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Sample records for swine hearts underwent

  1. HO-1 gene overexpression enhances the beneficial effects of superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled bone marrow stromal cells transplantation in swine hearts underwent ischemia/reperfusion: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yibo; Chen, Lijuan; Tang, Yaoliang; Ma, Genshan; Shen, Chengxing; Qi, Chunmei; Zhu, Qi; Yao, Yuyu; Liu, Naifeng

    2010-05-01

    To determine the effect of intracoronary transfer of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) labeled heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpressed bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in a porcine myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model. Cell apoptosis was assayed and supernatant cytokine concentrations were measured in BMSCs that underwent hypoxia/reoxygen in vitro. Female mini-swines that underwent 1 h LAD occlusion followed by 1 h reperfusion were randomly allocated to receive intracoronary saline (control), 1 x 10(7) SPIO-labeled BMSCs transfected with pcDNA3.1-Lacz plasmid (Lacz-BMSCs), pcDNA3.1-human HO-1 (HO-1-BMSCs), pcDNA3.1-hHO-1 pretreated with a HO inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin (SnPP, n = 10 each). MRI and postmortem histological analysis were made at 1 week or 3 months thereafter. Post hypoxia/reoxygen in vitro, apoptosis was significantly reduced, supernatant VEGF significantly increased while TNF-alpha and IL-6 significantly reduced in HO-1-BMSCs group compared with Lacz-BMSCs group (all p < 0.05). Myocardial expression of VEGF was significantly higher in HO-1-BMSCs than in Lacz-BMSCs group at 1 week post transplantation (all p < 0.05). Signal voids induced by the SPIO were detected in the peri-infarction region in all BMSC groups at 1 week but not at 3 months post transplantation and the extent of the hypointense signal was the highest in HO-1-BMSCs group, and histological analysis showed that signal voids represented cardiac macrophages that engulfed the SPIO-labeled BMSCs. Pretreatment with SnPP significantly attenuated the beneficial effects of HO-1-BMSCs. Transplantation of HO-1-overexpressed BMSCs significantly enhanced the beneficial effects of BMSCs on improving cardiac function in this model. PMID:20033189

  2. Circulating S100B and Adiponectin in Children Who Underwent Open Heart Surgery and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Varrica, Alessandro; Satriano, Angela; Frigiola, Alessandro; Giamberti, Alessandro; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi; Conforti, Erika; Gavilanes, Antonio D. W.; Zimmermann, Luc J.; Vles, Hans J. S.; Li Volti, Giovanni; Gazzolo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background. S100B protein, previously proposed as a consolidated marker of brain damage in congenital heart disease (CHD) newborns who underwent cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), has been progressively abandoned due to S100B CNS extra-source such as adipose tissue. The present study investigated CHD newborns, if adipose tissue contributes significantly to S100B serum levels. Methods. We conducted a prospective study in 26 CHD infants, without preexisting neurological disorders, who underwent cardiac surgery and CPB in whom blood samples for S100B and adiponectin (ADN) measurement were drawn at five perioperative time-points. Results. S100B showed a significant increase from hospital admission up to 24 h after procedure reaching its maximum peak (P < 0.01) during CPB and at the end of the surgical procedure. Moreover, ADN showed a flat pattern and no significant differences (P > 0.05) have been found all along perioperative monitoring. ADN/S100B ratio pattern was identical to S100B alone with the higher peak at the end of CPB and remained higher up to 24 h from surgery. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that, in CHD infants, S100B protein is not affected by an extra-source adipose tissue release as suggested by no changes in circulating ADN concentrations. PMID:26417594

  3. Electroporation-Mediated Gene Transfer Directly to the Swine Heart

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave, Barbara; Downey, Harre; Strange, Robert; Murray, Len; Cinnamond, Cade; Lundberg, Cathryn; Israel, Annelise; Chen, Yeong-Jer; Marshall, William; Heller, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In vivo gene transfer to the ischemic heart via electroporation holds promise as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of heart disease. In the current study, we investigated the use of in vivo electroporation for gene transfer using 3 different penetrating electrodes and one non-penetrating electrode. The hearts of adult male swine were exposed through a sternotomy. Eight electric pulses synchronized to the rising phase of the R wave of the ECG were administered at varying pulse widths and field strengths following an injection of either a plasmid encoding luciferase or one encoding green fluorescent protein. Four sites on the anterior wall of the left ventricle were treated. Animals were euthanized 48 hours after injection and electroporation and gene expression was determined. Results were compared to sites in the heart that received plasmid injection but no electric pulses or were not treated. Gene expression was higher in all electroporated sites when compared to injection only sites demonstrating the robustness of this approach. Our results provide evidence that in vivo electroporation can be a safe and effective non-viral method for delivering genes to the heart, in vivo. PMID:22456328

  4. Resistance Pattern of Antibiotics in Patient Underwent Open Heart Surgery with Nosocomial Infection in North of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Davoudi, Alireza; Najafi, Narges; Alian, Shahriar; Tayebi, Atefe; Ahangarkani, Fatemeh; Rouhi, Samaneh; Heydari, Amirhosein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients who undergo cardiac surgery appear to be at increased risk for the development of Nosocomial infections (NIs). The development of antibiotic-resistant infections has been associated with significantly greater hospital mortality rates compared to similar infections caused by antibiotic-sensitive pathogens. Objectives: The purpose of this study is survey of Nis and antibiotic resistance patterns of causative bacteria among patients who underwent open heart surgery in the north of Iran during a 2-year period between September 2012 and September 2014. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we evaluated 187 patients that underwent open heart surgery with NIs. Demographic feature, clinical characteristics and risk factors of each infection were recorded. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using the Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method according to the standard protocol of Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Detection of Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria was performed by the double-disk synergy (DDS) test; also Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRSA) strains were identified by MRSA Screen Agar. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS software (ver. 16) and, descriptive statistics were used. Results: Out Of total of 2253 hospitalized patients who underwent open heart surgery, 187(5.05%) patients had NIs. 51.9% of the patients were female. The rates of surgical site infection (SSI), respiratory tract infection, endocarditis, Urinary tract infection (UTI), blood Infection and mediastinitis were 27.80, 25.66%, 17.64, 17.11% 8.55% and 3.20% respectively. E.coli and S.aureus were the most causative agents of NIs. The rate of ESBL-producing bacteria was 14.28- 71.42% among enterobacteriaceae and the rate of MRSA was 54.2% among S.aureus strains. All isolated Acinetobacter.spp were Multi-drug resistance (MDR). Conclusions: We showed that the rate of NIs among these high-risk patients

  5. Comparison of Estimations Versus Measured Oxygen Consumption at Rest in Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction Who Underwent Right-Sided Heart Catheterization.

    PubMed

    Chase, Paul J; Davis, Paul G; Wideman, Laurie; Starnes, Joseph W; Schulz, Mark R; Bensimhon, Daniel R

    2015-12-01

    Cardiac output during right-sided heart catheterization is an important variable for patient selection of advanced therapies (cardiac transplantation and left ventricular assist device implantation). The Fick method to determine cardiac output is commonly used and typically uses estimated oxygen consumption (VO2) from 1 of 3 published empirical formulas. However, these estimation equations have not been validated in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The objectives of the present study were to determine the accuracy of 3 equations for estimating VO2 compared with direct measurement of VO2 and determine the extent clinically significant error occurred in calculating cardiac output of patients with HFrEF. Breath-by-breath measurements of VO2 from 44 patients who underwent cardiac catheterization (66% men; age, 65 ± 11 years, left ventricular ejection fraction, 22 ± 6%) were compared with the derived estimations of LaFarge and Miettinen, Dehmer et al, and Bergstra et al. Single-sample t tests found only the mean difference between the estimation of LaFarge and Miettinen and the measured VO2 to be nonsignificant (-10.3 ml/min ± 6.2 SE, p = 0.053). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated unacceptably large limits of agreement for all equations. The rate of ≥25% error in the equations by LaFarge and Miettinen, Dehmer et al, and Bergstra et al occurred in 11%, 23%, and 45% of patients, respectively. Misclassification of cardiac index derived from each equation for 2 clinically important classifications: cardiogenic shock-21%, 23%, and 32% and hypoperfusion-16%, 16%, and 25%; respectively. In conclusion, these findings do not support the use of these empiric formulas to estimate the VO2 at rest in patients with HFrEF who underwent right-sided heart catheterization. PMID:26443561

  6. Effects of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex. Baker on electrophysiology of the swine hearts

    PubMed Central

    Weerateerangkul, Punate; Surinkaew, Sirirat; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C.; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Pre-clinical studies in swine have demonstrated that a supratherapeutic concentration of sildenafil citrate decreased defibrillation efficacy and facilitated cardiac arrhythmia. We therefore, decided to investigate the effects of Kaempferia parviflora (KP) extract on these parameters in the swine heart. The underlying assumption was that in the heart, KP might be producing effects similar to sildanafil citrate as KP has long been used in southeast Asian traditional medicine to correct erectile dysfunction. Methods: The study was conducted as the defibrillation study, and ventricular fibrillation (VF) induction study. In both studies, the defibrillation threshold (DFT), the upper limit of vulnerability (ULV) and VF threshold were determined before and after KP extract administration. Results: In both studies KP extract at high concentrations (100 and 50 mg/kg) significantly increased the DFT and ULV, without altering the VF threshold. At these concentrations, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were also attenuated. Interpretation & conclusions: High concentrations of KP extract attenuated defibrillation efficacy and increased cardiac vulnerability to arrhythmia in a normal swine heart. When used in appropriate concentrations, its blood pressure lowering effect may be useful in hypertensive states. Further studies need to be done to elucidate its mechanism of action. PMID:23481066

  7. Comparison of MMF with prednisone in terms of rejection and duration of activity of transplant in rabbits that underwent retroperitoneal heterotopic heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Aygün, Fatih; Efe, Duran; Durgut, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aim In this study, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and methylprednisolone (MP) were compared in terms of rejection and duration of activity of the transplant in New Zealand rabbits that underwent retroperitoneal heart transplantation. Methods Retroperitoneal heart transplantation was performed in New Zealand white rabbits. The animals were divided into two groups. MMF group (group 1) (10 donors, 10 recipients): 12.5 mg/kg MMF was administered orally for two days prior to the surgery; MP group (group 2) (nine donors, nine recipients): 2 mg/kg MP was administered intramuscularly for two days prior to the surgery. After the operation, we waited until all motor activity in the transplanted heart had stopped. The transplant was then removed and the recipient was sacrificed. A donor in the MP group was excluded since it died before the motor activity had stopped. Results No statistically significant difference was found between the groups in terms of rejection score (p = 0.865). However, duration of motor activity was found to be statistically significantly longer in the MMF group, compared to the MP group (p = 0.013). Conclusion In this experimental study, MMF was similar to MP in terms of rejection but had better efficacy in terms of duration of motor activity of the transplant. PMID:26592904

  8. The effect of heart rate, preload, and afterload on the viscoelastic properties of the swine myocardium.

    PubMed

    Ewert, Dan; Wheeler, Bruce; Doetkott, Curt; Ionan, Constantine; Pantalos, George; Koenig, Steven C

    2004-09-01

    Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that viscoelastic properties of the swine myocardium are independent of heart rate (HR), preload (PL), and afterload (AL). Left ventricular pressure and aortic flow (AoF) waveforms were recorded in 13 swine. At different paced heart rates, an inferior vena caval occlusion (IVC) was used to reduce PL, then the IVC was released and simultaneously the aorta was clamped to increase AL. Equivalent left ventricular pressure waveform pairs consisting of an ejecting waveform (denoted as LVP) and isovolumic waveform (denoted as hydromotive pressure, HMP) were selected according to specified criteria resulting in 371 equivalent waveform pairs. From the selected waveform pairs and corresponding aortic flow waveforms, the viscoelastic properties (k and epsilon1) were estimated by HMP = LVP + epsilon1 V(EJ) + k x LVP x AoF. Here epsilon1 is the parallel elastance, k is the myocardial friction, and V(EJ) is the integral of AoF over ejection. Next, using k, epsilon1, LVP, and AoF waveforms, HMP was estimated using the equation above. To validate the model, the measured HMP and model-calculated HMP were compared for 371 matched waveform pairs (R2 = 0.97, SEE = 3.7 mmHg). The viscoelastic parameters (k and epsilon1) did not exhibit any clear or predictable dependence on HR, PL, and AL. PMID:15493509

  9. Eprosartan improves cardiac function in swine working heart model of ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Weymann, Alexander; Sabashnikov, Anton; Patil, Nikhil P.; Konertz, Wolfgang; Modersohn, Diethelm; Dohmen, Pascal M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Eprosartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used as an antihypertensive. We sought to evaluate the regional effect of Eprosartan on postinfarct ventricular remodeling and myocardial function in an isolated swine working heart model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Material/Methods 22 swine hearts were perfused with the Langendorff perfusion apparatus under standard experimental conditions. Myocardial ischemia was induced by a 10-min left anterior descending artery ligation. Hearts were reperfused with either saline (control group, n=11), or Eprosartan (treatment group, n=11). Left ventricular pressure (LVP) and regional heart parameters such as intramyocardial pressure (IMP), wall thickening rate (WTh), and pressure-length-loops (PLL) were measured at baseline and after 30 min of reperfusion. Results Measured parameters were statistically similar between the 2 groups at baseline. The administration of Eprosartan led to a significantly better recovery of IMP and WTh: 44.4±2.5 mmHg vs. 51.2±3.3 mmHg, p<0.001 and 3.8±0.4 μm vs. 4.4±0.3 μm, p=0.001, respectively. PLL were also significantly higher in the treatment group following reperfusion (21694±3259 units vs. 31267±3429 units, p<0.01). There was no difference in the LVP response to Eprosartan versus controls (63.6±3.0 mmHg vs. 62.5±3.1 mmHg, p=0.400). Conclusions Pre-treatment with Eprosartan is associated with a significant improvement in regional cardiac function under ischemic conditions. Pharmacological treatment with eprosartan may exert a direct cardioprotective effect on ischemic myocardium. PMID:24762635

