required for genomic methylation and production of some types of silencing RNAs. We show that NRPD1a, along with the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RDR2, is required for SI in some A. thaliana accessions. We also show that Col-0 nrpd1a mutants exhibit decreased accumulation of SRK transcripts in stigmas, which is not, however, responsible for loss of SI in these plants. Together, our analysis of the nrpd1a mutation and of SRK promoter activity in various accessions reveals that the SRK transgene is subject to several levels of regulation, which vary substantially by tissue type and by accession. This study thus helps explain the well-documented differences in expression of SI exhibited by SRK-SCR transformants of different A. thaliana accessions. PMID:23390607

  4. Expression and Trans-Specific Polymorphism of Self-Incompatibility RNases in Coffea (Rubiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Michael D.; Davis, Aaron P.; Anthony, François; Yoder, Anne D.

    2011-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is widespread in the angiosperms, but identifying the biochemical components of SI mechanisms has proven to be difficult in most lineages. Coffea (coffee; Rubiaceae) is a genus of old-world tropical understory trees in which the vast majority of diploid species utilize a mechanism of gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). The S-RNase GSI system was one of the first SI mechanisms to be biochemically characterized, and likely represents the ancestral Eudicot condition as evidenced by its functional characterization in both asterid (Solanaceae, Plantaginaceae) and rosid (Rosaceae) lineages. The S-RNase GSI mechanism employs the activity of class III RNase T2 proteins to terminate the growth of “self” pollen tubes. Here, we investigate the mechanism of Coffea GSI and specifically examine the potential for homology to S-RNase GSI by sequencing class III RNase T2 genes in populations of 14 African and Madagascan Coffea species and the closely related self-compatible species Psilanthus ebracteolatus. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences aligned to a diverse sample of plant RNase T2 genes show that the Coffea genome contains at least three class III RNase T2 genes. Patterns of tissue-specific gene expression identify one of these RNase T2 genes as the putative Coffea S-RNase gene. We show that populations of SI Coffea are remarkably polymorphic for putative S-RNase alleles, and exhibit a persistent pattern of trans-specific polymorphism characteristic of all S-RNase genes previously isolated from GSI Eudicot lineages. We thus conclude that Coffea GSI is most likely homologous to the classic Eudicot S-RNase system, which was retained since the divergence of the Rubiaceae lineage from an ancient SI Eudicot ancestor, nearly 90 million years ago. PMID:21731641

  5. Non-Random Mating, Parent-of-Origin, and Maternal-Fetal Incompatibility Effects in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yunjung; Ripke, Stephan; Kirov, George; Sklar, Pamela; Purcell, Shaun; Owen, Michael; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Sullivan, Patrick F.

    2014-01-01

    Although the association of common genetic variation in the extended MHC region with schizophrenia is the most significant yet discovered, the MHC region is one of the more complex regions of the human genome, with unusually high gene density and long-range linkage disequilibrium. The statistical test on which the MHC association is based is a relatively simple, additive model which uses logistic regression of SNP genotypes to predict case-control status. However, it is plausible that more complex models underlie this association. Using a well-characterized sample of trios, we evaluated more complex models by looking for evidence for: (a) non-random mating for HLA alleles, schizophrenia risk profiles, and ancestry; (b) parent-of-origin effects for HLA alleles; and (c) maternal-fetal genotype incompatibility in the HLA. We found no evidence for non-random mating in the parents of individuals with schizophrenia in terms of MHC genotypes or schizophrenia risk profile scores. However, there was evidence of non-random mating that appeared mostly to be driven by ancestry. We did not detect over-transmission of HLA alleles to affected offspring via the general TDT test (without regard to parent of origin) or preferential transmission via paternal or maternal inheritance. We evaluated the hypothesis that maternal-fetal HLA incompatibility may increase risk for schizophrenia using eight classical HLA loci. The most significant alleles were in HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DQB1, and HLA-DRB1 but none was significant after accounting for multiple comparisons. We did not find evidence to support more complex models of gene action, but statistical power may have been limiting. PMID:23177929

  6. Variability of the self-incompatibility reaction in Brassica oleracea L. with S 15 haplotype.

    PubMed

    Hadj-Arab, Houria; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Gaude, Thierry; Chable, Véronique

    2010-06-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is thought to have played a key role in the evolution of species as it promotes their outcrossing through the recognition and rejection of self-pollen grains. In most species, SI is under the control of a complex, multiallelic S-locus. The recognition system is associated with quantitative variations of the strength of the SI reaction; the origin of these variations is still not elucidated. To define the genetic regulations involved, we studied the variability of the SI response in homozygous S 15 S 15 plants in cauliflower. These plants were obtained from a self-progeny of a self-compatible (SC) plant heterozygous for S 15, which was generated after five selfing generations from one strongly self-incompatible initial plant. We found a continuous phenotypic variation for SI response in the offspring plants homozygous for the S 15 haplotype, from the strict SI reaction to self-compatibility, with a great proportion of the plants being partially self-compatible (PSC). Decrease in SI levels was also observed during the life of the flower. The number of pollen tubes passing through the stigma barrier was higher when counted 3 or 5 days after pollination than one day after pollination. Analysis of the expression of the two key genes regulating self-pollen recognition in cauliflower, the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and S-locus cysteine-rich (SCR/SP11) genes, revealed that self-compatibility or PSC was associated with decreased SRK or SCR/SP11 expression. Our work shows the particularly high level of phenotypic plasticity of the SI response associated with certain S-haplotypes in cauliflower. PMID:20490967

  7. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Bruno; Vieira, Jorge; Cunha, Ana E; Fonseca, Nuno A; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen. PMID:25993016

  8. Within-species diversity of Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility in haplodiploid insects.

    PubMed

    Vavre, F; Dedeine, F; Quillon, M; Fouillet, P; Fleury, F; Bouletreau, M

    2001-08-01

    Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) can have two consequences in haplodiploid insects: fertilized eggs either die (female mortality, FM) or they develop into haploid males (male development, MD). Origin of this diversity remains poorly understood, but current hypotheses invoke variation in damage suffered by paternal chromosomes in incompatible eggs, thus intermediate CI types should be expected. Here, we show the existence of such a particular CI type. In the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina heterotoma, we compared CI effects in crosses involving lines derived from a single inbred line with various Wolbachia infection statuses (natural tri-infection, mono-infection, or no infection). Tri-infected males induce a FM CI type when crossed with either uninfected or mono-infected females. Crossing mono-infected males with uninfected females results in almost complete CI with both reduced offspring production, indicating partial mortality of fertilized eggs, and increased number of sons, showing haploid male development of others. Mono-infected males thus induce an intermediate Cl type when mated with uninfected females. The first evidence of this expected particular CI type demonstrates that no discontinuity separates MD and FM CI types, which appear to be end points of a phenotypic continuum. Second, different CI types can occur within a given species and even within offspring of a single pair. Third, phenotypic expression of the particular CI type induced by a given Wolbachia variant depends on other bacterial variants that co-infect the same tissues. These results support the idea that haplodiploids should be helpful in clarifying evolutionary pathways of insect-Wolbachia associations. PMID:11580031

  9. Population genetics of self-incompatibility in a clade of relict cliff-dwelling plant species

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Jose L.; Brennan, Adrian C.; Mejías, José A.

    2016-01-01

    The mating systems of species in small or fragmented populations impact upon their persistence. Small self-incompatible (SI) populations risk losing S allele diversity, responsible for the SI response, by drift thereby limiting mate availability and leading to population decline or SI system breakdown. But populations of relict and/or endemic species have resisted these demographic conditions over long periods suggesting their mating systems have adapted. To address a lack of empirical data on this topic, we studied the SI systems of three relict cliff-dwelling species of Sonchus section Pustulati (Asteraceae): S. masguindalii, S. fragilis and S. pustulatus in the western Mediterranean region. We performed controlled pollinations within and between individuals to measure index of SI (ISI) expression and identify S alleles in multiple population samples. Sonchus masguindalii and S. pustulatus showed strong SI (ISI = 0.6–1.0) compared to S. fragilis (ISI = 0.1–0.7). Just five S alleles were estimated for Spanish S. pustulatus and a moderate 11-15 S alleles for Moroccan S. pustulatus and S. fragilis, respectively. The fact that autonomous fruit set was generally improved by active self-pollination in self-compatible S. fragilis suggests that individuals with weak SI can show a wide range of outcrossing levels dependent on the degree of self or outcross pollen that pollinators bear. We conclude that frequent S allele dominance interactions that mask the incompatibility interactions of recessive S alleles leading to higher mate availability and partial breakdown of SI leading to mixed mating, both contribute to reproductive resilience in this group. PMID:27154621

  10. Population genetics of self-incompatibility in a clade of relict cliff-dwelling plant species.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jose L; Brennan, Adrian C; Mejías, José A

    2016-01-01

    The mating systems of species in small or fragmented populations impact upon their persistence. Small self-incompatible (SI) populations risk losing S allele diversity, responsible for the SI response, by drift thereby limiting mate availability and leading to population decline or SI system breakdown. But populations of relict and/or endemic species have resisted these demographic conditions over long periods suggesting their mating systems have adapted. To address a lack of empirical data on this topic, we studied the SI systems of three relict cliff-dwelling species of Sonchus section Pustulati (Asteraceae): S. masguindalii, S. fragilis and S. pustulatus in the western Mediterranean region. We performed controlled pollinations within and between individuals to measure index of SI (ISI) expression and identify S alleles in multiple population samples. Sonchus masguindalii and S. pustulatus showed strong SI (ISI = 0.6-1.0) compared to S. fragilis (ISI = 0.1-0.7). Just five S alleles were estimated for Spanish S. pustulatus and a moderate 11-15 S alleles for Moroccan S. pustulatus and S. fragilis, respectively. The fact that autonomous fruit set was generally improved by active self-pollination in self-compatible S. fragilis suggests that individuals with weak SI can show a wide range of outcrossing levels dependent on the degree of self or outcross pollen that pollinators bear. We conclude that frequent S allele dominance interactions that mask the incompatibility interactions of recessive S alleles leading to higher mate availability and partial breakdown of SI leading to mixed mating, both contribute to reproductive resilience in this group. PMID:27154621

  11. Convergent Evolution at the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility System in Malus and Prunus

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Ana E.; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P.

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen. PMID:25993016

  12. "Our Common World" Belongs to "Us": Constructions of Otherness in Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse how good intentions in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) discursively construct and maintain differences between "Us" and "Them". The empirical material consists of textbooks about sustainable development used in Swedish schools. An analysis of how "Us" and…

  13. 29 CFR 1690.105 - Policy intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy intent. 1690.105 Section 1690.105 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES ON INTERAGENCY COORDINATION OF EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY ISSUANCES General § 1690.105 Policy intent. These procedures...

  14. 49 CFR 661.18 - Intentional violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intentional violations. 661.18 Section 661.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.18 Intentional violations. A person shall be ineligible to receive any contract...

  15. 49 CFR 661.18 - Intentional violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Intentional violations. 661.18 Section 661.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.18 Intentional violations. A person shall...

  16. 49 CFR 661.18 - Intentional violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Intentional violations. 661.18 Section 661.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.18 Intentional violations. A person shall...

  17. 49 CFR 661.18 - Intentional violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Intentional violations. 661.18 Section 661.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.18 Intentional violations. A person shall...

  18. 49 CFR 661.18 - Intentional violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intentional violations. 661.18 Section 661.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.18 Intentional violations. A person shall...

  19. Students' Behavioural Intentions towards Peers with Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Hilary K.; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Lysaght, Rosemary; Burge, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were: (i) to compare the behavioural intentions of high school students towards individuals with intellectual disabilities and individuals with physical disabilities and (ii) to explore reasons for these behavioural intentions. Materials and methods: A sample of 319 Grade 9 and Grade 12 students in Ontario,…

  20. Judging the Intentionality of Action-Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Thomas R.; Wells, Diane

    1985-01-01

    Assessed use of certain rules for judging intentionality of action-outcomes by children of 3, 7, and 11 years. Intentionality judgments based on matching rather than objective rules were observed more frequently. It was concluded that matching rule emerges first in development and is more essential than various objective rules. (Author/DST)

  1. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  2. Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; de Graaf, Cees; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design: Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed…

  3. Law School Intentions of Undergraduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Thomas; Flanagan, David J.; Palmer, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence business students' intentions to enroll in law school. Scant research has focused on factors that influence business students' decisions to enroll in law school. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Hypotheses about student intentions are based on Ajzen & Fishbein's (1977) Theory…

  4. Product Characteristics and Internet Shopping Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vijayasarathy, Leo R.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of electronic commerce and online marketing focuses on an empirical study that investigated differences between Internet shopping intentions for products categorized by cost and tangibility. Highlights include hypotheses; respondent characteristics; results that showed that intentions to shop using the Internet differ by tangibility of…

  5. Children's Picture Interpretation: Appearance or Intention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Emma; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Pictures are defined by their creator's intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture's…

  6. The Simultaneity of Beginning Teachers' Practical Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Teachers use their practical intentions--their in-the-moment goals and concerns--to craft their spontaneous classroom decisions. This research study explored the content of (and relationship between) beginning teachers' practical intentions by asking six student teachers in mathematics to participate in a stimulated recall interview of their…

  7. Entrepreneurship Education: Workshops and Entrepreneurial Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from participants in an entrepreneurship education workshop series, the author examined the series' impact and tested a model of entrepreneurial intentions incorporating social and psychological factors. He found that entrepreneurial disposition and workshop participation significantly influenced intentions, exposure to role…

  8. Does Stock Market Performance Influence Retirement Intentions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2012-01-01

    Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…

  9. Authorial Intent in the Composition Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the disjunction between, on the one hand, critical theory's critique of the privileging of authorial intent in protocols of textual interpretation, and, on the other hand, continued obeisance to authorial intent in composition textbooks and pedagogy. By unpacking the implications of this disjunction, I show the limitations…

  10. OVERCOMING CONSUMERS’ BARRIERS TO THE ADOPTION OF SUSTAINABLE LIGHTING: CONSIDERING CFLS AND LEDS ACROSS THE LIFE COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An increase in intentions to purchase sustainable lighting is expected for those involved in the study and also for those who are exposed to this project through the dissemination of educational tools based on this work.

  11. Dual Perspectives on Theory in Clinical Practice: Practice Makes Perfect: The Incompatibility of Practicing Speech and Meaningful Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamhi, Alan G.

    2000-01-01

    This article uses a case study to suggest that some children view speech-language therapy as a separate situation for learning practicing new sounds and language forms whereas the purpose of talking outside of therapy is meaningful communication. Clinical implications of this potential incompatibility between practicing speech and communicating…

  12. Genetic Map-Based Location of the Red Clover (Trifolium pratense L.) Gametophytic Self-incompatibility Locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red clover is a hermaphadidic allogamous diploid (2n = 2x = 14) with a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). Red clover GSI has long been studied and it is thought that the genetic control of GSI constitutes a single locus. Although GSI gene...

  13. Incompatibility Between X Chromosome Factor and Pericentric Heterochromatic Region Causes Lethality in Hybrids Between Drosophila melanogaster and Its Sibling Species

    PubMed Central

    Cattani, M. Victoria; Presgraves, Daven C.

    2012-01-01

    The Dobzhansky–Muller model posits that postzygotic reproductive isolation results from the evolution of incompatible epistatic interactions between species: alleles that function in the genetic background of one species can cause sterility or lethality in the genetic background of another species. Progress in identifying and characterizing factors involved in postzygotic isolation in Drosophila has remained slow, mainly because Drosophila melanogaster, with all of its genetic tools, forms dead or sterile hybrids when crossed to its sister species, D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. To circumvent this problem, we used chromosome deletions and duplications from D. melanogaster to map two hybrid incompatibility loci in F1 hybrids with its sister species. We mapped a recessive factor to the pericentromeric heterochromatin of the X chromosome in D. simulans and D. mauritiana, which we call heterochromatin hybrid lethal (hhl), which causes lethality in F1 hybrid females with D. melanogaster. As F1 hybrid males hemizygous for a D. mauritiana (or D. simulans) X chromosome are viable, the lethality of deficiency hybrid females implies that a dominant incompatible partner locus exists on the D. melanogaster X. Using small segments of the D. melanogaster X chromosome duplicated onto the Y chromosome, we mapped a dominant factor that causes hybrid lethality to a small 24-gene region of the D. melanogaster X. We provide evidence suggesting that it interacts with hhlmau. The location of hhl is consistent with the emerging theme that hybrid incompatibilities in Drosophila involve heterochromatic regions and factors that interact with the heterochromatin. PMID:22446316

  14. Somatic incompatibility and genetic structure of fungal crops in sympatric Atta colombica and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutting ants

    PubMed Central

    Kooij, Pepijn W.; Poulsen, Michael; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2015-01-01

    Obligate mutualistic symbioses rely on mechanisms that secure host-symbiont commitments to maximize host benefits and prevent symbiont cheating. Previous studies showed that somatic incompatibilities correlate with neutral-marker-based genetic distances between fungal symbionts of Panamanian Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants, but the extent to which this relationship applies more generally remained unclear. Here we showed that genetic distances accurately predicted somatic incompatibility for Acromyrmex echinatior symbionts irrespective of whether neutral microsatellites or AFLP markers were used, but that such correlations were weaker or absent in sympatric Atta colombica colonies. Further analysis showed that the symbiont clades maintained by A. echinatior and A. colombica were likely to represent separate gene pools, so that neutral markers were unlikely to be similarly correlated with incompatibility loci that have experienced different selection regimes. We suggest that evolutionarily derived claustral colony founding by Atta queens may have removed selection for strong incompatibility in Atta fungi, as this condition makes the likelihood of symbiont swaps much lower than in Acromyrmex, where incipient nests stay open because queens have to forage until the first workers emerge. PMID:26865859

  15. Measurement incompatibility and Schrödinger-Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering in a class of probabilistic theories

    SciTech Connect

    Banik, Manik

    2015-05-15

    Steering is one of the most counter intuitive non-classical features of bipartite quantum system, first noticed by Schrödinger at the early days of quantum theory. On the other hand, measurement incompatibility is another non-classical feature of quantum theory, initially pointed out by Bohr. Recently, Quintino et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 160402 (2014)] and Uola et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 160403 (2014)] have investigated the relation between these two distinct non-classical features. They have shown that a set of measurements is not jointly measurable (i.e., incompatible) if and only if they can be used for demonstrating Schrödinger-Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering. The concept of steering has been generalized for more general abstract tensor product theories rather than just Hilbert space quantum mechanics. In this article, we discuss that the notion of measurement incompatibility can be extended for general probability theories. Further, we show that the connection between steering and measurement incompatibility holds in a border class of tensor product theories rather than just quantum theory.

  16. Identification of SSR Markers Linked to the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility Locus in Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-pollination is prevented in red clover by a gametophytic self-incompatibility system (SI). This SI system is likely controlled by two tightly linked genes, effectively creating a single locus. While SI genes have been identified in some plants, they have not been identified in red clover or o...

  17. 49 CFR 350.335 - What are the consequences if my State has laws or regulations incompatible with the Federal...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the consequences if my State has laws or... Funding § 350.335 What are the consequences if my State has laws or regulations incompatible with the Federal regulations? (a) A State that currently has compatible CMV safety laws and regulations...

  18. Phylogeny of replication initiator protein TrfA reveals a highly divergent clade of incompatibility group P1 plasmids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incompatibility group P-1 (incP-1) includes broad host range plasmids of Gram negative bacteria and are classified into five subgroups (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon). The incP-1 replication module consists of the trfA gene, encoding the replication initiator protein TrfA, and the origin o...

  19. Molecular characterization of vegetative incompatibility genes that restrict hypovirus transmission in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica.

    PubMed

    Choi, Gil H; Dawe, Angus L; Churbanov, Alexander; Smith, Myron L; Milgroom, Michael G; Nuss, Donald L

    2012-01-01

    Genetic nonself recognition systems such as vegetative incompatibility operate in many filamentous fungi to regulate hyphal fusion between genetically dissimilar individuals and to restrict the spread of virulence-attenuating mycoviruses that have potential for biological control of pathogenic fungi. We report here the use of a comparative genomics approach to identify seven candidate polymorphic genes associated with four vegetative incompatibility (vic) loci of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. Disruption of candidate alleles in one of two strains that were heteroallelic at vic2, vic6, or vic7 resulted in enhanced virus transmission, but did not prevent barrage formation associated with mycelial incompatibility. Detailed characterization of the vic6 locus revealed the involvement of nonallelic interactions between two tightly linked genes in barrage formation, heterokaryon formation, and asymmetric, gene-specific influences on virus transmission. The combined results establish molecular identities of genes associated with four C. parasitica vic loci and provide insights into how these recognition factors interact to trigger incompatibility and restrict virus transmission. PMID:22021387

  20. Differential Responses of Wheat Inhibitor-Like Genes to Hessian Fly (Mayetiola destructor) Attacks during Compatible and Incompatible Interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four groups of inhibitor-like genes encoding proteins with diverse structures were identified from wheat. The majority of these genes were up-regulated by avirulent Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor) larvae during incompatible interactions, and were down-regulated by virulent larvae during compatib...

  1. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  2. Mind-Wandering With and Without Intention.

    PubMed

    Seli, Paul; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-08-01

    The past decade has seen a surge of research examining mind-wandering, but most of this research has not considered the potential importance of distinguishing between intentional and unintentional mind-wandering. However, a recent series of papers have demonstrated that mind-wandering reported in empirical investigations frequently occurs with and without intention, and, more crucially, that intentional and unintentional mind-wandering are dissociable. This emerging literature suggests that, to increase clarity in the literature, there is a need to reconsider the bulk of the mind-wandering literature with an eye toward deconvolving these two different cognitive experiences. In this review we highlight recent trends in investigations of the intentionality of mind-wandering, and we outline a novel theoretical framework regarding the mechanisms underlying intentional and unintentional mind-wandering. PMID:27318437

  3. Combining the sterile insect technique with the incompatible insect technique: I-impact of wolbachia infection on the fitness of triple- and double-infected strains of Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongjing; Zheng, Xiaoying; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R L

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito species Aedes albopictus is a major vector of the human diseases dengue and chikungunya. Due to the lack of efficient and sustainable methods to control this mosquito species, there is an increasing interest in developing and applying the sterile insect technique (SIT) and the incompatible insect technique (IIT), separately or in combination, as population suppression approaches. Ae. albopictus is naturally double-infected with two Wolbachia strains, wAlbA and wAlbB. A new triple Wolbachia-infected strain (i.e., a strain infected with wAlbA, wAlbB, and wPip), known as HC and expressing strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in appropriate matings, was recently developed. In the present study, we compared several fitness traits of three Ae. albopictus strains (triple-infected, double-infected and uninfected), all of which were of the same genetic background ("Guangzhou City, China") and were reared under the same conditions. Investigation of egg-hatching rate, survival of pupae and adults, sex ratio, duration of larval stages (development time from L1 to pupation), time to emergence (development time from L1 to adult emergence), wing length, female fecundity and adult longevity indicated that the presence of Wolbachia had only a minimal effect on host fitness. Based on this evidence, the HC strain is currently under consideration for mass rearing and application in a combined SIT-IIT strategy to control natural populations of Ae. albopictus in mainland China. PMID:25849812

  4. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with the Incompatible Insect Technique: I-Impact of Wolbachia Infection on the Fitness of Triple- and Double-Infected Strains of Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongjing; Zheng, Xiaoying; Xi, Zhiyong; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gilles, Jeremie R. L.