  10. Comparative Effects of Statin Therapy versus Renin-Angiotensin System Blocking Therapy in Patients with Ischemic Heart Failure Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jumin; Jeong, Myung Ho; Park, Hyuk Jin; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Woo Jin; Kim, Hyun Kuk; Sim, Doo Sun; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun

    2016-01-01

    Statins and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers are key drugs for treating patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study was designed to show the association between treatment with statins or RAS blockers and clinical outcomes and the efficacy of two drug combination therapies in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF) who underwent revascularization for an AMI. A total of 804 AMI patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction <40% who undertook percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) were analyzed using the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (KAMIR). They were divided into four groups according to the use of medications [Group I: combination of statin and RAS blocker (n=611), Group II: statin alone (n=112), Group III: RAS blocker alone (n=53), Group IV: neither treatment (n=28)]. The cumulative incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) and independent predictors of MACCEs were investigated. Over a median follow-up study of nearly 1 year, MACCEs had occurred in 48 patients (7.9%) in Group I, 16 patients (14.3%) in Group II, 3 patients (5.7%) in Group III, 7 patients (21.4%) in Group IV (p=0.013). Groups using RAS blocker (Group I and III) showed better clinical outcomes compared with the other groups. By multivariate analysis, use of RAS blockers was the most powerful independent predictor of MACCEs in patients with IHF who underwent PCI (odds ratio 0.469, 95% confidence interval 0.285-0.772; p=0.003), but statin therapy was not found to be an independent predictor. The use of RAS blockers, but not statins, was associated with better clinical outcomes in patients with IHF who underwent PCI. PMID:27231678

  11. Superior Cardiac Function Via Anaplerotic Pyruvate in the Immature Swine Heart After Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Reperfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Aaron; Hyyti, Outi M.; Cohen, Gordon A.; Ning, Xue-Han; Sadilek, Martin; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2008-12-01

    Pyruvate produces inotropic responses in the adult reperfused heart. Pyruvate oxidation and anaplerotic entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) via carboxylation are linked to stimulation of contractile function. The goals of this study were to determine if these metabolic pathways operate and are maintained in the developing myocardium after reperfusion. Immature male swine (age 10-18 days) were subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Intracoronary infusion of [2]-13C-pyruvate (to achieve a final concentration of 8 mM) was given for 35 minutes starting either during weaning (Group I), after discontinuation (Group II) or without (Control) CPB. Hemodynamic data was collected. 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the fraction of pyruvate entering the CAC via pyruvate carboxylation (PC) to total CAC entry (PC plus decarboxlyation via pyruvate dehydrogenase). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine total glutamate enrichment.

  12. Genetic Similarity among One Aspergillus flavus Strain Isolated from a Patient Who Underwent Heart Surgery and Two Environmental Strains Obtained from the Operating Room

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Guerra, Teresa M.; Mellado, Emilia; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Gaztelurrutia, Lourdes; Navarro, Jose Ignacio Villate; Tudela, Juan L. Rodríguez

    2000-01-01

    We report the simultaneous isolation of one Aspergillus flavus strain from the aortic prosthesis of a heart surgery patient and another two isolates recovered from a dual-reservoir cooler-heater used in the operating room where this patient was operated on. Genetic typing of these three isolates by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) revealed identical genotypes. Eight unrelated control strains of A. flavus had eight different genotypes. These results clearly indicated the nosocomial origin of the A. flavus strain isolated from the patient. We suggest that the RAPD technique is a rapid and reliable tool to ascertain the epidemiology of infections caused by A. flavus. PMID:10835021

  13. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BM-MSCs) Improve Heart Function in Swine Myocardial Infarction Model through Paracrine Effects

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Min; Shen, Rui; Song, Lei; Lu, Minjie; Wang, Jianguang; Zhao, Shihua; Tang, Yue; Meng, Xianmin; Li, Zongjin; He, Zuo-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are promising for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) and large animal models should be used to better understand the full spectrum of stem cell actions and preclinical evidences. In this study, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were transplanted into swine heart ischemia model. To detect glucose metabolism in global left ventricular myocardium and regional myocardium, combined with assessment of cardiac function, positron emission tomography-computer tomography (PET-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. To study the changes of glucose transporters and glucose metabolism-related enzymes and the signal transduction pathway, RT-PCR, Western-blot, and immunohistochemistry were carried out. Myocardium metabolic evaluation by PET-CT showed that mean signal intensity (MSI) increased in these segments at week 4 compared with that at week 1 after BM-MSCs transplantation. Moreover, MRI demonstrated significant function enhancement in BM-MSCs group. The gene expressions of glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT4), glucose metabolism-related enzymes phosphofructokinase (PFK), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)) and 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k) in BM-MSCs injected areas were up-regulated at week 4 after BM-MSCs transplantation and this was confirmed by Western-blot and immunohistochemistry. In conclusions, BM-MSCs transplantation could improve cardiac function in swine MI model by activation of mTOR signal transduction pathway. PMID:27321050

  14. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BM-MSCs) Improve Heart Function in Swine Myocardial Infarction Model through Paracrine Effects.

    PubMed

    Cai, Min; Shen, Rui; Song, Lei; Lu, Minjie; Wang, Jianguang; Zhao, Shihua; Tang, Yue; Meng, Xianmin; Li, Zongjin; He, Zuo-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Stem cells are promising for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) and large animal models should be used to better understand the full spectrum of stem cell actions and preclinical evidences. In this study, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were transplanted into swine heart ischemia model. To detect glucose metabolism in global left ventricular myocardium and regional myocardium, combined with assessment of cardiac function, positron emission tomography-computer tomography (PET-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. To study the changes of glucose transporters and glucose metabolism-related enzymes and the signal transduction pathway, RT-PCR, Western-blot, and immunohistochemistry were carried out. Myocardium metabolic evaluation by PET-CT showed that mean signal intensity (MSI) increased in these segments at week 4 compared with that at week 1 after BM-MSCs transplantation. Moreover, MRI demonstrated significant function enhancement in BM-MSCs group. The gene expressions of glucose transporters (GLUT1, GLUT4), glucose metabolism-related enzymes phosphofructokinase (PFK), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)) and 70-kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70s6k) in BM-MSCs injected areas were up-regulated at week 4 after BM-MSCs transplantation and this was confirmed by Western-blot and immunohistochemistry. In conclusions, BM-MSCs transplantation could improve cardiac function in swine MI model by activation of mTOR signal transduction pathway. PMID:27321050

  15. Preventing Phrenic Nerve Stimulation by a Patch Insulation in an Intact Swine Heart Model

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yi-Wen; Hsieh, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Chien-Ming; Wang, Kuo-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS) could be prevented by a silastic patch over the epicardial lead. We studied the effects in preventing PNS by placing a silastic patch directly over an epicardial lead or placing a graft around the phrenic nerve (PN). Methods and Results Fourteen Lanyu swine were enrolled. A bipolar lead was placed epicardially on the left ventricle (LV) inferior to the PN. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) lead was placed into the right ventricle (RV). The maximal influential distance (MID) was measured under 3 pacing configurations to express the influential electrical field on the PN. The threshold of the LV and PN were evaluated epicardially. Then, PTFE patches of different sizes (10×10 mm, 20×20 mm and 30×30 mm) were placed between the LV lead and PN to study the rise in PN threshold in 7 swine. On the other hand, the PN were surrounded by a PTFE graft of different lengths (10 mm, 20 mm, and 30 mm) in the remaining 7 swine. LV-bipolar pacing showed the shortest MID when compared to the other 2 unipolar pacing configurations at pacing voltage of 10 V. The patch was most effective in preventing PNS during LV-bipolar pacing. PNS was prevented under all circumstances with a larger PTFE patch (30×30 mm) or long graft (30 mm). Conclusions PNS was avoided by placing a PTFE patch over the LV lead or a graft around the PN despite pacing configurations. Hence if PNS persisted during CRT implantation, a PTFE patch on the LV lead or a graft around the PN could be considered. PMID:25033271

  16. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation promotes long chain fatty acid oxidation in the immature swine heart in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-09-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports infants and children with severe cardiopulmonary compromise. Nutritional support for these children includes provision of medium- and long-chain fatty acids (FAs). However, ECMO induces a stress response, which could limit the capacity for FA oxidation. Metabolic impairment could induce new or exacerbate existing myocardial dysfunction. Using a clinically relevant piglet model, we tested the hypothesis that ECMO maintains the myocardial capacity for FA oxidation and preserves myocardial energy state. Provision of 13-Carbon labeled medium-chain FA (octanoate), longchain free FAs (LCFAs), and lactate into systemic circulation showed that ECMO promoted relative increases in myocardial LCFA oxidation while inhibiting lactate oxidation. Loading of these labeled substrates at high dose into the left coronary artery demonstrated metabolic flexibility as the heart preferentially oxidized octanoate. ECMO preserved this octanoate metabolic response, but also promoted LCFA oxidation and inhibited lactate utilization. Rapid upregulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) protein appeared to participate in this metabolic shift during ECMO. ECMO also increased relative flux from lactate to alanine further supporting the role for pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition by PDK4. High dose substrate loading during ECMO also elevated the myocardial energy state indexed by phosphocreatine to ATP ratio. ECMO promotes LCFA oxidation in immature hearts, while maintaining myocardial energy state. These data support the appropriateness of FA provision during ECMO support for the immature heart.

  17. Quantification of fibrosis in infarcted swine hearts by ex vivo late gadolinium-enhancement and diffusion-weighted MRI methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Mihaela; Ghugre, Nilesh R.; Ramanan, Venkat; Morikawa, Lily; Stanisz, Greg; Dick, Alexander J.; Wright, Graham A.

    2013-08-01

    Many have speculated that MRI signal characteristics can be used to identify regions of heterogeneous infarct associated with an arrhythmogenic substrate; however, direct evidence of this relationship is limited. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the remodelling characteristics of fibrosis by means of histology and high-resolution MR imaging. For this purpose, we performed whole-mount histology in heart samples (n = 9) collected from five swine at six weeks post-infarction and compared the extent of fibrosis in the infarcted areas delineated in these histological images with that obtained ex vivo by MRI using late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) methods. All MR images were obtained at a submillimetre resolution (i.e., voxel size of 0.6×0.6×1.2 mm3). Specifically, in the histology images, we differentiated moderate fibrosis (consisting of a mixture of viable and non-viable myocytes, known as border zone, BZ) from severe fibrosis (i.e., the dense scar). Correspondingly, tissue heterogeneities in the MR images were categorized by a Gaussian mixture model into healthy, BZ and scar. Our results showed that (a) both MRI methods were capable of qualitatively distinguishing sharp edges between dense scar and healthy tissue from regions of heterogeneous BZ; (b) the BZ and dense scar areas had intermediate-to-high increased values of signal intensity in the LGE images and of apparent diffusion coefficient in the DWI, respectively. In addition, as demonstrated by the Picrosirius Red and immunohistochemistry stains, the viable bundles in the BZ were clearly separated by thin collagen strands and had reduced expression of Cx43, whereas the core scar was composed of dense fibrosis. A quantitative analysis demonstrated that the comparison between BZ/scar extent in LGE and DWI to the corresponding areas identified in histology yielded very good correlations (i.e., for the scar identified by LGE, R2 was 0.96 compared to R2 = 0.93 for the

  18. UPDATE ON SWINE DISEASE AND GENOMICS RESEARCH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review will summarize advances in swine genomics and how it has altered approaches for swine disease and vaccination research. The swine has been a major biomedical model species, for transplantation, heart disease, allergies and asthma, as well as normal neonatal development and reproductive p...

  19. Improvement in B1+ Homogeneity and Average Flip Angle Using Dual-Source Parallel RF Excitation for Cardiac MRI in Swine Hearts.