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito species Aedes albopictus is a major vector of the human diseases dengue and chikungunya. Due to the lack of efficient and sustainable methods to control this mosquito species, there is an increasing interest in developing and applying the sterile insect technique (SIT) and the incompatible insect technique (IIT), separately or in combination, as population suppression approaches. Ae. albopictus is naturally double-infected with two Wolbachia strains, wAlbA and wAlbB. A new triple Wolbachia-infected strain (i.e., a strain infected with wAlbA, wAlbB, and wPip), known as HC and expressing strong cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) in appropriate matings, was recently developed. In the present study, we compared several fitness traits of three Ae. albopictus strains (triple-infected, double-infected and uninfected), all of which were of the same genetic background (“Guangzhou City, China”) and were reared under the same conditions. Investigation of egg-hatching rate, survival of pupae and adults, sex ratio, duration of larval stages (development time from L1 to pupation), time to emergence (development time from L1 to adult emergence), wing length, female fecundity and adult longevity indicated that the presence of Wolbachia had only a minimal effect on host fitness. Based on this evidence, the HC strain is currently under consideration for mass rearing and application in a combined SIT-IIT strategy to control natural populations of Ae. albopictus in mainland China. PMID:25849812

  5. Detecting false intent using eye blink measures

    PubMed Central

    Marchak, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined—across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity—whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a “contact” that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal. PMID:24130546

  6. Mediator of moderators: temporal stability of intention and the intention-behavior relation.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, Paschal; Abraham, Charles

    2003-02-01

    Intention certainty, past behavior, self-schema, anticipated regret, and attitudinal versus normative control all have been found to moderate intention-behavior relations. It is argued that moderation occurs because these variables produce "strong" intentions. Stability of intention over time is a key index of intention strength. Consequently, it was hypothesized that temporal stability of intention would mediate moderation by these other moderators. Participants (N = 185) completed questionnaire measures of theory of planned behavior constructs and moderator variables at two time points and subsequently reported their exercise behavior. Findings showed that all of the moderators, including temporal stability, were associated with significant improvements in consistency between intention and behavior. Temporal stability also mediated the effects of the other moderators, supporting the study hypothesis. PMID:15272948

  7. The Effect of ABO Blood Incompatibility on Corneal Transplant Failure in Conditions with Low Risk of Graft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Steven P.; Stark, Walter J.; Doyle Stulting, R.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Sugar, Alan; Pavilack, Mark A.; Smith, Patricia W.; Tanner, Jean Paul; Dontchev, Mariya; Gal, Robin L.; Beck, Roy W.; Kollman, Craig; Mannis, Mark J.; Holland, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether corneal graft survival over a five-year follow-up period was affected by ABO blood type compatibility in participants in the Cornea Donor Study undergoing corneal transplantation principally for Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema, conditions at low risk for graft rejection. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, clinical trial Methods ABO blood group compatibility was determined for 1,002 donors and recipients. During a five-year follow-up period, episodes of graft rejection were documented, and graft failures were classified as to whether or not they were due to immunologic rejection. Endothelial cell density was determined by a central reading center for a subset of subjects. Results ABO donor-recipient incompatibility was not associated with graft failure due to any cause including graft failure due to rejection, or with the occurrence of a rejection episode. The five-year cumulative incidence of graft failure due to rejection was 6% for recipients with ABO recipient-donor compatibility and 4% for those with ABO incompatibility (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.33 to 1.25, p=0.20). The five-year incidence for a definite rejection episode, irrespective of whether graft failure ultimately occurred, was 12% for ABO compatible compared with 8% for ABO incompatible cases (p=0.09). Among clear grafts at five years, percent loss of endothelial cells was similar in ABO compatible and incompatible cases. Conclusions In patients undergoing penetrating keratoplasty for Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema, ABO matching is not indicated since ABO incompatibility does not increase the risk of transplant failure due to graft rejection. PMID:19056078

  8. Linking Self-Incompatibility, Dichogamy, and Flowering Synchrony in Two Euphorbia Species: Alternative Mechanisms for Avoiding Self-Fertilization?

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Ortiz, Pedro L.; Arista, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Background Plant species have several mechanisms to avoid selfing such as dichogamy or a self-incompatibility response. Dichogamy in a single flower may reduce autogamy but, to avoid geitonogamy, plants must show flowering synchronization among all their flowers (i.e. synchronous dichogamy). It is hypothesized that one species would not simultaneously show synchronous dichogamy and self-incompatibility because they are redundant mechanisms to reduce selfing; however, this has not been accurately assessed. Methodology/Principal Findings This expectation was tested over two years in two natural populations of the closely related Mediterranean spurges Euphorbia boetica and E. nicaeensis, which completely avoid autogamy by protogyny at the cyathia level. Both spurges showed a high population synchrony (Z<79), and their inflorescences flower synchronously. In E. nicaeensis, there was no overlap among the cyathia in anthesis of successive inflorescence levels and the overlap between sexual phases of cyathia of the same inflorescence level was uncommon (4–16%). In contrast, E. boetica showed a high overlap among consecutive inflorescence levels (74–93%) and between sexual phases of cyathia of the same inflorescence level (48–80%). The flowering pattern of both spurges was consistent in the two populations and over the two successive years. A hand-pollination experiment demonstrated that E. nicaeensis was strictly self-compatible whereas E. boetica was partially self-incompatible. Conclusions/Significance We propose that the complex pattern of synchronized protogyny in E. nicaeensis prevents geitonogamous crosses and, consequently, avoids selfing and inbreeding depression. In E. boetica, a high probability of geitonogamous crosses may occur but, alternatively, this plant escapes selfing through a self-incompatibility response. We posit that synchronous dichogamy and physiological self-incompatibility do not co-occur in the same species because each process is

  9. Impact of stem cell source and conditioning regimen on erythrocyte recovery kinetics after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from an ABO-incompatible donor.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Yoshinobu; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Nakai, Kunihisa; Saito, Takeshi; Ohnishi, Mutsuko; Niiya, Hironari; Chizuka, Aki; Yakushijin, Kimikazu; Urahama, Norinaga; Ueda, Kyoji; Iijima, Kimiko; Ando, Toshihiko; Matsubara, Hiroshi; Kami, Masahiro; Makimoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Yukio; Tobinai, Kensei; Mineishi, Shin; Takaue, Yoichi

    2002-07-01

    We evaluated erythrocyte recovery in 121 allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. There were 35 major and minor ABO-incompatible transplants, respectively, including 10 bi-directionally ABO-incompatible transplants. The use of peripheral blood stem cells facilitated erythrocyte recovery, regardless of the presence or absence of major ABO-incompatibility, and was associated with a frequent detection of anti-host isohaemagglutin early after minor ABO-incompatible transplantation, which was not associated with clinically relevant haemolysis. The use of a reduced-intensity regimen combining a purine analogue and busulphan did not delay erythrocyte recovery after major ABO-incompatible transplantation, suggesting this regimen had a strong activity against host plasma cell. PMID:12100136

  10. Self-Regulation Strategies Improve Self-Discipline in Adolescents: Benefits of Mental Contrasting and Implementation Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duckworth, Angela Lee; Grant, Heidi; Loew, Benjamin; Oettingen, Gabriele; Gollwitzer, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents struggle with setting and striving for goals that require sustained self-discipline. Research on adults indicates that goal commitment is enhanced by mental contrasting (MC), a strategy involving the cognitive elaboration of a desired future with relevant obstacles of present reality. Implementation intentions (II), which identify the…

  11. Occurrence of ABO And RhD Incompatibility with Rh Negative Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Izetbegovic, Sebija

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Hemolytic disease of the newborn was first described in the medical literature 1609, when it was diagnosed in one French housewife. In 1932 Diamond and colleagues described the mutual relationship of fetal hydrops, jaundice, anemia and erythoblastosis, which was later called fetal erytroblastosis. Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) in the strict sense is considered disease whose basis is accelerated immune destruction of fetal/child erythrocytes that are bound to IgG antibodies of maternal origin. These antibodies are directed against antigens of father’s origin, which are present in the fetal/children’s erythrocytes and that the mother’s immune system recognizes them as foreign antigens. Goal: The goal is that in the period from January 1st 2011 to October 23st 2013 determine the frequency of ABO and Rh D incompatibilities in our sample of pregnant women/mothers, and to underscore the importance of regular check of ABO Rh D negative pregnant women and application specific Rh D protection. Material and methods: In the General Hospital “Prim. Dr. Abdulah Nakas” in Sarajevo by retrospective study are followed several relevant variables. Immune alloantibodies were detected in vivo by indirect Coombs test (ICT) with serum mother and O test erythrocytes, by direct Coombs test (DCT) with erythrocytes of a newborn. Results: The total number of births ABO Rh D negative was 596 (14%) and ABO Rh D positive mothers 4261 (86%). Of the total number of Rh D negative mothers there was A Rh D: negative mothers 42%; O Rh D negative 33%; B Rh D: negative 17% and AB Rh D: negative 8%. Most of immune antibodies appear in mothers with O Rh D: negative blood type. The emergence of immune antibodies in the Rh D negative mothers was 1%, the appearance of ABO incompatibilities amounted to 2.3% of our sample. Conclusion: In order to reduce the occurrence of alloimmunization of the mother to erythrocyte antigens of the newborn that can lead to major complications

  12. Sustainable Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  13. Implementation Intentions and Colorectal Screening

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, K. Allen; Daley, Christine M.; Epp, Aaron; James, Aimee; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Geana, Mugur; Born, Wendi; Engelman, Kimberly K.; Shellhorn, Jeremy; Hester, Christina M.; LeMaster, Joseph; Buckles, Daniel; Ellerbeck, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations experience disproportionate colorectal cancer (CRC) burden and poorer survival. Novel behavioral strategies are needed to improve screening rates in these groups. Purpose To test a theoretically based “implementation intentions” intervention for improving CRC screening among unscreened adults in urban safety-net clinics. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting/participants Adults (N=470) aged ≥50 years, due for CRC screening, from urban safety-net clinics were recruited. Intervention The intervention (conducted in 2009–2011) was delivered via touchscreen computers that tailored informational messages to decisional stage and screening barriers. The computer then randomized participants to generic health information on diet and exercise (Comparison group) or “implementation intentions” questions and planning (Experimental group) specific to the CRC screening test chosen (fecal immunochemical test or colonoscopy). Main outcome measures The primary study outcome was completion of CRC screening at 26 weeks based on test reports (analysis conducted in 2012–2013). Results The study population had a mean age of 57 years, and was 42% non-Hispanic African American, 28% non-Hispanic white, and 27% Hispanic. Those receiving the implementation intentions–based intervention had higher odds (AOR=1.83, 95% CI=1.23, 2.73) of completing CRC screening than the Comparison group. Those with higher self-efficacy for screening (AOR=1.57, 95% CI=1.03, 2.39), history of asthma (AOR=2.20, 95% CI=1.26, 3.84), no history of diabetes (AOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.21, 2.86), and reporting they had never heard that “cutting on cancer” makes it spread (AOR=1.78, 95% CI=1.16, 2.72) were more likely to complete CRC screening. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that programs incorporating an implementation intentions approach can contribute to successful completion of CRC screening even among very low-income and

  14. Job Turnover Intentions Among Pharmacy Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the primary reasons why pharmacy faculty intend to remain or leave their current institution and why they left their most recent academic institution, and the relative contribution of various organizational and individual characteristics toward explaining variance in turnover intentions. Methods A survey instrument was e-mailed to pharmacy faculty members asking respondents to indicate up to 5 reasons for their intentions and up to 5 reasons why they left a previous institution. The survey also elicited perceptions on quality of work life in addition to demographic and institutional data, upon which turnover intentions were regressed using a forward-conditional procedure. Organizational commitment as a moderator of turnover intentions was regressed over the remaining variables not acting directly on employer intentions. Results Just over 1 in 5 respondents indicated intentions to leave their current academic institution. Excessive workload, seeking a new challenge, poor salary, and poor relationships with college or school administrators were frequently cited as reasons for leaving. Turnover intentions are influenced directly by department chair support and organizational commitment, which moderates various support and satisfaction variables. Conclusions Pharmacy faculty members’ decision to remain or leave an institution is dependent upon developing a sense of commitment toward the institution. Commitment is facilitated by support from the institution and department chair, in addition to a sense of satisfaction with the teaching environment. PMID:17786250

  15. Intention estimation in brain-machine interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Joline M.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Kao, Jonathan C.; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-02-01

    Objective. The objective of this work was to quantitatively investigate the mechanisms underlying the performance gains of the recently reported ‘recalibrated feedback intention-trained Kalman Filter’ (ReFIT-KF). Approach. This was accomplished by designing variants of the ReFIT-KF algorithm and evaluating training and online data to understand the neural basis of this improvement. We focused on assessing the contribution of two training set innovations of the ReFIT-KF algorithm: intention estimation and the two-stage training paradigm. Main results. Within the two-stage training paradigm, we found that intention estimation independently increased target acquisition rates by 37% and 59%, respectively, across two monkeys implanted with multiunit intracortical arrays. Intention estimation improved performance by enhancing the tuning properties and the mutual information between the kinematic and neural training data. Furthermore, intention estimation led to fewer shifts in channel tuning between the training set and online control, suggesting that less adaptation was required during online control. Retraining the decoder with online BMI training data also reduced shifts in tuning, suggesting a benefit of training a decoder in the same behavioral context; however, retraining also led to slower online decode velocities. Finally, we demonstrated that one- and two-stage training paradigms performed comparably when intention estimation is applied. Significance. These findings highlight the utility of intention estimation in reducing the need for adaptive strategies and improving the online performance of BMIs, helping to guide future BMI design decisions.

  16. Children's picture interpretation: Appearance or intention?

    PubMed

    Armitage, Emma; Allen, Melissa L

    2015-09-01

    Pictures are defined by their creator's intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture's referent. In 3 experiments, we contrasted an artist's intention with her picture's appearance to investigate children's use of appearance and intentional cues. In Experiment 1, children aged 3-4 and 5-6 years (N = 151) were presented with 4 trials of 3-object arrays (e.g., a pink duck, a blue duck, and a teddy). The experimenter photographed or drew 1 of the objects (e.g., blue duck), however, the subsequent picture depicted the referent in grayscale (black and white condition) or the color of its shape-matched object, for example, a pink duck (color change condition). Children were asked 3 questions regarding the identity of the pictures; responses were guided by intentional cues in the black and white condition, but appearance in the color change condition. Experiment 2 confirmed that appearance responses were not due to the artist's changing knowledge state. Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 1 with adult participants. Together, these studies show that children and adults are neither strictly realist nor intentional route followers. They are realists until resemblance cues fail, at which point they defer to intentional cues. PMID:26192043

  17. Motivation, intentionality, and mind wandering: Implications for assessments of task-unrelated thought.

    PubMed

    Seli, Paul; Cheyne, James Allan; Xu, Mengran; Purdon, Christine; Smilek, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Researchers of mind wandering frequently assume that (a) participants are motivated to do well on the tasks they are given, and (b) task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs) that occur during task performance reflect unintentional, unwanted thoughts that occur despite participants' best intentions to maintain task-focus. Given the relatively boring and tedious nature of most mind-wandering tasks, however, there is the possibility that some participants have little motivation to do well on such tasks, and that this lack of motivation might in turn result in increases specifically in intentional TUTs. In the present study, we explored these possibilities, finding that individuals reporting lower motivation to perform well on a sustained-attention task reported more intentional relative to unintentional TUTs compared with individuals reporting higher motivation. Interestingly, our results indicate that the extent to which participants engage in intentional versus unintentional TUTs does not differentially relate to performance: both types of off-task thought were found to be equally associated with performance decrements. Participants with low levels of task-motivation also engaged in more overall TUTs, however, and this increase in TUTs was associated with greater performance decrements. We discuss these findings in the context of the literature on mind wandering, highlighting the importance of assessing the intentionality of TUTs and motivation to perform well on tasks assessing mind wandering. PMID:25730306

  18. Stimulus-response incompatibility activates cortex proximate to three eye fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, E. P.; Colby, C. L.; Thulborn, K. R.; Luna, B.; Olson, C. R.; Sweeney, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate cortical activation during the performance of three oculomotor tasks that impose increasing levels of cognitive demand. (1) In a visually guided saccade (VGS) task, subjects made saccades to flashed targets. (2) In a compatible task, subjects made leftward and rightward saccades in response to foveal presentation of the uppercase words "LEFT" or "RIGHT." (3) In a mixed task, subjects made rightward saccades in response to the lowercase word "left" and leftward saccades in response to the lowercase word "right" on incompatible trials (60%). The remaining 40% of trials required compatible responses to uppercase words. The VGS and compatible tasks, when compared to fixation, activated the three cortical eye fields: the supplementary eye field (SEF), the frontal eye field (FEF), and the parietal eye field (PEF). The mixed task, when compared to the compatible task, activated three additional cortical regions proximate to the three eye fields: (1) rostral to the SEF in medial frontal cortex; (2) rostral to the FEF in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC); (3) rostral and lateral to the PEF in posterior parietal cortex. These areas may contribute to the suppression of prepotent responses and in holding novel visuomotor associations in working memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  19. Effect of incompatibility stress on the fit of metal-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Anusavice, K J; Carroll, J E

    1987-08-01

    The interactive effect of coping thickness and a positive thermal contraction mismatch between metal and porcelain on the fit of metal-ceramic crowns has not yet been experimentally determined. Previous studies have suggested that marginal distortion may be due to contraction differences, although finite element analyses indicate that these distortion effects should be negligible. The marginal gap between metal-ceramic crowns and prepared dies was determined under conditions designed to exaggerate distortion effects. These included the use of thin metal copings (0.1 and 0.2 mm), a chamfer preparation, an alloy with relatively poor creep resistance, and a large thermal contraction mismatch between the alloy and porcelain layers. Gap changes which resulted during porcelain firing cycles were relatively small, but larger marginal discrepancies developed in crowns prepared with a compatible porcelain during grinding and abrasive blasting procedures. This study conclusively demonstrates that incompatibility stress induced by a positive contraction mismatch is not a primary cause of marginal or generalized distortion of metal-ceramic crowns and suggests that external grinding and internal abrasive blasting of crowns are more likely causes of this effect. PMID:3305635

  20. Reproductive isolation is mediated by pollen incompatibility in sympatric populations of two Arnebia species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Chan; Tian, Bin; Sun, Xu-Dong; Guo, Wen; Zhang, Ting-Feng; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2015-12-01

    To explore uncertain aspects of the processes that maintain species boundaries, we evaluated contributions of pre- and postpollination reproductive isolation mechanisms in sympatric populations of Arnebia guttata and A. szechenyi. For this, we investigated their phylogenetic relationships, traits, microenvironments, pollinator visits, action of natural selection on floral traits, and the outcome of hand pollination between the two species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that A. szechenyi is a derived species that could be closely related to A. guttata, and both could be diploid species. Arnebia guttata flowers have larger parts than A. szechenyi flowers, but smaller nectar guides. Soil supporting A. szechenyi had higher water contents than soil supporting neighboring populations of A. guttata (in accordance with their geographical distributions). The pollinators shared by the two species preferred A. szechenyi flowers, but interspecific visitations were frequent. We found evidence of conflicting selection pressures on floral tube length, flower diameter and nectar guide size mediated via male fitness, and on flower diameter and floral tube diameter via female fitness. Hand-pollination experiments indicate complete pollen incompatibility between the two species. Our results suggest that postpollination prezygotic mechanisms are largely responsible for reproductive isolation of sympatric populations of the two Arnebia species. PMID:26811758

  1. Correcting incompatible DN values and geometric errors in nighttime lights time series images

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Naizhuo; Zhou, Yuyu; Samson, Eric L.

    2014-09-19

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime lights imagery has proven to be a powerful remote sensing tool to monitor urbanization and assess socioeconomic activities at large scales. However, the existence of incompatible digital number (DN) values and geometric errors severely limit application of nighttime light image data on multi-year quantitative research. In this study we extend and improve previous studies on inter-calibrating nighttime lights image data to obtain more compatible and reliable nighttime lights time series (NLT) image data for China and the United States (US) through four steps: inter-calibration, geometric correction, steady increase adjustment, and population data correction. We then use gross domestic product (GDP) data to test the processed NLT image data indirectly and find that sum light (summed DN value of pixels in a nighttime light image) maintains apparent increase trends with relatively large GDP growth rates but does not increase or decrease with relatively small GDP growth rates. As nighttime light is a sensitive indicator for economic activity, the temporally consistent trends between sum light and GDP growth rate imply that brightness of nighttime lights on the ground is correctly represented by the processed NLT image data. Finally, through analyzing the corrected NLT image data from 1992 to 2008, we find that China experienced apparent nighttime lights development in 1992-1997 and 2001-2008 respectively and the US suffered from nighttime lights decay in large areas after 2001.