    PubMed

    Schär, Michael; Ding, Haiyan; Herzka, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac MRI may benefit from increased polarization at high magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla but is challenged by increased field inhomogeneity. Initial human studies have shown that the radiofrequency (RF) excitation field (B1+) used for signal excitation in the heart is both inhomogeneous and significantly lower than desired, potentially leading to image artifacts and biased quantitative measures. Recently, multi-channel transmit systems have been introduced allowing localized patient specific RF shimming based on acquired calibration B1+ maps. Some prior human studies have shown lower than desired mean flip angles in the hearts of large patients even after RF shimming. Here, 100 cardiac B1+ map pairs before and after RF shimming were acquired in 55 swine. The mean flip angle and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the flip angle in the heart were determined before and after RF shimming. Mean flip angle, CV, and RF shim values (power ratio and phase difference between the two transmit channels) were tested for correlation with cross sectional body area and the Right-Left/Anterior-Posterior ratio. RF shimming significantly increased the mean flip angle in swine heart from 74.4±6.7% (mean ± standard deviation) to 94.7±4.8% of the desired flip angle and significantly reduced CV from 0.11±0.03 to 0.07±0.02 (p<1e-10 for both). These results compare well with several previous human studies, except that the mean flip angle in the human heart only improved to 89% with RF shimming, possibly because the RF shimming routine does not consider safety constraints in very large patients. Additionally, mean flip angle decreased and CV increased with larger cross sectional body area, however, the RF shimming parameters did not correlate with cross sectional body area. RF shim power ratio correlated weakly with Right-Left/Anterior-Posterior ratio but phase difference did not, further substantiating the need for subject specific cardiac RF shimming. PMID:26436658

  20. Improvement in B1+ Homogeneity and Average Flip Angle Using Dual-Source Parallel RF Excitation for Cardiac MRI in Swine Hearts

    PubMed Central

    Schär, Michael; Ding, Haiyan; Herzka, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac MRI may benefit from increased polarization at high magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla but is challenged by increased field inhomogeneity. Initial human studies have shown that the radiofrequency (RF) excitation field (B1+) used for signal excitation in the heart is both inhomogeneous and significantly lower than desired, potentially leading to image artifacts and biased quantitative measures. Recently, multi-channel transmit systems have been introduced allowing localized patient specific RF shimming based on acquired calibration B1+ maps. Some prior human studies have shown lower than desired mean flip angles in the hearts of large patients even after RF shimming. Here, 100 cardiac B1+ map pairs before and after RF shimming were acquired in 55 swine. The mean flip angle and the coefficient of variation (CV) of the flip angle in the heart were determined before and after RF shimming. Mean flip angle, CV, and RF shim values (power ratio and phase difference between the two transmit channels) were tested for correlation with cross sectional body area and the Right-Left/Anterior-Posterior ratio. RF shimming significantly increased the mean flip angle in swine heart from 74.4±6.7% (mean ± standard deviation) to 94.7±4.8% of the desired flip angle and significantly reduced CV from 0.11±0.03 to 0.07±0.02 (p<<1e-10 for both). These results compare well with several previous human studies, except that the mean flip angle in the human heart only improved to 89% with RF shimming, possibly because the RF shimming routine does not consider safety constraints in very large patients. Additionally, mean flip angle decreased and CV increased with larger cross sectional body area, however, the RF shimming parameters did not correlate with cross sectional body area. RF shim power ratio correlated weakly with Right-Left/Anterior-Posterior ratio but phase difference did not, further substantiating the need for subject specific cardiac RF shimming. PMID:26436658

  1. Global Intracoronary Infusion of Allogeneic Cardiosphere-Derived Cells Improves Ventricular Function and Stimulates Endogenous Myocyte Regeneration throughout the Heart in Swine with Hibernating Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Gen; Weil, Brian R.; Leiker, Merced M.; Ribbeck, Amanda E.; Young, Rebeccah F.; Cimato, Thomas R.; Canty, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) improve ventricular function and reduce fibrotic volume when administered via an infarct-related artery using the “stop-flow” technique. Unfortunately, myocyte loss and dysfunction occur globally in many patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, necessitating an approach to distribute CDCs throughout the entire heart. We therefore determined whether global intracoronary infusion of CDCs under continuous flow improves contractile function and stimulates new myocyte formation. Methods and Results Swine with hibernating myocardium from a chronic LAD occlusion were studied 3-months after instrumentation (n = 25). CDCs isolated from myocardial biopsies were infused into each major coronary artery (∼33×106 icCDCs). Global icCDC infusion was safe and while ∼3% of injected CDCs were retained, they did not affect ventricular function or myocyte proliferation in normal animals. In contrast, four-weeks after icCDCs were administered to animals with hibernating myocardium, %LADWT increased from 23±6 to 51±5% (p<0.01). In diseased hearts, myocyte proliferation (phospho-histone-H3) increased in hibernating and remote regions with a concomitant increase in myocyte nuclear density. These effects were accompanied by reductions in myocyte diameter consistent with new myocyte formation. Only rare myocytes arose from sex-mismatched donor CDCs. Conclusions Global icCDC infusion under continuous flow is feasible and improves contractile function, regresses myocyte cellular hypertrophy and increases myocyte proliferation in diseased but not normal hearts. New myocytes arising via differentiation of injected cells are rare, implicating stimulation of endogenous myocyte regeneration as the primary mechanism of repair. PMID:25402428

  2. Advances in Swine Biomedical Model Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The swine has been a major biomedical model species, for transplantation, heart disease, allergies and asthma, as well as normal neonatal development and reproductive physiology. Swine have been used extensively for studies of infectious disease processes and analyses of preventative strategies, inc...

  3. Heart rate variability in conscious neonatal swine: spectral features and responses to short-term intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Sica, Anthony L; Zhao, Ning

    2006-01-01

    Background Spectral analysis of the cardiac time series has been used as a tool for assessing levels of parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation of the sinoatrial node. In the present investigation we evaluated daily changes in heart rate variability spectra in conscious neonatal piglets that were either neurally intact (n = 5) or had undergone right stellate ganglionectomy (n = 5). The partial stellectomized animals and their intact litter mates were exposed to four days of intermittent hypoxia, each day comprising nine episodes of hypoxia alternating with nine episodes of normoxia. A time control group (n = 7) comprised animals from different litters that were not exposed to intermittent hypoxia. We hypothesized that exposure to intermittent hypoxia would increase sympathetic efferent neuronal modulation of heart rate variability spectra in neurally intact animals and in those with right stellate ganglionectomy, and that his effect would be observed in heart rate variability spectra computed from baseline recordings. Results Overall, heart rate variability spectra during baseline conditions were dominated by high frequency activity, a reflection of parasympathetic efferent neuronal innervation and linkage to the ventilatory cycle manifested as respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Exposure to intermittent hypoxia did not alter daily baseline spectral features that would indicate an increase of sympathetic cardiac activity: low frequency (0.05 – 0.15 Hz) activity was unaffected and the ratio of low- to -high frequency activity remained less than unity indicating a predominance of high frequency activity. The resultant spectra were remarkably similar despite differences in cardiac sympathetic efferent neuronal innervation and experimental treatment. When spectra were computed from cardiac time series during representative hypoxic episodes, significant increases in activity across the low frequency region (0.05 – 0.15 Hz) of heart rate variability spectra were noted

  4. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States since 2005 Prevention Treatment Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English Español ...

  5. Swine origin influenza (swine flu).

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Meghna R; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, S K

    2009-08-01

    Swine origin influenza was first recognized in the border area of Mexico and United States in April 2009 and during a short span of two months became the first pandemic. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. It is transmitted by droplets or fomites. Incubation period is 2 to 7 days. Common clinical symptoms are indistinguishable by any viral respiratory illness, and include fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia. A feature seen more frequently with swine origin influenza is GI upset. Less than 10% of patients require hospitalization. Patients at risk of developing severe disease are - younger than five years, elderly, pregnant women, with chronic systemic illnesses, adolescents on aspirin. Of the severe manifestations of swine origin influenza, pneumonia and respiratory failure are the most common. Unusual symptoms reported are conjunctivitis, parotitis, hemophagocytic syndrome. Infants may present with fever and lethargy with no respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis is based on RT PCR, Viral culture or increasing neutralizing antibodies. Principle of treatment consist of isolation, universal precautions, good infection control practices, supportive care and use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs effective against H1N1 virus include: oseltamivir and zamanavir. With good supportive care case fatality is less than 1%. Preventive measures include: social distancing, practicing respiratory etiquette, hand hygiene and use of chemoprohylaxis with antiviral drugs. Vaccine against H1N1 is not available at present, but will be available in near future. PMID:19802552

  6. Underwing Compression Vortex-Attenuation Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James C., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Underwing compression vortex-attenuation device designed to provide method for attenuating lift-induced vortex generated by wings of airplane. Includes compression panel attached to lower surface of wing, facing perpendicular to streamwise airflow. Concept effective on all types of aircraft. Causes increase in wing lift rather than reduction when deployed. Device of interest to aircraft designers and enhances air safety in general.

  7. Identification of low and high frequency ranges for heart rate variability and blood pressure variability analyses using pharmacological autonomic blockade with atropine and propranolol in swine.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding autonomic nervous system functioning, which mediates behavioral and physiological responses to stress, offers great potential for evaluation of farm animal stress and welfare. Evaluation of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV), using time and frequency doma...

  8. Effects of the Selective Stretch-Activated Channel Blocker GsMtx4 on Stretch-Induced Changes in Refractoriness in Isolated Rat Hearts and on Ventricular Premature Beats and Arrhythmias after Coronary Occlusion in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Barrabés, José A.; Inserte, Javier; Agulló, Luis; Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Alburquerque-Béjar, Juan J.; Garcia-Dorado, David

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical factors may contribute to ischemic ventricular arrhythmias. GsMtx4 peptide, a selective stretch-activated channel blocker, inhibits stretch-induced atrial arrhythmias. We aimed to assess whether GsMtx4 protects against ventricular ectopy and arrhythmias following coronary occlusion in swine. First, the effects of 170-nM GsMtx4 on the changes in the effective refractory period (ERP) induced by left ventricular (LV) dilatation were assessed in 8 isolated rat hearts. Then, 44 anesthetized, open-chest pigs subjected to 50-min left anterior descending artery occlusion and 2-h reperfusion were blindly allocated to GsMtx4 (57 μg/kg iv. bolus and 3.8 μg/kg/min infusion, calculated to attain the above concentration in plasma) or saline, starting 5-min before occlusion and continuing until after reflow. In rat hearts, LV distension induced progressive reductions in ERP (35±2, 32±2, and 29±2 ms at 0, 20, and 40 mmHg of LV end-diastolic pressure, respectively, P<0.001) that were prevented by GsMTx4 (33±2, 33±2, and 32±2 ms, respectively, P=0.002 for the interaction with LV end-diastolic pressure). Pigs receiving GsMtx4 had similar number of ventricular premature beats during the ischemic period as control pigs (110±28 vs. 103±21, respectively, P=0.842). There were not significant differences among treated and untreated animals in the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (13.6 vs. 22.7%, respectively, P=0.696) or tachycardia (36.4 vs. 50.0%, P=0.361) or in the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes during the occlusion period (1.8±0.7 vs. 5.5±2.6, P=0.323). Thus, GsMtx4 administered under these conditions does not suppress ventricular ectopy following coronary occlusion in swine. Whether it might protect against malignant arrhythmias should be tested in studies powered for these outcomes. PMID:25938516

  9. Geochemical fate of arsenic in swine litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quazi, S.; Makris, K.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Punamiya, P.

    2007-12-01

    Swine diet is often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone to treat diseases and to promote growth. Recent data reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in unprotected lagoons in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, serious environmental health risk may arise upon significant arsenic (As) release into solution. The problem may be exacerbated under certain environmental conditions where organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone transform into the more toxic inorganic As, posing serious health risk to the surrounding ecosystem. The objective of this study were to analyze swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs in the USA for As concentrations, and to determine the geochemical fate of As in the swine waste suspensions. Swine wastes were analyzed for total-recoverable, total soluble, and water-extractable As, which were measured by ICP-MS. Speciation of As was performed following a well-established hyphenated technique using HPLC- ICPMS. Swine waste suspensions differed in solids contents; thus, the particulate matters with varying As concentrations were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Findings show the prevalence of inorganic As [As(V)] in swine waste suspension solutions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to both organoarsenicals, such as p-ASA, as well as inorganic arsenate and to a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation kinetics was influenced by the solids content and the air conditions (anaerobic/aerobic) of the swine waste suspensions. Maximum degradation rates were observed under anaerobic conditions, in suspensions which were low in solids content. Roxarsone degradation was primarily microbially-mediated, but in certain cases abiotic degradation was also observed, which were significantly slower.

  10. Swine: Selection and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating swine in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the main points in evaluating market hogs and breeding swine and provides an example class of swine. Section 2,…

  11. The autonomic effects of cardiopulmonary decompression sickness in swine using principal dynamic mode analysis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan; Selvaraj, Nandakumar; Petersen, Kyle; Mahon, Richard; Cronin, William A; White, Joseph; Brink, Peter R; Chon, Ki H

    2013-10-01

    Methods to predict onset of cardiopulmonary (CP) decompression sickness (DCS) would be of great benefit to clinicians caring for stricken divers. Principal dynamic mode (PDM) analysis of the electrocardiogram has been shown to provide accurate separation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic tone dynamics. Nine swine (Sus scrofa) underwent a 15-h saturation dive at 184 kPa (60 ft. of saltwater) in a hyperbaric chamber followed by dropout decompression, whereas six swine, used as a control, underwent a 15-h saturation dive at 15 kPa (5 ft. of saltwater). Noninvasive electrocardiograms were recorded throughout the experiment and autonomic nervous system dynamics were evaluated by heart rate series analysis using power spectral density (PSD) and PDM methods. We observed a significant increase in the sympathetic and parasympathetic tones using the PDM method on average 20 min before DCS onset following a sudden induction of decompression. Parasympathetic activities remained elevated, but the sympathetic modulation was significantly reduced at onset of cutis and CP DCS signs, as reported by a trained observer. Similar nonsignificant observations occurred during PSD analysis. PDM observations contrast with previous work showing that neurological DCS resulted in a >50% reduction in both sympathetic and parasympathetic tone. Therefore, tracking dynamics of the parasympathetic tones via the PDM method may allow discrimination between CP DCS and neurological DCS, and this significant increase in parasympathetic tone has potential use as a marker for early diagnosis of CP DCS. PMID:23883677

  12. Coronary risk factors in patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Nasser; Alikhah, Hossein; Abadan, Younes

    2011-01-01

    Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) risk increases with increasing number of risk factors. This study was aimed to assess different coronary risk factors among Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) surgery patients. A total of 700 patients younger than 45 or older than 65 years and underwent CABG in Tabriz Shahid Madani Heart Center since 2003 to 2007 were enrolled. We examined the probable differences of CAD risk factors between male and female groups and age groups. We also assessed the change of risk factors presentation in last 5 years. There was not significant difference between risk factor numbers in <45 and >65 years groups, but smoking and dyslipidemia was more prevalent in patients < 45 than > 65 years old. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus was more prevalent in patients > 65 old than < 45 years old; also differences were found between males and females patients, so that dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension were more prevalent in women than men. Some risk factors were recognized as acting more on one gender than the other. Also, the majority of patients have one or more risk factors, but different age and gender groups may have different risk factors that suggest the need for exact programming for appropriate prophylactic and therapeutic interventions in all groups. PMID:21913494

  13. Swine immune system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Probably no area of veterinary medicine has seen a greater explosion in knowledge then the immune system and its implications in disease and vaccination. In this chapter on the Swine Immune System for the 10th Edition of Diseases of Swine we expand on the information provided in past editions by in...