  2. Conserved small RNAs govern replication and incompatibility of a diverse new plasmid family from marine bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Le Roux, Frédérique; Davis, Brigid M.; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmids are autonomously replicating extrachromosomal DNA molecules that often impart key phenotypes to their bacterial hosts. Plasmids are abundant in marine bacteria, but there is scant knowledge of the mechanisms that control their replication in these hosts. Here, we identified and characterized the factors governing replication of a new family of plasmids from marine bacteria, typified by the virulence-linked plasmid pB1067 of Vibrio nigripulchritudo. Members of this family are prevalent among, yet restricted to, the Vibrionaceae. Unlike almost all plasmid families characterized to date, the ori regions of these plasmids do not encode a Rep protein to initiate DNA replication; instead, the ori regions encode two partially complementary RNAs. The smaller, termed RNA I, is ∼68-nt long and functions as a negative regulator and the key determinant of plasmid incompatibility. This Marine RNA-based (MRB) plasmid family is the first characterized family of replicons derived from marine bacteria. Only one other plasmid family (the ColE1 family) has previously been reported to rely on RNA-mediated replication initiation. However, since the sequences and structures of MRB RNA I transcripts are not related to those of ColE1 replicons, these two families of RNA-dependent replicons likely arose by convergent evolution. PMID:20923782

  3. Molecular genetics, physiology and biology of self-incompatibility in Brassicaceae.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masao; Suwabe, Keita; Suzuki, Go

    2012-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is defined as the inability to produce zygotes after self-pollination in a fertile hermaphrodite plant, which has stamens and pistils in the same flower. This structural organization of the hermaphrodite flower increases the risk of self-pollination, leading to low genetic diversity. To avoid this problem plants have established several pollination systems, among which the most elegant system is surely SI. The SI trait can be observed in Brassica crops, including cabbage, broccoli, turnip and radish. To produce hybrid seed of these crops efficiently, the SI trait has been employed in an agricultural context. From another point of view, the recognition reaction of SI during pollen-stigma interaction is an excellent model system for cell-cell communication and signal transduction in higher plants. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms of SI in Brassicaceae, which have been dissected by genetic, physiological, and biological approaches, and we discuss the future prospects in relation to associated scientific fields and new technologies. PMID:23229748

  4. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for high level of self-incompatibility in Brassica rapa L.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Horisaki, Atsushi; Niikura, Satoshi; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Abe, Hiroshi; Yoshiaki, Hitoshi; Ishida, Masahiko; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2010-04-01

    The level of self-incompatibility (SI) is important to the purity of F1 seeds produced using the SI system of Brassica vegetables. To analyze the genetic basis of the level of SI, we generated an F2 population derived from a cross between a turnip inbred line showing a high level of SI and a Chinese cabbage inbred line showing a low level, and evaluated the level of SI under insect pollination in two years. We constructed a detailed linkage map of Brassica rapa from the F2 progeny, consisting of SSR, SNP, indel, and CAPS loci segregating into 10 linkage groups covering approximately 700 cM. Five quantitative trait loci (QTL) for high-level SI were identified. The phenotypic variation explained by the QTL ranged between 7.2% and 23.8%. Two QTL were detected in both years. Mapping of SI-related genes revealed that these QTL were co-localized with SLG on R07 and MLPK on R03. This is the first report of QTL for high-level SI evaluated under insect pollination in a Brassica vegetable. Our results could be useful for the marker-assisted selection of parental lines with a stable SI. PMID:20616857

  5. Trans-acting small RNA determines dominance relationships in Brassica self-incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Tarutani, Yoshiaki; Shiba, Hiroshi; Iwano, Megumi; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Go; Watanabe, Masao; Isogai, Akira; Takayama, Seiji

    2010-08-19

    A diploid organism has two copies of each gene, one inherited from each parent. The expression of two inherited alleles is sometimes biased by the effects known as dominant/recessive relationships, which determine the final phenotype of the organism. To explore the mechanisms underlying these relationships, we have examined the monoallelic expression of S-locus protein 11 genes (SP11), which encode the male determinants of self-incompatibility in Brassica. We previously reported that SP11 expression was monoallelic in some S heterozygotes, and that the promoter regions of recessive SP11 alleles were specifically methylated in the anther tapetum. Here we show that this methylation is controlled by trans-acting small non-coding RNA (sRNA). We identified inverted genomic sequences that were similar to the recessive SP11 promoters in the flanking regions of dominant SP11 alleles. These sequences were specifically expressed in the anther tapetum and processed into 24-nucleotide sRNA, named SP11 methylation inducer (Smi). Introduction of the Smi genomic region into the recessive S homozygotes triggered the methylation of the promoter of recessive SP11 alleles and repressed their transcription. This is an example showing sRNA encoded in the flanking region of a dominant allele acts in trans to induce transcriptional silencing of the recessive allele. Our finding may provide new insights into the widespread monoallelic gene expression systems. PMID:20725042

  6. Characterization of a putative S locus encoded receptor protein and its role in self-incompatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were raised against purified SLSG and polyclonal antisera were raised against purified trpE/SLR1 fusion proteins. MAbH8 reacts with a protein epitope on SLSG. MAbH8 and the anit-SLR1 antisera were used with immunogold labeling to show SLSG and SLR1 proteins are localized in papillar cell walls in the stigma. MAbH8 reacts with SLSG from CRM+ cells but not CRM-cells; amino acid sequence identity between the two classes was only 65%, vs. 80% within the CRM+ class. SLSG is necessary but not sufficient for self-incompatibility. Variable molecular weight (MW) SLSG proteins are derived from the same SLG gene. MW variations in both SLSG and SLR1 are due to changes in glycosylation and phosphorylation state. SLSG is not detectable in mature pollen, but is expressed during microspore development. Using a SLG probe, a gene for a putative receptor with protein kinase activity was identified.

  7. Conditions for the Emergence of Shared Norms in Populations with Incompatible Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Helbing, Dirk; Yu, Wenjian; Opp, Karl-Dieter; Rauhut, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Understanding norms is a key challenge in sociology. Nevertheless, there is a lack of dynamical models explaining how one of several possible behaviors is established as a norm and under what conditions. Analysing an agent-based model, we identify interesting parameter dependencies that imply when two behaviors will coexist or when a shared norm will emerge in a heterogeneous society, where different populations have incompatible preferences. Our model highlights the importance of randomness, spatial interactions, non-linear dynamics, and self-organization. It can also explain the emergence of unpopular norms that do not maximize the collective benefit. Furthermore, we compare behavior-based with preference-based punishment and find interesting results concerning hypocritical punishment. Strikingly, pressuring others to perform the same public behavior as oneself is more effective in promoting norms than pressuring others to meet one’s own private preference. Finally, we show that adaptive group pressure exerted by randomly occuring, local majorities may create norms under conditions where different behaviors would normally coexist. PMID:25166137

  8. Protecting a quantum state from environmental noise by an incompatible finite-time measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Castro, L. A. de; Napolitano, R. d. J.

    2011-08-15

    We show that measurements of finite duration performed on an open two-state system can protect the initial state from a phase-noisy environment, provided the measured observable does not commute with the perturbing interaction. When the measured observable commutes with the environmental interaction, the finite-duration measurement accelerates the rate of decoherence induced by the phase noise. For the description of the measurement of an observable that is incompatible with the interaction between system and environment, we have found an approximate analytical expression, valid at zero temperature and weak coupling with the measuring device. We have tested the validity of the analytical predictions against an exact numerical approach, based on the superoperator-splitting method, that confirms the protection of the initial state of the system. When the coupling between the system and the measuring apparatus increases beyond the range of validity of the analytical approximation, the initial state is still protected by the finite-time measurement, according with the exact numerical calculations.

  9. Wolbachia endosymbiont responsible for cytoplasmic incompatibility in a terrestrial crustacean: effects in natural and foreign hosts.

    PubMed

    Moret, Y; Juchault, P; Rigaud, T

    2001-03-01

    Wolbachia bacteria are vertically transmitted endosymbionts that disturb the reproduction of many arthropods thereby enhancing their spread in host populations. Wolbachia are often responsible for changes of sex ratios in terrestrial isopods, a result of the feminization of genotypic males. Here we found that the Wolbachia hosted by Cylisticus convexus (wCc) caused unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), an effect commonly found in insects. To understand the diversity of Wolbachia-induced effects in isopods, wCc were experimentally transferred in a novel isopod host, Armadillidium vulgare. wCc conserved the ability to induce CI. However, Wolbachia were not transmitted to the eggs, so the capacity to restore the compatibility in crosses involving two transinfected individuals was lost. The feminizing Wolbachia hosted by A. vulgare was unable to rescue CI induced by wCc. These results showed that Wolbachia in isopods did not evolved broadly to induce feminization, and that CI and the feminizing effect are probably due to different mechanisms. In addition, wCc reduces the mating capacity of infected C. convexus males, suggesting that the bacteria might alter reproductive behaviour. The maintenance of wCc in host populations is discussed. PMID:11488969

  10. A Comprehensive Study of Molecular Evolution at the Self-Incompatibility Locus of Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Ashkani, Jahanshah; Rees, D J G

    2016-03-01

    The family Rosaceae includes a range of important fruit trees, most of which have the S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI). Several models have been developed to explain how pollen (SLF) and pistil (S-RNase) components of the S-locus interact. It was discovered in 2010 that additional SLF proteins are involved in pollen specificity, and a Collaborative Non-Self Recognition model has been proposed for SI in Solanaceae; however, the validity of such model remains to be elucidated for other species. The results of this study support the divergent evolution of the S-locus genes from two Rosaceae subfamilies, Prunoideae/Amygdaloideae and Maloideae, The difference identified in the selective pressures between the two lineages provides evidence for positive selection at specific sites in both the S-RNase and the SLF proteins. The evolutionary findings of this study support the role of multiple SLF proteins leading to a Collaborative Non-Self Recognition model for SI in the Maloideae. Furthermore, the identification of the sites responsible for SI specificity determination and the mapping of these sites onto the modelled tertiary structure of ancestor proteins provide useful information for rational functional redesign and protein engineering for the future engineering of new functional alleles providing increased diversity in the SI system in the Maloideae. PMID:26714486

  11. Autoimmune Response as a Mechanism for a Dobzhansky-Muller-Type Incompatibility Syndrome in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Epple, Petra; Warthmann, Norman; Lanz, Christa; Dangl, Jeffery L; Weigel, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Epistatic interactions between genes are a major factor in evolution. Hybrid necrosis is an example of a deleterious phenotype caused by epistatic interactions that is observed in many intra- and interspecific plant hybrids. A large number of hybrid necrosis cases share phenotypic similarities, suggesting a common underlying mechanism across a wide range of plant species. Here, we report that approximately 2% of intraspecific crosses in Arabidopsis thaliana yield F1 progeny that express necrosis when grown under conditions typical of their natural habitats. We show that several independent cases result from epistatic interactions that trigger autoimmune-like responses. In at least one case, an allele of an NB-LRR disease resistance gene homolog is both necessary and sufficient for the induction of hybrid necrosis, when combined with a specific allele at a second locus. The A. thaliana cases provide insights into the molecular causes of hybrid necrosis, and serve as a model for further investigation of intra- and interspecific incompatibilities caused by a simple epistatic interaction. Moreover, our finding that plant immune-system genes are involved in hybrid necrosis suggests that selective pressures related to host–pathogen conflict might cause the evolution of gene flow barriers in plants. PMID:17803357

  12. Host genotype determines cytoplasmic incompatibility type in the haplodiploid genus Nasonia.

    PubMed Central

    Bordenstein, Seth R; Uy, Julieanne J; Werren, John H

    2003-01-01

    In haplodiploid species, Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) can be expressed in one of two ways: as a "conversion" of diploid fertilized eggs into haploid males or as embryonic mortality. Here we describe CI-type variation within the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia and genetically analyze the basis of this variation. We reach four main conclusions: (i) CI is expressed primarily as conversion in N. vitripennis, but as embryonic mortality in the sibling species N. giraulti and N. longicornis; (ii) the difference in CI type between N. giraulti (mortality) and N. vitripennis (conversion) is determined by host nuclear genotype rather than by Wolbachia differences; (iii) N. vitripennis "conversion genes" are recessive in hybrid females; and (iv) a difference in CI level between the sibling species N. giraulti and N. longicornis is due to the different Wolbachia infections in the species rather than to the host genotype. These results show that host nuclear genes can influence the type of CI present in a species. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model for how different CI types evolve in haplodiploids due to selection on nuclear genes modifying CI. PMID:12750334

  13. Development of Cuscuta species on a partially incompatible host: induction of xylem transfer cells.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Nynne M; Dörr, Inge; Hansen, M; van der Kooij, T A W; Schulz, A

    2003-03-01

    The growth of dodders, Cuscuta reflexa and Cuscuta japonica, on the partially incompatible host poinsettia ( Euphorbia pulcherrima) is studied. Poinsettia responds by bark growths to the formation of the dodder haustoria and prevents dodder from obtaining normal growth. The growth instead becomes extremely branched, coral-like, and dodder lacks the ability to form haustoria. After a period of coral-like growth, long shoots sprout, resembling the normal growth. These long shoots mark an ending phase for dodder, which dies shortly after without having flowered. During the coral-like growth phase, dodder develops transfer cells in the parenchyma cells bordering the vessels of the xylem in the shoot. The transfer cells have not been observed when dodder is grown on the compatible host Pelargonium zonale. A coral-like growth phase has also been observed at the establishing phase when dodder is grown in vitro on agar; later a more normal growth form takes over. In this coral phase, xylem transfer cells are also developed. The fluorochromes carboxyfluorescein and Texas Red were loaded into the host in the phloem and xylem, respectively, and detection of these fluorochromes in the dodder stem indicated that a functional haustorial contact developed for both vascular systems. The results show that Cuscutaspp. have the genetic ability to develop xylem transfer cells and use this in response to developmental stress. PMID:12664277

  14. Dislocations via incompatibilities in phase-field models of microstructure evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, R.; Marchand, B.; Lookman, T.

    2016-08-01

    We develop a phase-field model that describes the elastic distortion of a ferroelastic material with cubic anisotropy due to an arbitrary dislocation network and a uniform external load. The dislocation network is characterized using the Nye tensor and enters the formulation via a set of incompatibility constraints for the internal strain field. The long-range elastic response of the material is obtained by minimization of the free energy that accounts for higher-order terms of the order parameters and symmetry-adapted strain gradients. The influence of dislocations on the microstructure is studied using a static equilibrium analysis of a material without dislocations and with a random array of parallel edge dislocations. A minimal continuum dislocation dynamics is then used to investigate the simultaneous evolution of the network of geometrically necessary dislocations and the internal strain field. The model developed here is directly applicable to single-phase cubic crystals with an arbitrary degree of anisotropy as well as to ferroelastic materials undergoing temperature-driven cubic-to-tetragonal phase transitions.

  15. Vegetative and generative maintenance of self-incompatibility in six accessions of German chamomile.

    PubMed

    Faehnrich, Bettina; Wagner, Sarah; Franz, Chlodwig

    2016-06-01

    Self-incompatible (SI) plants are able to form ideal mother lines for hybrid crossing in hermaphroditic plants, assuring fertilization from the desired father line. To find out suitable ways to maintain SI was the aim of this study. Among 220 plants of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita (L.) Rauschert) within six accessions SI-genotypes were selected. SI was determined as staying seedless in three flower heads per plant. Initial SI-plants formed the basic paternal generation (P1) of i) maintaining the same genotypes over six months and repeating seed set analysis (P2) and of ii) conducting crossings in three versions (SI × SI, SI × NSI (not SI evaluated plants) and NSI × SI), thereby producing the F1 population. F1 exhibited 78% SI and P2 62% SI, indicating a higher environmental than genetic influence on SI. But heritability, calculated from the results of SI × SI crossings, showed high values (h(2) = 0.71). Within generative propagation, the influence of generation/crossing version was highly significant (p = 0.001) and the cultivar 'Degumille' explored the highest value of SI (86%) after SI × NSI crossings. Therefore, the intra-cultivar combination of 'Degumille' SI mother plants crossed with NSI father plants can be recommended as the most promising version to maintain SI in chamomile. PMID:27436956

  16. Vegetative and generative maintenance of self-incompatibility in six accessions of German chamomile

    PubMed Central

    Faehnrich, Bettina; Wagner, Sarah; Franz, Chlodwig

    2016-01-01

    Self-incompatible (SI) plants are able to form ideal mother lines for hybrid crossing in hermaphroditic plants, assuring fertilization from the desired father line. To find out suitable ways to maintain SI was the aim of this study. Among 220 plants of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita (L.) Rauschert) within six accessions SI-genotypes were selected. SI was determined as staying seedless in three flower heads per plant. Initial SI-plants formed the basic paternal generation (P1) of i) maintaining the same genotypes over six months and repeating seed set analysis (P2) and of ii) conducting crossings in three versions (SI × SI, SI × NSI (not SI evaluated plants) and NSI × SI), thereby producing the F1 population. F1 exhibited 78% SI and P2 62% SI, indicating a higher environmental than genetic influence on SI. But heritability, calculated from the results of SI × SI crossings, showed high values (h2 = 0.71). Within generative propagation, the influence of generation/crossing version was highly significant (p = 0.001) and the cultivar ‘Degumille’ explored the highest value of SI (86%) after SI × NSI crossings. Therefore, the intra-cultivar combination of ‘Degumille’ SI mother plants crossed with NSI father plants can be recommended as the most promising version to maintain SI in chamomile. PMID:27436956

  17. The Papaver rhoeas S determinants confer self-incompatibility to Arabidopsis thaliana in planta.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zongcheng; Eaves, Deborah J; Sanchez-Moran, Eugenio; Franklin, F Christopher H; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2015-11-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a major genetically controlled system used to prevent inbreeding in higher plants. S determinants regulate allele-specific rejection of "self" pollen by the pistil. SI is an important model system for cell-to-cell recognition and signaling and could be potentially useful for first-generation (F1) hybrid breeding. To date, the transfer of S determinants has used the complementation of orthologs to "restore" SI in close relatives. We expressed the Papaver rhoeas S determinants PrsS and PrpS in Arabidopsis thaliana. This enabled pistils to reject pollen expressing cognate PrpS. Moreover, plants coexpressing cognate PrpS and PrsS exhibit robust SI. This demonstrates that PrsS and PrpS are sufficient for a functional synthetic S locus in vivo. This transfer of novel S determinants into a highly divergent species (>140 million years apart) with no orthologs suggests their potential utility in crop production. PMID:26542572

  18. Non-self- and self-recognition models in plant self-incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Sota; Kubo, Ken-Ichi; Takayama, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which flowering plants choose their mating partners have interested researchers for a long time. Recent findings on the molecular mechanisms of non-self-recognition in some plant species have provided new insights into self-incompatibility (SI), the trait used by a wide range of plant species to avoid self-fertilization and promote outcrossing. In this Review, we compare the known SI systems, which can be largely classified into non-self- or self-recognition systems with respect to their molecular mechanisms, their evolutionary histories and their modes of evolution. We review previous controversies on haplotype evolution in the gametophytic SI system of Solanaceae species in light of a recently elucidated non-self-recognition model. In non-self-recognition SI systems, the transition from self-compatibility (SC) to SI may be more common than previously thought. Reversible transition between SI and SC in plants may have contributed to their adaptation to diverse and fluctuating environments. PMID:27595657

  19. Comparison of clinical outcomes between ABO-compatible and ABO-incompatible spousal donor kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woo Yeong; Kang, Seong Sik; Park, Sung Bae; Park, Ui Jun; Kim, Hyong Tae; Cho, Won Hyun; Han, Seungyeup

    2016-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation (KT) is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease patients. The spouse is a major donor in living KT. Clinical outcomes of spousal donor KT are not inferior to those of living related donor KT. In this study, we compared clinical outcomes between ABO-compatible (ABOc) and ABO-incompatible (ABOi) spousal donor KTs. Methods Thirty-two cases of spousal donor KT performed from January 2011 to August 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty-one ABOc KTs and 11 ABOi KTs were performed. We investigated patient survival, graft survival, acute rejection, graft function, and complications. Results During follow-up, patient and graft survival rates were 100% in both groups. There were no significant differences in the incidence of delayed graft function, acute rejection, and the change in graft function between the 2 groups. Medical and surgical complications were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion The clinical outcomes of ABOc and ABOi spousal donor KTs were equivalent. In ABOi KT, an emotionally motivated spousal donor KT may be a good alternative to the problem of the absolute shortage of kidney donations. PMID:27069858

  20. Trouble with the Lorentz law of force: incompatibility with special relativity and momentum conservation.

    PubMed

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2012-05-11

    The Lorentz law of force is the fifth pillar of classical electrodynamics, the other four being Maxwell's macroscopic equations. The Lorentz law is the universal expression of the force exerted by electromagnetic fields on a volume containing a distribution of electrical charges and currents. If electric and magnetic dipoles also happen to be present in a material medium, they are traditionally treated by expressing the corresponding polarization and magnetization distributions in terms of bound-charge and bound-current densities, which are subsequently added to free-charge and free-current densities, respectively. In this way, Maxwell's macroscopic equations are reduced to his microscopic equations, and the Lorentz law is expected to provide a precise expression of the electromagnetic force density on material bodies at all points in space and time. This Letter presents incontrovertible theoretical evidence of the incompatibility of the Lorentz law with the fundamental tenets of special relativity. We argue that the Lorentz law must be abandoned in favor of a more general expression of the electromagnetic force density, such as the one discovered by Einstein and Laub in 1908. Not only is the Einstein-Laub formula consistent with special relativity, it also solves the long-standing problem of "hidden momentum" in classical electrodynamics. PMID:23003039

  1. METHODOLOGY FOR EXAMINING SYSTEM AGING DUE TO INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CHEMICALLY INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    J. DENINGER; J. TANSKI

    1999-04-01

    We start with a stored and unused population of fielded engineered units that are composed of chemically incompatible materials. The units age primarily through heterogeneous chemical reactions between the materials resulting in possible degradation in performance. The engineered units are unused in storage, but may be called into actual service at any time. We sample several units from the population per year and perform a number of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as radiography, low-frequency vibration analysis, and ultrasonic imaging on the selected units. From those units, some are selected for destructive testing (D-test) involving disassembly and testing of internal parts and components. Chemical analyses, mechanical properties measurements and other tests are performed. All of the above steps provide information that is used in the system simulation mathematical model. The system simulation model incorporates chemical reactions and gas-solid transport processes, along with changes in both the surface and bulk properties of the solids. Model results are used to suggest improvements in NDE analyses of the units and improvements in component and material analyses. Model results give trending indications of individual component and overall system changes over time, plus some understanding of the mechanisms involved which allow science-based predictions of the aged state of the units in future times. The NDE, D-test, and model results can also be used to assess statistically the reliability and performance of the overall aging population of units.

  2. Sperm selection and genetic incompatibility: does relatedness of mates affect male success in sperm competition?

    PubMed Central

    Stockley, P.