  14. Effects of Continuous Triiodothyronine Infusion on Citric Acid Cycle in the Normal Immature Swine Heart under Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-02-13

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is frequently used in infants with postoperative cardiopulmonary failure. ECMO also suppresses circulating triiodothyronine (T3) levels and modifies myocardial metabolism. We assessed the hypothesis that T3 supplementation reverses ECMO induced metabolic abnormalities in the immature heart. Twenty-two male Yorkshire pigs (age 25-38 days) with ECMO were received [2-13C]lactate, [2,4,6,8-13C]octanoate (medium chain fatty acid) and [U-13C]long-chain fatty acids as metabolic tracers either systemically (totally physiological intracoronary concentration) or directly into the coronary artery (high substrate concentration) for the last 60 minutes of each protocol. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of left ventricular tissue determined the fractional contribution (Fc) of these substrates to the citric acid cycle (CAC). Fifty percent of the pigs in each group received intravenous T3 supplement (bolus at 0.6 μg/kg and then continuous infusion at 0.2 μg/kg/hour) during ECMO. Under both substrate loading conditions T3 significantly increased lactate-Fc with a marginal increase in octanoate-Fc. Both T3 and high substrate provision increased myocardial energy status indexed by [Phosphocreatine]/[ATP]. In conclusion, T3 supplementation promoted lactate metabolism to the CAC during ECMO suggesting that T3 releases inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Manipulation of substrate utilization by T3 may be used therapeutically during ECMO to improve resting energy state and facilitate weaning.

  15. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from regions where swine... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.14 Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease...

  16. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from regions where swine... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.14 Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease...

  17. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from regions where swine... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.14 Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease...

  18. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from regions where swine... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.14 Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease...

  19. Swine Fecal Metagenomics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metagenomic approaches are providing rapid and more robust means to investigate the composition and functional genetic potential of complex microbial communities. In this study, we utilized a metagenomic approach to further understand the functional diversity of the swine gut. To...

  20. 9 CFR 94.14 - Swine from regions where swine vesicular disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from regions where swine... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED AND RESTRICTED IMPORTATIONS § 94.14 Swine from regions where...

  1. Effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in the patients that underwent CABG

    PubMed Central

    Özülkü, Mehmet; Aygün, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated effect of using pump on postoperative pleural effusion in patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods A total of 256 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in the Cardiovascular Surgery clinic were enrolled in the study. Jostra-Cobe (Model 043213 105, VLC 865, Sweden) heart-lung machine was used in on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting was performed using Octopus and Starfish. Proximal anastomoses to the aorta in both on-pump and off-pump techniques were performed by side clamps. The patients were discharged from the hospital between postoperative day 6 and day 11. Results The incidence of postoperative right pleural effusion and bilateral pleural effusion was found to be higher as a count in Group 1 (on-pump) as compared to Group 2 (off-pump). But the difference was not statistically significant [P>0.05 for right pleural effusion (P=0.893), P>0.05 for bilateral pleural effusion (P=0.780)]. Left pleural effusion was encountered to be lower in Group 2 (off-pump). The difference was found to be statistically significant (P<0.05, P=0.006). Conclusion Under the light of these results, it can be said that left pleural effusion is less prevalent in the patients that underwent off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting when compared to the patients that underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:27163421

  2. Irreversible Electroporation in a Swine Lung Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuy, Damian E.; Aswad, Bassam; Ng, Thomas

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the safety and tissue effects of IRE in a swine lung model. Methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care committee. Nine anesthetized domestic swine underwent 15 percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE) lesion creations (6 with bipolar and 3 with 3-4 monopolar electrodes) under fluoroscopic guidance and with pancuronium neuromuscular blockade and EKG gating. IRE electrodes were placed into the central and middle third of the right mid and lower lobes in all animals. Postprocedure PA and lateral chest radiographs were obtained to evaluate for pneumothorax. Three animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks and six at 4 weeks. Animals underwent high-resolution CT scanning and PA and lateral radiographs 1 h before sacrifice. The treated lungs were removed en bloc, perfused with formalin, and sectioned. Gross pathologic and microscopic changes after standard hematoxylin and eosin staining were analyzed within the areas of IRE lesion creation. Results: No significant adverse events were identified. CT showed focal areas of spiculated high density ranging in greatest diameter from 1.1-2.2 cm. On gross inspection of the sectioned lung, focal areas of tan discoloration and increased density were palpated in the areas of IRE. Histological analysis revealed focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage with fibrosis and inflammatory infiltration that respected the boundaries of the interlobular septae. No pathological difference could be discerned between the 2- and 4-week time points. The bronchioles and blood vessels within the areas of IRE were intact and did not show signs of tissue injury. Conclusion: IRE creates focal areas of diffuse alveolar damage without creating damage to the bronchioles or blood vessels. Short-term safety in a swine model appears to be satisfactory.

  3. Anesthetic management of patient with Sjogren's syndrome who underwent cesarean section: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Eun; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Jun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is one of the most common autoimmune disorders and has a female predominance. Maternal circulating autoantibodies such as anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibodies can cause congenital heart block of fetus, and in severe case, emergency pacemaker implantation may be needed for neonate. Therefore, it is very important to understand maternal and fetal condition and pay attention to the status of the neonate during delivery. In this paper, we present a case of patient with Sjogren's syndrome who underwent cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. PMID:27274376

  4. Agriculture. Swine Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for swine, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  5. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  6. Swine Influenza Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On April 24, 2009, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) confirmed an influenza epidemic was occurring in people and the genetic lineage was most closely related to influenza viruses known to be circulating in swine. The outbreak epicenter appeared to be in central Mexico and the virus spread to th...

  7. Fundus fluorescein angiographic findings in patients who underwent ventricular assist device implantation.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Taylan; Nalcaci, Serhad; Ozturk, Pelin; Engin, Cagatay; Yagdi, Tahir; Akkin, Cezmi; Ozbaran, Mustafa

    2013-09-01

    Disruption of microcirculation in various tissues as a result of deformed blood rheology due to ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation causes novel arteriovenous malformations. Capillary disturbances and related vascular leakage in the retina and choroidea may also be seen in patients supported by VADs. We aimed to evaluate retinal vasculature deteriorations after VAD implantation. The charts of 17 patients who underwent VAD implantation surgery for the treatment of end-stage heart failure were retrospectively reviewed. Eight cases (47.1%) underwent pulsatile pump implantation (Berlin Heart EXCOR, Berlin Heart Mediprodukt GmbH, Berlin, Germany); however, nine cases (52.9%) had continuous-flow pump using centrifugal design (HeartWare, HeartWare Inc., Miramar, FL, USA). Study participants were selected among the patients who had survived with a VAD for at least 6 months, and results of detailed ophthalmologic examinations including optic coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus fluorescein angiography (FA) were documented. All of the 17 patients were male, with a mean age of 48.5 ± 14.8 years (15-67 years). Detailed ophthalmologic examinations including the evaluation of retinal vascular deteriorations via FA were performed at a mean of 11.8 ± 3.7 months of follow-up (6-18 months). Mean best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure were found as logMAR 0.02 ± 0.08 and 14.6 ± 1.9 mm Hg, respectively in the study population. Dilated fundoscopy revealed severe focal arteriolar narrowing in two patients (11.8%), and arteriovenous crossing changes in four patients (23.5%); however, no pathological alteration was present in macular OCT scans. In patients with continuous-flow blood pumps, mean arm-retina circulation time (ARCT) and arteriovenous transit time (AVTT) were found to be 16.8 ± 3.0 and 12.4 ± 6.2 s, respectively; whereas those with pulsatile-flow blood pumps were found to be 17.4 ± 3.6 and 14.0 ± 2.1 s in patients (P=0.526 and P=0

  8. Resveratrol Improves Myocardial Perfusion in a Swine Model of Hypercholesterolemia and Chronic Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Robich, Michael P.; Osipov, Robert M.; Nezafat, Reza; Feng, Jun; Clements, Richard T.; Bianchi, Cesario; Boodhwani, Munir; Coady, Michael A.; Laham, Roger J.; Sellke, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Resveratrol may provide protection against coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that supplemental resveratrol will improve cardiac perfusion in the ischemic territory of swine with hypercholesterolemia and chronic myocardial ischemia. Methods and Results Yorkshire swine were fed either a normal diet (control, n=7), a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCC, n=7), or a hypercholesterolemic diet with supplemental resveratrol (100 mg/kg/day orally, HCRV, n=7). Four weeks later, an ameroid constrictor was placed on the left circumflex artery. Animals underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and coronary angiography 7 weeks later, prior to sacrifice and tissue harvest. Total cholesterol was lowered about 30% in HCRV animals (p<0.001). Regional wall motion analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in inferolateral function from baseline to 7 weeks in HCC swine (p=0.04). There was no significant change in regional function in HCRV swine from baseline to 7 weeks (p=0.32). Tissue blood flow during stress was 2.8 fold greater in HCRV swine when compared to HCC swine (p=0.04). Endothelial dependent microvascular relaxation response to Substance P was diminished in HCC swine which was rescued by resveratrol treatment (p=0.004). Capillary density (PECAM-1 staining) demonstrated fewer capillaries in both HCC and HCRV swine v. control swine (p=0.02). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated significantly greater expression in HCRV v. HCC swine of the following markers of angiogenesis: VEGF (p=0.002), peNOS(ser1177)(p=0.04), NFkB (p=0.004), and pAkt(thr308)(p=0.001). Conclusion Supplemental resveratrol attenuates regional wall motion abnormalities, improves myocardial perfusion in the collateral dependent region, preserves endothelial dependent coronary vessel function, and upregulates markers of angiogenesis associated with the VEGF signaling pathway. PMID:20837905

  9. Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connected Home » Heart Health Heath and Aging Heart Health Your Heart Changes to Your Heart With ... are both taking steps toward heart health. Your Heart Your heart is a strong muscle about the ...

  10. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine...

  11. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine...

  12. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine...

  13. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine...

  14. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.10 Interstate movement of swine...

  15. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine...

  16. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine...

  17. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  18. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.5 Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. Infected swine...

  19. [A mixed germ cell tumor that underwent dramatic size changes].

    PubMed

    Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Takai, Hiroki; Nishiyama, Akira; Hirai, Satoshi; Yokosuka, Kimihiko; Toi, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Kazuhiro; Matsubara, Shunji; Uno, Masaaki; Nishimura, Hirotake

    2014-09-01

    This report describes a mixed germ cell tumor that underwent dramatic size changes. A 12-year-old boy presented to our hospital with a headache that had persisted for two months. Initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a pineal tumor and hydrocephalus. The patient required external ventricular drainage and underwent two endoscopic biopsies. His evaluation involved a total of nine computed tomography (CT) scans prior to the second biopsy;the tumor size had decreased before the second endoscopic biopsy. The tumor consisted of both a germinoma and a teratoma component. The patient was treated with three courses of carboplatin-etoposide (CBDCA-VP) chemotherapy and whole-ventricle radiotherapy (32.1 Gy). However, during the adjuvant therapy, the tumor size increased, necessitating total tumor resection. We speculate that the tumor's initial size reduction was caused by leakage of the cyst component and exposure to the brain CT irradiation. The tumor's subsequent increase in size was due to the recollection of the cystic components and intracranial growing teratoma syndrome (iGTS). Therefore, frequent brain CTs and angiography should be avoided before definitive pathological diagnosis is achieved. Further, the tumor size should be considered, with surgical resection being performed at the optimal time. PMID:25179200

  20. Swine Worker Precautions During Suspected Outbreaks of Influenza in Swine.

    PubMed

    Paccha, Blanca; Neira-Ramirez, Victor; Gibbs, Shawn; Torremorell, Montserrat; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    To assess the behavior and precautions that swine workers take during suspected influenza outbreaks in swine, six commercial swine farms in the Midwest U.S. region were visited when influenza outbreaks were suspected in herds during the fall/winter of 2012-2013. Use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and type of task performed by swine workers were recorded based on farm representative reports. Between one to two workers were working on the day of each visit and spent approximately 25 minutes performing work-related tasks that placed them in close contact with the swine. The most common tasks reported were walking the aisles (27%), handling pigs (21%), and handling equipment (21%). The most common PPE were boots (100%), heavy rubber gloves (75%), and dedicated nondisposable clothing (74%). Use of N95 respirators was reported at three farms. Hand hygiene practices were common in most of the farms, but reportedly performed for only 20% to 25% of tasks. PMID:27263180

  1. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  2. Swine influenza virus: epidemiology and vaccine concerns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. Swine influenza virus (SIV) is a primary cause of respiratory disease in swine and a component of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Influenza viruses are an important health and economic concern for swine producers throughout the world. Swine operations may be affected by...

  3. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  4. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  5. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  6. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  7. 9 CFR 91.9 - Swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine. 91.9 Section 91.9 Animals and... EXPORTATION Diagnostic Tests, Treatments § 91.9 Swine. (a) No swine shall be exported if they were fed garbage at any time. The swine shall be accompanied by a certification from the owner stating that they...

  8. Analysis and Evaluation of Supersonic Underwing Heat Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luidens, Roger W.; Flaherty, Richard J.

    1959-01-01

    The linearized theory for heat addition under a wing has been developed to optimize wing geometry, heat addition, and angle of attack. The optimum wing has all of the thickness on the underside of the airfoil, with maximum-thickness point well downstream, has a moderate thickness ratio, and operates at an optimum angle of attack. The heat addition is confined between the fore Mach waves from under the trailing surface of the wing. By linearized theory, a wing at optimum angle of attack may have a range efficiency about twice that of a wing at zero angle of attack. More rigorous calculations using the method of characteristics for particular flow models were made for heating under a flat-plate wing and for several wings with thickness, both with heat additions concentrated near the wing. The more rigorous calculations yield in practical cases efficiencies about half those estimated by linear theory. An analysis indicates that distributing the heat addition between the fore waves from the undertrailing portion of the wing is a way of improving the performance, and further calculations appear desirable. A comparison of the conventional ramjet-plus wing with underwing heat addition when the heat addition is concentrated near the wing shows the ramjet to be superior on a range basis up to Mach number of about B. The heat distribution under the wing and the assumed ramjet and airframe performance may have a marked effect on this conclusion. Underwing heat addition can be useful in providing high-altitude maneuver capability at high flight Mach numbers for an airplane powered by conventional ramjets during cruise.

  9. Swine Hybrid Aneurysm Model for Endovascular Surgery Training

    PubMed Central

    Namba, K.; Mashio, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Higaki, A.; Nemoto, S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to develop a technically simple swine aneurysm-training model by inserting a silicone aneurysm circuit in the cervical vessels. A silicone aneurysm circuit was created by designing multiple aneurysms in size and configuration on a silicone vessel. Five swine underwent surgical implantation of this circuit in the cervical vessels: one end in the common carotid artery and the other in the external jugular vein. Using this model, an aneurysm coiling procedure was simulated under fluoroscopic guidance, roadmapping and digital subtraction angiography. Creating an aneurysm model for training purposes by this method was technically simple and enabled the formation of a wide variety of aneurysms in a single procedure. The quality of the model was uniform and the model was reproducible. Coiling training using this model resembled a realistic clinical situation. The swine hybrid aneurysm-training model was advantageous from the standpoint of technical simplicity in the creation and variety of aneurysms it provided. The swine hybrid aneurysm model may be an additional option for aneurysm coiling training. PMID:23693037

  10. Swine hybrid aneurysm model for endovascular surgery training.

    PubMed

    Namba, K; Mashio, K; Kawamura, Y; Higaki, A; Nemoto, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a technically simple swine aneurysm-training model by inserting a silicone aneurysm circuit in the cervical vessels. A silicone aneurysm circuit was created by designing multiple aneurysms in size and configuration on a silicone vessel. Five swine underwent surgical implantation of this circuit in the cervical vessels: one end in the common carotid artery and the other in the external jugular vein. Using this model, an aneurysm coiling procedure was simulated under fluoroscopic guidance, roadmapping and digital subtraction angiography. Creating an aneurysm model for training purposes by this method was technically simple and enabled the formation of a wide variety of aneurysms in a single procedure. The quality of the model was uniform and the model was reproducible. Coiling training using this model resembled a realistic clinical situation. The swine hybrid aneurysm-training model was advantageous from the standpoint of technical simplicity in the creation and variety of aneurysms it provided. The swine hybrid aneurysm model may be an additional option for aneurysm coiling training. PMID:23693037

  11. Heart transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10 years. Alternative Names Cardiac transplant; Transplant - heart; Transplantation - heart Images Heart, section through the middle Heart, ... 28. Bernstein D. Pediatric heart and heart-lung transplantation. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton ...

  12. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump enough ... failure often experience tiredness and shortness of breath. Heart Failure is Serious Heart failure is a serious and ...

  13. [Incidence of conduction disorders in patients who underwent surgery for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Martini, B; Buja, G F; Bassan, L; Rizzardo, P; Canciani, B; Nava, A

    1989-03-01

    Thirteen non-consecutive patients, aging 7 to 61 (average 27) years, underwent left ventricular myotomy-myectomy for a severely symptomatic idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS). In all patients the resting ECG before surgery showed P-R less than 0.18 sec, QRS duration less than 0.11 sec, QRS axis ranging from +10 to +80 degrees. In the immediate post-surgical period 3 patients has complete heart block and 1 had 2nd degree type 2 atrio ventricular block. Lesion was infra-Hisian in 3 patients and intra-Hisian in 1 patient. In the remaining 9 patients an immediate post-surgical left bundle branch block appeared; in 3 out of these patients ECG and an electrophysiologic study documented severe infra-Hisian conduction impairments after an average period of 4 years from surgery. During follow-up 3 patients died suddenly. PMID:2747944

  14. Periodontal status of patient’s underwent hemodialysis therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jenabian, Niloofar; Ghazi Mirsaeed, Ali Mohammad; Ehsani, Hodis; Kiakojori, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic renal failure patients undergoing hemodialysis are susceptible to periodontal diseases due to systemic complications of the disease and using different drugs. The present study investigated the periodontal status of patient’s who underwent hemodialysis, in Babol, northern Iran. Methods: One-hundred-fifteen hemodialysis patients (63 males, 52 females) with the mean age of 47.9±15.3 years were studied at Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Babol, Iran. Periodontal parameters including plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PPD) were measured in these patients. The data were collected and analyzed. Results: The PI, GI, CAL and PPD were 2.37±0.55, 2.36±0.63, 3.98±1.61 and 4.41±1.4, respectively. Significant positive correlations were found between the participants’ age and PI (p<0.024) and p<0.001, respectively. Also, CAL was significantly higher in males than females (4.39±1.57 vs. 3.53±1.56, p<0.02). Conclusion: The results show that longer duration of hemodialysis is associated with severe periodontal diseases, especially in males. PMID:24009955

  15. African swine fever.

    PubMed

    Penrith, Mary-Louise

    2009-03-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100% mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents--Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959) and the Caucasus (2007). It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus. PMID:19967933

  16. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent or treat swine flu. There is a vaccine available to protect against swine flu. You can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza by Covering your nose and mouth with a ...

  17. 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159679.html 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico Genetic analysis pinpoints source ... FRIDAY, July 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The 2009 swine flu pandemic originated in pigs in a small ...

  18. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  19. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  20. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  1. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  2. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  3. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  4. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  5. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    MedlinePlus

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... of the H1N1 virus were found in pigs (swine). Over time, the virus changed (mutated) and infected ... 25654610 . Treanor JJ. Influenza (including avian influenza and swine influenza). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  6. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  7. 9 CFR 311.5 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 311.5 Section 311.5... CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.5 Swine erysipelas. Carcasses affected with swine erysipelas which is acute or generalized, or which show systemic change,...

  8. 9 CFR 309.9 - Swine erysipelas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine erysipelas. 309.9 Section 309.9... CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.9 Swine erysipelas. All hogs plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection that they are affected with acute swine erysipelas shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  9. Blunt atrial transseptal puncture using excimer laser in swine

    PubMed Central

    Elagha, Abdalla A.; Kim, Ann H.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Lederman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We describe a new approach that may enhance safety of atrial transseptal puncture, using a commercially available laser catheter that is capable of perforation only when energized. We test this approach in swine. Background Despite wide application, conventional needle transseptal puncture continues to risk inadvertent non-target perforation and its consequences. Methods We used a commercial excimer laser catheter (0.9mm Clirpath, Spectranetics). Perforation force was compared in vitro with a conventional Brockenbrough needle. Eight swine underwent laser transseptal puncture under X-ray fluoroscopy steered using a variety of delivery catheters. Results The 0.9mm laser catheter traversed in vitro targets with reduced force compared with a Brockenbrough needle. In vitro, the laser catheter created holes that were 25–30% larger than the Brockenbrough needle. Laser puncture of the atrial septum was successful and accurate in all animals, evidenced by oximetry, pressure, angiography, and necropsy. The laser catheter was steered effectively using a modified Mullins introducer sheath and using two different deflectable guiding catheters. The mean procedure time was 15 ± 6 minutes, with an average 3.0 ± 0.8 seconds of laser activation. There were no adverse sequelae after prolonged observation. Necropsy revealed discrete 0.9mm holes in all septae. Conclusion Laser puncture of the interatrial septum is feasible and safe in swine, using a blunt laser catheter that perforates tissues in a controlled fashion. PMID:17896413

  10. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  11. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Watson, Adrienne L; Carlson, Daniel F; Largaespada, David A; Hackett, Perry B; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications. PMID:27242889

  12. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Adrienne L.; Carlson, Daniel F.; Largaespada, David A.; Hackett, Perry B.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications. PMID:27242889

  13. Swine in biomedical research. Vol. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: hemodynamic characteristics of the conscious resting pig; cardiovascular and metabolic responses to acute and chronic exercise in swine (ILLEGIBLE) a large animal model for studies (ILLEGIBLE) effects of heparin-protamine interaction in swine - intravenous vs. intraarterial; swine as animal models in cardiovascular research; studies of coronary thrombosis in swine with von Willebrand's disease; role of plasma intermediate and low density lipoproteins in early atherogenesis in hyperlipidemic swine; swine as a model in renal physiology and nephrology; the pig as a model for studying kidney disease in man; hypertension of renal origin and the effects of Captopril in miniature pigs; porcine natural killer/killer cell system; the behavior of pig lymphocyte populations in vivo; a review of spontaneous and experimental porcine eperythrozoonosis; and Sinclair swine melanoma.

  14. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  15. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.505 Certificate for swine. (a) All swine... veterinarian issuing the certificate was authorized to do so, stating that such swine have been kept in...

  16. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  17. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.505 Certificate for swine. (a) All swine... veterinarian issuing the certificate was authorized to do so, stating that such swine have been kept in...

  18. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  19. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  20. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding area standards. Untreated garbage shall not be allowed into swine feeding areas. Any equipment or...

  1. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.505 Certificate for swine. (a) All swine... veterinarian issuing the certificate was authorized to do so, stating that such swine have been kept in...

  2. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.505 Certificate for swine. (a) All swine... veterinarian issuing the certificate was authorized to do so, stating that such swine have been kept in...

  3. 9 CFR 93.505 - Certificate for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certificate for swine. 93.505 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.505 Certificate for swine. (a) All swine... veterinarian issuing the certificate was authorized to do so, stating that such swine have been kept in...

  4. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  5. Multiple-dose study of oral pyridostigmine in swine. Interim report, January 1986-January 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, C.E.; Waring, P.P.; Trail, D.S.; Williams, B.F.; Bonner, G.D.

    1987-03-01

    The hemodynamic, metabolic, and hormonal responses to pyridostigmine treatment were evaluated in immature swine(20.7 + or - 0.5 kg). Pyridostigmine bromide was administered orally three times per day at 60 mg per dose. Animals receiving treatment (n=12) were compared to a group with no treatment (n=14). After three days of treatment, plasma and erythrocyte cholinesterase activities were reduced by 31% and 47%, respectively. Blood gases, heart rate, and blood pressure were not different. Pyridostigmine tended to increase blood glucose levels and elevated hematocrits 26 to 29%. Treatment with 60 mg of pyridostigmine three times daily for three days reduced acetylcholinesterase activity as desired in man for prophylactic treatment against possible exposure to nerve agents. In swine this degree of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity was associated with an index of stress, a slight increase in hematocrit. Swine appear to offer an effective animal model in which to evaluate pyridostigmine treatment.

  6. Swine Influenza Virus: Emerging Understandings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: In March-April 2009, a novel pandemic H1N1 emerged in the human population in North America [1]. The gene constellation of the emerging virus was demonstrated to be a combination of genes from swine influenza A viruses (SIV) of North American and Eurasian lineages that had never before...

  7. Energy conservation in swine buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.D.; Friday, W.H.

    1980-05-01

    Saving energy in confinement swine buildings can be achieved by conserving existing animal heat through both proper building construction and control of the environment. Environmental management practices considered include building insulation and modifications, heating and cooling system selection, ventilation system adjustments, and proper building temperature. (MCW)

  8. STATE OF THE ART: SWINE WASTE PRODUCTION AND PRETREATMENT PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A review of waste generation and pretreatment processes was compiled, expanded, and interpreted for the swine production industry. Typical swine units based upon waste management techniques were detailed as concrete slab facilities, slotted floorpit units, and swine drylot or pas...