    1999-01-01

    Sperm selection may be said to occur if females influence the relative success of ejaculates competing to fertilize their ova. Most evidence that female animals or their ova are capable of sperm selection relates to male genetic incompatibility, although relatively few studies focus on competition between conspecific males. Here I look for evidence of sperm selection with respect to relatedness of mates. Reduced fitness or inbreeding effects in offspring resulting from copulations between close relatives are well documented. If females are capable of sperm selection, they might therefore be expected to discriminate against the sperm of sibling males during sperm competition. I describe an experimental protocol designed to test for evidence of sperm selection while controlling for inbreeding effects. Using decorated field crickets (Gryllodes supplicans), I found that sibling males achieved lower fertilization success in competition with a male unrelated to the female than in competition with another sibling more frequently than expected by chance, although the mean paternity values did not differ significantly between treatments. The tendancy for sibling males to achieve relatively lower fertilization success in competition with males unrelated to the female could not be explained by the effects of increased ejaculate allocation, female control of sperm transfer or inbreeding. This study therefore provides some evidence in support of the idea that female insects (or their ova) may be capable of selection against sperm on the basis of genetic similarity of conspecific males.

  3. Molecular genetics, physiology and biology of self-incompatibility in Brassicaceae

    PubMed Central

    WATANABE, Masao; SUWABE, Keita; SUZUKI, Go

    2012-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is defined as the inability to produce zygotes after self-pollination in a fertile hermaphrodite plant, which has stamens and pistils in the same flower. This structural organization of the hermaphrodite flower increases the risk of self-pollination, leading to low genetic diversity. To avoid this problem plants have established several pollination systems, among which the most elegant system is surely SI. The SI trait can be observed in Brassica crops, including cabbage, broccoli, turnip and radish. To produce hybrid seed of these crops efficiently, the SI trait has been employed in an agricultural context. From another point of view, the recognition reaction of SI during pollen-stigma interaction is an excellent model system for cell-cell communication and signal transduction in higher plants. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms of SI in Brassicaceae, which have been dissected by genetic, physiological, and biological approaches, and we discuss the future prospects in relation to associated scientific fields and new technologies. PMID:23229748

  4. ABO-incompatible renal transplantation in developing world - crossing the immunological (and mental) barrier.

    PubMed

    Jha, P K; Bansal, S B; Sethi, S K; Jain, M; Sharma, R; Nandwani, A; Phanish, M K; Duggal, R; Tiwari, A K; Ghosh, P; Ahlawat, R; Kher, V

    2016-01-01

    ABO incompatibility has been considered as an important immunological barrier for renal transplantation. With the advent of effective preconditioning protocols, it is now possible to do renal transplants across ABO barrier. We hereby present a single center retrospective analysis of all consecutive ABOi renal transplants performed from November 2011 to August 2014. Preconditioning protocol consisted of rituximab, plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and maintenance immunosuppression consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate sodium, and prednisolone. The outcome of these ABOi transplants was compared with all other consecutive ABO-compatible (ABOc) renal transplants performed during same time. Twenty ABOi renal transplants were performed during the study period. Anti-blood group antibody titer varied from 1:2 to 1:512. Patient and graft survival was comparable between ABOi and ABOc groups. Biopsy proven acute rejection rate was 15% in ABOi group, which was similar to ABOc group (16.29%). There were no antibody-mediated rejections in ABOi group. The infection rate was also comparable. We conclude that the short-term outcome of ABOi and ABOc transplants is comparable. ABOi transplants should be promoted in developing countries to expand the donor pool. PMID:27051135

  5. Early post-transplant complications following ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Naciri Bennani, Hamza; Abdulrahman, Zhyiar; Allal, Asma; Sallusto, Federico; Delarche, Antoine; Game, Xavier; Esposito, Laure; Doumerc, Nicolas; Debiol, Bénédicte; Kamar, Nassim; Rostaing, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Living-kidney transplantation is increasing because of the scarcity of kidneys from deceased donors and the increasing numbers of patients on waiting lists for a kidney transplant. Living-kidney transplantation is now associated with increased long-term patient- and allograft-survival rates. Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify, in a cohort of 44 ABO-incompatible (ABOi) live-kidney transplant patients, the main complications that occurred within 6 months post-transplantation, and to compare these findings with those from 44 matched ABO-compatible (ABOc) live-kidney transplant patients who were also from our center. Patients and Methods: This single-center retrospective study assessed post-transplantation complications in 44 ABO-i versus 44 matched ABO-c patients. All patients were comparable at baseline except that ABO-i patients had greater immunological risks. Results: During the 6-month post-transplant period, more ABO-i patients presented with postoperative bleeds, thus requiring significantly more blood transfusions. Bleeds were associated with significantly lower values of fibrinogen, platelets, prothrombin time, and hemoglobin levels. Surgical complications, patient- and graft-survival rates, and kidney-function statuses were similar between both groups at 6 months post-transplantation. Conclusions: We conclude that impairment of hemostatic factors at pre-transplant explained the increased risk of a post-transplant bleed in ABO-i patients. PMID:27047806

  6. Docetaxel epimerization in silicone films: a case of drug excipient incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Shaikh; Arellano, Ian Harvey; Choudhury, Namita Roy; Garg, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    Docetaxel (DTX) is an anti-cancer compound derived from 10-deacetyl baccatin III which is indicated for treatment of breast, lung, prostate, gastro-esophageal, and head and neck cancers. Epimerization of DTX at the C-7 hydroxyl position has intrigued chemists and has been implicated in loss of potency, as well as in the development of resistance in tumour cells. For localized controlled delivery of this agent, silicone films were prepared from a commercially available silicone kit. High levels of epimeric degradants were unexpectedly found in the in vitro release media. Herein, we discuss this anomalous DTX degradation to epimeric impurities, and discuss the possible reasons for degradation. Systematic stability studies were performed on the release media and the silicone kit components. It was found that release media and tin-based catalyst present in the silicone kit could be responsible for the epimeric conversion. This unusual case of chemical incompatibility can affect product performance and can even lead to development of resistance in tumour cells towards DTX. PMID:24574150

  7. ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients have a higher bleeding risk after antigen-specific immunoadsorption.

    PubMed

    de Weerd, Annelies E; van Agteren, Madelon; Leebeek, Frank W; Ijzermans, Jan N M; Weimar, Willem; Betjes, Michiel G H

    2015-01-01

    Pretransplant removal of antiblood group ABO antibodies is the cornerstone of all current ABO-incompatible (ABOi) transplantation programmes. In our protocol, plasmapheresis (PP) is performed with a plasmafilter followed by immunoadsorption (IA) of anti-ABO antibodies. The bleeding complications of this technique are not known. We analysed the data of all 65 consecutive ABOi kidney transplantations between March 2006 and October 2013 and compared these with matched 130 ABO-compatible (ABOc) kidney transplantations. Cases differed from controls in the pre-operative regimen, which included IA-PP and rituximab, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, prednisone and immunoglobulines. Data on platelet count, blood loss and red blood cell (EC) transfusions during 48 h postoperatively were collected. ABOi patients received EC transfusions more frequently than controls (29% vs. 12%, P = 0.005). Intra-operative blood loss was higher (544 vs. 355 ml, P < 0.005) and they experienced more major bleeding (≥3 EC within 24 h, 15% vs. 2%, P < 0.0005). Platelet count decreased by 28% after the pre-operative IA. In a multivariate model, only the number of pre-operative IAs was associated with the number of ECs given (OR per IA 1.9, P < 0.05). ABOi kidney transplant recipients have a high postoperative bleeding risk, correlating with the number of pre-operative IA sessions performed. PMID:25070762

  8. Feasible usage of ABO incompatible grafts in living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Soejima, Yuji; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of ABO incompatible (ABOi) graft in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has not been an established procedure worldwide. Methods Four hundred and eight adult LDLTs, using ABOi (n=19) and non-ABOi (n=389) grafts, were performed as a single center experience. Results In ABOi-LDLT group (n=19), median isoagglutinin titer before plasma exchange (PE) at LDLT and after LDLT (max) was ×256, ×32 and ×32, respectively. Rituximab was given at 21.8±6.1 days before LDLT and PE was performed 3.7±1.6 times. Although ABOi-LDLTs had increased rate of splenectomy (89.4% vs. 44.7%, P<0.001) and lower portal venous pressure (PVP) at the end of surgery (13.8±1.1 vs. 16.9±0.2 mmHg, P=0.003), other operative factors including graft ischemic time, operative time and blood loss were not different between the groups. Although ABOi-LDLTs had increased incidence of cytomegalovirus infection (52.6% vs. 22.9%, P=0.007), other post-transplant complications including bacterial sepsis and acute rejection were not different between the groups. The 5-year graft survival rate was 87.9% in ABOi-LDLTs and 80.3% in non-ABOi-LDLTs (P=0.373). Conclusions ABOi-LDLT could be safely performed, especially under rituximab-based protocol. PMID:27115002

  9. Hybrid Incompatibilities, Local Adaptation, and the Genomic Distribution of Natural Introgression between Species.

    PubMed

    Muirhead, Christina A; Presgraves, Daven C

    2016-02-01

    Under allopatric speciation, geographic barriers eliminate gene flow between eventual species at all loci in the genome simultaneously. There is increasing evidence, however, that speciation can be complex, with some loci experiencing gene flow during speciation or during bouts of secondary contact. In taxa with heteromorphic sex chromosomes-birds, butterflies, mammals, and Drosophila-the X (or Z) chromosome generally shows reduced levels of gene flow compared to autosomes. To investigate why, we develop population genetic models of secondary contact and gene flow at a neutral locus that is genetically linked to selected loci involved in hybrid incompatibilities and/or local adaptation. Using models that assume weak migration and strong selection, we compare gene flow at X-linked versus autosomal neutral loci as a function of linkage, dominance, sex-specific selection, and sex-specific recombination. For most cases, gene flow at neutral loci on the X is reduced relative to autosomes, as the greater efficacy of hemizygous selection in XY hybrids reduces the opportunity for neutral migrant alleles to escape their genetically linked, locally disfavored alleles via recombination. There are some circumstances, however, involving sex-limited selection and sex-limited recombination that allow neutral loci on the X to introgress more readily than those on autosomes. PMID:26807751

  10. Hypervariable Domains of Self-Incompatibility RNases Mediate Allele-Specific Pollen Recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Matton, D. P.; Maes, O.; Laublin, G.; Xike, Q.; Bertrand, C.; Morse, D.; Cappadocia, M.

    1997-01-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) in angiosperms is a genetic mechanism that promotes outcrossing through rejection of self-pollen. In the Solanaceae, SI is determined by a multiallelic S locus whose only known product is an S RNase. S RNases show a characteristic pattern of five conserved and two hypervariable regions. These are thought to be involved in the catalytic function and in allelic specificity, respectively. When the Solanum chacoense S12S14 genotype is transformed with an S11 RNase, the styles of plants expressing significant levels of the transgene reject S11 pollen. A previously characterized S RNase, S13, differs from the S11 RNase by only 10 amino acids, four of which are located in the hypervariable regions. When S12S14 plants were transformed with a chimeric S11 gene in which these four residues were substituted with those present in the S13 RNase, the transgenic plants acquired the S13 phenotype. This result demonstrates that the S RNase hypervariable regions control allelic specificity. PMID:12237346

  11. Reverse evolution leads to genotypic incompatibility despite functional and active site convergence

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenbach, Miriam; Jackson, Colin J; Campbell, Eleanor C; Hollfelder, Florian; Tokuriki, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the extent to which enzyme evolution is reversible can shed light on the fundamental relationship between protein sequence, structure, and function. Here, we perform an experimental test of evolutionary reversibility using directed evolution from a phosphotriesterase to an arylesterase, and back, and examine the underlying molecular basis. We find that wild-type phosphotriesterase function could be restored (>104-fold activity increase), but via an alternative set of mutations. The enzyme active site converged towards its original state, indicating evolutionary constraints imposed by catalytic requirements. We reveal that extensive epistasis prevents reversions and necessitates fixation of new mutations, leading to a functionally identical sequence. Many amino acid exchanges between the new and original enzyme are not tolerated, implying sequence incompatibility. Therefore, the evolution was phenotypically reversible but genotypically irreversible. Our study illustrates that the enzyme's adaptive landscape is highly rugged, and different functional sequences may constitute separate fitness peaks. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06492.001 PMID:26274563

  12. Selection of sporophytic and gametophytic self-incompatibility in the absence of a superlocus.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Daniel J; Roda, Megan J

    2016-06-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is a complex trait that enforces outcrossing in plant populations. SI generally involves tight linkage of genes coding for the proteins that underlie self-pollen detection and pollen identity specification. Here, we develop two-locus genetic models to address the question of whether sporophytic SI (SSI) and gametophytic SI (GSI) can invade populations of self-compatible plants when there is no linkage or weak linkage of the underlying pollen detection and identity genes (i.e., no S-locus supergene). The models assume that SI evolves as a result of exaptation of genes formerly involved in functions other than SI. Model analysis reveals that SSI and GSI can invade populations even when the underlying genes are loosely linked, provided that inbreeding depression and selfing rate are sufficiently high. Reducing recombination between these genes makes conditions for invasion more lenient. These results can help account for multiple, independent evolution of SI systems as seems to have occurred in the angiosperms. PMID:27111063

  13. Sustainable Campus: Engaging the Community in Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Too, Linda; Bajracharya, Bhishna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the major factors necessary for engaging university campus community in sustainability. While general awareness in sustainability issues has improved in recent years through mass media coverage, this knowledge is not always translated into actual sustainable practice. Studies have indicated that…

  14. Intentional Communication: Computationally Easy or Difficult?

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, Iris; Kwisthout, Johan; Blokpoel, Mark; Szymanik, Jakub; Wareham, Todd; Toni, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Human intentional communication is marked by its flexibility and context sensitivity. Hypothesized brain mechanisms can provide convincing and complete explanations of the human capacity for intentional communication only insofar as they can match the computational power required for displaying that capacity. It is thus of importance for cognitive neuroscience to know how computationally complex intentional communication actually is. Though the subject of considerable debate, the computational complexity of communication remains so far unknown. In this paper we defend the position that the computational complexity of communication is not a constant, as some views of communication seem to hold, but rather a function of situational factors. We present a methodology for studying and characterizing the computational complexity of communication under different situational constraints. We illustrate our methodology for a model of the problems solved by receivers and senders during a communicative exchange. This approach opens the way to a principled identification of putative model parameters that control cognitive processes supporting intentional communication. PMID:21747765

  15. Changing Physician Behavior With Implementation Intentions: Closing the Gap Between Intentions and Actions.

    PubMed

    Saddawi-Konefka, Daniel; Schumacher, Daniel J; Baker, Keith H; Charnin, Jonathan E; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    In medical education, even well-intentioned learners struggle to change their practice. This intention-action gap is a well-described phenomenon. Strong commitment to changing behaviors is important, but by itself it is only a modest predictor of goal attainment.Implementation intentions are an extensively studied strategy from cognitive psychology that have been shown to close the intention-action gap and increase goal attainment across myriad domains. Implementation intentions are "if-then" plans that specify an anticipated future situation and a planned response-"If I encounter situation X, then I will respond with action Y." They differ from simple goals, which specify only a desired behavior or outcome-"I intend to perform action Z." Despite this subtle difference, they have shown substantial effectiveness over goals alone in increasing goal attainment.In this article, the authors first describe implementation intentions, review the substantial body of evidence demonstrating their effectiveness, and explain the underlying psychological mechanisms. They then illustrate the connections between implementation intentions and established learning theory. The final section focuses on forming effective implementation intentions in medical education. The authors provide concrete examples across the continuum of learners (from medical students to attending physicians) and competencies, and make recommendations for when and how to employ implementation intentions. PMID:27008360

  16. Context-Aware Online Commercial Intention Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Derek Hao; Shen, Dou; Sun, Jian-Tao; Yang, Qiang; Chen, Zheng

    With more and more commercial activities moving onto the Internet, people tend to purchase what they need through Internet or conduct some online research before the actual transactions happen. For many Web users, their online commercial activities start from submitting a search query to search engines. Just like the common Web search queries, the queries with commercial intention are usually very short. Recognizing the queries with commercial intention against the common queries will help search engines provide proper search results and advertisements, help Web users obtain the right information they desire and help the advertisers benefit from the potential transactions. However, the intentions behind a query vary a lot for users with different background and interest. The intentions can even be different for the same user, when the query is issued in different contexts. In this paper, we present a new algorithm framework based on skip-chain conditional random field (SCCRF) for automatically classifying Web queries according to context-based online commercial intention. We analyze our algorithm performance both theoretically and empirically. Extensive experiments on several real search engine log datasets show that our algorithm can improve more than 10% on F1 score than previous algorithms on commercial intention detection.

  17. Linkage mapping of a polymorphic plumage locus associated with intermorph incompatibility in the Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae).

    PubMed

    Kim, K-W; Griffith, S C; Burke, T

    2016-04-01

    Colour polymorphism is known to facilitate speciation but the genetic basis of animal pigmentation and how colour polymorphisms contribute to speciation is poorly understood. Restricted recombination may promote linkage disequilibrium between the colour locus and incompatibility genes. Genomic rearrangement and the position of relevant loci within a chromosome are important factors that influence the frequency of recombination. Therefore, it is important to know the position of the colour locus, gene order and recombination landscape of the chromosome to understand the mechanism that generates incompatibilities between morphs. Recent studies showed remarkable pre- and postzygotic incompatibilities between sympatric colour morphs of the Gouldian finch (Erythrura gouldiae), in which head feather colour is genetically determined by a single sex-linked locus, Red. We constructed a genetic map for the Z chromosome of the Gouldian finch (male-specific map distance=131 cM), using 618 captive-bred birds and 34 microsatellite markers, to investigate the extent of inter- and intraspecific genomic rearrangements and variation in recombination rate within the Z chromosome. We refined the location of the Red locus to a ~7.2-cM interval in a region with a moderate recombination rate but outside the least-recombining, putative centromeric region. There was no evidence of chromosome-wide genomic rearrangements between the chromosomes carrying the red or black alleles with the current marker resolution. This work will contribute to identifying the causal gene, which will in turn enable alternative explanations for the association between incompatibility and colouration, such as fine-scale linkage disequilibrium, genomic rearrangements and pleiotropy, to be tested. PMID:26786066

  18. lon incompatibility associated with mutations causing SOS induction: null uvrD alleles induce an SOS response in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    SaiSree, L; Reddy, M; Gowrishankar, J

    2000-06-01

    The uvrD gene in Escherichia coli encodes a 720-amino-acid 3'-5' DNA helicase which, although nonessential for viability, is required for methyl-directed mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair and furthermore is believed to participate in recombination and DNA replication. We have shown in this study that null mutations in uvrD are incompatible with lon, the incompatibility being a consequence of the chronic induction of SOS in uvrD strains and the resultant accumulation of the cell septation inhibitor SulA (which is a normal target for degradation by Lon protease). uvrD-lon incompatibility was suppressed by sulA, lexA3(Ind(-)), or recA (Def) mutations. Other mutations, such as priA, dam, polA, and dnaQ (mutD) mutations, which lead to persistent SOS induction, were also lon incompatible. SOS induction was not observed in uvrC and mutH (or mutS) mutants defective, respectively, in excision repair and mismatch repair. Nor was uvrD-mediated SOS induction abolished by mutations in genes that affect mismatch repair (mutH), excision repair (uvrC), or recombination (recB and recF). These data suggest that SOS induction in uvrD mutants is not a consequence of defects in these three pathways. We propose that the UvrD helicase participates in DNA replication to unwind secondary structures on the lagging strand immediately behind the progressing replication fork, and that it is the absence of this function which contributes to SOS induction in uvrD strains. PMID:10809694

  19. Current trends in platelet transfusions practice: The role of ABO-RhD and human leukocyte antigen incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Valsami, Serena; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Gialeraki, Argyri; Chimonidou, Maria; Politou, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Platelet transfusions have contributed to the revolutionary modern treatment of hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. Despite the long-term application of platelet transfusion in therapeutics, all aspects of their optimal use (i.e., in cases of ABO and/or Rh (D incompatibility) have not been definitively determined yet. We reviewed the available data on transfusion practices and outcome in ABO and RhD incompatibility and platelet refractoriness due to anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Transfusion of platelets with major ABO-incompatibility is related to reduced posttransfusion platelet (PLT) count increments, compared to ABO-identical and minor, but still are equally effective in preventing clinical bleeding. ABO-minor incompatible transfusions pose the risk of an acute hemolytic reaction of the recipient that is not always related to high anti-A, B donor titers. ABO-identical PLT transfusion seems to be the most effective and safest therapeutic strategy. Exclusive ABO-identical platelet transfusion policy could be feasible, but alternative approaches could facilitate platelet inventory management. Transfusion of platelets from RhD positive donors to RhD negative patients is considered to be effective and safe though is associated with low rate of anti-D alloimmunization due to contaminating red blood cells. The prevention of D alloimmunization is recommended only for women of childbearing age. HLA alloimmunization is a major cause of platelet refractoriness. Managing patients with refractoriness with cross-matched or HLA-matched platelets is the current practice although data are still lacking for the efficacy of this practice in terms of clinical outcome. Leukoreduction contributes to the reduction of both HLA and anti-D alloimmunization. PMID:26420927

  20. Distinct effects of pollinator dependence and self-incompatibility on pollen limitation in South African biodiversity hotspots.

    PubMed

    Rodger, James G; Ellis, Allan G

    2016-06-01

    Global synthesis indicates that limitation of plant fecundity by pollen receipt (pollen limitation) is positively related to regional plant diversity and is higher for self-incompatible than self-compatible species. While self-incompatible species are always dependent on pollinating agents, self-compatible species may be pollinator-dependent or autofertile. This should cause variation in pollen limitation among self-compatible species, with lower pollen limitation in autofertile species because they do not depend on pollinators. We hypothesized that the intensity of pollen limitation in self-incompatible compared with pollinator-dependent self-compatible species should depend on whether pollen limitation is determined more by quantity than quality of pollen received. We compared pollen limitation between these three groups using a dataset of 70 biotically pollinated species from biodiverse regions of South Africa. Comparison with a global dataset indicated that pollen limitation in the South African biodiversity hotspots was generally comparable to other regions, despite expectations of higher pollen limitation based on the global plant diversity-pollen limitation relationship. Pollen limitation was lowest for autofertile species, as expected. It was also higher for pollinator-dependent self-compatible species than self-incompatible species, consistent with increased pollen-quality limitation in the former group due to negative consequences of pollinator-mediated self-pollination. However, there was a higher frequency of plants with zygomorphic flowers, which were also more pollen-limited, among pollinator-dependent self-compatible species. Thus, we could not attribute this difference in pollen limitation exclusively to a difference in pollen quality. Nevertheless, our results indicate that comparative studies should control for both pollinator dependence and self-incompatiblity when evaluating effects of other factors on pollen limitation. PMID:27277954

  1. Current trends in platelet transfusions practice: The role of ABO-RhD and human leukocyte antigen incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Valsami, Serena; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios; Gialeraki, Argyri; Chimonidou, Maria; Politou, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    Platelet transfusions have contributed to the revolutionary modern treatment of hypoproliferative thrombocytopenia. Despite the long-term application of platelet transfusion in therapeutics, all aspects of their optimal use (i.e., in cases of ABO and/or Rh (D incompatibility) have not been definitively determined yet. We reviewed the available data on transfusion practices and outcome in ABO and RhD incompatibility and platelet refractoriness due to anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Transfusion of platelets with major ABO-incompatibility is related to reduced posttransfusion platelet (PLT) count increments, compared to ABO-identical and minor, but still are equally effective in preventing clinical bleeding. ABO-minor incompatible transfusions pose the risk of an acute hemolytic reaction of the recipient that is not always related to high anti-A, B donor titers. ABO-identical PLT transfusion seems to be the most effective and safest therapeutic strategy. Exclusive ABO-identical platelet transfusion policy could be feasible, but alternative approaches could facilitate platelet inventory management. Transfusion of platelets from RhD positive donors to RhD negative patients is considered to be effective and safe though is associated with low rate of anti-D alloimmunization due to contaminating red blood cells. The prevention of D alloimmunization is recommended only for women of childbearing age. HLA alloimmunization is a major cause of platelet refractoriness. Managing patients with refractoriness with cross-matched or HLA-matched platelets is the current practice although data are still lacking for the efficacy of this practice in terms of clinical outcome. Leukoreduction contributes to the reduction of both HLA and anti-D alloimmunization. PMID:26420927

  2. Dynamics of Melting and Melt Migration as Inferred from Incompatible Trace Element Abundance in Abyssal Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Q.; Liang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    To better understand the melting processes beneath the mid-ocean ridge, we developed a simple model for trace element fractionation during concurrent melting and melt migration in an upwelling steady-state mantle column. Based on petrologic considerations, we divided the upwelling mantle into two regions: a double- lithology upper region where high permeability dunite channels are embedded in a lherzolite/harzburgite matrix, and a single-lithology lower region that consists of partially molten lherzolite. Melt generated in the single lithology region migrates upward through grain-scale diffuse porous flow, whereas melt in the lherzolite/harzburgite matrix in the double-lithology region is allowed to flow both vertically through the overlying matrix and horizontally into its neighboring dunite channels. There are three key dynamic parameters in our model: degree of melting experienced by the single lithology column (Fd), degree of melting experienced by the double lithology column (F), and a dimensionless melt suction rate (R) that measures the accumulated rate of melt extraction from the matrix to the channel relative to the accumulated rate of matrix melting. In terms of trace element fractionation, upwelling and melting in the single lithology column is equivalent to non-modal batch melting (R = 0), whereas melting and melt migration in the double lithology region is equivalent to a nonlinear combination of non-modal batch and fractional melting (0 < R < 1). Given the nonlinear nature of the melting model and uncertainties in trace element data for the abyssal peridotite, we showed, with the help of Monte Carlo simulations, that it is difficult to invert for all three dynamic parameters from a set of incompatible trace element data with confidence. However, given Fd, it is quite possible to constrain F and R from incompatible trace element abundances in residual peridotite. As an illustrative example, we used the simple melting model developed in this study and

  3. Development of the Work Intention Inventory Short-Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimon, Kim; Zigarmi, Drea

    2015-01-01

    The Work Intention Inventory (WII: Zigarmi, Nimon, Houson, Witt, & Diehl, 2012) was designed to assess five measures of work intention. Measuring employee intentions is important to consider when evaluating outcomes associated with employee engagement or work passion as research indicates intentions are strong predictors of behavior. Following…

  4. Quantitative and Microscopic Assessment of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions between Chickpea Cultivars and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris Races

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Fernández, Daniel; Landa, Blanca B.; Kang, Seogchan; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M.; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, a main threat to global chickpea production, is managed mainly by resistant cultivars whose efficiency is curtailed by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races. Methodology We characterized compatible and incompatible interactions by assessing the spatial-temporal pattern of infection and colonization of chickpea cvs. P-2245, JG-62 and WR-315 by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races 0 and 5 labeled with ZsGreen fluorescent protein using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Findings The two races colonized the host root surface in both interactions with preferential colonization of the root apex and subapical root zone. In compatible interactions, the pathogen grew intercellularly in the root cortex, reached the xylem, and progressed upwards in the stem xylem, being the rate and intensity of stem colonization directly related with the degree of compatibility among Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races and chickpea cultivars. In incompatible interactions, race 0 invaded and colonized ‘JG-62’ xylem vessels of root and stem but in ‘WR-315’, it remained in the intercellular spaces of the root cortex failing to reach the xylem, whereas race 5 progressed up to the hypocotyl. However, all incompatible interactions were asymptomatic. Conclusions The differential patterns of colonization of chickpea cultivars by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris races may be related to the operation of multiple resistance mechanisms. PMID:23613839

  5. Antibody-mediated rejection after ABO-incompatible pediatric living donor liver transplantation for propionic acidemia: A case report.

    PubMed

    Honda, Masaki; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Sakamoto, Rieko; Matsumoto, Shirou; Irie, Tomoaki; Uchida, Koushi; Shimata, Keita; Kawabata, Seiichi; Isono, Kaori; Hayashida, Shintaro; Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Endo, Fumio; Inomata, Yukihiro

    2016-09-01

    We herein present the case of a four-yr-old boy with PA who developed AMR after ABO-incompatible LDLT despite undergoing B cell desensitization using rituximab. Although the CD19+ lymphocyte count decreased to 0.1% nine days after the administration of rituximab, he developed a high fever which was accompanied by arthralgia due to a streptococcal infection 13 days after rituximab prophylaxis. After the clearance of the infection, he underwent ABO-incompatible LDLT 36 days after the administration of rituximab. The CD19+ lymphocyte count just prior to LDLT was 1.2%. He developed AMR five days after LDLT, and the antidonor-type IgM and IgG antibody titers increased to 1:1024 and 1:1024, respectively. He was treated by plasma exchange, IVIG, steroid pulse therapy, and rituximab re-administration; however, his liver dysfunction continued. Despite intensive treatment, he died due to complicated abdominal hernia, acute renal failure, and ARDS. This case suggests that a streptococcal infection may induce the activation of innate immune responses; thus, additional desensitization therapy should be considered prior to ABO-incompatible LDLT if B cell reactivation is suspected. PMID:27436684

  6. The role of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in programmed cell death associated with self-incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Irene; Romero-Puertas, María C; Sandalio, Luisa M; Olmedilla, Adela

    2015-05-01

    Successful sexual reproduction often relies on the ability of plants to recognize self- or genetically-related pollen and prevent pollen tube growth soon after germination in order to avoid self-fertilization. Angiosperms have developed different reproductive barriers, one of the most extended being self-incompatibility (SI). With SI, pistils are able to reject self or genetically-related pollen thus promoting genetic variability. There are basically two distinct systems of SI: gametophytic (GSI) and sporophytic (SSI) based on their different molecular and genetic control mechanisms. In both types of SI, programmed cell death (PCD) has been found to play an important role in the rejection of self-incompatible pollen. Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) were initially recognized as toxic metabolic products, in recent years, a new role for ROS has become apparent: the control and regulation of biological processes such as growth, development, response to biotic and abiotic environmental stimuli, and PCD. Together with ROS, nitric oxide (NO) has become recognized as a key regulator of PCD. PCD is an important mechanism for the controlled elimination of targeted cells in both animals and plants. The major focus of this review is to discuss how ROS and NO control male-female cross-talk during fertilization in order to trigger PCD in self-incompatible pollen, providing a highly effective way to prevent self-fertilization. PMID:25750430

  7. Segregation distortion of T-DNA markers linked to the self-incompatibility (S) locus in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed Central

    Harbord, R M; Napoli, C A; Robbins, T P

    2000-01-01

    In plants with a gametophytic self-incompatibility system the specificity of the pollen is determined by the haploid genotype at the self-incompatibility (S) locus. In certain crosses this can lead to the exclusion of half the gametes from the male parent carrying a particular S-allele. This leads to pronounced segregation distortion for any genetic markers that are linked to the S-locus. We have used this approach to identify T-DNA insertions carrying a maize transposable element that are linked to the S-locus of Petunia hybrida. A total of 83 T-DNA insertions were tested for segregation distortion of the selectable marker used during transformation with Agrobacterium. Segregation distortion was observed for 12 T-DNA insertions and at least 8 of these were shown to be in the same linkage group by intercrossing. This indicates that differential transmission of a single locus (S) is probably responsible for all of these examples of T-DNA segregation distortion. The identification of selectable markers in coupling with a functional S-allele will allow the preselection of recombination events around the S-locus in petunia. Our approach provides a general method for identifying transgenes that are linked to gametophytic self-incompatibility loci and provides an opportunity for transposon tagging of the petunia S-locus. PMID:10757773

  8. Brownian dynamics simulation study on the self-assembly of incompatible star-like block copolymers in dilute solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Zhu, You-Liang; Liu, Hong; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2012-04-14

    We study the self-assembly of symmetric star-like block copolymers (A(x))(y)(B(x))(y)C in dilute solution by using Brownian dynamics simulations. In the star-like block copolymer, incompatible A and B components are both solvophobic, and connected to the center bead C of the polymer. Therefore, this star-like block copolymer can be taken as a representative of soft and deformable Janus particles. In our Brownian dynamics simulations, these "soft Janus particles" are found to self-assemble into worm-like lamellar structures, loose aggregates and so on. By systematically varying solvent conditions and temperature, we build up the phase diagram to illustrate the effects of polymer structure and temperature on the aggregate structures. At lower temperatures, we can observe large worm-like lamellar aggregates. Upon increasing the temperature, some block copolymers detach from the aggregate; this phenomenon is especially sensitive for the polymers with less arms. The aggregate structure will be quite disordered when the temperature is high. The incompatibility between the two parts in the star-like block copolymer also affects the self-assembled structures. We find that the worm-like structure is longer and narrower as the incompatibility between the two parts is stronger. PMID:22395808

  9. The role of Wolbachia bacteria in reproductive incompatibilities and hybrid zones of Diabrotica beetles and Gryllus crickets.

    PubMed

    Giordano, R; Jackson, J J; Robertson, H M

    1997-10-14

    A rickettsial bacterium in the genus Wolbachia is the cause of a unidirectional reproductive incompatibility observed between two major beetle pests of maize, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and the Mexican corn rootworm, D. v. zeae. These subspecies are allopatric except for two known regions of sympatry in Texas and Mexico. We demonstrate that populations of D. v. virgifera, with the exception of two populations in southern Arizona, are infected with a strain of Wolbachia. Populations of D. v. zeae are not infected. Treatment of D. v. virgifera with tetracycline eliminated the Wolbachia and removed the reproductive incompatibility. Similar patterns of reproductive incompatibility exist among taxa of the cricket genus Gryllus. Gryllus assimilis, G. integer, G. ovisopis, G. pennsylvanicus, and G. rubens are infected with Wolbachia whereas G. firmus is usually not. Populations of G. rubens and G. ovisopis carry the same Wolbachia strain, which is distinct from that of G. integer. G. pennsylvanicus is infected with two Wolbachia strains, that found in G. rubens and one unique to G. pennsylvanicus. Moreover, a proportion of G. pennsylvanicus individuals harbors both strains. Wolbachia may have influenced speciation in some members of the genus Gryllus by affecting the degree of hybridization between species. Given that Wolbachia infections are relatively common in insects, it is likely that other insect hybrid zones may be influenced by infections with Wolbachia. PMID:9326628

  10. The role of Wolbachia bacteria in reproductive incompatibilities and hybrid zones of Diabrotica beetles and Gryllus crickets

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Rosanna; Jackson, Jan J.; Robertson, Hugh M.

    1997-01-01

    A rickettsial bacterium in the genus Wolbachia is the cause of a unidirectional reproductive incompatibility observed between two major beetle pests of maize, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and the Mexican corn rootworm, D. v. zeae. These subspecies are allopatric except for two known regions of sympatry in Texas and Mexico. We demonstrate that populations of D. v. virgifera, with the exception of two populations in southern Arizona, are infected with a strain of Wolbachia. Populations of D. v. zeae are not infected. Treatment of D. v. virgifera with tetracycline eliminated the Wolbachia and removed the reproductive incompatibility. Similar patterns of reproductive incompatibility exist among taxa of the cricket genus Gryllus. Gryllus assimilis, G. integer, G. ovisopis, G. pennsylvanicus, and G. rubens are infected with Wolbachia whereas G. firmus is usually not. Populations of G. rubens and G. ovisopis carry the same Wolbachia strain, which is distinct from that of G. integer. G. pennsylvanicus is infected with two Wolbachia strains, that found in G. rubens and one unique to G. pennsylvanicus. Moreover, a proportion of G. pennsylvanicus individuals harbors both strains. Wolbachia may have influenced speciation in some members of the genus Gryllus by affecting the degree of hybridization between species. Given that Wolbachia infections are relatively common in insects, it is likely that other insect hybrid zones may be influenced by infections with Wolbachia. PMID:9326628

  11. Physiological and genetic analysis of CO2-induced breakdown of self-incompatibility in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Lao, Xintian; Suwabe, Keita; Niikura, Satoshi; Kakita, Mitsuru; Iwano, Megumi; Takayama, Seiji

    2014-03-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) of the Brassicaceae family can be overcome by CO2 gas treatment. This method has been used for decades as an effective means to obtain a large amount of inbred seeds which can then be used for F1 hybrid seed production; however, the molecular mechanism by which CO2 alters the SI pathway has not been elucidated. In this study, to obtain new insights into the mechanism of CO2-induced SI breakdown, the focus was on two inbred lines of Brassica rapa (syn. campestris) with different CO2 sensitivity. Physiological examination using X-ray microanalysis suggested that SI breakdown in the CO2-sensitive line was accompanied by a significant accumulation of calcium at the pollen-stigma interface. Pre-treatment of pollen or pistil with CO2 gas before pollination showed no effect on the SI reaction, suggesting that some physiological process after pollination is necessary for SI to be overcome. Genetic analyses using F1 progeny of a CO2-sensitive × CO2-insensitive cross suggested that CO2 sensitivity is a semi-dominant trait in these lines. Analysis of F2 progeny suggested that CO2 sensitivity could be a quantitative trait, which is controlled by more than one gene. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses identified two major loci, BrSIO1 and BrSIO2, which work additively in overcoming SI during CO2 treatment. No QTL was detected at the loci previously shown to affect SI stability, suggesting that CO2 sensitivity is determined by novel genes. The QTL data presented here should be useful for determining the responsible genes, and for the marker-assisted selection of desirable parental lines with stable but CO2-sensitive SI in F1 hybrid breeding. PMID:24376255

  12. A field theory of distortion incompatibility for coupled fracture and plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fressengeas, Claude; Taupin, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    The displacement discontinuity arising between the crack surfaces is assigned to smooth areal/tensorial densities of crystal defects referred to as disconnections, through the incompatibility of the continuous distortion tensor. In a dual way, the disconnections are defined as line defects terminating surfaces where the displacement encounters a discontinuity. A conservation argument for their strength (the crack opening displacement) provides a natural framework for their dynamics in the form of a transport law for the disconnection densities. Similar methodology is applied to the discontinuity of the plastic displacement arising from the presence of dislocations in the body, which results in the concurrent involvement of the dislocation density tensor in the analysis. The present model can therefore be viewed as an extension of the mechanics of dislocation fields to the case where continuity of the body is disrupted by cracks. From the continuity of the elastic distortion tensor, it is expected that the stress field remains bounded everywhere in the body, including at the crack tip. Thermodynamic arguments provide the driving forces for disconnection and dislocation motion, and guidance for the formulation of constitutive relationships insuring non-negative dissipation. The conventional Peach-Koehler force on dislocations is retrieved in the analysis, and a Peach-Koehler-type force on disconnections is defined. A threshold in the disconnection driving force vs. disconnection velocity constitutive relationship provides for a Griffith-type fracture criterion. Application of the theory to the slit-crack (Griffith-Inglis crack) in elastic and elasto-plastic solids through finite element modeling shows that it allows recovering earlier results on the stress field around cracks, and that crack propagation can be consistently described by the transport scheme. Shielding/anti-shielding of cracks by dislocations is considered to illustrate the static/dynamic interactions

  13. Sources of variation in self-incompatibility in the Australian forest tree, Eucalyptus globulus

    PubMed Central

    McGowen, Marian H.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Pilbeam, David J.; Potts, Brad M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims One of the major factors affecting the outcrossing rate in Eucalyptus globulus is thought to be the inherent self-incompatibility (SI) level of the female tree. SI in this species is mainly due to late-acting pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms operating in the ovary, and not S alleles. This study aimed to assess the phenotypic variation in SI levels within E. globulus and determine its genetic control and stability across pollination techniques, sites and seasons. Methods SI levels were estimated for 105 genotypes originating from across the geographical range of E. globulus over multiple years of crossing. Separate grafted trees of some genotypes growing at the same and different sites allowed the genetic basis of the variation in SI to be tested and its stability across sites and seasons to be determined. The SI level of a tree was measured as the relative reduction in seeds obtained per flower pollinated following selfing compared with outcross pollinations. Thus, if seed set is the same, SI is 0 %, and if no self seed is set, SI is 100 %. Key Results The average SI in E. globulus was 91 % and genotypes ranged from 8 to 100 % SI. Most genotypes (>75 %) had SI levels >90 %. There were highly significant differences between genotypes and the within-site broad-sense heritability of percentage SI was high (H2 = 0·80 ± 0·13). However, there was evidence that growing site, and to a lesser extent season, can affect the expression of SI levels. Trees with low reproductive loads produced relatively more seed from selfed flowers. Conclusions There is a strong genetic basis to the phenotypic variation in SI in E. globulus within a site. However, the level of SI was affected, but to a lesser extent, by the environment, which in part may reflect the higher probability of selfed zygotes surviving on sites or in seasons where competition for resources is less. PMID:20228085

  14. Further insight into reproductive incompatibility between putative cryptic species of the Bemisia tabaci whitefly complex.

    PubMed

    Qin, Li; Pan, Li-Long; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), with its global distribution and extensive genetic diversity, is now known to be a complex of over 35 cryptic species. However, a satisfactory resolution of the systematics of this species complex is yet to be achieved. Here, we designed experiments to examine reproductive compatibility among species with different levels of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) divergence. The data show that putative species with mtCOI divergence of >8% between them consistently exhibited complete reproductive isolation. However, two of the putative species, Asia II 9 and Asia II 3, with mtCOI divergence of 4.47% between them, exhibited near complete reproductive compatibility in one direction of their cross, and partial reproductive compatibility in the other direction. Together with some recent reports on this topic from the literature, our data indicates that, while divergence in the mtCOI sequences provides a valid molecular marker for species delimitation in most clades, more genetic markers and more sophisticated molecular phylogeny will be required to achieve adequate delimitation of all species in this whitefly complex. While many attempts have been made to examine the reproductive compatibility among genetic groups of the B. tabaci complex, our study represents the first effort to conduct crossing experiments with putative species that were chosen with considerations of their genetic divergence. In light of the new data, we discuss the best strategy and protocols to conduct further molecular phylogenetic analysis and crossing trials, in order to reveal the overall pattern of reproductive incompatibility among species of this whitefly complex. PMID:27001484

  15. Explanatory Pluralism and the (Dis)Unity of Science: The Argument from Incompatible Counterfactual Consequences.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Victor

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between different sciences or research approaches that deal with the same phenomena, for instance, with the phenomena of the human mind? Answers to this question range from a monist perspective according to which one of these approaches is privileged over the others, through an integrationist perspective according to which they must strive to form a unity greater than the sum of its parts, to an isolationist perspective according to which each of them has its own autonomous sphere of validity. In order to assess these perspectives in this article, I discuss the debates about the unity of science and about explanatory pluralism. The most pressing issue turns out to be the choice between the integrative and the isolationist perspective: the question is whether the integrative tendencies in science should be fully indulged in or whether they should be held in check by acknowledging that a certain amount of isolation is necessary. I argue that the issue can be further distilled into the question of whether two true explanations of the same fact can ever fail to be combinable into one single explanation. I show that this can indeed be the case, namely, when the explanations have incompatible counterfactual consequences, something that is often the case when we try to combine explanations from different sciences or research approaches. These approaches thus embody perspectives on the world that are to a certain extent autonomous. This leads to the conclusion that although interdisciplinarity may have many advantages, we should not take the project of integration too far. At the end of the day, the different research approaches with their different perspectives and insights must remain precisely that: different and somewhat disunified. PMID:27014099

  16. Incompatibilities of lornoxicam with 4 antiemetic medications in polyolefin bags during simulated intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bao-Xia; Li, Peng; Shi, Xiao-Ya; Chen, Fu-Chao; Wang, Lin-Hai

    2016-06-01

    The administration of drugs by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is routinely practiced for the management of postoperative pain. It is common for 2 or more drugs to be combined in PCA solutions. The combination of analgesics and antiemetic agents is frequently required. Unfortunately, the compatibility and stability of lornoxicam and antiemetic agents, such as droperidol, ondansetrone, granisetron, and tropisetron, has not been determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility and stability of solutions containing lornoxicam with the 4 antiemetic agents in combination for PCA administration.In our study, test samples were prepared in triplicate by adding 40 mg lornoxicam and 5 mg droperidol, 8 mg ondansetron, 6 mg granisetron, or 5 mg tropisetron to 100-mL polyolefin bags of sodium chloride 0.9% and stored at 25 °C. The analgesic mixture samples were visually inspected for precipitation, cloudiness, and discoloration at each sampling interval. Drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis.No loss of lornoxicam occurred with any of the 4 antiemetic agents tested for up to 48 hours. However, the contents of droperidol, ondansetron, granisetron, and tropisetron were significant loss >48 hours. After storage of 4.0 to 48.0 hours, the presence of a slight precipitate was observed in all the injection combinations.The results indicate that combinations of lornoxicam with droperidol, ondansetrone, granisetron, or tropisetron in infusion solution during simulated intravenous PCA administration were incompatibility when stored protected from light at 25 °C. PMID:27336868

  17. Incompatibilities of lornoxicam with 4 antiemetic medications in polyolefin bags during simulated intravenous administration