  9. C1 Inhibitor Limits Organ Injury and Prolongs Survival in Swine Subjected to Battlefield Simulated Injury.

    PubMed

    Campbell, James C; Li, Yansong; van Amersfoort, Edwin; Relan, Anurag; Dubick, Michael; Sheppard, Forest; Pusateri, Anthony; Niemeyer, Debra; Tsokos, George C; Dalle Lucca, Jurandir J

    2016-09-01

    Complement system activation is recognized as a deleterious component of the mammalian physiological response to traumatic injury with severe hemorrhage (TH). Female Yorkshire swine were subjected to a simulated austere prehospital battlefield scenario. Each animal underwent controlled hemorrhage of 22 mL/kg at 100 mL/min rate for approximately 10 min followed by soft tissue injury, femur fracture, and spleen injury. Subsequent blood loss was uncontrolled. Twenty-eight minutes postinjury the animals were randomized into treatment or no treatment with recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) (500 IU/kg, n = 11) and into receiving or not permissive hypotensive resuscitation (n = 14) with infusion of 45 mL/kg lactated Ringer's solution (2× blood lost). Observation and animal maintenance continued for 6 h at which time the animals had either expired or were euthanized. Heart, lung, and small intestine tissue samples were collected. Pharmacokinetic, hemodynamic, and metabolic parameters as well as survival time, plasma complement activity and tissue deposition, cytokine levels, and tissue injury were determined. We found that administration of C1INH protected tissues from damage, reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines, and improved blood chemistry. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that C1INH administration following TH markedly reduced complement activation and deposition in tissues. Importantly, C1INH administration prolonged survival of animals particularly in those which received resuscitation fluid infusion. Our data urge early administration of C1INH to limit organ damage and prolong survival of those injured in the battlefield. PMID:27405065

  10. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL...

  11. African swine fever virus serotype-specific proteins are significant protective antigens for African swine fever

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    African swine fever (ASF) is an emerging disease threat for the swine industry worldwide. No ASF vaccine is available and progress is hindered by lack of knowledge concerning the extent of African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain diversity and the viral antigens conferring type specific protective im...

  12. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL...

  13. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL...

  14. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL...

  15. Open heart surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass graft - CABG) Heart transplant Heart valve surgery Hypoplastic left heart repair Minimally ... Heart bypass surgery Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive Heart transplant Heart valve surgery Hypoplastic left heart syndrome Patent ...

  16. Swine in biomedical research. V. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.

  17. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... infarction; Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction; NSTEMI; CAD-heart attack; Coronary artery disease-heart attack ... made up of cholesterol and other cells. A heart attack may occur when: A tear in the ...

  18. Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... Block Explore Heart Block What Is... Electrical System & EKG Results Types Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & ... heart block. Doctors use a test called an EKG (electrocardiogram) to help diagnose heart block. This test ...

  19. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack treatment works best when it's given right after symptoms occur. Prompt treatment of a heart attack can help prevent or limit damage to the heart and prevent sudden death. Call 9-1-1 Right Away A heart ...

  20. Heart Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incredible Machine Bonus poster (PDF) The Human Heart Anatomy Blood The Conduction System The Coronary Arteries The ... of the Leg Vasculature of the Torso Heart anatomy illustrations and animations for grades K-6. Heart ...

  1. Induced Parturition in Swine Herds

    PubMed Central

    King, G. J.; Robertson, H. A.; Elliot, J. I.

    1979-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of various levels of prostaglandin F2α were administered to 116 pregnant swine in three commercial herds and the University research unit on Day 111, 112 or 113 of gestation. Sixty-three percent of the treated animals farrowed during the working day immediately following treatment. The parturition time, birth weight, litter size, number of piglets weaned, growth of the piglets to weaning and subsequent rebreeding of the dams were comparable with the expected performance in the herds. The results indicated that prostaglandin F2α in doses ranging from 5 to 12.5 mg per animal were effective for induction of parturition in a substantial proportion of the treated animals. Successful induction of parturition could reduce the farrowing interval for batches, allow more supervision of farrowing, facilitate transfer of piglets from large to small litters and generally increase efficiency in the farrowing unit. This technique could have practical application in intensive swine production units. PMID:466637

  2. Heart attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a heart attack take part in a cardiac rehabilitation program. ... al. eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014: ...

  3. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Anubhav; Aiyer, Palash; Jhajhria, Narender Singh; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in swine flu, or H1N1 influenza A infection, is a rare phenomenon and only few cases have been reported in children. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu. PMID:25939913

  4. Controlling Swine Odor with Natural Windbreaks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of malodor from swine facilities are an increasing environmental concern for swine producers and nearby local communities. Use of natural windbreaks for odor abatement is recent and the science in support of using windbreaks for this purpose is limited. To provide sound science to the stu...

  5. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in the Federal Register on October 26, 2009 (74 FR 54928), inviting... and Stockyards Administration 9 CFR Part 206 RIN 0580-AB06 Swine Contract Library AGENCY: Grain... (1999 Act) by establishing the Swine Contract Library (SCL). The statutory authority for the...

  6. Summary of Control Issues for Swine Influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple subtypes of endemic swine influenza virus (SIV) co-circulate in the U.S. and Canada (H3N2, H1N1, and H1N2 with a triple reassortant internal gene (TRIG) constellation derived from swine, avian and human influenza viruses). As a result of reassortment events and antigenic drift, four H1 SIV...

  7. Advances in Swine biomedical Model Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is a short update on the diversity of swine biomedical models and the importance of genomics in their continued development. The swine has been used as a major mammalian model for human studies because of the similarity in size and physiology, and in organ development and disease pro...

  8. Hemodynamic parameters of anesthetized pigs: a comparative study of farm piglets and Göttingen and Yucatan miniature swine.

    PubMed

    Benharkate, M; Zanini, V; Blanc, R; Boucheix, O; Coyez, F; Genevois, J P; Pairet, M

    1993-02-01

    We studied the evolution in time of the main hemodynamic parameters in farm piglets and Göttingen and Yucatan miniature swine anesthetized with droperidol, flunitrazepam, and alpha-chloralose. Measurements included arterial pressure, heart rate, intraventricular pressure, and maximum rate of increase during contraction (dp/dt max). For each parameter and each strain of swine, we determined the mean stability period defined as the longest period of time during which the observed values ranged between their mean value +/- 15% and the mean absolute values during the stability period. In our experimental conditions, the parameters remained constant for 2 to 3.5 hours. Only minor interstrain variations were noticed. PMID:8459680

  9. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  10. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  11. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  12. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  13. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  14. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  15. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  16. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  17. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  18. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  19. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do I need to provide swine contract information? Each packer, as defined in § 206.1, must...

  20. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  1. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  2. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  3. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  4. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  5. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  6. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  7. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do I need to provide swine contract information? Each packer, as defined in § 206.1, must...

  8. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be...

  9. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  10. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or cream from swine quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  11. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be...

  12. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  13. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or cream from swine quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  14. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  15. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be...

  16. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  17. 9 CFR 113.44 - Swine safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine safety test. 113.44 Section 113... Procedures § 113.44 Swine safety test. The swine safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when.... (1) Inject each of two swine of the minimum age for which the product is recommended with...

  18. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  19. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or cream from swine quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  20. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  1. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  2. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  3. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  4. Introduction to Swine Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to swine production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the swine industry; (2) breeds of swine; (3) principles of swine selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (6) industry…

  5. 9 CFR 311.20 - Sexual odor of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sexual odor of swine. 311.20 Section... Sexual odor of swine. (a) Carcasses of swine which give off a pronounced sexual odor shall be condemned. (b) The meat of swine carcasses which give off a sexual odor less than pronounced may be passed...

  6. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  7. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  8. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  9. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be...

  10. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  11. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  12. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  13. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do I need to provide swine contract information? Each packer, as defined in § 206.1, must...

  14. 9 CFR 93.521 - Declaration for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for swine. 93.521 Section... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Mexico 9 § 93.521 Declaration for swine. For all swine offered for importation from Mexico, the importer or his or her agent shall present two copies...

  15. 9 CFR 93.517 - Swine from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from Canada. 93.517 Section 93... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.517 Swine from Canada. (a) For purposes other than immediate slaughter. Swine offered for importation from Canada for purposes other than immediate...

  16. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do I need to provide swine contract information? Each packer, as defined in § 206.1, must...

  17. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  18. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  19. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  20. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  1. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No litter..., or other things used for or about swine governed by the regulations in this part, shall be...

  2. 9 CFR 93.511 - Swine quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine quarantine facilities. 93.511... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.511 Swine quarantine facilities. (a) Privately operated quarantine facilities. The importer, or his or her agent, of swine subject to...

  3. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  4. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine. (a) Destination. Brucellosis reactor swine may be moved interstate only for immediate slaughter as follows:...

  5. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or cream from swine quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  6. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  7. 9 CFR 93.513 - Milk from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Milk from quarantined swine. 93.513... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.513 Milk from quarantined swine. Milk or cream from swine quarantined under the provisions of this part shall not be used by any person...

  8. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine. (a) Brucellosis exposed swine may be moved interstate only if accompanied by a permit and only for...

  9. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do I need to provide swine contract information? Each packer, as defined in § 206.1, must...

  10. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get help immediately. It's ... few hours causes the affected heart muscle to die. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  11. Heart Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  12. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  13. Heart Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... re like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. ... disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is ...

  14. Different evolutionary patterns of classical swine fever virus envelope proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Yang, Zexiao; Zhang, Mingwang

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever, which is a highly contagious disease of the domestic pig as well as wild boar. The proteins E(rns), E1, and E2 are components of the viral envelope membrane. They are also implicated in virus attachment and entry, replication, and (or) anti-immune response. Here, we studied the genetic variations of these envelope proteins in the evolution of CSFV. The results reveal that the envelope proteins underwent different evolutionary fates. In E(rns) and E1, but not E2, a number of amino acid sites experienced functional divergence. Furthermore, the diversification in E(rns) and E1 was generally episodic because the divergence-related changes of E1 only occurred with the separation of 2 major groups of CSFV and that of E(rns) took place with the division of 1 major group. The major divergence-related sites of E(rns) are located on one of the substrate-binding regions of the RNase domain and C-terminal extension. These functional domains have been reported to block activation of the innate immune system and attachment and entry into host cells, respectively. Our results may shed some light on the divergent roles of the envelope proteins. PMID:26911308

  15. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.6 Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with...

  16. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.6 Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with...

  17. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.6 Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with...

  18. 76 FR 28910 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 98 Importation of Live Swine, Swine... Europe that we recognize as low risk for classical swine fever (CSF). We are also proposing to add Liechtenstein to the list of regions we consider free from swine vesicular disease (SVD) and to the list...

  19. Completion of the swine genome will simplify the production of swine as a large animal biomedical model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anatomic and physiological similarities to the human make swine an excellent large animal model for human health and disease. Methods Cloning from a modified somatic cell, which can be determined in cells prior to making the animal, is the only method available for the production of targeted modifications in swine. Results Since some strains of swine are similar in size to humans, technologies that have been developed for swine can be readily adapted to humans and vice versa. Here the importance of swine as a biomedical model, current technologies to produce genetically enhanced swine, current biomedical models, and how the completion of the swine genome will promote swine as a biomedical model are discussed. Conclusions The completion of the swine genome will enhance the continued use and development of swine as models of human health, syndromes and conditions. PMID:23151353

  20. Comparison of isoflurane and α-chloralose in an anesthetized swine model of acute pulmonary embolism producing right ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Beam, Daren M; Neto-Neves, Evandro M; Stubblefield, William B; Alves, Nathan J; Tune, Johnathan D; Kline, Jeffrey A

    2015-02-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a leading cause of sudden cardiac death, and a model is needed for testing potential treatments. In developing a model, we compared the hemodynamic effects of isoflurane and α-chloralose in an acute swine model of PE because the choice of anesthesia will likely affect the cardiovascular responses of an animal to PE. At baseline, swine that received α-chloralose (n = 6) had a lower heart rate and cardiac output and higher SpO2, end-tidal CO2, and mean arterial pressure than did those given isoflurane (n = 9). After PE induction, swine given α-chloralose compared with isoflurane exhibited a lower heart rate (63 ± 10 compared with 116 ± 15 bpm) and peripheral arterial pressure (52 ± 12 compared with 61 ± 12 mm Hg); higher SpO2 (98% ± 3% compared with 95% ± 1%), end-tidal CO2 (35 ± 4 compared with 32 ± 5), and systolic blood pressure (121 ± 8 compared with 104 ± 20 mm Hg); and equivalent right ventricular:left ventricular ratios (1.32 ± 0.50 compared with 1.23 ± 0.19) and troponin I mean values (0.09 ± 0.07 ng/mL compared with 0.09 ± 0.06 ng/mL). Isoflurane was associated with widely variable fibrinogen and activated partial thromboplastin time. Intraexperiment mortality was 0 of 6 animals for α-chloralose and 2 of 9 swine for isoflurane. All swine anesthetized with α-chloralose survived with sustained pulmonary hypertension, RV-dilation-associated cardiac injury without the confounding vasodilatory or coagulatory effects of isoflurane. These data demonstrate the physiologic advantages of α-chloralose over isoflurane for anesthesia in a swine model of severe submassive PE. PMID:25730758

  1. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    PubMed

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Sheetu; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition. PMID:27051116

  2. Heart palpitations

    MedlinePlus

    Heart palpitations can be due to: Anxiety, stress, panic attack, or fear Caffeine intake Nicotine intake Cocaine or other illegal drugs Diet pills Exercise Fever However, some palpitations are due to an abnormal heart rhythm, ...