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Bao-xia; Li, Peng; Shi, Xiao-ya; Chen, Fu-chao; Wang, Lin-hai

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The administration of drugs by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is routinely practiced for the management of postoperative pain. It is common for 2 or more drugs to be combined in PCA solutions. The combination of analgesics and antiemetic agents is frequently required. Unfortunately, the compatibility and stability of lornoxicam and antiemetic agents, such as droperidol, ondansetrone, granisetron, and tropisetron, has not been determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility and stability of solutions containing lornoxicam with the 4 antiemetic agents in combination for PCA administration. In our study, test samples were prepared in triplicate by adding 40 mg lornoxicam and 5 mg droperidol, 8 mg ondansetron, 6 mg granisetron, or 5 mg tropisetron to 100-mL polyolefin bags of sodium chloride 0.9% and stored at 25 °C. The analgesic mixture samples were visually inspected for precipitation, cloudiness, and discoloration at each sampling interval. Drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis. No loss of lornoxicam occurred with any of the 4 antiemetic agents tested for up to 48 hours. However, the contents of droperidol, ondansetron, granisetron, and tropisetron were significant loss >48 hours. After storage of 4.0 to 48.0 hours, the presence of a slight precipitate was observed in all the injection combinations. The results indicate that combinations of lornoxicam with droperidol, ondansetrone, granisetron, or tropisetron in infusion solution during simulated intravenous PCA administration were incompatibility when stored protected from light at 25 °C. PMID:27336868

  18. Post column derivatisation analyses review. Is post-column derivatisation incompatible with modern HPLC columns?

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew; Pravadali-Cekic, Sercan; Dennis, Gary R; Shalliker, R Andrew

    2015-08-19

    Post Column derivatisation (PCD) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance liquid chromatography is a powerful tool in the modern analytical laboratory, or at least it should be. One drawback with PCD techniques is the extra post-column dead volume due to reaction coils used to enable adequate reaction time and the mixing of reagents which causes peak broadening, hence a loss of separation power. This loss of efficiency is counter-productive to modern HPLC technologies, -such as UHPLC. We reviewed 87 PCD methods published from 2009 to 2014. We restricted our review to methods published between 2009 and 2014, because we were interested in the uptake of PCD methods in UHPLC environments. Our review focused on a range of system parameters including: column dimensions, stationary phase and particle size, as well as the geometry of the reaction loop. The most commonly used column in the methods investigated was not in fact a modern UHPLC version with sub-2-micron, (or even sub-3-micron) particles, but rather, work-house columns, such as, 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. columns packed with 5 μm C18 particles. Reaction loops were varied, even within the same type of analysis, but the majority of methods employed loop systems with volumes greater than 500 μL. A second part of this review illustrated briefly the effect of dead volume on column performance. The experiment evaluated the change in resolution and separation efficiency of some weak to moderately retained solutes on a 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. column packed with 5 μm particles. The data showed that reaction loops beyond 100 μL resulted in a very serious loss of performance. Our study concluded that practitioners of PCD methods largely avoid the use of UHPLC-type column formats, so yes, very much, PCD is incompatible with the modern HPLC column. PMID:26343427

  19. Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome diagnosed four years after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Keiko; Kawanishi, Kunio; Sato, Masayo; Itabashi, Mitsuyo; Fujii, Akiko; Kanetsuna, Yukiko; Huchinoue, Shouhei; Ohashi, Ryuji; Koike, Junki; Honda, Kazuho; Nagashima, Yoji; Nitta, Kosaku

    2015-07-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) in allograft kidney transplantation is caused by various factors including rejection, infection, and immunosuppressive drugs. We present a case of a 32 year old woman with aHUS four years after an ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation from a living relative. The primary cause of end-stage renal disease was unknown; however, IgA nephropathy (IgAN) was suspected from her clinical course. She underwent pre-emptive kidney transplantation from her 60 year old mother. The allograft preserved good renal function [serum creatinine (sCr) level 110-130 μmol/L] until a sudden attack of abdominal pain four years after transplant, with acute renal failure (sCr level, 385.3 μmol/L), decreasing platelet count, and hemolytic anemia with schizocytes. On allograft biopsy, there was thrombotic microangiopathy in the glomeruli, with a cellular crescent formation and mesangial IgA and C3 deposition. Microvascular inflammation, such as glomerulitis, peritubular capillaritis, and arteriole endarteritis were also detected. A disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs 13 (ADAMTS13) did not decrease and Shiga toxin was not detected. Donor-specific antibodies or autoantibodies, including anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody and anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody, were negative. The patient was diagnosed with aHUS and received three sessions of plasmapheresis and methylprednisolone pulse therapy, followed by oral methylprednisolone (0.25-0.5 mg/kg) instead of tacrolimus. She temporarily required hemodialysis (sCr level, 658.3 μmol/L). Thereafter, her sCr level improved to 284.5 μmol/L without dialysis therapy. This case is clinically considered as aHUS after kidney transplantation, associated with various factors, including rejection, glomerulonephritis, and toxicity from drugs such as tacrolimus. PMID:26031589

  20. Explanatory Pluralism and the (Dis)Unity of Science: The Argument from Incompatible Counterfactual Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Gijsbers, Victor

    2016-01-01

    What is the relationship between different sciences or research approaches that deal with the same phenomena, for instance, with the phenomena of the human mind? Answers to this question range from a monist perspective according to which one of these approaches is privileged over the others, through an integrationist perspective according to which they must strive to form a unity greater than the sum of its parts, to an isolationist perspective according to which each of them has its own autonomous sphere of validity. In order to assess these perspectives in this article, I discuss the debates about the unity of science and about explanatory pluralism. The most pressing issue turns out to be the choice between the integrative and the isolationist perspective: the question is whether the integrative tendencies in science should be fully indulged in or whether they should be held in check by acknowledging that a certain amount of isolation is necessary. I argue that the issue can be further distilled into the question of whether two true explanations of the same fact can ever fail to be combinable into one single explanation. I show that this can indeed be the case, namely, when the explanations have incompatible counterfactual consequences, something that is often the case when we try to combine explanations from different sciences or research approaches. These approaches thus embody perspectives on the world that are to a certain extent autonomous. This leads to the conclusion that although interdisciplinarity may have many advantages, we should not take the project of integration too far. At the end of the day, the different research approaches with their different perspectives and insights must remain precisely that: different and somewhat disunified. PMID:27014099

  1. Deep venous thrombosis: The valve cusp hypoxia thesis and its incompatibility with modern orthodoxy.

    PubMed

    Malone, P Colm; Agutter, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    The valve cusp hypoxia thesis (VCHT) of the aetiology of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was adumbrated in this journal in 1977 and fully articulated in 2008, the original hypothesis having been strongly corroborated by experiments published in 1981 and 1984. It presents a unitary account of the pathogenesis of venous thrombosis and embolism that is rooted in the pathophysiological tradition of Hunter, Virchow, Lister, Welch and Aschoff, a tradition traceable back to Harvey. In this paper we summarise the thesis in its mature form, consider its compatibility with recent advances in the DVT field, and ask why it has not yet been assimilated into the mainstream literature, which during the past half century has been dominated by a haematology-orientated 'consensus model'. We identify and discuss seven ways in which the VCHT is incompatible with these mainstream beliefs about the aetiology of venous thrombosis, drawing attention to: (1) the spurious nature of 'Virchow's triad'; (2) the crucial differences between 'venous thrombus' and 'clot'; the facts that (3) venous thrombi form in the valve pockets (VVPs), (4) DVT is not a primarily haematological condition, (5) the so-called 'thrombophilias' are not thrombogenic per se; (6) the conflict between the single unitary aetiology of DVT and the tacit assumption that the condition is 'multicausal'; (7) the inability of anticoagulants to prevent the initiation of venous thrombogenesis, though they do prevent the growth of thrombi to clinically significant size. In discussing point (7), we show that the VCHT indicates new approaches to mechanical prophylaxis against DVT. These approaches are then formulated as experimentally testable hypotheses, and we suggest methods for testing them preclinically using animal trials. PMID:26804599

  2. Outcome after Desensitization in HLA or ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kauke, Teresa; Klimaschewski, Sandra; Schoenermarck, Ulf; Fischereder, Michael; Dick, Andrea; Guba, Markus; Stangl, Manfred; Werner, Jens; Meiser, Bruno; Habicht, Antje

    2016-01-01

    Background The shortage of deceased donors led to an increase of living donor kidney (LDK) transplantations performed in the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) or ABO incompatibility (ABOi) using various desensitization protocols. Methods We herein analyzed 26 ABOi and 8 Luminex positive DSA patients who were successfully desensitized by anti-CD20, antigen-specific immunoadsorption and/or plasmapheresis to receive an LDK transplant. Twenty LDK recipients with non-donor-specific HLA-antibodies (low risk) and 32 without anti-HLA antibodies (no risk) served as control groups. Results 1-year graft survival rate and renal function was similar in all 4 groups (creatinine: 1.63 ± 0.5 vs 1.78 ± 0.6 vs 1.64 ± 0.5 vs 1.6 ± 0.3 mg/dl in ABOi, DSA, low risk and no risk group). The incidence of acute T-cell mediated rejections did not differ between the 4 groups (15% vs 12, 5% vs 15% vs 22% in ABOi, DSA, low risk and no risk), while antibody-mediated rejections were only found in the DSA (25%) and ABOi (7.5%) groups. Incidence of BK nephropathy (BKVN) was significantly more frequent after desensitization as compared to controls (5/34 vs 0/52, p = 0.03). Conclusion We demonstrate favorable short-term allograft outcome in LDK transplant recipients after desensitization. However, the desensitization was associated with an increased risk of BKVN. PMID:26730981

  3. SNAPSHOT: A MODERN, SUSTAINABLE HOLDUP MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Nathan C; Younkin, James R; Smith, Steven E; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Dunn, Michael E; Stewart, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    SNAPSHOT is a software platform designed to eventually replace Holdup Measurement System 4 (HMS 4), which is the current state-of-the-art for acquisition and analysis of nondestructive assay measurement data for in situ nuclear materials, holdup, in support of criticality safety and material control and accounting. HMS 4 is over 10 years old and is currently unsustainable due to hardware and software incompatibilities that have arisen from advances in detector electronics, primarily updates to multi-channel analyzers (MCAs), and both computer and handheld operating systems. SNAPSHOT is a complete redesign of HMS 4 that addresses the issue of compatibility with modern MCAs and operating systems and that is designed with a flexible architecture to support long-term sustainability. It also provides an updated and more user friendly interface and is being developed under an NQA 1 software quality assurance (SQA) program to facilitate site acceptance for safety-related applications. This paper provides an overview of the SNAPSHOT project including details of the software development process, the SQA program, and the architecture designed to support sustainability.

  4. 2010 Campus Sustainability Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    With this review of campus sustainability efforts in 2010, the editors aim to give readers--those who are often immersed in the day-to-day particulars of sustainability efforts--the same chance to take a step back and take a broader look at where they stand with sustainability in higher education. This inaugural 2010 Campus Sustainability Review…

  5. Organizing for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William M.; Hamburger, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    A successful campus sustainability effort catalyzes broad engagement of the campus community and integration of sustainability principles into the academic and operational components of campus life. Although many universities have embraced sustainability as a new core value, others have been more sluggish in adopting sustainability principles to…

  6. SUSTAINABILITY AND COMPLEX SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The important question in sustainability is not whether the world is sustainable, but whether a humanly acceptable regime of the world is sustainable. World commission on environment and development defines sustainability as ‘development that meets the needs of the present withou...

  7. Sustaining Writing Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Amy M.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines ways in which the fundamentals of both writing studies and sustainability studies overlap and complement each other, ultimately moving toward a theory of writing that not only is sustainable, but that also sustains writing practice across a variety of areas. For example, in order to be sustainable, both writing and…

  8. Breakdown of Self-Incompatibility in a Natural Population of Petunia axillaris Caused by Loss of Pollen Function1

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Ando, Toshio; Takahashi, Koichi; Omori, Takahiro; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Kokubun, Hisashi; Marchesi, Eduardo; Kao, Teh-hui

    2003-01-01

    Although Petunia axillaris subsp. axillaris is described as a self-incompatible taxon, some of the natural populations we have identified in Uruguay are composed of both self-incompatible and self-compatible plants. Here, we studied the self-incompatibility (SI) behavior of 50 plants derived from such a mixed population, designated U83, and examined the cause of the breakdown of SI. Thirteen plants were found to be self-incompatible, and the other 37 were found to be self-compatible. A total of 14 S-haplotypes were represented in these 50 plants, including two that we had previously identified from another mixed population, designated U1. All the 37 self-compatible plants carried either an SC1- or an SC2-haplotype. SC1SC1 and SC2SC2 homozygotes were generated by self-pollination of two of the self-compatible plants, and they were reciprocally crossed with 40 self-incompatible S-homozygotes (S1S1 through S40S40) generated from plants identified from three mixed populations, including U83. The SC1SC1 homozygote was reciprocally compatible with all the genotypes examined. The SC2SC2 homozygote accepted pollen from all but the S17S17 homozygote (identified from the U1 population), but the S17S17 homozygote accepted pollen from the SC2SC2 homozygote. cDNAs encoding SC2- and S17-RNases were cloned and sequenced, and their nucleotide sequences were completely identical. Analysis of bud-selfed progeny of heterozygotes carrying SC1 or SC2 showed that the SI behavior of SC1 and SC2 was identical to that of SC1 and SC2 homozygotes, respectively. All these results taken together suggested that the SC2-haplotype was a mutant form of the S17-haplotype, with the defect lying in the pollen function. The possible nature of the mutation is discussed. PMID:12692349

  9. Bridging the Gap between Intentions and Behavior: Implementation Intentions, Action Control, and Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.; Taris, Toon W.; van der Flier, Henk; Blonk, Roland W. B.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior, the antecedents of intentions are better understood than the antecedents of behavior. The current study aimed to improve the understanding of the transition from intentions to behavior. Based on the work of Gollwitzer (1993), Kuhl and Beckmann (1994), and Lay (1986) we proposed a model…

  10. Reactance and Intentionality Attributions as Determinants of the Intent to File a Grievance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael E.; Bowlby, Roger L.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental studies were conducted in two unions to examine the effects of perceptual variables--reactance and intentionality attributions--on the intent to seek redress from management action. Based on participants' responses to a series of vignettes, both studies demonstrated that greater threat and dispositional attributions provoked stronger…

  11. The Failure of Deactivating Intentions: Aftereffects of Completed Intentions in the Repeated Prospective Memory Cue Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walser, Moritz; Fischer, Rico; Goschke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We used a newly developed experimental paradigm to investigate aftereffects of completed intentions on subsequent performance that required the maintenance and execution of new intentions. Participants performed an ongoing number categorization task and an additional prospective memory (PM) task, which required them to respond to PM cues that…

  12. Momentum Trumps Intention: Failed Intentions toward Higher Education of Low-Wage Working Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Francine M.; Ta, Phuong H.

    2015-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined the effects of explicit intention, as described in Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior, on preschool teachers' success in enrolling in college. In the first study, 88 low-wage female teachers and teachers' aides who represented 85 child care centers were surveyed about their intentions to pursue college…

  13. Effect of variation in self-incompatibility on pollen limitation and inbreeding depression in Flourensia cernua (Asteraceae) scrubs of contrasting density

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Miriam M.; Good-Avila, Sara V.; Montaña, Carlos; Domínguez, César A.; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Selection may favour a partial or complete loss of self-incompatibility (SI) if it increases the reproductive output of individuals in the presence of low mate availability. The reproductive output of individuals varying in their strength of SI may also be affected by population density via its affect on the spatial structuring and number of S-alleles in populations. Modifiers increasing levels of self-compatibility can be selected when self-compatible individuals receive reproductive compensation by, for example, increasing seed set and/or when they become associated with high fitness genotypes. Methods The effect of variation in the strength of SI and scrub density (low versus high) on seed set, seed germination and inbreeding depression in seed germination (δgerm) was investigated in the partially self-incompatible species Flourensia cernua by analysing data from self-, cross- and open-pollinated florets. Key Results Examination of 100 plants in both high and low scrub densities revealed that 51% of plants were strongly self-incompatible and 49 % varied from being self-incompatible to self-compatible. Seed set after hand cross-pollination was higher than after open-pollination for self-incompatible, partially self-incompatible and self-compatible plants but was uniformly low for strongly self-incompatible plants. Strongly self-incompatible and self-incompatible plants exhibited lower seed set, seed germination and multiplicative female fitness (floral display × seed set × seed germination) in open-pollinated florets compared with partially self-incompatible and self-compatible plants. Scrub density also had an effect on seed set and inbreeding depression: in low-density scrubs seed set was higher after open-pollination and δgerm was lower. Conclusions These data suggest that (a) plants suffered outcross pollen limitation, (b) female fitness in partially self-incompatible and self-compatible plants is enhanced by increased mate

  14. Campus sustainable food projects: critique and engagement.

    PubMed

    Barlett, Peggy F

    2011-01-01

    Campus sustainable food projects recently have expanded rapidly. A review of four components - purchasing goals, academic programs, direct marketing, and experiential learning - shows both intent and capacity to contribute to transformational change toward an alternative food system. The published rationales for campus projects and specific purchasing guidelines join curricular and cocurricular activities to evaluate, disseminate, and legitimize environmental, economic, social justice, and health concerns about conventional food. Emerging new metrics of food service practices mark a potential shift from rhetoric to market clout, and experiential learning builds new coalitions and can reshape relations with food and place. Campus projects are relatively new and their resilience is not assured, but leading projects have had regional, state, and national impact. The emergence of sustainability rankings in higher education and contract-based compliance around purchasing goals suggests that if support continues, higher education's leadership can extend to the broader agrifood system. PMID:21560268

  15. Representing the consequences of intentionally inhibited actions.

    PubMed

    Haggard, Patrick; Poonian, Simmy; Walsh, Eamonn

    2009-08-25

    The experience of planning an action but then changing our minds and cancelling the action at the last instant is a common one. Here, we instructed participants to prepare voluntary (keypress) actions and sometimes intentionally inhibit them at the last possible moment. Participants could freely choose between left and right hand actions. Keypresses produced either a congruent (80% probability) or an incongruent (20% probability) tone after a short delay. If no voluntary action was made within a defined response window, one of the tones was nevertheless presented a short time later. At the end of the trial, participants judged the time of tone onset. We used an established marker to measure the experience of control, namely the intentional binding of the tone backwards in time towards the action that caused it. Results showed that voluntary actions produced the expected temporal binding of tones back towards the preceding action. In contrast, we found an opposite trend towards repulsion of the tone in intentional inhibition trials. When people intentionally inhibit a planned action, their experience of a subsequent event that was associated with the action is severely affected. Our results suggest that intentional inhibition is a specific cognitive process that strongly influences action prediction and action experience. PMID:19524558

  16. Emotionality and intentionality in bonobo playful communication.

    PubMed

    Demuru, Elisa; Ferrari, Pier F; Palagi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Great apes show very complex systems for communicating emotions and intentions. Whereas gestures are intentional signals, facial expressions can disclose both emotions and intentions. The playful context is a good field to explore the possible dichotomy between intentionally and emotionally driven signals as it has been suggested that one of its functions is to learn producing and decoding communicative patterns. To understand how signals are produced during play and how they are modified in the course of ontogeny, we investigated the use of playful facial expressions and gestures in bonobos (Pan paniscus), a tolerant species showing a high propensity to play even as adults. Our results showed that the use of play faces and gestures is strongly influenced by the characteristics of the play session. Both play faces and gestures were more often performed when social play involved physical contact and when the receiver was visually attending, thus suggesting that both signals can be strategically employed when communicating becomes more urgent. Compared to play faces, gestures were more frequent during dyadic than polyadic sessions, when a unique receiver was involved. Being gestures not context specific, they are probably used more selectively by the sender. On the contrary, play faces are context specific and transmit an unequivocal positive message that cannot be misconceived. These features legitimize a broad use of playful facial expressions, independently of the number of playmates. The similarities and differences in the production of these signals are probably linked to the different degree of emotionality and intentionality characterizing them. PMID:25204682

  17. Spatio-temporal dynamics of kind versus hostile intentions in the human brain: An electrical neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; Huang, Liang; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Zhen; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    . The present study provides preliminary evidence of the spatio-temporal dynamics sustaining the dissociation between the understandings of different types of social intentions. PMID:25517193

  18. On the incompatibilities of interaction scales and processes with focus on the work of adhesion.

    PubMed

    Rosenholm, Jarl B

    2016-08-01

    The mutual compatibility of Hamaker constants, solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities (CED) and surface/interface tensions are evaluated. It is shown that the partial contributions (dispersive, Lifshitz-van der Waals, dipolar induction, dipolar orientation, polar, acid, base and hydrogen bond) to Hamaker constants, solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities and surface/interface tensions are mutually inconsistent. The published reference data for a single set of liquids is moreover shown to be exceedingly scattered; making the parallel use of these scales challenging. Reference processes designed for bringing two and three phases into mutual contact are conflicting. The two-phase processes within Hamaker and exchange energy density (EED) frameworks agree, but the three-phase models differ. As a free-standing parameter the EED is however comparable. The two-phase adhesion process is shown to be incompatible with the other contact processes and the three-phase adhesion process is opposite to them. One reason for this controversy is the different averaging of interfacial properties. While interfacial Hamaker constants and solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities are geometric averages of corresponding intervening phase properties, this practice is replaced by the work of adhesion being geometrically averaged as works of cohesion. As a result, there exist three conflicting models for the adhesion process: the Dupré work of adhesion, the Girifalco-Good geometric averaged works of cohesion and Fowkes reduced interfacial or interphasial tension process. None of these agree with the commonly accepted standard Hamaker contact processes and they should be replaced with the compatible extended work of adhesion process originally suggested by Dupré. The models offered for the conversion of Hamaker constants and solubility parameters or cohesive energy densities to surface tensions involve conversion factors and equilibrium distances between

  19. Risk factor for ischemic-type biliary lesion after ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jun Bae; Kim, Bong-Wan; Kim, Young Bae; Wang, Hee-Jung; Lee, Hyun Yeong; Sim, Joohyun; Kim, Taegyu; Lee, Kyeong Lok; Hu, Xu-Guang; Mao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the risk factors for ischemic-type biliary lesion (ITBL) after ABO-incompatible (ABO-I) adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT). METHODS: Among 141 ALDLTs performed in our hospital between 2008 and 2014, 27 (19%) were ABO-I ALDLT and 114 were ABO-identical/compatible ALDLT. In this study, we extensively analyzed the clinico-pathological data of the 27 ABO-I recipients to determine the risk factors for ITBL after ABO-I ALDLT. All ABO-I ALDLT recipients underwent an identical B-cell depletion protocol with preoperative rituximab, plasma exchange (PE), and operative splenectomy. The median follow-up period after transplantation was 26 mo. The clinical outcomes of the 27 ABO-I ALDLT recipients were compared with those of 114 ABO-identical/compatible ALDLT recipients. RESULTS: ITBL occurred in four recipients (14.8%) between 45 and 112 d after ABO-I ALDLT. The overall survival rates were not different between ABO-I ALDLT and ABO-identical/compatible ALDLT (P = 0.303). Among the ABO-I ALDLT recipients, there was no difference between patients with ITBL and those without ITBL in terms of B-cell and T-cell count, serum isoagglutinin titers, number of PEs, operative time and transfusion, use of graft infusion therapy, or number of remnant B-cell follicles and plasma cells in the spleen. However, the perioperative NK cell counts in the blood of patients with ITBL were significantly higher than those in the patients without ITBL (P < 0.05). Preoperative NK cell count > 150/μL and postoperative NK cell count > 120/μL were associated with greater relative risks (RR) for development of ITBL (RR = 20 and 14.3, respectively, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: High NK cell counts in a transplant recipient’s blood are associated with ITBL after ABO-I ALDLT. Further research is needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of NK cell involvement in the development of ITBL. PMID:27570428

  20. Solvent dependent assembly of lanthanide metallacrowns using building blocks with incompatible symmetry preferences.

    PubMed

    Jankolovits, Joseph; Kampf, Jeff W; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2014-07-21

    Solvent dependence in the assembly of coordination driven macrocycles is a poorly understood phenomenon. This work presents the solvent dependent assembly of 8 lanthanide metallacrowns (LnMCs) in solution using picoline hydroxamic acid (picHA), Zn(II), and Ln(III) ions. ESI-MS and single-crystal X-ray crystallography reveal the selective assembly of LnZn4(picHA)4(3+), LnZn5(picHA)5(3+), LnZn8(picHA)8(3+), LnZn12(picHA)12(3+), LnZn16(picHA)16(3+), Ln2Zn3(picHA)4(4+), Ln2Zn7-9(picHA)8-10, and Ln4Zn4-5(picHA)8-9 complexes in five different solvents. The coordination preferences of the hard Ln(III) ion and relatively soft Zn(II) ion dictate the solvent selectivity in this system. The LnMCs assemble with open or closed Zn(II) and/or Ln(III) coordination sites based on the behavior of the solvent as an ancillary ligand. This structural promiscuity is attributed to the symmetry incompatible building blocks, which generate assemblies with substantial geometric strain such that no clear thermodynamic minimum exists between the different LnMCs. These LnMCs assemble from a Zn5(picHA)4(2+) intermediate, which is monitored using (1)H NMR and ESI-MS to assess the stability of the complexes and possible assembly pathways based on kinetic considerations. LnMC assemblies that can be generated through central metal substitution reactions such as the LnZn4(picHA)4(3+), LnZn5(picHA)5(3+), and LnZn8(picHA)8(3+) effectively reach equilibrium after 24 h at room temperature. In contrast, LnMCs that must disrupt the Zn5L4(2+) structure to assemble, such as the LnZn16L16(3+), reach equilibrium after heating for 24 h at 65 °C. A pathway for LnMC assembly is presented where the Zn5L4(2+) is the key intermediate based on these reaction data and shared structural motifs in the complexes. These results correlate solvent dependent assembly to the building block geometry, highlighting synthetic approaches for generating novel complexes. PMID:24956137

  1. The Mechanism of Toxicity in HET-S/HET-s Prion Incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Seuring, Carolin; Greenwald, Jason; Wasmer, Christian; Wepf, Roger; Saupe, Sven J.; Meier, Beat H.; Riek, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The HET-s protein from the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina is a prion involved in a cell death reaction termed heterokaryon incompatibility. This reaction is observed at the point of contact between two genetically distinct strains when one harbors a HET-s prion (in the form of amyloid aggregates) and the other expresses a soluble HET-S protein (96% identical to HET-s). How the HET-s prion interaction with HET-S brings about cell death remains unknown; however, it was recently shown that this interaction leads to a relocalization of HET-S from the cytoplasm to the cell periphery and that this change is associated with cell death. Here, we present detailed insights into this mechanism in which a non-toxic HET-s prion converts a soluble HET-S protein into an integral membrane protein that destabilizes membranes. We observed liposomal membrane defects of approximately 10 up to 60 nm in size in transmission electron microscopy images of freeze-fractured proteoliposomes that were formed in mixtures of HET-S and HET-s amyloids. In liposome leakage assays, HET-S has an innate ability to associate with and disrupt lipid membranes and that this activity is greatly enhanced when HET-S is exposed to HET-s amyloids. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses revealed that HET-s induces the prion-forming domain of HET-S to adopt the β-solenoid fold (previously observed in HET-s) and this change disrupts the globular HeLo domain. These data indicate that upon interaction with a HET-s prion, the HET-S HeLo domain partially unfolds, thereby exposing a previously buried ∼34-residue N-terminal transmembrane segment. The liberation of this segment targets HET-S to the membrane where it further oligomerizes, leading to a loss of membrane integrity. HET-S thus appears to display features that are reminiscent of pore-forming toxins. PMID:23300377

  2. Case report: diffuse splenic metastasis of occult breast cancer with incompatible blood group antigenic determinants.

    PubMed

    Baranyay, Ferenc

    2009-01-01

    Cancer cells with immunogenic properties having altered protein glycosilation, modified blood group substances have been widely studied [Kannagi R, Miyake M, Zenita KM, Itai S, Hiraiwa N, Shigeta K, et al. Cancer-associated carbohydrate antigens: modified blood group substances and oncodevelopmental antigens on tumor cells. Gann Monogr Cancer Res 1988; 34: p. 15-28; Hakomori S. Antigen structure and genetic basis of histo-blood groups A, B and O their changes associated with human cancer. Biochem Biophys Acta 1999; 1473: p. 247-266; Brooks SA, Carter TM, Royle L, Harvey DJ, Fry SA, Kinch C, et al. Altered glycosilation of proteins in cancer: what is the potential for new anti-tumour strategies. Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2008; 8: p. 2-21]. In the study reported here, a 78-year-old female patient was admitted to the hospital with circulatory failure. At autopsy, the spleen (weight: 420 g) was extremely firm with a diffusely blackberry-colored cut surface. There were no signs of carcinomatous process at autopsy. By histology, the spleen showed diffuse metastatic carcinomatous infiltration. Using immunohistochemistry, an antibody to breast carcinoma antigen (BioGenex) labelled metastatic cells of the spleen and bone marrow. The patient was blood group O. Labelling for binding of lectins with and without blood group antigen specificity and monoclonal antibodies was carried out. The B blood group specific Banderiaea simplicifolia agglutinin I and an anti-B blood group monoclonal antibody labelled all the metastatic cells of spleen and bone marrow intensely. There was no detection of blood group A antigen by either binding of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin or anti-blood group A monoclonal antibodies. These observations raise the possibility that the detected incompatible B blood group antigen determinants on the metastatic cells were immunogenic. The surviving carcinoma cells may have found a place of refuge from immune surveillance in the spleen and in the bone marrow

  3. Investigators find hundreds of intentional nuclear releases

    SciTech Connect

    Lobsenz, G.

    1994-10-24

    Investigators with the federal Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments have said that the category of intentional releases is now known to be larger, in variety and quantity, than the 13 releases identified prior to the committee`s formation in January 1994 by President Clinton. The committee is now aware of hundreds of additional intentional releases. In addition to the intentional releases, the committee said it had compiled documents on 400 biomedical experiments involving radiation prior to 1975, and had at least fragmentary evidence of more than 1,000 more. The committee also discovered a top secret 1953 Defense Department policy statement on human experimentation that was based on the World War II-era Nuremberg Code. The committee said it was looking into how or whether the policy was implemented. The committee is expected to issue a final report, including recommendations on possible compensation for victims by April 1995.

  4. Latino Immigrants’ Intentions to Seek Depression Care

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Zayas, Luis H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role that illness perceptions, attitudes toward depression treatments, and subjective norms played in Latino immigrants’ intentions to seek depression care. Ninety-five Latino immigrant patients were presented a vignette depicting an individual with major depression and interviewed about their intentions to seek care if confronted with a similar situation. Patients’ preferences were to rely on informal sources of care first, and then turn to formal sources to cope with depression. Findings showed Latinos immigrants’ help-seeking intentions for depression were a function of their views of depression, attitudes toward their doctors’ interpersonal skills, and social norms related to seeking professional care after controlling for demographics, health insurance status, acculturation, clinical characteristics, perceived barriers to care, and past service use. PMID:17535121

  5. Faculty intent to engage in interprofessional education

    PubMed Central

    Olenick, Maria; Allen, Lois Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive correlational and comparative study explored health-care faculty (HCF) attitudes toward interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional health-care teams, HCF perceptions of subjective norms, the influence of subjective norms on HCF intent to engage in IPE, and HCF intent to engage in IPE. In addition, differences among seven disciplines of HCF were explored. Methods Nursing, medicine, pharmacy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, physician assistants, and social work faculty were identified. Stratified random sampling was used to ensure that the population surveyed was representative of the target population. The total sample for this study included 439 HCF from the seven identified health-care professions in the US. Data collection included measures of attitudes toward IPE and attitudes toward interprofessional health-care teams. Subjective norms were measured using two 7-point rating scales. Intent to engage in IPE was measured using a 10-point rating scale. Results There were no significant differences among HCF groups regarding attitudes toward IPE or interprofessional health-care teams. Administrative faculty reported greater intent to engage in IPE than teaching faculty. HCF who were currently in or had previously engaged in IPE reported greater intent to engage in or continue to engage, and had higher attitude and subjective norm scores than faculty without IPE experience. The combination of perceived pressure from school administrators and attitudes toward IPE was the best predictor of intent to engage in IPE. Conclusion IPE has the potential to influence patient quality of care and lead to better working relationships between health-care providers. HCF are more likely to engage in IPE when they believe their school’s administrators think they should engage in IPE and when they have positive attitudes toward IPE. PMID:23637541

  6. The Road to Sustainability. Sustainability Workbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afterschool Alliance, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Sustainability seems generally thought to mean raising money. But money is only part of the equation. Money cannot be raised without a quality program, a quality program demonstrates results, effective results are based on sound management practices, etc. Sustainability therefore, is many things that in combination make something capable of…

  7. Sustaining Rural Communities through Sustainable Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikerd, John

    A 5-year collaborative project between Missouri, Michigan State, and Nebraska Universities to provide new opportunities for rural community self-development through sustainable agriculture had mixed results. This happened because community members did not understand the principles of sustainability, and because the extension education system was…

  8. Nurses' intentions to give lifestyle support.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen

    Models of behaviour change can help identify factors that influence health behaviours such as eating a healthy diet and physical activity. The Theory of Planned Behaviour has been shown to be relatively effective at predicting people's intention to engage in health-related behaviours. More recent research has explored whether it can help predict the intentions of one group of people to support another group to engage in healthy behaviour. This has implications for nurses, who are often facilitators of patient health. This article gives an overview of the model and discusses its potential implications for nurses. PMID:25087266

  9. Education of Sustainability Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleschko, K.; Perrier, E.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    It's not the same to educate the sustainable engineers as to prepare the engineers of Sustainability. In the latter case all existing methods of inventive creativity (Altshuller, 1988) should be introduced in the teaching and research processes in order to create a culture of innovation at a group. The Theory of Inventing Problem Solving (TRIZ) is based on the pioneer works of Genrich Altshuller (1988) and his associated. Altshuller reviewed over 2 million patents beginning in 1946 (Orlov, 2006) and developed the Laws of Evolution of Technological Systems; An Algorithm for Inventive Problem Solving (ARIZ); forty typical Techniques for Overcoming System Conflicts (TOSC); a system of 76 Standard Approaches to Inventive Problems (Standards) etc. (Fey and Rivin, 1997). Nowadays, "a theory and constructive instrument package for the controlled synthesis of ideas and the focused transformation of the object to be improved" (Orlov, 2006) are used with high efficacy as the teaching and thinking inventive problem-solving methods in some high schools (Barak and Mesika, 2006; Sokoi et al., 2008) as well as a framework for research (Moehrle, 2005) in construction industry (Zhang et al., 2009); chemical engineering (Cortes Robles et al., 2008) etc. In 2005 US Congress passed the innovation act with the intent of increasing research investment (Gupta, 2007), while China had included inventive principles of TRIZ in strategy and decision making structure design (Kai Yang, 2010). The integrating of TRIZ into eco-innovation diminishes the common conflicts between technology and environment (Chang and Chen, 2004). In our presentation we show discuss some examples of future patents elaborated by the master degree students of Queretaro University, Faculty of Engineering, Mexico using TRIZ methods. References 1. Altshuller, G., 1988. Creativity as an Exact Science. Gordon and Breach, New York. 2. Chang, Hsiang-Tang and Chen, Jahau Lewis, 2004. The conflict-problem-solving CAD software

  10. Differences between intentional and non-intentional burns in India: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Mangai

    2014-08-01

    Non-intentional and deliberate burns in India and other developing countries present particular challenges of prevention and treatment. This exploratory study sought improved understanding of burns in order to inform treatment and prevention. It gathered data in 2011/2012 on burns from the hospital registry (N=768) of a government hospital in India and from interviews with women patients (N=60) admitted to the burns ward. Analysis indicated that: (1) the conditions that facilitate intentional and non-intentional burns are similar, but intentional burns involve additional contributory factors; (2) a high proportion of patients subjected to burns are young women in domestic situations; and (3) a higher proportion of their TBSA was burned, with consequent higher mortality than for men. It was concluded that: (1) Haddon's matrix and the situational crime prevention framework of criminology assist in understanding the etiology of intentional burns and in identifying preventive measures; (2) social service and criminal justice agencies have important roles in dealing with victims of intentional burns during and after treatment; (3) full account should be taken of gender-related physical, psychological and family factors in planning treatment; and (4) maintaining careful records of burns cases is vital for estimating the prevalence and incidence of intentional injuries. PMID:24433938

  11. Promoting the translation of intentions into action by implementation intentions: behavioral effects and physiological correlates

    PubMed Central

    Wieber, Frank; Thürmer, J. Lukas; Gollwitzer, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    The present review addresses the physiological correlates of planning effects on behavior. Although intentions to act qualify as predictors of behavior, accumulated evidence indicates that there is a substantial gap between even strong intentions and subsequent action. One effective strategy to reduce this intention–behavior gap is the formation of implementation intentions that specify when, where, and how to act on a given goal in an if-then format (“If I encounter situation Y, then I will initiate action Z!”). It has been proposed that implementation intentions render the mental representation of the situation highly accessible and establish a strong associative link between the mental representations of the situation and the action. These process assumptions have been examined in behavioral research, and in physiological research, a field that has begun to investigate the temporal dynamics of and brain areas involved in implementation intention effects. In the present review, we first summarize studies on the cognitive processes that are central to the strategic automation of action control by implementation intentions. We then examine studies involving critical samples with impaired self-regulation. Lastly, we review studies that have applied physiological measures such as heart rate, cortisol level, and eye movement, as well as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on the neural correlates of implementation intention effects. In support of the assumed processes, implementation intentions increased goal attainment in studies on cognitive processes and in critical samples, modulated brain waves related to perceptual and decision processes, and generated less activity in brain areas associated with effortful action control. In our discussion, we reflect on the status quo of physiological research on implementation intentions, methodological and conceptual issues, related research, and propose future

  12. Different levels of hyphal self-incompatibility modulate interconnectedness of mycorrhizal networks in three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi within the Glomeraceae.

    PubMed

    Pepe, Alessandra; Giovannetti, Manuela; Sbrana, Cristiana

    2016-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) live in symbiosis with most plant species and produce underground extraradical hyphal networks functional in the uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients from the soil to host plants. This work investigated whether fungal genotype can affect patterns of interconnections and structural traits of extraradical mycelium (ERM), by comparing three Glomeraceae species growing in symbiosis with five plant hosts. An isolate of Funneliformis coronatus consistently showed low ability to form interconnected ERM and self-incompatibility that represented up to 21 % of hyphal contacts. The frequency of post-fusion self-incompatible interactions, never detected before in AMF extraradical networks, was 8.9 %. In F. coronatus ERM, the percentage of hyphal contacts leading to perfect hyphal fusions was 1.2-7.7, while it ranged from 25.8-48 to 35.6-53.6 in Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae, respectively. Low interconnectedness of F. coronatus ERM resulted also from a very high number of non-interacting contacts (83.2 %). Such findings show that AMF genotypes in Glomeraceae can differ significantly in anastomosis behaviour and that ERM interconnectedness is modulated by the fungal symbiont, as F. coronatus consistently formed poorly interconnected networks when growing in symbiosis with five different host plants and in the asymbiotic stage. Structural traits, such as extent, density and hyphal self-compatibility/incompatibility, may represent key factors for the differential performance of AMF, by affecting fungal absorbing surface and foraging ability and thus nutrient flow from soil to host roots. PMID:26630971

  13. Emergency ABO-incompatible liver transplant secondary to fulminant hepatic failure: outcome, role of TPE and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maitta, Robert W; Choate, Jacquelyn; Emre, Sukru H; Luczycki, Stephen M; Wu, Yanyun

    2012-01-01

    The increasing demand for solid organ transplants has brought to light the need to utilize organs in critical situations despite ABO-incompatibility. However, these transplantations are complicated by pre-existing ABO antibodies which may be potentially dangerous and makes the transplantation prone to failure due to rejection with resulting necrosis or intrahepatic biliary complications. We report the clinical outcome of an emergency ABO-incompatible liver transplant (due to fulminant hepatic failure with sudden and rapidly deteriorating mental status) using a modified therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) protocol. The recipient was O-positive with an initial anti-B titer of 64 and the cadaveric organ was from a B-positive donor. The patient underwent initial TPE during the peri-operative period, followed by a series of postoperative daily TPE, and later a third series of TPE for presumptive antibody-mediated rejection. The latter two were performed in conjunction with the use of IVIg and rituximab. The recipient's anti-B titer was reduced and maintained at 8 or less 8 months post-op. However, an elevation of transaminases 3 months post-transplant triggered a biopsy which was consistent with cellular rejection and with weak C4d positive staining suggestive of antibody mediated rejection. Additional plasma exchange procedures were performed. The patient improved rapidly after modification of her immunosuppression regimen and treatment with plasma exchange. This case illustrates that prompt and aggressive plasma exchange, in conjunction with immunosuppression, is a viable approach to prevent and treat antibody mediated transplant rejection in emergency ABO-incompatible liver transplant. PMID:22833397

  14. Progress towards elucidating the mechanisms of self-incompatibility in the grasses: further insights from studies in Lolium

    PubMed Central

    Klaas, Manfred; Yang, Bicheng; Bosch, Maurice; Thorogood, Daniel; Manzanares, Chloe; Armstead, Ian P.; Franklin, F. C. H.; Barth, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Background and Scope Self-incompatibility (SI) in flowering plants ensures the maintenance of genetic diversity by ensuring outbreeding. Different genetic and mechanistic systems of SI among flowering plants suggest either multiple origins of SI or considerable evolutionary diversification. In the grasses, SI is based on two loci, S and Z, which are both polyallelic: an incompatible reaction occurs only if both S and Z alleles are matched in individual pollen with alleles of the pistil on which they alight. Such incompatibility is referred to as gametophytic SI (GSI). The mechanics of grass GSI is poorly understood relative to the well-characterized S-RNase-based single-locus GSI systems (Solanaceae, Rosaceae, Plantaginaceae), or the Papaver recognition system that triggers a calcium-dependent signalling network culminating in programmed cell death. There is every reason to suggest that the grass SI system represents yet another mechanism of SI. S and Z loci have been mapped using isozymes to linkage groups C1 and C2 of the Triticeae consensus maps in Secale, Phalaris and Lolium. Recently, in Lolium perenne, in order to finely map and identify S and Z, more closely spaced markers have been developed based on cDNA and repeat DNA sequences, in part from genomic regions syntenic between the grasses. Several genes tightly linked to the S and Z loci were identified, but so far no convincing candidate has emerged. Research and Progress From subtracted Lolium immature stigma cDNA libraries derived from S and Z genotyped individuals enriched for SI potential component genes, kinase enzyme domains, a calmodulin-dependent kinase and a peptide with several calcium (Ca2+) binding domains were identified. Preliminary findings suggest that Ca2+ signalling and phosphorylation may be involved in Lolium GSI. This is supported by the inhibition of Lolium SI by Ca2+ channel blockers lanthanum (La3+) and verapamil, and by findings of increased phosphorylation activity during an SI

  15. Genetic analysis and fine mapping of the Ga1-S gene region conferring cross-incompatibility in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Yu'e; Jiang, Chuan; Cui, Dezhou; Liu, Huaihua; Li, Detao; Wang, Liwen; Chen, Tingting; Ning, Lihua; Ma, Xia; Chen, Huabang

    2012-02-01

    Cross-incompatibility genes known as gametophyte factors (ga) are numerous in maize. Many popcorn strains carry these genes and cannot be fertilized by pollen of dent and flint maize strains although the reciprocal crosses are successful. A Chinese popcorn strain SDGa25 carries the strongest allele of Ga1 (Ga1-S) and the majority of Chinese dent and flint maize germplasm are incompatible with SDGa25. The incompatibility is due to pollen tube growth obstruction 2 h after pollination. The pollen tube is arrested in the silk segment 5.5 cm distal to the pollination area and never reaches the ovule. The Ga1-S carried by SDGa25 behaves as a single dominant gene. This gene was mapped between markers SD3 on BAC AC200747 0.827 cM apart on the telomere side and SD12 on BAC AC204382 0.709 cM apart on the centromere side. The genetic region mapped spanning the Ga1-S locus was estimated to be 1.5 cM in length and the physical distance is 2,056,343 bp on ctg156 based on the B73 RefGen_v2 sequence. Gametophyte factors influence gene flow direction and the strongest Ga1-S allele is useful for isolating one category of commercial varieties from another. The eight tightly linked markers to Ga1-S developed in this study would greatly improve marker-assisted introgression efficiency and the fine mapping would facilitate the isolation of the Ga1-S. PMID:22009288

  16. Sustainability Indicators and Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainability is about preserving human existence. Indicators and metrics are absolutely necessary to provide at least a semi-quantitative assessment of progress towards or away from sustainability. Otherwise, it becomes impossible to objectively assess whether progress is bei...