  3. Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/Go4Life Heart Health Just like an engine makes a car go, your heart keeps your ... all at once —10-minute periods will do. Start by doing activities you enjoy—brisk walking, dancing, ...

  4. Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... with heart disease? What do my cholesterol and triglyceride numbers mean? How can I lower my cholesterol? ... weight Know your numbers (blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides) You can reduce your chances of getting heart ...

  5. Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  6. Heart pacemaker

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 ounce. Most pacemakers have 2 parts: The generator contains the battery and the information to control ... are wires that connect the heart to the generator and carry the electrical messages to the heart. ...

  7. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... arrhythmias) The use of toxic substances (such as alcohol or drug abuse) Congenital heart defect (a heart problem you were born with) Diabetes Thyroid problems Diagnosis & Tests How will my doctor know if I ...

  8. Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... a million people in the U.S. have a heart attack. About half of them die. Many people have permanent heart damage or die because they don't get ... It's important to know the symptoms of a heart attack and call 9-1-1 if someone ...

  9. A swine model of infarct-related reentrant ventricular tachycardia: Electroanatomic, magnetic resonance, and histopathological characterization

    PubMed Central

    Tschabrunn, Cory M.; Roujol, Sébastien; Nezafat, Reza; Faulkner-Jones, Beverly; Buxton, Alfred E.; Josephson, Mark E.; Anter, Elad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Human ventricular tachycardia (VT) after myocardial infarction usually occurs because of subendocardial reentrant circuits originating in scar tissue that borders surviving myocardial bundles. Several preclinical large animal models have been used to further study postinfarct reentrant VT, but with varied experimental methodologies and limited evaluation of the underlying substrate or induced arrhythmia mechanism. OBJECTIVE We aimed to develop and characterize a swine model of scar-related reentrant VT. METHODS Thirty-five Yorkshire swine underwent 180-minute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Thirty-one animals (89%) survived the 6–8-week survival period. These animals underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging followed by electrophysiology study, detailed electroanatomic mapping, and histopathological analysis. RESULTS Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction measured using CMR imaging was 36% ± 6.6% with anteroseptal wall motion abnormality and late gadolinium enhancement across 12.5% ± 4.1% of the LV surface area. Low voltage measured using endocardial electroanatomic mapping encompassed 11.1% ± 3.5% of the LV surface area (bipolar voltage ≤1.5 mV) with anterior, anteroseptal, and anterolateral involvement. Reentrant circuits mapped were largely determined by functional rather than fix anatomical barriers, consistent with “pseudo-block” due to anisotropic conduction. Sustained monomorphic VT was induced in 28 of 31 swine (90%) (67 VTs; 2.4 ± 1.1; range 1–4) and characterized as reentry. VT circuits were subendocardial, with an arrhythmogenic substrate characterized by transmural anterior scar with varying degrees of fibrosis and myocardial fiber disarray on the septal and lateral borders. CONCLUSION This is a well-characterized swine model of scar-related subendocardial reentrant VT. This model can serve as the basis for further investigation in the physiology and therapeutics of humanlike postinfarction

  10. Heart within a Heart

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jainil; Shah, Sunay; Modi, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    Device based closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) has emerged as a viable approach for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with contraindications to chronic oral anticoagulation. One of the most feared complications is device related thrombus formation. We present a 66-year-old male with chronic AF who developed a life-threatening intracranial bleed on oral anti-coagulation. He subsequently underwent LAA closure using an Amplatzer muscular ventricular septal defect closure device for stroke prevention. However, he was found to have a large thrombus attached to the device a year later. We present a review of the various LAA closure devices, importance of periodic surveillance via echocardiography and management options to prevent this complication. Also, the case highlights the importance of contrast-enhance echocardiography in diagnosis of LAA closure device thrombus. PMID:27081446

  11. Heart within a Heart.

    PubMed

    Jain, Tarun; Shah, Jainil; Shah, Sunay; Modi, Shalini

    2016-03-01

    Device based closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) has emerged as a viable approach for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with contraindications to chronic oral anticoagulation. One of the most feared complications is device related thrombus formation. We present a 66-year-old male with chronic AF who developed a life-threatening intracranial bleed on oral anti-coagulation. He subsequently underwent LAA closure using an Amplatzer muscular ventricular septal defect closure device for stroke prevention. However, he was found to have a large thrombus attached to the device a year later. We present a review of the various LAA closure devices, importance of periodic surveillance via echocardiography and management options to prevent this complication. Also, the case highlights the importance of contrast-enhance echocardiography in diagnosis of LAA closure device thrombus. PMID:27081446

  12. Incidence of salmonellae in fecal samples of production swine and swine at slaughter plants in the United States in 1978.

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, G A; Fagerberg, D J; Quarles, C L; George, B A; Wagner, D E; Rollins, L D

    1980-01-01

    Nine swine slaughter plants and 19 swine production units were randomly selected for sampling from the six highest swine-producing states representing a total of 64% of the United States swine production. Three composites of 10 fresh swine fecal samples were obtained from each slaughter plant, representing three different farm sources of swine. Two composite fecal samples were collected from two different production pens from each production unit. Samples were analyzed for salmonellae. Isolated salmonellae were biochemically and serologically identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility and resistance transfer ability. Salmonellae were recovered from swine at seven of the nine slaughter plants and 16 of the 27 composites of slaughter swine. Of the 19 production units, 3 had swine shedding salmonellae. Resistances found included streptomycin, tetracycline, and sulfadiazine. Of the 52 total isolates tested, 71% had some level of antibiotic resistance. Only 3 of 37 resistant isolated could transfer resistance under the conditions used. PMID:7425616

  13. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Variant Influenza Viruses: Background and CDC Risk Assessment and Reporting Language: ... Background CDC Assessment Reporting Background On Variant Influenza Viruses Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. ...

  14. Swine in biomedical research. V. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the effect of dietary fiber on growing pigs; preparation of a cerebral perfusion model in the pig - anatomic considerations; a review of the utilization of lactose, glucose, sucrose, and cornstarch by neonatal piglets reared artificially; histology of piglet liver, swine hematology; use of swine as a model of musculoskeletal growth in animals; boar and human sperm as cellular models for membrane phospholipiid biosynthesis and degradation; a stereotaxic atlas of the developing swine (Sus Scrofa) forebrain; the effect of ethanol on liver mitochondrial Ca++-uptake; control of feed intake in pigs; the pig as a model of abberations associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; whey and cholesterol in swine; vitamin and mineral nutrition and malnutrition; cadmium absorption, distribution and excretion in young and adult minature swine; a piglet model for infant total parenteral nutrition studies; swine in perinatal research; the endocrine pancreas of the fetal pig; cardiovascular physiology of the pig fetus; and the effect of sow's milk versus formula on the superior mesenteric blood flow of newborn piglets.

  15. Antimicrobial use in swine production and its effect on the swine gut microbiota and antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Holman, Devin B; Chénier, Martin R

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobials have been used in swine production at subtherapeutic levels since the early 1950s to increase feed efficiency and promote growth. In North America, a number of antimicrobials are available for use in swine. However, the continuous administration of subtherapeutic, low concentrations of antimicrobials to pigs also provides selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants. For this reason, subtherapeutic antimicrobial use in livestock remains a source of controversy and concern. The swine gut microbiota demonstrates a number of changes in response to antimicrobial administration depending on the dosage, duration of treatment, age of the pigs, and gut location that is sampled. Both culture-independent and -dependent studies have also shown that the swine gut microbiota contains a large number of antimicrobial resistance determinants even in the absence of antimicrobial exposure. Heavy metals, such as zinc and copper, which are often added at relatively high doses to swine feed, may also play a role in maintaining antimicrobial resistance and in the stability of the swine gut microbiota. This review focuses on the use of antimicrobials in swine production, with an emphasis on the North American regulatory context, and their effect on the swine gut microbiota and on antimicrobial resistance determinants in the gut microbiota. PMID:26414105

  16. Patterns of gene expression in swine macrophages infected with classical swine fever virus detected by microarray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease of swine that is characterized by fever, hemorrhage, leukopenia, abortion, and high mortality. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is classified as a Pestivirus, along with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) and Border Disease Virus...

  17. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  18. 9 CFR 85.5 - Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of infected swine or exposed swine. 85.5 Section 85.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND...

  19. Mutations in the classical swine fever virus NS4B protein affects virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), the etiological agent of a severe, highly lethal disease of swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the NS4B protein of highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Inte...

  20. Mutations in classical swine fever virus NS4B affect virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a virus causing a severe disease in swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of NS4B in highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor like domain (TIR...

  1. Colorectal endometriosis: benefits of long-term follow-up in patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Stepniewska, Anna; Pomini, Paola; Guerriero, Massimo; Scioscia, Marco; Ruffo, Giacomo; Minelli, Luca

    2010-05-01

    In this retrospective cohort study, three groups of patients were included: 60 women who underwent endometriosis surgery with colorectal segmental resection, 40 women with surgical evidence of bowel endometriosis who underwent endometriosis removal without bowel resection, and 55 women affected by moderate or severe endometriosis with at least one endometrioma and deep infiltrating endometriosis but without bowel involvement. The results of a long-term ambulatory follow-up showed that if colorectal endometriosis was present, postoperative pain regression was more frequent, and among patients with bowel endometriosis the rate of recurrence was lower if segmental resection was performed. PMID:19836731

  2. Prevalence and Prognostic Value of Right Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction in Patients With Constrictive Pericarditis Who Underwent Pericardiectomy.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Muhammad W; Homsi, Mohamed; Mastouri, Ronald; Feigenbaum, Harvey; Sawada, Stephen G

    2015-08-01

    Impaired right ventricular systolic function (RVSF) may complicate the treatment of constrictive pericarditis (CP) by pericardiectomy, which is a procedure that remains with significant morbidity and mortality. We evaluated RVSF in patients with CP who underwent pericardiectomy to determine the prognostic value of RVSF. RVSF was assessed by measuring Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion (TAPSE) in 35 patients (mean age 52 ± 15.4 years) who underwent pericardiectomy. Thirty-one patients (88.6%) had reduced RVSF (TAPSE ≤1.8 cm). Eight patients (23%) had postoperative events (heart failure 3 and hospital mortality 5). Logistic regression showed that concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (p = 0.052), left ventricular ejection fraction (p = 0.059), left atrial diameter (p = 0.028), and TAPSE (p = 0.016) were borderline or significant univariate predictors of events. TAPSE (p = 0.018, odds ratio = 0.605 [0.40 to 0.92]) and CABG (p = 0.033, odds ratio = 20 [1.26 to 315]) were independent predictors of events on multivariate analysis. Stepwise analysis showed that TAPSE provided incremental prognostic value (p = 0.029, chi-square increase 11.6 to 16.3) to the combination of CABG, ejection fraction, and left atrial diameter. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.815 for TAPSE. TAPSE of 1.38 cm had a sensitivity of 88% and specificity of 67% for identifying patients with events. TAPSE was also inversely related to the length of hospital stay after pericardiectomy (p = 0.02, R = -0.424). Hence, our study showed that RVSF is frequently reduced in patients with CP who underwent pericardiectomy. In conclusion, TAPSE is an independent predictor of events and provides incremental prognostic value to other clinical and echocardiographic variables. PMID:26048852

  3. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  4. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI = 0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI = 1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI = 1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  5. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky; Anderson, Tavis K; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron Am; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit; Peiris, Js Malik; Saito, Takehiko; Simon, Gaelle; Skepner, Eugene; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Webby, Richard J; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brookes, Sharon M; Larsen, Lars; Watson, Simon J; Brown, Ian H; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds complexity to the risk profiles for the movement of swine and the potential for swine-derived infections in humans. PMID:27113719

  6. Heart regeneration.

    PubMed

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. PMID:26597703

  7. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    HLHS; Congenital heart - hypoplastic left heart; Cyanotic heart disease - hypoplastic left heart ... Hypoplastic left heart is a rare type of congenital heart disease. It is more common in males than in females. As ...

  8. Ex Vivo Rehabilitation of Non-Heart-Beating Donor Lungs in a Preclinical Porcine Model: Delayed Perfusion Results in Superior Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Mulloy, Daniel P.; Stone, Matthew L.; Crosby, Ivan K.; LaPar, Damien J.; Sharma, Ashish K.; Webb, David V.; Lau, Christine L.; Laubach, Victor E.; Kron, Irving L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a promising modality for the evaluation and treatment of marginal donor lungs. The optimal timing of EVLP initiation and potential for rehabilitation of donor lungs with extended warm-ischemic times is unknown. This study compares the efficacy of different treatment strategies for uncontrolled non-heart-beating donor lungs. Methods Mature swine underwent hypoxic arrest followed by 60 minutes of no-touch warm-ischemia. Lungs were harvested and flushed with 4°C Perfadex®. Three groups (n=5/group) were stratified according to preservation method: cold-static preservation (CSP: 4 hrs 4°C storage), immediate EVLP (I-EVLP: 4 hrs EVLP at 37°C), and delayed EVLP (D-EVLP: 4 hrs cold storage followed by 4 hrs EVLP). EVLP groups were perfused with Steen solution™ supplemented with heparin, methylprednisolone, cefazolin, and an adenosine 2A receptor agonist. Lungs then underwent allotransplantation and four hours of recipient reperfusion prior to allograft assessment for resultant ischemia-reperfusion injury. Results Donor blood oxygenation (PO2:FiO2) prior to euthanasia was not different between groups. Oxygenation after transplantation was significantly higher in the D-EVLP group compared to the I-EVLP or CSP groups. Mean airway pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and expression of IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α were all significantly reduced in the D-EVLP group. Importantly, post-transplant oxygenation exceeded acceptable clinical levels only in D-EVLP lungs. Conclusions Uncontrolled non-heart-beating donor lungs with extended warm-ischemia can be reconditioned for successful transplantation. The combination of CSP and EVLP present in the D-EVLP group was necessary to obtain optimal post-transplant function. This finding, if confirmed clinically, will allow expanded use of non-heart-beating donor lungs. PMID:22944084

  9. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine....