  17. BENCHMARKING SUSTAINABILITY ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of this project are to develop and apply a methodology for benchmarking curricula in sustainability engineering and to identify individuals active in sustainability engineering education.

  18. Wolbachia density and cytoplasmic incompatibility in Aedes albopictus: concerns with using artificial Wolbachia infection as a vector suppression tool.

    PubMed

    Calvitti, Maurizio; Marini, Francesca; Desiderio, Angiola; Puggioli, Arianna; Moretti, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes albopictusi is a competent vector of harmful human pathogens, including viruses causing dengue and chikungunya. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by endosymbiotic Wolbachia can be used to produce functionally sterile males that can be released in the field as a suppression tool against this mosquito. Because the available sexing methods are not efficient enough to avoid unintentional release of a few transinfected females, we assessed the CI pattern in crosses between wPip Wolbachia-transinfected (ARwP) females and wild-type males of Ae. albopictus in this study. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to monitor the titer of the Wolbachia strains that naturally infect Ae. albopictus, that is, wAlbA and wAlbB, in age-controlled males and females. Data were coupled with incompatibility level detected when the above-mentioned males were crossed with ARwP females. Wolbachia infection titer was also monitored in samples of wild caught males. Incompatibility level was positively correlated only with wAlbA density. Crosses between wild-type males having very low wAlbA density (<0.001 wAlbA/actin copy numbers) and ARwP females were partially fertile (CIcorr = 68.06 ± 6.20). Individuals with low wAlbA titer were frequently found among sampled wild males (30%-50% depending on the site and period). ARwP males can be as considered as a very promising tool for suppressing Ae. albopictus. However, crosses between wild males having low wAlbA density and ARwP females may be partially fertile. In the case of local establishment of the transinfected mosquito line, this occurrence may favor the replacement of the wild-type mosquitoes with the ARwP line, thus reducing the long-term efficacy of incompatible insect technique. Various alternative strategies have been discussed to prevent this risk and to exploit Wolbachia as a tool to control Ae. albopictus. PMID:25812130

  19. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: Case of smoking cessation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC) is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Methods Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up) were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Results Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Conclusions Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during implementation may provide insight

  20. Eye Movements Reveal How Readers Infer Intentions From the Beliefs and Desires of Others.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Matthew; Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    We examine how the beliefs and desires of a protagonist are used by readers to predict their intentions as a narrative vignette unfolds. Eye movement measures revealed that readers rapidly inferred an intention when the protagonist desired an outcome, even when this inference was not licensed by the protagonist's belief state. Reading was immediately disrupted when participants encountered a described action that contradicted this inference. During intermediate processing, desire inferences were moderated by the protagonist's belief state. Effects that emerged later in the text were again driven solely by the protagonist's desires. These data suggest that desire-based inferences are initially drawn irrespective of belief state, but are then quickly inhibited if not licensed by relevant beliefs. This inhibition of desire-based inferences may be an effortful process as it was not systematically sustained in later steps of processing. PMID:26089174

  1. Behavioral Intention to Use a Virtual Instrumental Activities of Daily Living System Among People With Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral intention to use (BIU) regarding a virtual system for practicing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among people with stroke. METHOD. Fourteen people who had sustained a stroke used a virtual world–based system over four sessions to participate in virtual occupations of preparing meals and putting away groceries. To investigate intention to use the technology, participants responded to a questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model and were interviewed about the experience. RESULTS. Analysis of questionnaire responses revealed favorable attitudes toward the technology and statistically significant correlations between these attitudes and positive BIU. Analysis of qualitative data revealed four themes to support system use: Use of the affected arm increased, the virtual practice was enjoyable, the technology was user-friendly, and the system reflected real-life activities. CONCLUSION. This study shows that participants reported a positive BIU for the virtual system for practicing IADLs. PMID:25871604

  2. Reproductive Incompatibility Involving Senegalese Aedes aegypti (L) Is Associated with Chromosome Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Laura B.; Sharakhova, Maria V.; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A.; Fleming, Karen L.; Caspary, Alex; Sylla, Massamba; Black, William C.

    2016-01-01

    was used to identify AT-rich regions, chromomycin A3 following pretreatment with barium hydroxide stained for GC-rich regions and stained the ribosomal RNA locus and YOYO-1 was used to test for differential staining. Chromosome patterns in SenAae strains revealed by these three stains differed from those in IB12. For FISH, 40 BAC clones previously physically mapped on Aaa chromosomes were used to test for chromosome rearrangements in SenAae relative to IB12. Differences in the order of markers identified two chromosomal rearrangements between IB12 and SenAae strains. The first rearrangement involves two overlapping pericentric (containing the centromere) inversions in chromosome 3 or an insertion of a large fragment into the 3q arm. The second rearrangement is close to the centromere on the p arm of chromosome 2. Linkage analysis of the SDL and the white-eye locus identified a likely chromosomal rearrangement on chromosome 1. The reproductive incompatibility observed within SenAae and between SenAae and Aaa may be generally associated with chromosome rearrangements on all three chromosomes and specifically caused by pericentric inversions on chromosomes 2 and 3. PMID:27105225

  3. Reproductive Incompatibility Involving Senegalese Aedes aegypti (L) Is Associated with Chromosome Rearrangements.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Laura B; Sharakhova, Maria V; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Fleming, Karen L; Caspary, Alex; Sylla, Massamba; Black, William C

    2016-04-01

    used to identify AT-rich regions, chromomycin A3 following pretreatment with barium hydroxide stained for GC-rich regions and stained the ribosomal RNA locus and YOYO-1 was used to test for differential staining. Chromosome patterns in SenAae strains revealed by these three stains differed from those in IB12. For FISH, 40 BAC clones previously physically mapped on Aaa chromosomes were used to test for chromosome rearrangements in SenAae relative to IB12. Differences in the order of markers identified two chromosomal rearrangements between IB12 and SenAae strains. The first rearrangement involves two overlapping pericentric (containing the centromere) inversions in chromosome 3 or an insertion of a large fragment into the 3q arm. The second rearrangement is close to the centromere on the p arm of chromosome 2. Linkage analysis of the SDL and the white-eye locus identified a likely chromosomal rearrangement on chromosome 1. The reproductive incompatibility observed within SenAae and between SenAae and Aaa may be generally associated with chromosome rearrangements on all three chromosomes and specifically caused by pericentric inversions on chromosomes 2 and 3. PMID:27105225

  4. Sustainable Learning Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…

  5. Measuring Educational Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvanathan, Rani G.

    2013-01-01

    There are many definitions that are attributable to the meaning of sustainability. Sustainability can be viewed as long-lasting, effective result of a project, venture, action, or investment without consuming additional future resources. Because of the wide nature of its applicability, a universal measure of sustainability is hard to come by. This…

  6. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Sciences,"…

  7. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  8. Transferring Education for Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Umer Farooque, T. K.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability stands for sustaining the past, meeting needs of the present without compromising the ability to meet future needs. It should meet the individual and social needs, present and future needs local and global needs. A sustainable education that meets this requirements surely be a transferable education; an education that transfers from…

  9. Internships in SMEs and Career Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walmsley, Andreas; Thomas, Rhodri; Jameson, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The literature on internships (also placements) emphasises their importance in career development, even seeing them as a launch pad for graduate careers. Indeed, universities use internships to enable students to develop a range of skills and to help clarify and refine employment intentions and career goals. Traditionally, most internships have…

  10. Attribution of Negative Intention in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbee, Kali; Porter, Melanie A.

    2013-01-01

    People with Williams syndrome (WS) are said to have sociable and extremely trusting personalities, approaching strangers without hesitation. This study investigated whether people with WS are less likely than controls to attribute negative intent to others when interpreting a series of ambiguous pictures. This may, at least partially, explain…

  11. Intentional change, intrinsic motivations, and goal generation.

    PubMed

    Manzotti, Riccardo; Moderato, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    Wilson et al. draw our attention to the problem of a science of intentional change. We stress the connection between their approach and existing paradigms for learning and goal generation that have been developed in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and psychology. These paradigms outline the structural principles of a domain-general and teleologically open agent. PMID:25162876

  12. Hemodynamic instability following intentional nadolol overdose.

    PubMed

    Ehgartner, G R; Zelinka, M A

    1988-04-01

    Hemodynamic compromise developed following intentional overdose with nadolol in a 57-year-old woman. Nadolol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocking agent. Intravenous infusion of glucagon hydrochloride was effective in restoring hemodynamic stability after intravenous fluid loading and catecholamine infusions had failed. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nadolol overdose. PMID:3355299

  13. Using Mobile Learning: Determinates Impacting Behavioral Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Jeffrey N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the factors or determinates that impact the behavioral intention of students to use mobile learning (m-learning) technology. These determinates include performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and self-management of learning, all mediated by age, gender, or both. Regression coefficients showed strong and significant…

  14. Intentionality in a Creative Art Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belluigi, Dina Zoe

    2011-01-01

    This paper highlights inadequacies of a creative arts curriculum that claimed to have been informed by postmodern theories, without careful consideration of how these might or should impact on teaching and learning interactions. In particular, the relationship between intentionality and interpretation addressed in this case study is of concern for…

  15. Making Connections: Intentional Teaching for Integrative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Bettie, Ed.; Kilcommins, Shane, Ed.; Ryan, Tony, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    In this volume the authors document examples of programmes/courses/activities that are designed intentionally to build students' capacity to be integrative thinkers and learners. In doing so they try to analyse and name the learning that is taking place, and so make it visible to the reader. The work is intended as a resource for all those…

  16. Intention or Experience? Predictors of Continued Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGirolamo, Ann; Thompson, Nancy; Martorell, Reynaldo; Fein, Sara; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    Despite the known benefits of breastfeeding, many women do not breastfeed their infants or stop breastfeeding early. This study examines the effects of prenatal intention and initial breastfeeding experiences on breast-feeding initiation and duration among 1,665 U.S. women completing questionnaires on infant feeding practices. Outcomes included no…

  17. Bullying Behaviour, Intentions and Classroom Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryce, Sarah; Frederickson, Norah

    2013-01-01

    Anti-bullying commitment across school communities is seen as crucial to the effectiveness of interventions. This exploratory study used a mixed-methods design to investigate bullying behaviour, intentions and aspects of the classroom ecology within the context of an anti-bullying initiative that was launched with a declaration of commitment.…

  18. Cognitive Aging: Activity Patterns and Maintenance Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilhooly, K. J.; Gilhooly, M. L.; Phillips, L. H.; Harvey, D.; Murray, A.; Hanlon, P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships between cognitive functioning in older people and (1) levels of mental, physical and social activities, and (2) intentions regarding maintenance of cognitive functioning. Participants (N = 145) were 70-91 years of age, varied in health status and socio-economic backgrounds. Current cognitive functioning was…

  19. Exploring Behavioral Intentions among Young Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turney, Howard M.; Conway, Pat; Plummer, Pam; Adkins, Samuel E.; Hudson, George Cliff; McLeod, David A.; Zafaroni, Aileen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between young mothers' individual characteristics (demographics and self-efficacy), social support, and behavioral intentions regarding education and child bearing. Using a home visiting model, the program recruited 141 teen mothers to participate. Young mothers completed an initial assessment, measuring…

  20. Entrepreneurial Intention among Nigerian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Aliyu Dahiru; Aliyu, Sirajo; Ahmed, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurial intention (EI) is one of the major contributing factors to the formation, growth and development of entrepreneurship. It promotes self reliance and brings about initiatives. Entrepreneurship on the other hand, has been considered as an engine of growth for economic growth and development of developed and emerging economies.…

  1. The Effect of Context on Communicative Intent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lougeay-Mottinger, Janice; And Others

    This study examined the effect of various intervention contexts on the ability of young children (ages 3 and 4 years) with language impairments to effectively direct communications to a partner and to vary communicative intentions. The six children in the study were either nonverbal or in the early stages of developing verbal communication and all…

  2. Employee Development and Turnover Intention: Theory Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Wali; Nas, Zekeriya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the pattern of behavior of turnover intentions in developing countries "vis-a-vis" the one in advanced countries through the empirical data from public universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study provides empirical evidence from academia in Pakistan, thereby enriching the understanding of…

  3. Antecedents of Norwegian Beginning Teachers' Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiplic, Dijana; Brandmo, Christian; Elstad, Eyvind

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at exploring several individual, organizational, and contextual factors that may affect beginning teachers' turnover intentions during their first years of practice. The sample consists of 227 beginning teachers (69% female and 31% male) from 133 schools in Norway. The results show four important antecedents of beginning teachers'…

  4. Awareness, Knowledge and Intentions for Postgraduate Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepsen, Denise M.; Varhegyi, Melinda M.

    2011-01-01

    Many university administrators, academics and marketers expend time and financial resources promoting postgraduate study options, yet scant scholarly research has addressed students' attraction to postgraduate study. This study examines awareness and knowledge of, and intentions to pursue postgraduate study from the perspective of current…

  5. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  6. Assessing Intentional Communication in Deaf Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtert, Guido F.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the eliciting potential of two tasks, one for proto-imperative and another for proto-declarative communication intentions. These tasks were offered to 18 toddlers with deafness. Results indicate both tasks process sufficient eliciting potential to measure both the prelinguistic and early linguistic illocutionary force of children…

  7. Intentions and Expectations in Differential Residential Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, William; And Others

    1973-01-01

    This paper summarizes intentions and expectations in differential residential selection among families who had chose to move. Wives appear at face value to assess alternatives in the selection process rationally, to be aware of limitations in housing and location they will experience, and to have expectations about behavioral changes consistant…

  8. Understanding Gender, Creativity, and Entrepreneurial Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ronda Marie; Sardeshmukh, Shruti R.; Combs, Gwendolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the complex relationships between gender and entrepreneurial intentions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two study design where the second study is a constructive replication of the first study. The first study uses a cross-sectional design, while the second uses a design where data…

  9. Intentional Vocabulary Learning Using Digital Flashcards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    As an attempt to follow through on the claims made by proponents of intentional vocabulary learning, the present study set out to examine whether and how digital flashcards can be incorporated into a university course to promote the vocabulary learning of English language learners. The overall research findings underscore the value of learning…

  10. Goal desires moderate intention-behaviour relations.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, Andrew; Perugini, Marco; Hurling, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Models such as the Extended Model of Goal-Directed Behaviour and the Theory of Planned Behaviour imply that the impact of one's goals on behaviour is mediated by more proximal determinants. We hypothesize that goals can have a broader and more dynamic impact on behaviour and, specifically, that goal desires can moderate the effect of intentions on behaviour. Four studies addressed this issue by examining the direct and moderated effects of goal desires on behaviour. All of the studies required participants to complete baseline measures and then a follow-up indicator of behaviour. In Study 1 (N=119) that focused on fruit intake, Study 2 (N=123) and Study 3 (N=96) concerned with drinking alcohol and Study 4 (N=109) regarding snack consumption, behavioural intentions were more reliably related to behaviour when goal desires were strong. The results of Study 3 suggested that goal desire stability increases the likelihood of this moderator effect emerging and Study 4 revealed that this effect was not suppressed by intention stability. The findings suggest that goals and behavioural intentions can operate simultaneously and jointly influence action, a view that contradicts predictions that the effects of goals are fully mediated by more proximal behavioural determinants. PMID:17594757

  11. Structural Factors Affecting Health Examination Behavioral Intention

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Ting; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Wang, Shiang-Ru; Wang, Chia-Fen; Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Disease screening instruments used for secondary prevention can facilitate early determination and treatment of pathogenic factors, effectively reducing disease incidence, mortality rates, and health complications. Therefore, people should be encouraged to receive health examinations for discovering potential pathogenic factors before symptoms occur. Here, we used the health belief model as a foundation and integrated social psychological factors and investigated the factors influencing health examination behavioral intention among the public in Taiwan. In total, 388 effective questionnaires were analyzed through structural model analysis. Consequently, this study yielded four crucial findings: (1) The established extended health belief model could effectively predict health examination behavioral intention; (2) Self-efficacy was the factor that most strongly influenced health examination behavioral intention, followed by health knowledge; (3) Self-efficacy substantially influenced perceived benefits and perceived barriers; (4) Health knowledge and social support indirectly influenced health examination behavioral intention. The preceding results can effectively increase the acceptance and use of health examination services among the public, thereby facilitating early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately reducing disease and mortality rates. PMID:27043606

  12. Explaining Lower Educated Workers' Training Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jos; Oomens, Shirley; Blonk, Roland W. B.; Hazelzet, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the discussion on how to increase lower educated workers' participation in training programs inside and outside the workplace through stimulating intentions with respect to training. Design/methodology/approach: This article is based on data from the Study on Life Long Learning and Employment…

  13. A Causal Model of Faculty Turnover Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John C.

    1990-01-01

    A causal model assesses the relative influence of individual attributes, institutional characteristics, contextual-work environment variables, and multiple measures of job satisfaction on faculty intentions to leave their current institutions. Factors considered include tenure status, age, institutional status, governance style, organizational…

  14. Verbal Imitation Is Based on Intention Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Over, Harriet; Gattis, Merideth

    2010-01-01

    Using an elicited imitation paradigm, we investigated whether young children imitate the communicative intentions behind speech. Previous research using elicited imitation has shown that children tend to correct ungrammatical sentences. This finding is usually interpreted as evidence that children, like adults, remember and reproduce the gist of…

  15. Sustainability in single-species population models.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Terrance J; Collie, Jeremy S

    2005-01-29

    preserving spawning biomass and egg production for the future. The use of discount rates in objective functions involving catch is not a suitable alternative to protecting reproductive value. As we move into the post-modern time period, new definitions of sustainability will attempt to incorporate he economic and social aspects of fisheries and/or ecosystem and habitat requirements. These definitions now involve "warm and fuzzy" notions (healthy ecosystems and fishing communities, the needs of future generations, diverse fish communities) and value judgements of desired outcomes. Additional work is needed to make these definitions operational and to specify quantitative objectives to be achieved. In addition, multiple objectives may be incompatible, so trade-offs in what constitutes sustainability must be made. The advances made under the single-species approach should not be abandoned in the post-modern era, but rather enhanced and combined with new approaches in the multi-species and economic realms. PMID:15713594

  16. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework: How Perceived Intentions and Ability Can Map Brand Perception.

    PubMed

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Fiske, Susan T; Malone, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Building on the Stereotype Content Model, this paper introduces and tests the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework. A growing body of research suggests that consumers have relationships with brands that resemble relations between people. We propose that consumers perceive brands in the same way they perceive people. This approach allows us to explore how social perception theories and processes can predict brand purchase interest and loyalty. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework is based on a well-established social perception approach: the Stereotype Content Model. Two studies support the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework prediction that consumers assess a brand's perceived intentions and ability and that these perceptions elicit distinct emotions and drive differential brand behaviors. The research shows that human social interaction relationships translate to consumer-brand interactions in ways that are useful to inform brand positioning and brand communications. PMID:24403815

  17. Understanding entrepreneurial intent in late adolescence: the role of intentional self-regulation and innovation.

    PubMed

    Geldhof, G John; Weiner, Michelle; Agans, Jennifer P; Mueller, Megan K; Lerner, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship represents a form of adaptive developmental regulation through which both entrepreneurs and their ecologies benefit. We describe entrepreneurship from the perspective of relational developmental systems theory, and examine the joint role of personal attributes, contextual attributes, and characteristics of person-context relationships in predicting entrepreneurial intent in a sample 3,461 college students enrolled in colleges and universities in the United States (60 % female; 61 % European American). Specifically, we tested whether personal characteristics (i.e., gender, intentional self-regulation skills, innovation orientation) and contextual factors (i.e., entrepreneurial parents) predicted college students' intentions to pursue an entrepreneurial career. Our findings suggest that self-regulation, innovation orientation, and having entrepreneurial role models (i.e., parents) predict entrepreneurial intent. Limitations and future directions for the study of youth entrepreneurship are discussed. PMID:23430563

  18. When intentions go public: does social reality widen the intention-behavior gap?

    PubMed

    Gollwitzer, Peter M; Sheeran, Paschal; Michalski, Verena; Seifert, Andrea E

    2009-05-01

    Based on Lewinian goal theory in general and self-completion theory in particular, four experiments examined the implications of other people taking notice of one's identity-related behavioral intentions (e.g., the intention to read law periodicals regularly to reach the identity goal of becoming a lawyer). Identity-related behavioral intentions that had been noticed by other people were translated into action less intensively than those that had been ignored (Studies 1-3). This effect was evident in the field (persistent striving over 1 week's time; Study 1) and in the laboratory (jumping on opportunities to act; Studies 2 and 3), and it held among participants with strong but not weak commitment to the identity goal (Study 3). Study 4 showed, in addition, that when other people take notice of an individual's identity-related behavioral intention, this gives the individual a premature sense of possessing the aspired-to identity. PMID:19389130

  19. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework: How Perceived Intentions and Ability Can Map Brand Perception

    PubMed Central

    Kervyn, Nicolas; Fiske, Susan T.; Malone, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Building on the Stereotype Content Model, this paper introduces and tests the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework. A growing body of research suggests that consumers have relationships with brands that resemble relations between people. We propose that consumers perceive brands in the same way they perceive people. This approach allows us to explore how social perception theories and processes can predict brand purchase interest and loyalty. Brands as Intentional Agents Framework is based on a well-established social perception approach: the Stereotype Content Model. Two studies support the Brands as Intentional Agents Framework prediction that consumers assess a brand’s perceived intentions and ability and that these perceptions elicit distinct emotions and drive differential brand behaviors. The research shows that human social interaction relationships translate to consumer-brand interactions in ways that are useful to inform brand positioning and brand communications. PMID:24403815

  20. Intentional and non-intentional burn related deaths: a comparative study of socio-demographic profile.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachil; Singh, Uma Shankar; Verma, Anoop K; Ali, Wahid; Krishna, Akhilesh

    2015-03-01

    This is a retrospective study of 1689 consecutive admissions of burn deaths to the mortuary over a period of 5 years. The socio-demographic data was collected using special Performa and interviewing the family members, relatives, neighbours and from police reports. Depending on the presence or absence of intentional intent, cases were divided into two groups and compared with regard to their socio-demographic profile. Both groups did not differ significantly with regard to age, sex and educational status. The cases with intentional deaths came from nuclear family, unmarried, student, low socio-economic status, had more stressful life events and suffered larger burns injuries compared with those who experienced non-intentional deaths. The majority of the cases were below the age of 35, unemployed and females outnumbered males in both the groups. PMID:25000816