  10. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine....

  11. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine....

  12. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine....

  13. 7 CFR 59.204 - Mandatory weekly reporting for swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for swine. 59.204 Section 59.204 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.204 Mandatory weekly reporting for swine....

  14. Recoding classical swine fever virus (CSFV) structural glycoprotein E2 produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) involves vaccination in endemic regions and preemptive slaughter of infected swine herds during epidemics. Generally, live attenuated vaccines induce solid immunity. Using diverse approaches, reverse genetics has been useful in developing classical swine fever...

  15. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A; Zugck, Christian; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136

  16. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A.; Zugck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136

  17. Symptomatic effects of exposure to diluted air sampled from a swine confinement atmosphere on healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Susan S; Studwell, Clare E; Landerman, Lawrence R; Berman, Katherine; Sundy, John S

    2005-05-01

    Aerial emissions from a swine house at North Carolina State University's field laboratory were diluted to a level that could occur at varying distances downwind from a confined animal feeding operation (CAFO) both within and beyond the property line, and these emissions were delivered to an environmental exposure chamber. The study design consisted of two 1-hr sessions, one in which 48 healthy human adult volunteers were exposed to diluted swine air and another in which they were exposed to clean air (control). Objective measures of blood pressure, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, lung function, nasal inflammation, secretory immunity, mood, attention, and memory were correlated with objective measures of air quality. Ratings of perceived (self-reported) health symptoms were also obtained. The mean levels of airborne constituents in the swine air condition were hydrogen sulfide (24 ppb), ammonia (817 ppb), total suspended particulates (0.0241 mg/m3), endotoxin (7.40 endotoxin units/m3), and odor (57 times above odor threshold). No statistical differences on objective measures of physical symptoms, mood, or attention resulted from the 1-hr exposure to swine emissions in the environmental chamber when compared with clean air for healthy human volunteers. However, subjects were 4.1 (p = 0.001) times more likely to report headaches, 6.1 (p = 0.004) times more likely to report eye irritation, and 7.8 (p = 0.014) times more likely to report nausea in the swine air (experimental) condition than in the control condition. These results indicate that short-term exposure in an environmental chamber to malodorous emissions from a swine house at levels expected downwind can induce clinically important symptoms in healthy human volunteers. PMID:15866765

  18. 76 FR 70037 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    .... On May 19, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 28910- 28913, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0093... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 93, 94, and 98 Importation of Live Swine, Swine... we recognize as low risk for classical swine fever (CSF). We are also adding Liechtenstein to...

  19. Having Heart.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Christine

    2015-01-01

    A heart comes in many forms. This article shares the experience of behavioral health nurses caring for a suicidal patient who needs a heart. As a team, the nurses and their patient shared the journey of what it takes to achieve an optimum quality of life with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) while battling mental illness. PMID:26731919

  20. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood the way it should. It can affect one or both sides of the heart. The weakening of the heart's pumping ability causes Blood and fluid to back up into the lungs The buildup of fluid in the feet, ankles and legs - called edema Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of ...

  1. Swine influenza virus: zoonotic potential and vaccination strategies for the control of avian and swine influenzas.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Eileen; Janke, Bruce

    2008-02-15

    Influenza viruses are able to infect humans, swine, and avian species, and swine have long been considered a potential source of new influenza viruses that can infect humans. Swine have receptors to which both avian and mammalian influenza viruses bind, which increases the potential for viruses to exchange genetic sequences and produce new reassortant viruses in swine. A number of genetically diverse viruses are circulating in swine herds throughout the world and are a major cause of concern to the swine industry. Control of swine influenza is primarily through the vaccination of sows, to protect young pigs through maternally derived antibodies. However, influenza viruses continue to circulate in pigs after the decay of maternal antibodies, providing a continuing source of virus on a herd basis. Measures to control avian influenza in commercial poultry operations are dictated by the virulence of the virus. Detection of a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus results in immediate elimination of the flock. Low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses are controlled through vaccination, which is done primarily in turkey flocks. Maintenance of the current HPAI virus-free status of poultry in the United States is through constant surveillance of poultry flocks. Although current influenza vaccines for poultry and swine are inactivated and adjuvanted, ongoing research into the development of newer vaccines, such as DNA, live-virus, or vectored vaccines, is being done. Control of influenza virus infection in poultry and swine is critical to the reduction of potential cross-species adaptation and spread of influenza viruses, which will minimize the risk of animals being the source of the next pandemic. PMID:18269323

  2. Fumonisin toxicosis in swine: an overview of porcine pulmonary edema and current perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Haschek, W M; Gumprecht, L A; Smith, G; Tumbleson, M E; Constable, P D

    2001-01-01

    Fumonisin toxicosis in swine was named porcine pulmonary edema (PPE) after outbreaks of a fatal disease in pigs fed Fusarium verticillioides (F. moniliforme)-contaminated corn screenings from the 1989 corn crop in Iowa, Illinois, and Georgia. Pigs that died had severe pulmonary edema, which has not been identified in other species after exposure to fumonisins. The disease has been reproduced experimentally by feeding of naturally contaminated corn, F. verticillioides culture material, and by intravenous administration of fumonisin B1 (FB1). Hepatic lesions consisting of apoptosis, necrosis, and hepatocyte proliferation also are observed. As in other species, alterations in clinical pathology reflect hepatic injury as well as elevated serum cholesterol concentration. In chronic studies, esophageal plaques, hyperplastic hepatic nodules, and right ventricular hypertrophy were found. In pigs, as in other species, fumonisin alters sphingolipid biosynthesis, with the greatest alterations in sphingosine and sphinganine concentrations in kidney, liver, lung, and heart. Our recent studies on fumonisin toxicosis in pigs have focused on immune effects and the pathogenesis of pulmonary edema. The specific immune system was not affected; however, FB1 inhibited phagocytosis and sphingolipid biosynthesis in pulmonary macrophages. Fumonisin induced an accumulation of membranous material in pulmonary capillary endothelial cells; this change appears specific to this cell type and to swine. In short-term cardiovascular studies, fumonisin decreased left ventricular dP/dt(max) (an index of cardiac contractility), mean systemic arterial pressure, heart rate, and cardiac output, and increased mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary artery wedge pressure. These changes are compatible with the inhibition of L-type calcium channels by increased sphingosine and/or sphinganine concentration. Therefore, fumonisin-induced pulmonary edema in swine appears to result from acute left

  3. Intracoronary artery transplantation of cardiomyoblast-like cells from human adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells improve left ventricular dysfunction and survival in a swine model of chronic myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Okura, Hanayuki; Saga, Ayami; Soeda, Mayumi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Sawa, Yoshiki; Daimon, Takashi; Ichinose, Akihiro; Matsuyama, Akifumi

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We administered human CLCs in a swine model of MI via intracoronary artery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Histological studies demonstrated engraftment of hCLCs into the scarred myocardium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Echocardiography showed rescue of cardiac function in the hCLCs transplanted swine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transplantation of hCLCs is an effective therapeutics for cardiac regeneration. -- Abstract: Transplantation of human cardiomyoblast-like cells (hCLCs) from human adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells improved left ventricular function and survival of rats with myocardial infarction. Here we examined the effect of intracoronary artery transplantation of human CLCs in a swine model of chronic heart failure. Twenty-four pigs underwent balloon-occlusion of the first diagonal branch followed by reperfusion, with a second balloon-occlusion of the left ascending coronary artery 1 week later followed by reperfusion. Four weeks after the second occlusion/reperfusion, 17 of the 18 surviving animals with severe chronic MI (ejection fraction <35% by echocardiography) were immunosuppressed then randomly assigned to receive either intracoronary artery transplantation of hCLCs hADMPCs or placebo lactic Ringer's solution with heparin. Intracoronary artery transplantation was followed by the distribution of DiI-stained hCLCs into the scarred myocardial milieu. Echocardiography at post-transplant days 4 and 8 weeks showed rescue and maintenance of cardiac function in the hCLCs transplanted group, but not in the control animals, indicating myocardial functional recovery by hCLCs intracoronary transplantation. At 8 week post-transplantation, 7 of 8 hCLCs transplanted animals were still alive compared with only 1 of the 5 control (p = 0.0147). Histological studies at week 12 post-transplantation demonstrated engraftment of the pre DiI-stained hCLCs into the scarred myocardium and their expression of

  4. Thermodynamic correction of particle concentrations measured by underwing probes on fast flying aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, R.; Spichtinger, P.; Mahnke, C.; Klingebiel, M.; Afchine, A.; Petzold, A.; Krämer, M.; Costa, A.; Molleker, S.; Jurkat, T.; Minikin, A.; Borrmann, S.

    2015-12-01

    Particle concentration measurements with underwing probes on aircraft are impacted by air compression upstream of the instrument body as a function of flight velocity. In particular for fast-flying aircraft the necessity arises to account for compression of the air sample volume. Hence, a correction procedure is needed to invert measured particle number concentrations to ambient conditions that is commonly applicable for different instruments to gain comparable results. In the compression region where the detection of particles occurs (i.e. under factual measurement conditions), pressure and temperature of the air sample are increased compared to ambient (undisturbed) conditions in certain distance away from the aircraft. Conventional procedures for scaling the measured number densities to ambient conditions presume that the particle penetration speed through the instruments' detection area equals the aircraft speed (True Air Speed, TAS). However, particle imaging instruments equipped with pitot-tubes measuring the Probe Air Speed (PAS) of each underwing probe reveal PAS values systematically below those of the TAS. We conclude that the deviation between PAS and TAS is mainly caused by the compression of the probed air sample. From measurements during two missions in 2014 with the German Gulfstream G-550 (HALO - High Altitude LOng range) research aircraft we develop a procedure to correct the measured particle concentration to ambient conditions using a thermodynamic approach. With the provided equation the corresponding concentration correction factor ξ is applicable to the high frequency measurements of each underwing probe which is equipped with its own air speed sensor (e.g. a pitot-tube). ξ-values of 1 to 0.85 are calculated for air speeds (i.e. TAS) between 60 and 260 m s-1. From HALO data it is found that ξ does not significantly vary between the different deployed instruments. Thus, for the current HALO underwing probe configuration a parameterisation of

  5. Early Fluid Resuscitation and High Volume Hemofiltration Decrease Septic Shock Progression in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ping; Zheng, Ruiqiang; Xue, Lu; Zhang, Min; Wu, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of early fluid resuscitation (EFR) combined with high volume hemofiltration (HVHF) on the cardiopulmonary function and removal of inflammatory mediators in a septic shock swine model. Eighteen swine were randomized into three groups: control (n = 6) (extracorporeal circulating blood only), continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 25 mL/Kg/h), and HVHF (n = 6; ultrafiltration volume = 85 mL/Kg/h). The septic shock model was established by intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharides (50 µg/kg/h). Hemodynamic parameters (arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume variability, left ventricular contractility, systemic vascular resistance, and central venous pressure), vasoactive drug parameters (dose and time of norepinephrine and hourly fluid intake), pulmonary function (partial oxygen pressure and vascular permeability), and cytokines (interleukin-6 and interleukin-10) were observed. Treatment resulted in significant changes at 4–6 h. HVHF was beneficial, as shown by the dose of vasoactive drugs, fluid intake volume, left ventricular contractility index, and partial oxygen pressure. Both CRRT and HVHF groups showed improved removal of inflammatory mediators compared with controls. In conclusion, EFR combined with HVHF improved septic shock in this swine model. The combination decreased shock progression, reduced the need for vasoactive drugs, and alleviated the damage to cardiopulmonary functions. PMID:26543849

  6. Titration of African swine fever (ASF) virus.

    PubMed

    Enjuanes, L; Carrascosa, A L; Moreno, M A; Viñuela, E

    1976-09-01

    A haemadsorption microtest for African swine fever (ASF) virus is described. This assay is as sensitive and its response is faster than the conventional assay which uses buffy coat cultures in Leighton tubes. The method can also process a larger number of samples by using smaller amounts of swine blood and laboratory space. A plaque assay for ASF virus adapted to grow in VERO cells gives a titre similar to that obtained using the haemadsorption microtest. In both the micromethod and the plaque assay infection may be produced by a single infective particle. PMID:823294

  7. 9 CFR 166.3 - Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Separation of swine from the garbage... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.3 Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas. (a) Access by swine...

  8. 9 CFR 166.3 - Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separation of swine from the garbage... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.3 Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas. (a) Access by swine...

  9. 78 FR 58512 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Swine Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Collection; Swine Health AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Extension of... the interstate spread of swine diseases and protect swine health. DATES: We will consider all comments... the regulations to prevent the interstate spread of swine diseases and to protect swine...

  10. 9 CFR 166.3 - Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Separation of swine from the garbage... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.3 Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas. (a) Access by swine...